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FM 5125
Change 1 Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington DC 23 February 2001
Rigging Techniques Procedures
and Change FM 5125 3 October 1995 as follows
Remove Old Pages Insert New Pages
i through iv i through iv
vii and viii vii and viii
115 through 120 115 through 121
237 through 240 237 through 240
2 A bar marks new or changed material
3 File this transmittal sheet in front of the RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimited
ERIC K SHINSEKI
General United States Army
Chief of JOEL B Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
Army Army National Guard and US Army Reserve To be distributed in the initial distribution number 115426 requirements for FM 5125
FM 5125
Field Manual 5125
Department of the Army
Washington DC 3 October 1995
Rigging Techniques
Procedures and Page
LIST OF FIGURES vii
LIST OF TABLES xv
PREFACE xvii
Chapter 1 Rope
Section I Fiber Rope 11
Types of Fibers 11
Vegetable Fibers 11
Synthetic Fibers 13
of Fiber Rope 13
Size 13
Weight 13
Strength 13
Care of Fiber Rope 14
Handling of Fiber Rope 15
Inspection of Fiber Rope 16
Section II Wire Rope 16
Types of WireRope Cores 17
FiberRope Cores 17
Independent WireRope Cores 17
WireStrand Cores RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is manual supersedes TM 5725 3
October 1968
C1 5125
FM FM 5125
Page
of Wire Rope 17
Wire and Strand Combinations 17
Lay 17
of Wire Rope 19
Size 19
Weight 19
Strength 19
Care of Wire Rope 110
Reversing or Cutting Back Ends 111
Cleaning 111
Lubricating 111
Storing 111
Handling of Wire Rope 111
Kinking 112
Coiling 112
Unreeling 112
Seizing 112
Welding 114
Cutting 114
Drums and Sheaves 115
Inspection of Wire Rope 120
Procedures 120
Causes of Failure 2 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
Section I Knots Hitches and Lashings 21
Knots 22
Knots at the End of Rope 24
Knots for Joining Two Ropes 25
Knots for Making Loops 26
Knots for Tightening a Rope 212
Knots for Wire Rope 213
Hitches 217
Half Hitch 217
Two Half Hitches 217
Round Turn and Two Half Hitches 218
Timber Hitch 218
Timber Hitch and Half Hitch 218
Clove Hitch 218
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Page
Rolling Hitch 218
Telegraph Hitch 219
Mooring Hitch 219
Scaffold Hitch 219
Blackwall Hitch 219
Harness Hitch 222
Girth Hitch 222
Sheepshank 223
Fishermans Bend 223
Lashings 224
Square Lashing 224
Shears Lashing 224
Block Lashing 226
Section II Splices 226
FiberRope Splices 226
Short Splice 226
Eye or Side Splice 226
Long Splice 228
Crown or Back Splice 228
WireRope Splices 231
Short Splice 231
Eye or Side Splice 231
Long Splice 232
Section III Attachments 234
End Fittings 235
Clips 235
Clamps 237
Wedge Socket 237
BasketSocket End Fitting 237
Poured Method 237
Stanchions 240
Section IV Rope Ladders 241
Hanging Ladders 241
WireRope Ladders 241
FiberRope Ladders 243
Standoff Ladders 245
FM 5125
Page
Chapter 3 Hoists
Section I Chains and Hooks 31
Chains 31
Strength of Chains 32
Care of Chains 32
Hooks 33
Strength of Hooks 33
Mousing of Hooks 33
Inspection of Chains and Hooks 34
Section II Slings 35
Types of Slings 35
Endless Slings 35
Single Slings 36
Combination Slings 37
Pallets 38
Spreaders 38
Stresses 39
Inspecting and Cushioning Slings 39
Section III Blocks and Tackle Systems 314
Blocks 314
Types of Blocks 314
Reeving of Blocks 316
Tackle Systems 318
Simple Tackle Systems 318
Compound Tackle Systems 318
Friction 320
Section IV Chain Hoists and Winches 322
Chain Hoists 322
Types of Chain Hoists 322
Load Capacity 323
Winches 324
Ground Angle 324
Fleet Angle 324
Spanish Windlass 325
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List of Figures
Page
Figure 11 Cordage of rope construction l2
Figure 12 Uncoiling and coiling rope 15
Figure 13 Elements of wirerope construction 16
Figure 14 Arrangement of strands in wire rope 18
Figure 15 Wirerope lays 18
Figure 16 Measuring wire rope 19
Figure 17 Kinking in wire rope 112
Figure 18 Unreeling wire rope 113
Figure 19 Uncoiling wire rope 113
Figure 110 Seizing wire rope 114
Figure 111 Wirerope cutter 115
Figure 112 Avoiding reverse bends in wire rope 117
Figure 113 Spooling wire rope from reel to drum 117
Figure 114 Determining starting flange of wire rope 118
Figure 115 Winding wirerope layers on a drum 119
Figure 116 Lay length 120
Figure 117 Unserviceable wire rope 121
Figure 21 Elements of knots bends and hitches 21
Figure 22 Whipping the end of a rope 23
Figure 23 Overhand knot 24
Figure 24 Figureeight knot 24
Figure 25 Wall knot 25
Figure 26 Crown on a wall knot 26
Figure 27 Square knot 27
Figure 28 Single sheet bend 27
Figure 29 Double sheet bend 28
Figure 210 Carrick bend 28
Figure 211 Bowline 29
Figure 212 Double bowline 210
FM 5125
Page
Figure 213 Running bowline 210
Figure 214 Bowline on a bight 211
Figure 215 Spanish bowline 212
Figure 216 French bowline 212
Figure 217 Speir knot 213
Figure 218 Catspaw 213
Figure 219 Figure eight with an extra turn 214
Figure 220 Butterfly knot 214
Figure 221 Baker bowline 215
Figure 222 Half hitches 217
Figure 223 Round turn and two half hitches 218
Figure 224 Timber hitch 218
Figure 225 Timber hitch and half hitch 218
Figure 226 Clove hitch 219
Figure 227 Rolling hitch 220
Figure 228 Telegraph hitch 220
Figure 229 Mooring hitch 221
Figure 230 Scaffold hitch 221
Figure 231 Blackwall hitch 222
Figure 232 Harness hitch 222
Figure 233 Girth hitch 223
Figure 234 Sheepshank 223
Figure 235 Fishermans bend 224
Figure 236 Square lashing 225
Figure 237 Shears lashing 225
Figure 238 Block lashing 226
Figure 239 Renewing rope strands 227
Figure 240 Short splice for fiber rope 227
Figure 241 Eye or side splice for fiber rope 228
Figure 242 Long splice for fiber rope 229
Figure 243 Crown or back splice for fiber rope 230
Figure 244 Tools for wire splicing 232
Figure 245 Tucking wirerope strands 232
Figure 246 Eye splice with thimble for wire rope 233
Figure 247 Hasty eye splice for wire rope 233
viii
FM 5125
Wire rope
cutter
Blade
Seizings
Figure 111 Wirerope cutter
the two central seizings Push the blade other in addition to bending Keep this
down against the wire rope and strike the bending and moving of wires to a minimum
top of the blade sharply with a sledge ham to reduce wear If the sheave or drum
mer several times Use the bolt clippers on diameter is sufficiently large the loss of
wire rope of fairly small diameter however strength due to bending wire rope around
use an oxyacetylene torch on wire rope of it will be about 5 or 6 percent In all cases
any diameter The hacksaw and cold chisel keep the speed of the rope over the sheaves
are slower methods of cutting or drum as slow as is consistent with effi
cient work to decrease wear on the rope It
DRUMS AND SHEAVES is impossible to give an absolute minimum
The size and location of the sheaves and size for each sheave or drum since a num
drums about which wire rope operates and ber of factors enter into this decision How
the speed with which the rope passes over ever Table 14 page 116 shows the
the sheaves have a definite effect on the minimum recommended sheave and drum
ropes strength and service life diameters for several wirerope sizes The
sheave diameter always should be as large
as possible and except for very flexible
Size
rope never less than 20 times the wire
Each time wire rope is bent the individual rope dia meter This figure has been
strands must move with respect to each adopted widely
Rope FM 5125
Table 14 Minimum tread diameter of drums and sheaves
Rope Minimum Tread Diameter for Given Rope
Diameter Construction inches
inches
6x7 6 x 19 6 x 37 8 x 19
14 10 12 8 12 6 12
38 15 34 12 34 6 34 9 34
12 21 17 9 13
58 26 14 21 14 11 14 16 14
34 31 12 25 12 13 12 19 12
78 36 34 29 34 15 34 22 34
1 42 34 18 26
1 18 47 14 38 14 20 14 29 14
1 14 52 12 42 12 22 12 32 12
1 12 63 51 27 39
Rope construction is strands and wires per strand
Location in smooth layers Overlapping results in
binding causing snatches on the line when
You should reeve the drums sheaves and
blocks used with wire rope and place them the rope is unwound To produce smooth lay
in a manner to avoid reverse bends when ers start the rope against one flange of the
ever possible see Figure 112 A reverse drum and keep tension on the line while
bend occurs when rope bends in one direc winding Start the rope against the right or
tion around one block drum or sheave and left flange as necessary to match the direc
bends in the opposite direction around the tion of winding so that when it is rewound
next This causes the individual wires and on the drum the rope will curve in t h e
strands to do an unnecessary amount of same manner as when it left the reel which increases wear Where you
Figure 113 A convenient method for deter
must use a reverse bend the block sheave mining the proper flange of the drum for
or drum causing the reversal should be of starting the rope is known as the hand rule
larger diameter t h a n o r d i n a r i l y u s e d
see Figure 114 page 118 The the bend as far apart as possible so
there will be more time allowed between index finger in this figure points at the on
the bending motions winding rope The turns of the rope are
wound on the drum close together to prevent
the possibility of crushing and abrasion of
Winding the rope while it is winding and to prevent
Do not overlap wirerope turns when wind binding or snatching when it is unwound If
ing them on the drum of a winch wrap them ne ce ssa r y use a wood stick to force the
116 Rope
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Block
Drum Drum
Block
1 2
INCORRECT
Block
Drum
Drum
Block
3 4
112 Avoiding reverse bends in wire rope
Reel
Drum
Reel
113 Spooling wire rope from reel to drum
Rope FM 5125
For rightlay rope For leftlay rope
use right hand use left hand
For overwind on drum For underwind on drum For overwind on drum For underwind on drum
The palm is down The palm is up facing The palm is down The palm is up facing
facing the drum the drum facing the drum the drum
The index finger points The index finger points The index finger points The index finger points
at onwinding rope at onwinding rope at onwinding rope at onwinding rope
The index finger must The index finger must The index finger must The index finger must
be closest to the be closest to the be closest to the be closest to the
leftside flange rightside flange rightside flange leftside flange
The wind of the rope The wind of the rope The wind of the rope The wind of the rope
must be from left to must be from right to must be from right to must be from left to
right along the drum left along the drum left along the drum right along the drum
If a smoothface drum has been cut or scored by an old rope
the methods shown may not apply
Figure 114 Determining starting flange of wire rope
turns closer together Striking the wire with layer however cross each turn of the rope
a hammer or other metal object damages in the second layer over two turns of the
the individual wires in the rope If possi first layer see Figure 115 Wind the third
b l e w i n d o n l y a si n g l e l a y e r o f w i r e layer in the grooves of the second layer
rope on the drum Where it is necessary to however each turn of the rope will cross
wind additional layers wind them so as over two turns of the second layer
to eliminate the binding Wind the second
layer of turns over the first layer by placing
the wire in the grooves formed by the Rope
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Crossover two turns
Crossover to of the second layer
second groove
Turn back and first Five turns on Starting third layer
crossover for second layer
second layer
Figure 115 Winding wirerope layers on a drum
Rope 119
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INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPE
Inspect wire rope frequently Replace Replace the wire rope when 125 per
frayed kinked worn or corroded rope The cent of the total rope wires are of inspection is determined by in one strand in one lay
the amount of use A rope that is used 1 or
2 hours a week requires less frequent inspec Replace wire rope with 200 or more
tion than one that is used 24 hours a day wires 6 x 37 class when the surface
wires show flat wear spots equal in
width to 80 percent of the diameter of
PROCEDURES the wires On wire rope with inspect the weak points in rope and fewer total wires 6 x 7 7 x 7 7 x
and the points where the greatest stress 19 replace it when the flat wear spot
occurs Worn spots will show up as shiny width is 50 percent of the wire spots on the wires ter
Inspect broken wires to determine whether Replace the wire if it is kinked or if
it is a single broken wire or several wires there is evidence of a popped core or
Rope is unsafe if broken wire strands protruding from
the core strand See Figure 117
Individual wires are broken next to
one another causing unequal load dis Replace the wire rope if there is evi
tribution at this point dence of an electrical arc strike or
other thermal damage or crushing
Replace the wire rope when 25 per damage
cent of the total rope wires are broken
in the length of one lay which is the Replace the wire rope if there is evi
length along the rope that a strand dence of birdcage damage due to
makes one complete spiral around the shock unloading See Figure 117
rope core See Figure 116
One lay
Figure 116 Lay Rope
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Popped core
Birdcage
Figure 117 Unserviceable wire rope
CAUSES OF FAILURE Overwinding or crosswinding it on
drums
Wire rope failure is commonly caused by
Operating it over drums and sheaves
Sizing constructing or grading it
that are out of alignment
incorrectly
Permitting it to jump sheaves
Allowing it to drag over obstacles
Subjecting it to moisture or acid
Lubricating it improperly
fumes
Operating it over drums and sheaves
Permitting it to untwist
of inadequate size
Kinking
Rope 121
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applying the working load and at fre
quent intervals thereafter Retightening is
necessary to compensate for the decrease in
rope diameter that occurs when the to the lengthwise strain caused by the
load Position the clips so that they accessible for inspection CLAMPS
A wire clamp can be used with or without a
thimble to make an eye in wire rope see Fig
ure 251 Ordinarily use a clamp to make
an eye without a thimble It has about 90
percent of the strength of the rope Tighten
the two end collars with wrenches to force
the clamp to a good snug fit This crushes
the pieces of rope firmly against each other
Figure 251 Wirerope clamps
WEDGE SOCKET
Use a wedgesocket end fitting when it is tapered socket The loop of wire rope to change the fitting at frequent be inserted in the
wedge socket so that the
intervals see Figure 252 page 238 The standing part of the wire rope will form a
efficiency is about twothirds of the strength nearly direct line to the clevis pin of the fit
of the rope It is made in two parts The ting A properly installed wedgesocket con
socket itself has a tapered opening for the nection will tighten when a strain is placed
wire rope and a small wedge to go into this on the wire rope
BASKETSOCKET END FITTING
The basketsocket end fittings include closed POURED open sockets and bridge sockets
The poured basket socket is the most satis
see Figure 253 page 238 This socket is
factory method in use see Figure 254 attached to the end of the rope
239 If the socketing is properly done a
with molten zinc and is a permanent end
wire rope when tested to destruction will
rifting If this fitting is properly made up it
is as strong as the rope itself In all cases break before it will pull out from the socket
the wire rope should lead from the socket in
line with the axis of the socket
WARNING
Never use babbitt lead or dry method to
attach a basket socket end fitting
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125
Live end Add clamp and
Live end short cable
Dead splice
Dead
6 to 9 times end
diameter
Entering
wrong side
Not long
enough
CAUTION
RIGHT Never clamp the live end to the dead
WRONG end Add the clamp and the short cable
splice to the dead end as shown above
Figure 252 Wedge socket
Wedge Bridge Open Closed
socket socket socket socket
Figure 253 Basketsocket end Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
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Spread the wires in
each strand
Unlay the strands equal
to the length of the
socket
Pour in molten
zinc
Pull the rope
into the socket Place putty or
clay here
2 3
Figure 254 Attaching basket sockets by pouring
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 239
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DRY METHOD method see Figure 255 The strength of
the connection must be assumed to be
The dry method should be used only when reduced to about onesixth of the are not available for the poured of a poured zinc connection
standard pipe stanchion is made up of a modifying it for a suspended diameter pipe see Figure 256 Each that uses two wire ropes on each is 40
inches long Two 34inch However for handlines remove or clips are fastened through holes in off the lower wirerope clip For more infor
the pipe with the centers of the clips 36 mation on types and uses of apart Use this stanchion without see TM Knots Splices
Attachments and Ladders
FM 5125
Field Manual 5125 Department of the Army
Washington DC 3 October RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is publication supersedes TM 5725 3 October 1968
FM 5125
FM 5125
FM 5125
FM of Figures
FM 5125
viii
FM 5125
FM 5125
List of Tables
FM 5125
manual is a guide and basic reference for personnel whose duties require the use of rig
ging It is intended for use in training and as a reference manual for field operations It cov
ers the types of rigging and the application of fiber rope wire rope and chains used in
various combinations to raise or move heavy loads It includes basic instructions on splices lashing and tackle systems Safety precautions and
requirements for the
various operations are listed as well as rules of thumb for rapid safeload material contained herein is applicable to both nuclear and nonnuclear
warfare
The proponent for this publication is Headquarters HQ United States US Army Train
ing and Doctrine Command TRADOC Users of this manual are encouraged to submit rec
ommended changes or comments on Department of the Army DA Form 2028 and forward
them to Commandant US Army Engineer School ATTN ATSETPDP Fort Leonard
Wood Missouri otherwise stated masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men
xiii
FM 5125
CHAPTER 1
Rope
Section 1 Fiber Rope
In the fabrication of fiber rope a number in the opposite direction puts the rope in
of fibers of various plants are twisted balance and prevents its elements from
together to form yarns These yarns are unlaying when a load is suspended on it
then twisted together in the opposite direc The principal type of fiber rope is the
tion of the fibers to form strands see Figure threestrand right lay in which three
11 page 12 The strands are twisted in strands are twisted in a righthand direc
the opposite direction of the yarns to form tion Fourstrand ropes which are also
the completed rope The direction of twist of available are slightly heavier but are
each element of the rope is known as the weaker than threestrand ropes of the
lay of that element Twisting each element same diameter
TYPES OF FIBERS
The term cordage is applied collectively to Manila
ropes and twines made by twisting together This is a strong fiber that comes from the
vegetable or synthetic fibers leaf stems of the stalk of the abaca plant
which belongs to the banana family The
VEGETABLE FIBERS fibers vary in length from 12 to 45 meters
The principal vegetable fibers are abaca 4 to 15 feet in the natural states The
known as Manila sisalana and henequen quality of the fiber and its length give
both known as sisal hemp and some Manila rope relatively high coir cotton and jute The last three strength and resistance to wear and
dete
are relatively unimportant in the heavy rioration The manufacturer treats the
rope with chemicals to make it more mil
cordage field
dew resistant which increases the ropes
Abaca sisalana and henequen are classi quality Manila rope is generally the stan
fied as hard fibers The comparative dard item of issue because of its of the vegetable fibers consider and relative strength
ing abaca as 100 are as follows
Sisalana 80 Sisal
Henequen 65 Sisal rope is made from two tropical
plants sisalana and henequen that pro
Hemp 100 duce fibers 06 to 12 meters 2 to 4 feet
Rope 11
FM Sisalana produces the stronger fibers yarn Since hemp absorbs much better
of the two plants so the rope is known as than the hard fibers these fittings are
sisal Sisal rope is about 80 percent as invariably tarred to make them more
strong as high quality Manila rope and can Tarred hemp has about
be easily obtained It withstands exposure 80 percent of the strength of untarred
to sea water very well and is often used for hemp Of these tarred fittings marline is
this reason the standard item of issue
Hemp Coir and Cotton
This tall plant is cultivated in many parts of Coir rope is made from the fiber of coconut
the world and provides useful fibers for husks It is a very elastic rough rope
making rope and cloth Hemp was used about onefourth the strength of hemp before the introduction of light enough to float on
water but its principal use today is in fit makes a very smooth white rope that with
tings such as ratline marline and spun stands much bending and running These
12 Rope
FM 5125
two types of rope are not widely used in the SYNTHETIC however cotton is used in some
cases for very small lines The principal synthetic fiber used for rope
is nylon It has a tensile strength nearly
three times that of Manila The advantage
Jute of using nylon rope is that it is is the glossy fiber of either of two East and has the ability to stretch absorb
Indian plants of the linden family used shocks and resume normal length It also
chiefly for sacking burlap and cheaper vari resists abrasion rot decay and fungus
eties of twine and rope growth
OF FIBER ROPE
Fiber rope is characterized by its size the SWC of rope divide the BS by a and strength of safety FS
SWC BSFS
SIZE
A new linch diameter Number 1 Manila
Fiber rope is designated by diameter up to rope has a BS of 9000 pounds see
58 inch then it is designated by circumfer Table 11 To determine the ropes SWC
ence up to 12 inches or more For this rea divide its BS 9000 pounds by a minimum
son most tables give both the diameter and standard FS of 4 The result is a SWC of fiber rope 2250 pounds This means that
you can
safely apply 2250 pounds of tension to the
new linch diameter Number 1 Manila
WEIGHT rope in normal use Always use a FS
The weight of rope varies with use weather because the BS of rope becomes added and other after use and exposure to weather Table 11
page 14 lists the weight tions In addition a FS is required because
of new fiber rope of shock loading knots sharp bends and
other stresses that rope may have to with
stand during its use Some of these
STRENGTH stresses reduce the strength of rope as
Table 11 lists some of the properties of much as 50 percent If tables are not avail
Manila and sisal rope including the break able you can closely approximate the SWC
ing strength B S which is the greatest by a rule of thumb The rule of thumb for
the SWC in tons for fiber rope is equal to
stress that a material is capable of with the square of the rope diameter D in
standing without rupture The table shows inches
that the minimum BS is considerably 2
greater than the safe load or the safe work SWC D
ing capacity SWC This is the maximum The SWC in tons of a l2inch diameter
load that can safely be applied to a particu fiber rope would be 12 inch squared or 14
lar type of rope The difference is caused by ton The rule of thumb allows a FS of
the application of a safety factor To obtain about 4
Rope 13
FM 5125
CARE OF FIBER ROPE
The strength and useful life of fiber rope is grit between the fibers cuts them and
shortened considerably by improper care reduces the ropes strength
To prolong its life and strength observe the
Slacken taut lines before they are
following guidelines exposed to rain or dampness because
Ensure that it is dry and then stored in a wet rope shrinks and may break
a cool dry place This reduces the pos Thaw a frozen rope completely before
sibility of mildew and rotting using it otherwise the frozen fibers
will break as they resist bending
Coil it on a spool or hang it from pegs
in a way that allows air circulation Avoid exposure to excessive heat and
fumes of chemicals heat or boiling
Avoid dragging it through sand or dirt water decreases rope strength about
or pulling it over sharp edges Sand or 20 Rope
FM 5125
HANDLING OF FIBER ROPE
New rope is coiled bound and wrapped in the end of the rope This should be at the
burlap The protective covering should not bottom of the coil see Figure 12 If it is
be removed until the rope is to be used This not turn the coil over so the end is at the
protects it during storage and prevents tan bottom Pull the end up through the center
gling To open the new rope strip off the of the coil As the rope comes up it wrapping and look inside the coil for in a
Rope 15
FM 5125
INSPECTION OF FIBER ROPE
The outside appearance of fiber rope is not or broken yarns ordinarily are easy to iden
always a good indication of its internal con tify Dirt and sawdustlike material inside a
dition Rope softens with use Dampness rope caused by chafing indicate damage
heavy strain fraying and breaking of In rope having a central core the core
strands and chafing on rough edges all should not break away in small pieces when
weaken it considerably Overloading rope examined If it does this is an cause it to break with possible heavy that a rope has been to material and
serious injury to If a rope appears to be satisfactory in For this reason inspect it care other respects pull out two fibers and try to
fully at regular intervals to determine its break them Sound fibers should offer Untwist the strands slightly to siderable resistance to breakage
When you
open a rope so that you can examine the find conditions destroy a
inside Mildewed rope has a musty odor rope or cut it up in short pieces to prevent
and the inner fibers of the strands have a its being used in hoisting You can use the
dark stained appearance Broken strands short pieces for other purposes
Section II Wire Rope
The basic element of wire rope is the individ usually wound or laid together in the opposite
ual wire which is made of steel or iron in vari direction of the lay of the strands Strands
ous sizes Wires are laid together to form are then wound around a central core that
strands and strands are laid together to form supports
and maintains the position of
rope see Figure 13 Individual wires are strands during bending and load Rope
FM 5125
In some wire ropes the wires and strands completed rope As a result preformed wire
are preformed Preforming is a method of rope does not contain the internal the wires in the strands and the found in the
nonpreformed wire rope in the rope into the permanent heli fore it does not untwist as easily and is
cal or corkscrew form they will have in the more flexible than nonpreformed wire rope
TYPES OF WIRE ROPE CORES
The core of wire rope may be constructed of of the core and distortion of the rope strand
fiber rope independent wire rope or a wire Furthermore if the rope is subjected to
strand excessive heat the vegetable or synthetic
fibers may be damaged
FIBERROPE CORES
INDEPENDENT WIREROPE CORES
The fiberrope core can be of vegetable or
synthetic fibers It is treated with a special Under severe conditions an that helps keep wire rope lubri wirerope core is normally
used This is
cated internally Under tension wire rope actually a separate smaller wire rope forcing the lubricant from the core acts as a core and
adds strength to the rope
into the rope This type of core also acts as a
cushion for the strands when they are under WIRESTRAND CORES
stress preventing internal crushing of indi
vidual wires The limitations of fiberrope A wirestrand core consists of a single
cores are reached when pressure such as strand that is of the same or a more on the drum results in the collapse construction than
the main rope strands
OF WIRE ROPE
Wire rope is classified by the number of rope because many inner strands are pro
strands the number of wires per strand the tected from abrasion by the outer construction and the type of lay The stiffest and
strongest type for general
use is the 6by19 rope It may be used over
WIRE AND STRAND COMBINATIONS sheaves of large diameter if the speed is
kept to moderate levels It is not suitable
Wire and strand combinations vary accord for rapid operation or for use over small
ing to the purpose for which a rope is sheaves because of its stiffness The see Figure 14 page 18 Rope wire rope is the
least flexible of the stan
with smaller and more numerous wires dard rope It can withstand
is more flexible however it is less resistant abrasive wear because of the large outer
to external abrasion Rope made up of a number of larger wires is more resis
tant to external abrasion but is less flexible
The 6by37 wire rope 6 strands each made
up of 37 wires is the most flexible of the Lay refers to the direction of winding of
standard sixstrand ropes This flexibility wires in strands and strands in rope see
allows it to be used with small drums and Figure 15 page 18 Both may be wound in
sheaves such as on cranes It is a very efficient the same direction or they may be wound in
Rope 17
FM 5125
the supported load such as in drill rods and
tubes for deepwell drilling
Lang Lay
In lang lay strands and wires are wound in
the same direction Because of the greater
length of exposed wires lang lay assures
longer abrasion resistance of wires less
radial pressure on small diameter sheaves
or drums by rope and less binding stresses
in wire than in regular lay wire rope Disad
vantages of lang lay are its tendencies to
kink and unlay or open up the directions The three types of rope which makes it undesirable for use where
lays are grit dust and moisture are present The
standard direction of lang lay is right
Regular strands and wires wound right although it
Lang also comes in left lay strands and wires
wound left
Reverse
Reverse Lay
Regular Lay In reverse lay the wires of any strand are
In regular lay strands and wires are wound wound in the opposite direction of the wires
in opposite directions The most common lay in the adjacent strands Reverse lay applies
in wire rope is right regular lay strands to ropes in which the strands are alternately
regular lay and lang lay The use of reverse
wound right wires wound left Left regular lay rope is usually limited to certain types of
lay strands wound left wires wound right conveyors The standard direction of lay is
is used where the untwisting rotation of the right strands wound right as it is for both
rope counteracts the unscrewing forces in regularlay and langlay ropes
18 Rope
FM 5125
OF WIRE ROPE
Wire rope is characterized by its size of safety must be provided when applying a
weight and strength load to a wire rope the BS is divided by an
appropriate FS to obtain the SWC for that
SIZE particular type of service see Table 13
page 111
The size of wire rope is designated by its
diameter in inches To determine the size of You should use the FS given in Table 13 in
a wire rope measure its greatest diameter all cases where rope will be in service for a
see Figure 16 considerable time As a rule of thumb you
can square the diameter of wire rope in
WEIGHT inches and multiply by 8 to obtain the SWC
in tons
The weight of wire rope varies with the size 2
and the type of construction No rule of SWC 8D
thumb can be given for determining the A value obtained in this manner will not
weight Approximate weights for certain always agree with the FS given in Table 13
sizes are given in Table 12 page 110 The table is more accurate The proper FS
depends not only on loads applied but also
STRENGTH on the
The strength of wire rope is determined by Speed of the size and grade and the method of fabrica Type of fittings used for securing the
tion The individual wires may be made of rope ends
various materials including traction steel
mild plow steel MPS improved plow steel Acceleration and and extra IPS Since a suitable margin Length of the rope
Rope 19
FM 5125
Number size and location of sheaves Possible loss of life and property if the
and drums rope fails
Factors causing abrasion and corrosion Table 12 shows comparative BS of typical
Facilities for inspection wire ropes
CARE OF WIRE ROPE
Caring for wire rope properly includes and storing it When working with the ends and cleaning lubricating rope you should wear work Rope
FM 5125
on a used wire rope Remove rust at regu
lar intervals by using a wire brush Always
clean the rope carefully just before lubricat
ing it The object of cleaning at that time is
to remove all foreign material and old
lubricant from the valleys between the
strands and from the spaces between the
outer wires to permit the newly applied
lubricant free entrance into the rope
LUBRICATING
At the time of fabrication a lubricant is
applied to wire rope However this lubri
cant generally does not last throughout the
life of the rope which makes necessary To lubricate use a good grade of
oil or grease It should be free of acids and
REVERSING OR CUTTING BACK ENDS alkalis and should be light enough to pene
trate between the wires and strands Brush
To obtain increased service from wire rope the lubricant on or apply it by passing the
it is sometimes advisable to either reverse or rope through a trough or box containing the
cut back the ends Reversing the ends is lubricant Apply it as uniformly as possible
more satisfactory because frequently the throughout the length of the rope
wear and fatigue on rope are more severe at
certain points than at others To reverse the
ends detach the drum end of the rope from STORING
the drum remove the rope from the and place the drum end of the If wire rope is to be stored for any length of
rope in the end attachment Then fasten the time you should always clean and lubri
end that you removed from the end attach cate it first If you apply the lubricant prop
ment to the drum Cutting back the end has erly and store the wire in a place that is
a similar effect but there is not as much protected from the weather and from chem
change involved Cut a short length off the icals and fumes corrosion will be virtually
end of the rope and place the new end in the eliminated Although the effects of thus removing the section that has and corrosion of the
wires and the greatest local fatigue
of the fiber core are difficult to estimate it
is certain that they will sharply decrease
CLEANING the strength of the rope Before or steaming will remove most of coil the rope on a spool and tag it properly
the dirt or grit that may have accumulated as to size and length
HANDLING OF WIRE ROPE
Handling wire rope may involve kinking coil handling wire rope you should wear
ing unreeling seizing welding cutting work gloves
or the use of drums and sheaves When
Rope 111
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KINKING handling loose wire rope small loops When removing wire rope from a reel or
frequently form in the slack portion see Fig coil it is imperative that the reel or coil
ure 17 If you apply tension while these rotate as the rope unwinds Mount the reel
loops are in position they will not as shown in Figure 18 Then pull the out but will form sharp kinks from the reel by holding
the end of the in unlaying of the rope You
should straighten out all of these loops and walking away from the reel which
before applying a load After a kink has rotates as the rope unwinds If wire rope is
formed in wire rope it is impossible to in a small coil stand the coil on end and roll
remove it Since the strength of the rope is it along the ground see Figure 19 If damaged at the point where a kink form in the wire rope
carefully cut out that portion before using the them before they form kinks
rope again
SEIZING
COILING
Seizing is the most satisfactory method of
Small loops or twists will form if rope is binding the end of a wire rope wound into the coil in a direction that welding will also hold
the ends together sat
is opposite to the lay Coil leftlay wire rope isfactorily The seizing will last as long as
in a direction and right
lay wire rope in a clockwise direction desired and there is no danger of weaken
ing the wire through the application of heat
Wire rope is seized as shown in Figure 110
page 114 There are three convenient rules
for determining the number of seizings
lengths and space between seizings In
each case when the calculation results in a
fraction use the next larger whole num
ber The following calculations are based on
a 4inch diameter wire rope
The number of seizings to be applied
equals approximately three times the
diameter of the rope number of seiz
ings SD
Example 3 x 34 D 2 14 Use 3
seizings
Each seizing should be 1 to 1 12 times
as long as the diameter of the rope
length of seizing 1 12D
The seizings should be spaced a dis
tance apart equal to twice the diameter
spacing 2D
Example 2 x 34 D 1 12 Use 2inch
Rope
FM 113
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Note Always change the fraction apply more heat than is essential to fuse the
to the next larger whole number metal
WELDING CUTTING
You can bind wirerope ends together by fus You can cut wire rope with a wirerope cut
ing or welding the wires This is a satisfac ter a cold chisel a hacksaw bolt clippers or
tory method if you do it carefully as it does an oxyacetylene cutting torch see Figure
not increase the size of the rope and requires 111 Before cutting wire rope tightly bind
little time to complete Before welding rope the strands to prevent unlaying Secure the
cut a short piece of the core out of the end so ends that are to be cut by seizing or welding
that a clean weld will result and the core them To use the wirerope cutter insert
will not be burned deep into the rope Keep the wire rope in the bottom of the cutter
the area heated to a minimum and do not with the blade of the cutter coming Rope
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the two central seizings Push the blade other in addition to bending Keep this
down against the wire rope and strike the bending and moving of wires to a minimum
top of the blade sharply with a sledge ham to reduce wear If the sheave or drum
mer several times Use the bolt clippers on diameter is sufficiently large the loss of
wire rope of fairly small diameter however strength due to bending wire rope around
use an oxyacetylene torch on wire rope of it will be about 5 or 6 percent In all cases
any diameter The hacksaw and cold chisel keep the speed of the rope over the sheaves
are slower methods of cutting or drum as slow as is consistent with effi
cient work to decrease wear on the rope It
DRUMS AND SHEAVES is impossible to give an absolute minimum
size for each sheave or drum since a num
The size and location of the sheaves and
drums about which wire rope operates and ber of factors enter into this decision How
the speed with which the rope passes over ever Table 14 page 116 shows the
the sheaves have a definite effect on the minimum recommended sheave and drum
ropes strength and service life diameters for several wirerope sizes The
sheave diameter always should be as large
as possible and except for very flexible
Size rope never less than 20 times the wire
Each time wire rope is bent the individual rope diameter This figure has been
strands must move with respect to each adopted widely
Rope 115
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Location in smooth layers Overlapping results in
You should reeve the drums sheaves and binding causing snatches on the line when
blocks used with wire rope and place them the rope is unwound To produce smooth lay
in a manner to avoid reverse bends when ers start the rope against one flange of the
ever possible see Figure 112 A reverse drum and keep tension on the line when rope bends in one direc winding Start the rope against the right
tion around one block drum or sheave and left flange as necessary to match the direc
bends in the opposite direction around the tion of winding so that when it is rewound
next This causes the individual wires and on the drum the rope will curve in the
strands to do an unnecessary amount of same manner as when it left the which increases wear Where you see Figure 113 page 118 A use a
reverse bend the block sheave method for determining the proper flange of
or drum causing the reversal should be of the drum for starting the rope is known as
larger diameter than ordinarily used the hand rule see Figure 114 page 119
Space the bend as far apart as possible so
there will be more time allowed between The extended index finger in this figure
the bending motions points at the onwinding rope The turns of
the rope are wound on the drum close
together to prevent the possibility of crush
Winding ing and abrasion of the rope while it is wind
Do not overlap wirerope turns when wind ing and to prevent binding or snatching
ing them on the drum of a winch wrap them when it is unwound If necessary use a
116 Rope
FM stick be to force the turns closer wire in the grooves formed by the Striking the wire with a hammer layer however cross each turn of
the rope
or other metal object damages the individ in the second layer over two turns of the
ual wires in the rope If possible wind first layer see Figure 115 page 120
only a single layer of wire rope on the Wind the third layer in the grooves of the
drum Where it is necessary to wind addi second layer however each turn of the
tional layers wind them so as to elimi rope will cross over two turns of the second
nate the binding Wind the second layer of layer
turns over the first layer by placing the
INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPE
Inspect wire rope frequently Replace the amount of use A rope that is used 1 or
frayed kinked worn or corroded rope The 2 hours a week requires less frequent of inspection is determined by tion than one that is used 24 hours a
Rope 117
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PROCEDURES another causing unequal load inspect the weak points in rope tion at this point
and the points where the greatest stress Four percent of the total number of
occurs Worn spots will show up as shiny wires composing a type of wire rope are
flattened spots on the wires If the outer found to be broken in one strand the
wires have been reduced in diameter by one distance in which one strand makes
fourth the worn spot is unsafe one complete turn around the broken wires to determine whether Three broken wires are found in one
it is a single broken wire or several wires strand of 6by7 rope if six broken
Rope is unsafe if wires are found in one strand of 6by
19 rope or if nine broken wires are
Individual wires are broken next to one found in one strand of 6by37 rope
118 Rope
FM 5125
CAUSES OF FAILURE Overwinding or crosswinding it on
Wire rope failure is commonly caused by drums
Sizing constructing or grading it Operating it over drums and sheaves
incorrectly that are out of alignment
Allowing it to drag over obstacles Permitting it to jump sheaves
Lubricating it improperly Subjecting it to moisture or acid fumes
Operating it over drums and sheaves of Permitting it to untwist
inadequate size Kinking
Rope 119
FM Rope
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CHAPTER 2
Knots Splices Attachments and
Ladders
Section I Knots Hitches and Lashings
A study of the terminology pictured in Figure will aid in understanding the methods of
21 and the definitions in Table 21 page 22 knotting presented in this section
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 21
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The raw cut end of a rope has a tendency to the size of the rope The whipped end of a
untwist and should always be knotted or fas rope will still thread through blocks or
tened in some manner to prevent this other openings Before cutting a rope Whipping is one method of fas two whippings on the
rope 1 or 2 inches
tening the end of the rope to prevent apart and make the cut between the see Figure 22 A rope is pings see Figure 22 This
will prevent the
whipped by wrapping the end tightly with a cut ends from untwisting cord This method is particularly satis after they are cut
factory because there is very little increase in
KNOTS
A knot is an interlacement of the parts used as a stopper to prevent a rope from
of one or more flexible bodies such as cord passing through an opening
age rope forming a lump It is also any tie or A good knot must be easy to tie must formed with a rope including without slipping and must be
easy to
bends hitches and splices A knot is often untie The choice of the best knot bend or
22 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 23
FM to use depends largely on the job it the end of a rope from untwisting to form a
has to do In general knots can be classi knob at the end of a rope or to serve as a
fied into three groups They are part of another knot When tied at the end
or standing part of a rope this knot prevents
Knots at the end of a rope it from sliding through a block hole or
Knots for joining two ropes another knot Use it also to increase a per
sons grip on a rope This knot reduces the
Knots for making loops strength of a straight rope by 55 percent
KNOTS AT THE END OF ROPE FigureEight Knot
Knots at the end of a rope fall into the fol Use the figureeight knot to form a larger
lowing categories knot at the end of a rope than would be
Overhand knot formed by an overhand knot see Figure
24 The knot prevents the end of the rope
Figureeight knot from slipping through a fastening or loop in
Wall knot another rope or from unreeving when reeved
through blocks It is easy to untie
Overhand Knot
Wall Knot
The overhand knot is the most commonly
used and the simplest of all knots see Fig Use the wall knot with crown to prevent
ure 23 Use an overhand knot to prevent the end of a rope from untwisting when an
24 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM end is not objectionable see Figure KNOTS FOR JOINING TWO ROPES
25 The wall knot also makes a to prevent the end of the rope from slip Knots for joining two ropes fall into the fol
ping through small openings as when using lowing handles on boxes Use either the crown Square knot
or the wall knot separately to form stopper knots tied with the end Single sheet bend
strands of a rope The wall knot will prevent Double sheet bend
the rope from untwisting but to make a
neat round knob crown it see Figure 26 Carrick bend
page 26 Notice that in the wall knot the
ends come up through the bights causing Square Knot
the strands to lead forward In a crown
knot the ends go down through the bights Use the square knot to tie two ropes of
and point backward equal size together so they will not slip see
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 25
FM 27 Note that in the square knot Double Sheet Bend
the end and standing part of one rope come The double sheet bend has greater holding
out on the same side of the bight formed by power than the single sheet bend for joining
the other rope The square knot will not ropes of equal or unequal diameter joining
hold if the ropes are wet or if they are of dif wet ropes or tying a rope to an eye see Fig
ferent sizes It tightens under strain but ure 29 page 28 It will not slip or draw
can be untied by grasping the ends of the tight under heavy loads This knot is more
two bights and pulling the knot apart secure than the single sheet bend when used
NOTE It makes no difference in a spliced eye
whether the first crossing is tied
or as Carrick Bend
long as the second crossing is tied
opposite to the first crossing Use the carrick bend for heavy loads and for
joining large hawsers or heavy rope see Fig
ure 210 page 28 It will not draw tight
Single Sheet Bend under a heavy load and can be untied easily
A single sheet bend sometimes called a if the ends are seized to their own knot has two major uses see Fig part
ure 28 They are
Tying together two ropes of unequal KNOTS FOR MAKING LOOPS
size Knots for making loops fall into the follow
Tying a rope to an eye ing knot will draw tight but will loosen or Bowline
slip when the lines are slackened The sin Double bowline
gle sheet bend is stronger and unties easier
than the square knot Running Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 27
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28 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
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Bowline on a bight ing two loops support his legs A notched
Spanish bowline board that passes through the two loops
makes a comfortable seat known as a boat
French bowline swains chair This chair is discussed in the
scaffolding section of this manual see Chap
Speir knot ter 6
Catspaw
Running Bowline
Figure eight with an extra turn
The running bowline forms a strong running
loop see Figure 213 page 210 It is a con
Bowline venient form of running an eye The run
The bowline is one of the most common ning bowline provides a sling of the choker
knots and has a variety of uses one of which type at the end of a single line Use it when
is the lowering of men and material see Fig tying a handline around an object at a point
ure 211 It is the best knot for forming a that you cannot safely reach such as the end
single loop that will not tighten or slip under of a limb
strain and can be untied easily if each run
ning end is seized to its own standing part Bowline on a Bight
The bowline forms a loop that may be of any
length This knot forms two nonslipping loops see
Figure 214 page 211 You can use the
bowline on a bight for the same purpose as a
Double Bowline boatswains chair It does not leave both
hands free but its twin nonslipping loops
The double bowline forms three nonslipping form a comfortable seat Use it when
loops see Figure 212 page 210 Use this
knot to sling a man As he sits in the slings You need more strength than a single
one loop supports his back and the remain bowline will give
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 29
FM Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM 5125
You need to form a loop at some point Spanish bowline in rescue work or to give a
in a rope other than at the end twofold grip for lifting a pipe or other round
objects in a sling
You do not have access to the end of a
rope
French Bowline
You can easily untie the bowline on a bight
and tie it at the end of a rope by doubling You can use the French bowline as a sling to
the rope for a short section lift injured men see Figure 216 page 212
When used for this purpose one loop is a
seat and the other loop is put around the
Spanish Bowline body under the arms The injured mans
You can tie a Spanish bowline at any point weight keeps the two loops tight so that he
in a rope either at a place where the line is cannot fall out It is particularly useful as a
double or at an end that has been doubled sling for an unconscious man Also use the
back see Figure 215 page 212 Use the French bowline when working alone and you
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 211
FM your hands free The two loops of this a onerope bridge across a small stream
knot can be adjusted to the size required You can tie and untie it easily
Speir Knot KNOTS FOR TIGHTENING A ROPE
Use a speir knot when you need a fixed loop The types of knots used for tightening a rope
a nonslip knot and a quick release see Fig are the butterfly knot and the baker bow
ure 217 You can tie this knot quickly and line
release it by pulling on the running end
Butterfly Knot
Catspaw
Use the butterfly knot is to pull taut a high
Use a catspaw to fasten an endless sling to line handline tread rope for foot bridges or
a hook or make it at the end of a rope to fas similar installations see Figure 220 page
ten the rope to a hook see Figure 218 You 214 Using this knot provides the capabil
can tie or untie it easily This knot which is ity to tighten a fixed rope when a form of a hitch is a more satisfactory means are not available
You can also use
way of attaching a rope to a hook than the the harness hitch for this purpose see hitch It will not slip off and need ure 232 page 222
The butterfly knot will
not be kept taut to make it hold not jam if a stick is placed between the two
upper loops
Figure Eight With an Extra Turn
Use a figure eight with an extra turn to Baker a rope see Figure 219 page 214 You can use the baker bowline for the
same
This knot is especially suitable for tightening purpose as the butterfly knot and for lashing
cargo see Figure 221 pages 215 and 216
212 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
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When used to lash cargo secure one end
with two half hitches pass the rope over the
cargo and tie a baker bowline then secure
the lashing with a slippery half hitch To
release the rope simply pull on the running
end Advantages of the baker bowline are
that it can be
Tied easily
Adjusted without losing control
Released quickly
KNOTS FOR WIRE ROPE
Under special when wire
rope fittings are not available and it is nec
essary to fasten wire rope by some other
manner you can use certain knots In all
knots made with wire rope fasten the
running end of the rope to the standing
part after tying the knot When wirerope
clips are available use them to fasten the
running end If clips are not available Splices Attachments and Ladders 213
FM Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 215
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216 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
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wire or strands of cordage Check all knots sive wear cut off a short length of the end
in wire rope periodically for wear or signs of of the rope including the knot and tie a
breakage If there is any reason to believe new knot Use the fishermans bend clove
that the knot has been subjected to exces hitch and carrick bend to fasten wire rope
HITCHES
A hitch is any of various knots used to form Sheepshank
a temporary noose in a rope or to secure a Fishermans bend
rope around a timber pipe or post so that
it will hold temporarily but can be The types of hitches are as follows HALF HITCH
Half hitch Use the half hitch to tie a rope to a timber
or to a larger rope see Figure 222 A It
Two half hitches will hold against a steady pull on the
Round turn and two half hitches standing part of the rope however it is not
a secure hitch You can use the half hitch
Timber hitch to secure the free end of a rope and as an
Timber hitch and half hitch aid to and the foundation of many knots
For example it is the start of a timber
Clove hitch hitch and a part of the fishermans knot It
Rolling hitch also makes the rolling hitch more secure
Telegraph hitch
TWO HALF HITCHES
Mooring hitch
Two half hitches are especially useful for
Scaffold hitch securing the running end of a rope to the
Blackwall hitch standing part see Figure 222 B If the
two hitches are slid together along the
Harness hitch standing part to form a single knot the
Girth hitch knot becomes a clove hitch
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 217
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ROUND TURN AND TWO HALF hitch used to fasten a rope to a
pole timber or spar is the round turn and
two half hitches see Figure 223 For
greater security seize the running end of
the rope to the standing part This hitch
does not jam
TIMBER HITCH
Use the timber hitch to move heavy timber
or poles see Figure 224 It is excellent for
securing a piece of lumber or The pressure of the coils one over
the other holds the timber securely the
more tension applied the tighter the hitch
becomes about the timber It will not slip CLOVE HITCH
but will readily loosen when the strain is The clove hitch is one of the most used knots see Figure
226 page 219 You
can use it to fasten a rope to a timber pipe
TIMBER HITCH AND HALF HITCH or post You can also use it to make other
knots This knot puts very little strain on
A timber hitch and half hitch are combined the fibers when the rope is put around an
to hold heavy timber or poles when they are object in one continuous direction You can
being lifted or dragged see Figure 225 A tie a clove hitch at any point in a rope If
timber hitch used alone may become untied there is not constant tension on the rope
when the rope is slack or when a sudden another loop round of the rope around the
strain is put on it object and under the center of the clove
hitch will permit a tightening and slacken
ing motion of the rope
ROLLING HITCH
Use the rolling hitch to secure a rope to
another rope or to fasten it to a pole or pipe
218 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
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so that the rope will not slip see Figure This hitch grips tightly and is easily
227 page 220 This knot grips tightly but removed
is easily moved along a rope or pole when
the strain is relieved SCAFFOLD HITCH
Use the scaffold hitch to support the end of a
TELEGRAPH HITCH scaffold plank with a single rope see Figure
The telegraph hitch is a very useful and 230 page 221 It prevents the plank from
secure hitch that you can use to hoist or haul and poles see Figure 228 page 220
It is easy to tie and untie and will not slip BLACKWALL HITCH
MOORING HITCH Use the blackwall hitch to fasten a rope to a
hook see Figure 231 page 222 Gener
Use the mooring hitch also called rolling or ally use it to attach a rope temporarily to a
magnus hitch to fasten a rope around a hook or similar object in derrick work The
mooring post or to attach a rope at a right hitch holds only when subjected to a con
angle to a post see Figure 229 page 221 stant strain or when used in the middle of a
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 219
FM Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 221
FM with both ends secured Human life The hitch is tied only in the middle of a rope
and breakable equipment should never be It will slip if only one end of the rope is
entrusted to the blackwall hitch pulled
HARNESS HITCH GIRTH HITCH
The harness hitch forms a nonslipping loop Use the girth hitch to tie suspender ropes to
in a rope see Figure 232 It is often hand ropes when constructing expedient foot
employed by putting an arm through the bridges see Figure 233 It is a simple and
loop then placing the loop on the shoulder convenient hitch for many other uses of
and pulling the object attached to the rope ropes and Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM 5125
SHEEPSHANK
A sheepshank is a method of shortening a
rope but you can use it to take the load off a
weak spot in the rope see Figure 234 It is
only a temporary knot unless the eyes are
fastened to the standing part on each end
FISHERMANS BEND
The fishermans bend is an excellent knot for
attaching a rope to a light anchor a ring
or a rectangular piece of stone see Figure 2
35 page 224 You can use it to fasten a
rope or cable to a ring or post Also use it
where there will be a slackening and tight
ening motion in the Splices Attachments and Ladders 223
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LASHINGS
A lashing is as rope wire or chain used for SHEARS wrapping or fastening The types Use the shears lashing to lash two spars
of lashings include square shears and together at one end to form an device called a shears see
Figure 237 Do
this by laying two spars side by side
SQUARE LASHING spaced about onethird of the diameter of a
Use the square lashing to lash two spars spar apart with the butt ends at right angles to each other see Start the shears lashing a short
distance in
Figure 236 To tie a square lashing begin from the top of one of the spars by tying the
with a clove hitch on one spar and make a end of the rope to it with a clove of four complete turns around Then make eight tight
turns around both
both members Continue with two frapping spars above the clove hitch Tighten the
turns between the vertical and the horizon lashing with a minimum of two frapping
tal spar to tighten the lashing Tie off the turns around the eight turns Finish the
running end to the opposite spar from shears lashing by tying the end of the rope
which you started with another clove hitch to the opposite spar from which you started
to finish the square lashing with another clove hitch
224 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 225
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BLOCK LASHING
Use the block lashing to tie a tackle block to
a spar see Figure 238 First make three
right turns of the rope around the spar
where the tackle block is to be the next two turns of the rope through
the mouth of the hook or shackle of the
tackle block and drawn tightly Then put
three additional taut turns of the rope
around the spar above the hook or the block lashing by tying the two
ends of the rope together with a square
knot When a sling is supported by a pass the sling through the center
four turns
Section II is a method of joining fiber or wire The methods of making all four types of
rope by unlaying strands of both ends and splices are similar They generally these strands together The of the following basic types
of splices are
Unlaying the strands of the rope
A short splice
Placing the rope ends together
An eye or side splice
A long splice Interweaving the strands and tucking
them into the rope
A crown or back splice
FIBERROPE SPLICES
When one strand of a rope is broken you short splice because a minimum repair it by tying the ends together in rope length takes place
in making the
because this would shorten the strand splice This splice is frequently used to
Repair it by inserting a strand longer than repair damaged ropes when two ropes of the
the break and tying the ends together see same size are to be joined together perma
Figure 239 nently Cut out the damaged parts of the
rope and splice the sound sections
SHORT SPLICE
The short splice is as strong as the rope in EYE OR SIDE SPLICE
which it is made and will hold as much as a Use the eye or side splice to make a perma
long splice see Figure 240 However the nent loop in the end of a rope see Figure
short splice causes an increase in the diame 241 page 228 You can use the loops
ter of the rope for a short distance and can made with or without a thimble to fasten
be used only where this increase in diameter the rope to a ring or hook Use a thimble
will not affect operations It is called the to reduce wear Use this splice also to Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 227
FM 5125
one rope into the side of another As a per The ropes to be joined should be the same
manent loop or eye no knot can compare lay and as nearly the same diameter as
with this splice for neatness and efficiency possible
LONG SPLICE CROWN OR BACK SPLICE
Use the long splice when the larger diameter When you are splicing the end of a rope to
of the short splice has an adverse effect on prevent unlaying and a slight enlarge
the use of the rope use it also to splice long ment of the end is not use a
ropes that operate under heavy stress see crown splice to do this see Figure 243
Figure 242 This splice is as strong as the page 230 Do not put any length of rope
rope itself A skillfully made long splice will into service without properly preparing the
run through sheaves without any difficulty Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 229
FM Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM 5125
WIREROPE SPLICES
In splicing wire rope it is extremely impor untwist the wire A pocket knife may be
tant to use great care in laying the various needed to cut the hemp core
rope strands firmly into position Slack
strands will not receive their full share of the SHORT SPLICE
load which causes excessive stress to be put
on the other strands The unequal stress A short splice develops only from 70 to will decrease the possible ulti percent of the
strength of the rope Since a
mate strength of the splice When using short splice is bulky it is used only for block
splices in places where their failure may straps slings or where an enlargement of
result in material damage or may endanger the diameter is of no importance It is not
human lives test the splices under stresses suitable for splicing driving ropes or ropes
equal to at least twice their maximum work used in running tackles and should never
ing load before placing the ropes into service be put into a crane or hoist rope The wire
Table 22 shows the amount or length of rope rope splice differs from the fiber rope
to be unlaid on each of the two ends of the short splice only in the method by which the
ropes and the amount of tuck for ropes of dif end strands are tucked see Figure 245
ferent diameters As a rule of thumb use page 232
the following
Long splice 40 times the diameter EYE OR SIDE SPLICE
Short splice 20 times the diameter An eye splice can be made with or without a
thimble Use a thimble for every rope eye
You need only a few tools to splice wire rope unless special circumstances prohibit it see
In addition to the tools shown in Figure 244 Figure 246 page 233 The thimble pro
page 232 a hammer and cold chisel are tects the rope from sharp bends and abra
often used to cut the ends of strands Use sive action The efficiency of a wellmade
two slings of marline and two sticks to eye splice with a heavyduty thimble varies
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 231
FM 5125
from 70 to 90 percent Occasionally it be
comes necessary to construct a field expedi
ent called a hasty eye see Figure 247
The hasty eye can be easily and quickly
made but is limited to about 70 percent of
the strength of the rope consequently it
should not be used to hoist loads
LONG SPLICE
Use the long splice to join two ropes or to
make an endless sling without increasing
the thickness of the wire rope at the splice
see Figure 248 page 234 It is the best
and most important kind of splice because it
is strong and trim
RoundStrand RegularLay Rope
The directions given in Figure 248 are for
making a 30foot splice in a Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 233
FM regularlay roundstrand hempcenter because of the tendency of the rope to
wire rope Other strand combinations differ untwist Up to the point of tucking the
only when there is an uneven number of ends follow the procedure for regular lay
strands In splicing ropes having an odd Then instead of laying the strands side by
number of strands make the odd tuck at the side where they pass each other cross
center of the splice them over to increase the holding power of
the splice At the point where they cross
RoundStrand LangLay Rope untwist the strands for a length of about 3
inches so they cross over each other with
In splicing a roundstrand Langlay rope it out materially increasing the diameter of
is advisable to make a slightly longer splice the rope Then finish the tucks in the
than for the same size rope of regular lay usual manner
Section III of the attachments used with wire rope a number of attachments used with the eye
are designed to provide an eye on the end of splice Any two of the ends can be joined
the rope by which maximum strength can be together either directly or with the aid of a
obtained when the rope is connected with shackle or end fitting These rope hook or ring Figure 249 shows for wire rope take the place of
knots
234 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM 5125
END FITTINGS
An end fitting may be placed directly on wire age to another wire rope Table 23 page 2
rope Fittings that are easily and quickly 36 shows the numberand spacing of clips
changed are clips clamps and wedge sockets and the proper torque to apply to the nuts of
the clips After installing all the clips
tighten the clip farthest from the eye thim
CLIPS
ble with a torque wrench Next place the
Wirerope clips are reliable and durable see rope under tension and tighten the clip next
Figure 250 page 236 Use them repeat to the clip you tightened first Tighten the
edly to make eyes in wire rope either for a remaining clips in order moving toward the
simple eye or an eye reinforced with a thim loop thimble After placing the rope in
ble or to secure a wirerope line or anchor service tighten the clips again Knots Splices Attachments and
Ladders 235
FM Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM applying the working load and at fre
quent intervals thereafter Retightening is
necessary to compensate for the decrease in
rope diameter that occurs when the to the lengthwise strain caused by the
load Position the clips so that they accessible for inspection CLAMPS
A wire clamp can be used with or without a
thimble to make an eye in wire rope see Fig
ure 251 Ordinarily use a clamp to make
an eye without a thimble It has about 90
percent of the strength of the rope Tighten
the two end collars with wrenches to force
the clamp to a good snug fit This crushes
the pieces of rope firmly against each other
WEDGE SOCKET
Use a wedgesocket end fitting when it is tapered socket The loop of wire rope to change the fitting at frequent be inserted in the wedge socket so
that the
intervals see Figure 252 page 238 The standing part of the wire rope will form a
efficiency is about twothirds of the strength nearly direct line to the clevis pin of the fit
of the rope It is made in two parts The ting A properly installed itself has a tapered opening for the connection will tighten when a strain is
wire rope and a small wedge to go into this placed on the wire rope
BASKETSOCKET END FITTING
The basketsocket end fittings include closed its strength is sharply reduced and must be
sockets open sockets and bridge sockets considered to be about onesixth the
see Figure 253 page 238 This socket is strength of a zinc connection In all attached to the end of the rope the wire rope should lead from the socket
with molten zinc or babbitt metal and is a line with the axis of the end rifting If this fitting is prop
erly made up it is as strong as the rope POURED If molten lead is used instead of zinc
the strength of the connection must be The poured basket socket is the most to be reduced to onefourth the factory method in use see Figure 254 page
strength of a zinc connection The socket can 239 If the socketing is properly done a
be made up by the dry method if facilities are wire rope when tested to destruction will
not available to make a poured fitting but break before it will pull out from the socket
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 237
FM Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM Splices Attachments and Ladders 239
FM 5125
DRY METHOD method see Figure 255 The strength of
the connection must be assumed to be
The dry method should be used only when reduced to about onesixth of the are not available for the poured of a poured zinc connection
standard pipe stanchion is made up of a modifying it for a suspended diameter pipe see Figure 256 Each that uses two wire ropes on each is 40
inches long Two 34inch However for handlines remove or clips are fastened through holes in off the lower wirerope clip For more infor
the pipe with the centers of the clips 36 mation on types and uses of apart Use this stanchion without see TM Knots Splices Attachments
and Ladders
FM 5125
Section IV Rope Ladders
Ropes may be used in the construction of hanging ladders and standoff ladders
HANGING ladders are made of wire or fiber WIREROPE LADDERS
rope anchored at the top and suspended ver
tically They are difficult to ascend and Wirerope uprights with pipe rungs make
descend particularly for a man carrying a the most satisfactory hanging ladders be
pack or load and should be used only when cause they are more rigid and do not sag as
necessary The uprights of hanging ladders much as hanging ladders made of other
may be made of wire or fiber rope and material Wirerope uprights with at the top and bottom rungs are usable
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 241
FM 5125
WireRope Ladder With Pipe Rungs clips in the stanchion over 34inch a wirerope ladder using either linch uprights see Figure 257 If you
use 38inch
or 34inch pipe rungs The linch pipe wirerope uprights insert 38inch are more satisfactory For such lad clips in the pipe over the wirerope
use the standard pipe stanchion When you use 34inch pipe rungs space the
Space the pipe stanchions 12 inches apart in rungs 12 inches apart in the ladder but do
the ladder and insert the 34inch wirerope not space the uprights more than 12 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM because of using weaker pipe The first length in a series of Ushaped bends
rungs may be fastened in place by two differ Lay out the second length in a similar man
ent methods In one method drill a 716 ner with the Ushaped bends in the opposite
inch diameter hole at each end of each pipe direction from those in the first series and
rung and thread 38inch wirerope uprights the horizontal rung portions the holes To hold each rung in see Figure 258 Fasten a 38inch
wire
place fasten a 38inch wirerope clip about rope clip on the overlapping rung portions at
the wirerope upright at each end of each each end of each rung to hold them firm
rung after the rung is in its final position In
the other method cut the pipe rungs 12 FIBERROPE long and weld the Ubolt of a 38inch
rope clip to each end Space the rungs 12 Fiberrope uprights with wood or apart on the 38inch wirerope rungs are difficult to use
because Place the saddle of the wirerope greater flexibility causes them to twist when
clips and the nuts on the Ubolts tighten the they are being used Place a log at the break
of the ladder at the top to hold the uprights
nuts to hold the rungs in place
and rungs away from a rock face to provide
better handholds and footholds A single
WireRope Ladder With WireRope Rungs rock anchor at the bottom of the ladder is
Make a wirerope ladder with wirerope usually sufficient You can also use a pile of
rungs by laying the 38inch diameter wire rocks as the bottom anchor for uprights on the ground Lay out the hanging ladders
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 243
FM 5125
FiberRope Ladder With FiberRope Rungs rungs see Figure 260 When you use
Make fiberrope ladders with fiberrope native material cut the rungs from 2inch
rungs by using two or three uprights When diameter material about 15 inches long
you use three uprights make a loop in the Notch the ends of each rung and fasten the
center upright at the position of each rung rung to the fiberrope upright with a clove
see Figure 259 Space the two outside hitch Space the rungs 12 inches 20 inches apart A loop and a single Twist a piece of seizing wire
about the back
splice hold each end of each rung to the out of the clove hitch to make it more secure and
side upright A loop in the center of the rung in a manner that will not snag the through the loop in the center of persons climbing the
ladder If you make
upright If you use only two uprights hold the rungs of finished lumber cut them to
the rungs in place by a loop and a rolling size and drill a 34inch hole at each end
hitch or a single splice at each upright The Oak lumber is best for this purpose Put a
two uprights must be closer together with l4inch by 2inch carriage bolt rungs to stiffen the ladder Ladders through each end near the
vertical hole to
of either type are very flexible and difficult prevent splitting Tie an overhand knot in
to climb the upright to support the rung Then
thread the upright through the 34inch hole
in the rung Tie a second overhand knot in
FiberRope Ladder With Wood Rungs the upright before you thread it through the
Make fiberrope ladders with wood rungs by next rung Continue this Procedure until
using finished lumber or native material for you reachthe desired length of the Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders
FM 5125
STANDOFF ladders are easier to climb than transported easily One or two standoff lad
hanging ladders because they have two ders are adequate for most purposes but
wood or metal uprights that hold them three or four hanging ladders must be pro
rigid and they are placed at an angle Both vialed for the same purpose because they are
types of ladders can be prefabricated and more difficult to use
Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 245
FM 5125
CHAPTER 3
Hoists
Section I Chains and Hooks
Chains are much more resistant to abrasion In lifting chains as well as fiber ropes
and corrosion than wire rope use them or wire ropes can be tied to the load But
where this type of deterioration is a problem for speed and convenience it is much
as in marine work where anchor gear must better to fasten a hook to the end of the
withstand the corrosive effects of seawater lifting line Also you can use hooks are
You can also use chains to lift heavy objects in constructing blocks
with sharp edges that would cut wire
CHAINS
Chains are made up of a series of links fas
tened through each other Each link is
made of a rod of wire bent into an oval
shape and welded at one or two points The
weld ordinarily causes a slight bulge on the
side or end of the link see Figure 31 The
chain size refers to the diameter in inches
of the rod used to make the link stretch under excessive loading so
that the individual links bend links are a warning that the chain has
been overloaded and might fail a load Wire rope on the other hand
fails a strand at a time giving complete failure occurs If a chain is
equipped with the proper hook the hook
should start to fail first indicating that the
chain is grades and types of chains Hoists 31
FM 5125
STRENGTH OF CHAINS of a chain with a link thickness of 34 inch
To determine the SWC on a chain apply a is
2 2
FS to the breaking strength The SWC ordi SWC 8D 8 34 45 tons or
narily is assumed to be about onesixth of 9000 pounds
the BS giving a FS of 6 Table 31 lists SWC The figures given assume that the load is
for various chains You can approximate the applied in a straight pull rather than by an
SWC of an openlink chain by using the fol impact An impact load occurs when an
lowing rule of thumb object is dropped suddenly for a distance
SWC 8D
2 and stopped The impact load in such a
case is several times the weight of the load
SWC Safe working capacity in tons
D Smallest link thickness or least diam CARE OF CHAINS
eter measured in inches see Figure 31 When hoisting heavy metal objects using
page 31 chains for slings insert padding Using the rule of thumb the SWC the sharp corners of the load to
protect the
32 Hoists
FM links from being cut The padding Cut the smaller chain links with a bolt
may be either planks or heavy fabric Do cutter cut large chain links with a hack
not permit chains to twist or kink when saw or an oxyacetylene torch Inspect the
under strain Never fasten chain links chain chains frequently depending on the
together with bolts or wire because such amount of use Do not paint chains weaken the chain and limit prevent rusting because the paint
will
its SWC Cut worn or damaged links out interfere with the action of the links
of the chain and replace them with a cold Instead apply a light coat of lubricant and
shut link Close the coldshut link and weld store them in a dry and to equal the strength of the other links place
HOOKS
The two general types of hooks available STRENGTH OF HOOKS
are the slip hook and the grab hook see Hooks usually fail by Any
Figure 32 Slip hooks are made so that deviation from the original inner arc indi
the inside curve of the hook is an arc of a cates that the hook has been and may be used with wire rope Since you can easily detect
evidence of
chains or fiber rope Chain links can slip overloading the hook you should use a
through a slip hook so the loop formed in hook that is weaker than the chain to
the chain will tighten under a load Grab which it is attached With this system
hooks have an inside curve that is nearly hook distortion will occur before the so that the hook will slip over a is overloaded Discard
severely of chain edgeways but will not permit cracked or badly worn hooks because they
the next link to slip through Grab hooks are dangerous Table 32 page 34 lists
have a more limited range of use than slip SWCs on hooks Approximate the SWC of
hooks They are used on chains when the a hook by using the following rule of
loop formed with the hook is not intended to thumb
close up around the load 2
SWC D
D the diameter in inches of the hook
where the inside of the hook starts its
arc see Figure 33 page 35
Thus the SWC of a hook with a diameter
of 1 14 inches is as follows
2 2
SWCD 1 14 16 tons or 3125
pounds
MOUSING OF HOOKS
In general always mouse a hook as a
safety measure to prevent slings or ropes
from jumping off To mouse a hook after
the sling is on the hook wrap the wire or
heavy twine 8 or 10 turns around the two
sides of the hook see Figure 34 page 35
Hoists 33
FM the process by winding several securely Mousing also helps prevent
turns of the wire or twine around the straightening of the hook but does not
sides of the mousing and tying the ends strengthen it materially
INSPECTING CHAINS AND HOOKS
Inspect chains including the hooks at least and cracks sharp nicks or cuts worn sur
once a month inspect those that are used faces and distortions Replace those that
for heavy and continuous loading more fre show any of these weaknesses If Give particular attention to the links are stretched or
distorted do not use
small radius fillets at the neck of hooks for the chain it probably was overloaded or
any deviation from the original inner arc hooked improperly which weakened the
Examine each link and hook for small dents entire chain
34 Hoists
FM 5125
Section II Slings
The term sling includes a wide variety of made of fiber rope nor do they lose Slings may be made of fiber rope strength from exposure as rapidly They
wire rope or chain also are not susceptible to the weakest
link condition of chains caused by the
Fiber rope makes good slings because of its uncertainty of the strengths of the but it is more easily damaged by The appearance of broken wires
clearly
sharp edges on the material hoisted than are indicates the fatigue of the metal and the
wire rope or chain slings Fiberrope slings end of the usefulness of the sling
are used for lifting comparatively light loads
and for temporary jobs Chain slings are used especially where
sharp edges of metal would cut wire rope or
Wire rope is widely used for slings because it where very hot items are lifted as in found
has a combination of strength and flexibility ries or blacksmith designed and appropriately fabri
cated wirerope slings are the safest type of Barrel slings can be made with fiber rope to
slings They do not wear away as do slings hold barrels horizontally or vertically
TYPES OF SLINGS
The sling for lifting a given load may be ENDLESS SLINGS
An endless sling The endless sling is made by splicing the
A single sling ends of a piece of wire rope or fiber rope
together or by inserting a coldshut link in a
A combination sling several single chain Coldshut links should be welded
slings used together after insertion in the chain These endless
Each type or combination has its particular slings are simple to handle and may be that must be considered when in several different ways
to lift loads a sling for a given purpose Figure 35 page 36
Hoists 35
FM 5125
Choker or Anchor Hitch the inverted basket hitch except that the
A common method of using an endless sling line passes around toggles fastened to the
is to cast the sling under the load to be lifted load rather than going around the load
and insert one loop through the other and itself
over the hoisting hook When the hoisting
hook is raised one side of the choker hitch is SINGLE SLINGS
forced down against the load by the strain
on the other side forming a tight grip on the A single sling can be made of wire rope fiber
load rope or chain Each end of a single sling is
made into an eye or has an attached hook
Basket Hitch see Figure 36 In some instances the
ends of a wire rope are spliced into the eyes
With this hitch the endless sling is passed that are around the thimbles and one eye is
around the object to be lifted and both fastened to a hook with a shackle With loops are slipped over the hook type of single
sling you can remove the
shackle and hook when desired You can
Inverted Basket Hitch use a single sling in several different ways
This hitch is very much like the simple bas for hoisting see Figure 36 It is advisable
ket hitch except that the two parts of the to have four single slings of wire rope avail
sling going under the load are spread wide able at all times These can be used singly
apart or in combination as necessary
Toggle Hitch Choker or Anchor Hitch
The toggle hitch is used only for special A choker or anchor hitch is a single It is actually a modification of that is used for
hoisting by passing one eye
36 Hoists
FM the other eye and over the A choker hitch will tighten down
against the load when a strain is placed on
the sling
Basket Hitch
A basket hitch is a single sling that is
passed under the load with both ends
hooked over the hoisting hook
StoneDog Hitch
A stonedog hitch is single slings with two
hooks that are used for lifting stone
Double Anchor Hitch
This hitch is used for hoisting drums or
other cylindrical objects where it is neces
sary for the sling to tighten itself under
strain and lift by friction against the sides of
the cylinder
COMBINATION SLINGS
Single slings can be combined into basket slings and choker slings to
lift virtually any type of load Either two
or four single slings can be used in a Where greater length is
required two of the single slings can be com
bined into a longer single sling One of the
problems in lifting heavy loads is in fasten
ing the bottom of the sling legs to the load in
such a way that the load will not be dam
aged Lifting eyes are fastened to many
pieces of equipment at the time it is On large crates or boxes the sling
legs may be passed under the object to form
a gasket sling A hook can be fastened to the
eye on one end of each sling leg to permit
easier fastening on some loads Where the
load being lifted is heavy enough or awk
ward enough a fourleg sling may be
required If a still greater length of sling is
required two additional slings can be used
in conjunction with the fourleg sling to form
a double basket
Hoists 37
FM 5125
PALLETS
A problem in hoisting and moving loads the job out of 2 by 8inch timbers that are 6
sometimes occurs when the items to be or 8 feet long and are nailed to three or four
lifted are packaged in small boxes and the heavy cross members such as 4 by boxes are not crated In this timbers Several pallets should
be made up
case it is entirely too slow to pick up each so that one pallet can be loaded while the
small box and move it separately Pallets pallet previously loaded is being hoisted As
used in combination with slings provide each pallet is unloaded the next return trip
an efficient method of handling such of the hoist takes the empty pallet back for
loads The pallets can be made up readily on loading
it is necessary to hoist loads that of the load the angle of the sling leg is
are not protected sufficiently to prevent crush changed so that crushing of the load is pre
ing by the sling legs In such cases spreaders vented Changing the angle of the sling leg
may be used with the slings see Figure 37 may increase the stress in that portion of
Spreaders are short bars or pipes with eyes on the sling leg above the spreaders The deter
each end The sling leg passes through the eye mining factor in computing the safe lifting
down to its connection with the load By set capacity of the sling is the stress or tension
ting spreaders in the sling legs above the top in the sling leg above the Hoists
FM 5125
33 through 35 pages 310 Example Determine the tension of a 312 list the SWCs of ropes leg of a twolegged sling being used to lift a
chains and wirerope slings under various load weighing 1800 pounds The length The angle of the legs of a sling a sling is 8 feet and the vertical
distance is 6
must be considered as well as the strength of feet
the material of which a sling is made The
lifting capacity of a sling is reduced as the of its legs to the horizontal is reduced
as the legs of a sling are spread see Figure T
37 Thus reducing the angle of the legs of
a sling increases the tension on the sling
legs In determining the proper size of sling T 1200 pounds or 6 tons
you must determine the tension on each leg
for each load see Figure 38 page 313 By knowing the amount of tension in a sin
You can compute this tension using the fol
lowing formula gle leg you can determine the appropriate
size of fiber rope wire rope or chain The
SWC of a sling leg keeping within the
safety factors for slings must be equal to or
greater than the tension on a sling leg If
T Tension in a single sling leg which possible keep the tension on each sling leg
may be more than the weight of the load below that in the hoisting line to which the
lifted sling is attached A particular angle formed
W Weight of the load to be lifted by the sling legs with the horizontal where
the tension within each sling leg equals the
N Number of slings weight of the load is called the critical angle
L Length of sling see Figure 39 page 313 Approximate
V Vertical distance measured from the this angle using the following formula
hook to the top of the load
NOTES Critical angle
1 L and V must be expressed in the N Number of sling legs
same unit of measure
When using slings stay above the critical
2 The resulting tension will be in angle
the same unit of measure as that of
the weight of the load Thus if the
weight of the load is in pounds the
tension will be given in pounds
INSPECTING AND CUSHIONING slings periodically and condemn 4 percent or more of the wires are broken
them when they are no longer safe Make Pad all objects to be lifted with wood blocks
the usual deterioration check for fiber ropes heavy fabric old rubber tires or other cush
wire ropes chains and hooks when you use ioning material to protect the legs of slings
them in slings Besides the usual precautions from being wire ropes used in slings unsafe if
Hoists 39
FM Hoists
FM 311
FM Hoists
FM 313
FM 5125
Section III Blocks and Tackle Systems
A force is a push or pull The push or pull A block consists of a wood or metal frame
that humans can exert depends on their containing one or more rotating and strength To move any load called sheaves see Figure
310 A A than the maximum amount a per is an assembly of ropes and blocks used to
son can move use a machine that multi multiply forces see Figure 310 B The
plies the force exerted into a force capable of number of times the force is multiplied is
moving the load The machine may be a the MA of the tackle To make up a tackle
lever a screw or a tackle system The same system lay out the blocks you are to use to
principle applies to all of them If you use a be used and reeve thread the rope that exerts a force 10 times greater
than the force applied to it the machine has the blocks Every tackle system contains a
multiplied the force input by 10 The fixed block attached to some solid advantage MA of a machine is and may have a traveling
block attached to
the amount by which the machine multi the load The single rope leaving the tackle
plies the force applied to it to lift or move a system is called the fall line The pulling
load For example if a downward push of 10 force is applied to the fall line which may
pounds on the left end of a lever will cause be led through a leading block This is an
the right end of the lever to raise a load additional block used to change the 100 pounds the lever is said to tion of pull
have a MA of 10
BLOCKS
Blocks are used to reverse the direction of are used where it is necessary to change
the rope in the tackle Blocks take their the direction of the pull on the line
names from
The purpose for which they are used Traveling Block
The places they occupy A traveling block is attached to the load
that is being lifted and moves as the load is
A particular shape or type of construc lifted
tion see Figure 311
Standing Block
TYPES OF BLOCKS This block is fixed to a stationary are designated as single double or Leading depending on the
number of sheaves
Blocks used in the tackle to change the
direction of the pull without affecting the
Snatch Block MA of the system are called leading blocks
This is a single sheave block made so that see Figure 312 page 316 In some tackle
the shell opens on one side at the base of the systems the fall line leads off the last block
hook to permit a rope to be slipped over the in a direction that makes it difficult to
sheave without threading the end of it apply the motive force required A the block Snatch blocks ordinarily block is used to correct
this Ordinarily a
314 Hoists
FM 315
FM block is used as the leading block over remember that the rope should not
This block can be placed at any convenient cross the rope leading away from the The fall line from the tackle sys ter sheave of the first
block Lead the rope
tem is led through the leading block to the over the top sheave of the second block
line of most direct action and back to the remaining side sheave of
the first block From this point lead the
rope to the center sheave of the second
block and back to the becket of the first
block Reeve the rope through the blocks
so that no part of the rope chafes another
part of the rope
Twisting of Blocks
Reeve blocks so as to prevent twisting
After reeving the blocks pull the rope back
and forth through the blocks several times
to allow the rope to adjust to the blocks
This reduces the tendency of the tackle to
twist under a load When the ropes in a
tackle system become twisted there is an
increase in friction and chafing of the
ropes as well as a possibility of jamming
REEVING BLOCKS the blocks When the hook of the standing
To prepare blocks for use reeve or pass a block is fastened to the supporting member
rope through it To do this lay out the turn the hook so that the fall line leads
blocks on a clean and level surface other directly to the leading block or to the source
than the ground to avoid getting dirt into of motive power It is very difficult to pre
the operating parts Figure 313 shows the vent twisting of a traveling block It is par
reeving of single and double blocks In reev ticularly important when the tackle is
ing triple blocks it is imperative that you being used for a long pull along the ground
put the hoisting strain at the center of the such as in dragging logs or to prevent them from being the strain see Figure 314 If the
Antiwisting do incline the rope will drag across
the edges of the sheaves and the shell of the One of the simplest antitwisting devices for
block and cut the fibers Place the blocks so such a tackle is a short iron rod or a
that the sheaves in one block are at right piece of pipe lashed to the traveling block
angles to the sheaves in the other block see Figure 315 page 318 You can lash
You may lay the coil of rope beside either the antitwisting rod or pipe to the shell of
block Pass the running end over the center the block with two or three turns of rope If
sheave of one block and back to the bottom it is lashed to the becket of the block you
sheave of the other block Then pass it over should pass the rod or pipe between the
one of the side sheaves of the first block In ropes without chafing them as the tackle is
selecting which side sheave to pass the rope hauled in
316 Hoists
FM 317
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TACKLE systems may be either simple or com Method ICounting Supporting Lines
pound
There are three lines supporting the travel
ing block so the theoretical MA is 31
SIMPLE TACKLE SYSTEMS
A simple tackle system uses one rope and Method IIUnit Force
one or more blocks To determine the MA of
a simple system count the number of lines Assuming that the tension on a single the load or the traveling is the same
throughout its length a unit
block see Figure 316 In counting force of 1 on the fall line results in a total of
include the fall line if it leads out of a travel 3 unit forces acting on the traveling block
ing block In a simple tackle system the MA The ratio of the resulting force of 8 on the
always will be the same as the number of traveling block to the unit force of 1 on the
lines supporting the load As an alternate fall line gives a theoretical MA of 31
method you can determine the MA by trac
ing the forces through the system Begin COMPOUND TACKLE SYSTEMS
with a unit force applied to the fall line
Assume that the tension in a single rope is A compound tackle system uses more than
the same throughout and therefore the same one rope with two or more blocks see Figure
force will exist in each line Total all the 318 page 320 Compound systems are
forces acting on the load or traveling block made up of two or more simple systems
The ratio of the resulting total force acting The fall line from one simple system is fas
on the load or traveling block to the original tened to a hook on the traveling block of
unit force exerted on the fall line is the theo another simple system which may MA of the simple system one or more blocks In
compound 317 shows examples of two meth you can best determine the MA by using the
ods of determining the ratio of a simple unitforce method Begin by applying a unit
tackle system They are force to the fall line Assume that the ten
Method Icounting supporting lines sion in a single rope is the same throughout
and therefore the same force will exist in
Method IIunit force each line Total all the forces acting on the
318 Hoists
FM 319
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two methods of determining the ratio of a
compound tackle system They are
Method Iunit force
Method mechanical
advantages of simple systems
Method IUnit Force
As in method II of simple tackle systems a
unit force of 1 on the fall line results in 4
unit forces acting on the traveling block of
tackle system A Transferring the unit force
of 4 into the fall line of simple system B
results in a total of 16 unit forces 4 lines
with 4 units of force in each acting on the
traveling block of tackle system B The ratio
of 16 unit forces on the traveling block carry
ing the load to a 1 unit force on the fall line
gives a theoretical MA of 161
Method MAs of
Simple Systems
The number of lines supporting the travel
ing blocks in systems A and B is equal to 4
The MA of each simple system is therefore
equal to 41 You can then determine the
MA of the compound system by multiplying
together the MA of each simple system for a
resulting MA of 161
FRICTION
There is a loss in any tackle system because
of the friction created block and transfer this force into The sheave rolling on the pin the ropes
the next simple system The ratio of the rubbing total force acting on the load or
traveling block to the original unit force The rope rubbing against the on the fall line is the theoretical This friction reduces the
total lifting power
MA of the compound system Another therefore the force exerted on the fall line
method which is simpler but less accurate must be increased by some amount to over
in some cases is to determine the MA of come the friction of the system to lift the
each simple system in the compound system load Each sheave in the tackle system can
and multiplying these together to obtain the be expected to create a resistance equal to
total MA Figure 319 shows examples of the about 10 percent of the weight of the load
320 Hoists
FM 321
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Example A load weighing 5000 pounds is MA of the tackle system The actual pull
lifted by a tackle system that has a MA of required on the fall line would be equal to
41 The rope travels over four sheaves that the sum of 5000 pounds load and 2000
produce a resistance of 40 percent of 5000 pounds friction divided by 4 MA or 1750
pounds or 2000 pounds 5000 x 040 The pounds
actual pull that would be required on the fall There are other types of resistance that
line of the tackle system is equal to the sum may have to be considered in addition to
of the weight of the load and the friction in tackle resistance FM 2022 presents a
the tackle system divided by the theoretical thorough discussion of resistance
Section IV Chain Hoists and Winches
In all cases where manpower is used for tackle vertical line If 300 pounds the system must be arranged to the MA of the system is
not enough to lift
consider the most satisfactory method of a given load the tackle must be rigged
using that source of power More men can again to increase the MA or the fall line
pull on a single horizontal line along the must be led through a leading block to pro
ground than on a single vertical line On a vide a horizontal pull This will permit more
vertical pull men of average weight can people to pull on the line Similarly if a
pull about 100 pounds per man and about heavy load is to be lifted and the fall line is
60 pounds per man on a horizontal If led through a leading block to a winch
the force required on the fall line is 300 mounted on a vehicle the full power avail
pounds or less the fall line can lead able at the winch is multiplied by the MA of
directly down from the upper block of a the system
CHAIN HOISTS
Chain hoists provide a convenient and effi vertical operation are the spur gear screw
cient method for hoisting by hand under gear and circumstances see Figure 320
The chief advantages of chain hoists are
that SpurGear Chain Hoist
This is the most satisfactory chain hoist for
The load can remain stationary with
ordinary operation where a minimum num
out requiring attention ber of people are available to operate the
One person can operate the hoist to hoist and the hoist is to be used frequently
raise loads weighing several tons This type of chain hoist is about 85 percent
slow lifting travel of a chain hoist per
mits small movements accurate adjust ScrewGear Chain Hoist
ments of height and gentle handling of
loads A pull hoist is used The screwgear chain hoist is about 50 per
for short horizontal pulls on heavy objects cent efficient and is satisfactory where less
see Figure 321 Chain hoists differ widely frequent use of the chain hoist is involved
in their MA depending on their rated capac
ity which may vary from 5 to 250 Differential Chain Hoist
TYPES OF CHAIN HOISTS The differential chain hoist is only about 35
percent efficient but is satisfactory for occa
The three general types of chain hoists for sional use and light loads
322 Hoists
FM 5125
LOAD hoists are usually stamped with their
load capacities on the shellof the upper
block The rated load capacity will run from
onehalf of a ton upward Ordinarily chain
hoists are constructed with their lower hook
as the weakest part of the assembly This
is done as a precaution so that the lower
hook will be overloaded before the chain
hoist is overloaded The lower hook will start
to spread under overload indicating to the
operator that he is approaching the over
load point of the chain hoist Under ordinary
Hoists 323
FM the pull exerted on a chain the chain are distorted it indicates that
hoist by one or two men will not overload the chain hoist has been heavily over
the hoist Inspect chain hoists at frequent loaded and is probably unsafe for Any evidence of spreading of use Under such the chain
the hook or excessive wear is sufficient hoist should be to replace the hook If the links of
and enginedriven overwound or underwound on the drum as
winches are used with tackles for hoisting may be necessary to avoid a reverse bend
see Figure 322 There are two points to
consider when placing a powerdriven winch FLEET ANGLE
to operate hoisting equipment They are
The drum of the winch is placed so that a
The angle with the ground that the line from the last block passing through the
hoisting line makes at the drum of the center of the drum is at right angles to the
hoist axis of the drum The angle between this
line and the hoisting line as it winds on the
The fleet angle of the hoisting line drum is called the fleet angle see Figure
winding on the drum see Figure 323 323 As the hoisting line is wound in on
The distance from the drum to the first the drum it moves from one flange to the
sheave of the system is the controlling factor other so that the fleet angle changes during
in the fleet angle When using vehicular the hoisting process The fleet angle winches place the vehicle in a not be permitted to
exceed 2 degrees and
should be kept below this if possible A 1 1
position that lets the operator watch the 2degree maximum angle is satisfactory and
load being hoisted A winch is most effective will be obtained if the distance from the
when the pull is exerted on the bare drum of drum to the first sheave is 40 inches for
the winch When a winch is rated at a capac each inch from the center of the drum to the
ity that rating applies only as the first layer flange The wider the drum of the hoist the
of cable is wound onto the drum The winch greater the lead distance must be in is reduced as each layer of cable is the winch
wound onto the drum because of the change
in leverage resulting from the of the drum The capacity of the
winch may be reduced by as much as 50 per
cent when the last layer is being wound onto
the drum
GROUND ANGLE
If the hoisting line leaves the drum at an
angle upward from the ground the result
ing pull on the winch will tend to lift it
clear of the ground In this case a leading
block must be placed in the system at some
distance from the drum to change the direc
tion of the hoisting line to a horizontal or
downward pull The hoisting line should be
324 Hoists
FM 5125
SPANISH WINDLASS
In the absence of mechanical power or tackle you may have to use
makeshift equipment for hoisting or pulling
You can use a Spanish windlass to move a
load along the ground or you can direct pull from the windlass through
the blocks to provide a vertical pull on a
load In making a Spanish windlass fasten
a rope between the load you are to move and
an anchorage some distance away Place a
short spar vertically beside this rope about
halfway between the anchorage and the load
see Figure 324 page 326 This spar may
be a pipe or a pole but in either case it
should have as large a diameter as a loop in the rope and wrap it partly
around the spar Insert the end of a horizon
tal rod through this loop The horizontal rod
should be a stout pipe or bar long enough to
provide leverage It is used as a lever to
turn the vertical spar As the vertical spar
turns the rope is wound around it the line and pulls on the load
Make sure that the rope leaving the vertical
spar is close to the same level on both sides
to prevent the spar from tipping over
Hoists 325
FM Hoists
FM 5125
CHAPTER 4
A n c h o r s and Guy Lines
Section I Anchors
When heavy loads are handled with a anchorages should be used so that time
tackle it is necessary to have some means effort and material can be conserved The
of anchorage Many expedient rigging ideal anchorage system must be of are supported by combining cient strength to support the
breaking
guy lines and some type of anchorage sys strength of the attached line Lines should
tem Anchorage systems may be either nat always be fastened to anchorages at a
ural or manmade The type of anchorage point as near to the ground as possible
to be used depends on the time and mate The principal factor in the strength of most
rial available and on the holding power anchorage systems is the area Whenever possible natural against the ground
NATURAL stumps or rocks can serve as between two trees to provide a anchorages for rapid work in anchorage than a single tree see
the field Always attach lines near the ure 42 page 42 When using rocks as
ground level on trees or stumps see Fig natural anchorages examine the rocks
ure 41 Avoid dead or rotten trees or carefully to be sure that they are large
stumps as an anchorage because they are enough and firmly embedded in the
likely to snap suddenly when a strain is ground see Figure 43 page 42 An out
placed on the line It is always advisable to cropping of rock or a heavy boulder buried
lash the first tree or stump to a second one partially in the ground will serve as a sat
to provide added support Place a transom is factory anchor
Anchors and Guy Lines 41
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MANMADE ANCHORS
You must construct manmade anchors 5 inches deep Use a drill
when natural anchors are not available for hard rock and a drill
These include for soft rock Drill the hole as neatly as
possible so that the rock anchor can
Rock anchors develop the maximum strength In case of
Picket holdfasts extremely soft rock it is better to use some
other type of anchor because the wedging
Combination holdfasts action may not provide sufficient holding
Deadmen power
ROCK ANCHORS
Rock anchors have an eye on one end and a
threaded nut an expanding wedge and a
stop nut on the other end see Figure 44
To construct a rock anchor insert the
threaded end of the rock anchor in the hole
with the nuts relation to the wedge as
shown in Figure 44 After placing the an
chor insert a crowbar through the eye of the
rock anchor and twist it This causes the
threads to draw the nut up against the
wedge and force the wedge out against the
sides of the hole in the rock The is strongest under a direct always set rock anchors so that
the pull is in a direct line with the shaft of
the anchor Drill the holes for rock anchors
42 Anchors and Guy Lines
FM 5125
PICKET HOLDFASTS
A single picket either steel or wood can be
driven into the ground as an anchor The
holding power depends on the
Diameter and kind of material used
Type of soil
Depth and angle in which the picket is
driven
Angle of the guy line in relation to the
ground
Table 41 lists the holding capacities of the
various types of wooden picket 45 shows the various picket Anchors and Guy Lines 43
FM 5125
Single Wooden Pickets first picket to the bottom of the second
picket see Figure 46 B Then fasten the
Wooden stakes used for pickets should be at rope to the second picket with a clove hitch
least 3 inches in diameter and 5 feet long just above the turns Put a stake between
Drive the picket 3 feet into the ground at an
angle of 15 degrees from the vertical and the rope turns to tighten the rope by away from the direction of pull see ing the stake and
then driving it into the
Figure 46 ground see Figure 46 C This distributes
the load between the pickets If you use
more than two pickets make a similar lash
Multiple Wooden Pickets ing between the second and third pickets
You can increase the strength of a holdfast see Figure 46 D If you use wire rope for
by increasing the area of the picket bearing lashing make only two complete turns
against the ground Two or more pickets around each pair of pickets If neither fiber
driven into the ground spaced 3 to 6 feet rope nor wire rope is available for and lashed together to distribute the place boards from
the top of the front picket
load are much stronger than a single picket to the bottom of the second picket and nail
see Figure 46 A To construct the lashing them onto each picket see Figure 47 As
tie a clove hitch to the top of the first picket you place pickets farther away from the
with four to six turns around the first and front picket the load to the rear pickets is
second pickets leading from the top of the distributed more unevenly Thus the prin
44 Anchors and Guy Lines
FM strength of a holdfast pattern Drive the rear pickets in first to
is at the front pickets Increase the capacity secure the end of the chain then install the
of a holdfast by using two or more pickets to successive pickets so that there is no slack
form the front group This increases both in the chain between the pickets A lashed
the bearing surface against the soil and the steelpicket holdfast consists of steel pickets
BS lashed together with wire rope the same as
for a woodenstake picket holdfast see Fig
ure 49 page 46 As an expedient any mis
SteelPicket Holdfasts cellaneous lightsteel members can be
A standard steelpicket holdfast consists of driven into the ground and lashed together
a steel box plate with nine holes drilled with wire rope to form an it and a steel eye welded on the end
for attaching a guy line see Figure 48 page Rock The pickets are also steel and are
driven through the holes in a way that You can place a holdfast in rock by the pickets in the ground This into the rock and driving
the pickets into the
holdfast is especially adapted for anchoring holes Lash the pickets together with a
horizontal lines such as the anchor cable on chain see Figure 410 page 47 Drill the
a ponton bridge Use two or more of these holes about 3 feet apart in line with the guy
units in combination to provide a stronger line The first or front hole should be 2 You can improvise a similar to 3 feet deep and
the rear hole 2 feet with a chain by driving steel pick Drill the holes at a slight angle inclined
ets through the chain links in a crisscross away from the direction of the pull
Anchors and Guy Lines 45
FM 5125
COMBINATION HOLDFASTS heavy loading of an anchorage spread You can construct a deadman from a log a
the load over the largest possible area of rectangular timber a steel beam or a simi
ground Do this by increasing the number of lar object buried in the ground with a guy
pickets used Place four or five multiple line or sling attached to its center This guy
picket holdfasts parallel to each other with a line or sling leads to the surface of the
heavy log resting against the front pickets to ground along a narrow upward sloping
form a combination log and picket holdfast trench The holding power of a deadman is
see Figure 411 Fasten the guy line or affected by
anchor sling to the log that bears against the
pickets The log should bear evenly against Its frontal bearing area
all pickets to obtain maximum strength Its mean average depth
Select the timber carefully so it can with
stand the maximum pull on the line bending Also you could use a
steel cross member to form a holdfast see Figure 412 page
DEADMEN
A deadman is one of the best types of
anchorages for heavy loads or because of its great Anchors and Guy Lines
FM 5125
The angle of pull withstand the BS of the line attached to it
In constructing a deadman dig a hole at
The deadman material right angles to the guy line and undercut 15
The soil condition degrees from the vertical at the front of the
hole facing the load see Figure 413 page
The holding power increases progressively 48 Make the guy line as horizontal as pos
as you place the deadman deeper and as the sible and ensure that the sloping trench
angle of pull approaches a horizontal posi matches the slope of the guy line The main
tion see Table 42 page 48 The holding or standing part of the line leads from the
power of a deadman must be designed to bottom of the deadman This reduces the
Anchors and Guy Lines 47
FM to rotate the deadman upward out the wirerope clips above the ground for
of the hole If the line cuts into the ground retightening and a log or board under the line at the
outlet of the sloping trench When using guy lines with a wooden dead
man place a steel bearing plate on the Table 43 lists the terms used in designing a
deadman where the wire rope is attached to cutting into the wood Always place
48 Anchors and Guy Lines
FM 5125
Formulas Given 6by19 IPS rope
The following formulas are used in designing
a deadman MD 7 feet
B Ar B S
HP SR 13
BA r
E L D WST 2 feet
TL EL WST Requirement I Determine the length
and thickness of a rectangular timber
D deadman if the height of the face avail
VD MD 2 able is 18 inches 1 12 feet
VD BS of wire rope 83600 psf see Table
HD S R 12
HP 8000 psf see Table 42
A sample problem for designing a deadman
is as follows
Anchors and Guy Lines 49
FM 5125
Note Design the deadman so it can to or less than 5 The ratio for Requirement
withstand a tension equal to the II would be equal to Ld 6225 25
BS of the wire rope Since this is less than 5 the log will not fail
by bending
BA r BS 83600 pounds 2
105 feet Ratio
HP 8000 psf
If the ratios for a log or a
rectangular timber are exceeded you must
BA r
105 feet2 decrease the length requirements Use one
7 feet
EL face height 15 feet of the following methods to accomplish this
Increase the mean depth
TL EL WST 7 feet 2 feet 7 feet
Increase the slope ration the guy line
becomes more a final check to ensure that the Increase the thickness of the timber will not fail by bending
by doing a ratio Lt Decrease the width of the sloping
which should be equal to or less than 9 trench if the minimum thickness by Lt
9 and solve for t
DEADMEN
L 9 Nomography and charts have been prepared
to facilitate the design of deadmen in the
field The deadmen are designed to resist
99 the BS of the cable The required length and
t thickness are based on allowable soil bear
ing with 1foot lengths added to compensate
9 l feet
for the width of the cable trench The
9 required thickness is based on a Ld ratio of
s for logs and a Ld ratio of 9 for cut timber
Thus an 18inch by 12inch by 9foot timber
is suitable Log Deadman
Requirement II Determine the length A sample problem for designing a log dead
of a log deadman with a diameter of 2 man is as follows
12 feet Given 34inch IPS cable You must
BAr 105feet bury the required deadman 5 feet at a
EL D 25 feet 42 feet slope of 14
Solution With this information
TL EL WST 42 feet 2 feet 62 feet use the nomograph to determine the
diameter and length of the deadman
required see Figure 414 Figure 415
Conduct a final check to ensure that the log page 412 shows the steps graphi
will not fail by bending by doing a lengthto cally on an incomplete ratio Ld which should be equal Lay a straightedge
across section AA
410 Anchors and Guy Lines
FM scale on the 5foot depth at up from the intersection on the log and
deadman and 14 slope and on 34inch read the length of deadman required In
IPS on BB Read across the straightedge this case the deadman must be over 5
and locate a point on section CC Then 12 feet long Be careful not to select a
go horizontally across the graph and log deadman in the darkened area of
intersect the diameter of the log dead the nomograph because a log from this
men available Assume that a 30inch area will fail by log is available Go Anchors and Guy
Lines 411
FM Anchors and Guy Lines
FM 5125
Rectangular Timber Deadman
deadman depth 7ft 28ft
A sample problem for designing a rectangu slope ratio 14
lar timber deadman is as follows
Given 34inch IPS cable You are to BEARING PLATES
bury the deadman 5 feet at a slope of
14 To prevent the cable from cutting into the
wood place a metal bearing plate on the
Solution Use the same 14 slope and deadman The two types of bearing plates
5foot depth along with the procedure are the flat bearing plate and the formed
to the left of the graph as in the bearing plate each with its particular
previous problem see Figure 414 page advantages The flat bearing plate is easily
411 At CC go horizontally across fabricated while the formed or shaped plate
the graph to the timber with an 18inch can be made of much thinner steel
face Reading down working with cut
timber you can see that the length is 8 Flat Bearing Plate
feet 6 inches and that the minimum A sample problem in the design of flat bear
thickness is 11 12 inches None of the
ing plates is as follows
timber sizes shown on the nomograph
will fail due to bending Given 12inch by 12inch timber
34inch IPS cable
Horizontal Distance Solution Enter the graph see Figure
Use the following formula to determine the 416 page 414 from the left of the 34
distance behind the tower in which deadmen inch cable and go horizontally across
are placed the graph to intersect the line marked
12inch timber which shows that the
plate will be 10 inches wide The distance tower height deadman depth ing plate is made 2 inches narrower
slope ratio than the timber to prevent cutting into
the anchor cable Drop vertically and
A sample problem for determining the hori determine the length of the plate
zontal distance behind a tower is as follows which is 9 12 inches Go to the top
Given The tower height is 25 feet 4 14 vertically along the line to where it
inches and the deadman depth is 7 feet intersects with 34inch cable and
with a 14 slope determine the minimum required
thickness which is 1 116 inches
Thus the necessary bearing plate must
Solution be 1 116 inches by 9 12 inches by 10
inches
25 ft 4 14 in 7 ft 32ft 4 14 in 129 ft 5 in
14 14 Formed Bearing Plate
The formed bearing plates are either curved
Place the deadman 129 feet behind the to fit logs or formed to fit rectangular tim
tower ber In the case of a log the bearing plate
Note The horizontal distance must go half way 180 degrees around the
without a tower is as follows log For a shaped timber the bearing plate
Anchors and Guy Lines 413
FM Anchors and Guy Lines
FM the depth of the timber with an inches If you use a log the width of
extended portion at the top and the bottom the bearing plate is equal to half the
see Figure 417 Each extended portion circumference of the log
should be half the depth of the timber
A sample problem for designing a formed d in this case 22 plate is as follows 2
Given 14inch log or timber with 14inch
face and 1 18 MPS cable d
314 x 14 2198 use 22 inches
2 2
Solution Design a formed bearing The bearing plate would therefore be 14
plate Enter the graph on the left at 1 inch by 12 inches by 22 inches For a rectan
18 MPS and go horizontally across to
intersect the 14inch line see figure gular timber the width of the plate would be
417 Note that the lines intersect in 14 inches for the face and 7 inches for the
an area requiring a l4inch plate width of each leg or a total width of 28
Drop vertically to the bottom of the inches see Figure 417 The bearing plate
graph to determine the length of the would therefore be 14 inch by 12 inches by
plate which in this instance is 12 28 inches
Anchors and Guy Lines 415
FM 5125
Section II Guy Lines
Guy lines are ropes or chains attached to an Angle of the guy line
object to steady guide or secure it The For example if the supported structure is
lines leading from the object or structure are
vertical the stress on each guy line is very
attached to an anchor system see Fig small but if the angle of the structure is 45
ure 418 When a load is applied to the degrees the stress on the guy lines supported by the guy lines a por
ing the structure will increase of the load is passed through each sup
Wire rope is preferred for guy lines guy line to its anchor The amount of its strength and resistance to corrosion
of tension on a guy line depends on the Fiber is also used for guy lines particularly
Main load on temporary structures The number and
size of guy lines required depends on the
Position and weight of the structure type of structure to be supported and the
Alignment of the guy line with the tension or pull exerted on the guy lines
structure and the main load while the structure is being Anchors and Guy Lines
FM 5125
NUMBER OF GUY LINES
Usually a minimum of four guy lines are points in a tiered effect In such cases
used for gin poles and boom derricks and there might be four guy lines from the
two for shears The guy lines should be center of a long pole to anchorage on
evenly spaced around the structure In a the ground and four additional guy
long slender structure it is sometimes lines from the top of the pole to to provide support at several age on the ground
TENSION ON GUY LINES
You must determine the tension that will be Given WL 2400 lb
exerted on the guy lines beforehand to select W 3 800 lb
the proper size and material you will use D 20
The maximum load or tension on a guy line
will result when a guy line is in direct line the load and the structure Consider
this tension in all strength calculations of WL 12W3 D 2400 12 800 20
T
guy lines You can use the following formula Y 28
to determine the tension for gin poles and
shears see Figure 419 page 418 2000 pounds of tension in the rear
or supporting guy line
T WL 12W3 D
T Tension in guy line Requirement II shears
W L Weight of the load Given The same conditions exist as in
Requirement I except that there are
W 3 Weight of spars two spars each one weighing 800
pounds
D Drift distance measured from the base of
the gin pole or shears to the center of the sus load along the ground
W L 12W3D 2 400 12 800 20
Y Perpendicular distance from the rear guy Y Y
line to the base of the gin pole or for a shears 2285 pounds
to a point on the ground midway between the
shear legs
A sample problem for determining the ten NOTE The shears produced a
sion for gin poles and shears follows greater tension in the rear guy
line due to the weight of an addi
Requirement I gin pole tional spar
Anchors and Guy Lines 417
FM 5125
SIZE OF GUY LINES
The size of the guy line to use will depend on must incorporate the appropriate FSs
the amount of tension placed on it Since Therefore choose a rope for the guy line
the tension on a guy line may be affected by that has a SWC equal to or greater than the
shock loading and its strength affected by tension placed on the guy line
knots sharp bends age and condition you
ANCHORAGE ideal anchorage system should be least a 11 combination 1400pound to withstand a tension equal to the it y in ordinary soil Anchor the guy
line as
BS of the guy line attached to it If you use a far as possible from the base of the manila rope as a guy line tion to obtain a greater holding power
from
the anchorage must be capable of withstand the anchorage system The a tension of 1350 pounds which is the minimum distance from the base of the
BS of the 38inch diameter manila rope If installation to the anchorage for the guy line
you use picket holdfasts you will need at is twice the height of the Anchors and Guy Lines
FM 5125
CHAPTER 5
Lifting and Moving Equipment
Section I Lifting used for lifting includes gin includes pole brave and jinniwink der
poles tripods shears boom derricks and ricks
stiff leg derricks Light hoisting equipment
GIN POLES
A gin pole consists of an upright spar that is spruce timbers as gin poles with allow
guyed at the top to maintain it in a vertical ances for normal stresses in hoisting oper
or nearly vertical position and is equipped ations
with suitable hoisting tackle The vertical
spar may be of timber a wideflange steel RIGGING GIN POLES
beam section a railroad rail or of sufficient strength to support In rigging a gin pole lay out the pole with
the load being lifted The load may be the base at the spot where it is to be
hoisted by hand tackle or by hand or erected To make provisions for the hoists The gin pole is used lines and tackle blocks place the
widely in erection work because of the ease pole on cribbing for ease of lashing Figure
with which it can be rigged moved and 418 page 416 shows the lashing on top of
operated It is suitable for raising loads of a gin pole and the method of weight to heights of 10 to 50 feet guys The procedure is as only a
vertical lift is required The
gin pole may also be used to drag loads hori Make a tight lashing of eight turns of
zontally toward the base of the pole when fiber rope about 1 foot from the top of
preparing for a vertical lift It cannot be the pole with two of the center turns
drifted inclined more than 45 degrees from engaging the hook of the upper block
the vertical or seventenths the height of of the tackle Secure the ends of the
the pole nor is it suitable for swinging the lashing with a square knot Nail
load horizontally The length and thickness wooden cleats boards to the pole
of the gin pole depends on the purpose for flush with the lower and upper sides
which it is installed It should be no longer of the lashing to prevent the lashing
than 60 times its minimum thickness from of its tendency to buckle under A usable rule is to allow 5 feet of Lay out guy
ropes each four times the
pole for each inch of minimum thickness length of the gin pole In the center of
Table 51 page 52 lists values when using each guy rope form a clove hitch over
Lifting and Moving Equipment 51
FM 5125
the top of the pole next to the tackle the lashing on the leading block and
lashing Be sure to align the guy lines near the bottom of the pole This pre
in the direction of their anchors see vents the pole from skidding while you
Figure 51 erect it
Lash a block to the gin pole about 2 feet Check all lines to be sure that they are
from the base of the pole the same as not snarled Check all lashings to see
for the tackle lashing at the top and that they are made up properly and
place a cleat above the lashing to pre that all knots are tight Check the
vent slipping This block serves as a hooks on the blocks to see that they are
leading block on the fall line which moused properly You are now ready
allows a directional change of pull from to erect the gin pole
the vertical to the horizontal A snatch
block is the most convenient type to use ERECTING GIN POLES
for this purpose
You can easily raise a 40footlong gin pole
Reeve the hoisting tackle and use the by hand see Figure 52 However you
block lashed to the top of the pole so must raise longer poles by that the fall line can be passed through rigging or power equipment The
number of
the leading block at the base of the gin people needed to erect a gin pole depends on
pole the weight of the pole The procedure is as
follows
Drive a stake about 3 feet from the
base of the gin pole Tie a rope from Dig a hole about 2 feet deep for the
the stake to the base of the pole below base of the gin pole
52 LIftlng and Moving Equipment
FM and Moving Equipment 53
FM 5125
String out the guys to their respective throwing all of its weight on one of the
anchorages and assign a person to each side guys
anchorage to control the slack in the
guy line with a round turn around the Fasten all guy lines to their anchor
anchorage as the pole is raised If it ages with the round turn and two half
has not been done already install an hitches when the pole is in its final
anchorage for the base of the pole position approximately vertical or
inclined as desired At times you may
Use the tackle system that was used to have to double the portion of rope used
raise and lower the load to assist in for the half hitches
raising the gin pole if necessary how
ever the preferred method is to attach Open the leading block at the base of
an additional tackle system to the rear the gin pole and place the fall line from
guy line Attach the running block of the tackle system through it When
the rear guyline tackle system to the the leading block is closed the gin pole
rear guy line the end of which is at this is ready for use If you have to drift
point of erection near the base of the the top of the pole without moving the
gin pole see Figure 418 page 416 base do it when there is no load on
Secure the fixed or stationary block to the pole unless the guys are equipped
the rear anchor The fall line should with tackle
come out of the running block to give
greater MA to the tackle system OPERATING GIN POLES
Stretch the tackle system to the base of
the gin pole before erecting it to pre The gin pole is particularly adapted to verti
vent the tackle blocks from chocking cal lifts see Figure 53 Sometimes it is
used for lifting and pulling at the same time
Haul in on the fall line of the tackle so that the load being moved travels toward
system keeping a slight tension on the the gin pole just off the ground When used
rear guy line and on each of the side in this manner attach a snubbing line of
guy lines while eight people more for some kind to the other end of the load being
larger poles raise the top of the pole by dragged keep it under tension at all times
hand until the tackle system can take Use tag lines to control loads that you are
control see Figure 52 page 53 lifting vertically A tag line is a light line
Keep the rear guy line under tension to fastened to one end of the load and kept
prevent the pole from swinging and under slight tension during hoisting
TRIPODS
A tripod consists of three legs lashed or onehalf times that of shears made of the
secured at the top The advantage of the tri same size material
pod over other rigging installations is that
it is stable and requires no guy lines to
hold it in place Its disadvantage is that the RIGGING TRIPODS
load can be moved only up and down The The two methods of lashing a tripod either
load capacity of a tripod is about one and of which is suitable provided the lashing
54 Lifting and Moving Equipment
FM and Moving Equipment 55
FM is strong enough are The material used for lashing can be
fiber rope wire rope or chain Metal rings
joined with short chain sections and large
enough to slip over the top of the tripod legs
also can be used
Method 1
This method is for fiber rope 1 inch in diam
eter or smaller Since the strength of the tri
pod is affected directly by the strength of the
rope and the lashing used use more turns
than described here for extra heavy loads
and fewer turns for light loads The proce
dure is as follows
Select three spars about equal in size
and place a mark near the top of each
to indicate the center of the lashing
Lay two of the spars parallel with their
tops resting on a skid or block and a
third spar between the first two with
the butt in the opposite direction and
the lashing marks on all three in line
The spacing between spars should be
about onehalf the diameter of the
spars Leave space between the spars
so that the lashing will not be drawn
too tight when erecting the tripod Method H
Make a clove hitch using a linch You can use this method when using slender
poles that are not more than 20 feet long or
rope around one of the outside spars when some means other than hand power is
about 4 inches above the lashing mark available for erection see figure 54 B The
and take eight turns of the line around procedure is as follows
the three spars see Figure 54 A Be
sure to maintain the space between the Lay the three spars parallel to each
spars while making the turns other with an interval between them
slightly greater than twice the diame
Finish the lashing by taking two close ter of the rope you use Rest the tops of
frapping turns around the lashing the poles on a skid so that the ends
between each pair of spars Secure the project over the skid about 2 feet and
end of the rope with a clove hitch on the butts of the three spars are in line
the center spar just above the lashing Put a clove hitch on one outside leg at
Do not draw the frapping turns too the bottom of the position that the lash
tight ing will occupy which is about 2 feet
56 Lifting and Moving Equipment
FM 5125
from the end Weave the line over the
middle leg under and around the outer
leg under the middle leg and over and
around the first leg continue this
weaving for eight turns Finish with a
clove hitch on the outer leg
ERECTING the legs of a tripod in its final posi
tion so that each leg is equidistant from the
others see Figure 55 This spread should
not be less than onehalf nor more than two
thirds of the length of the legs Use chain
rope or boards to hold the legs in this posi
tion You can lash a leading block for the fall
line of the tackle to one of the legs The pro
cedure is as follows
Raise the tops of the spars about 4 feet
keeping the base of the legs on the
ground
Cross the two outer legs The third or
center leg then rests on top of the cross
With the legs in this position pass a
sling over the cross so that it passes
over the top or center leg and around
the other two
Hook the upper block of a tackle to the
sling and mouse the hook
Continue raising the tripod by pushing
in on the legs as they are lifted at the
center Eight people should be able to
raise an ordinary tripod into position
Place a rope or chain lashing between
the tripod legs to keep them from shift with the three legs laid together by raising
ing once they are in their final position the tops of the legs until the legs clear the
ground so they can be spread apart Use
guy lines or tag lines to assist in steadying
ERECTING LARGE TRIPODS the legs while raising them Cross the outer
For larger tripod you may have legs so that the center leg is on top of the
to erect a small gin pole to raise the tripod cross and pass the sling for the hoisting
into position Erect the tripods that are tackle over the center leg and around the
lashed in the manner described in Method II two outer legs at the cross
Lifting and Moving Equipment 57
FM 5125
SHEARS
Shears made by lashing two legs together the legs at this point should be equal to
with a rope are well adapted for lifting onethird the diameter of one leg to
heavy machinery or other bulky loads They make handling of the lashing easier
are formed by two members crossed at their
tops with the hoisting tackle suspended With sufficient linch rope for 14 turns
from the intersection Shears must be around both legs make a clove hitch
guyed to hold them in position Shears are around one spar and take eight turns
quickly assembled and erected They around both legs above the clove hitch
require only two guys and are adapted to see Figure 56 Wrap the turns
working at an inclination from the vertical tightly so that the lashing is smooth
The legs of the shears may be round poles and without heavy planks or steel bars depend Finish the lashing by taking two frap
ing on the material at hand and the purpose
ping turns around the lashing between
of the shears In determining the size of the
members to use the load to be lifted and the the legs and securing the end of the
ratio Ld of the legs are the determining rope to the other leg just below the
factors For heavy loads the Ld should not lashing For handling heavy loads
exceed 60 because of the tendency of the legs increase the number of lashing turns
to bend rather than to act as columns For
light work you can improvise shears from ERECTING SHEARS
two planks or light poles bolted together by a small lashing at the intersec Dig the holes at the points where the legs of
tion of the legs the shears are to stand If placed on rocky
ground make sure that the base for the
shears is level Cross the legs of the shears
RIGGING SHEARS and place the butts at the edges of the holes
When the shears are erected the spread of With a short length of rope make two turns
the legs should equal about onehalf the over the cross at the top of the shears and tie
height of the shears The maximum allow the rope together to form a sling Be sure to
able drift is 45 degrees Tackle blocks and have the sling bearing against the spars and
guys for shears are essential You can not on the shears lashing entirely The pro
secure the guy ropes to firm posts or trees cedure is as follows
with a turn of the rope so that the length of
the guys can be adjusted easily The proce Reeve a set of blocks and place the
dure is as follows hook of the upper block through the
Lay two timbers together on the sling Secure the sling in the hook by
ground in line with the guys with the mousing Fasten the lower block to one
butt ends pointing toward the back guy of the legs near the butt so that it will
and close to the point of erection be in a convenient position when the
shears have been raised but will be out
Place a large block under the tops of of the way during erection
the legs just below the point of lashing
and insert a small spacer block Rig another tackle in the back guy near
between the tops at the same point see its anchorage if you use the shears on
Figure 56 The separation between heavy lifts Secure the two guys to the
58 Lifting and Moving Equipment
FM 5125
top of the shears with clove hitches to Keep the legs from spreading by con
legs opposite their anchorages above necting them with rope a chair or
the lashing boards It may be neceesary under
some conditions to anchor each leg of
Lift the top end of the shears legs and the shears while erecting them to keep
walk them up by hand until the the legs from sliding in the wrong
tackle on the rear guy line can take see Figure 57 page 510 It
will take several people depending on
the size of the shears to do this Then OPERATING SHEARS
raise the shears legs into final position The rear guy is a very important part of the
by hauling in on the tackle Secure the shears rigging since it is under a guy line to its anchorage before able strain during hoisting To
avoid guy
raising the shears legs and keep a line failure design them according to the
slight tension on this line to control principles discussed in Chapter 4 Section II
movement The front guy has very little strain on it and
Lifting and Moving Equipment 59
FM 5125
is used mainly to aid in adjusting the loads the fall line of the tackle of the shears
drift and to steady the top of the shears can be led straight out of the upper block
when hoisting or placing the load You may When handling heavy loads you may have
have to rig a tackle in the rear guy for to lash a snatch block near the base of one of
handling heavy loads During opera the shear legs to act as a leading block see
tion set the desired drift by adjusting Figure 58 Run the fall line through the
the rear guy but do not do this while a leading block to a hand or is onthe shears For handling light winch for heavy Lifting and Moving
Equipment
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BOOM DERRICKS
A boom derrick is a lifting device that incor swing more than 180 degrees when it is set
porates the advantages of a gin pole and the on a turn plate or turn wheel
long horizontal reach of a boom Use the
boom derrick to lift and swing mediumsize RIGGING BOOM in a 90degree arc on either side of the
resting position of the boom for a total For hoisting medium loads rig a boom to
swing independently of the pole Take
swing of 180 degrees When employing a care to ensure the safety of those using the
boom derrick in lifting heavy loads set it on installation Use a boom only temporarily
a turn plate or turn wheel to allow the mast or when time does not permit a more sta
and boom to swing as a unit A mast is a ble installation When using a boom on a
gin pole used with a boom The mast can gin pole more stress is placed on the rear
Lifting and Moving Equipment 511
FM 5125
guy therefore you may need a stronger guy
In case larger rope is not at hand use a set
of tackle reeved with the same size rope as
that used in the hoisting tackle as a guy line
by extending the tackle from the top of the
gin pole to the anchorage Lash the to the gin pole at the point where
the other guys are tied and in the same
manner The procedure is as follows
Rig a gin pole as described on page 51
but lash another block about 2 feet
below the tackle lashing at the top of
the pole see Figure 59 Reeve the
tackle so that the fall line comes from
the traveling block instead of the
standing block Attach the traveling
block to the top end of the boom after
erecting the gin pole
Erect the gin pole in the manner
described on page 51 but pass the fall
line of the tackle through the extra Use manpower to lift the boom in place
block at the top of the pole before erect on the mast through the sling that will
ing it to increase the MA of the tackle support it if the boom is light enough
system The sling consists of two turns of rope
with the ends tied together with a
Select a boom with the same diameter square knot The sling should pass
and not more than twothirds as long through the center four turns of the
as the gin pole Spike two boards to the block lashing on the mast and should
butt end of the boom and lash them cradle the boom On heavier booms
with rope making a fork see Figure use the tackle system on the top of the
59 Make the lashing with a mini mast to raise the butt of the boom to
mum of sixteen turns and tie it off with the desired position onto the mast
a square knot Drive wedges under the
lashing next to the cleats to help make Lash the traveling block of the gin pole
the fork more secure see Figure 59 tackle to the top end of the boom as
described on page 51 and lash the
Spike cleats to the mast about 4 feet standing block of the boom tackle at
above the resting place of the boom and the same point Reeve the boom tackle
place another block lashing just above so that the fall line comes from the
these cleats This block lashing will standing block and passes through the
support the butt of the boom If a sepa block at the base of the gin pole The
rate tackle system is rigged up to sup use of the leading block on this fall line
port the butt of the boom place an is optional but when handling heavy
additional block lashing on the boom loads apply more power to a horizontal
just below the larger lashing to secure line leading from the block with less
the running block of the tackle system strain on the boom and guys
512 Lifting and Moving Equipment
FM 5125
ERECTING BOOM DERRICKS flatcars when the base of the gin pole cannot
be set close to the object to be lifted It is
Raise the boom into position when the rig used also on docks and piers for is finished When working with heavy boats and barges Swing the
boom by push
loads rest the base of the boom on the ing directly on the load or by pulling the
ground at the base of the pole Use a more load with bridle lines or tag lines position when working with light the angle of the boom to the
mast by In no case should the boom bear on the fall line of the mast tackle Raise or
against any part of the upper twothirds of lower the load by hauling on the fall line of
the mast the boom tackle You should place a leading
block snatch block at the base of the gin
OPERATING BOOM DERRICKS pole Lead the fall line of the boom tackle
through this leading block to a hand or
A boom on a gin pole provides a convenient winch for the actual hoist
means for loading and unloading trucks or ing of the load
STIFFLEG DERRICKS
The mast of a stiffleg derrick is held in the mounted on the tower The stiffleg position by two rigid inclined struts also is used where guy lines
cannot be to the top of the mast The struts vided as on the edge of a wharf or on a
are spread 60 to 90 degrees to provide sup barge
port in two directions and are attached to
sills extending from the bottom of the mast STEEL DERRICKS
The mast is mounted on vertical pins The
mast and boom can swing through an arc of Steel derricks of the stiffleg type are avail
about 270 degrees The tackles for hoisting able to engineer troops in two sizes
the load and raising the boom are similar to A 4ton rated capacity with a 28foot
those used with the boom and gin pole see radius see Figure 510 page 514
page 511 Rigging Boom Derrick
A 30ton rated capacity with a 38foot
OPERATING STIFFLEG DERRICKS radius when properly counter
weighted
A stiffleg derrick equipped with a long boom
is suitable for yard use for unloading and Both derricks are erected on fixed material whenever continuous The 4ton derrick including a are carried
on within reach of its mounted doubledrum When used on a bridge deck move driven hoist weighs 7 tons and occupies a
these derricks on rollers They are sometimes space 20 feet square The 30ton derrick
used in multistory buildings surmounted by including a skidmounted to hoist material to the roof of the hoist weighs about 22 tons and occupies a
main building to supply guy derricks space 29 feet square
LIGHT HOISTING construction projects usually in members by hand or by light hoisting equip
volve erecting numerous light members as ment allowing the heavy hoisting equip
well as the heavy main members Progress ment to move ahead with the erection of the
can be more rapid if you raise the light main members Very light members can be
Lifting and Moving Equipment 513
FM into place by two people using manila POLE When handlines are inadequate The improved pole derrick called a dutch
or when members must be raised above the man is essentially a gin pole level use light hoisting equipment with a sill and knee braces at the
bottom
Many types of hoisting equipment for lifting see Figure 511 A It is usually loads have been devised Those dis with guys at the front and back
It is effec
cussed here are only typical examples that tive for lifting loads of 2 tons and because
can be constructed easily in the field and of its light weight and few guys is readily
moved readily about the job moved from place to place by a small Lifting and Moving Equipment
FM and Moving Equipment 515
FM 5125
BRAVE DERRICKS JINNIWINK DERRICKS
The braced derrick known as a monkey is This derrick is suitable for lifting loads
very useful for filling in heavy members weighing 5 tons see Figure 511 C page
behind the regular erection equipment see 515 Handpowered jinniwinks are
Figure 511 B page 515 Two back guys rigged preferably with manila rope Those
are usually employed when lifting heavy operated by a powerdriven hoist should
loads although light members may be lifted be rigged with wire rope The jinniwink
without them Power is furnished by a is lashed down to the structural frame at
hand or powerdriven hoist The construc both the front sill and tail sill to prevent
tion of the base of the monkey permits it to the tail sill from rising when a load is
be anchored to the structure by lashings to lifted
resist the pull of the lead line on the snatch
block at the foot of the mast
Section II Moving rollers and jacks are used to move see Figure 512 A firm and level founda
heavy loads Cribbing or blocking is often tion for cribbing is essential and the as a safety measure to keep an timbers should rest
firmly and evenly on
object in position or to prevent accidents to the ground Blocking used as a who work under or near these heavy for jacks should be sound
and large Cribbing is formed by piling tim to carry the load The timbers should be
bers in tiers with the tiers alternating in dry free from grease and placed firmly on
direction to support a heavy weight at a the ground so that the pressure is evenly
height greater than blocking would provide SKIDS
Place timber skids under Oak planks 2 inches thick and about 15 feet
heavy loads either to long make satisfactory skids for most opera
Distribute the weight over a greater tions Keep the angle of the skids low to pre
area vent the load from drifting or getting out of
control You can use grease on skids when
Make a smooth surface for skidding only horizontal movement is involved how
equipment ever in most greasing is dan
Provide a runway surface when rollers gerous because it may cause the load to drift
are used see Figure 513 sideways suddenly
ROLLERS
Use hardwood or pipe rollers over skids for round and long enough to pass very heavy loads into position under the load being moved
Support the
Place the skids under the rollers to provide a load on longitudinal wooden members to
smooth continuous surface for the rollers provide a smooth upper surface for the rollers
Make sure that the rollers are smooth and to move on The skids placed Lifting and Moving Equipment
FM and Moving Equipment 517
FM 5125
the rollers must form continuous place four to six rollers under the
load to be moved see Figure 513 page 517
Place several rollers in front of the load and
roll the load slowly forward onto the rollers
As the load passes rollers are left clear
behind the load and are picked up and placed
in front of the load so that there is a continu
ous path of rollers In making a turn with a
load on rollers incline the front in the direction of the turn and the
rear rollers in the opposite direction of the rollers may be made by
striking them sharply with a sledge For
moving lighter loads make up the rollers and
set on axles in side beams as a conveyor Permanent metal roller con
veyors are available see Figure 514 They
are usually made in sections
JACKS
To place cribbing skids or rollers you may Lowering the load onto the to lift and lower the load for a Jacks are used for this purpose
Repeat this process as many times as nec
Jacks are used also for precision placement essary to lift the load to the desired height
of heavy loads such as bridge spans A Jacks are available in capacities from 5 to
number of different styles of jacks are avail 100 tons see Figure 516 Small but only use heavy duty hydraulic or jacks are operated
through a rack bar or
screwtype jacks The number of jacks used screw while those of large capacity are
will depend on the weight of the load and
the rated capacity of the jacks Be certain usually operated the jacks are provided with a solid foot
ing preferably wooden blocking Cribbing RATCHETLEVER JACKS
is frequently used in lifting loads by see Figure 515 The procedure The ratchet lever jack available to
neer troops as part of panel bridge equip
ment is a rackbar jack that has a rated
Blocking the jacks capacity of 15 tons see Figure 516 A It
Raising the object to the maximum has a foot lift by which loads close to its
height of the jacks to permit cribbing base can be engaged The foot capacity is 7
to be put directly under the load 12 Lifting and Moving Equipment
FM 5125
Their principal uses are for tightening lines
or lashings and for spreading or bracing
parts in bridge SCREW JACKS
Screw jacks have a rated capacity of 12 tons
see Figure 516 C They are about 13 inches
high when closed and have a safe rise of at
least 7 inches These jacks are issued with
the pioneer set and can be used for general
purposes including steel erection
HYDRAULIC JACKS
Hydraulic jacks are available in Class IV
supplies in capacities up to 100 tons see
Figure 516 D Loads normally encountered
STEAMBOAT RATCHETS by engineer troops do not require large
capacity hydralic jacks Those ratchets sometimes called jacks are ratchet screw with the squad pioneer set are 11 inches
jacks of 10ton rated capacity with end fit high and have a rated capacity of 12 tons
tings that permit pulling parts together or and a rise of at least 5 14 inches They are
pushing them apart see Figure 516 B large enough for usual construction needs
Lifting and Moving Equipment 519
FM 5125
CHAPTER 6
jobs may require several the hole is more than 1 inch or if the split
kinds of scaffolds to permit easy working extends more than 3 inches in from Scaffolds may range from indi end Use 3inch planks to build
the tem
vidual planks placed on structural members porary floor used for constructing steel
of the building to involved patent scaffold buildings because of the possibility that a
ing Scaffold planks are placed as a decking heavy steel member might be rested tem
over porarily on the planks Lay single scaffold
planks across beams of upper floors or
Swinging scaffolds roofs to form working areas or runways see
Figure 61 page 62 Run each plank from
Suspended scaffolds beam to beam with not more than a few
Needlebeam scaffolds inches of any plank projecting beyond the
end of the supporting beam Overhangs
Doublepole builtup independent are dangerous because people may step on
scaffolds them and overbalance the scaffold plank
When laying planking continuously as in
Scaffold planks are of various sizes includ a runway lay the planks so that their ends
ing 2 inches by 9 inches by 13 feet 2 inches overlap You can stagger single plank runs
by 10 inches by 16 feet and 2 inches by 12 so that each plank is offset with by 16 feet You may need 3inch to the next plank in the run
It is scaffold planks for platforms that to use two layers of planking on large
must hold heavy loads or withstand move working areas to increase the freedom of
ments Planks with holes or splits are not for scaffolding if the diameter of
SWINGING SCAFFOLDS
The swinging single plank or platform SINGLEPLANK SWINGING of scaffold must always be secured to A single scaffold plank maybe swung over
the building or structure to prevent it from the edge of a building with two ropes by
moving away and causing someone to fall using a scaffold hitch at each end see Fig
When swinging scaffolds are suspended ures 62 page 62 and 228 page 220 A
adjacent to each other planks should never tackle may be inserted in place of ropes for
be placed so as to form a bridge between lowering and hoisting This type of swing
them ing scaffold is suitable for one person
Scaffolds 61
FM 5125
62 Scaffolds
FM 5125
SWINGING PLATFORM SCAFFOLDS which the lower block of a set of manila
rope falls is attached The scaffold is sup
The swinging platform scaffold consists of a ported by hooks or anchors on the roof of a
frame similar in appearance to a ladder with structure The fall line of the tackle must
a decking of wood slats see Figure 63 It is be secured to a member of the scaffold near each end by a steel stirrup to in final position to
prevent it from falling
SUSPENDED scaffolds are heavier than swing be made up in almost any width up to
ing scaffolds and are usually supported on about 6 feet and may be 12 feet at the roof From each outrigger depending on the size of the putlogs or
cables lead to hand winches on the scaffold gitudinal supports under the scaffold A
This type of scaffold is raised or lowered by light roof may be included on this type of
operating the hand winches which must scaffold to protect people from a locking device The scaffold may debris
Scaffolds 63
FM 5125
NEEDLEBEAM SCAFFOLDS
This type of scaffold is used only for tempo Figure 64 A scaffold hitch is used in the
rary jobs No material should be stored on rope supporting the needle beams to pre
this scaffold In needlebeam scaffolding vent them from rolling or turning over see
two 4 by 6inch or similar size timbers are Figure 228 page 220 The hanging lines
suspended by ropes A decking of 2inch are usually of 1 14inch manila rope The
scaffold plank is placed across the needle rope is hitched to the needle beam carried
beams which should be placed about 10 feet up over a structural beam or other support
apart Needlebeam scaffolding is often and then down again under the needle
used by riveting gangs working on steel beam so the latter has a complete loop of
structures because of the necessity for fre rope under it The rope is then passed over
quent changes of location and because of the support again and fastened around
its adaptability to different situations see itself by two half hitches
DOUBLEPOLE BUILTUP SCAFFOLDS
The doublepole builtup scaffold steel or by placing the two uprights on the ground
wood sometimes called the independent and inserting the diagonal members The
scaffold is completely independent of the diagonal members have end fittings that
main structure Several types of patent permit rapid lockingin position The scaffolding are available for tier is set on steel bases on
the ground A
simple and rapid erection see Figure 65 second tier is placed in the same manner on
The scaffolding can be built from wood if the first tier with the bottom of The scaffold uprights are braced upright locked to the top of
the lower tier A
with diagonal members and the working third and fourth upright can be placed on
level is covered with a platform of planks the ground level and locked to the first set
All bracing must form triangles The base of with diagonal bracing The scaffolding can
each column requires adequate footing be built as high as desired but high scaf
plates for the bearing area on the ground folding should be tied in to the main steel scaffolding is usually erected ture
64 Scaffolds
FM 65
FM 5125
BOATSWAINS chairs can be made several notched board inserted through the two leg
ways but they usually consist of a sling for loops will provide a comfortable seat one person Figure 67 The loop formed as
the running
end to make the double bowline will still
ROPE CHAIR provide a back support and the rolling hitch
can still be used to lower the can make a rope boatswains chair by chair
using a double bowline and a rolling hitch
see Figure 66 One person can operate the ROPE CHAIR WITH TACKLE
rope seat to lower himself by releasing the
grip of the rolling hitch A slight twist with The boatswains chair is supported by a four
the hand on the hitch permits the suspen part rope tackle two double blocks see Fig
sion line to slip through it but when the ure 68 One person can raise or lower
hand pressure on the hitch is released the himself or can be assisted by a person on the
hitch will hold firmly ground When working alone the fall line is
attached to the lines between the seat and
ROPE CHAIR WITH SEAT the traveling block with a rolling hitch As a
If the rope boatswains chair must be used to safety precaution a figureeight knot a person at work for some time the be tied after the rolling hitch
to prevent acci
rope may cause considerable discomfort A dental Scaffolds
FM 67
FM 5125
and Tables of Useful
Figures and Tables of Useful Information A1
FM 5125
A2 Figures and Tables of Useful Information
FM and Tables of Useful Information A3
FM 5125
A4 Figures and Tables of Useful Information
FM and Tables of Useful Information A5
FM 5125
A6 Figures and Tables of Useful Information
FM 5125
G l o s s a r y
AR Army bearing area
bend A bend in this manual called a knot is used to fasten two ropes
together or to fasten a rope to a ring or loop
bight A bight is a bend or Ushaped curve in a rope
BS breaking strength the greatest clay high clay low Ropes and twines made by twisting together vegetable or synthetic
fibers
D diameter
D drift distance
DA Department of the Army
EL effective length
ENG engineer
FM field manual
FS factor of safety
5125
GC clayey gravel
GP poorly graded gravel
GW wellgraded gravel
HD horizontal distance
HP holding power
HQ IPS improved plow steel
L length of the sling
line A line sometimes called a rope is a thread string cord or rope espe
cially a comparatively slender and strong cord This manual will use
the word rope rather than line in describing knots hitches rigging
and the like
loop A loop is formed by crossing the running end cover or under the stand
ing part forming a ring or circle in the rope
Ld ratio
Lt ratio
MA mechanical advantage
MD mean depth
MH silt high ML silt low MPS mild plow FM
5125
N number of slings
No number
OH organic soil high organic soil low turn or loop An overhand turn or loop is made when the running end passes
over the standing part
PS plow steel
psi pounds per square inch
rope A rope often called a line is a large stout cord made of strands of
fiber or wire that are twisted or braided turn A round turn is a modified turn but with the running end leaving the
circle in the same general direction as the standing end The running end is the free or working end of a rope
SC clayey sandy soil
SF finely graded sand
SP poorly graded sand
SR slope part The standing part is the rest of the rope excluding the running end
SW wellgraded sand
SWC safe working capacity
5125
T tension
TB technical bulletin
TC training circular
TL timber length
TM training manual
TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
turn A turn is the placing of a loop around a specific object such as a post
rail or ring with the running end continuing in a direction opposite to
the standing part
underhand turn or loop An underhand turn or loop is made when the running end
passes under the standing part
US United States of America
V vertical distance
VD vertical distance
W weight of the load to be lifted
W3 width of spars
WL width of the load
WST width of the sloping trench
Y Perpendicular distance from the rear guy line to the base of the gin
pole or for shears to a point on the ground midway between the
shears FM 5125
R e f e r e n c e s
SOURCES USED
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this Regulations ARs
AR 593 Air Movement of Cargo by Scheduled Military and Commercial Air
CONUS Outbound 1 February 1981
Field Manuals FMs
FM 534 Engineer Field Data 14 September 1987
FM 5434 Earthmoving Operations 30 September 1992
FM 105007 Airdrop Derigging and Recovery Procedures 20 September 1994
FM 2022 Vehicle Recovery Operations FMFRP 419 18 September 1990
FM 559 Unit Air Movement Planning 5 April 1993
FM 5512 Movement of Units in Air Force Aircraft AFM 767 FMFM 46 OPNAVINST
463027A 10 November 1989
FM 5515 Reference Data 9 June 1986
Supply Catalog SC
SC Tool Kit Rigging Wire Rope Cutting Clamping and Splicing
wChest 23 October Bulletins TBs
TB 430142 Safety Inspection and Testing of Lifting Devices 30 August 1993
TB ENG 317 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and
Reassembly for Crane Shovel Truck Mounted 20 Ton 34 Cubic Yard Gasoline
Driven Garwood Model M20B 28 June 1962
TB ENG 324 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and
Reassembly for Mixer Concrete GED Trailer Mounted Construction Machinery
Model 16S 2 July 1962
TB ENG 326 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and
Reassembly for Scraper Earth Moving Towed 12 Cubic Yard Cable Operated
Model LPO 9 July 1962
5125
TB ENG 330 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and
Reassembly for Truck Stake 5Ton 6x6 Military Bridging on ORD M139 Chassis
3 July Circular TC
TC 9061 Military 26 April Manuals TMs
TM 5270 Cableways Tramways and Suspension Bridges 21 May 1964
TM 1050070 Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment Rigging Dry Bulk Materials and
Potable Water for Free Drop 2 November NEEDED
These documents must be available to the intended users of this of the Army DA Forms
DA Form 2028 Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms 1 February FM Index1
FM FM 5125
3 OCTOBER 1995
By Order of the Secretary of the Army
DENNIS J REIMER
General United States Chief of Staff
JOEL B HUDSON
Acting Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
Army USAR and ARNG To be distributed in accordance with DA
Form 1211 E requirements for FM 5125 Rigging Techniques Procedures Qty rqr block no 5426
C US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1995 628 027 40064

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