## Handbook Of Magnetic Compass Adjustment

NOTE: DO NOT HIT REFRESH!!! These files are big and can take a long time to load. This file is 2.02 MB. Give it time.

If there is text in the file, you can scroll it while the image loads. Enjoy

## View PDF |
## Image Preview |

Ad by Google

### PDF to Text

HANDBOOK OF MAGNETIC

COMPASS AGENCY

BETHESDA MD

2004

Formerly PubNo 226

AS ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED BY

DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY

CENTER

WASHINGTON DC

1980

INTRODUCTION

This document has been prepared in order to present all pertinent information regarding the practical procedures of

magnetic compass adjustment in one text As such it treats of the basic principles of compass deviations and their not of the details of particular

compass equipment

Although this text is presented as a systematic treatise on compass adjustment ships personnel who are inexperienced with

compass correction will find sufficient information in Chapters I and XIV to eliminate compass errors study of the entire text Reference should also

be made to figure 318 for condensed information regarding the

various compass errors and their correction

In this handbook the term compass adjustment refers to any changes of permanent magnet of soft iron correctors compass errors are reduced The term

compass compensation refers to any change in the current supplied to coils whereby the errors due to degaussing are reduced

The basic text is the outgrowth of lecture notes prepared by Nye S Spencer and George F Kucera while presenting courses

of instruction in adjustment and compensation during World War II at the Magnetic Compass Demonstration Station Base Norfolk Virginia

CHAPTER I

PROCEDURES FOR MAGNETIC COMPASS ADJUSTMENT CHECKOFF LIST

NOTE If the magnetic adjustment necessitates a movement of degaussing compensating coils or b a change of Flinders

bar length the coil compensation must be checked Refer to Chapter XIV

101 Dockside tests and adjustments

1 Physical checks on the compass and binnacle

a Remove any bubbles in compass bowl article 402

b Test for moment and sensibility of compass needles article 403

c Remove any slack in gimbal arrangement

d Magnetization check of spheres and Flinders bar article 404

e Alignment of compass with foreandaft line of ship article 405

f Alignment of magnets in binnacle

g Alignment of heeling magnet tube under pivot point of compass

h See that corrector magnets are available

2 Physical checks of gyro azimuth circle and peloruses

a Alignment of all gyro repeater peloruses or dial peloruses with foreandaft line of ship article 405

b Synchronize gyro repeaters with master gyro

c Make sure azimuth circle and peloruses are in good operating condition

3 Necessary data

a Past history or log data which might establish length of Flinders bar articles 407 and 607

b Azimuths for given date and observers position Chapter VIII

c Ranges or distant objects in vicinity local charts

d Correct variation local charts

e Degaussing coil current settings for swing for residual deviations after adjustment and compensation ships

Degaussing Folder

4 Precautions

a Determine transient deviations of compass from gyro repeaters doors guns etc Chapter X

b Secure all effective magnetic gear in normal seagoing position before beginning adjustments

c Make sure degaussing coils are secured before beginning adjustments Use reversal sequence if necessary

d Whenever possible correctors should be placed symmetrically with respect to the compass articles 318

and 613

5 Adjustments

a Place Flinders bar according to best available information articles 407 608 and 609

b Set spheres at midposition or as indicated by last deviation table

c Adjust heeling magnet using balanced dip needle if available Chapter XI

Applies when system other than gyro is used as heading reference

102 Adjustments at sea These adjustments are made with the ship on an even keel and after steadying on each heading

When using the gyro swing from heading to heading slowly and check gyro error by suns azimuth or ranges on each heading

if desired to ensure a greater degree of accuracy article 706 Be sure gyro is set for the mean speed and latitude of the

vessel Note all precautions in article 1014 above OSCAR QUEBEC international code signal should be flown to

indicate such work is in progress Chapter VII discusses methods for placing the ship on desired headings

1 Adjust the heeling magnet while the ship is rolling on north and south magnetic heading until the oscillations

of the compass card have been reduced to an average minimum This step is not required if prior adjustment

has been made using a dip needle to indicate proper placement of the heeling magnet

2 Come to an east 090 cardinal magnetic heading Insert foreandaft B magnets or move the existing B

magnets in such a manner as to remove all deviation

3 Come to a south 180 magnetic heading Insert athwartship C magnets or move the existing C magnets in

such a manner as to remove all deviation

4 Come to a west 270 magnetic heading Correct half of any observed deviation by moving the B magnets

5 Come to a north 000 magnetic heading Correct half of any observed deviation by moving the C magnets

The cardinal heading adjustments should now be complete

6 Come to any intercardinal magnetic heading eg northeast 045 Correct any observed deviation by moving

the spheres in or out

7 Come to the next intercardinal magnetic heading eg southeast 135 Correct half of any observed deviation

by moving the spheres The intercardinal heading adjustments should now be complete although more

accurate results might be obtained by correcting the D error determined from the deviations on all four

intercardinal heading as discussed in article 501

8 Secure all correctors before swinging for residual deviations

9 Swing for residual undegaussed deviations on as many headings as desired although the eight cardinal and

intercardinal headings should be sufficient

10 Should there still be any large deviations analyze the deviation curve to determine the necessary corrections

and repeat as necessary steps 1 through 9 above Chapter V

11 Record deviations and the details of corrector positions on standard Navy Form NAVSEA 31204 and in the

Magnetic Compass Record NAVSEA 31203 article 901

12 Swing for residual degaussed deviations with the degaussing circuits properly energized Chapter XIV

13 Record deviations for degaussed conditions on standard Navy Form NAVSEA 31204

103 The above checkoff list describes a simplified method of adjusting compasses designed to serve as a simple for the novice who chooses to follow a

stepbystep procedure The Dockside Tests and Adjustments are essential

as a foundation for the Adjustments at Sea and if neglected may lead to spurious results or needless repetition of the

procedure at sea Hence it is strongly recommended that careful be given these dockside checks prior to

making the final adjustment so as to allow time to repair or replace faulty compasses anneal or replace magnetized spheres or

Flinders bar realign binnacle move gyro repeater if it is affecting the compass or to make any other necessary It is further stressed that

expeditious compass adjustment is dependent upon the application of the various correctors

in a logical sequence so as to achieve the final adjustment with a minimum number of steps This sequence is incorporated in

the above checkoff list and better results will be obtained if it is adhered to closely Figure 318 presents the various and their correction in

condensed form The table in figure 103 will further clarify the mechanics of placing the

corrector magnets spheres and Flinders bar Chapter IV discusses the more efficient and scientific methods of in addition to a more elaborate

treatment of the items mentioned in the checkoff list Frequent should be made to determine the constancy of deviations and results should be

changes in deviation will indicate the need for To avoid Gaussin error article 1003 when adjusting and swinging ship for residuals the ship should

be steady on the

desired heading for at least 2 minutes prior to observing the 2

Foreandaft and athwartship magnets Quadrantal spheres

Flinders bar

E on NEly W on NEly Deviation change E on Ely and W W on Ely and E

Easterly on east Westerly on east

Deviation Deviation W on SEly E on SEly with change in on Wly

when sail on Wly when sail

and westerly on and easterly on

E on SWly W on SWly latitude ing toward equator ing toward equator

west west

and and from N latitude or from N latitude or

Magnets Spheres

B error B error W on NWly E on NWly Bar away from equator away from

equator

D error D error to S latitude to S latitude

No fore and aft

Place required

Place magnets red Place magnets red No spheres on Place spheres Place spheres fore

Place required

magnets in No bar in holder

amount of bar

forward aft binnacle athwartship and aft

amount of bar aft

binnacle

forward

Fore and aft Spheres at Move spheres Move spheres

Bar forward of Increase amount Decrease amount

magnets red Raise magnets Lower magnets athwartship toward compass or outward or

binnacle of bar forward of bar forward

forward position use larger spheres remove

Move spheres Move spheres

Fore and aft Spheres at fore Bar aft of

Decrease amount Increase amount

Lower magnets Raise magnets outward or toward compass or

magnets red aft and aft position binnacle

of bar forward of bar forward

remove use larger spheres

E on Nly W on Nly W on Ely and E E on Ely and W

Easterly on north Westerly on north

Deviation Deviation W on Ely E on Ely Bar on Wly

when sail on Wly when sail

and westerly on and easterly on

E on Sly W on Sly ing toward equator ing toward equator

south south

and and Deviation change from S latitude or from S latitude or

Magnets Spheres

C error C error W on Wly E on Wly with change in away from equator away

from equator

E error E error latitude to N latitude to N latitude

Place spheres at Place spheres at

No athwartship Place athwartship

Place athwartship No spheres on port forward and starboard forward Heeling magnet

magnets in magnets red

magnets red port binnacle starboard aft inter and port aft inter Adjust with changes in magnetic latitude

binnacle starboard

cardinal positions cardinal positions

Slew spheres

Athwartship Spheres at Slew spheres If compass north is

attracted to high side of ship when rolling

magnets red Raise magnets Lower magnets athwartship clockwise through raise the heeling

magnet if red end is up or lower the heeling

through required

starboard position required angle magnet

if blue end is up

angle

If compass north is attracted to low side of ship when rolling

Slew spheres

Slew spheres lower the heeling magnet if red end is up or raise the heeling

Athwartship Spheres at fore Lower magnets Raise magnets

clockwise through magnet if blue end is up

magnets red port and aft position through required

required angle NOTE Any change in placement of the heeling magnet will

angle

affect the deviations on all headings

Figure 103 Mechanics of magnetic compass 3

CHAPTER II

The magnetic compass The principle of the present day magnetic compass is in no way different from that of the

compass used by the ancients It consists of a magnetized needle or array of needles pivoted so that rotation is in a

horizontal plane The superiority of the present day compass results from a better knowledge of the laws of govern the behavior of the compass and

from greater precision in Magnetism Any piece of metal on becoming magnetized that is acquiring the property of attracting small particles of

iron or steel will assume regions of concentrated magnetism called poles Any such magnet will have at least two poles of

unlike polarity Magnetic lines of force flux connect one pole of such a magnet with the other pole as indicated in figure

202 The number of such lines per unit area represents the intensity of the magnetic field in that area If two such magnetic

bars or magnets are placed side by side the like poles will repel each other and the unlike poles will attract each other

Figure 202 Lines of magnetic force about a magnet

203 Magnetism is in general of two types permanent and induced A bar having permanent magnetism will retain its

magnetism when it is removed from the magnetizing field A bar having induced magnetism will lose its magnetism when

removed from the magnetizing field Whether or not a bar will retain its magnetism on removal from the magnetizing field

will depend on the strength of that field the degree of hardness of the iron and also upon the amount of applied to the bar while in the magnetizing

field The harder the iron the more permanent will be the Terrestrial magnetism The accepted theory of terrestrial magnetism considers the earth as a

huge magnet surrounded

by lines of magnetic force that connect its two magnetic poles These magnetic poles are near but not coincidental with poles of the earth Since the

northseeking end of a compass needle is called a red pole north pole

or positive pole it must therefore be attracted to a pole of opposite polarity or to a blue pole south pole or negative pole

The magnetic pole near the north geographic pole is therefore a blue pole south pole or negative pole and the magnetic pole

near the south geographic pole is a red pole north pole or positive pole

205 Figure 205 illustrates the earth and its surrounding magnetic field The flux lines enter the surface of the earth at

different angles to the horizontal at different magnetic latitudes This angle is called the angle of magnetic dip and

increases from zero at the magnetic equator to 90 at the magnetic poles The total magnetic field is generally considered as

having two components namely H the horizontal component and Z the vertical component These components change as

the angle changes such that H is maximum at the magnetic equator and decreases in the direction of either pole Z is zero at

the magnetic equator and increases in the direction of either pole

Figure 205 Terrestrial Inasmuch as the magnetic poles of the earth are not coincidental with the geographic poles it is evident that a in line with

the earths magnetic field will not indicate true north but magnetic north The angular difference between

the true meridian great circle connecting the geographic poles and the magnetic meridian direction of the lines of is called variation This variation

has different values at different locations on the earth These values of may be found on the compass rose of navigational charts The variation for

most given areas undergoes an the amount of which is also noted on all charts See figure 206

Figure 206 Compass rose showing variation and annual change

207 Ships magnetism A ship while in the process of being constructed will acquire magnetism of a permanent nature

under the extensive hammering it receives in the earths magnetic field After launching the ship will lose some of this

original magnetism as a result of vibration pounding etc in varying magnetic fields and will eventually reach a more or

less stable magnetic condition This magnetism which remains is the permanent magnetism of the ship

208 The fact that a ship has permanent magnetism does not mean that it cannot also acquire induced magnetism when placed

in a magnetic field such as the earths field The amount of magnetism induced in any given piece of soft iron is the field intensity the alignment of

the soft iron in that field and the physical properties and dimensions of the iron

This induced magnetism may add to or subtract from the permanent magnetism already present in the ship depending on

how the ship is aligned in the magnetic field The softer the iron the more readily it will be induced by the earths and the more readily it will give

up its magnetism when removed from that field

209 The magnetism in the various structures of a ship which tends to change as a result of cruising vibration or aging but

does not alter immediately so as to be properly termed induced magnetism is called subpermanent magnetism at any instant is recognized as part of the

ships permanent magnetism and consequently must be corrected as

such by means of permanent magnet correctors This subpermanent magnetism is the principal cause of deviation changes on

a magnetic compass Subsequent reference to permanent magnetism in this text will refer to the apparent that includes the existing permanent and

subpermanent magnetism at any given A ship then has a combination of permanent subpermanent and induced magnetism since its metal structures are of

varying degrees of hardness Thus the apparent permanent magnetic condition of the ship is subject to change excessive shocks welding vibration etc

and the induced magnetism of the ship will vary with the strength of

the earths magnetic field at different magnetic latitudes and with the alignment of the ship in that field

211 Resultant induced magnetism from earths magnetic field The above discussion of induced magnetism magnetism leads to the following facts A long

thin rod of soft iron in a plane parallel to the earths field H will have a red north pole induced in the end toward the north geographic pole and a

blue south pole

induced in the end toward the south geographic pole This same rod in a horizontal plane but at right angles to the field would have no magnetism

induced in it because its alignment in the magnetic field is such that there will be no

tendency toward linear magnetization and the rod is of negligible cross section Should the rod be aligned in some between those headings that create

maximum and zero induction it would be induced by an amount that is a

function of the angle of alignment If a similar rod is placed in a vertical position in northern latitudes so as to be aligned with

the vertical earths field Z it will have a blue south pole induced at the upper end and a red north pole induced at the lower

end These polarities of vertical induced magnetization will be reversed in southern latitudes The amount of horizontal or

vertical induction in such rods or in ships whose construction is equivalent to combinations of such rods will vary with the

intensity of H and Z heading and heel of the ship

CHAPTER III

THEORY OF MAGNETIC COMPASS Magnetic adjustment The magnetic compass when used on a steel ship must be so corrected for the ships that its operation

approximates that of a nonmagnetic ship Ships magnetic conditions create deviations of the

magnetic compass as well as sectors of sluggishness and unsteadiness Deviation is defined as deflection of the card needles

to the right or left of the magnetic meridian Adjustment of the compass is the arranging of magnetic and soft iron the binnacle so that their effects

are equal and opposite to the effects of the magnetic material in the ship thus reducing

the deviations and eliminating the sectors of sluggishness and The magnetic conditions in a ship which affect a magnetic compass are permanent

magnetism and induced magnetism as

discussed in Chapter II

302 Permanent magnetism and its effects on the compass The total permanent magnetic field effect at the compass may

be broken into three components mutually 90 apart as shown in figure 302a The effect of the vertical is the tendency to tilt the compass card and in

the event of rolling or pitching of the ship to create of the card Oscillation effects that accompany roll are maximum on north and south compass

headings and those

that accompany pitch are maximum on east and west compass headings The horizontal B and C components of cause varying deviations of the compass as

the ship swings in heading on an even keel Plotting these compass heading will produce sine and cosine curves as shown in figure 302b These deviation

curves are curves because they reverse direction in 180

Figure 302a Components of permanent magnetic Figure 302b Permanent magnetic deviation effects

field at the The permanent magnetic semicircular deviations can be illustrated by a series of simple sketches representing a ship on

successive compass headings as in figures 303a and 303b

304 The ships illustrated in figures 303a and 303b are pictured on cardinal compass headings rather than on headings for two reasons

1 Deviations on compass headings are essential in order to represent sinusoidal curves that can be analyzed

This can be visualized by noting that the ships component magnetic fields are either in line with or

perpendicular to the compass needles only on cardinal compass headings

2 Such a presentation illustrates the fact that the compass card tends to float in a fixed position in line with the

magnetic meridian Deviations of the card to right or left east or west of the magnetic meridian result from the

movement of the ship and its magnetic fields about the compass card

Figure 303a Force diagrams for foreandaft permanent B magnetic field

Figure 303b Force diagrams for athwartship permanent C magnetic field

305 Inasmuch as a compass deviation is caused by the existence of a force at the compass that is superimposed upon the

normal earths directive force H a vector analysis is helpful in determining deviations or the strength of deviating fields For

example a ship as shown in figure 305 on an east magnetic heading will subject its compass to a combination of namely the earths horizontal field H

and the deviating field B at right angles to the field H The compass needle

will align itself in the resultant field which is represented by the vector sum of H and B as shown A similar analysis on the

ship in figure 305 will reveal that the resulting directive force at the compass would be maximum on a north heading and

minimum on a south heading the deviations being zero for both conditions

The magnitude of the deviation caused by the permanent B magnetic field will vary with different values of H resulting from permanent magnetic fields

will vary with the magnetic latitude of the ship

Figure 305 General force diagram

306 Induced magnetism and its effects on the compass Induced magnetism varies with the strength of the the mass of metal and the alignment of the

metal in the field Since the intensity of the earths magnetic field varies

over the earths surface the induced magnetism in a ship will vary with latitude heading and heel of the ship

307 With the ship on an even keel the resultant vertical induced magnetism if not directed through the compass itself will

create deviations that plot as a semicircular deviation curve This is true because the vertical induction changes magnitude

and polarity only with magnetic latitude and heel and not with heading of the ship Therefore as long as the ship is in the

same magnetic latitude its vertical induced pole swinging about the compass will produce the same effect on the compass as

a permanent pole swinging about the compass Figure 307a illustrates the vertical induced poles in the structures of a ship

Figure 307a Ships vertical induced magnetism Figure 307b Induced magnetic deviation effects

Generally this semicircular deviation will be a B sine curve as shown in figure 307b since most ships are the centerline and have their compasses

mounted on the centerline The magnitude of these deviations will change with

magnetic latitude changes because the directive force and the ships vertical induction both change with magnetic The masses of horizontal soft iron

that are subject to induced magnetization create deviations as indicated

in figure 307b The D and E deviation curves are called quadrantal curves because they reverse polarity in each of the

9

309 Symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron may exist about the compass in any one of the patterns illustrated in

figure 309

Figure 309 Symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron

310 The deviation resulting from the earths field induction of these symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron in figure 310 showing the ship

on various compass headings The other heading effects may be similarly studied

Such a D deviation curve is one of the curves in figure 307b It will be noted that these D deviations are maximum on headings and zero on the

cardinal Figure 310 Effects of symmetrical horizontal D induced

311 Asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron may exist about the compass in a pattern similar to one of those in

figure 311

Figure 311 Asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron

312 The deviations resulting from the earths field induction of these asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron in figure 312 showing the

ship on different compass headings The other heading effects may be similarly studied

Such an E deviation curve is one of the curves in figure 307b It will be observed that these E deviations are maximum on

cardinal headings and zero on the intercardinal Figure 312 Effects of asymmetrical horizontal E induced The quadrantal

deviations will not vary with latitude changes because the horizontal induction varies the directive force H

314 The earths field induction in certain other asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron creates a constant A

deviation curve The magnetic A and E errors are of smaller magnitude than the other errors but when encountered are

generally found together since they both result from asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron In addition to this

magnetic A error there are constant A deviations resulting from 1 physical misalignments of the compass pelorus or gyro

2 errors in calculating the suns azimuth observing time or taking bearings

315 The nature magnitude and polarity of all these induced effects are dependent upon the disposition of metal the

symmetry or asymmetry of the ship the location of the binnacle the strength of the earths magnetic field and the angle of

316 Certain heeling errors in addition to those resulting from permanent magnetism are created by the presence of and vertical soft iron which

experience changing induction as the ship rolls in the earths magnetic field This part

of the heeling error will naturally change in magnitude with changes of magnetic latitude of the ship Oscillation roll are maximum on north and south

headings just as with the permanent magnetic heeling errors

317 Adjustments and correctors Since some magnetic effects remain constant for all magnetic latitudes and others vary

with changes of magnetic latitude each individual effect should be corrected Further it is apparent that the

best method of adjustment is to use 1 permanent magnet correctors to create equal and opposite vectors of fields at the compass and 2 soft iron

correctors to assume induced magnetism the effect of which will be equal

and opposite to the induced effects of the ship for all magnetic latitude and heading conditions The compass for the support of the compass and such

correctors Study of the binnacle in figure 317 will reveal that are present in the form of

1 Vertical permanent heeling magnet in the central vertical tube

2 Foreandaft B permanent magnets in their trays

3 Athwartship C permanent magnets in their trays

4 Vertical soft iron Flinders bar in its external tube

5 Soft iron spheres

The heeling magnet is the only corrector that corrects for both permanent and induced effects and consequently must be

readjusted occasionally with radical changes in latitude of the ship It must be noted however that any movement of the

heeling magnet will require readjustment of other Figure 317 Binnacle with compass and correctors

318 The tabular summary of Compass Errors and Adjustments figure 318 summarizes all the various magnetic conditions in a ship the types of

deviation curves they create the correctors for each effect and headings on which each corrector is adjusted Correctors should be under all but

exceptional conditions discussed in detail later and as far away from the compass as possible to preserve uniformity of

magnetic fields about the compass needle array Other details of corrector procedure are emphasized in chapter VI Fortunately each magnetic effect has

a slightly different curve that makes and correction convenient A complete deviation curve can be analyzed for its and thus the necessary

corrections anticipated A method for analyzing such curves is described in chapter V

Compass

Coefficient Type deviation curve Causes of such errors

Corrections for such errors Magnetic or compass

headings of

headings on which to apply

maximum

correctors

deviation

Human error in Check methods and calculations

A Constant Same on all

Any

Physical compass gyro pelorus Check alignments

Magnetic asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft

iron Rare arrangement of soft iron rods

Foreandaft component of permanent magnetic field Foreandaft B magnets

B Semicircular sin 090

090 or 270

Induced magnetism in asymmetrical vertical iron

forward or aft of compass Flinders bar forward or aft

Athwartship component of permanent magnetic field Athwartship C magnets

C Semicircular cos 000

000 or 180

Induced magnetism in asymmetrical vertical iron port or

starboard of Flinders bar port or starboard

045 Induced magnetism in all symmetrical arrangements of Spheres on appropriate axis

D Quadrantal sin 2

045 135 225 or 315

135 horizontal soft iron athwartship for D

225 fore and aft for D

315 See sketch a

000 Induced magnetism in all asymmetrical arrangements Spheres on appropriate axis

E Quadrantal cos 2

000 090 180 or 270

090 of horizontal soft iron port forward starboard aft for E

180 starboard forward port aft for E

270 See sketch b

Heeling Oscillations with roll 000 Change in the horizontal component of the induced or Heeling

magnet must be readjusted 090 or 270 with dip

roll

or pitch 180 permanent magnetic fields at the compass due to for latitude changes

needle

Deviations with 090 rolling or pitching of the ship

000 or 180 while rolling

pitch

constant list 270

Deviation A B sin C cos D sin 2 E cos 2 compass heading

Figure 318 Summary of Compass Errors and Adjustments

319 Compass operation Figure 319 illustrates a point about compass operation Not only is an uncorrected compass subject

to large deviations but there will be sectors in which the compass may sluggishly turn with the ship and other sectors in

which the compass is too unsteady to use These performances may be appreciated by visualizing a ship with deviations as

shown in figure 319 as it swings from west through north toward east Throughout this easterly swing the compass deviation

is growing more easterly and whenever steering in this sector the compass card sluggishly tries to follow the there is an unsteady sector from east

through south to west These sluggish and unsteady conditions are by the positive and negative slopes in a deviation curve These conditions may also

be associated with the

maximum and minimum directive force acting on the compass see article 305 It will be observed that the occurs at the point of average directive force

and that the zero deviations occur at the points of maximum and

minimum directive force

Figure 319 Uncompensated deviation curve

320 Correction of compass errors is generally achieved by applying correctors so as to reduce the deviations of the compass

for all headings of the ship Correction could be achieved however by applying correctors so as to equalize the across the compass position for all

headings of the ship The deviation method is more generally used because it

utilizes the compass itself to indicate results rather than some additional instrument for measuring the intensity of Occasionally the permanent

magnetic effects at the location of the compass are so large that they overcome the force H This condition will not only create sluggish and unsteady

sectors but may even freeze the compass to one

reading or to one quadrant regardless of the heading of the ship Should the compass be so frozen the polarity of the

magnetism which must be attracting the compass needles is indicated hence correction may be effected simply by of permanent magnet correctors in

suitable quantity to neutralize this magnetism Whenever such adjustments are

made it would be well to have the ship placed on a heading such that the unfreezing of the compass needles will evident For example a ship whose

compass is frozen to a north reading would require foreandaft B with the red ends forward in order to neutralize the existing blue pole that

attracted the compass If made on an east

heading such an adjustment would be practically complete when the compass card was freed so as to indicate an Listed below are several reasons for

correcting the errors of the magnetic compass

1 It is easier to use a magnetic compass if the deviations are small

2 Although a common belief is that it does not matter what the deviations are as long as they are known this is in

error inasmuch as conditions of sluggishness and unsteadiness accompany large deviations and consequently make

the compass operationally This is the result of unequal directive forces on the compass as the ship

swings in heading

3 Furthermore even though the deviations are known if they are large they will be subject to appreciable change with

heel and latitude changes of the ship

323 Subsequent chapters will deal with the methods of bringing a ship to the desired heading and the methods of effects and of minimizing interaction

effects between correctors Once properly adjusted the magnetic should remain constant until there is some change in the magnetic condition of the

vessel resulting from shock from gunfire vibration repair or structural changes Frequently the movement of nearby guns doors or cargo affects the

compass greatly

CHAPTER IV

PRACTICAL PROCEDURES FOR MAGNETIC COMPASS If the adjuster is not familiar with the theory of magnetic effects the methods of analyzing deviation

curves and the

methods of placing a ship on any desired heading it is recommended to review Chapters II V and VII respectively Dockside tests and adjustments

Chapter I Procedures for Magnetic Compass Adjustment is in general and brings to the attention of the adjuster many physical checks which are

desirable before beginning The theoretical adjustment is based on the premise that all the physical arrangements are perfect and much time

and trouble will be saved while at sea if these checks are made before attempting the actual magnet and soft iron A few of these checks are amplified

below

402 Should the compass have a small bubble compass fluid may be added by means of the filling plug on the side of the

compass bowl If an appreciable amount of compass liquid has leaked out a careful check should be made on the condition

of the sealing gasket and filling plug US Navy compass liquid may be a mixture of 45 grain alcohol and 55 or a kerosenetype fluid These fluids are

NOT The compass should be removed from the ship and taken to some place free from all magnetic influences except the

earths magnetic field for tests of moment and sensibility These tests involve measurements of the time of vibration and the

ability of the compass card to return to a consistent reading after deflection These tests will indicate the condition of the

pivot jewel and magnetic strength of the compass needles See NAVSEA 31203 for such test data on standard Navy

compass A careful check should be made on the spheres and Flinders bar for residual magnetism Move the spheres as close to

the compass as possible and slowly rotate each sphere separately Any appreciable deflection 2 or more of the resulting from this rotation indicates

residual magnetism in the spheres This test may be made with the ship on any

steady heading The Flinders bar magnetization check is preferably made with the ship on steady east or west To make this check a note the compass

reading with the Flinders bar in the holder b invert the Flinders bar in

the holder and again note the compass reading Any appreciable difference 2 or more between these observed residual magnetism in the Flinders bar

Spheres or Flinders bars that show signs of such residual magnetism should

be annealed ie heated to a dull red and allowed to cool slowly

405 Correct alignment of the lubbers line of the compass gyro repeater and pelorus with the foreandaft line of the ship is

of major importance Such a misalignment will produce a constant A error in the curve of deviations All of these be aligned correctly with the

foreandaft line of the ship by using the azimuth circle and a metal tape measure Should

the instrument be located on the centerline of the ship a sight is taken on a mast or other object on the centerline In the case

of an instrument off the centerline a metal tape measure is used to measure the distance from the centerline of the ship to the

center of the instrument A similar measurement from the centerline is made forward or abaft the subject instrument and

reference marks are placed on the deck Sights are then taken on these marks

Standard compasses should always be aligned so that the lubbers line of the compass is parallel to the foreandaft line of

the ship Steering compasses may occasionally be deliberately misaligned in order to correct for any magnetic A as discussed in article 411

406 In addition to the physical checks listed in Chapter I there are other precautions to be observed in order to satisfactory compass operation

These precautions are mentioned to bring to the attention of the adjuster that might disturb compass operation They are listed in Chapter I and are

discussed further in Chapter X

Expeditious compass adjustment is dependent upon the application of the various correctors in an optimum sequence so as

to achieve the final adjustment with a minimum number of steps Certain adjustments may be made conveniently at dockside

so as to simplify the adjustment procedures at sea

407 Inasmuch as the Flinders bar is subject to induction from several of the other correctors and since its adjustment is not

dependent on any single observation this adjustment is logically made first This adjustment is made by one of the 1 Deviation data obtained at two

different magnetic latitudes may be utilized to calculate the proper length of Flinders

bar for any particular compass location Details of the acquisition of such data and the calculations involved are

presented in articles 605 to 609 inclusive

2 If the above method is impractical the Flinders bar length will have to be set approximately by

a Using an empirical amount of Flinders bar that has been found correct for other ships of similar structure

b Studying the arrangement of masts stacks and other vertical structures and estimating the Flinders bar length

required

If these methods are not suitable the Flinders bar should be omitted until data is acquired

The iron sections of Flinders bar should be continuous and at the top of the tube with the longest section at the top

Wooden spacers are used at the bottom of the tube to achieve such Having adjusted the length of Flinders bar place the spheres on the bracket arms at

the best approximate position If the

compass has been adjusted previously place the spheres at the best position as indicated by the previous deviation table In

the event the compass has never been adjusted place the spheres at midposition on the bracket arms

409 The next adjustment is the positioning of the heeling magnet by means of a properly balanced dip needle as discussed

in Chapter XI

410 These three adjustments at dockside Flinders bar spheres and heeling magnet will properly establish the conditions

of mutual induction and shielding on the compass such that a minimum of procedures at sea will complete the Expected errors Figure 318 Summary of

Compass Errors and Adjustment lists six different coefficients or types of

deviation errors with their causes and corresponding correctors A discussion of these coefficients follows

The A error is more generally caused by the of azimuths or by physical rather than of asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron Thus if the

physical alignments are checked at dockside and if

care is exercised in making all calculations the A error will be Where an azimuth or bearing circle is used on a

standard compass to determine deviations any observed A error will be solely magnetic A error This results from the fact

that such readings are taken on the face of the compass card itself rather than at the lubbers line of the compass On a

steering compass where deviations are obtained by a comparison of the compass lubbers line reading with the heading as determined by pelorus or gyro

any observed A error may be a combination of magnetic A A These facts explain the procedure wherein only mechanical A is corrected on the by

realignment of the binnacle and both mechanical A and magnetic A errors are corrected on the steering compass

by realignment of the binnacle see article 405 On the standard compass the mechanical A error may be isolated from the

magnetic A error by making the following observations 1 Record a curve of deviations by using an azimuth or bearing circle An A error found will be

solely magnetic A

2 Record a curve of deviations by comparison of the compass lubbers line reading with the ships magnetic heading as

determined by pelorus or by gyro Any A error found will be a combination of mechanical A and magnetic A

The mechanical A on the standard compass is then found by subtracting the A found in the first instance from the total A

found in the second instance and is corrected by rotating the binnacle in the proper direction by that amount It is nor necessary to isolate the two

types of A on the steering compass and all A found by using the pelorus or gyro

may be removed by rotating the binnacle in the proper direction by that amount

The B error results from two different causes namely the foreandaft permanent magnetic field across the compass and a

resultant asymmetrical vertical induced effect forward or aft of the compass The former is corrected by the use of foreand

aft B magnets and the latter is corrected by the use of the Flinders bar forward or aft of the compass Inasmuch as the

Flinders bar setting has been made at dockside any B error remaining is corrected by the use of foreandaft B magnets

The C error has two causes namely the athwartship permanent magnetic field across the compass and a vertical induced effect athwartship of the

compass The former is corrected by the use of athwartship C

magnets and the latter by the use of the Flinders bar to port or starboard of the compass but inasmuch as this effect is very rare the C error is

corrected by athwartship C magnets only

The D error is due only to induction in the symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron and requires correction by

spheres generally athwartship of the compass

The existence of E error of appreciable magnitude is rare since it is caused by induction in the asymmetrical horizontal soft iron When this error is

appreciable it may be corrected by slewing the spheres as described in Chapter VI

As has been stated previously the heeling error is most practically adjusted at dockside with a balanced dip needle See

Chapter XI

412 A summary of the above discussion reveals that certain errors are rare and others have been corrected by adjustments at

dockside Therefore for most ships there remain only three errors to be corrected at sea namely the B C and D errors

These are corrected by the use of foreandaft B magnets athwartship C magnets and quadrantal spheres

16

413 Study of adjustment procedure Inspection of the general B C and D combination of errors pictured in figure 413 will

reveal that there is a definite isolation of the deviation effects on cardinal compass Figure 413 B C and D

deviation effects

For example on 090 or 270 compass headings the only deviation which is effective is that due to B This isolation and

the fact that the B effect is greatest on these two headings make these headings convenient for B correction Correction of the

B deviation on a 090 heading will correct the B deviation on the 270 heading by the same amount but in the and naturally it will not change the

deviations on the 000 and 180 headings except where B errors are the total deviation on all the intercardinal headings will be shifted in the same

direction as the adjacent 090 or

270 deviation correction but only by seventenths 07 of that amount since the sine of 45 equals 0707

The same convenient isolation of effects and corrections of C error will also change the deviations on all the by the seventenths rule as before It

will now be observed that only after correcting the B and C errors on the

cardinal headings and consequently their proportional values of the total curve on the intercardinal headings can the D error

be observed separately on any of the intercardinal headings The D error may then be corrected by use of the spheres on heading Correcting D error

will as a rule change the deviations on the intercardinal headings only and not on

the cardinal headings Only when the D error is excessive the spheres are magnetized or the permanent magnet so close as to create excessive induction

in the spheres will there be a change in the deviations on cardinal headings as a

result of sphere adjustments Although sphere correction does not generally correct deviations on cardinal headings it does

improve the stability of the compass on these If it were not for the occasional A or E errors which exist the above procedure of adjustment would be

quite adjust observed deviations to zero on two adjacent cardinal headings and then on the intermediate intercardinal figure 414 showing a

combination of A and B errors will illustrate why adjusting procedure must deviations on more than the three essential headings

If the assumption were made that no A error existed in the curve illustrated in figure 414 and the total deviation of 6E on

the 090 heading were corrected with B magnets the error on the 270 heading would be 4E due to B If then

this 4E error were taken out on the 270 heading the error on the 090 heading would then be 4E due to B

Figure 414 A and B deviation effects

The proper method of eliminating this toandfro procedure and also correcting the B error of the ship to the best possible

flat curve would be to split this 4E difference leaving 2E deviation on each opposite heading This would in effect correct

the B error leaving only the A error of 2E which must be corrected by other means It is for this reason that 1 splitting is

done between the errors noted on opposite headings and 2 good adjustments entail checking on all headings rather than on

the fundamental three

415 Before anything further is said about adjustment procedures it is suggested that care be exercised to avoid moving the

wrong corrector Not only will such practice be a waste of time but it will also upset all previous adjustments Throughout an adjustment special care

should be taken to pair off spare magnets so that the resultant field about

them will be negligible To make doubly sure that the compass is not affected by stray fields from them they should be kept

at an appropriate distance until one or more is actually to be inserted into the Adjustment procedures at sea Before proceeding with the adjustment

at sea the following precautions should be

observed

1 Secure all effective magnetic gear in the normal seagoing position

2 Make sure the degaussing coils are secured using the reversal sequence if adjustments are made with the ship on an even keel swinging from heading

to heading slowly and after steadying on

each heading for at least 2 minutes to avoid Gaussin error article 1003 Chapter VII discusses methods of placing a ship on

the desired Most adjustments can be made by trial and error or by routine procedure such as the one presented in Chapter I

However it is more desirable to follow some analytical procedure whereby the adjuster is always aware of the magnitude of

the errors on all headings as a result of his movement of the different correctors Two such methods are presented

1 A complete deviation curve can be taken for any given condition and an estimate made of all the approximate

coefficients See Chapter V for methods of making such estimates From this estimate the approximate coefficients are

established and the appropriate corrections are made with reasonable accuracy on a minimum number of headings If the

original deviation curve has deviations greater than 20 rough adjustments should be made on two adjacent cardinal

headings before recording curve data for such analysis The mechanics of applying correctors are presented in figure

103 A method of tabulating the anticipated deviations after each correction is illustrated in figure 417a The deviation

curve used for illustration is the one that is analyzed in Chapter V Analysis revealed these A 10E B 120E C 80E

D 50E E 15E

Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated

Anticipated

Original curve after curve after curve after curve after

Heading by curve after

deviation next next next next

compass first correcting

curve correcting correcting correcting correcting

A 10E

B 120E C 80E D 50E E 15E

000 105E 95E 95E 15E 15E 00

045 200E 190E 106E 50E 00 00

090 115E 105E 15W 15W 15W 00

135 12W 22W 106W 50W 00 00

180 55W 65W 65W 15E 15E 00

225 80W 90W 06W 50E 00 00

270 125 W 135W 15W 15W 15W 00

315 68W 78W 06E 50W 00 00

Figure 417a Tabulating anticipated deviations Analysis method

2 More often it is desirable to begin adjustment immediately eliminating the original swing for deviations and the

estimate or approximate coefficients In this case the above problem would be solved by tabulating data and anticipating

deviation changes as the corrections are made Figure 417b illustrates such procedure It will be noted that a new column

of values is started after each change is made This method of tabulation enables the adjuster to calculate the new

residual deviations each time a corrector is changed so that a record of deviations is available at all times during the

swing Arrows are used to indicate where each change is made

Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated

Anticipated

Original curve after curve after curve after curve after

Heading by curve after

deviation next next next next

compass first correcting

curve correcting correcting correcting correcting

A 10E

B 120E C 80E D 50E E 15E

000 105E 25E 25E 15E 00

045 64E 14E 04E 04E

090 115E 00 00 00 10W 05E

135 92W 36W 14E 04E 04E

180 55W 25E 25E 15E 00

225 00 56E 06E 04W 04W

270 10W 10W 10W 20W 05W

315 12E 44W 06E 04W 04W

Figure 417b Tabulating anticipated deviations Oneswing method

Since the B error is generally greatest it is corrected first hence on a 090 heading the 115E deviation is corrected zero by using foreandaft B

magnets A lot of time need not be spent trying to reduce this deviation to exactly

zero since the B coefficient may not be exactly 115E and some splitting might be desirable later After correcting on the

090 heading the swing would then be continued to 135 where a 92W error would be observed This deviation is recorded

but no correction is made because the quadrant error is best corrected after the deviations on all four cardinal headings have

been corrected The deviation on the 180 heading would be observed as 55W Since this deviation is not too large and

splitting may be necessary later it need not be corrected at this time Continuing the swing to 225 a 00 deviation would be

observed and recorded On the 270 heading the observed error would be 10W which is compared with 00 deviation on

the opposite 090 heading This could be split leaving 05W deviation on both 090 and 270 but since this is so small it

may be left uncorrected On 315 the observed deviation would be 12E At 000 a deviation of 105E would be observed

and compared with 55W on 180 Analysis of the deviations on 000 and 180 headings reveals an 80E C error which

should then be corrected with athwartship C magnets leaving 25E deviation on both the 000 and 180 headings All in column two are now recalculated on

the basis of such an adjustment at 000 heading and entered in column

three Continuing the swing the deviation on 045 would then be noted as 64 E Knowing the deviations on all it is now possible to estimate the

approximate coefficient D D is 50E so the 64E deviation on 045 is corrected

to 104E and new anticipated values are recorded in another column This anticipates a fairly good curve an estimate of

which reveals in addition to the B of 05E which was not considered large enough to warrant correction an A of 10E and

an E of 15E These A and E errors may or may not be corrected as practical If they are corrected the subsequent steps

would be as indicated in the last two columns It will be noted that the ship has made only one swing all corrections have

been made and some idea of the expected curve is Deviation curves The last step after completion of either of the above methods of adjustment is to

secure in position and to swing for residual deviations These residual deviations are for undegaussed conditions of the

ship which should be recorded together with details of corrector positions on the standard Navy Form NAVSEA 31204 and

in the Magnetic Compass Record NAVSEA 31203 Article 901 discusses the purposes of the various NAVSEA Record

Forms more fully Navy Form NAVSEA 31204 is complete and desirable in the interest of improved Flinders bar shielding conditions Figure 418

illustrates both sides of form NAVSEA 31204 with proper instructions and and Flinders bar data Should the ship be equipped with degaussing coils a

swing for residual deviations conditions should also be made and data recorded on NAVSEA 31204

On these swings extreme care should be exercised in taking bearings or azimuths and in steadying down on each heading

since this swing is the basis of standard data for that particular compass If there are any peculiar changeable errors such as

movable guns listing of the ship or anticipated decay from deperming which would effect the reliability of the compass

they should also be noted on the deviation card at this time Chapter X discusses these many sources of error in detail If the

Flinders bar adjustment is not based on accurate data as with a new ship it would be well to exercise particular care in

recording the conventional Daily Compass Log data during the first cruise on which a considerable change of occurs

Figure 418 Deviation table NAVSEA 31204

419 In order to have a reliable and uptodate deviation card at all times it is suggested that the ship be swung to check

compass deviations and to make if necessary after

1 Radical changes in magnetic latitude

2 Deperming Delay adjustment several days if possible after treatment

3 Structural changes

4 Long cruises or docking on the same heading such that the permanent magnetic condition of the vessels has

changed

5 Magnetic equipment near the binnacle has been altered

6 Reaching the magnetic equator in order to acquire Flinders bar data See Chapter VI

7 At least once yearly to account for magnetic decay etc

8 Appreciable change of heeling magnet position if Flinders bar is present

9 Readjustment of any corrector

10 Change of magnetic cargo

11 such reasonable care the compass should be a reliable instrument requiring little attention

CHAPTER V

TYPICAL DEVIATION CURVE AND THE ESTIMATION OF APPROXIMATE

Simple analysis The data for the deviation curve illustrated in figure 501 is as follows

Ships compass heading Deviation

N 000 105E

NE 045 200E

E 090 115E

SE 135 12W

S 180 55W

SW 225 80W

W 270 125W

NW 315 68W

Figure 501 Typical deviation curve and its individual components

Since A is the coefficient of constant deviation its approximate value is obtained from the above data by estimating the

mean of the algebraic sum of all the deviations Throughout these computations the sign of east deviation is considered plus

and west deviation is considered minus

8A 105 200 115 12 55 80 125 68

8A 420 340

8A 80

A 10 10E

Since B is the coefficient of semicircular sine deviation its value is maximum but of opposite polarity on 090 and The approximate B coefficient is

estimated by taking the mean of the deviations at 090 and 270 with the sign at

270 reversed

2B 115 125

2B 240

B 120 120E

Similarly since C is the coefficient of semicircular cosine deviation its value is maximum but of opposite polarity on

000 and 180 headings and the approximate C coefficient is estimated by taking the mean of the deviations at 000 and

180 with the sign at 180 reversed

2C 105 55

2C 160

C 80 80 E

D is the coefficient of quadrantal sine deviation having maximum but alternately opposite polarity on the Hence the approximate D coefficient is

estimated by taking the mean of the four intercardinal deviations with the

signs at 135 and 315 reversed

40 200 12 80 68

40 200

D 50 50E

E is the coefficient of quadrantal cosine deviation having maximum but alternately opposite polarity on the Therefore the approximate E coefficient

is estimated by taking the mean of the four cardinal deviations with the

signs at 090 and 270 reversed

4E 105 115 55 125

4E 60

E 15 15E

These approximate coefficients are estimated from deviations on compass headings rather than on magnetic headings solution of such coefficients will

automatically assign the proper polarity to each coefficient Summarizing the

above we find the approximate coefficients of the given deviation curve to be

A 10E

B 120E

C 80E

D 50E

E 15E

Each of these coefficients represents a component of deviation that can be plotted as shown in figure 501 The polarity of

each component in the first quadrant must agree with the polarity of the coefficient A check on the components in figure 501

will reveal that their summation equals the original curve This method of analysis is accurate only when the deviations are

less than 20 The mathematical expression for the deviation on any heading using the approximate coefficients is

Deviation A B sin C cos D sin 2 E cos 2

where represents compass heading

The directions given above for calculating coefficients A and B are not based upon accepted theoretical methods Some cases may exist where

appreciable differences may occur in the coefficients as calculated by the above

method and the accepted theoretical method The proper calculation of coefficients B and C is as D1 D2 D8 be the eight deviation data then

2 1

B D2 D4 D6 D8 D3 D7

8 4

2 1

C D2 D4 D6 D8 D1 D5

8 4

deviation data east being plus and west minus

2 1

B 200 12 80 68 115 125

8 4

B 12

2 1

C 200 12 80 68 105 55

8 4

C 8

502 Reasons for analysis This method of estimating approximate coefficients is convenient for

1 Analyzing an original deviation curve in order to anticipate necessary corrections

2 Analyzing a final deviation curve for the determination of additional refinements

3 Simplifying the actual adjustment procedure by anticipating effects of certain corrector changes on the deviations at

all other Approximate and exact coefficients It is emphasized that the above estimations are for the approximate not for exact coefficients

Approximate coefficients are in terms of angular deviations that are caused by certain and as stated before some of these deviations are subject to

change with changes in the directive force H The are expressions of magnetic forces dealing with a arrangements of soft iron b components of fields

c components of the earths magnetic field and d the shielding factor Thus the exact coefficients of magnetic force which produce the deviations

expressed by the approximate coefficients The exact for mathematical while the approximate coefficients are more practical for adjustment purposes

For this

reason the exact coefficients and the associated mathematics are not expanded further in this text

504 Compass heading and magnetic heading When deviations are large there is an appreciable difference in the if it is plotted on crosssection paper

against compass headings or against magnetic headings of the ship Not only is

there a difference in the shape of the curves but if only one curve is available navigators will find it difficult in when converting from magnetic

heading to compass heading and vice versa When deviations are small no

conversion is necessary Figure 504 illustrates the differences mentioned above by presenting the deviation values used in

figure 501 as plotted against magnetic headings as well as against compass Figure 504 Comparison of deviation curves magnetic

heading vs compass 23

CHAPTER VI

CORRECTOR BETWEEN Until now the principles of compass adjustment have been considered from a qualitative point of view In general this is

quite sufficient since the correctors need merely be moved until the desired amount of correction is obtained However it is

often valuable to know the quantitative effects of different correctors as well as their qualitative effects Furthermore as has

been stated previously all the correctors are not completely independent of each other Interaction results from the proximity

of the permanent magnet correctors to the soft iron correctors with appreciable induction effects in the latter shift in the relative position of the

various correctors will change their interaction effects as well as their effects Additional inductions exist in the soft iron correctors from the

magnetic needles of the compass itself The

adjuster should therefore be familiar with the nature of these interactions so as to evolve the best methods of Quandrantal sphere correction Figure

602 presents the approximate quadrantal correction available with of spheres at various positions on the sphere brackets and with different magnetic

moment compasses corrections apply whether the spheres are used as D E or combination D and E correctors Quadrantal spheres is due partially to the

earths field induction and partially to compass needle induction Since compass does not change with magnetic latitude but earths field induction does

the sphere correction is not constant for all

magnetic latitudes A reduction in the percentage of needle induction in the spheres to the earths field induction in the

spheres will improve the constancy of sphere correction over all magnetic latitudes Such a reduction in the percentage of

needle induction may be obtained by

1 Utilizing a low magnetic moment compass article 613

2 Utilizing special correctors placed with their major axes perpendicular to their axis of position

3 Using larger spheres farther away from the compass

Figure 602

603 Slewing of spheres Figure 603a is a convenient chart of determining the proper slewed position for spheres The total

values of the D and E quadrantal coefficients are used on the chart to locate a point of intersection This point directly locates

the angle and direction of slew for the spheres on the illustrated binnacle This point will also indicate on the radial scale the

resultant amount of quadrantal correction required from the spheres in the new slewed position to correct for both D and The total D and E

coefficients may be calculated by an analysis of deviations on the uncorrected binnacle or the uncorrected coefficients with those already corrected

The data in figures 602 and 603b will be useful in

either 24

Figure 603a Slewing of quadrantal spheres

Figure 603b Quandrantal error from Standard Navy Flinders A ship having a Navy Standard binnacle with 7 spheres at 13 position athwartship and a 12

Flinders bar

forward is being swung for adjustment It is observed that 4E D error and 6E E error exist with the spheres

in position Since the spheres are athwartship the total E coefficient for the ship is 6E as observed Figure

602 indicates that the spheres in their present position are correcting 6E D error hence the total D

coefficient of the ship and Flinders bar is 10E Figure 603a indicates that 6E E and 10E D coefficients

require slewing the spheres 155 clockwise from their present athwartship position The resultant quadrantal

error is indicated as 117 Figure 602 indicates that the 7 spheres should then be moved to the 11 position

after slewing 155 clockwise so as to correct both the D and E errors Use of this chart will eliminate

mathematical or methods of adjustment for quadrantal errors as well as quickly provide

information for physically moving the spheres

604 Corrector magnet inductions in spheres Should a ship have spheres and many permanent B and C magnet to the compass there will be a condition of

induction existing between these correctors which will require back and forth between headings while making adjustments This situation can be

improved by using larger out and by approximately setting the spheres before starting adjustments as well as by using more magnets further

from the spheres and compass Magnetized spheres as well as magnetized Flinders bar will not only cause some adjustment but might introduce an

unstable deviation curve if they should undergo a shakedown or change of

magnetic Quadrantal error from Finders bar Figure 603b presents the approximate quadrantal error introduced by the

presence of the Standard Navy Flinders bar Since the Flinders bar is generally placed in the forward or aft position it acts as

a small minus D corrector as well as a corrector for vertical induced effects This means that upon inserting the Flinders bar

in such a position the regular spheres should be moved closer to correct for the increased plus D error or vice versa if the

Flinders bar is removed This D error in the Flinders bar is due mostly to compass needle induction since the bar is small and is close to the compass

Since such needle induction is practically constant the deviation effects on the

compass will change with magnetic latitudes because the directive force H changes However when balanced by this is advantageous because it tends to

cancel out the variable part of the sphere correction which is due to the

compass needle Flinders bar adjustment As has previously been stated in Chapter II it is generally impossible to place the of Flinders bar without

reliable data obtained in two widely separated magnetic latitudes The placing of Flinders bar

by the use of an empirical amount or by an inspection of the ships structures is merely an approximation method will usually be necessary when data

is obtained There are several methods of acquiring and utilizing such

latitude data in order to determine the proper amount of Flinders bar hence an elaboration on the following items

1 The data necessary for calculation of Flinders bar length and the conditions under which this data should be

acquired

2 The best method of utilizing such data to determine the proper length of the Flinders bar

607 Data required for Flinders bar adjustment The data required for correct Flinders bar adjustment consists of of deviations with details of

corrector conditions at two different magnetic latitudes the farther apart the better See

figure 418 for an example of how such data is recorded on NAVSEA Form 31204 Should it be impossible to swing ship for

a complete table of deviations the deviations on east and west magnetic headings would be helpful On many log data is available but is of little use

for Flinders bar calculation because it is not reliable The following be observed when such data is to be taken in order to assure that observed

deviation changes are due only to changes

in the H and Z components of the earths field

1 Degaussing should be secured by a reversal process if necessary at both latitudes before data is taken

2 If the ship has been docked or steaming on one heading for several days prior to the taking of these data the

resulting temporary magnetism Gaussin error would create erroneous deviations A shakedown on other headings

prior to taking data would reduce such errors

3 Deperming structural changes heavy gunfire magnetic cargoes etc subsequent to the first set of data will make

the comparative results meaningless

4 Inasmuch as the data will not be reliable if the ships permanent magnetism changes between the two latitudes it

will likewise be unreliable if any of the binnacle correctors are changed including the heeling magnet

In the event that an intelligent approximation as to Flinders bar length cannot be made then the deviations at the two be taken with no Flinders bar

in the holder This procedure would also simplify the resulting Methods of determining Finders bar length

1 Having obtained reliable deviation data at two different magnetic latitudes the changes in the deviations if any be attributed to an incorrect

Flinders bar adjustment EW and NS deviations are the ones that are subject to major

changes from such an incorrect adjustment If there is no change in any of these deviations the Flinders bar adjustment is

probably correct A change in the EW deviations indicates an asymmetrical arrangement of vertical iron forward or aft of the

compass which requires correction by the Flinders bar forward or aft of the compass A change in the NS an asymmetrical arrangement of vertical iron

to port or starboard of the compass which requires correction by the

Flinders bar to port or starboard of the compass This latter case is very rare but can be corrected as indicated in article 613

Determine the B deviations on magnetic eastwest headings at both latitudes The constant c may then be calculated from

the following formula

c H1 tan B1 H2 tan B2

Z1 Z2

where

shielding factor 07 to 10 average

H1 earths field H at 1st latitude

B1 degrees B deviation at 1st latitude magnetic headings

Z1 earths field Z at 1st latitude

H2 earths field H at 2nd latitude

B2 degrees B deviation at 2nd latitude magnetic headings

Z2 earths field Z at 2nd latitude

This constant c represents a resultant mass of vertical iron in the ship that requires Flinders bar correction If Flinders bar is

present at the time of calculations it must be remembered that it is already correcting an amount of c in the ship see figure

603b which must be added to the uncorrected c calculated by the above formula This total value of c is used in figure 603b to indicate directly the

necessary total amount of Flinders bar If this total c is negative Flinders bar is

required on the forward side of the binnacle and if it is positive a Flinders bar is required on the aft side of the binnacle The

iron sections of Flinders bar should be continuous and at the top of the tube with the longest section at the top are used at the bottom of the tube

to achieve such spacing It will be noted that the B deviations used in this formula

are based on data on EW magnetic headings rather than on compass headings as with the approximate 2 Should the exact amount of correction required

for vertical induction in the ship at some particular magnetic dip be

known figure 608 will directly indicate the correct amount of Flinders bar to be placed at the top of the holder The exact

amount of correction would be known when one of the latitudes is the magnetic equator and the deviations there Then the B deviation in degrees on

magnetic headings at the other latitude is the exact amount to correct by means

of curves in figure 608

Figure 608 Dip deviation curves for Flinders bar

3 Lord Kelvins rule for improving the Flinders bar setting is Correct the deviations observed on east or west courses by

the use of foreandaft B magnets when the ship has arrived at places of weaker vertical magnetic field and by the use of

Flinders bar when she has arrived at places of stronger vertical magnetic field whether in the Northern or

27

609 After determining the correct amount of Flinders bar by either method 1 or 2 above the bar should then be inserted at

the top of the holder and the foreandaft B magnets readjusted to correct the remaining B error Sphere adjustments be refined It is quite possible

that on inserting the Flinders bar no visible deflection of the compass will be

observed even on an east or west heading This should cause no concern because certain additional induction effects exist in

the bar from

1 The heeling magnet

2 The existing foreandaft magnets

3 The vertical component of the ships permanent magnetic field

610 Heeling magnet induction in Finders bar Figure 610 presents typical induction effects in the Flinders bar for of heeling magnet An adjuster

familiar with the nature of these effects will appreciate the advantages the Flinders bar and heeling magnet combination before leaving dockside

Deviations must also be checked the heeling magnet if Flinders bar is present

Figure 610 Induction effects in Flinders bar due to heeling magnet

611 Slewing of Flinders bar The need for slewing the Flinders bar is much more rare than that for slewing spheres Also

the data necessary for slewing the Flinders bar cannot be obtained on a single latitude adjustment as with the the bar to some intermediate position

is in effect merely utilizing one bar to do the work of two one forward or aft

and the other port or starboard

Article 608 explains that a change of the EW deviations with changes in latitude indicates the need for Flinders bar

forward or aft of the compass and a change of the NS deviations with changes in latitude indicates the need for Flinders bar

to port or starboard of the compass

A change of the B deviations on magnetic EW headings is used as explained in article 608 to determine the proper

amount of Flinders bar forward or aft of the compass by calculating the constant c If there is a change of the C deviations on

magnetic NS headings a similar analysis may be made to determine the proper amount of Flinders bar to port or starboard of

the compass by calculating the constant f from

f H1 tan C1 H2 tan C2

Z1 Z2

when

shielding factor 07 to 10 average

H1 earths field H at 1st latitude

C1 degrees C deviation at 1st latitude magnetic headings

Z1 earths field Z at 1st latitude

H2 earths field H at 2nd latitude

C2 degrees C deviation at 2nd latitude magnetic headings

Z2 earths field Z at 2nd latitude

Any value of this f constant indicates the need for Flinders bar adjustment athwartship of the compass just as a value of the

c constant indicates the need for Flinders bar adjustment forward or aft of the compass The f constant curve in figure 608b is

used for the determination of this Flinders bar length If f is negative Flinders bar is required on the starboard side of

28

612 Should both c and f exist on a ship the angular position for a Flinders bar to correct the resultant vertical may be found by

f f

tan or tan1

c c

is the angle to slew the Flinders bar from the foreandaft axis If c and f are negative the bar will be slewed the forward position if c is negative

and f is positive the bar will be slewed from the aft position

After so determining the angle to slew the Flinders bar from the foreandaft line the total amount of Flinders bar

necessary to correct the resultant vertical induction effects in this position is found by

r c2 f 2

The constant r is then used on the c or f constant curve in figure 603b to determine the total amount of Flinders bar

necessary in the slewed Compasses Compasses themselves play a very important part in compass adjustment although it is common belief that

the compass is only an indicating instrument aligning itself in the resultant magnetic field This would be essentially true if

the magnetic fields were uniform about the compass but unfortunately magnetism close to the compass imposes across the needles In other words

adjustment and compensation sometimes employ nonuniform fields to fields Figure 613a indicates the difference between uniform and nonuniform field

effects on a compass

Figure 613a Magnetic fields across compass needle arrays

Such unbalanced torques arising from nonuniform magnetic fields create deviations of the compass which have Compass designs include many

combinations of different length needles different numbers of

needles and different spacings and arrangements of needlesall designed to minimize the higher order deviations such nonuniform magnetic fields

Although compass design is rather successful in minimizing such deviations it is

obvious that different compasses will be affected differently by the same magnetic fields It is further stressed that even with

proper compass design it is the of all adjusters to exercise care in applying correctors in order to create the

most uniform magnetic field possible This is the basis for the rule that requires the use of strong correctors as far away from the compass as

possible instead of weak correctors very close to the compass In general it is

better to use larger spheres placed at the extremities of the brackets equally distant from the center of the compass B and C

permanent magnet correctors should always be placed so as to have an equal number of magnets on both sides of the

compass where possible They should also be centered as indicated in figure 613b if regular tray arrangements are The desire for symmetrical magnetic

fields is one reason for maintaining a sphere of specified radius the magnetic circle about the magnetic compass location This circle is kept free of

any magnetic or 29

Figure 613b Arrangements of corrector magnets

The magnetic moment of the compass needle array is another factor in compass design that ranks in importance with the

proper arrangement of needles This magnetic moment controls the needle induction in the soft iron correctors as discussed

in articles 602 and 605 and hence governs the constancy of those corrector effects with changes in magnetic latitude The

7 Navy No 1 alcoholwater compass has a magnetic moment of approximately 4000 cgs units whereas the 7 Navy No

1 oil compass has a magnetic moment of approximately 1650 cgs units The lower magnetic moment compass less change in quadrantal correction although

the periods are essentially comparable because of the difference

in the compass fluid Other factors that must be considered in compass design are period fluid swirl vibration illumination tilt pivot expansion

etc These factors however are less important from an adjusters point of view than the magnetic moment

and arrangement of needles and are therefore not discussed further in this text

CHAPTER VII

SHIPS HEADING

701 Ships heading Ships heading is the angle expressed in degrees clockwise from north of the ships foreandaft line

with respect to the true meridian or the magnetic meridian When this angle is referred to the true meridian it is called a true

heading When this angle is referred to the magnetic meridian it is called a magnetic heading Heading as indicated on a

particular compass is termed the ships compass heading by that compass It is always essential to specify heading as true

heading magnetic heading or compass heading In order to obtain the heading of a ship it is essential that the line through

the pivot and the forward lubbers line of the compass be parallel to the foreandaft line of the ship This applies also to the

peloruses and gyro repeaters which are used for observational Variation Variation at any place is the angle between the magnetic meridian and the

true meridian If the northerly part

of the magnetic meridian lies to the right of the true meridian the variation is easterly and if this part is to the left of the the variation is

westerly The local variation and its small annual change are noted on the compass rose of charts Thus the true and magnetic headings of a ship differ

by the local Deviation As previously explained a ships magnetic influence will generally cause the compass needle to deflect from

the magnetic meridian This angle of deflection is called deviation If the north end of the needle points east of the the deviation is easterly if it

points west of the magnetic meridian the deviation is Heading A summary of heading relationships follows

1 Deviation is the difference between the compass heading and the magnetic heading

2 Variation is the difference between the magnetic heading and the true heading

3 The algebraic sum of deviation and variation is the compass error

The following simple rules will assist in naming errors and in converting from one heading expression to another

1 Compass least less than magnetic heading deviation east

Compass best greater than magnetic heading deviation west

2 When correcting going from compass to magnetic to true apply the sign algebraically East West

When uncorrecting going from true to magnetic to compass reverse the sign East West

3 When correcting easterly errors are additive This single rule can be used to recall all four cases

When correcting easterly errors are additive westerly errors are subtractive

When uncorrecting easterly errors are subtractive westerly errors are additive

Formed from the first letter of each key word in the correcting process Compass Deviation Magnetic Variation True

the sentence Can Dead Men Vote Twice is useful in making conversions of heading data Although the can be used for uncorrecting going from right to

left in the statement as written the first letters of the key words

in the uncorrecting process are also used to develop a memory aid for Complete facility with such conversion of heading data is essential for

expeditious compass adjustment heading relationships are tabulated below

Compass heading 358 magnetic heading 003 deviation 5E

Compass heading 181 magnetic heading 179 deviation 2W

Compass heading 040 deviation 3E magnetic heading 043

Compass heading 273 deviation 2W magnetic heading 271

Magnetic heading 010 deviation 2E compass course 008

Magnetic heading 270 deviation 4W compass course 274

Magnetic heading 358 variation 6E true heading 004

Magnetic heading 270 variation 6W true heading 264

True heading 000 variation 5E magnetic heading 355

True heading 083 variation 7W magnetic heading 090

705 Use of compass heading and magnetic heading for adjustment The primary object of adjusting compasses is to

reduce deviations to make the magnetic heading and the compass heading identical or as nearly so as possible The two

methods of accomplishing this are as follows

1 Place the ship on the desired magnetic heading and correct the compass so that it reads the same as this magnetic

heading This is the preferred method

2 Place the ship on the desired compass heading and determine the corresponding magnetic heading of the ship and

correct the compass so that it reads the same as this known magnetic heading This method is used whenever it is

impractical to place the ship on a steady magnetic heading for direct correction

In using the magnetic heading method the deviations of the compass are easily observed as the difference between the

compass reading and the known magnetic heading of the ship The difficulty in using this method lies in placing the ship on

the desired magnetic heading and holding the ship steady on that heading while adjustments are being made

When using the compass heading method the ship can easily be brought to any desired compass heading but the difficulty

is in the determination of deviations Further difficulty arises from the fact that the steersman is steering by an whose deviations are changing as

the necessary adjustments are being made Therefore as each adjustment is being

made the steersman should attempt to hold the ship steady on that heading by some means other than the compass Adjustments by this method are made as

a series of for example

Place the ship on any desired compass course and correct the compass to read the corresponding magnetic heading This

will probably leave the ship on a course other than the desirable cardinal and intercardinal headings for compass accurate results the above

procedure should be repeated

If the compass has no appreciable deviations the deviations taken on compass headings will closely approximate those

taken on magnetic headings However as the magnitude of errors increases there will be a marked difference between taken on compass headings and those

taken on magnetic Methods of placing ship on magnetic headings A ship may be brought on a magnetic heading by reference to The magnetic variation is

applied to true heading to determine the gyro course which must be steered in order

to place the ship on the desired magnetic heading If the gyrocompass has any error it must be taken into It is

well to calculate all such problems through true headings since shortcuts on this procedure frequently lead to errors

Examples of such relationships are tabulated below

To steer

Heading per

magnetic With variation True course With gyro error

gyro compass

course

000 6W 354 0 354

180 10E 190 0 190

270 4W 266 1E 265

315 6E 321 2E 319

225 17W 208 2W 210

358 0 358 3W 001

The difference between gyro heading and magnetic heading will be constant on all headings as long as the is constant and the variation does not

change This gyrocompass error may be determined by a comparison of true azimuth of the sun and the azimuth as observed on a synchronized repeater

It is to be remembered that gyrocompasses have certain errors resulting from latitude and speed change as well as and that these errors are not

always constant on all headings For these reasons the gyro error must be especially if the gyro is being used to obtain data for determining residual

deviation curves of the A ship may be placed on a magnetic heading by aligning the vanes of an azimuth circle with the sun over the The sun is a

distant object whose azimuth tangle from the north may be computed for any given time Methods suns azimuths are discussed in Chapter VIII By setting

the line of sight of the vanes at an angle to the right or

left of the foreandaft line of the ship equal to the difference between the computed magnetic azimuth and the heading of the ship and then swinging

the ship until the sun is aligned with the vanes the ship will be on the

desired magnetic heading Simple diagrams as in figure 707 with the ship and sun drawn in their relative positions will aid

greatly in the visualization of each problem The azimuth circle must always be kept level while making of celestial bodies

Figure 707 Azimuth circle setups

708 A distant object 10 or more miles away may be use in conjunction with the azimuth circle for placing the ship on

magnetic headings provided the ship stays within a small area This procedure is similar to that used with the sun except that

the magnetic beading of the object is constant With an object 114 nautical miles distant a change in position of 400 yards at

right angles to the line of sight introduces an error of 1

709 A pelorus may be used to place a ship on a magnetic heading using the suns azimuth in much the same manner as with

the azimuth circle Use of the pelorus has the further advantage in that the magnetic heading of the ship can be as the ship swings Such a procedure

would be as follows

The forward sight vane is clamped to the dial at the value of the suns magnetic azimuth and the sight vanes are then

trained so the sun is reflected in the mirror As the ship turns the magnetic heading is always observed under the

forward lubbers line if the vanes are kept on the sun and this will serve as a guide for bringing the ship onto any

desired magnetic heading As the desired magnetic course is approached the compass can be read and corrected

even before that magnetic course is actually obtained and a final check can be made when the ship is on the exact

course The pelorus must always be kept in a level position while making observations particularly of celestial

bodies

710 A distant object can be used in conjunction with the pelorus as with the azimuth circle in order to place the ship on

magnetic heading provided the ship stays within a small area See article 708

711 Methods of determining deviations on a compass heading The deviations on compass headings may be obtained by a

comparison of the calculated magnetic azimuth of the sun and the azimuth as observed on the compass by use of an Methods of calculating suns azimuth

are discussed in Chapter VIII The ship is placed on the desired compass heading

and an azimuth of the sun taken of the face of the compass card The difference in degrees between the observed azimuth and

the calculated magnetic azimuth of the sun is the deviation on that compass course

712 The pelorus may also be used in conjunction with the suns azimuth to obtain deviations on compass headings The ship

is brought to the desired compass heading and the forward sight vane is set on the calculated value of the suns The sight vanes are then trained on

the sun and the magnetic heading of the ship is indicated under the line of the pelorus The difference in degrees between the compass heading and

magnetic heading of the by the pelorus is the deviation on that compass course

713 The azimuth circle or pelorus can be used in conjunction with ranges or a distant object to obtain deviations on The procedure is similar to that

used with the sun A range consists of any two objects or markers one in and the other in the background which establishes a line of sight having a

known magnetic bearing The true

bearing of such a range is determined from a local chart this true bearing is converted to the magnetic bearing by applying

the variation corrected for annual change as given on the chart Multiple ranges consist of several markers in the a single marker in the foreground

or vice versa The ship is brought to the desired compass course and at the instant of

crossing the line of sight of the range a bearing is taken with the azimuth circle or pelorus With the azimuth circle in degrees between the observed

bearing of the range on the face of the compass and the known magnetic bearing

of the range is the deviation on that compass course If using a pelorus the forward sight vanes are set to the magnetic

bearing of the range and the magnetic heading of the ship is read under the forward lubbers line of the pelorus at the instant

of taking a sight on the range The deviation is the difference in degrees between the compass heading of the ship and the

known magnetic heading of the ship as indicated by Deviations on compass courses may be obtained by the use of reciprocal bearings A pelorus is set

up on shore and the

south end of the dial is aligned with magnetic north A ship can then sight the pelorus on shore using an azimuth circle or

pelorus at the same instant the observer on shore sights the ship The ships bearing from shore on the reversed pelorus is the

magnetic bearing of the shore position from the ship Continuous communication between ship and shore is necessary and

must be so arranged as to provide simultaneous observations Two methods of such communication are by flashing lights

and preferably by short range twoway voice radio

Additional methods of determining deviations are by the use of azimuths of the moon stars and planets For to the calculation of azimuths of these

celestial bodies refer to Pub No 9 The American Practical 34

CHAPTER VIII

AZIMUTHS

801 Azimuths of the sun Since accurate compass bearings of the sun can readily be observed for comparison with the true bearing or azimuth for time

date and place of the observer to obtain the compass error the sun is a point for compass adjustment The azimuths of other celestial bodies can

similarly be determined but are for compass work because of the poor visibility of stars and the more variable time rates and declinations of the

moon and planets Hence subsequent explanations concern themselves only with the sun and its Astronomical triangle The azimuth of the sun at any

instant and place of the observer is determined by solving triangle for azimuth angle Z using the observers latitude and longitude and the celestial

coordinates of the sun

for the time of the observation as taken from the Nautical Almanac to effect the solution

The astronomical triangle is formed on the celestial sphere by

1 the elevated pole of the observer the radial projection of the geographic pole of the observer according to

whether his latitude is north or south

2 the zenith of the observer the radial projection of the observers position on earth and

3 the celestial body

803 Local hour angle LHA The Greenwich hour angle GHA of the sun as taken from the Nautical Almanac for the time

and date of the observation is combined with the observers longitude to obtain the local hour angle the angle at the elevated

pole between the local celestial meridian the observers meridian and the hour circle of the sun always measured westward

from 0 to 360

west

LHA GHA longitude

east

Meridian angle t is sometimes used instead of local hour angle to express the angle at the elevated pole between the meridian and the hour circle of

the sun The meridian angle t of the sun is the angle at the elevated pole measured

from the meridian of the observer to the hour circle of the sun eastward or westward from 0 to 180 Thus t denotes the

suns position east or west of the local celestial meridian When the sun is west of the meridian t is equal to LHA when east

t is equal to 360 minus LHA

804 Declination d Also taken from the Nautical Almanac for the time and date of the observation declination d of the sun

is used with local hour angle LHA and the latitude L of the observer to calculate the azimuth angle Z

805 Azimuth angle Z The azimuth angle of the sun is the angle at the zenith between the principal vertical with the local celestial meridian and the

vertical circle through the sun It is measured from 0 at the north or

south reference direction clockwise or through 180 It is labeled with the reference direction direction of

elevated pole of observer as a prefix and direction of measurement from the reference direction as a suffix Thus azimuth

angle S144W is the angle between the principal vertical circle of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere and circle 144 westward

Azimuth angle is converted to azimuth by use of the following rules

1 For north latitudes

a Zn Z if the sun is east of the meridian

b Zn 360 Z if the sun is west of the meridian

2 For south latitudes

a Zn 180 Z if the sun is east of the meridian

b Zn 180 Z if the sun is west of the meridian

It must be remembered that in order to obtain magnetic azimuths from true azimuths the appropriate variation must be

applied to the true Azimuth by tables One of the more frequent applications of sight reduction tables is their use in computing the

azimuth of a celestial body for comparison with an observed azimuth in order to determine the error of the compass In

computing the azimuth of a celestial body for the time and place of observation it is normally necessary to interpolate the

tabular azimuth angle as extracted from the tables for the differences between the table arguments and the actual values of

latitude and local hour angle The required of the azimuth angle using Pub No 229 Tables for Marine Navigation is effected as follows

1 Refer to figure 806a The main tables are entered with the nearest integral values of declination latitude and local

hour angle For these arguments a base azimuth angle is Figure 806a Extracts from Pub No 229

2 The tables are reentered with the same latitude and LHA arguments but with the declination argument 10 greater or

less than the base declination argument depending upon whether the actual declination is greater or less than the

base argument The difference between the respondent azimuth angle and the base azimuth angle establishes the

azimuth angle difference Z Diff for the increment of declination

3 The tables are reentered with the base declination and LHA arguments but with the latitude argument 10 greater or

less than the base latitude argument depending upon whether the actual usually DR latitude is greater or less than

the base argument to find the Z Diff for the increment of latitude

4 The tables are reentered with the base declination and latitude arguments but with the LHA argument 10 greater or

less than the base LHA argument depending upon whether the actual LHA is greater or less than the base argument

to find the Z Diff for the increment of LHA

5 The correction to the base azimuth angle for each increment is

Z Diff x

The auxiliary interpolation table can normally be used for computing this value because the successive azimuth are less than 100 for altitudes less

than 84

Example In DR lat 33240N the azimuth of the sun is observed as 0965 pgc At the time of the observation the

declination of the sun is 20138N the local hour angle of the sun is 316412

Required The gyro error

Solution By Pub No 229

The error of the gyrocompass is found as shown in figure 806b

Base Correction

Actual Arguments Base Z Tab Z Z Diff Increments Z Diff x Inc60

Dec 20138N 20 978 964 14 138 03

DR L 33240N 33 same 978 989 11 240 04

LHA 316412 317 978 971 07 188 02

Base Z 978 Total corr 01

Corr 01

Z N977E

Zn 0977

Zn pgc 0965

Gyro error 12E

807 Azimuth by calculator When calculators are used to compute the azimuth tedious triple interpolation is can be effected by several formulas

The azimuth angle Z can be calculated using the altitude azimuth formula if the altitude is known The formula stated in

terms of the inverse trigonometric function is

sin d sin L sin Hc

Z cos1

cos L cos Hc

If the altitude is unknown or a solution independent of altitude is required the azimuth angle can be calculated using the

time azimuth formula The formula stated in terms of the inverse trigonometric function is

sin LHA

Z tan1

cos L tan d sin L cos LHA

The sign conventions used in the calculations of both azimuth formulas are as follows 1 If latitude and declination are of

contrary name declination is treated as a negative quantity 2 If the local hour angle is greater than 180 it is treated as a

negative quantity If the azimuth angle as calculated is negative it is necessary to add 180 to obtain the desired In DR lat 41259S the azimuth of

the sun is observed as 0160 pgc At the time of the observation of the sun is 22196N the local hour angle of the sun is The gyro error by

calculation of

sin LHA

Z tan1

cos L tan d sin L cos Convert each known quantity to decimal degrees

Latitude 41259S 41432

Declination 22196N 22327

LHA 342376 342627

Prepare form on which to record results obtained in the several procedural steps of the Procedure varies according to calculator design and the

degree to which the user employs the features of the

design enabling more expeditious solutions

In this example only the initial step of substituting the given quantities in the formula in accordance with the

sign conventions is given before the azimuth angle is obtained by the calculator is stated

sin 342627

Z tan1

cos 41432 x tan 22327 sin 41432 x cos 342627

Z 176

Since Z as calculated is a negative angle 176 180 is added to obtain the desired azimuth angle 1624

Z S1624E

Zn 0176

Zn pgc 0160

Answer Gyro error 16E

808 Curve of magnetic azimuths During the course of compass adjustment and swinging ship a magnetic direction is

needed many times either to place the vessel on desired magnetic headings or to determine the deviation of the compass

being adjusted If a celestial body is used to provide the magnetic reference the azimuth is continually changing as the earth

rotates on its axis Frequent and numerous computations can be avoided by preparing in advance a table or curve of

magnetic azimuths True azimuths at frequent intervals are computed The variation at the center of the maneuvering area is

then applied to determine the equivalent magnetic azimuths These are plotted on crosssection paper with time as the using any convenient scale A

curve is then faired through the points

Points at intervals of half an hour with a minimum of three are usually sufficient unless the body is near the and relatively high in the sky when

additional points are needed If the body crosses the celestial meridian the

direction of curvature of the line reverses

Unless extreme accuracy is required the Greenwich hour angle and declination can be determined for the the same value of declination used for all

computations and the Greenwich hour angle considered to increase 15

per hour

An illustration of a curve of magnetic azimuths of the sun is shown in figure 808 This curve is for the period time on May 31 1975 at latitude 23095N

longitude 82241W The variation in this area is 247E At the midtime

the meridian angle of the sun is 664723 and the declination is 21523N Azimuths were computed at halfhour intervals

as follows

Zone time Meridian angle Declination Latitude Magnetic azimuth

0700 81471E 5h 271m E 219N 232N 06939

0730 74171E 4h 571m E 219N 232N 07157

0800 66472E 4h 271m E 219N 232N 07406

0830 59172E 3h 571m E 219N 232N 07608

0900 51472E 3h 271m E 219N 232N 07807

This curve was constructed on the assumption that the vessel would remain in approximately the same location during the

period of adjustment and swing If the position changes materially this should be considered in the Figure 808

Curve of magnetic azimuths

Extreme care must be exercised when using the sun between 1100 and 1300 LMT since the azimuth changes very this time and the sun is generally at a

high altitude

CHAPTER IX

COMPASS RECORDS AND REPORTS

901 OPNAV Instruction 312032 Standard Organization and Regulations of the US Navy of 30 July 1974 requires the

navigator to make frequent checks of the magnetic compass to determine its error and to make frequent comparisons with while the ship is underway

Specific information relative to compass observations records and reports is

outlined below

1 The Magnetic Compass Record NAVSEA 31203 is part of the official record of a ship and is maintained as

an adjunct to the Deck Log aboard every US Naval ship in commission It is a complete history of each

magnetic compass on board

2 Each volume of the Magnetic Compass Record contains a sufficient number of Compass Check Log forms

for 3 months continuous entries based upon halfhourly observations Observations may be made at shorter

than halfhourly periods if desired In those cases where the ship is not operating continuously the book will

be usable for a more extended period Provision is made in this book for accommodating the record of both

the standard and steering magnetic compasses The latitude and longitude columns of the check log may be

left blank when this information would make the record 3 Whenever a magnetic compass is adjusted or the deviations on all cardinal and

intercardinal headings are

observed the results are recorded on a Magnetic Compass Table NAVSEA 31204 A copy of the latest

completed table should be kept in the envelope attached inside the back cover of the Magnetic Compass

Record On ships equipped with degaussing circuits and compass compensation coils the residual deviations

are recorded with DGOFF and DGON A copy of NAVSEA 31204 should be posted near the compass

so as to be readily accessible to the navigator and other personnel concerned with the navigation of the ship

Each time a new NAVSEA 31204 is prepared as a result of the adjustment of the compass a duplicate copy

of the completed form should be forwarded to the Naval Ship Engineering Center A transmittal letter is not

required Special attention should be given to completing all the information requested on the back of the

NAVSEA 31204 form so that the changes in deviation with latitude may be correctly evaluated in terms of

Flinders bar 4 A NAVSEA 895041 should be filed with the compass manuals at the rear of the Degaussing Folder One

copy of the form should be forwarded to Naval Ship Engineering Center at the time of initial compensation

and upon any subsequent compensations made as a result of adding additional compensating equipment or of

changing the type of this equipment In the case of changing or adding equipment this form will normally be

made out by the installing activity However if this activity does not perform the compensation the form

should be submitted by the ship

CHAPTER X

TRANSIENT DEVIATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC Stability The general treatise on compass adjustment concerns itself only with the principles of ie the effects

of permanent and induced magnetism and their appropriate correctors This with the ability to handle suns azimuth and ships heading is the backbone of

compass adjustment However a

correction may be very carefully and accurately made and still prove disastrous to the ship for example a compass

may have a perfect deviation curve but when a nearby gun is trained the magnetic effects on the compass are a compass adjuster cannot place

correctors on the binnacle for such variable effects it is definitely his duty to

recognize and handle them in the best possible manner If it is impossible to eliminate the source of trouble to relocate the binnacle the details of

alignment or excitation of the sources of error should be specified on

the deviation card With such information the navigator would know when or when not to rely on his In other words a good adjuster should not only

provide a good deviation curve which is reliable stated conditions but also point out and record probable causes of unreliability which cannot be

Sources of transient error The magnetic circle about the magnetic compass is intended to reduce such but there still are many items both electrical

and magnetic which cause erratic effects on the compass The

following list is presented to assist in the detection of such items If in doubt a test can be made by swinging any

movable object or energizing any electrical unit while observing the compass for deviations This would best be tried

on two different headings 90 apart since the compass might possibly be affected on one heading and not on the other

1 Some magnetic items which cause variable deviations if placed too close to the compass are as follows

a Guns on movable mounts

b Ready ammunition boxes

c Variable quantities of ammunition in ready boxes

d Magnetic cargo

e Hoisting booms

f Cable reels

g Metal doors in wheelhouse

h Chart table drawers

i Movable gyro repeater

j Windows and ports

k Signal pistols racked near compass

l Sound powered telephones

m Magnetic wheel or rudder mechanism

n Knives or ash trays near binnacle

o Watches wrist bands spectacle frames

p Hat grommets belt buckles metal pencils

q Heating of smoke stack or exhaust pipes

r Landing boats

2 Some electrical items which cause variable deviations if placed too close to the compass are as follows

a Electric motors

b Magnetic controllers

c Gyro repeaters

d Unmarried conductors

e f Electric indicators

g Electric welding

h Large power circuits

i j Electrical control panels or switches

k Telephone headsets

l Windshield wipers

m Rudder position indicators solenoid type

n Minesweeping power circuits

o Engine order telegraphs

p Radar equipment

q Magnetically controlled switches

r Radio s Radio receivers

t Voltage There is another source of transient deviation trouble known as the retentive error This error results from the

tendency of a ships structure to retain some of the induced magnetic effects for short periods of time For example a

ship traveling north for several days especially if pounding in heavy seas will tend to retain some hammered in under these conditions of induction

Although this effect is not too large and generally decays

within a few hours it may cause incorrect observations or adjustments if neglected This same type of error occurs

when ships are docked on one heading for long periods of time A short shakedown with the ship on other headings will

tend to remove such errors A similar sort of residual magnetism is left in many ships if the degaussing circuits are not

secured by the reversal sequence

A source of transient deviation trouble of shorter duration than retentive error is known as Gaussin error This error is

caused by eddy currents set up by a changing number of magnetic lines of force through soft iron as the ship Due to these eddy currents the induced

magnetism on a given heading does not arrive at its normal value until

about 2 minutes after change to the Deperming and other magnetic treatment will change the magnetic condition of the vessel and readjustment of the

compass The decaying effects of deperming are sometimes very rapid therefore it is

best to delay readjustment for several days after such treatment Since the magnetic fields used for such treatments are

sometimes rather large at the compass locations the Finders bar compass and such related equipment is from the ship during these

41

CHAPTER XI

USE OF THE DIP NEEDLE FOR HEELING As indicated in Chapter III the heeling effects of both the permanent and induced magnetism are corrected by

adjusting the position of the vertical permanent heeling magnet This adjustment can be made in either of two ways

1 With the ship on an even keel and as close to the east or west magnetic heading as possible adjust the heeling

magnet until a dip needle inserted in the compass position is balanced at some predetermined position article 1103

2 Adjust the heeling magnet while the ship is rolling on north and south headings until the oscillations of the compass

card have been reduced to an average minimum

Inasmuch as it is desirable to establish the condition of induction between the heeling magnet and Flinders bar and to

reduce the heeling oscillations to a minimum before making the adjustments at sea the heeling magnet is usually set at

dockside by the first method above Further it would be difficult to correct the heeling error by rolling at sea before making

the other adjustments because the spheres and Flinders bar produce a certain measure of heeling correction and hence they should be positioned at

least before making the heeling adjustments by either The fact that the heeling magnet corrects for induced effects as well as permanent effects

requires that it be radical magnetic latitude changes of the ship Movement of the heeling magnet with Flinders bar in the holder will

change the induction effects in the Flinders bar and consequently change the compass deviations See article 610 Thus the

navigator is responsible for

1 Moving the heeling magnet up or down invert when necessary as the ship changes magnetic latitude so as to

maintain a good heeling adjustment for all latitudes

2 Maintaining a check on his deviations and noting changes resulting from movements of the heeling magnet when

Flinders bar is in the holder Any deviation changes should be either recorded or readjusted by means of the fore

andaft B To elaborate on the details of the dip needle method of adjustment it is pointed out that there are two types of dip

needles one of which assumes the angle of inclination or dip for its particular location and one on which the is balanced by a movable weight The

latter is a nullifying type instrument which renders the final position of the

needle more independent of the horizontal component of magnetic fields and hence is more useful on For ships which introduce no shielding to the

earths field at the compass the procedure for adjusting the heeling magnet is

quite simple Take the dip needle into a nearby area where there is no local magnetic attraction level the instrument and set

the weight so as to balance the needle under those conditions of earths magnetic field It is preferable to align the that the north seeking end of

the needle is pointing north Next level the instrument in the compass position on board

ship place the spheres in their approximate position and adjust the heeling magnet until the needle assumes the This presumes that all the effects of

the ship are canceled leaving only the effect of the vertical earths field circuits are secured during this adjustment

In the case of ships which have shielding effects on the earths field at the compass as in metal enclosed wheelhouses the

procedure is essentially the same as above except that the weight on the dip needle should be moved toward the pivot so as

to balance against some lesser value of earths field The new position of the weight expressed in centimeters from the pivot

can be approximately determined by multiplying the value of lambda for the compass location by the original distance of

the weight from the pivot in centimeters Should for the compass location be unknown it may generally be considered as

about 08 for steering compass locations and 09 for standard compass locations By either method the weight on the dip

needle should be moved in to its new position Next level the instrument in the compass position on board ship and adjust the

heeling magnet until the needle assumes the balanced condition

these methods of adjusting the heeling magnet by means of a dip needle should be employed only with the

ship on east or west magnetic headings so as to avoid heeling errors resulting from asymmetrical foreandaft If it is impractical to place the ship on

such a heading may be made on any heading made when In the final analysis a successful heeling magnet adjustment is one whereby the objectionable

oscillations due to

rolling of the ship maximum effects on north and south compass headings are minimized Therefore the rolling method is a

visual method of adjusting the heeling magnet or checking the accuracy of the last heeling magnet adjustment Generally effects due to roll on both

the north and south compass headings will be the same However some of foreandaft soft iron will introduce different oscillation effects on these two

headings Such effects cannot

be entirely eliminated on both headings with one setting of the heeling magnet and the heeling magnet is generally set for the

average minimum oscillation condition

CHAPTER XII

USE OF THE HORIZONTAL FORCE Occasionally it will be necessary to determine the actual strength of the magnetic field at some compass location This

problem may arise for one of the following reasons

1 It may be desired to determine accurately the horizontal shielding factor lambda for

a A complete mathematical analysis

b Accurate Flinders bar adjustment

c Accurate heeling adjustment

d Calculations on a dockside magnetic adjustment

e Determining the best compass location on board ship

2 It may be desired to make a dockside magnetic adjustment and hence determine the existing directive force at the

magnetic compass both for its magnitude and direction

Lambda is the horizontal shielding factor or ratio of the reduced earths directive force H on the compass to earths field H as

From this it is apparent that may easily be determined for a compass location by making a measurement of the directive force H On a corrected

compass this value H may be measured with the ship on any heading since this

reduced earths directive force is the only force acting on the compass If the compass is not corrected for the and the deviations are large H is

determined from the several resultant directive forces observed with headings of the ship as indicated later Lambda should be determined for every

compass location on every ship

1202 The actual measurement of such magnetic fields may be made by use of a suitable magnetometer or by the use of a

horizontal force instrument The magnetometer method is a direct reading method which needs no calculation The is by far the simpler form of equipment

hence the force instrument method is discussed below

The horizontal force instrument is simply a magnetized needle pivoted in a horizontal plane much the same as a compass

It will settle in some position that will indicate the direction of the resultant magnetic field The method used to determine the

strength of this resultant field is by comparing it with a known field If the force needle is started swinging it will be damped

down with a certain period of oscillation dependent upon the strength of the magnetic field The stronger the magnetic field

the shorter the period of time for each cycle of swing in fact the ratio is such that the squares of the period of vibration are

inversely proportional to the strengths of the magnetic fields as

H T2

H T 2

In the above formula let H represent the strength of the earths horizontal field in gauss and T represent the time in seconds

for 10 cycles of needle vibration in that earths field Should it be desired to find the strength of an unknown magnetic field

H a comparative measurement of time in seconds T for 10 cycles of vibration of the same needle in the unknown field will

enable calculation of H

Since is the ratio of two magnetic field strengths it may be found directly by the inverse ratio of the squares of the

periods of vibration for the same horizontal force instrument in the two different magnetic fields by the same bothering about the values of H and H

H T2

H T 2

The above may be used on one heading of the ship if the compass deviations are less than 4

To obtain the value of more precisely and where deviations of the compass exceeds 4 the following equation should be

used

T2 cos d n cos d e cos d s cos d w

4 Tn2 Te2 Ts2 Tw2

where

T is the time period for the field H

Tn is the time period for the resultant field with ship on a north heading etc

cos d n is the cos of the deviation on the north heading etc

CHAPTER XIII

INTRODUCTION TO Degaussing A steel vessel has a certain amount of permanent magnetism in its hard iron and induced magnetism in

its soft iron Whenever two or more magnetic fields occupy the same space the total field is the vector sum of fields Thus within the effective region

of the field of a vessel the total field is the combined total of the earths

field and that due to the vessel Consequently the field due to earths magnetism alone is altered or distorted due to the field

of the vessel

Certain mines and other explosive devices are designed to be triggered by the magnetic influence of a vessel passing near

them It is therefore desirable to reduce to a practical minimum the magnetic field of a vessel One method of doing this is to

neutralize each component by means of an field produced by direct current of electricity in electric so as to form coils around the vessel A unit

sometimes used for measuring the strength of a magnetic field is the

gauss The reduction of the strength of a magnetic field decreases the number of gauss in that field Hence the process is one

of degaussing the vessel

When a vessels degaussing coils are energized the magnetic field of the vessel is completely altered This introduces in the magnetic compasses This

is removed as nearly as practicable by introducing at each compass an equal and

opposite force of the same type one caused by direct current in a coil for each component of the field due to currents This is called compass

compensation When there is a possibility of confusion with compass adjustment

to neutralize the effects of the natural magnetism of the vessel the expression degaussing compensation is used Since may not be perfect a small

amount of deviation due to degaussing may remain on certain headings This is the

reason for swinging ship twice once with degaussing off and once with it on and having two separate columns in the

deviation table

If a vessel passes over a device for detecting and recording the strength of the magnetic field a certain pattern is traced

Since the magnetic field of each vessel is different each has a distinctive trace known as its magnetic signature

Several degaussing stations have been established to determine magnetic signatures and recommend the currents needed in

the various degaussing coils Since a vessels induced magnetism varies with heading and magnetic latitude the of the coils which neutralize induced

magnetism need to be changed to suit the conditions A degaussing folder is

provided each vessel to indicate the changes and to give other pertinent information

A vessels permanent magnetism changes somewhat with time and the magnetic history of the vessel Therefore given in the degaussing folder should be

checked from time to time by a return to the magnetic Degaussing coils For degaussing purposes the total field of the vessel is divided into three

components

l vertical

2 horizontal foreandaft

3 horizontal athwartships

Each component is opposed by a separate degaussing field just strong enough to neutralize it Ideally when this has been

done the earths field passes through the vessel smoothly and without distortion The opposing degaussing fields are

produced by direct current flowing in coils of wire Each of the degaussing coils is placed so that the field it produces is

directed to oppose one component of the ships field

The number of coils installed depends upon the magnetic of the vessel and the degree of safety desired The

ships permanent and induced magnetism may be neutralized separately so that control of induced magnetism can be varied as

heading and latitude change without disturbing the fields opposing the vessels permanent field

CHAPTER XIV

DEGAUSSING COMPASS Degaussing effects The degaussing of ships for protection against magnetic mines has created additional effects upon

magnetic compasses that are somewhat different from the permanent and induced magnetic effects usually effects may be considered as effects that

depend upon

1 Number and type of degaussing coils installed

2 Magnetic strength and polarity of the degaussing coils

3 Relative location of the different degaussing coils with respect to the binnacle

4 Presence of masses of steel which would tend to concentrate or distort magnetic fields in the vicinity of the binnacle

5 The fact that degaussing coils are operated with variable current values and with different polarities

as dictated by necessary degaussing The magnetic fields at the binnacle must be considered separately for each degaussing coil The magnetic field

from

any individual degaussing coil will vary with the excitation of the coil and its direction will with changes in the coil polarity

Uncompensated degaussing coil effects create deviations of the compass card and conditions of sluggishness which are similar to and generally larger

than the effects of normal ships magnetism on the magnetic Degaussing compensation The fundamental principle of compass compensation is to create

magnetic fields at the

compass that are at all times equal and opposite to the magnetic effects of the degaussing system To accomplish this it is

necessary to arrange coils about the binnacle so they create opposing effects for each degaussing circuit that affects the

compass These opposing effects can be created directly or by a combination of component parts In most cases it is best to

create the compensating field by a combination of three vectors along mutually perpendicular axes rather than by one to the proper angle Figure 1403

illustrates the concept of the resultant magnetic field established by three perpendicular Figure 1403 Resultant degaussing

field and its equivalent three vector The various standard compass coil installations utilize a threecoil arrangement of one type or another to by

the method Such a group of coils are so that they can be and each group is so connected to its associated degaussing coil that its compensating

effect will with changes in the degaussing coil Degaussing compass coil compensation consists of regulating the current delivered to the coils so

that no change in the

magnetic field occurs at the center of the binnacle when the degaussing coils are energized or the degaussing currents are

varied This regulation is accomplished in a control box by means of control resistors for each degaussing circuit When have once been set their

settings need not be altered with current changes in the degaussing circuits

It is best to check coil installations electrically and compensate at dockside before the ship leaves the yard of compensation is impaired by welding

adjacent ships and moving cranes time and trouble are still saved for the

ship during final compensation at sea All this results from the fact that is the greater part of

45

COMPASS AGENCY

BETHESDA MD

2004

Formerly PubNo 226

AS ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED BY

DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY

CENTER

WASHINGTON DC

1980

INTRODUCTION

This document has been prepared in order to present all pertinent information regarding the practical procedures of

magnetic compass adjustment in one text As such it treats of the basic principles of compass deviations and their not of the details of particular

compass equipment

Although this text is presented as a systematic treatise on compass adjustment ships personnel who are inexperienced with

compass correction will find sufficient information in Chapters I and XIV to eliminate compass errors study of the entire text Reference should also

be made to figure 318 for condensed information regarding the

various compass errors and their correction

In this handbook the term compass adjustment refers to any changes of permanent magnet of soft iron correctors compass errors are reduced The term

compass compensation refers to any change in the current supplied to coils whereby the errors due to degaussing are reduced

The basic text is the outgrowth of lecture notes prepared by Nye S Spencer and George F Kucera while presenting courses

of instruction in adjustment and compensation during World War II at the Magnetic Compass Demonstration Station Base Norfolk Virginia

CHAPTER I

PROCEDURES FOR MAGNETIC COMPASS ADJUSTMENT CHECKOFF LIST

NOTE If the magnetic adjustment necessitates a movement of degaussing compensating coils or b a change of Flinders

bar length the coil compensation must be checked Refer to Chapter XIV

101 Dockside tests and adjustments

1 Physical checks on the compass and binnacle

a Remove any bubbles in compass bowl article 402

b Test for moment and sensibility of compass needles article 403

c Remove any slack in gimbal arrangement

d Magnetization check of spheres and Flinders bar article 404

e Alignment of compass with foreandaft line of ship article 405

f Alignment of magnets in binnacle

g Alignment of heeling magnet tube under pivot point of compass

h See that corrector magnets are available

2 Physical checks of gyro azimuth circle and peloruses

a Alignment of all gyro repeater peloruses or dial peloruses with foreandaft line of ship article 405

b Synchronize gyro repeaters with master gyro

c Make sure azimuth circle and peloruses are in good operating condition

3 Necessary data

a Past history or log data which might establish length of Flinders bar articles 407 and 607

b Azimuths for given date and observers position Chapter VIII

c Ranges or distant objects in vicinity local charts

d Correct variation local charts

e Degaussing coil current settings for swing for residual deviations after adjustment and compensation ships

Degaussing Folder

4 Precautions

a Determine transient deviations of compass from gyro repeaters doors guns etc Chapter X

b Secure all effective magnetic gear in normal seagoing position before beginning adjustments

c Make sure degaussing coils are secured before beginning adjustments Use reversal sequence if necessary

d Whenever possible correctors should be placed symmetrically with respect to the compass articles 318

and 613

5 Adjustments

a Place Flinders bar according to best available information articles 407 608 and 609

b Set spheres at midposition or as indicated by last deviation table

c Adjust heeling magnet using balanced dip needle if available Chapter XI

Applies when system other than gyro is used as heading reference

102 Adjustments at sea These adjustments are made with the ship on an even keel and after steadying on each heading

When using the gyro swing from heading to heading slowly and check gyro error by suns azimuth or ranges on each heading

if desired to ensure a greater degree of accuracy article 706 Be sure gyro is set for the mean speed and latitude of the

vessel Note all precautions in article 1014 above OSCAR QUEBEC international code signal should be flown to

indicate such work is in progress Chapter VII discusses methods for placing the ship on desired headings

1 Adjust the heeling magnet while the ship is rolling on north and south magnetic heading until the oscillations

of the compass card have been reduced to an average minimum This step is not required if prior adjustment

has been made using a dip needle to indicate proper placement of the heeling magnet

2 Come to an east 090 cardinal magnetic heading Insert foreandaft B magnets or move the existing B

magnets in such a manner as to remove all deviation

3 Come to a south 180 magnetic heading Insert athwartship C magnets or move the existing C magnets in

such a manner as to remove all deviation

4 Come to a west 270 magnetic heading Correct half of any observed deviation by moving the B magnets

5 Come to a north 000 magnetic heading Correct half of any observed deviation by moving the C magnets

The cardinal heading adjustments should now be complete

6 Come to any intercardinal magnetic heading eg northeast 045 Correct any observed deviation by moving

the spheres in or out

7 Come to the next intercardinal magnetic heading eg southeast 135 Correct half of any observed deviation

by moving the spheres The intercardinal heading adjustments should now be complete although more

accurate results might be obtained by correcting the D error determined from the deviations on all four

intercardinal heading as discussed in article 501

8 Secure all correctors before swinging for residual deviations

9 Swing for residual undegaussed deviations on as many headings as desired although the eight cardinal and

intercardinal headings should be sufficient

10 Should there still be any large deviations analyze the deviation curve to determine the necessary corrections

and repeat as necessary steps 1 through 9 above Chapter V

11 Record deviations and the details of corrector positions on standard Navy Form NAVSEA 31204 and in the

Magnetic Compass Record NAVSEA 31203 article 901

12 Swing for residual degaussed deviations with the degaussing circuits properly energized Chapter XIV

13 Record deviations for degaussed conditions on standard Navy Form NAVSEA 31204

103 The above checkoff list describes a simplified method of adjusting compasses designed to serve as a simple for the novice who chooses to follow a

stepbystep procedure The Dockside Tests and Adjustments are essential

as a foundation for the Adjustments at Sea and if neglected may lead to spurious results or needless repetition of the

procedure at sea Hence it is strongly recommended that careful be given these dockside checks prior to

making the final adjustment so as to allow time to repair or replace faulty compasses anneal or replace magnetized spheres or

Flinders bar realign binnacle move gyro repeater if it is affecting the compass or to make any other necessary It is further stressed that

expeditious compass adjustment is dependent upon the application of the various correctors

in a logical sequence so as to achieve the final adjustment with a minimum number of steps This sequence is incorporated in

the above checkoff list and better results will be obtained if it is adhered to closely Figure 318 presents the various and their correction in

condensed form The table in figure 103 will further clarify the mechanics of placing the

corrector magnets spheres and Flinders bar Chapter IV discusses the more efficient and scientific methods of in addition to a more elaborate

treatment of the items mentioned in the checkoff list Frequent should be made to determine the constancy of deviations and results should be

changes in deviation will indicate the need for To avoid Gaussin error article 1003 when adjusting and swinging ship for residuals the ship should

be steady on the

desired heading for at least 2 minutes prior to observing the 2

Foreandaft and athwartship magnets Quadrantal spheres

Flinders bar

E on NEly W on NEly Deviation change E on Ely and W W on Ely and E

Easterly on east Westerly on east

Deviation Deviation W on SEly E on SEly with change in on Wly

when sail on Wly when sail

and westerly on and easterly on

E on SWly W on SWly latitude ing toward equator ing toward equator

west west

and and from N latitude or from N latitude or

Magnets Spheres

B error B error W on NWly E on NWly Bar away from equator away from

equator

D error D error to S latitude to S latitude

No fore and aft

Place required

Place magnets red Place magnets red No spheres on Place spheres Place spheres fore

Place required

magnets in No bar in holder

amount of bar

forward aft binnacle athwartship and aft

amount of bar aft

binnacle

forward

Fore and aft Spheres at Move spheres Move spheres

Bar forward of Increase amount Decrease amount

magnets red Raise magnets Lower magnets athwartship toward compass or outward or

binnacle of bar forward of bar forward

forward position use larger spheres remove

Move spheres Move spheres

Fore and aft Spheres at fore Bar aft of

Decrease amount Increase amount

Lower magnets Raise magnets outward or toward compass or

magnets red aft and aft position binnacle

of bar forward of bar forward

remove use larger spheres

E on Nly W on Nly W on Ely and E E on Ely and W

Easterly on north Westerly on north

Deviation Deviation W on Ely E on Ely Bar on Wly

when sail on Wly when sail

and westerly on and easterly on

E on Sly W on Sly ing toward equator ing toward equator

south south

and and Deviation change from S latitude or from S latitude or

Magnets Spheres

C error C error W on Wly E on Wly with change in away from equator away

from equator

E error E error latitude to N latitude to N latitude

Place spheres at Place spheres at

No athwartship Place athwartship

Place athwartship No spheres on port forward and starboard forward Heeling magnet

magnets in magnets red

magnets red port binnacle starboard aft inter and port aft inter Adjust with changes in magnetic latitude

binnacle starboard

cardinal positions cardinal positions

Slew spheres

Athwartship Spheres at Slew spheres If compass north is

attracted to high side of ship when rolling

magnets red Raise magnets Lower magnets athwartship clockwise through raise the heeling

magnet if red end is up or lower the heeling

through required

starboard position required angle magnet

if blue end is up

angle

If compass north is attracted to low side of ship when rolling

Slew spheres

Slew spheres lower the heeling magnet if red end is up or raise the heeling

Athwartship Spheres at fore Lower magnets Raise magnets

clockwise through magnet if blue end is up

magnets red port and aft position through required

required angle NOTE Any change in placement of the heeling magnet will

angle

affect the deviations on all headings

Figure 103 Mechanics of magnetic compass 3

CHAPTER II

The magnetic compass The principle of the present day magnetic compass is in no way different from that of the

compass used by the ancients It consists of a magnetized needle or array of needles pivoted so that rotation is in a

horizontal plane The superiority of the present day compass results from a better knowledge of the laws of govern the behavior of the compass and

from greater precision in Magnetism Any piece of metal on becoming magnetized that is acquiring the property of attracting small particles of

iron or steel will assume regions of concentrated magnetism called poles Any such magnet will have at least two poles of

unlike polarity Magnetic lines of force flux connect one pole of such a magnet with the other pole as indicated in figure

202 The number of such lines per unit area represents the intensity of the magnetic field in that area If two such magnetic

bars or magnets are placed side by side the like poles will repel each other and the unlike poles will attract each other

Figure 202 Lines of magnetic force about a magnet

203 Magnetism is in general of two types permanent and induced A bar having permanent magnetism will retain its

magnetism when it is removed from the magnetizing field A bar having induced magnetism will lose its magnetism when

removed from the magnetizing field Whether or not a bar will retain its magnetism on removal from the magnetizing field

will depend on the strength of that field the degree of hardness of the iron and also upon the amount of applied to the bar while in the magnetizing

field The harder the iron the more permanent will be the Terrestrial magnetism The accepted theory of terrestrial magnetism considers the earth as a

huge magnet surrounded

by lines of magnetic force that connect its two magnetic poles These magnetic poles are near but not coincidental with poles of the earth Since the

northseeking end of a compass needle is called a red pole north pole

or positive pole it must therefore be attracted to a pole of opposite polarity or to a blue pole south pole or negative pole

The magnetic pole near the north geographic pole is therefore a blue pole south pole or negative pole and the magnetic pole

near the south geographic pole is a red pole north pole or positive pole

205 Figure 205 illustrates the earth and its surrounding magnetic field The flux lines enter the surface of the earth at

different angles to the horizontal at different magnetic latitudes This angle is called the angle of magnetic dip and

increases from zero at the magnetic equator to 90 at the magnetic poles The total magnetic field is generally considered as

having two components namely H the horizontal component and Z the vertical component These components change as

the angle changes such that H is maximum at the magnetic equator and decreases in the direction of either pole Z is zero at

the magnetic equator and increases in the direction of either pole

Figure 205 Terrestrial Inasmuch as the magnetic poles of the earth are not coincidental with the geographic poles it is evident that a in line with

the earths magnetic field will not indicate true north but magnetic north The angular difference between

the true meridian great circle connecting the geographic poles and the magnetic meridian direction of the lines of is called variation This variation

has different values at different locations on the earth These values of may be found on the compass rose of navigational charts The variation for

most given areas undergoes an the amount of which is also noted on all charts See figure 206

Figure 206 Compass rose showing variation and annual change

207 Ships magnetism A ship while in the process of being constructed will acquire magnetism of a permanent nature

under the extensive hammering it receives in the earths magnetic field After launching the ship will lose some of this

original magnetism as a result of vibration pounding etc in varying magnetic fields and will eventually reach a more or

less stable magnetic condition This magnetism which remains is the permanent magnetism of the ship

208 The fact that a ship has permanent magnetism does not mean that it cannot also acquire induced magnetism when placed

in a magnetic field such as the earths field The amount of magnetism induced in any given piece of soft iron is the field intensity the alignment of

the soft iron in that field and the physical properties and dimensions of the iron

This induced magnetism may add to or subtract from the permanent magnetism already present in the ship depending on

how the ship is aligned in the magnetic field The softer the iron the more readily it will be induced by the earths and the more readily it will give

up its magnetism when removed from that field

209 The magnetism in the various structures of a ship which tends to change as a result of cruising vibration or aging but

does not alter immediately so as to be properly termed induced magnetism is called subpermanent magnetism at any instant is recognized as part of the

ships permanent magnetism and consequently must be corrected as

such by means of permanent magnet correctors This subpermanent magnetism is the principal cause of deviation changes on

a magnetic compass Subsequent reference to permanent magnetism in this text will refer to the apparent that includes the existing permanent and

subpermanent magnetism at any given A ship then has a combination of permanent subpermanent and induced magnetism since its metal structures are of

varying degrees of hardness Thus the apparent permanent magnetic condition of the ship is subject to change excessive shocks welding vibration etc

and the induced magnetism of the ship will vary with the strength of

the earths magnetic field at different magnetic latitudes and with the alignment of the ship in that field

211 Resultant induced magnetism from earths magnetic field The above discussion of induced magnetism magnetism leads to the following facts A long

thin rod of soft iron in a plane parallel to the earths field H will have a red north pole induced in the end toward the north geographic pole and a

blue south pole

induced in the end toward the south geographic pole This same rod in a horizontal plane but at right angles to the field would have no magnetism

induced in it because its alignment in the magnetic field is such that there will be no

tendency toward linear magnetization and the rod is of negligible cross section Should the rod be aligned in some between those headings that create

maximum and zero induction it would be induced by an amount that is a

function of the angle of alignment If a similar rod is placed in a vertical position in northern latitudes so as to be aligned with

the vertical earths field Z it will have a blue south pole induced at the upper end and a red north pole induced at the lower

end These polarities of vertical induced magnetization will be reversed in southern latitudes The amount of horizontal or

vertical induction in such rods or in ships whose construction is equivalent to combinations of such rods will vary with the

intensity of H and Z heading and heel of the ship

CHAPTER III

THEORY OF MAGNETIC COMPASS Magnetic adjustment The magnetic compass when used on a steel ship must be so corrected for the ships that its operation

approximates that of a nonmagnetic ship Ships magnetic conditions create deviations of the

magnetic compass as well as sectors of sluggishness and unsteadiness Deviation is defined as deflection of the card needles

to the right or left of the magnetic meridian Adjustment of the compass is the arranging of magnetic and soft iron the binnacle so that their effects

are equal and opposite to the effects of the magnetic material in the ship thus reducing

the deviations and eliminating the sectors of sluggishness and The magnetic conditions in a ship which affect a magnetic compass are permanent

magnetism and induced magnetism as

discussed in Chapter II

302 Permanent magnetism and its effects on the compass The total permanent magnetic field effect at the compass may

be broken into three components mutually 90 apart as shown in figure 302a The effect of the vertical is the tendency to tilt the compass card and in

the event of rolling or pitching of the ship to create of the card Oscillation effects that accompany roll are maximum on north and south compass

headings and those

that accompany pitch are maximum on east and west compass headings The horizontal B and C components of cause varying deviations of the compass as

the ship swings in heading on an even keel Plotting these compass heading will produce sine and cosine curves as shown in figure 302b These deviation

curves are curves because they reverse direction in 180

Figure 302a Components of permanent magnetic Figure 302b Permanent magnetic deviation effects

field at the The permanent magnetic semicircular deviations can be illustrated by a series of simple sketches representing a ship on

successive compass headings as in figures 303a and 303b

304 The ships illustrated in figures 303a and 303b are pictured on cardinal compass headings rather than on headings for two reasons

1 Deviations on compass headings are essential in order to represent sinusoidal curves that can be analyzed

This can be visualized by noting that the ships component magnetic fields are either in line with or

perpendicular to the compass needles only on cardinal compass headings

2 Such a presentation illustrates the fact that the compass card tends to float in a fixed position in line with the

magnetic meridian Deviations of the card to right or left east or west of the magnetic meridian result from the

movement of the ship and its magnetic fields about the compass card

Figure 303a Force diagrams for foreandaft permanent B magnetic field

Figure 303b Force diagrams for athwartship permanent C magnetic field

305 Inasmuch as a compass deviation is caused by the existence of a force at the compass that is superimposed upon the

normal earths directive force H a vector analysis is helpful in determining deviations or the strength of deviating fields For

example a ship as shown in figure 305 on an east magnetic heading will subject its compass to a combination of namely the earths horizontal field H

and the deviating field B at right angles to the field H The compass needle

will align itself in the resultant field which is represented by the vector sum of H and B as shown A similar analysis on the

ship in figure 305 will reveal that the resulting directive force at the compass would be maximum on a north heading and

minimum on a south heading the deviations being zero for both conditions

The magnitude of the deviation caused by the permanent B magnetic field will vary with different values of H resulting from permanent magnetic fields

will vary with the magnetic latitude of the ship

Figure 305 General force diagram

306 Induced magnetism and its effects on the compass Induced magnetism varies with the strength of the the mass of metal and the alignment of the

metal in the field Since the intensity of the earths magnetic field varies

over the earths surface the induced magnetism in a ship will vary with latitude heading and heel of the ship

307 With the ship on an even keel the resultant vertical induced magnetism if not directed through the compass itself will

create deviations that plot as a semicircular deviation curve This is true because the vertical induction changes magnitude

and polarity only with magnetic latitude and heel and not with heading of the ship Therefore as long as the ship is in the

same magnetic latitude its vertical induced pole swinging about the compass will produce the same effect on the compass as

a permanent pole swinging about the compass Figure 307a illustrates the vertical induced poles in the structures of a ship

Figure 307a Ships vertical induced magnetism Figure 307b Induced magnetic deviation effects

Generally this semicircular deviation will be a B sine curve as shown in figure 307b since most ships are the centerline and have their compasses

mounted on the centerline The magnitude of these deviations will change with

magnetic latitude changes because the directive force and the ships vertical induction both change with magnetic The masses of horizontal soft iron

that are subject to induced magnetization create deviations as indicated

in figure 307b The D and E deviation curves are called quadrantal curves because they reverse polarity in each of the

9

309 Symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron may exist about the compass in any one of the patterns illustrated in

figure 309

Figure 309 Symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron

310 The deviation resulting from the earths field induction of these symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron in figure 310 showing the ship

on various compass headings The other heading effects may be similarly studied

Such a D deviation curve is one of the curves in figure 307b It will be noted that these D deviations are maximum on headings and zero on the

cardinal Figure 310 Effects of symmetrical horizontal D induced

311 Asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron may exist about the compass in a pattern similar to one of those in

figure 311

Figure 311 Asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron

312 The deviations resulting from the earths field induction of these asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron in figure 312 showing the

ship on different compass headings The other heading effects may be similarly studied

Such an E deviation curve is one of the curves in figure 307b It will be observed that these E deviations are maximum on

cardinal headings and zero on the intercardinal Figure 312 Effects of asymmetrical horizontal E induced The quadrantal

deviations will not vary with latitude changes because the horizontal induction varies the directive force H

314 The earths field induction in certain other asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron creates a constant A

deviation curve The magnetic A and E errors are of smaller magnitude than the other errors but when encountered are

generally found together since they both result from asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron In addition to this

magnetic A error there are constant A deviations resulting from 1 physical misalignments of the compass pelorus or gyro

2 errors in calculating the suns azimuth observing time or taking bearings

315 The nature magnitude and polarity of all these induced effects are dependent upon the disposition of metal the

symmetry or asymmetry of the ship the location of the binnacle the strength of the earths magnetic field and the angle of

316 Certain heeling errors in addition to those resulting from permanent magnetism are created by the presence of and vertical soft iron which

experience changing induction as the ship rolls in the earths magnetic field This part

of the heeling error will naturally change in magnitude with changes of magnetic latitude of the ship Oscillation roll are maximum on north and south

headings just as with the permanent magnetic heeling errors

317 Adjustments and correctors Since some magnetic effects remain constant for all magnetic latitudes and others vary

with changes of magnetic latitude each individual effect should be corrected Further it is apparent that the

best method of adjustment is to use 1 permanent magnet correctors to create equal and opposite vectors of fields at the compass and 2 soft iron

correctors to assume induced magnetism the effect of which will be equal

and opposite to the induced effects of the ship for all magnetic latitude and heading conditions The compass for the support of the compass and such

correctors Study of the binnacle in figure 317 will reveal that are present in the form of

1 Vertical permanent heeling magnet in the central vertical tube

2 Foreandaft B permanent magnets in their trays

3 Athwartship C permanent magnets in their trays

4 Vertical soft iron Flinders bar in its external tube

5 Soft iron spheres

The heeling magnet is the only corrector that corrects for both permanent and induced effects and consequently must be

readjusted occasionally with radical changes in latitude of the ship It must be noted however that any movement of the

heeling magnet will require readjustment of other Figure 317 Binnacle with compass and correctors

318 The tabular summary of Compass Errors and Adjustments figure 318 summarizes all the various magnetic conditions in a ship the types of

deviation curves they create the correctors for each effect and headings on which each corrector is adjusted Correctors should be under all but

exceptional conditions discussed in detail later and as far away from the compass as possible to preserve uniformity of

magnetic fields about the compass needle array Other details of corrector procedure are emphasized in chapter VI Fortunately each magnetic effect has

a slightly different curve that makes and correction convenient A complete deviation curve can be analyzed for its and thus the necessary

corrections anticipated A method for analyzing such curves is described in chapter V

Compass

Coefficient Type deviation curve Causes of such errors

Corrections for such errors Magnetic or compass

headings of

headings on which to apply

maximum

correctors

deviation

Human error in Check methods and calculations

A Constant Same on all

Any

Physical compass gyro pelorus Check alignments

Magnetic asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft

iron Rare arrangement of soft iron rods

Foreandaft component of permanent magnetic field Foreandaft B magnets

B Semicircular sin 090

090 or 270

Induced magnetism in asymmetrical vertical iron

forward or aft of compass Flinders bar forward or aft

Athwartship component of permanent magnetic field Athwartship C magnets

C Semicircular cos 000

000 or 180

Induced magnetism in asymmetrical vertical iron port or

starboard of Flinders bar port or starboard

045 Induced magnetism in all symmetrical arrangements of Spheres on appropriate axis

D Quadrantal sin 2

045 135 225 or 315

135 horizontal soft iron athwartship for D

225 fore and aft for D

315 See sketch a

000 Induced magnetism in all asymmetrical arrangements Spheres on appropriate axis

E Quadrantal cos 2

000 090 180 or 270

090 of horizontal soft iron port forward starboard aft for E

180 starboard forward port aft for E

270 See sketch b

Heeling Oscillations with roll 000 Change in the horizontal component of the induced or Heeling

magnet must be readjusted 090 or 270 with dip

roll

or pitch 180 permanent magnetic fields at the compass due to for latitude changes

needle

Deviations with 090 rolling or pitching of the ship

000 or 180 while rolling

pitch

constant list 270

Deviation A B sin C cos D sin 2 E cos 2 compass heading

Figure 318 Summary of Compass Errors and Adjustments

319 Compass operation Figure 319 illustrates a point about compass operation Not only is an uncorrected compass subject

to large deviations but there will be sectors in which the compass may sluggishly turn with the ship and other sectors in

which the compass is too unsteady to use These performances may be appreciated by visualizing a ship with deviations as

shown in figure 319 as it swings from west through north toward east Throughout this easterly swing the compass deviation

is growing more easterly and whenever steering in this sector the compass card sluggishly tries to follow the there is an unsteady sector from east

through south to west These sluggish and unsteady conditions are by the positive and negative slopes in a deviation curve These conditions may also

be associated with the

maximum and minimum directive force acting on the compass see article 305 It will be observed that the occurs at the point of average directive force

and that the zero deviations occur at the points of maximum and

minimum directive force

Figure 319 Uncompensated deviation curve

320 Correction of compass errors is generally achieved by applying correctors so as to reduce the deviations of the compass

for all headings of the ship Correction could be achieved however by applying correctors so as to equalize the across the compass position for all

headings of the ship The deviation method is more generally used because it

utilizes the compass itself to indicate results rather than some additional instrument for measuring the intensity of Occasionally the permanent

magnetic effects at the location of the compass are so large that they overcome the force H This condition will not only create sluggish and unsteady

sectors but may even freeze the compass to one

reading or to one quadrant regardless of the heading of the ship Should the compass be so frozen the polarity of the

magnetism which must be attracting the compass needles is indicated hence correction may be effected simply by of permanent magnet correctors in

suitable quantity to neutralize this magnetism Whenever such adjustments are

made it would be well to have the ship placed on a heading such that the unfreezing of the compass needles will evident For example a ship whose

compass is frozen to a north reading would require foreandaft B with the red ends forward in order to neutralize the existing blue pole that

attracted the compass If made on an east

heading such an adjustment would be practically complete when the compass card was freed so as to indicate an Listed below are several reasons for

correcting the errors of the magnetic compass

1 It is easier to use a magnetic compass if the deviations are small

2 Although a common belief is that it does not matter what the deviations are as long as they are known this is in

error inasmuch as conditions of sluggishness and unsteadiness accompany large deviations and consequently make

the compass operationally This is the result of unequal directive forces on the compass as the ship

swings in heading

3 Furthermore even though the deviations are known if they are large they will be subject to appreciable change with

heel and latitude changes of the ship

323 Subsequent chapters will deal with the methods of bringing a ship to the desired heading and the methods of effects and of minimizing interaction

effects between correctors Once properly adjusted the magnetic should remain constant until there is some change in the magnetic condition of the

vessel resulting from shock from gunfire vibration repair or structural changes Frequently the movement of nearby guns doors or cargo affects the

compass greatly

CHAPTER IV

PRACTICAL PROCEDURES FOR MAGNETIC COMPASS If the adjuster is not familiar with the theory of magnetic effects the methods of analyzing deviation

curves and the

methods of placing a ship on any desired heading it is recommended to review Chapters II V and VII respectively Dockside tests and adjustments

Chapter I Procedures for Magnetic Compass Adjustment is in general and brings to the attention of the adjuster many physical checks which are

desirable before beginning The theoretical adjustment is based on the premise that all the physical arrangements are perfect and much time

and trouble will be saved while at sea if these checks are made before attempting the actual magnet and soft iron A few of these checks are amplified

below

402 Should the compass have a small bubble compass fluid may be added by means of the filling plug on the side of the

compass bowl If an appreciable amount of compass liquid has leaked out a careful check should be made on the condition

of the sealing gasket and filling plug US Navy compass liquid may be a mixture of 45 grain alcohol and 55 or a kerosenetype fluid These fluids are

NOT The compass should be removed from the ship and taken to some place free from all magnetic influences except the

earths magnetic field for tests of moment and sensibility These tests involve measurements of the time of vibration and the

ability of the compass card to return to a consistent reading after deflection These tests will indicate the condition of the

pivot jewel and magnetic strength of the compass needles See NAVSEA 31203 for such test data on standard Navy

compass A careful check should be made on the spheres and Flinders bar for residual magnetism Move the spheres as close to

the compass as possible and slowly rotate each sphere separately Any appreciable deflection 2 or more of the resulting from this rotation indicates

residual magnetism in the spheres This test may be made with the ship on any

steady heading The Flinders bar magnetization check is preferably made with the ship on steady east or west To make this check a note the compass

reading with the Flinders bar in the holder b invert the Flinders bar in

the holder and again note the compass reading Any appreciable difference 2 or more between these observed residual magnetism in the Flinders bar

Spheres or Flinders bars that show signs of such residual magnetism should

be annealed ie heated to a dull red and allowed to cool slowly

405 Correct alignment of the lubbers line of the compass gyro repeater and pelorus with the foreandaft line of the ship is

of major importance Such a misalignment will produce a constant A error in the curve of deviations All of these be aligned correctly with the

foreandaft line of the ship by using the azimuth circle and a metal tape measure Should

the instrument be located on the centerline of the ship a sight is taken on a mast or other object on the centerline In the case

of an instrument off the centerline a metal tape measure is used to measure the distance from the centerline of the ship to the

center of the instrument A similar measurement from the centerline is made forward or abaft the subject instrument and

reference marks are placed on the deck Sights are then taken on these marks

Standard compasses should always be aligned so that the lubbers line of the compass is parallel to the foreandaft line of

the ship Steering compasses may occasionally be deliberately misaligned in order to correct for any magnetic A as discussed in article 411

406 In addition to the physical checks listed in Chapter I there are other precautions to be observed in order to satisfactory compass operation

These precautions are mentioned to bring to the attention of the adjuster that might disturb compass operation They are listed in Chapter I and are

discussed further in Chapter X

Expeditious compass adjustment is dependent upon the application of the various correctors in an optimum sequence so as

to achieve the final adjustment with a minimum number of steps Certain adjustments may be made conveniently at dockside

so as to simplify the adjustment procedures at sea

407 Inasmuch as the Flinders bar is subject to induction from several of the other correctors and since its adjustment is not

dependent on any single observation this adjustment is logically made first This adjustment is made by one of the 1 Deviation data obtained at two

different magnetic latitudes may be utilized to calculate the proper length of Flinders

bar for any particular compass location Details of the acquisition of such data and the calculations involved are

presented in articles 605 to 609 inclusive

2 If the above method is impractical the Flinders bar length will have to be set approximately by

a Using an empirical amount of Flinders bar that has been found correct for other ships of similar structure

b Studying the arrangement of masts stacks and other vertical structures and estimating the Flinders bar length

required

If these methods are not suitable the Flinders bar should be omitted until data is acquired

The iron sections of Flinders bar should be continuous and at the top of the tube with the longest section at the top

Wooden spacers are used at the bottom of the tube to achieve such Having adjusted the length of Flinders bar place the spheres on the bracket arms at

the best approximate position If the

compass has been adjusted previously place the spheres at the best position as indicated by the previous deviation table In

the event the compass has never been adjusted place the spheres at midposition on the bracket arms

409 The next adjustment is the positioning of the heeling magnet by means of a properly balanced dip needle as discussed

in Chapter XI

410 These three adjustments at dockside Flinders bar spheres and heeling magnet will properly establish the conditions

of mutual induction and shielding on the compass such that a minimum of procedures at sea will complete the Expected errors Figure 318 Summary of

Compass Errors and Adjustment lists six different coefficients or types of

deviation errors with their causes and corresponding correctors A discussion of these coefficients follows

The A error is more generally caused by the of azimuths or by physical rather than of asymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron Thus if the

physical alignments are checked at dockside and if

care is exercised in making all calculations the A error will be Where an azimuth or bearing circle is used on a

standard compass to determine deviations any observed A error will be solely magnetic A error This results from the fact

that such readings are taken on the face of the compass card itself rather than at the lubbers line of the compass On a

steering compass where deviations are obtained by a comparison of the compass lubbers line reading with the heading as determined by pelorus or gyro

any observed A error may be a combination of magnetic A A These facts explain the procedure wherein only mechanical A is corrected on the by

realignment of the binnacle and both mechanical A and magnetic A errors are corrected on the steering compass

by realignment of the binnacle see article 405 On the standard compass the mechanical A error may be isolated from the

magnetic A error by making the following observations 1 Record a curve of deviations by using an azimuth or bearing circle An A error found will be

solely magnetic A

2 Record a curve of deviations by comparison of the compass lubbers line reading with the ships magnetic heading as

determined by pelorus or by gyro Any A error found will be a combination of mechanical A and magnetic A

The mechanical A on the standard compass is then found by subtracting the A found in the first instance from the total A

found in the second instance and is corrected by rotating the binnacle in the proper direction by that amount It is nor necessary to isolate the two

types of A on the steering compass and all A found by using the pelorus or gyro

may be removed by rotating the binnacle in the proper direction by that amount

The B error results from two different causes namely the foreandaft permanent magnetic field across the compass and a

resultant asymmetrical vertical induced effect forward or aft of the compass The former is corrected by the use of foreand

aft B magnets and the latter is corrected by the use of the Flinders bar forward or aft of the compass Inasmuch as the

Flinders bar setting has been made at dockside any B error remaining is corrected by the use of foreandaft B magnets

The C error has two causes namely the athwartship permanent magnetic field across the compass and a vertical induced effect athwartship of the

compass The former is corrected by the use of athwartship C

magnets and the latter by the use of the Flinders bar to port or starboard of the compass but inasmuch as this effect is very rare the C error is

corrected by athwartship C magnets only

The D error is due only to induction in the symmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron and requires correction by

spheres generally athwartship of the compass

The existence of E error of appreciable magnitude is rare since it is caused by induction in the asymmetrical horizontal soft iron When this error is

appreciable it may be corrected by slewing the spheres as described in Chapter VI

As has been stated previously the heeling error is most practically adjusted at dockside with a balanced dip needle See

Chapter XI

412 A summary of the above discussion reveals that certain errors are rare and others have been corrected by adjustments at

dockside Therefore for most ships there remain only three errors to be corrected at sea namely the B C and D errors

These are corrected by the use of foreandaft B magnets athwartship C magnets and quadrantal spheres

16

413 Study of adjustment procedure Inspection of the general B C and D combination of errors pictured in figure 413 will

reveal that there is a definite isolation of the deviation effects on cardinal compass Figure 413 B C and D

deviation effects

For example on 090 or 270 compass headings the only deviation which is effective is that due to B This isolation and

the fact that the B effect is greatest on these two headings make these headings convenient for B correction Correction of the

B deviation on a 090 heading will correct the B deviation on the 270 heading by the same amount but in the and naturally it will not change the

deviations on the 000 and 180 headings except where B errors are the total deviation on all the intercardinal headings will be shifted in the same

direction as the adjacent 090 or

270 deviation correction but only by seventenths 07 of that amount since the sine of 45 equals 0707

The same convenient isolation of effects and corrections of C error will also change the deviations on all the by the seventenths rule as before It

will now be observed that only after correcting the B and C errors on the

cardinal headings and consequently their proportional values of the total curve on the intercardinal headings can the D error

be observed separately on any of the intercardinal headings The D error may then be corrected by use of the spheres on heading Correcting D error

will as a rule change the deviations on the intercardinal headings only and not on

the cardinal headings Only when the D error is excessive the spheres are magnetized or the permanent magnet so close as to create excessive induction

in the spheres will there be a change in the deviations on cardinal headings as a

result of sphere adjustments Although sphere correction does not generally correct deviations on cardinal headings it does

improve the stability of the compass on these If it were not for the occasional A or E errors which exist the above procedure of adjustment would be

quite adjust observed deviations to zero on two adjacent cardinal headings and then on the intermediate intercardinal figure 414 showing a

combination of A and B errors will illustrate why adjusting procedure must deviations on more than the three essential headings

If the assumption were made that no A error existed in the curve illustrated in figure 414 and the total deviation of 6E on

the 090 heading were corrected with B magnets the error on the 270 heading would be 4E due to B If then

this 4E error were taken out on the 270 heading the error on the 090 heading would then be 4E due to B

Figure 414 A and B deviation effects

The proper method of eliminating this toandfro procedure and also correcting the B error of the ship to the best possible

flat curve would be to split this 4E difference leaving 2E deviation on each opposite heading This would in effect correct

the B error leaving only the A error of 2E which must be corrected by other means It is for this reason that 1 splitting is

done between the errors noted on opposite headings and 2 good adjustments entail checking on all headings rather than on

the fundamental three

415 Before anything further is said about adjustment procedures it is suggested that care be exercised to avoid moving the

wrong corrector Not only will such practice be a waste of time but it will also upset all previous adjustments Throughout an adjustment special care

should be taken to pair off spare magnets so that the resultant field about

them will be negligible To make doubly sure that the compass is not affected by stray fields from them they should be kept

at an appropriate distance until one or more is actually to be inserted into the Adjustment procedures at sea Before proceeding with the adjustment

at sea the following precautions should be

observed

1 Secure all effective magnetic gear in the normal seagoing position

2 Make sure the degaussing coils are secured using the reversal sequence if adjustments are made with the ship on an even keel swinging from heading

to heading slowly and after steadying on

each heading for at least 2 minutes to avoid Gaussin error article 1003 Chapter VII discusses methods of placing a ship on

the desired Most adjustments can be made by trial and error or by routine procedure such as the one presented in Chapter I

However it is more desirable to follow some analytical procedure whereby the adjuster is always aware of the magnitude of

the errors on all headings as a result of his movement of the different correctors Two such methods are presented

1 A complete deviation curve can be taken for any given condition and an estimate made of all the approximate

coefficients See Chapter V for methods of making such estimates From this estimate the approximate coefficients are

established and the appropriate corrections are made with reasonable accuracy on a minimum number of headings If the

original deviation curve has deviations greater than 20 rough adjustments should be made on two adjacent cardinal

headings before recording curve data for such analysis The mechanics of applying correctors are presented in figure

103 A method of tabulating the anticipated deviations after each correction is illustrated in figure 417a The deviation

curve used for illustration is the one that is analyzed in Chapter V Analysis revealed these A 10E B 120E C 80E

D 50E E 15E

Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated

Anticipated

Original curve after curve after curve after curve after

Heading by curve after

deviation next next next next

compass first correcting

curve correcting correcting correcting correcting

A 10E

B 120E C 80E D 50E E 15E

000 105E 95E 95E 15E 15E 00

045 200E 190E 106E 50E 00 00

090 115E 105E 15W 15W 15W 00

135 12W 22W 106W 50W 00 00

180 55W 65W 65W 15E 15E 00

225 80W 90W 06W 50E 00 00

270 125 W 135W 15W 15W 15W 00

315 68W 78W 06E 50W 00 00

Figure 417a Tabulating anticipated deviations Analysis method

2 More often it is desirable to begin adjustment immediately eliminating the original swing for deviations and the

estimate or approximate coefficients In this case the above problem would be solved by tabulating data and anticipating

deviation changes as the corrections are made Figure 417b illustrates such procedure It will be noted that a new column

of values is started after each change is made This method of tabulation enables the adjuster to calculate the new

residual deviations each time a corrector is changed so that a record of deviations is available at all times during the

swing Arrows are used to indicate where each change is made

Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated Anticipated

Anticipated

Original curve after curve after curve after curve after

Heading by curve after

deviation next next next next

compass first correcting

curve correcting correcting correcting correcting

A 10E

B 120E C 80E D 50E E 15E

000 105E 25E 25E 15E 00

045 64E 14E 04E 04E

090 115E 00 00 00 10W 05E

135 92W 36W 14E 04E 04E

180 55W 25E 25E 15E 00

225 00 56E 06E 04W 04W

270 10W 10W 10W 20W 05W

315 12E 44W 06E 04W 04W

Figure 417b Tabulating anticipated deviations Oneswing method

Since the B error is generally greatest it is corrected first hence on a 090 heading the 115E deviation is corrected zero by using foreandaft B

magnets A lot of time need not be spent trying to reduce this deviation to exactly

zero since the B coefficient may not be exactly 115E and some splitting might be desirable later After correcting on the

090 heading the swing would then be continued to 135 where a 92W error would be observed This deviation is recorded

but no correction is made because the quadrant error is best corrected after the deviations on all four cardinal headings have

been corrected The deviation on the 180 heading would be observed as 55W Since this deviation is not too large and

splitting may be necessary later it need not be corrected at this time Continuing the swing to 225 a 00 deviation would be

observed and recorded On the 270 heading the observed error would be 10W which is compared with 00 deviation on

the opposite 090 heading This could be split leaving 05W deviation on both 090 and 270 but since this is so small it

may be left uncorrected On 315 the observed deviation would be 12E At 000 a deviation of 105E would be observed

and compared with 55W on 180 Analysis of the deviations on 000 and 180 headings reveals an 80E C error which

should then be corrected with athwartship C magnets leaving 25E deviation on both the 000 and 180 headings All in column two are now recalculated on

the basis of such an adjustment at 000 heading and entered in column

three Continuing the swing the deviation on 045 would then be noted as 64 E Knowing the deviations on all it is now possible to estimate the

approximate coefficient D D is 50E so the 64E deviation on 045 is corrected

to 104E and new anticipated values are recorded in another column This anticipates a fairly good curve an estimate of

which reveals in addition to the B of 05E which was not considered large enough to warrant correction an A of 10E and

an E of 15E These A and E errors may or may not be corrected as practical If they are corrected the subsequent steps

would be as indicated in the last two columns It will be noted that the ship has made only one swing all corrections have

been made and some idea of the expected curve is Deviation curves The last step after completion of either of the above methods of adjustment is to

secure in position and to swing for residual deviations These residual deviations are for undegaussed conditions of the

ship which should be recorded together with details of corrector positions on the standard Navy Form NAVSEA 31204 and

in the Magnetic Compass Record NAVSEA 31203 Article 901 discusses the purposes of the various NAVSEA Record

Forms more fully Navy Form NAVSEA 31204 is complete and desirable in the interest of improved Flinders bar shielding conditions Figure 418

illustrates both sides of form NAVSEA 31204 with proper instructions and and Flinders bar data Should the ship be equipped with degaussing coils a

swing for residual deviations conditions should also be made and data recorded on NAVSEA 31204

On these swings extreme care should be exercised in taking bearings or azimuths and in steadying down on each heading

since this swing is the basis of standard data for that particular compass If there are any peculiar changeable errors such as

movable guns listing of the ship or anticipated decay from deperming which would effect the reliability of the compass

they should also be noted on the deviation card at this time Chapter X discusses these many sources of error in detail If the

Flinders bar adjustment is not based on accurate data as with a new ship it would be well to exercise particular care in

recording the conventional Daily Compass Log data during the first cruise on which a considerable change of occurs

Figure 418 Deviation table NAVSEA 31204

419 In order to have a reliable and uptodate deviation card at all times it is suggested that the ship be swung to check

compass deviations and to make if necessary after

1 Radical changes in magnetic latitude

2 Deperming Delay adjustment several days if possible after treatment

3 Structural changes

4 Long cruises or docking on the same heading such that the permanent magnetic condition of the vessels has

changed

5 Magnetic equipment near the binnacle has been altered

6 Reaching the magnetic equator in order to acquire Flinders bar data See Chapter VI

7 At least once yearly to account for magnetic decay etc

8 Appreciable change of heeling magnet position if Flinders bar is present

9 Readjustment of any corrector

10 Change of magnetic cargo

11 such reasonable care the compass should be a reliable instrument requiring little attention

CHAPTER V

TYPICAL DEVIATION CURVE AND THE ESTIMATION OF APPROXIMATE

Simple analysis The data for the deviation curve illustrated in figure 501 is as follows

Ships compass heading Deviation

N 000 105E

NE 045 200E

E 090 115E

SE 135 12W

S 180 55W

SW 225 80W

W 270 125W

NW 315 68W

Figure 501 Typical deviation curve and its individual components

Since A is the coefficient of constant deviation its approximate value is obtained from the above data by estimating the

mean of the algebraic sum of all the deviations Throughout these computations the sign of east deviation is considered plus

and west deviation is considered minus

8A 105 200 115 12 55 80 125 68

8A 420 340

8A 80

A 10 10E

Since B is the coefficient of semicircular sine deviation its value is maximum but of opposite polarity on 090 and The approximate B coefficient is

estimated by taking the mean of the deviations at 090 and 270 with the sign at

270 reversed

2B 115 125

2B 240

B 120 120E

Similarly since C is the coefficient of semicircular cosine deviation its value is maximum but of opposite polarity on

000 and 180 headings and the approximate C coefficient is estimated by taking the mean of the deviations at 000 and

180 with the sign at 180 reversed

2C 105 55

2C 160

C 80 80 E

D is the coefficient of quadrantal sine deviation having maximum but alternately opposite polarity on the Hence the approximate D coefficient is

estimated by taking the mean of the four intercardinal deviations with the

signs at 135 and 315 reversed

40 200 12 80 68

40 200

D 50 50E

E is the coefficient of quadrantal cosine deviation having maximum but alternately opposite polarity on the Therefore the approximate E coefficient

is estimated by taking the mean of the four cardinal deviations with the

signs at 090 and 270 reversed

4E 105 115 55 125

4E 60

E 15 15E

These approximate coefficients are estimated from deviations on compass headings rather than on magnetic headings solution of such coefficients will

automatically assign the proper polarity to each coefficient Summarizing the

above we find the approximate coefficients of the given deviation curve to be

A 10E

B 120E

C 80E

D 50E

E 15E

Each of these coefficients represents a component of deviation that can be plotted as shown in figure 501 The polarity of

each component in the first quadrant must agree with the polarity of the coefficient A check on the components in figure 501

will reveal that their summation equals the original curve This method of analysis is accurate only when the deviations are

less than 20 The mathematical expression for the deviation on any heading using the approximate coefficients is

Deviation A B sin C cos D sin 2 E cos 2

where represents compass heading

The directions given above for calculating coefficients A and B are not based upon accepted theoretical methods Some cases may exist where

appreciable differences may occur in the coefficients as calculated by the above

method and the accepted theoretical method The proper calculation of coefficients B and C is as D1 D2 D8 be the eight deviation data then

2 1

B D2 D4 D6 D8 D3 D7

8 4

2 1

C D2 D4 D6 D8 D1 D5

8 4

deviation data east being plus and west minus

2 1

B 200 12 80 68 115 125

8 4

B 12

2 1

C 200 12 80 68 105 55

8 4

C 8

502 Reasons for analysis This method of estimating approximate coefficients is convenient for

1 Analyzing an original deviation curve in order to anticipate necessary corrections

2 Analyzing a final deviation curve for the determination of additional refinements

3 Simplifying the actual adjustment procedure by anticipating effects of certain corrector changes on the deviations at

all other Approximate and exact coefficients It is emphasized that the above estimations are for the approximate not for exact coefficients

Approximate coefficients are in terms of angular deviations that are caused by certain and as stated before some of these deviations are subject to

change with changes in the directive force H The are expressions of magnetic forces dealing with a arrangements of soft iron b components of fields

c components of the earths magnetic field and d the shielding factor Thus the exact coefficients of magnetic force which produce the deviations

expressed by the approximate coefficients The exact for mathematical while the approximate coefficients are more practical for adjustment purposes

For this

reason the exact coefficients and the associated mathematics are not expanded further in this text

504 Compass heading and magnetic heading When deviations are large there is an appreciable difference in the if it is plotted on crosssection paper

against compass headings or against magnetic headings of the ship Not only is

there a difference in the shape of the curves but if only one curve is available navigators will find it difficult in when converting from magnetic

heading to compass heading and vice versa When deviations are small no

conversion is necessary Figure 504 illustrates the differences mentioned above by presenting the deviation values used in

figure 501 as plotted against magnetic headings as well as against compass Figure 504 Comparison of deviation curves magnetic

heading vs compass 23

CHAPTER VI

CORRECTOR BETWEEN Until now the principles of compass adjustment have been considered from a qualitative point of view In general this is

quite sufficient since the correctors need merely be moved until the desired amount of correction is obtained However it is

often valuable to know the quantitative effects of different correctors as well as their qualitative effects Furthermore as has

been stated previously all the correctors are not completely independent of each other Interaction results from the proximity

of the permanent magnet correctors to the soft iron correctors with appreciable induction effects in the latter shift in the relative position of the

various correctors will change their interaction effects as well as their effects Additional inductions exist in the soft iron correctors from the

magnetic needles of the compass itself The

adjuster should therefore be familiar with the nature of these interactions so as to evolve the best methods of Quandrantal sphere correction Figure

602 presents the approximate quadrantal correction available with of spheres at various positions on the sphere brackets and with different magnetic

moment compasses corrections apply whether the spheres are used as D E or combination D and E correctors Quadrantal spheres is due partially to the

earths field induction and partially to compass needle induction Since compass does not change with magnetic latitude but earths field induction does

the sphere correction is not constant for all

magnetic latitudes A reduction in the percentage of needle induction in the spheres to the earths field induction in the

spheres will improve the constancy of sphere correction over all magnetic latitudes Such a reduction in the percentage of

needle induction may be obtained by

1 Utilizing a low magnetic moment compass article 613

2 Utilizing special correctors placed with their major axes perpendicular to their axis of position

3 Using larger spheres farther away from the compass

Figure 602

603 Slewing of spheres Figure 603a is a convenient chart of determining the proper slewed position for spheres The total

values of the D and E quadrantal coefficients are used on the chart to locate a point of intersection This point directly locates

the angle and direction of slew for the spheres on the illustrated binnacle This point will also indicate on the radial scale the

resultant amount of quadrantal correction required from the spheres in the new slewed position to correct for both D and The total D and E

coefficients may be calculated by an analysis of deviations on the uncorrected binnacle or the uncorrected coefficients with those already corrected

The data in figures 602 and 603b will be useful in

either 24

Figure 603a Slewing of quadrantal spheres

Figure 603b Quandrantal error from Standard Navy Flinders A ship having a Navy Standard binnacle with 7 spheres at 13 position athwartship and a 12

Flinders bar

forward is being swung for adjustment It is observed that 4E D error and 6E E error exist with the spheres

in position Since the spheres are athwartship the total E coefficient for the ship is 6E as observed Figure

602 indicates that the spheres in their present position are correcting 6E D error hence the total D

coefficient of the ship and Flinders bar is 10E Figure 603a indicates that 6E E and 10E D coefficients

require slewing the spheres 155 clockwise from their present athwartship position The resultant quadrantal

error is indicated as 117 Figure 602 indicates that the 7 spheres should then be moved to the 11 position

after slewing 155 clockwise so as to correct both the D and E errors Use of this chart will eliminate

mathematical or methods of adjustment for quadrantal errors as well as quickly provide

information for physically moving the spheres

604 Corrector magnet inductions in spheres Should a ship have spheres and many permanent B and C magnet to the compass there will be a condition of

induction existing between these correctors which will require back and forth between headings while making adjustments This situation can be

improved by using larger out and by approximately setting the spheres before starting adjustments as well as by using more magnets further

from the spheres and compass Magnetized spheres as well as magnetized Flinders bar will not only cause some adjustment but might introduce an

unstable deviation curve if they should undergo a shakedown or change of

magnetic Quadrantal error from Finders bar Figure 603b presents the approximate quadrantal error introduced by the

presence of the Standard Navy Flinders bar Since the Flinders bar is generally placed in the forward or aft position it acts as

a small minus D corrector as well as a corrector for vertical induced effects This means that upon inserting the Flinders bar

in such a position the regular spheres should be moved closer to correct for the increased plus D error or vice versa if the

Flinders bar is removed This D error in the Flinders bar is due mostly to compass needle induction since the bar is small and is close to the compass

Since such needle induction is practically constant the deviation effects on the

compass will change with magnetic latitudes because the directive force H changes However when balanced by this is advantageous because it tends to

cancel out the variable part of the sphere correction which is due to the

compass needle Flinders bar adjustment As has previously been stated in Chapter II it is generally impossible to place the of Flinders bar without

reliable data obtained in two widely separated magnetic latitudes The placing of Flinders bar

by the use of an empirical amount or by an inspection of the ships structures is merely an approximation method will usually be necessary when data

is obtained There are several methods of acquiring and utilizing such

latitude data in order to determine the proper amount of Flinders bar hence an elaboration on the following items

1 The data necessary for calculation of Flinders bar length and the conditions under which this data should be

acquired

2 The best method of utilizing such data to determine the proper length of the Flinders bar

607 Data required for Flinders bar adjustment The data required for correct Flinders bar adjustment consists of of deviations with details of

corrector conditions at two different magnetic latitudes the farther apart the better See

figure 418 for an example of how such data is recorded on NAVSEA Form 31204 Should it be impossible to swing ship for

a complete table of deviations the deviations on east and west magnetic headings would be helpful On many log data is available but is of little use

for Flinders bar calculation because it is not reliable The following be observed when such data is to be taken in order to assure that observed

deviation changes are due only to changes

in the H and Z components of the earths field

1 Degaussing should be secured by a reversal process if necessary at both latitudes before data is taken

2 If the ship has been docked or steaming on one heading for several days prior to the taking of these data the

resulting temporary magnetism Gaussin error would create erroneous deviations A shakedown on other headings

prior to taking data would reduce such errors

3 Deperming structural changes heavy gunfire magnetic cargoes etc subsequent to the first set of data will make

the comparative results meaningless

4 Inasmuch as the data will not be reliable if the ships permanent magnetism changes between the two latitudes it

will likewise be unreliable if any of the binnacle correctors are changed including the heeling magnet

In the event that an intelligent approximation as to Flinders bar length cannot be made then the deviations at the two be taken with no Flinders bar

in the holder This procedure would also simplify the resulting Methods of determining Finders bar length

1 Having obtained reliable deviation data at two different magnetic latitudes the changes in the deviations if any be attributed to an incorrect

Flinders bar adjustment EW and NS deviations are the ones that are subject to major

changes from such an incorrect adjustment If there is no change in any of these deviations the Flinders bar adjustment is

probably correct A change in the EW deviations indicates an asymmetrical arrangement of vertical iron forward or aft of the

compass which requires correction by the Flinders bar forward or aft of the compass A change in the NS an asymmetrical arrangement of vertical iron

to port or starboard of the compass which requires correction by the

Flinders bar to port or starboard of the compass This latter case is very rare but can be corrected as indicated in article 613

Determine the B deviations on magnetic eastwest headings at both latitudes The constant c may then be calculated from

the following formula

c H1 tan B1 H2 tan B2

Z1 Z2

where

shielding factor 07 to 10 average

H1 earths field H at 1st latitude

B1 degrees B deviation at 1st latitude magnetic headings

Z1 earths field Z at 1st latitude

H2 earths field H at 2nd latitude

B2 degrees B deviation at 2nd latitude magnetic headings

Z2 earths field Z at 2nd latitude

This constant c represents a resultant mass of vertical iron in the ship that requires Flinders bar correction If Flinders bar is

present at the time of calculations it must be remembered that it is already correcting an amount of c in the ship see figure

603b which must be added to the uncorrected c calculated by the above formula This total value of c is used in figure 603b to indicate directly the

necessary total amount of Flinders bar If this total c is negative Flinders bar is

required on the forward side of the binnacle and if it is positive a Flinders bar is required on the aft side of the binnacle The

iron sections of Flinders bar should be continuous and at the top of the tube with the longest section at the top are used at the bottom of the tube

to achieve such spacing It will be noted that the B deviations used in this formula

are based on data on EW magnetic headings rather than on compass headings as with the approximate 2 Should the exact amount of correction required

for vertical induction in the ship at some particular magnetic dip be

known figure 608 will directly indicate the correct amount of Flinders bar to be placed at the top of the holder The exact

amount of correction would be known when one of the latitudes is the magnetic equator and the deviations there Then the B deviation in degrees on

magnetic headings at the other latitude is the exact amount to correct by means

of curves in figure 608

Figure 608 Dip deviation curves for Flinders bar

3 Lord Kelvins rule for improving the Flinders bar setting is Correct the deviations observed on east or west courses by

the use of foreandaft B magnets when the ship has arrived at places of weaker vertical magnetic field and by the use of

Flinders bar when she has arrived at places of stronger vertical magnetic field whether in the Northern or

27

609 After determining the correct amount of Flinders bar by either method 1 or 2 above the bar should then be inserted at

the top of the holder and the foreandaft B magnets readjusted to correct the remaining B error Sphere adjustments be refined It is quite possible

that on inserting the Flinders bar no visible deflection of the compass will be

observed even on an east or west heading This should cause no concern because certain additional induction effects exist in

the bar from

1 The heeling magnet

2 The existing foreandaft magnets

3 The vertical component of the ships permanent magnetic field

610 Heeling magnet induction in Finders bar Figure 610 presents typical induction effects in the Flinders bar for of heeling magnet An adjuster

familiar with the nature of these effects will appreciate the advantages the Flinders bar and heeling magnet combination before leaving dockside

Deviations must also be checked the heeling magnet if Flinders bar is present

Figure 610 Induction effects in Flinders bar due to heeling magnet

611 Slewing of Flinders bar The need for slewing the Flinders bar is much more rare than that for slewing spheres Also

the data necessary for slewing the Flinders bar cannot be obtained on a single latitude adjustment as with the the bar to some intermediate position

is in effect merely utilizing one bar to do the work of two one forward or aft

and the other port or starboard

Article 608 explains that a change of the EW deviations with changes in latitude indicates the need for Flinders bar

forward or aft of the compass and a change of the NS deviations with changes in latitude indicates the need for Flinders bar

to port or starboard of the compass

A change of the B deviations on magnetic EW headings is used as explained in article 608 to determine the proper

amount of Flinders bar forward or aft of the compass by calculating the constant c If there is a change of the C deviations on

magnetic NS headings a similar analysis may be made to determine the proper amount of Flinders bar to port or starboard of

the compass by calculating the constant f from

f H1 tan C1 H2 tan C2

Z1 Z2

when

shielding factor 07 to 10 average

H1 earths field H at 1st latitude

C1 degrees C deviation at 1st latitude magnetic headings

Z1 earths field Z at 1st latitude

H2 earths field H at 2nd latitude

C2 degrees C deviation at 2nd latitude magnetic headings

Z2 earths field Z at 2nd latitude

Any value of this f constant indicates the need for Flinders bar adjustment athwartship of the compass just as a value of the

c constant indicates the need for Flinders bar adjustment forward or aft of the compass The f constant curve in figure 608b is

used for the determination of this Flinders bar length If f is negative Flinders bar is required on the starboard side of

28

612 Should both c and f exist on a ship the angular position for a Flinders bar to correct the resultant vertical may be found by

f f

tan or tan1

c c

is the angle to slew the Flinders bar from the foreandaft axis If c and f are negative the bar will be slewed the forward position if c is negative

and f is positive the bar will be slewed from the aft position

After so determining the angle to slew the Flinders bar from the foreandaft line the total amount of Flinders bar

necessary to correct the resultant vertical induction effects in this position is found by

r c2 f 2

The constant r is then used on the c or f constant curve in figure 603b to determine the total amount of Flinders bar

necessary in the slewed Compasses Compasses themselves play a very important part in compass adjustment although it is common belief that

the compass is only an indicating instrument aligning itself in the resultant magnetic field This would be essentially true if

the magnetic fields were uniform about the compass but unfortunately magnetism close to the compass imposes across the needles In other words

adjustment and compensation sometimes employ nonuniform fields to fields Figure 613a indicates the difference between uniform and nonuniform field

effects on a compass

Figure 613a Magnetic fields across compass needle arrays

Such unbalanced torques arising from nonuniform magnetic fields create deviations of the compass which have Compass designs include many

combinations of different length needles different numbers of

needles and different spacings and arrangements of needlesall designed to minimize the higher order deviations such nonuniform magnetic fields

Although compass design is rather successful in minimizing such deviations it is

obvious that different compasses will be affected differently by the same magnetic fields It is further stressed that even with

proper compass design it is the of all adjusters to exercise care in applying correctors in order to create the

most uniform magnetic field possible This is the basis for the rule that requires the use of strong correctors as far away from the compass as

possible instead of weak correctors very close to the compass In general it is

better to use larger spheres placed at the extremities of the brackets equally distant from the center of the compass B and C

permanent magnet correctors should always be placed so as to have an equal number of magnets on both sides of the

compass where possible They should also be centered as indicated in figure 613b if regular tray arrangements are The desire for symmetrical magnetic

fields is one reason for maintaining a sphere of specified radius the magnetic circle about the magnetic compass location This circle is kept free of

any magnetic or 29

Figure 613b Arrangements of corrector magnets

The magnetic moment of the compass needle array is another factor in compass design that ranks in importance with the

proper arrangement of needles This magnetic moment controls the needle induction in the soft iron correctors as discussed

in articles 602 and 605 and hence governs the constancy of those corrector effects with changes in magnetic latitude The

7 Navy No 1 alcoholwater compass has a magnetic moment of approximately 4000 cgs units whereas the 7 Navy No

1 oil compass has a magnetic moment of approximately 1650 cgs units The lower magnetic moment compass less change in quadrantal correction although

the periods are essentially comparable because of the difference

in the compass fluid Other factors that must be considered in compass design are period fluid swirl vibration illumination tilt pivot expansion

etc These factors however are less important from an adjusters point of view than the magnetic moment

and arrangement of needles and are therefore not discussed further in this text

CHAPTER VII

SHIPS HEADING

701 Ships heading Ships heading is the angle expressed in degrees clockwise from north of the ships foreandaft line

with respect to the true meridian or the magnetic meridian When this angle is referred to the true meridian it is called a true

heading When this angle is referred to the magnetic meridian it is called a magnetic heading Heading as indicated on a

particular compass is termed the ships compass heading by that compass It is always essential to specify heading as true

heading magnetic heading or compass heading In order to obtain the heading of a ship it is essential that the line through

the pivot and the forward lubbers line of the compass be parallel to the foreandaft line of the ship This applies also to the

peloruses and gyro repeaters which are used for observational Variation Variation at any place is the angle between the magnetic meridian and the

true meridian If the northerly part

of the magnetic meridian lies to the right of the true meridian the variation is easterly and if this part is to the left of the the variation is

westerly The local variation and its small annual change are noted on the compass rose of charts Thus the true and magnetic headings of a ship differ

by the local Deviation As previously explained a ships magnetic influence will generally cause the compass needle to deflect from

the magnetic meridian This angle of deflection is called deviation If the north end of the needle points east of the the deviation is easterly if it

points west of the magnetic meridian the deviation is Heading A summary of heading relationships follows

1 Deviation is the difference between the compass heading and the magnetic heading

2 Variation is the difference between the magnetic heading and the true heading

3 The algebraic sum of deviation and variation is the compass error

The following simple rules will assist in naming errors and in converting from one heading expression to another

1 Compass least less than magnetic heading deviation east

Compass best greater than magnetic heading deviation west

2 When correcting going from compass to magnetic to true apply the sign algebraically East West

When uncorrecting going from true to magnetic to compass reverse the sign East West

3 When correcting easterly errors are additive This single rule can be used to recall all four cases

When correcting easterly errors are additive westerly errors are subtractive

When uncorrecting easterly errors are subtractive westerly errors are additive

Formed from the first letter of each key word in the correcting process Compass Deviation Magnetic Variation True

the sentence Can Dead Men Vote Twice is useful in making conversions of heading data Although the can be used for uncorrecting going from right to

left in the statement as written the first letters of the key words

in the uncorrecting process are also used to develop a memory aid for Complete facility with such conversion of heading data is essential for

expeditious compass adjustment heading relationships are tabulated below

Compass heading 358 magnetic heading 003 deviation 5E

Compass heading 181 magnetic heading 179 deviation 2W

Compass heading 040 deviation 3E magnetic heading 043

Compass heading 273 deviation 2W magnetic heading 271

Magnetic heading 010 deviation 2E compass course 008

Magnetic heading 270 deviation 4W compass course 274

Magnetic heading 358 variation 6E true heading 004

Magnetic heading 270 variation 6W true heading 264

True heading 000 variation 5E magnetic heading 355

True heading 083 variation 7W magnetic heading 090

705 Use of compass heading and magnetic heading for adjustment The primary object of adjusting compasses is to

reduce deviations to make the magnetic heading and the compass heading identical or as nearly so as possible The two

methods of accomplishing this are as follows

1 Place the ship on the desired magnetic heading and correct the compass so that it reads the same as this magnetic

heading This is the preferred method

2 Place the ship on the desired compass heading and determine the corresponding magnetic heading of the ship and

correct the compass so that it reads the same as this known magnetic heading This method is used whenever it is

impractical to place the ship on a steady magnetic heading for direct correction

In using the magnetic heading method the deviations of the compass are easily observed as the difference between the

compass reading and the known magnetic heading of the ship The difficulty in using this method lies in placing the ship on

the desired magnetic heading and holding the ship steady on that heading while adjustments are being made

When using the compass heading method the ship can easily be brought to any desired compass heading but the difficulty

is in the determination of deviations Further difficulty arises from the fact that the steersman is steering by an whose deviations are changing as

the necessary adjustments are being made Therefore as each adjustment is being

made the steersman should attempt to hold the ship steady on that heading by some means other than the compass Adjustments by this method are made as

a series of for example

Place the ship on any desired compass course and correct the compass to read the corresponding magnetic heading This

will probably leave the ship on a course other than the desirable cardinal and intercardinal headings for compass accurate results the above

procedure should be repeated

If the compass has no appreciable deviations the deviations taken on compass headings will closely approximate those

taken on magnetic headings However as the magnitude of errors increases there will be a marked difference between taken on compass headings and those

taken on magnetic Methods of placing ship on magnetic headings A ship may be brought on a magnetic heading by reference to The magnetic variation is

applied to true heading to determine the gyro course which must be steered in order

to place the ship on the desired magnetic heading If the gyrocompass has any error it must be taken into It is

well to calculate all such problems through true headings since shortcuts on this procedure frequently lead to errors

Examples of such relationships are tabulated below

To steer

Heading per

magnetic With variation True course With gyro error

gyro compass

course

000 6W 354 0 354

180 10E 190 0 190

270 4W 266 1E 265

315 6E 321 2E 319

225 17W 208 2W 210

358 0 358 3W 001

The difference between gyro heading and magnetic heading will be constant on all headings as long as the is constant and the variation does not

change This gyrocompass error may be determined by a comparison of true azimuth of the sun and the azimuth as observed on a synchronized repeater

It is to be remembered that gyrocompasses have certain errors resulting from latitude and speed change as well as and that these errors are not

always constant on all headings For these reasons the gyro error must be especially if the gyro is being used to obtain data for determining residual

deviation curves of the A ship may be placed on a magnetic heading by aligning the vanes of an azimuth circle with the sun over the The sun is a

distant object whose azimuth tangle from the north may be computed for any given time Methods suns azimuths are discussed in Chapter VIII By setting

the line of sight of the vanes at an angle to the right or

left of the foreandaft line of the ship equal to the difference between the computed magnetic azimuth and the heading of the ship and then swinging

the ship until the sun is aligned with the vanes the ship will be on the

desired magnetic heading Simple diagrams as in figure 707 with the ship and sun drawn in their relative positions will aid

greatly in the visualization of each problem The azimuth circle must always be kept level while making of celestial bodies

Figure 707 Azimuth circle setups

708 A distant object 10 or more miles away may be use in conjunction with the azimuth circle for placing the ship on

magnetic headings provided the ship stays within a small area This procedure is similar to that used with the sun except that

the magnetic beading of the object is constant With an object 114 nautical miles distant a change in position of 400 yards at

right angles to the line of sight introduces an error of 1

709 A pelorus may be used to place a ship on a magnetic heading using the suns azimuth in much the same manner as with

the azimuth circle Use of the pelorus has the further advantage in that the magnetic heading of the ship can be as the ship swings Such a procedure

would be as follows

The forward sight vane is clamped to the dial at the value of the suns magnetic azimuth and the sight vanes are then

trained so the sun is reflected in the mirror As the ship turns the magnetic heading is always observed under the

forward lubbers line if the vanes are kept on the sun and this will serve as a guide for bringing the ship onto any

desired magnetic heading As the desired magnetic course is approached the compass can be read and corrected

even before that magnetic course is actually obtained and a final check can be made when the ship is on the exact

course The pelorus must always be kept in a level position while making observations particularly of celestial

bodies

710 A distant object can be used in conjunction with the pelorus as with the azimuth circle in order to place the ship on

magnetic heading provided the ship stays within a small area See article 708

711 Methods of determining deviations on a compass heading The deviations on compass headings may be obtained by a

comparison of the calculated magnetic azimuth of the sun and the azimuth as observed on the compass by use of an Methods of calculating suns azimuth

are discussed in Chapter VIII The ship is placed on the desired compass heading

and an azimuth of the sun taken of the face of the compass card The difference in degrees between the observed azimuth and

the calculated magnetic azimuth of the sun is the deviation on that compass course

712 The pelorus may also be used in conjunction with the suns azimuth to obtain deviations on compass headings The ship

is brought to the desired compass heading and the forward sight vane is set on the calculated value of the suns The sight vanes are then trained on

the sun and the magnetic heading of the ship is indicated under the line of the pelorus The difference in degrees between the compass heading and

magnetic heading of the by the pelorus is the deviation on that compass course

713 The azimuth circle or pelorus can be used in conjunction with ranges or a distant object to obtain deviations on The procedure is similar to that

used with the sun A range consists of any two objects or markers one in and the other in the background which establishes a line of sight having a

known magnetic bearing The true

bearing of such a range is determined from a local chart this true bearing is converted to the magnetic bearing by applying

the variation corrected for annual change as given on the chart Multiple ranges consist of several markers in the a single marker in the foreground

or vice versa The ship is brought to the desired compass course and at the instant of

crossing the line of sight of the range a bearing is taken with the azimuth circle or pelorus With the azimuth circle in degrees between the observed

bearing of the range on the face of the compass and the known magnetic bearing

of the range is the deviation on that compass course If using a pelorus the forward sight vanes are set to the magnetic

bearing of the range and the magnetic heading of the ship is read under the forward lubbers line of the pelorus at the instant

of taking a sight on the range The deviation is the difference in degrees between the compass heading of the ship and the

known magnetic heading of the ship as indicated by Deviations on compass courses may be obtained by the use of reciprocal bearings A pelorus is set

up on shore and the

south end of the dial is aligned with magnetic north A ship can then sight the pelorus on shore using an azimuth circle or

pelorus at the same instant the observer on shore sights the ship The ships bearing from shore on the reversed pelorus is the

magnetic bearing of the shore position from the ship Continuous communication between ship and shore is necessary and

must be so arranged as to provide simultaneous observations Two methods of such communication are by flashing lights

and preferably by short range twoway voice radio

Additional methods of determining deviations are by the use of azimuths of the moon stars and planets For to the calculation of azimuths of these

celestial bodies refer to Pub No 9 The American Practical 34

CHAPTER VIII

AZIMUTHS

801 Azimuths of the sun Since accurate compass bearings of the sun can readily be observed for comparison with the true bearing or azimuth for time

date and place of the observer to obtain the compass error the sun is a point for compass adjustment The azimuths of other celestial bodies can

similarly be determined but are for compass work because of the poor visibility of stars and the more variable time rates and declinations of the

moon and planets Hence subsequent explanations concern themselves only with the sun and its Astronomical triangle The azimuth of the sun at any

instant and place of the observer is determined by solving triangle for azimuth angle Z using the observers latitude and longitude and the celestial

coordinates of the sun

for the time of the observation as taken from the Nautical Almanac to effect the solution

The astronomical triangle is formed on the celestial sphere by

1 the elevated pole of the observer the radial projection of the geographic pole of the observer according to

whether his latitude is north or south

2 the zenith of the observer the radial projection of the observers position on earth and

3 the celestial body

803 Local hour angle LHA The Greenwich hour angle GHA of the sun as taken from the Nautical Almanac for the time

and date of the observation is combined with the observers longitude to obtain the local hour angle the angle at the elevated

pole between the local celestial meridian the observers meridian and the hour circle of the sun always measured westward

from 0 to 360

west

LHA GHA longitude

east

Meridian angle t is sometimes used instead of local hour angle to express the angle at the elevated pole between the meridian and the hour circle of

the sun The meridian angle t of the sun is the angle at the elevated pole measured

from the meridian of the observer to the hour circle of the sun eastward or westward from 0 to 180 Thus t denotes the

suns position east or west of the local celestial meridian When the sun is west of the meridian t is equal to LHA when east

t is equal to 360 minus LHA

804 Declination d Also taken from the Nautical Almanac for the time and date of the observation declination d of the sun

is used with local hour angle LHA and the latitude L of the observer to calculate the azimuth angle Z

805 Azimuth angle Z The azimuth angle of the sun is the angle at the zenith between the principal vertical with the local celestial meridian and the

vertical circle through the sun It is measured from 0 at the north or

south reference direction clockwise or through 180 It is labeled with the reference direction direction of

elevated pole of observer as a prefix and direction of measurement from the reference direction as a suffix Thus azimuth

angle S144W is the angle between the principal vertical circle of an observer in the Southern Hemisphere and circle 144 westward

Azimuth angle is converted to azimuth by use of the following rules

1 For north latitudes

a Zn Z if the sun is east of the meridian

b Zn 360 Z if the sun is west of the meridian

2 For south latitudes

a Zn 180 Z if the sun is east of the meridian

b Zn 180 Z if the sun is west of the meridian

It must be remembered that in order to obtain magnetic azimuths from true azimuths the appropriate variation must be

applied to the true Azimuth by tables One of the more frequent applications of sight reduction tables is their use in computing the

azimuth of a celestial body for comparison with an observed azimuth in order to determine the error of the compass In

computing the azimuth of a celestial body for the time and place of observation it is normally necessary to interpolate the

tabular azimuth angle as extracted from the tables for the differences between the table arguments and the actual values of

latitude and local hour angle The required of the azimuth angle using Pub No 229 Tables for Marine Navigation is effected as follows

1 Refer to figure 806a The main tables are entered with the nearest integral values of declination latitude and local

hour angle For these arguments a base azimuth angle is Figure 806a Extracts from Pub No 229

2 The tables are reentered with the same latitude and LHA arguments but with the declination argument 10 greater or

less than the base declination argument depending upon whether the actual declination is greater or less than the

base argument The difference between the respondent azimuth angle and the base azimuth angle establishes the

azimuth angle difference Z Diff for the increment of declination

3 The tables are reentered with the base declination and LHA arguments but with the latitude argument 10 greater or

less than the base latitude argument depending upon whether the actual usually DR latitude is greater or less than

the base argument to find the Z Diff for the increment of latitude

4 The tables are reentered with the base declination and latitude arguments but with the LHA argument 10 greater or

less than the base LHA argument depending upon whether the actual LHA is greater or less than the base argument

to find the Z Diff for the increment of LHA

5 The correction to the base azimuth angle for each increment is

Z Diff x

The auxiliary interpolation table can normally be used for computing this value because the successive azimuth are less than 100 for altitudes less

than 84

Example In DR lat 33240N the azimuth of the sun is observed as 0965 pgc At the time of the observation the

declination of the sun is 20138N the local hour angle of the sun is 316412

Required The gyro error

Solution By Pub No 229

The error of the gyrocompass is found as shown in figure 806b

Base Correction

Actual Arguments Base Z Tab Z Z Diff Increments Z Diff x Inc60

Dec 20138N 20 978 964 14 138 03

DR L 33240N 33 same 978 989 11 240 04

LHA 316412 317 978 971 07 188 02

Base Z 978 Total corr 01

Corr 01

Z N977E

Zn 0977

Zn pgc 0965

Gyro error 12E

807 Azimuth by calculator When calculators are used to compute the azimuth tedious triple interpolation is can be effected by several formulas

The azimuth angle Z can be calculated using the altitude azimuth formula if the altitude is known The formula stated in

terms of the inverse trigonometric function is

sin d sin L sin Hc

Z cos1

cos L cos Hc

If the altitude is unknown or a solution independent of altitude is required the azimuth angle can be calculated using the

time azimuth formula The formula stated in terms of the inverse trigonometric function is

sin LHA

Z tan1

cos L tan d sin L cos LHA

The sign conventions used in the calculations of both azimuth formulas are as follows 1 If latitude and declination are of

contrary name declination is treated as a negative quantity 2 If the local hour angle is greater than 180 it is treated as a

negative quantity If the azimuth angle as calculated is negative it is necessary to add 180 to obtain the desired In DR lat 41259S the azimuth of

the sun is observed as 0160 pgc At the time of the observation of the sun is 22196N the local hour angle of the sun is The gyro error by

calculation of

sin LHA

Z tan1

cos L tan d sin L cos Convert each known quantity to decimal degrees

Latitude 41259S 41432

Declination 22196N 22327

LHA 342376 342627

Prepare form on which to record results obtained in the several procedural steps of the Procedure varies according to calculator design and the

degree to which the user employs the features of the

design enabling more expeditious solutions

In this example only the initial step of substituting the given quantities in the formula in accordance with the

sign conventions is given before the azimuth angle is obtained by the calculator is stated

sin 342627

Z tan1

cos 41432 x tan 22327 sin 41432 x cos 342627

Z 176

Since Z as calculated is a negative angle 176 180 is added to obtain the desired azimuth angle 1624

Z S1624E

Zn 0176

Zn pgc 0160

Answer Gyro error 16E

808 Curve of magnetic azimuths During the course of compass adjustment and swinging ship a magnetic direction is

needed many times either to place the vessel on desired magnetic headings or to determine the deviation of the compass

being adjusted If a celestial body is used to provide the magnetic reference the azimuth is continually changing as the earth

rotates on its axis Frequent and numerous computations can be avoided by preparing in advance a table or curve of

magnetic azimuths True azimuths at frequent intervals are computed The variation at the center of the maneuvering area is

then applied to determine the equivalent magnetic azimuths These are plotted on crosssection paper with time as the using any convenient scale A

curve is then faired through the points

Points at intervals of half an hour with a minimum of three are usually sufficient unless the body is near the and relatively high in the sky when

additional points are needed If the body crosses the celestial meridian the

direction of curvature of the line reverses

Unless extreme accuracy is required the Greenwich hour angle and declination can be determined for the the same value of declination used for all

computations and the Greenwich hour angle considered to increase 15

per hour

An illustration of a curve of magnetic azimuths of the sun is shown in figure 808 This curve is for the period time on May 31 1975 at latitude 23095N

longitude 82241W The variation in this area is 247E At the midtime

the meridian angle of the sun is 664723 and the declination is 21523N Azimuths were computed at halfhour intervals

as follows

Zone time Meridian angle Declination Latitude Magnetic azimuth

0700 81471E 5h 271m E 219N 232N 06939

0730 74171E 4h 571m E 219N 232N 07157

0800 66472E 4h 271m E 219N 232N 07406

0830 59172E 3h 571m E 219N 232N 07608

0900 51472E 3h 271m E 219N 232N 07807

This curve was constructed on the assumption that the vessel would remain in approximately the same location during the

period of adjustment and swing If the position changes materially this should be considered in the Figure 808

Curve of magnetic azimuths

Extreme care must be exercised when using the sun between 1100 and 1300 LMT since the azimuth changes very this time and the sun is generally at a

high altitude

CHAPTER IX

COMPASS RECORDS AND REPORTS

901 OPNAV Instruction 312032 Standard Organization and Regulations of the US Navy of 30 July 1974 requires the

navigator to make frequent checks of the magnetic compass to determine its error and to make frequent comparisons with while the ship is underway

Specific information relative to compass observations records and reports is

outlined below

1 The Magnetic Compass Record NAVSEA 31203 is part of the official record of a ship and is maintained as

an adjunct to the Deck Log aboard every US Naval ship in commission It is a complete history of each

magnetic compass on board

2 Each volume of the Magnetic Compass Record contains a sufficient number of Compass Check Log forms

for 3 months continuous entries based upon halfhourly observations Observations may be made at shorter

than halfhourly periods if desired In those cases where the ship is not operating continuously the book will

be usable for a more extended period Provision is made in this book for accommodating the record of both

the standard and steering magnetic compasses The latitude and longitude columns of the check log may be

left blank when this information would make the record 3 Whenever a magnetic compass is adjusted or the deviations on all cardinal and

intercardinal headings are

observed the results are recorded on a Magnetic Compass Table NAVSEA 31204 A copy of the latest

completed table should be kept in the envelope attached inside the back cover of the Magnetic Compass

Record On ships equipped with degaussing circuits and compass compensation coils the residual deviations

are recorded with DGOFF and DGON A copy of NAVSEA 31204 should be posted near the compass

so as to be readily accessible to the navigator and other personnel concerned with the navigation of the ship

Each time a new NAVSEA 31204 is prepared as a result of the adjustment of the compass a duplicate copy

of the completed form should be forwarded to the Naval Ship Engineering Center A transmittal letter is not

required Special attention should be given to completing all the information requested on the back of the

NAVSEA 31204 form so that the changes in deviation with latitude may be correctly evaluated in terms of

Flinders bar 4 A NAVSEA 895041 should be filed with the compass manuals at the rear of the Degaussing Folder One

copy of the form should be forwarded to Naval Ship Engineering Center at the time of initial compensation

and upon any subsequent compensations made as a result of adding additional compensating equipment or of

changing the type of this equipment In the case of changing or adding equipment this form will normally be

made out by the installing activity However if this activity does not perform the compensation the form

should be submitted by the ship

CHAPTER X

TRANSIENT DEVIATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC Stability The general treatise on compass adjustment concerns itself only with the principles of ie the effects

of permanent and induced magnetism and their appropriate correctors This with the ability to handle suns azimuth and ships heading is the backbone of

compass adjustment However a

correction may be very carefully and accurately made and still prove disastrous to the ship for example a compass

may have a perfect deviation curve but when a nearby gun is trained the magnetic effects on the compass are a compass adjuster cannot place

correctors on the binnacle for such variable effects it is definitely his duty to

recognize and handle them in the best possible manner If it is impossible to eliminate the source of trouble to relocate the binnacle the details of

alignment or excitation of the sources of error should be specified on

the deviation card With such information the navigator would know when or when not to rely on his In other words a good adjuster should not only

provide a good deviation curve which is reliable stated conditions but also point out and record probable causes of unreliability which cannot be

Sources of transient error The magnetic circle about the magnetic compass is intended to reduce such but there still are many items both electrical

and magnetic which cause erratic effects on the compass The

following list is presented to assist in the detection of such items If in doubt a test can be made by swinging any

movable object or energizing any electrical unit while observing the compass for deviations This would best be tried

on two different headings 90 apart since the compass might possibly be affected on one heading and not on the other

1 Some magnetic items which cause variable deviations if placed too close to the compass are as follows

a Guns on movable mounts

b Ready ammunition boxes

c Variable quantities of ammunition in ready boxes

d Magnetic cargo

e Hoisting booms

f Cable reels

g Metal doors in wheelhouse

h Chart table drawers

i Movable gyro repeater

j Windows and ports

k Signal pistols racked near compass

l Sound powered telephones

m Magnetic wheel or rudder mechanism

n Knives or ash trays near binnacle

o Watches wrist bands spectacle frames

p Hat grommets belt buckles metal pencils

q Heating of smoke stack or exhaust pipes

r Landing boats

2 Some electrical items which cause variable deviations if placed too close to the compass are as follows

a Electric motors

b Magnetic controllers

c Gyro repeaters

d Unmarried conductors

e f Electric indicators

g Electric welding

h Large power circuits

i j Electrical control panels or switches

k Telephone headsets

l Windshield wipers

m Rudder position indicators solenoid type

n Minesweeping power circuits

o Engine order telegraphs

p Radar equipment

q Magnetically controlled switches

r Radio s Radio receivers

t Voltage There is another source of transient deviation trouble known as the retentive error This error results from the

tendency of a ships structure to retain some of the induced magnetic effects for short periods of time For example a

ship traveling north for several days especially if pounding in heavy seas will tend to retain some hammered in under these conditions of induction

Although this effect is not too large and generally decays

within a few hours it may cause incorrect observations or adjustments if neglected This same type of error occurs

when ships are docked on one heading for long periods of time A short shakedown with the ship on other headings will

tend to remove such errors A similar sort of residual magnetism is left in many ships if the degaussing circuits are not

secured by the reversal sequence

A source of transient deviation trouble of shorter duration than retentive error is known as Gaussin error This error is

caused by eddy currents set up by a changing number of magnetic lines of force through soft iron as the ship Due to these eddy currents the induced

magnetism on a given heading does not arrive at its normal value until

about 2 minutes after change to the Deperming and other magnetic treatment will change the magnetic condition of the vessel and readjustment of the

compass The decaying effects of deperming are sometimes very rapid therefore it is

best to delay readjustment for several days after such treatment Since the magnetic fields used for such treatments are

sometimes rather large at the compass locations the Finders bar compass and such related equipment is from the ship during these

41

CHAPTER XI

USE OF THE DIP NEEDLE FOR HEELING As indicated in Chapter III the heeling effects of both the permanent and induced magnetism are corrected by

adjusting the position of the vertical permanent heeling magnet This adjustment can be made in either of two ways

1 With the ship on an even keel and as close to the east or west magnetic heading as possible adjust the heeling

magnet until a dip needle inserted in the compass position is balanced at some predetermined position article 1103

2 Adjust the heeling magnet while the ship is rolling on north and south headings until the oscillations of the compass

card have been reduced to an average minimum

Inasmuch as it is desirable to establish the condition of induction between the heeling magnet and Flinders bar and to

reduce the heeling oscillations to a minimum before making the adjustments at sea the heeling magnet is usually set at

dockside by the first method above Further it would be difficult to correct the heeling error by rolling at sea before making

the other adjustments because the spheres and Flinders bar produce a certain measure of heeling correction and hence they should be positioned at

least before making the heeling adjustments by either The fact that the heeling magnet corrects for induced effects as well as permanent effects

requires that it be radical magnetic latitude changes of the ship Movement of the heeling magnet with Flinders bar in the holder will

change the induction effects in the Flinders bar and consequently change the compass deviations See article 610 Thus the

navigator is responsible for

1 Moving the heeling magnet up or down invert when necessary as the ship changes magnetic latitude so as to

maintain a good heeling adjustment for all latitudes

2 Maintaining a check on his deviations and noting changes resulting from movements of the heeling magnet when

Flinders bar is in the holder Any deviation changes should be either recorded or readjusted by means of the fore

andaft B To elaborate on the details of the dip needle method of adjustment it is pointed out that there are two types of dip

needles one of which assumes the angle of inclination or dip for its particular location and one on which the is balanced by a movable weight The

latter is a nullifying type instrument which renders the final position of the

needle more independent of the horizontal component of magnetic fields and hence is more useful on For ships which introduce no shielding to the

earths field at the compass the procedure for adjusting the heeling magnet is

quite simple Take the dip needle into a nearby area where there is no local magnetic attraction level the instrument and set

the weight so as to balance the needle under those conditions of earths magnetic field It is preferable to align the that the north seeking end of

the needle is pointing north Next level the instrument in the compass position on board

ship place the spheres in their approximate position and adjust the heeling magnet until the needle assumes the This presumes that all the effects of

the ship are canceled leaving only the effect of the vertical earths field circuits are secured during this adjustment

In the case of ships which have shielding effects on the earths field at the compass as in metal enclosed wheelhouses the

procedure is essentially the same as above except that the weight on the dip needle should be moved toward the pivot so as

to balance against some lesser value of earths field The new position of the weight expressed in centimeters from the pivot

can be approximately determined by multiplying the value of lambda for the compass location by the original distance of

the weight from the pivot in centimeters Should for the compass location be unknown it may generally be considered as

about 08 for steering compass locations and 09 for standard compass locations By either method the weight on the dip

needle should be moved in to its new position Next level the instrument in the compass position on board ship and adjust the

heeling magnet until the needle assumes the balanced condition

these methods of adjusting the heeling magnet by means of a dip needle should be employed only with the

ship on east or west magnetic headings so as to avoid heeling errors resulting from asymmetrical foreandaft If it is impractical to place the ship on

such a heading may be made on any heading made when In the final analysis a successful heeling magnet adjustment is one whereby the objectionable

oscillations due to

rolling of the ship maximum effects on north and south compass headings are minimized Therefore the rolling method is a

visual method of adjusting the heeling magnet or checking the accuracy of the last heeling magnet adjustment Generally effects due to roll on both

the north and south compass headings will be the same However some of foreandaft soft iron will introduce different oscillation effects on these two

headings Such effects cannot

be entirely eliminated on both headings with one setting of the heeling magnet and the heeling magnet is generally set for the

average minimum oscillation condition

CHAPTER XII

USE OF THE HORIZONTAL FORCE Occasionally it will be necessary to determine the actual strength of the magnetic field at some compass location This

problem may arise for one of the following reasons

1 It may be desired to determine accurately the horizontal shielding factor lambda for

a A complete mathematical analysis

b Accurate Flinders bar adjustment

c Accurate heeling adjustment

d Calculations on a dockside magnetic adjustment

e Determining the best compass location on board ship

2 It may be desired to make a dockside magnetic adjustment and hence determine the existing directive force at the

magnetic compass both for its magnitude and direction

Lambda is the horizontal shielding factor or ratio of the reduced earths directive force H on the compass to earths field H as

From this it is apparent that may easily be determined for a compass location by making a measurement of the directive force H On a corrected

compass this value H may be measured with the ship on any heading since this

reduced earths directive force is the only force acting on the compass If the compass is not corrected for the and the deviations are large H is

determined from the several resultant directive forces observed with headings of the ship as indicated later Lambda should be determined for every

compass location on every ship

1202 The actual measurement of such magnetic fields may be made by use of a suitable magnetometer or by the use of a

horizontal force instrument The magnetometer method is a direct reading method which needs no calculation The is by far the simpler form of equipment

hence the force instrument method is discussed below

The horizontal force instrument is simply a magnetized needle pivoted in a horizontal plane much the same as a compass

It will settle in some position that will indicate the direction of the resultant magnetic field The method used to determine the

strength of this resultant field is by comparing it with a known field If the force needle is started swinging it will be damped

down with a certain period of oscillation dependent upon the strength of the magnetic field The stronger the magnetic field

the shorter the period of time for each cycle of swing in fact the ratio is such that the squares of the period of vibration are

inversely proportional to the strengths of the magnetic fields as

H T2

H T 2

In the above formula let H represent the strength of the earths horizontal field in gauss and T represent the time in seconds

for 10 cycles of needle vibration in that earths field Should it be desired to find the strength of an unknown magnetic field

H a comparative measurement of time in seconds T for 10 cycles of vibration of the same needle in the unknown field will

enable calculation of H

Since is the ratio of two magnetic field strengths it may be found directly by the inverse ratio of the squares of the

periods of vibration for the same horizontal force instrument in the two different magnetic fields by the same bothering about the values of H and H

H T2

H T 2

The above may be used on one heading of the ship if the compass deviations are less than 4

To obtain the value of more precisely and where deviations of the compass exceeds 4 the following equation should be

used

T2 cos d n cos d e cos d s cos d w

4 Tn2 Te2 Ts2 Tw2

where

T is the time period for the field H

Tn is the time period for the resultant field with ship on a north heading etc

cos d n is the cos of the deviation on the north heading etc

CHAPTER XIII

INTRODUCTION TO Degaussing A steel vessel has a certain amount of permanent magnetism in its hard iron and induced magnetism in

its soft iron Whenever two or more magnetic fields occupy the same space the total field is the vector sum of fields Thus within the effective region

of the field of a vessel the total field is the combined total of the earths

field and that due to the vessel Consequently the field due to earths magnetism alone is altered or distorted due to the field

of the vessel

Certain mines and other explosive devices are designed to be triggered by the magnetic influence of a vessel passing near

them It is therefore desirable to reduce to a practical minimum the magnetic field of a vessel One method of doing this is to

neutralize each component by means of an field produced by direct current of electricity in electric so as to form coils around the vessel A unit

sometimes used for measuring the strength of a magnetic field is the

gauss The reduction of the strength of a magnetic field decreases the number of gauss in that field Hence the process is one

of degaussing the vessel

When a vessels degaussing coils are energized the magnetic field of the vessel is completely altered This introduces in the magnetic compasses This

is removed as nearly as practicable by introducing at each compass an equal and

opposite force of the same type one caused by direct current in a coil for each component of the field due to currents This is called compass

compensation When there is a possibility of confusion with compass adjustment

to neutralize the effects of the natural magnetism of the vessel the expression degaussing compensation is used Since may not be perfect a small

amount of deviation due to degaussing may remain on certain headings This is the

reason for swinging ship twice once with degaussing off and once with it on and having two separate columns in the

deviation table

If a vessel passes over a device for detecting and recording the strength of the magnetic field a certain pattern is traced

Since the magnetic field of each vessel is different each has a distinctive trace known as its magnetic signature

Several degaussing stations have been established to determine magnetic signatures and recommend the currents needed in

the various degaussing coils Since a vessels induced magnetism varies with heading and magnetic latitude the of the coils which neutralize induced

magnetism need to be changed to suit the conditions A degaussing folder is

provided each vessel to indicate the changes and to give other pertinent information

A vessels permanent magnetism changes somewhat with time and the magnetic history of the vessel Therefore given in the degaussing folder should be

checked from time to time by a return to the magnetic Degaussing coils For degaussing purposes the total field of the vessel is divided into three

components

l vertical

2 horizontal foreandaft

3 horizontal athwartships

Each component is opposed by a separate degaussing field just strong enough to neutralize it Ideally when this has been

done the earths field passes through the vessel smoothly and without distortion The opposing degaussing fields are

produced by direct current flowing in coils of wire Each of the degaussing coils is placed so that the field it produces is

directed to oppose one component of the ships field

The number of coils installed depends upon the magnetic of the vessel and the degree of safety desired The

ships permanent and induced magnetism may be neutralized separately so that control of induced magnetism can be varied as

heading and latitude change without disturbing the fields opposing the vessels permanent field

CHAPTER XIV

DEGAUSSING COMPASS Degaussing effects The degaussing of ships for protection against magnetic mines has created additional effects upon

magnetic compasses that are somewhat different from the permanent and induced magnetic effects usually effects may be considered as effects that

depend upon

1 Number and type of degaussing coils installed

2 Magnetic strength and polarity of the degaussing coils

3 Relative location of the different degaussing coils with respect to the binnacle

4 Presence of masses of steel which would tend to concentrate or distort magnetic fields in the vicinity of the binnacle

5 The fact that degaussing coils are operated with variable current values and with different polarities

as dictated by necessary degaussing The magnetic fields at the binnacle must be considered separately for each degaussing coil The magnetic field

from

any individual degaussing coil will vary with the excitation of the coil and its direction will with changes in the coil polarity

Uncompensated degaussing coil effects create deviations of the compass card and conditions of sluggishness which are similar to and generally larger

than the effects of normal ships magnetism on the magnetic Degaussing compensation The fundamental principle of compass compensation is to create

magnetic fields at the

compass that are at all times equal and opposite to the magnetic effects of the degaussing system To accomplish this it is

necessary to arrange coils about the binnacle so they create opposing effects for each degaussing circuit that affects the

compass These opposing effects can be created directly or by a combination of component parts In most cases it is best to

create the compensating field by a combination of three vectors along mutually perpendicular axes rather than by one to the proper angle Figure 1403

illustrates the concept of the resultant magnetic field established by three perpendicular Figure 1403 Resultant degaussing

field and its equivalent three vector The various standard compass coil installations utilize a threecoil arrangement of one type or another to by

the method Such a group of coils are so that they can be and each group is so connected to its associated degaussing coil that its compensating

effect will with changes in the degaussing coil Degaussing compass coil compensation consists of regulating the current delivered to the coils so

that no change in the

magnetic field occurs at the center of the binnacle when the degaussing coils are energized or the degaussing currents are

varied This regulation is accomplished in a control box by means of control resistors for each degaussing circuit When have once been set their

settings need not be altered with current changes in the degaussing circuits

It is best to check coil installations electrically and compensate at dockside before the ship leaves the yard of compensation is impaired by welding

adjacent ships and moving cranes time and trouble are still saved for the

ship during final compensation at sea All this results from the fact that is the greater part of

45

Ad by Google

Disclaimer: The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program. |