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' Auto Helm 5000 Analog'




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Any reference to Raytheon or
RTN in this manual should be
interpreted as names Raytheon and RTN
are owned by the
Raytheon Company
Installation and Operating Handbook
AUTOHELM 5000
The Autohelm 5000 is a modern high The basic system comprises a Drive Unit
performance autopilot specifically developed and Control Unit by a
for sailing and motor vessels of up to 4013m pluggable multicore cable A complete range
LOA It is exceptionally easy to operate and its of optional remote control accessories are
advanced control circuit gives available which are also pluggable to the
outstanding steering performance Control Unit After fitting the system it is only
The Autohelm 5000 is distinguished by its necessary to make a single adjustment to the
automatic course locking capability which Control Unit inorder to match the systems
permits changeover from manual to automatic response range to the character of a particular
steering by a single pushbutton control From vessel
then on the original heading is rigidly The Autohelm 5000 is exceptionally easy to
maintained by the automatic trim system which install and prepare for sea trials Sound
continuously monitors trim changes and offsets installation however is vital if the systems high
the mean wheel position to compensate In standard of performance and reliability is to be
addition the rate of wheel rotation is regulated achieved The installation notes should be
in proportion to the rate at which the vessel followed carefully and in cases where special
moves off course giving the Autohelm 5000 the advice may be needed you are encouraged to
smooth steering capability of an experienced contact our Technical Sales Department where
helmsman expert assistance is always available
I O SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Autohelm 5000 is a modular system A simple remote control installation is
that can be built up from a minimum number of illustrated in Fig 2 The auxiliary control units to match the individual repeats the
basic working controls of the of a wide range of sailing and control unit and is suitable for vessels The rudder drive system may be
autopilot control to a secondary from a range of rotary linear and position in the case of a drive units to best suit the vessels
yacht for example the auxiliary control steering system provides a watertight cockpit control enabling
The most basic installation Fig 1 consists the control unit to be mounted in a protected
of a control unit by a pluggable position below deck
cable system to a drive unit This installation The full remote control system Fig 3
would be suitable for a motor vessel with a provides the addition of a handheld remote
single enclosed steering position and where no control exists for remote control remote control unit type DO73 may
be plugged directly into the Control socket
DIRECT REMOTE
DRIVE UNIT CONTROL D073
CONTROL UNIT OPTION
20 AMP FUSE
DC 1 Basic System
DRIVE UNIT
20 AMP FUSE
DC 2 Basic Remote Control System
DRIVE UNIT
f CONTROL UNIT
20 AMP
FUSE
1 HAND HELD
REMOTE CONTROL
0093
REMOTE SOCKET m
D C SUPPLY
Ef
AUXILIARY
CONTROL UNIT
Fig 3 Full Remote Contrd System
1 l CONTROL SYSTEM
11 l CONTROL UNIT
The control unit is common to all installations Rotary controls for course alteration rudder
and is provided with six metres of multicore response and sea state are grouped on the
cable with preconnected plugs and sockets to control unit facia together with the to the drive unit It houses the main primary
working controls A secondary gain
control circuit PCB together with the automatic control is inset into the rear case to allow
course following compass system The control adjustment of the systems rudder response
unit case is splash proof but not watertight and range to match the widely differing steering
is therefore intended for mounting in a dry and of both planing and
protected position Two sockets are provided displacement vessels The control unit is
on the rear case for connecting the drive unit suitable for use on 12 volt systems
and remote control system
r i
142mm 5 VI
1 12 REMOTE CONTROL
ACCESSORIES
1 I 3 AUXILIARY CONTROL UN IT
Autopilot control may be transferred to the
auxiliary control unit by depressing the Remote
pushbutton on the main control unit facia The
auxiliary control unit is watertight and designed
for flush mounting in severely exposed
positions
32 81 mm
It is provided with six metres of cable
terminated in a waterproof plug for direct
1 OOmm 3 9U
connection to the control unit A connector is
situated on the rear case for connecting hand
held remote control deck socket
1 14 REMOTE CONTROL UNITS
The remote control is a handheld unit that
enables the autopilot to be overriden and the Auxiliary control Unit DO69 86mm 3 38
vessel to be power steered from anywhere on
board The unit is fitted with a sixmetre flying
lead Type DO73 is suitable for to the Control Unit auxiliary socket 35mm
56mm 22
Type DO93 is fitted with a waterproof plug for I1 to a waterproof deck socket
115 REMOTE SOCKET
The remote socket provides a watertight
socket for the handheld remote control The
socket is supplied with 6 metres of 3 core in a plugfor direct connection to
the Auxiliary Control Unit
1 16 CABLE EXTENSION
The cable extension facilitates the all multicore cables in sixmetre extension cable is terminated waterproof connectors for the cable harness in
the positions shown in
Fig 3 Hand Held Remote Control Unit D093t
Direct Remote Control 0073
1 I 7 CATALOGUE Unit Control Unit DO69
Remote Control DO93
Direct Remote Control DO73
Remote Socket DO91
Cable Extension DO59
DRIVE SYSTEMS 12v only
Rotary Z069
Linear 2070 Remote Socket 2071
12 DRIVE SYSTEMS 121 ROTARY DRIVE UNIT
Mechanical steering systems may be driven by The output shaft is driven by a continuously
either a rotary or linear drive unit Some steering rated servo motor via an efficient reduction
systems are fitted with an autopilot drive shaft gearbox The gearbox is dry lubricated to permit
and in such cases the choice of a rotary drive operation in any attitude A fail safe is In general if a drive clutch
within the gear train engages
shaft exists and lost motion does not exceed automatically when the autopilot is switched to
2 of total rudder movement the rotary drive Duty and will disengage instantly even under
unit becomes the most economic choice In all extreme load when the autopilot is cases the linear drive unit will provide the
to Set
simplest installation since it may be to a tiller link on the rudder stock Total Supply voltage 12 of the
mechanical steering Peak output torque 240lbin also allows the linear drive unit to be
Maximum shaft speed 18 rpm
used to power steer the vessel in the event of Power consumption typical 1 S3 amps
steering linkage failure and this is an important feature In addition minimisation of Suitable for vessels up to
40ft LOA 12m
working parts improves the overall efficiency of
the rudder drive system and reduces lost
motion to an absolute minimum
All vessels with hydraulic steering systems
will require a hydraulic drive unit
175mm 688
2 Holes 12Smm 05 diameter r i
122 LINEAR DRIVE UNIT
The output ram of the linear drive unit is driven Supply voltage 12 volts
by a declutchable ball leadscrew Peak thrust 550lbs 225Kg
which enables the drive unit to be permanently Maximum stroke speed to the rudder stock via a simple crank
tiller arm The drive is automatically engaged Maximum stroke
12in 300mm
by means of an internal friction clutch when the
autopilot is switched to Duty and will Overall length at mid stroke 275in instaltly even under heavy load
Tiller arm length 1 Oin 260mm
when the autopilot is switched to Set or Off 35 rudder
Maximum rudder torque 500lbin
570Nm
Power consumption typical 1 Z3 amps
average
25mm 1 o 207mm 615
Suitable for vessels up to 40ft LOA 12m
51 mm 20
700mm lZ75 I
mm 07 RADIUS
260mm
123 HYDRAULIC DRIVE UNIT Supply voltage 12 volts
The hydraulic drive unit consists of a precision Regulated peak pressure 4501bin2 30 bar
gear pump with integral valve block driven by a Flow control integral rated servo motor A special
check and
pressure balance valve corrects the effects of slip and isolates the pump from the
balance circuit when the autopilot is not sys
Peak flow rate unloaded 40in3mm
650ccmin
Maximum ram capacity 1 5in3 25Occ
Power consumption typical 235 amps
average
Overall length 95in 240mm
L 240mm 95 117mm 46
20 The Atitohalm 5CCC is excepticnally easy tc essential to operate the autopilot via a weathsr
install and prepare for sea trials Sound proof auxiliary control unit The auxiliary control
installation however is vital if the systems high unit would normally be mounted in the cockpit
standard of performance and reliability is to be adjacent to the steering position and the
achieved The installation notes should be control unit situated below in a suitably
followed carefully and in cases where special protected position
advice may be needed you are encouraged to The compass within the control unit is
contact our Technical Sales Department where capable of satisfactory operation at roll and
expert assistance is always available pitch angles of up to r30 degrees The control
unit should therefore be positioned as near to
horizontal as possible to maximise gimbal
21 CONTROL SYSTEM action in all directions In the case of a sailing
yacht where sustained heel angles may on
211 CONTROL UNIT occasions exceed the above limit it will be
The control unit is the most sensitive part of the necessary to readjust the control unit to a near
system and care should be taken to select a horizontal position on each tack To faciliate
mounting position that is reasonably free from this the control units suspension frame should
vibration and protected from external weather be mounted parallel to the direction of the heel
conditions The control unit is mounted in an axis
aluminium frame which can be pivoted to
permit fixing to either horizontal or vertical
surfaces The frame is finally fixed into position 212 AUXILIARY CONTROL UNIT
by two No 8 4mm diameter countersunk head The Auxiliary Control Unit is connected directly
stainless steel or brass screws to the auxiliary connector on the Control Unit
In the case of a vessel with an enclosed The unit is waterproof and should be positioned
wheelhouse it would normally be desirable to close to the steering wheel It is designed for
mount the control unit sufficiently near to the discreet flush mounting and a pattern is
wheel so that the controls are easily accessible provided to assist panel cutting before fitting
to the helmsman However since the control Matching black selftapping screws are
unit incorporates a magnetic compass it is provided to secure the auxiliary control unit
necessary to position it at least 2ft 6in 80cm facia in position A good quality silicone sealant
away from the nearest steering compass in should be used to seal between the facia and
order to avoid devion Df both compasses the mounting panel
Deviation of the control unit compass is much
less critical because of its capability Nevertheless excessive deviation 213 HANDHELD should be avoided as far as possible in order to
maintain uniform sensitivity on all headings The SYSTEM
control unit should thus be mounted as far It is usually desirable to arrange for operation
away as possible from iron or other magnetic of the handheld control unit from anywhere on
devices If any doubt exists the chosen site deck For this purpose up to two remote
should be checked by means of a handbearing sockets may be strategically positioned to
compass The handbearing compass should be make this practical without the need for long
fixed into the chosen position and the vessel and potentially hazardous flying leads on the
swung through 360 degrees Relative handheld unit In the case of a sailing yacht for
differences in reading between the example one socket position in the foredeck
handbearing compass and the main steering area and another in the cockpit usually makes
compass should not vary by more than 20 a perfect arrangement The sockets are flush
degrees mounted and a pattern is provided to simplify
In rare cases even the above extreme panel cutting Matching black tolerance may not be achievable in screws are also supplied
A good quality
which case an alternative site remote from the silicone sealant should be used to seal the position must be selected In such a
between the socket facia and the mounting
case it will be necessary to operate the face When more than one remote through an auxiliary control unit socket is
required the three core near the steering position Installation connecting cables may be paralled together
in steel hulled vessels invariably presents using a standard cable junction box and the advice of a compass connection
to the Auxiliary Control should always be sought
Sarling yachts with a single position are a special case where it is
22 DRIVE SYSTEM
The following notes describe the installation of equally spaced caphead screws and may be
both the rotary and linear drive units rotated through 90 degrees to provide a more
convenient mounting position if required Fig 6
221 ROTARY DRIVE UNIT tn some cases it may be necessary to
fabricate a special frame to mount the drive
The rotary drive unit is coupled to the vessels unit It should be noted that chain tension can
steering mechanism by a simple chain drive exceed 3OOlb l50kg and thus an extremely
Most steering gear manufacturers supply rigid mounting structure is vital to maintain
special autopilot drive attachments and many good chain alignment Installation failures
include this facility as standard frequently occur in this area and as a general
Fig 7 shows recommended rudder hardover rule it is desirable to over engineer the drive
to hardover times for both planing and unit mounting
displacement vessels up to 42 feet 13m LOA
The charts shown in Fig 8 enables the chain
reduction ratio for optimum rate of rudder 322324mm
application to be selected for both planing and 01270 1275
displacement vessels To use the charts it is 1
first necessary to determine the number of turns
of the driven sprocket when the rudder is driven
from hardover to hardover
GRUB 9 469 61 mm
A 40 foot 12m LOA displacement two turns of the driven sprocket to
drive the rudder from hardover to hardover will 19mm
127mm
a chain reduction ratio of approximately 05
3l as indicated by the dotted line on the
chart The table on the left hand side of the Fig 4
chart gives suitable sprocket combinations In
this example the required reduction ratio of 3l
would be best achieved by a 38 tooth by a 13 Mtimcket on the drive unit
It should be borne in mind that the
reduction ratios recommended are for the
average case and that vessels broadly
classified by length and hull type can vary
significantly in steering Selection of the correct chain reduction ratio is
not over critical however and any slight
mismatch can usually be corrected later during
sea trials by an adjustment to the gain control
on the control unit
Standard 3W pitch chain is recommended
for the chain drive Sprockets of 13 15 17 19
and 25 teeth are available as standard
accessories Bore and keyway dimensions for
the drive unit sprocket are detailed in Fig 4 If
sprockets other than those supplied by
Nautech are fitted it is essential that bore and
keyway dimensions specified in Fig 4 are
strictly adhered to The recommended tabulated In Fig 8 are sizes and should be obtainable from
local suppliers of chain drive equipment All
sprockets must be keyed and grub screwed
to their shafts and finally secured with Loctite
The drive unit is mounted by bolting to a
substantial frame member Fig 5 The 1
shaped mounting foot is secured by four
Rrovision must also be rade for chain
adjustment which is most easily achieved by removable shims placed under the mounting TIME foot or by
elongated clearance holes in the
mounting frame as illustrated in Fig 6 Both 40
sprockets must be accurately aligned to run in
the same plane and this must be carefully 1
checked by means of a The grease lubricated gearbox permits
mounting of the drive unit in any convenient
attitude without risk of oil leakage The drive
units sprocket may also face any steering sense can be corrected by
means of a phase switch located in the control
unit
Finally the chain should be tensioned until
it is just tight and contributes negligible lost
motion to the drive system Total lost the driven sprocket attached to the
steering system and the rudder stock should
not exceed 2 of total movement If lost motion
FFFT
exceeds this level it should be steering performance will Fig 7
Fig 8
222 LINEAR DRIVE UNIT
The linear drive unit couples directly to the LINEAR DRIVE
rudder stock at the tiller arm length TILLER ARM LENGTHS
recommended in Fig 9 It is usually INS CM
preferable to couple the linear drive unit to the
rudder stock via an independent tiller arm
Edson offer a standard fitting In certain cases
however it may be possible to couple the 1
pushrod to the same tiller arm or rudder lI Lyy
quadrant employed by the main steering
linkage It is important to note that the linear
drive system can exert a thrust of 550lbs If any
doubt exists about the strength of the existing
tiller arm or rudder quadrant the steering gear
manufacturer must be consulted 5
The method of bolting the pushrod ball end METRES
to the tiller arm or rudder quadrant is illustrated I I 1 1 I I
8 9 10 11 12 13
in Fig 11 It is vitally important that the
FEET
coupling bolt is fully tightened and the nut I I I I
locked by means of the locking tab provided 25 30 35 40
The standard ball end fitting will allow for a LOA
maximum angular misalignment between the
pushrod and the tiller crank plane of rotation of Fig 9
up to 5 Accurate angular alignment is
extremely important and under no
circumstances should the above extreme limits
be exceeded The body of the drive unit is
mounted by bolting to a substantial frame
member Fig 10 As a general rule it is
desirable to over engineer the linear drive
units mounting structure to ensure reliability
and maintenance of correct alignment An
excessively fletibk mount can also severely
impair the steering performance of the
autopilot
It is important to ensure that the total rudder
movement is limited by the rudder stops built
into the vessel rather than the end stops of the
linear drive output
223 HYDRAULIC DRIVE UNIT
The hydraulic drive unitshould be mounted
clear of spraj and the possibility of immersion
in water It should be located as near as
possible to the hydraulic steering cylinder It is
important to bolt the hydraulic drive unit 222mm 8 7
securely to a substantial member to avoid any
possibility of vibration that could damage the
pipework
The drive amplifier Fig 13 should be
mounted between the drive unit and the power
supply batteries in order to minimise the total
length of power cable It should also be
mounted in a position clear of bilge water and
spray The drive amplifier is mounted by first
removing the cover marked Autohelm and 8
bolting or screwing to a suitable vertical Fig 13 Drive Amplifier
bulkhead through the four holes in the base
Fig 14
CONTROL UNIT POWER SUPPLY CABLE
There are three basic types of hydraulic COiVfylECTlON SOCKET fve I
steering system Fig 12 Typical for the drive unit are shown in each case
In all cases it is strongly recommended that
the steering gear manufacturer be
consulted The drive unit valve block is tapped
l4 BSP to accept suitable pipe fittings and
Dowty sealing washers are supplied Fig 15
I DRIVE UNIT
EARTHING TERMINAL CONNECTION
Fig 14 Drive Amplifier Wiring Diagram
Two Line System
Two Line
Pressurised System
Three Line System
RESERVOIR LINE
PRESSURISED
RESERVOIR LINE
Fig 12
Minimisation of hydraulic fluid loss during CONNECTION OF
connection of the drive unit will help to reduce HYDRAULIC LINES TO PUMP
the time and effort required later to bleed the
system of trapped air Absolute cleanliness is DOWTY SEAL
essential since even the smallest particle of
foreign matter could interfere with the correct BSP FITTING
function of precision check valves in the
steering system
When the installation has been completed
the hydraulic pump may be operated by
switching the control unit to Duty and operating
the Steer control Greater motor movements will
be obtained if the gain control on the course
computer is set to No 10 and the rudder Assembly for W BSP Line Fitting
control set to maximum
The hydraulic steering system should be Fig 15
bled according to the DOWTY SEAL
instructions From time to time during the
bleeding process the drive unit should be run I h NPT FllTlNG
in both directions to clear trapped air from the
pump and pipe work
If air is left in the system the steering will
feel spongy particularly when the wheel is
rotated to the hardover position Trapped air will
severely impair correct operation of the
autopilot and the steering system and must be
removed Assembly for ld NPT Line Fitting
During the installation of the system it has
not been necessary to keep track of the
connection sense to the hydraulic since operating sense of the autopilot
can be corrected if necessary by reversing the
polarity of pump drive motor section 331
To check correct phasing of to Duty and rotate the Steer control
ii3 IN3 RECOMMENDED GAI N
clockwise If phasing is correct starboard
rudder movement will result If opposite rudder 50b 3 0 CONTROL occurs reverse the phase to correct as described in
Section 32
The gain control located on the back of the 5
Control Unit sets the rudder response of the
autopilot to match the particular recommended gain control setting is given
in Fig 16
1 ii
I I I II 11 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
GAIN CONTROL AVERAGE SEtllNG
Fig 16
23 CABLING AND POWER SUPPLIES
231 SIGNAL CABLING
Cable between system sub
units are shown schematically in Figs 1 2 and
3 The multicore cable
between the control unit and drive unit is 20
feet 6m long and is supplied with the control
unit All other cables are
supplied with their related subunit and are also
20feet 6m in length All 7 core cables are
supplied with prewired waterproof connectors
and are extendable in 20 feet 6m increments
by the addition of standard cable No 059 as shown in Fig 3
Cable connector clamp nuts should be
securely tightened to ensure watertight joints
All cables should be run at least 3ft 1 m from
existing cables carrying radio frequency or
pulsed signals and should be clamped at 15
foot 05m DC SUPPLY CABLE
As a general rule the DC supply cable to the
drive unit should be kept as short as possible
and have a conductor area of 1 O sqmm per
metre run to minimise voltage of cable Conductor area Cable size
Up to 25m 25 sqmm 4 scpnm 5603mm
The two supply cables must run directly from
the vessels battery or alternatively from the
main distribution panel and a 20 amp fuse or
overload trip should be included in the circuit
It is important not to tap into supplies to other
into supplies to other equipment to avoid of mutual The drive unit is supplied with 15ft 05m
power supply cable tails These should be
connected to the main power supply cable via
a heavyduty terminal block The red cable tail
should be connected to the positive supply and
the black cable to the negative supply If
polarity is accidentally reversed the not operate but no damage will result
The drive unit case must be bonded to the
metal hull or engine frame and a heavy 25mm2 should be used for 30 OPERATION
31 BASIC PRINCIPLES
The following description of the Autohelm 5000 DUTY
principle of operation will help in providing a Push to fully energise the autopilot for
complete understanding of its controls The automatic steering duty
control unit houses an extremely sensitive auto
setting electronic compass When the autopilot REMOTE
is in operation deviation from course is Push to transfer basic automatic pilot control to
continuously monitored by the compass and the auxiliary control unit
corrective rudder is applied by the drive unit to
return the vessel to course The amount of SEA
applied rudder is proportional to the course Rotate to adjust compass sensitivity to suit sea
error at any time and thus when the original conditions In position 0 the compass is fully
course is restored the rudder will be sensitised for operation in calm sea conditions
neutralised The amount of the rudder applied Clockwise rotation to position 7 for a given offcourse error is adjustable to densensitises
the compass for operation in
match both the steering of the rough sea conditions Adjustment of this
vessel and speed through the water A vessel important control is fully discussed later
with a small rudder for example will require
more corrective helm than a similar sized vessel R U D D E R
with a larger rudder Similarly a high speed Rotate to adjust rudder response In position 0
power boat will require considerably less rudder movement is minimised Clockwise
corrective helm at planing speeds than it will at rotation to position 7 progressively increases
lower displacement speeds Fig1 8 the amount of applied rudder Adjustment
The which distinguishes the technique is fully discussed later
Autohelm 5000 is its ability to make automatic
correction for changes in trim or weather helm STEER
When changes in trim occur the set course can Rotate or clockwise to alter
only be maintained by the application of course to port or starboard respectively Each
permanent rudder offset to restore balance scale division represents 5 degrees of course
Many automatic pilots are incapable of this and alteration The steer control will rotate
will allow the vessel to bear on to a new automatically when the control unit is switched
heading to achieve a new state of balance to Set
Under these circumstances the Autoheim 5000 The controls on the rear case are used to
detects that the original course has not been adjust the autopilots response to suit the
restored and will continue to apply additional particular installation and the vessels steering
helm in the appropriate direction until the returns to the original heading This Each control has the following ensures that
the originally set course is GAIN
held irrespective of changes in balance that Presets the overall system gain to occur during the course of a passage for
variations in the mechanical reduction
between the drive unit and the rudder and the
vessels steering For initial sea
32 CONTROLS trial purposes this control is set according to
the given in Fig1 8
321 CONTROL UNIT
Fig1 I shows the position of all controls Each PHASE has the following functions The phase switch is located on the internal
PCB and is accessible by removal of a blank
OFF rubber grommet from the rear case The phase
Push to deenergise the autopilot The electro switch reverses the direction of clutch in the drive unit is disengaged rudder action and its
setting procedure is
for manual steering described later
SET NB Recommended gain control settings for
Push to energise the compass circuit and hydraulic drive installations are given in
initiate the automatic compass setting the hydraulic drive unit The compass is finally set to the
manually steered heading when both the red
and green pilot lights are RECOMMENDED GAIN
CONTROL SETTINGS
GAIN DRIVE UNIT AUXILIARY
CONTROL SOCKET CONTROL SOCKET
METRES
Fig 17 PHASE SWITCH I I I I I 1
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
FEET
322 AUXILIARY CONTROL UNIT I I I I
25 30 35 40
Autopilot control may be transferred to the
auxiliary control unit Fig1 9 by depressing the
Remote pushbutton on the main control unit s I
facia Fig 18
Two independent rotary switches are
provided on the auxiliary control unit The first I
permits Mangeover betweenSet and Duty
modes The second control permits of heading Switch movement to the
left or right initiates course alteration to port or
starboard respectively at approximately one
degree per second
Fig 19
323 REMOTE CONTROL UNIT
The handheld remote control unit Fig20
enables the autopilot to be switched out and
the vessel to be power steered from anywhere
on board Its flying lead may be plugged into CONTROL WHEEL
any one of the remotely positioned waterproof
sockets and should be switched to Auto for
normal automatic steering operation The
autopilot may be overriden by switching to
Manual and the vessel then power steered by
means of the control wheel The automatic trim
system continues to operate in the manual
steering mode and a straight course will be
steered when the boat on the control wheel is
aligned with the remote control centre line The
original course is remembered and will be
resumed immediately the changeover switch is
returned to Auto If the vessel has been power
steered by the remote control for a long period
it is important to check that there is no chance
of collision when the original is acquired by switching back to Auto Fig 26
40 FUNCTIONAL TEST PROCEDURES
The following functional test procedure is 42 AUXILIARY CONTROL UNIT
recommended before attempting sea trials
0 Switch the auxiliary control unit to Set and
then depress Remote on the main control
41 MAIN CONTROL UNIT unit In this position the compass
0 Switch to Set and observe that the compass automatically sets to the present heading
automatically sets to the present heading
The Steer control will rotate while the 0 Switch the auxiliary control unit to Duty and
compass is setting and slow down as the check thatthe drive unit clutch is engaged
null position is approached When the by attempting to rotate the steering wheel
compass is finally set both pilot lights will be
43 MECHANICAL TEST
0 Switch to Duty and check that the drive unit PROCEDURES
clutch is engaged by attempting to rotate
the steering wheel Before attempting sea trials it is important to
verify that the vital link between the Autohelm
0 Adjust the Sea and Rudder controls to 0 5000 drive actuator and the vessels steering
Then adjust the Steer control one or two system is free of obstruction and operating
divisions clockwise and then counter correctly
clockwise The steering wheel should rotate It is strongly advised that the following
in the same direction as the Steer control If simple checks are carried out
opposite wheel rotation occurs reverse the
phase switch A small screwdriver will be Warning
required to operate the phase switch after When the steering system is being moved
removal of the blank rubber grommet from manually or under drive from the actuator do
the rear case not touch any part of the system sprockets
chains or limit stops The forces exerted are
0 Increase Rudder control setting and note considerable and could cause injury
that larger wheel movements result when the
Steer control is adjusted Rotary Drive Unit
Locate the actuator and with an assistant to
Increase theSea control setting and note turn the main steering wheel switch on the pilot
that larger movements of the Steer control
are necessary in either direction before 0 Press Set turn the steering wheel from
steering wheei movement commences hardover to hardover
The automatic trimming capability of the 0 Ensure that the chain and sprockets driving
autopilot can be observed by the following test the actuator move freely and in alignment
Switch to Set to realign the compass Then
switch to Duty and offset the Steer control by 0 Ensure that chain tension is two divisions ie approximately correctly see 221
10 degrees of heading change This a condition where the need for 0 Select Duty and rotate the Rudder helm has developed and the vessel
is several turns to the right to drive the rudder
not returning to course You will notice that after hardover
an initial fixed helm has been applied the drive
unit continues to apply further helm movements 0 When the actuator drives the rudder onto the
but at a much slower rate If left in this condition mechanical limit stops ensure that the
the wheel will eventually rotate hardover If mounting of the drive actuator shows no
however the vessel is moving through the water sign of movement
the progressive application of additional helm
will eventually return the vessel to its original 0 Rotate the Rudder control in the with the necessary standing helm direction
to reverse the rudder drive to the
applied This can be simulated by rotating the opposite end stop Check for any control back to the original The progressive application of
standing helm will cease when the that the original course has Drive Unit Hydraulic System
0 Proceed as for rotary drive unit 0 Proceed as for the rotary drive unit
0 Check that at no point during movement of l Check that all unions are tight and there is
the steering quadrant and linear drive no seepage of hydraulic fluid
actuator from hardover to hardover does the
actuator foul any part of the quadrant l Select Duty and rotate the Rudder control
steering mechanism or yachts structure Any several times to drive the rudder hardover
fouling under load could damage the drive
actuator l Rotate the Rudder control in the opposite
direction and drive the rudder hardover in
0 Check that the Drive actuator operates the opposite direction
horizontally and that angular movement of
the ball end fitting is minimal So maximum 0 Check that the steering ram moves smoothly
and that there is no excessive play or
0 Select Duty and rotate the Rudder control jerkiness in the movement
several times to drive the rudder hardover
The performance of the Autohelm 5000 will
0 When the rudder is driven hardover check only reach the designed levels if the installation
that the mechanical limit stop on the of the actuator and steering system is correctly
vessels steering system is reached before engineered and adjusted It is strongly advised
the actuator reaches its mechanical limit that these be checked before sea trials
0 When the rudder drives hard against the end
stop check there is no visible movement of
the actuator mounting pedestal or the
structure supporting it
0 Rotate the Rudder control in the opposite
direction and repeat the checks with the
rudder driven hardover inthe opposite
SEA TRIALS
Initial sea trials should be carried out in calm 0 When the autopilot is set to Duty return to
conditions and with plenty of sea room The manual steering may be instantly achieved
previously conducted functional test will have by switching to Set or Off on the main
verified that the autopilot is operating correctly control unit It is very important to remember
and that you are familiar with all of its controls that manual control can only be obtained on
Check that the gain control on the rear of the auxiliary control unit if the main control
the control unit is adjusted to the setting unit is switched to Remote The for the particular vessel category of being able to
regain manual control of
given in Fig 31 Then set the Sea control to 0 steering mustbe stressed The Off button is
and the Rudder control to 4 coloured red for easy and
Initial sea trials on fast planing vessels manual takeover procedures should be
should be conducted at no more than half practised at an early stage
engine throttle under which conditions midway setting of the rudder 52 RUDDER CONTROL should give acceptable A midway setting of the
rudder The gain control on the rear of the control unit
control will also give acceptable steering has been previously set according to in sailing and displacement power given in Fig
31 This under all conditions for initial trial sets the range of adjustment available on the
purposes Fine setting of the Rudder control is main panel Rudder control and in all but
discussed later extreme cases should not need further
FIRST TRIALS In all cases excessive rudder application
results in oversteer which can be following initial trial procedure is by the vessel swinging slowly from side to
of the controlled heading In addition distinct
overshoot will be observed when the course is
0 Steer manually on to a fixed heading and changed This extreme condition may be
hold the course steady corrected by reducing the Rudder control
0 Switch the autopilot to Set and allow up to setting
15 seconds for the compass to adjust Similarly insufficient rudder application will
automatically to the manually steered result in sluggish steering response which is
heading particularly apparent when changing course
0 Switch to Duty and the autopilot will using the Steer control This condition is
automatically take control In calm corrected by increasing the Rudder control
conditions an extremely constant heading setting
will be maintained Oversteering and understeering tendencies
0 Increase the setting of the Sea control until are most easily recognised in calm sea
a good heading is achieved with a minimum conditions where wave action does not mask
number of wheel movements Correct setting basic steering performance
of this control for varying sea conditions is The operational adjustment technique for the
essential to avoid unnecessary wear and Rudder control varies significantly between
tear on the autopilot and to minimise planing and displacement craft and is
electrical power consumption described separately below
0 Alter course to port or starboard using the
Steer control on the main control unit or 521 PLANING CRAFT
the LeftRight control on the auxiliary
control unit with the main control unit Planing craft operate over a very large speed
switched to Remote Major course range Rudder effectiveness increases very
alterations are best applied by switching to significantly at higher hull speeds and it is thus
Set and then manually steering the vessel necessary to reduce the Rudder control setting
on to the new heading When the new as speed increases to avoid oversteer In
course is acquired hold for a few seconds normal cases the rudder control setting would
and then switch the autopilot back to Duty be reduced almost to 0 at maximum planing
to maintain the new heading speed and increased towards 7 at minimum
0 If a handheld remote control is fitted switch displacement speeds Oversteer can be
from Auto to Manual and then power steer extremely violent at planing speeds and it is
the vessel by the control wheel Switch back thus essential to reduce the rudder setting
to Auto and the vessel will return promptly before opening the throttle
to the original heading
522 DISPLACEMENT Rudder control setting is much less critical
on this type of vessel and it is not to change the setting for speeds As a general guide initial
testing should be carried out at setting 4 and
reduced as much as possible consistent with
good heading control to minimise wear and
tear on the steering SAILING CRAFT
Sailing craft average hull speeds do not vary
greatly and thus the Rudder control setting can
remain fixed most of the time Initial be carried out at setting 4 Sailing are particularly stable when sailing
close hauled and under these conditions it is
usually possible to reduce the Rudder to minimise rudder movement and
hence power consumption Conversely when
sailing down wind directional stability is least
and improved course holding will result the rudder setting The optimum
range of adjustment is easily found
60 OPERATING HINTS
Unlike sailing yachts power vessels do not It is also worth mentionina the more obvious
generally suffer with violent changes in trim and that is that an autopilot cannot anticipate
and thus provided the operating instructions Sailing downwind in breaking seas needs
are carefully followed extremely good course particular care
holding performance will result in all weather One should avoid sailing under autopilot
conditions when the windis dead astern Ideally the wind
Sailing yachts are very different since in should be brought at least 30 degrees towards
gusting wind conditions violent changes in trim the beam and in breaking seas it is often better
often occur When a yacht is sailing badly out to remove the mainsail altogether and to sail
of balance sudden gusts will generally cause it under boomed out headsail alone
to luff violently to windward When hand Providing you ensure that your vessel is
steering the tendency is overcome by applying properly canvassed for the prevailing
sufficient weather helm to maintain the original conditions your Autohelm 5000 will be capable
heading The Autohelm 5000s automatic to sailing you through gale force winds
weather helm compensation circuit however is Moreover it is at times like this that it will
intended only to take account of the gradual endear itself most of all by leaving you fresh
changes in standing helm that typically occur and alert to sail in safety
when passage making due to changing wind Passage making under automatic pilot is a
conditions wonderful experience that can easily lead you
When a sudden change in helm balance into the temptation of relaxing permanent
occurs the automatic compensation circuit will This must be avoided however
take approximately one minute to restore the clear the sea ahead may appear to be
original heading In gusty conditions the course Remember a large ship can cover two miles in
will tend to meander particularly if the sails are five minutes just the time it takes to brew a
badly balanced Significant improvement to cup of coffee
course keeping can be obtained by ensuring
that sail balance is maintained
Bear in mind the following important points
0 00 notallow the yacht to heel 0 Ease the mainsheet traveller to leeward to
reduce heeling and weather helm
0 If necessary reef the mainsail a little early
70 ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
The autooilot is one of the most used and 3 Check that all cable sockets
hardest working items of equipment on board are fully tightened and free from therefore must receive its fair share of 4 Check that
external waterproof sockets are
attention and routine maintenance The working capped when not in use and of the drive unit and the control unit are spray with WD40 or
similar to protect from
sealed and lubricated for life during manufacture corrosion
and do not need servicing 5 Check that the power supply cable
Regular inspection and routine maintenance connections are tight and free from
of the installation is recommended in the areas
The Autohelm 5000 has an advanced micro
1 Check tension and alignment of the drive electronic circuit requiring special equipment
chain and lubricate with a good quality and knowledge to service In the unlikely event
waterproof light grease of failure occuring in any part of the system you
2 Check for the development of excessive lost are advised to contact your nearest appointed
motion backlash in the steering gear and Service Agent who will provide you with
correct if necessary Lost motion at the wheel competent and efficient service
should not exceed 5 of the total wheel
movement from lock to lock
Nautech Limited Anchorage Park PO3 5TD England Telephone 0705 693611
Fax 0705 694642 Telex 86384 NAUTEC G

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The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.