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' Perkins L4 Workshop Manual'




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Perkins Engines Limited
Peterborough England
Grams Phone Peterborough 3241
Cables Perkoil Peterborough Telex
Publication No 5675
Reissued November 1966
PRICE 20
PRiNTED IN

Fale IJl
FOREWORD
PageV
GENERAL INFORMAnON
Section
ENGINE DESCRIPTION AND PHOTOGRAPHS
A
DO AND DO NOT
B
SETTINGS
STARTING
FAULT
FINDING
DATA
ENGINE
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
POST DELIVERY
CHECKOVER F
LAID UP ENGINE
PROCEDURE F
PERIODICAL
ATTENTIONS
FILTERS
FROST
PRECAUTIONS
ENGINE OVERHAUL
CYLINDER LINERS
H
PISTONS
CYLINDER
HEAD
CONNECTING
RODS
CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARIIGS
L
CAMSHAFT AND DRIVE
M
TIMING
N
SCHEDULE OF
CLEARANCES AND TOLERANCES p
MECHANICAL
WATER
LUBRICATING
FUEL
YWHEEL
INJECTION
PUMP
DYNAMO
GOVERNOR
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
YWHEEL
ADJUSTMENT
HOUSING
L4 MARINE ENGINES
W
1 SERVICE INSTRUCTION
PERPETUITY SCHEME
SERVICE
FACILInES
APPENDIX
LUBRICATING OIL DATA
FILM LIBRARY
PERKINS DRIVE RS CLUB
APPROVED SERVICE
ol
All threads used on the L4 Engine except on proprietary
equipment and the crankshaftare Unified 1
Pipe SeriesThe crankshaft and starting dog nut are threaded
1 American
ff NationalFine 14 TP1
Unified threads are not BSF and
havethe samenomber of threads per inch
as Unified not recommended
doe to a differencein the thread form
The enginenumber is stamped on the top rear light hand
side of the cylinder block as shown in the diagram below
Tbis number should be quoted when requesting information
or ordering Palts
This publication produced by the Technical Publications Department
of the Perkins Senice Division and every envour is made to ensure
that the information contained in this mannal correct at the date of
pubtication but doe to continuous reservethe right to make notice
Diagram showing position of Engine No 6012625
Page V
FOREWORD
The Diesel Engine closely resem bles lts petrol THA T HlS PRODUCT WILL RECEIVE IN
f counterpart inasmuch as the mechanismis essen SERVICE That part restswith you
tially the same lts cylinders are arranged above
its closed crankcaseits crankshaft is ODeof the This manual is designedto be a guide to the
same general type as that of a petrol engine it Distributors of and Dealers in equipment fitted
with the Perkins L4 Diesel engine and to others
bas the same sort of valves camshaft pistons
who are concernedwith the sale and subsequent
connecting roos and lubrication system
maintenanceof such engines
It follows therefore that to a great extent it
Perkins Engines Ltd are at one with all these
requires the same treatment as that which any Distributors and Dealers in the desire to ensure
intelligent and careful operator would accord to a that the Perkins Diesel engines in the hands of
petrol engine and that gross as usersshall give running the engine short of oil with sludged Dil
or with the water boiling will have the same An essential factor in the attainment of that
object is efficient servicing The Company pro
vides a number of facilities with that end in view
Where the Diesel Engine does differ from the one of them is this manual In presenting it to
petrol motor however is in th method of hand responsible Distributors and Dealers the Com
ling and firing its fuel Carburetter and ignition pany are in effect inviting their cooperation and
systemsare doDeaway with and in their place is at the time providing an effective aid to that
a single componentthe Fuel Pumpwhich per farms the functions of both This confers upon
Immediately this manual is received hand it
the Diesel a quite since the over to the foreman who will be chancesof breakdown are halved In tact it may
carrying out the maintenance operations which
be stated that a Diesel Engine never
are Do not pleasefile it in the
bas an involuntary stop other than ODecaused
office
through to there is a shortageof fuel The issue of this manuaI bas been descrihed
above as being ODeof the many aids which Per
The fuel pump though very simple in principle kiDs Engines Ltd provide in order to ensure
must necessarilybe a piece of precision engineer efficient servicefor the enginesthey market Two
ing Many yearsof experienceand many hundreds of the others may appropriately he mentioned
of thousandsof miles of running ensure that the here
fuel pump fitted to Perkins engines will given
ordinarily decent treatment continue to function is provided at Peterborough
faultlessly It must however be regarded in the where the mechanics employed by samelight as a it shouldnot Dealers and users are
given instruction OD the
be interfered with and that its repair should it the engine
is definitely beyond the skill of any Then there is the Perkins Perpetuity Plan which
but specially trained workmen Like the magneto is in fact an peculiar
it is built as a unit So that in the rare event of description having numerous special advantages
failure it cao be replaceden bloc A booklet describing this can be obtained on
request
Unremitting care and attention at the Perkins
factory have resulted in an engine capable of In conclusion we recommend Dealers Distri
hundreds of hours of profitable service WHAT butors and usersto the Service
THE HOW Division of Perkins EnginesLtd EVER CONTROL IS THE TREATMENT case of Deed
Page Al
Perkins L4 vertical fourstroke Crankshaft and Main Bearings
Power Units They are entirely of British design The crankshaft is made from an alloy steel
and manufacture and embody the results of stam ping with hardened main and crankpin
in the production of Diesel journais The in engines over a period of many years hearings which are lead
bronze
lined and indium flashed
The materials and workmanship throughout are
of the highest class Most parts are guaranteed
being used everywherein the The connecting rods are of alloy steel H
courseof all parts passthrough
a system of thorough inspection where they are section stampingswith shell big
checked to the closest limits Each engine is end bearings which are lead bronze lined and
subjected to stringent tests before leaving the indium flashed
Works
Pistons
General The pistons are flat topped They are of light
aluminium alloy with ample metal in the crown to
The Perkins lA Diesel with which tbis manuaI carry off the heat of combustion Three com
is concerned is a Cour cylinder unit having a pression rings of which ODe is of laminated steel
bore and stroke of 4 in 10795mm and 4i In and ODe scraper ring are fitted above the gudgeon
12065mm respectively pin There is ODe scraper ring below that pin
The gudgeon pins are of the fully floating type
Cylinder Block
The cylinder block and crankcase comprise a Timing Drive
onepiece high duty alloy iron casting Centri
The camshaft and fuel pump are gear driven
fugal cast iron wet liners are fitted which are
the timing case being a separate casting secured
flanged at the top end and fitted with sealing rings
to the front end of the cylinder block Provision
at the lower end
is made for mounting a gear drive on the timing
case meshing with the timing gear train for driving
Cylinder Head a hydraulic pump or uther low power auxiliary
The cylinder head is an alloy iron casting
securedto the cylinder block by a large number Lubrication l
l of weU spaced through studs The overhead
valves are operated by push rods from flat faced
Lubrication is high pressureforce reed thrOUgh
out the engine The pump a gear type is secured
tappets in the cylinder block the rocker assembly
to the cylinder block and is driven by spiral gears
being mounted on top of the cylinder head The
from the camshaft It is fully capable of main
1 whole assembly is enclosedin a light alloy die cast
cover All valves are of special alloy steel the
taining an all running speeds
inlet being larger to ensure maximum volumetric
FoeI Injection Equipment
1 efficiency The spherical combustion chamber is
formed half in the head and half by a detachable The unit type fuel pump is fiange mounted
steel cap on the timing case
The atomisers are two hole type fitted in an
Camshaft accessible position on top of the cylinder head
The low level camshaftis situated in the offside ODe spray is directedinto the of the cylinder block and is supported by three
and the other into the cylinder ensuring easy
starting
Page A2 Engine Cold Starting
Equipment
The cooling water is pump circulated by a centri Comprises a hand pump tank
fugal pump which is mounted on the front end of piping induction heater and starter and heater
the cylinder block ft is driven together with the switches The induction heater is not in bya Vee belt from the engine crankshaft with
the burning gasesin the cylinder It is located
in the inlet venturi and is in use only during
The internal water passagesare arranged to give
starting under very cold conditions
a brisk circulation of water around the and atomiser seating The fan is mounted
on the forward end of the water pump Electric Starting Equipment
A 12volt starter is flange mounted on the
Air Intake flywheel housing
A large air cleaner is fitted through which must
passalI air drawn into the engine Harmful dust Dynamo
is thus excludedand the lire of the 12Volt earth return type completewith The air cleaneris connected box and fuse box It is mounted
on the off side
to the venturi inlet which houses the butterfly of the cylinder block and is belt driven by a Vee
throttle valve control belt from the

INDEX TG ENGINE PHOTOGRAPHS
I Breather Pipe
2 Fuel Filter
3 Pipe from Pneumatic Uovernor to Air
Intake
4 Inlet to Fuel Injection Pump
5 Fuel Pump Stop Control Lever
6 Cylinder Block Water Drain Coc
7 Lubricating Dil Filter
8 Sump
9 Fan Belt
10 Main Leakoff Pipe
11 Timing Case
12 Fuel Injection Pump
13 Water Pump
14 Fan
15 Water Dutlet to Radiator
16 Atomiser Leakoff Pipe
17 Fuel Injection Pipe
18 Atomiser
19 Cylinder Head Cover
20 Exhaust Manifold
21 Air Intake
22 Butterfly Control Lever
23 Dynamo
24 Lubricating Dil Filler
25 Starter Motor
26 Front Engine Support
27 Facing for Alternative Front Engine Support
28 Fuel Lift Pump
29 Hand Primer for Fuel Lift Pump
30 Mechanical Governor
31 Mechanical Governor Dperating Lever
32 Inlet to Fuel Lift Pump
33 Dipstick
34 Sump Drain Plug
35 36 Dil Bath Air Cleaner
Page BI
SETTNGS AND DATA B
Bore Stroke 4i in or 1206 mm
Swept volume 442 litres 270 cuin
Compression ratio 175 I
Firing order I 3 4 2
Horsepower See below
Maximum torque 182lbsft 2517 kgm at 1000 rpm
Pistons Light Alloy
Spil I timing 21 degrees BTC
Atomiser Body BKB 35S87 or BKB32S630
Atomiser Nozzle BDL IIOS6116
Injection piessure See page TIl
Valve lift 465 in or 11811 mm
Valve Face and Seat Angle 450
Dil Pressure at max engine speed and normal working temperature
2550 Ibs per sq in cm
Valve clearance 010 in or 254 mm
When checking and adjusting valve clearances the engine should be
tumed to bring the respective pistons to TDC on CylinderHead Nuts
Con Rod Setscrews
LbsFt kgm
Main Bearing Setscrews 75 1037
With referenceto the Cylinder Head Nuts these should be rechecked
with the engine hot
It will be after overhaul or rectification work bas been
carried out there will be a settling period which will allowaslight
variation on the figures quoted This is not detrimental to the perform
anceof the engineand there is no necessity to interfere with the settings
On no account should attempts be made to increasethe torque already
quoted by retightening with a torque spanner
SUMP CAPACITIES
Combines 2 gallons 908litres
745 Tractor 2 gallons 908litres
FordsonMajor Tractor ol gallons
6 pints1249
litres
Claas Combine 2 gallons 908litres
lndustrial 3 eallons3 pints HORSE POWER
Combines 56 bhp at 1940rpm
745 Tractor 50 bhp at 1500rpm
FordsonMajor Tractor 45 bhp at 1500rpm
Industrial 62 bhp at 2000rpm
Claas
Combine
Up to 59 bhp at B2 Settingsand Details of Industrial engine ratings caD be
obtained upon requestfrom
the plant manufacturers or engine In the case of queries on other types of application apply to Service
Division quoting the engine number
Derating for Altitude Where enginesare called upon to operate in
rarefied by altitude such engines should be
derated For details regarding engine derating for altitude apply to
Service Division Perkins Engines Ltd Peterborough or to those
listed on Page 11
IMPORTANT NOTE ALL Screw Threads used on the L4 engine
except on proprietary equipmnt and the crankshaft are Unified Series
and American Pipe Series
The crankshaft and starting dog nut are threaded 1 inch American
National Fine 14 TPI
Page Cl
PREPARAnON FOR STARnNG The engineis now ready for starting
Check the radiator water level Move the speed control lever to full open
Check the enginesump oil level position
Seethat there is tuel oil in the tank
COLD STARnNG EQUIPMENT
Where a pneumatic govemor is fitted make
Method of sure that the connections on the pipe
trom the butterfly valve to the govemor on the The small hand pump see Fig CI is con
tuel pump are light structedwith inlet and outlet ports On the upward
stroke of the pump fuel is drawn through a copper
Check that the starter battery is tully charged
pipe trom the supply tank into the pump body
and that all electrical connections are all circuits in order On the downward stroke tuel is pressure ted
through the outlet port and a copper pipe to an
atomiser fitted in the venturi A swirl in the
Priming the Foei System
atomiser causesthe fuel to be sprayed into the
In the caseof a new engineor an enginewhich venturi
bas been laid up it is important that the fuel
systemis bIed as follows Systems
Slackensmall plug on tbe top of tbe final fuel
filter and operate tbe band primer on tbe fuellifl
pump ontil fuel tree trom air Fig Cl
the plug hole Tighten the plug
Slacken the bleed screw on the top of the tue The spray is directed on to a heater plug see
pump Fig C2 which is also fitted into the veoturi
Again operate the hand primer on the fuel lift The resistaoce wire 00 the heater plug is heated
pump until fuel issuestrom the bleed screw and by an electric current when the heater button is
all signs of air have disappeared pressedon the switch
Tighten the bleed screw securely and give the As the pistons travel down 00 the suction stroke
primer a tew more strokes in order to deliver the the fuel spray which bas been fired by the hot
fuel through the relief valve on the tue filter resistaoce wire on the plug is drawn into the
clearing this part of the systemof air cylinder bare to assistin The wiring
diagram see Fig C3 shows all
Gravity Fed Systems
of the switch
Slacken smalI plug on the top of tbe final fuel and Heater plug and turn on fuel tank supply until fuel tree
trom air issuestrom tbe plug hole Tighten the Use of The hand pump is usedin conjunction
with the
Slacken the bleed screw on tbe top of the fuel induction heater and switch for
pump and allow fuel to run until no trace of air starting in cold Excessiveuse of the
hand pump is to he depre
Tighten tbe bleed screw securely whilst fuel is cated as it is liable to he harmful to the engine
still issuing and could damage the piston rings
Page C2 Starting the With addition to the hand Press the
Heater switch for about half a
pump two electric push button minute count forty fairly slowly Then with
Heater and Starter mounted the Heater switch still pressed
and the throttle
on the or fully opened cngage the starter motor at the
near to the Theseare for starting same time giving short strokes on the hand
the engine pump
an other applications a starter engaging lever The engineshould then start
is provided insteadof the button switch previously If it doesnot wait half a minute and try
If the engine doesnot start at the third attempt
In warm weatheror if the engine bas been only somefault is presentand an be
recently stoppedopen up the throttle and engage made
the starter motor
If the battery is sufficiently charged to turn the NOTE Always be sure that the starter motor quickly the engine should start bas
stopped revolving before reengaging the
starter motor otherwise the starter ring or pinion
may be damaged
Cold Starting Equipment
Af ter using the hand pump always make sure
In cold weatherif the that the plunger is screwed down and the reed
the cold starting equipment should be used tap turned off otherwise a leakage may occur
with damaging results
See that there is fuel oil in the reservoir tank
if fitted
Main Tank Supply
Turn on the supply tap to the hand pump In certain fuel systems
no separatetank is fitted
lTnscrew the pump plunger and give it one lnstead the hand pump draws fuel from thc
stroke of about half an inch final fuel filter
Fig C3 Wiring Diagram
Fig C2 Plug Heater
Storting the Page C3
In this casethe procedureis as laid down above the exhaust valves are opened thereby relieving
exceptthat the tap provided on the filter should the compressionto facilitate easy turning
be turned on before using the equipment To start put the in he
Af ter use be sure to turn olf the tap and screw vertical position turn the engineover smartly 8nd
down the hand pump otherwise fuel may drain drop the decompressor lever
from the main tank into the engine It should be noted that where a decompressor
shaft is fitted loss of compressionin ODe or more
Maintenanceof Equipment cylinders may be causedby this shaft fouling one
Use fuel oil in the system or more of the rocker levers thus preventing
Check unions pipes and supply tank fOTleaks closure of a valve or valves The remedy is a
ney cylinder head cover joint
Inspect every 1000hours to make sure that all
terminals are tight on Heater If the engine is particularly cold lift the de
Starter switch and Heater plug and turn the engine over a few
time before attempting to start
If any difficulty is found in operating the pump
especially on the downward pressure stroke To Stop the Engine
inspectthe atomiser swirl and jet hole A spring loaded stop control is located near the
normal engine controls and functions by cutting
Hand Starting
off the fuel oil at the fuel injection pump
Engines not provided with electric starting To operate pull the knob and hold in this
equipment are fitted with a position until the engineceases to rotate Ensure
in the valve cover that the control returns to the run position other
The is positioned on the wise difficulty may be experiencedin restarting
front of the valve cover When the lever is raised the engine
Pagp Dl
DIFFICULT STARnNG Test the atomisersaf recommendedin SectionS
and clean them if necessary
No Foei at Atomisers
The lubricating oil usedshould be of an approved
a No fuel in tank
b Fuel lift pump not working Pressurered type systemonly
Cc Slack connections in tbe fuel system Sticking Rocker
rl Air in the fuel systemTrace from suction Ir tbe rockers stick the causemay be tbe use
side of unsuitable oil sbortage of oil or sludging
Go over the whole of tbe above and make sure Use only oil of an approvedtype that the atomisers are fully primed and tbat the Ir tbere
is a sbortageof lubricant tbe passages
pinging tt or squeakingtt noise is heard from pipes to tbe rockers sbould be cbecked
each atomiser when the engine is turned over by
hand Fuel Oll
It is essential to use clean fuel Dil fret from
Enginenot being turned over quickly enough water dirt or sand The Particularly in cold weather cation for fuel
Dil is given in SectionS Providing
a Lubricating oil too thick Sec Appendix clean fuel is usedno trouble should he experienced
b Battery not fully charged Fit fully charged witb the fuel systembut dirty Dil willlead to trouble
battery due to choked filters damaged fuel pump and
c Engine gummy due to standing in tbe atomisers If the engine tends to run weIl for a
cold short period and then to die awayor stop altogether
tbe fuel system should immediately be suspected
Use thc cold starting equipmentif fitted See Tbe trouble may be due to the lift pump not
Section C working properly to a loost pipe joint allowing air
to get into the fuel systemto a dirty fuel filter or
Low Compression to a choked fuel pipe The prefilter in the fuel
This may be due to dry cylinders and piston lift pump when fitted should be cleaned by
rings worn piston rings worn cylinders or leaky washing in clean fuel Dil but tbe final filter should
valves not need attention more than once in 1000hours
when a completely new filter element should he
fitted If the conditions lead to dust or con
Test atomisers for ping or squeak as tamination of the fuel decreasetbe maintenance
already mentioned Ir any atomiser rails to give interval
this pinging or squeaking noise when that Always after disturbing fuel line washers
cylinder is pulled smartly over it
bas been made certain that the atomiser is fully replace with ncw washersto ensurethe joints are
primed then the atomiser should he tested by air tight
removingit from the cylinder Air Cleaner
Disconnect pipes on other atomisers while
making this test In accordance with periodical attentions
Section F clean the filtering element in paraffin
and if of tbe oil bath type dip in oil
Sticking Valves
Trouble witb sticking valves may be due to In those filters wbicb need it new engine oiJ
result of cboked atomisersor tbe should be poured into the base up to tbe level
use of unsuitable lubricating oil mark
Page D2
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Page El
DO KEEP THE ENGINE CLEAN DO drain cylinder block if engine is being left
DO keep this hook where it is conveniently idle in frosty weatherdrain tap on fuel pump
side of block
accessible
DO remove filler cap before
DO pay particular attention to lubrication draining the cooling system
DO use only approved grades of lubricating oilo DO close these drain cocks and refill with water
DO use only GENUINE PERKINS PARTS before attemptingto restart next morning
DO when in doubt read this Manual
DO keep all bolts and Duts tight
DO eliminate all air from the fuel system and
keep all fuel oil unions AIR TIGHT DO Nor guess For additional information con
DO examine engine oil level in sump daily and tact suppliers of the Industrial Plant
replenish if necessary Tractor or Engine
DO completely change engine oil in accordance DO NOT neglect the routine attentions speci
with periodical attentions SectionF fied in SectionF
DO NOT storefuel oil in a DO renew element in lubricating oil filter in
accordance with periodical attentions DO NOT race the engine in neutral
Section F DO NOT run the engine unless the gauge
DO check oil flow to rocker shaft and examine SHOWS OIL PRESSURE
the periodical DO NOT with any adjust
attentions Section F ments
DO use only filtered fuel oil Never tip into DO NOT break the fuel pump or venturi seals
the tank a halfempty barrel of fuel oil the remember if broken Jour Guarantee
bung of which may have been out fOTweeks may be void
DO keep a check on the temperature of the DO NOT continue to run the engine if the
cooling water lt should not be allowed to cooling water boils
boil The best temperature is 170F or DO NOT forget to keep the fan belt adjusted
77C but where a cap
is fitted then the coolant temperature may DO NOT continue to run the engine if black
be slightly higher smoke is coming from the exhaust
DO NOT if the engine stops without apparent
DO attend immediately to fuel and lubricating
reason rail to make sure first of all
oil leaks
that fuel is reaching the fuel pump
DO grind in valves when necessary DO NOT omit to wipe the engine over oc
DO check valve clearance from time to time casionally with a clean rag
010 in 25 mm with warm engine DO NOT take the fuel pump to pieces
DO tighten cylinder head DutS in correct order DO NOT use cotton waste or any fluffy cloth
See Fig H3 when cleaning
DO quote engine number when ordering parts DO NOT use any but approved brands of lubri
DO keep in store cating oil
DO drain radiator if engine is being left idle in DO NOT subject the engine to continuous over
frosty weather
Page FJ
A TTENTI 0 N S CHECKOVER EVERY SOHOURS
Af ter a customtr bas taken delivery of bis Check fan belt adjustment See Section R
Perkins diesel engille it is advisable in bis own Clean air cleaner and renew Dil See thai a genera I check over of the engine
Top up batteries with distilled water
be carried out after the first 25 hours in service
It is also recommended that this adopted where an engine bas been EVERY 250 HOURS
laid up tor a considerable period before it is Refill Greaseron Dynamo
again put into service Clean water trap bowl and gauze element
This check over should comprise the following
Clean element in lubricating oil
Drain oil trom sump and renew
I Drain lubricating oil sump and refill up to
the ruIl mark on the dipstick with new clean Clean strainer in sump
oil Do not overfill When the sump is Unscrew drain plug on final tuel filter replace
drained the sump strainer should he removed plug when clean tuel appears
and cleaned Flush radiator with clean water
2 Check and if necessary adjust slow running
Clean and treat the battery terminals
speed
3 Check external nuts tor tightness These periods should be decreased to 100hours
4 Check and adjust valve in maximum when engineis operating under adverse
conditions
25 mmo hot
5 Check fuel pipes trom tank to fuel injection
pump common chamher tor leaks EVERY 500 HOURS
6 Check tor lubricating oil leaks and rectify Clean and if necessary Renew feIt element in lubricating
oil filter
7 Check cooling systemtor leaks and inspect
radiator water level Clean gauze trap in fuel oil filler when fitted
8 Checkfan belt tor tension Clean strainer in lubricating oil filler
9 Carry out raad test to check general per
formanceof engine
EVERY 1000HOURS
10 Check balts tor tightness
It is also advisable to check the cylinder head Drain fuel tank remove and clean
studs to ascertain that they are tightened to the Inspect commutator and brushesof torque as given on page Bl head cover
Thereafter maintenance periods should he in Examine valve springs and check valve the following instructions ance
It is assumed thai electrical equipmentwill have Inspect valve rocker assemblyfor been checkedtor such points as dynamo Renew element
in final fuel filter
rate of charge effectiveness of connections and
circuits etc Note The time for cleaning the air cleaner
dependson operating conditions therefore under
Keep Eogioe Oeso extremely dusty conditions the time limit mended above for
cleaning should he decreased
Checkwatcrin radiator The correct maintenanceof the air cleaner win
Check oil level in sump make sure the engine greatly assist in reducing bare wear thereby
is level extending the life of the engine
AllON OF LAID UP ENGINES noted that deterioration of the fuel oil may be
Where an application which is powered by a the months the application is
Perkins engine is to be laid up for several months idle
it is advisable that some measure of protection If this occurs the fuel oil may become con
be afforded the engine to ensure that it suffers taminated with a waxlike will
no ill effect during the intervening period before quickly clog the fuel filtering arrangement are recommenced the
engine is returned to service
It is recommended therefore that the following Therefore before in
procedure be adopted and applied immediately respectof a unit primed with normal fuel oU which
the unit is withdrawn from service bas lain idle for severalmonths it i5 recommended
I Thoroughly clean aU external parts of the that the fuel tank be drained and the interior of
the tank thoroughly cleaned The fuel oU drained
engine
off should be discarded as unfit for further use
2 Run the engine until wellwarmed through
Stop the engine and drain lubricating oil Fuel oil contained in the remainder of the fuel
system should also he dispelled and the paper
sump
element in the final fuel filter 3 Drain water from radiator and engine
which the system may then be cylinder block
fresh clean fuel oil
4 Remove and clean gauze strainer in sump
starting the engineshould then
and ruil flow filter element
be in the procedure detaUedin
5 Clean out engine breathing system SectionC
6 Af ter replacing filters fill sump to correct
NOTE
level with clean new lubricating oil or with
Where a used in the lubricating
a suitable preservative fluid
oil sump this should be drained off and replaced
7 Remove atomisers and spray into cylinder by prior to restarting the engine
bores a t pint 14 litres of lubricating oil at the end of the In the caseof a
divided between the cylinders preservative beingutilised to chargethe fuel system
8 Replace atomisers and turn engine slowly this need not necessarilybe drained off before
over compressions returning the engine to service Therefore wben
9 Remove air cleaner and any intake pipe which a used in this respect the relevant
may be fitted between the air cleaner and manufacturers of the fluid should be contacted
venturi Carefully seal venturi orifice with seekingtheir guidanceas to whether their product
waterproofed adhesive tape or some ot her should he drained away prior to restarting the
suitable medium engme
10 Remove exhaust pipe and seal opening in When draining Marine enginesthe end plate ot
manifoldas in 9 the water pump should be removedto allow drain
ageof any water trapped betweenthe bladesof the
11 Disconnect battery and store in fully charged
impellor Af ter the pump bas been drained the
condition Before storing the bartery ter
impeUor sbould be lubricated with Marfak 2HD
minals should be treated to prevent corrosion
Greaseafter which the impellor should be turned
The fuel system may either be drained and to ensure penetration of the grease When the
charged with a suitable preservative or engine is put back into serviceunder no circum
it may be left primed with normal fuel oil stancesshould it be run with the interior of the
Where the Iatter course is taken it should be water pump dry
PageF 3
FROST
damage by trost should he a Locking of the impelJor by ice due to thr
taken if the engine is to be left exposed to pump drain hole being blocked by sedi
inclement weather either by adequately draining ment
the water systemor where this is not convenient
b The locking of the seaJthrough the freezing
an antifreezeof reputablemake and of globuJesof moisture between the sea
a inhibitor may he used
and the gland
Should it be your policy to protect enginestrom Operators are therefore advised to take these
trost damageby adding antifreezeto the cooling operating in temperatures beIoVv
systemit is advisable that the manufacturers of freezing point
the relevant mixture be contacted to ascertain
1 Before starting the engineturn the fan and
products are suitable tor use in ater pump by hand this will indicateif
Perkins engines and also to ensure that their
freezing bas taken place If freezing bas
products wil have no harmful effect on the cool taken place this should tree any ice forma
ing It is OUT experience that the tion
best results are obtained from antifreeze which
conforms to British Standard 3151 2 If it is impossibleto turn the pump by hand
the radiator and engineshould be filled with
Where the use of an antifreezeis contemplated warm water
in respect of an L4 marine engine employing a
3 To avoid this trouble the operator should
closed circuit cooling system advice should be
when all water bas been drained run the
soughttrom the relevant engine tor a tew secondsat idling speed
their product will have no
thus dispersing any moisture remaining in
detrimental effect on the rubber impellor of the
the pump
freshwater pump
Af ter an bas been usedthe
When draining the water circulating system it
cooling system should be thoroughly flushed in
is not enough merely to open the radiator drain
accordance with the instructions
tap the ODeon the cylinder block must also be
before refilling with normal coolant
opened This tap is located midway along the
fuel pump side of the cylinder block If the foregoing action is taken no harmful
Wnen the engine is drained the water pump is effectsshould be Perkins Engines
also drained but rotation of the pump may he Ltd cannot be held responsible for any Crost
preventm by damage or corrosion which may be
Page G 1
FILTERS
A prime consideration in the maintenance of upon the surface of the oil carried in a reservoir
that of cleanliness The air and in the lower part of the filter casing
fuel oil that enters the cylinders must be scrupu As aresuit particles of foreign matter are
lously clean and so also must the lubricating oil carried into the oil by their own momentum and
In the Perkins L4 Diesel engine particular are there trapped The air then passes through a
attention bas beenpaid to the provision of means steel wire element before Teachingthe indution
foT in respectof these manifold and in that element are deposited any
Three filtration systems are provided Air other particles of foreign matter which stil remain
Fuel Oil and Lubrication and all that the operator in the air after its contact with the oil
needsto do is to take steps to ensure that the Maintenance
filters are kept in such a state that they will most
Examine and replenish oil and clean in accor
effectively perform their functions
dance with periodical attentions Section F
Removetop cover and lift out element Wash
in paraffin or fuel oil and allow to drain
Empty oil from outer cas and scrape out
Wash outer casewith para
ffin or fuel oil and refill with oil to the level indi
cated do not overfill
top cover care to be taken
to seethat the joint ring is in good condition and
is sealingbefore tightening the top cover down
Fig G J Gil BathAir Filter
AIR Fn TERS
Air is filtered as it enters the inlet manifold by
use of ODeor the other of the followmg filters
1 Dil Bath type
2 Air Maze type Tractor type
The systemof operation of the air filters afford
a high measure of protection to the engine if
properly maintained
Fig G2 Prefilter
The time for cleaningthe air operating conditions therefore under extreme
dusty conditions the time limit recommendedin Air Maze type Tractor type
the periodical attentions for cleaning should be In the tractor oil bath filter the air is drawn in
through the intake pipe and down through the
The correct maintenanceof the air cleaner will centre of the filter to the oil bath Here the air
greatly assist in reducing bare wear thereby impinges upon the surface of the oil and particles
extending the life of the engine of foreign matter are carried into the oil by their
own momentum and trapped Tbe air then
Oil Bath Type Filter passesup the sides of the filter through the wire
In this type of filter the incoming air impinges male and out through the connection at the
r
Page G2 Maintenance
Examine replenish oil and clean in accordance
with periodical attentions SectionF
Remove oil container and empty out the oil
Scrapeout all thorough
ly wash in paraffin or fuel oil
Inspect the wire gauzeand if filter body from installation and wash in paraffin
or fuel oil Allow to drain before reassembly
Refill oil container to the level indicated do
not overfill and reassem bIe to filter
Fig GJ
Fig GS
IMPORTANT NOTE
Tbe efficiency of tbe cleaner is sucb tbat if tbe
cleaning of tbe filter is not carried out at appro
priate be serious
ly atfected becausetbe presenceof irnpurities in
tbe cleanerwill restrict tbe air passage
In tbe event of below
par it is a good plan first to cbeckup on tbe cleaner
to ascertainif clogging of tbe filter is tbe cause
FUEL ou FllTERS
Of all the factors on which of a Diesel engine fuel oil
is the most important The efficient operation
and length of life of the fuel pump elementsand
of the on the use of clean
fuel oil secondthe provision of suitable filters
third attention to these filters
Protection fot the Perkins L4 engineis provided
by the following filters readingfrom the tank to
the pump
1 Water Trap
Fig G4 2 Prefilter
Pa1eG3
When take care that a good joint
is made betweenthe top of the bowl and the filter
body as any leakage of air here that is on the
suction side of the fuel pump rnay causeair looks
in the fuel system
Paper Element Filter
It is not possible to clean the paper element in
this filter
1 It should be renewedevery 1000hours Every
250 hours unscrew the drain plug at the bottom
of the filter bowl and allow fuel to fiow through
until clean fuel oil appears Replace drain plug
To remove the element unscrewthe larger nut
in the rentTeof the cover and drop the filter bowl
clear SeeFigs G3 and G4
Remove the dirty element and throw away
Fig G5
Before putting new element in position clean
the filter bowl and inspect the relief valve
Ensure that the rubber joints are in good con
dition if not replace by new
Fig G6 Fuel Filter in section showing fuel fiow throUgh
element LUBRICAnNG On FILTERS
The importance of using clean lubricating oil
Tbe arrangement of these two filters varies
in the fust place and providing means to ensure
lccording to application Cn some applications
both filters are fitted on others either one or the
other is fitted
3 Paper element type filter
Water Trap
This filter varies according to application
The gauze strainer is contained in an easily
removablebowl and should be cleaned in accor
dance with periodical attentions SectionF
Prefilter
This units main purpose is to protect the fuel
lift pump It bas a comparatively See Fig G 2
This elementis contained in an easily removable
bowl and should be cleaned in periodical attentions SectionF
To remove element for cleaning unscrew
knurled nut at the bottom of the bowl Swing
the stirrup clear and remove filter bowl
Removeelement and wash in paraffin or clean
fuel oil Clean out and wash filter bowl in clean
paraffin or fuel oil Fig G7
Page G4
Wash strainer in clean paraffin or fuel oil and
replace
Sump Strainer f
The sump strainer is a wire gauzestrainer which
fits over the suction pipe to the lubricating oil
pump
It should be cleanedin accordance with periodi
cal attentions Section F
For instructions regarding removal and cleaning
of sump strainer see Section P
Maln Full Flow Filter
The element of this filter should be removed
and thoroughly washed in paraffin The time
period for cleaning and renewing the element is
given in Periodical Attentions Section F
It is a good plan to have a to
put this elementin the filter and the filter back into
service again whiJst the other element is being
cleaned This procedure saves time
Fig G8
that it is always clean in use is hardly secondto
the importance of cleanliness in respectof fuel oil
It is imperative therefore that lubricating not negiected Moreover if the periodi
cal attentions carried out and
thc correct grade of clean oil useda very long lire
can he obtained from the Perkins engine
To filters are provided r
1 Oil Filler Strainer
2 Sump Strainer
3 Main fuU flow Filter
Oil Filler Strainer
The purpose of this strainer is to prevent the sump when the engineis bejag
filled with lubricating oU It should be cleaned
in accordance with periodical attentions See
Section F
To Removeand Clean Dil Filler Strainer
Tbe oi filler strainer is situated at the bottom
of the Dil filler tube betweenthe Dil fiJler and thc
cylinder block
To remove for cleaning unscrew the bolt at r
thc base of the Dil filler remove oil filler and
Fig r
1 rage G5
5 Remove bypassvalve assembly This is
best etfected by means of a piece of wire
bent to form a hook at one end
6 Removedrain plug at base of filter casing
and clean filter casing with paraffin
7 Reassemble filter unit in reverse order to
dismantling
lt should be noted that the bypass valve
always be replaced in a position
adjacent to where the filter is mounted to the
cylinder block
CAUTION
Ir tbe filter element is not cleaned as recom
mended tbe flow of oil tbrough the filter is re
stricted Tbis does not however prevent oil
passing to the engine for when restriction takes
place the bypass valve opens and permits un
filtered oil to continue to flow round the engine
The consequence of this need not be described
Do not tberefore omit to clean tbe element as
Fig GIO
prescribed
To Removeand Clean Element
Unscrew nut on cover and remove cover
Remove bypassvalve assemblySee Fig G7
Remove element See Fig G8
paraffin and allow to dry before
replacing See Fig G9
Removedrain plug at base of filter casing and
clean filter casing witb paraffin
To order of procedure
Ensure that tbe felt sealing ring around tbe by
pass valve piston and tbe rubber sealing wasber
are in good condition
NOTE On certain applications the lubricating
oil filter is fitted as shown in Figs G10 and 11
To removeand clean the elementof this filter
1 Unscrewbolt and removetop cover
2 Removespring and 3 4 paraffin or fuel oil Allow
to dry before replacing Fig GIl
Page Hl
CYLINDER HEAO
The Diesel engine rarely if ever needs the Remove push rods
periodical decarbonising that is accepted as a Remove leak off pipes to atomisers
matter of course with the petrol engine insofar Remove pressure pipes to atomisers
that in an engine operating on the diesel cycle Remove atomisers
carbon beyond a superficial coating does not
Remove main leak off pipe
fonn and accumulatein the combustion chamber
and on the pistons as in the case of the petrol Uncouple union on pipe connecting the venturi
and the pneuma tic governor where fitted
engine
Take off cylinder head Duts and Oing to its higher thermal valves head completewith and venturi
of the also much more free from
trouble due to overheating that is of course To providing the engine is reasonably maintained All valves are numbered I
to 8 commencing from the front of the engine
Af ter aperiod dependingupon the condition The cylinder head is marked with under which the engine is operated the valves
numbers opposite the valve seats see Fig H2
may need attention This will become apparent
Compress the spring cap and springs with a
by loss of which casea top over
valve spring compressorand remove the splitcone
haul may be necessary
collets Remove the spring caps and springs
thus liberating the valve which can be taken
Preparation out when the cylinder head is turned upside
Begin by assemblingall the joints and other down
parts required as called for in the Perkins parts
List Grinding Valves
The valves and valve seats should be recon
Drain all water from the radiator and cylinder ditioned in the orthodox way using grinding
block The drain cock for the cylinder block is
J on the fuel pump side of the engine Disconnec
the exhaustpipe from the compound or by means of specialised
The valve seat and face angle is 45
equipment
the cylinder head
EXA1IUNA nON
Cylinder Head To Remove
Remove the air cleaner Examine all parts for wear having in mind tbe
Take oir cylinder head cover following points
Uncoupleunion on oil pipe to rocker assembly Valve Springs
RemoveDuts holding rocker shaft assembly Valve springs deteriorate because of fatigue
Remove retaining plates and lift oir rocker resulting from the combined effect of heat and the
above named oil pipe with it normal working of the springs Af ter aperiod
Fig Hl Showing Rocker Shaft Assembly
Page H2 Cylinder Head headbottom
faceis not lessthan 057ins 145mm
inlet and 053 ins 135 mm exhaust Maximum
not exceed140 ins 356 mm
inlet and exhaust Check this by putting a straight
edge across the bottom face of the cylinder head
and measuring the distance between the straight
edgeand the valve head as illustrated in Fig H2
Tbe efficiencyof a diesel on the maintenance of good compression therefore
when grinding in valves make certain thai no
signs of pitting are left on the seatings Valves
should he ground in until a continuous high
mark is present the full way round the seating
both on the valve and on the valve seatingin tbc
Fig H2 Checking Yalve Head Clearance and method head At the same time care should be taken to
of marking valves
avoid unnecessary grinding away of the seato
lhe spnng becomesweak and is then prone to
Valve This of course applies to all types of
engines Examinethe guidesfor wear if necessary
replacc
A ncw set of springs shouid be fitted whenever with ncw guides
tbe engine undergoesa major overhaul
To remove oid guides pressout or uso a suit
Rocker Levers and Bosbes ablc drift
Washthe rocker assembly thoroughly in paraffin To fit ncw guides clean and remove any hum
Examine the rocker lever bushesfor wear The
Smear tbc outer surfacc with clean oil and
rockers should be an easyfit on the shaft without
using a suitable press drive home play
up to the collar Care should be exercised
It as a result of inadequate lubricatioD aDY as the collar approaches the cylinder head as
rocker busheshave seizedODthe rocker shaft the the guides arc made of cast iron and will have worked loose OD the bushes
comparatively this have occurred it will be advisableto fit
new rockers andjor bushes
Cylinder Head
Should it be necessaryto dismantie the rocker
shaft bie as shown in Fig Hl Remove exhaust manifold and clean off any
carbon deposit formed in the cylinder head
Valves and Valve Seats
Wasb out and thoroughly clean tbe water
There will be little wear of the valve sterns or passages in tbe bead out and
their guides provided that the lubrication of these finally cleaning with has always If
the water jacket of the cylinder head shows
Examine the valves for cracks Check wear signs of a proprietary brand of
of valve sternsand their fit in guides If the sterns descaling solution should be used
are wam fit ncw valves
Number aU new valves to correspond with the of the old valves
It is not as a rele necessaryto remove the
When fitting new valves take care that the covers of the combustion a valve head and the cylinder rarely fonns in 1
Cylinder Head Page H3
Should it be necessary to remove these covers To tighten thecylinder headDutsa torque wrench
ncw copperjoints should be fitted when they are shouldbe usedsetto the SectionB
replaced and pulled down in the order marked in Fig H3
lf ncw copper joints are not available the old With tb push rods in position replacetbe rocker
unes may be used provided they are softened shaft assembly Examine the oil pipe union and
before being refitted ensure that it is in good condition Connect
union to cylinder head
To softenthe joints heat them to a dull red heat Where necessary reconnect the pipe from the
and quenchin cold water
pneumatic governor to the venturi
Special care is necessarywhen refitting these Replace atomisers See Section S
covers to ensure that there are no leaks at the
Replaceleak off pipes and cold starting equip
joints will be a loss of compression
ment
and the efficiencyof the impaired
For fitting of fuel pipes see Section S
Reassembly
Cylinder Head Valve Clearance
shouldbesetto 010in 25mIn
and collet
When adjusting valve clearances the engine
chamber caps and joints should he turned to bring the respective pistons to
T DC on compression
Fit exhaust manifold gaskets and exhaust
manifold To adjust slackenthe lock nut and with a 010in
25 mm top of the valve
stem and the rocker lever face turn the adjusting
Head screw by meansof a the correct
clearanceis obtained Tighten the locknut
Before replacing cylinder head it is extremely
important to ensure that the cylinder block and STARTING THE ENGINE
cylinder head racesare perfectly clean Proceed as instructed in Section C
When replacing the cylinder head a new gasket Af ter warming up tbe engine should be sbut
should be used Cover both sides with a thin down and the cylinder head Duts again tightened
coating of good jointing compound and before witb a torque wrench set to the tension given in
placing over the cylinder head studs ensure that Section B The nuts should be tightened in the
the gasket is correctly positioned The gasket is order shown in Fig H3
marked to indicate hcw it should be replaced Reset valve clearance to 010 in 25 mm
Having placedthe gas ket in position ensurethat Tbe cylinder head cover cao aow be replacd
the cylinder bead face is perfectly clean and place A ncw joint should be fitted and care should b
in position over the cylinder head studs taken to sec that it is correctly

Fig H3 Diagram showing order in which cylinder head
nut must bc tightened
Page 11
The pistonsare of light alloy with fully floating Keep each piston and connecting rad assembly
gudgeon pingwhich work in the bush fitted to the separateeach to each as marked
connectingrod small end The gudgeon ping are
held in position by meansof circlips To The pistons are fitted with three compression Remove circlips
trom the piston using long
rings and two oil control or scraper rings The nosedpliers
top compression ring is a plain the secondachrome plated and Ta remave the gudgeonpins warm the pistons
the third is composed of four laminated rings in liquid to a temperature of Seefig J2
3849C The pins can then be pushedout
The tourth and fifth rings are slotted scrapers To Fit Small End Bushes
Pistonsare numberedfrom 1 to 4 commencing Removepiston and connectingrad from engine
with No lat the front of the engine
Remove gudgeon ping see above
Each connectingrad and cap are also numbered
The small end bushes are a press fit into the
I and I 2 and 2 etc Seefig J1
The connecting rad and cap mating faces are
Pressout aId bush with suitable press
serrated la ensurecorrect positioning and should
on no accountbe filed Remove any sharp edges around smal elld
parent bare
To Conn
ecting Rod Assemblies Pressin new bush ensure that oiI hole Ul buih
coincides with hole in top of connecting rad
Remove cylinder head ass Ream out new bush to guit gudgeon pin see
embly seeSection H Section V and check for parallelism
Removesump seeSectP
To Assembie Piston and Connecting Rod
Insert gudgeon pin into position to do this it
seeSection P may be necessary to heat piston in liquid to a
Turn engine until two conn temperature of looo120oF 3849C The
ecting roos are at bottom gudgeon pin can then be pushed easily into posi
centre then remove setscrews tion
and locking washers Tf original pistons are bejag used they must be
reassembled to the same connecting rods eg
l1 Remove caps and hearing
piston stamped I must go with connecting rad
shells
stamped with the figure 1 For markings of
Push piston and connecting connecting rad see fig J 1
rad out of the top of the
Fig J1 Showing cylinders Fit circiips check to ensure that they fit correctly
markingof connec into the grooves in the piston Tt is advisable to
mg ro
Turn engine until remaining fit new circiips even if the oid ODesdo not appear
are at bottom to be damaged or strained
centre then repeat removal i
Should there be carbon ridges in the cylinder
aDres remove them using a scraper for the
Fittings New Rings
Pistonsand rings must be thoroughly washedto
purpose remove any oil or greasewhich may be 12
Pistonsand Fit the the top of the first
so that when held compressed as the ring ends point upwards Position the gap
at 1800to the first segmentgap
The third segmentshould be fitted on the top
of the secondso that asdescribd
the ring ends point downwards Position the gap
immediately above that of the first segment
Fit the fourth segmenton top of the third so
that when held and ring ends
point upwards Position the gap above that of
the When the four laminations are fitted to the r
piston check that they are fitted correctly If
fitted correctly there will appear a gap between the bottom two laminations and
Fig 12 of piston rings top two laminations as illustrated in fig J3
I Plain compression
ring 3 When fitting ncw rings to original pistons
2 Chrome plated com 4 and 5 Slotted scraper ring clean out piston ring grooves using the old ring
presaion ring
NOTE In the case of combine engines the chrome
from the appropriate groove for this t
Dlated compression ring is omitted and replaced by a Examine the piston skirt and if there is any
plain compression ring of the same type as fitted in scoring the piston must not he 1 ring groove
The piston should be examined carefully for
bruising of the ring groovesand to ensurethat the
Check rings tor correct gap which must be rings move freely in their the limits given in SectionV
NOTE When fitting new rings to wom
Fit the rings to the piston in the order shown in cylinder liners the ring gaps should be J2 The gaps of the two compression and
a bore diameter of 4250 in 108 mm
scraper rings must be arranged so that they are
equally spacedaround the piston and not in line To Fit Piston and Connecting Rod to Cylinder
with one another Block
AII and capsare When fitting achrome plated with a number their position in
care should be taken to ensure that it is fitted the engine For method of marking see Fig The ring is suitably marked to
indicate hese numhers are stamped on that side of the
how it should be replaced connecting rods and caps which are machined to
When fitting the third laminated compression take the locating lips of the care should be taken that the tour lamin
ations are correctly assem
bied to the piston
To assembieto piston proceed as follows
Examine the laminations and it will be observed
that the tree endsof the ring are not cut squareto
the circumference but slope away either to the
right or lelt dependingon which war up the ring I
is tumed I
Fit the first segmentto the piston 50 that when
held horizontally in the palm of the hand and
radially ring ends point down
wards Position this ring at the bottom of the Fig J3 Showing how the laminated with the gap over the gudgeon pin bare
ring should be fitted into its groove
Pistons and Connecting Page J3
When fitting pistons and connecting rods to Fitting New Pistons
cylinder block and crankshaft ensure that the side It is important when fitting ncw pistons to
l of the connecting rod which is stamped with the
number goes to the camshaft side of the engine
checkthe distancefrom the crown of the piston to
the face of the cylinder block
Insert the pistons and connecting rods into the
cylinder bores from the top ensuring that piston When the crank is at top dead centre the crown
and Tod stamped No I are fitted into No I of the piston must be 007 to 012 in 178 to 305
cylinder bore and No 2 into No 2 cylinder bore mm above the face of the cylinder block If the
and so on counting from the front of the engine piston standshigher than this then the crown must
When fitting assem blies deal with them in the be reducedby taking the necessary amount otT in
order land 4 then 2 and 3 Turn the crankshaft a lathe If the piston height is below the minimum
until the appropriate crankpins are at BDC figure quoted above that piston must be rejected
if a first class performance is required
J To minimise the possibility of breaking piston
rings it is advisable to use a piston ring guide
Take care not to damage the rings Should
To take this measurement the piston assembly
and connecting rad must be fitted to tbe cylinder
the piston accidentally drop partly into the block and crankshaft as previously described
bore and is held suspended by a piston ring it
must be taken out again and the ring examined to When assem bied turn crankshaft to bring piston
sec if it is cracked or broken to T DC and place a straight edgeacrossthe top
Pull the connecting Tod to the crankpin and of the piston and with a set of feeier gauges
insert the half bearing measuretbe distance between the straight edge
and tbe top face of the cylinder block SeC
Fit cap and cap half hearing
Fig J4
NOTE When replacing connecting Tod set
screws new locking washers must always be
used ConnectingRod Weigbts
The top and bottom halfshelis are not inter The of in engine
changeable with each other due to the locating sets should balance within two ounces
lips of the two halfbearings being offset in
In order to effect this rods are batched as
relation to one another
follow
Tlghten connecting Tod setscrews using a torque
wrench set to the tension given in Section B Code Minimum Maximum
No Ieight Ileight
12 4 Ib 4 Ib 13 4 Ib 2 oz 215kg 4 Ib 14oz 221kg
14 4 lb 4 oz 221kg 5 lb 227kg
It is necessary therefore when ordering spare
for an individual enginethat the appropriate code
nurnber of the connecting rod set be quoted
This code number can be found etchedeither on
Nos I or 4 connecting rod on the machined
shoulder which is adjacent to the fuel pump side
of the engine
Cn spare rods however tbe code nurnber is
Fig 14 Checking di stance between straight edge and present on each rod
cylinder block facc
Page KI
Tbe liners fitted to Perkins L4 engines are In order to facilitate the fitting of the liners
centrifugal cast iron wet liners Tbey are fianged
at tbe top and rubber type sealing rings are fitted
at the bottom sec Fig Kl
when the two rings have been placed in position
on the liner smear them with soft soap or soapy
water
Under normal liner would Place liner in position and presshome by hand
only needto be renewedduring a major overbaul ensuring that the rubber sealing rings remain in
but shluld it be necessary
to remove tbe liner for their any other reason this caD be carried out with
1 out removal of the crankshaft
If at any time the cylinder liners are removed
and th sameliners are to be refitted then before
removing the liners from the cylinder block
ensurethey are suitably marked so that they may
be refitted to their original parent bare and in tbc
same position in that bare that is thrust side of
the liner to the thrust side of the cylinder block
To Remove cylinder head See Section H
Remove Sump See Section P
Remove oil pump See Section P
and Remove liner using a suitabe liner removing
tooI
When the rubber sealing rings have cleared the
bottom landing the liner can be removedby hand
To Fit New Liners
When fitting ncw liners it is essentialthat ncw
pistons and rings are also fitted On no account
should old pistons he fitted to new Iiners For
fitting of new pistons see Section J
Over a period of service corrosion may have The liners are a push fit and no force is required
taken place at the inner ends of the Iandings but should a liner require more pressurethan caD
This corrosionand any burrs which may he present be applied by the fingers place a suitable piece
of wood across the top Bange and press home
should be removedwith a scraperor emery cloth
Fit the rubber sealing rings in the grooves Af ter fitting the liners the cylinder block should
be water tested to a pressureof 20 25 Ibs per
1 provided in tbe Iower diameter of the liner See
sq in 14 176 kgjsqcm
Fig KI Care should be taken not to stretch
theserillgS as they are not elastic and if stretched Reassemble engine as required and to instruc
lViII not return to their farmer size tions given for the various
Page L
CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS Af ter regrinding the sharp corners on the Dil
1 Tbe crankshaft runs in waysshould be removedand the able shell hearings which are lead bronze lined detectedagain and
and indium flashed NOTE It is important that the RADII on the
main journals and Crankpins are maintained If
To Remove cylinder head See Section H theseare neglecteda fatigue fracture is liable to
Remove sump See Section P occur
Remove lubricating oir pump See Section P CRANKSHAFr DATA
Remove pistons and connecting rods Sec Description Dimensions Remarks
Section J Main Joumal Diameter
Take off timing case front cover and remove STD
ins idler gear not to exceed
Remove timing case bottom cover 010 in 16 micro ins
Remove starter motor 4 microns
25 mm Remove flywheel and assembly 020 in
ins
Remove the cranks haft Teat end seal 51 mm 75657567
Remove main hearing caps and half hearings 030 in Lift out crankshaft
76 mm 75397541
Crankshaft Regrinding Mam Joumal Rad
Wear
regrind the kin Must be
following points should be checkedto ensureit is t 015 in maintained
suitable fot further grinding Tbe Crankshaft should be and Rear Main Joumal Width
STD Not to exceed
then demagnetised in order to remove any polar
isation which may be present 20785 5279
Tbe main joumal and crankpin mm after re
be checkedfot ovality and measuredto ascertain grind
Crankpio Diameter
the next appropriate size to which the Crankshaft
caD be reground ie 010 25 mm 020 STD 2748252749 iBs 51 mm 030 76 mm from Standard If 69816982
mm not to exceed
010 in 2738252739 ins 16 micro ins
the crankshaft requires regrinding below 030
76 mm it is recommended that ncw crankshaft 25 mIn 69556957 mm 4 microns
020 in 2728252729 ins
he fitted
It should be noted however that in the home 51 mIn 69306932 mm
030 in 2718252719 ins
market an exchange scheme is in operation where
by reconditioned Crankshafts are available at a 76 mm 69046906 mm
Crankpin Rad
certain cast providing the Crankshaft being
exchanged is not damagedand is suitable for re 0
0Jt in This must be
grinding to a limit of 030 76 mm
l 015 in maintained
Regrinding All the required for re Crankpin Width
grinding the Crankshaftis givenunder Crankshaft STD Not to exceed
Data All limits listed thereunder must he 45214534
mm 180 4572
adhered to and the main joumals and Crankpin mm after re
must be free from grinding marks grind
Page L2 Crankshaftand Main Should the Crankshaft rear flange need re The
thrust washers fit in the recesses the rear i in 952 mm of the flanse on either side of the rear main bearing housing and
width must not be ground The should be assembied with the flat steel side to the
of the flange width may be ground to a minimum hearing housing The end float of the crankshaft is
diameter of 5238 in 13305mm Surfacefinish measured between the crank cheek and the thrust
not to exceed 16 micro ins 4 microns washers This measurement should be between
0085 and 0155 in 22 and 39 mm If greater
To Fit Ne Main Bearings and Thrust Washers or smaller than this amount fit new thrust washers
The main bearings being of the prefinished or oversize thrust washers if necessary
strip type the fitting of these should present nu
difficulty Crankshaft Rear End Seal
To prevent errors occurring in fitting top and On early enginesthis a housing
bottom half bearings the locating lips and the and rubber seal
recesses in the caps and bearing housings are When removedit should be inspectedfor cracks
offset in relation to one another or scratches on the If this surface
The bearing caps and crankcaseare numbered is damagedin any way a new sealshould be fitted
13 No I being at the front of the engine To fit a new seal proceed as follows
To avoid the caps being inadvertently assem bied Removeold sealby pressingit out of the housing
to the crankcasethe wrong war round the locating
Lightly smear the outer edge of the new seal
dowels and dowel holes are also offset
with soft soap
Under normat the time the
main to be renewed the crankshaft Place seal in position and press in by hand as
will Deed to be removed for regrinding How far as it will go this should be approximately half
ever if for any reasonone or more of the bearing way in Pressing in halfway by hand ensures
should have to be renewed or removed for in that the seal is caD be carried out on Nos land 2 Pressin with a pressuntil the
bevelled edge or
bearings without the necessity of removing the the seal is level with the outer face of from the engine
Proceedas follows
Remove sump See Section P MODIFIED CRANKSHAFf AND REAR ou
Take olf tbe cap of the hearing in question SEAL
Slacken remaining bearing cap setscrewsone Later L4 a crankshaft and
or two turns rear oil seal of modified design Neither of these
Remove the lower half of the bearing from the componentsare individually with
bearingcap their earlier counterparts so that if the latest type
With a suitable piece of wood push out the top crankshaft is 0 be fitted to an engine of the hearingby rotating it on the crankshaft
utilising an unmodified crankshafta modified rear
applying the tooi to the side opposite the locating oil seal must also be fitted
lip The locating lips are on the camshaft side The modification to the crankshaft affects that
of the engine part of the shaft around which the rear oil sea
Inspect the bearing shells and if thor require is fitted this portion of the
renewing inserta new half hearing in the top shaft had a nomina diameterof 5 in plain end first Fit new half hearing to the equivalent
nominaI dimension in the case of
cap Do not remove more than one bearing at the modified shaft is 3i in 7938 mm Further
a time more the modified crankshaft has a shallow spiral
Replacecap and tighten setscrews Ijghtly bfore oil groove machined to a depth of 004008 next bearing 10 to 20 mm in
that section upon which the
Having replaced the bearings and caps pull rear scat bears
down the setscrews with a torque wrench set to With the advent of this latest type tension given in Sction B the
bore of the modified rear Dil seal is machined
Crankshaftand Man Page L3
to accommodatea rubber cored 9 Swivel the on the shaft
This strip consists of two sections one for each to bed in the strips and to establjsh that the
of the two now composethe assemblyturns easily on the shaft
seal cover The strip itself farms a positive seal
10 Bolt the seal housingin positjon on the block
with the rear end of the crankshaft and rcoar main hearingcap and finally tighten
When fitting the seal with the crankshaft in with setscrews
position the following procedure should be
adopted Replacing Crankshaft
I Set up a half housing in a vice with the seal Ensurethat all oilways are clear Diagram Fig P2
2 SettIe approximately I in 254 mm of the Check main bearing setscrewsfor stretch or
strip at each end into the ends of the groove damage to threads Affected setscrewsmust be
ensuring that each end of the strip projects
scrapped
010020 in 2551 mIn beyond the half
housing joint face Allow the middle of the In no case should than those
seal to bulge out of the groove during this supplied by the engine manufacturer be used as
they are of special heat treated highgrade steel
opcration
Clean bearing housmgs and place top half
3 With the finger or thumb pressthe remainder
of the strip into the groove working from the
centle Then use any bar
hearings in position
Place crankshaft in position
to further bed the strip by rolling and pressing Fit lower halvesof hearingsto hearing caps and
its inner diameter This procedure takes place in position Ensure that the thrust washers
advantageof the friction between tne strip on No 3 hearing are fitted correctly
and the groove at the ends to compact the
Place tab washers in position and tighten set
rope whilst ensuring that the projections of
screws
the end racesof the rope remain as set Fit
sameto other half housing in similar manner For final tightening of the setscrewsa torque
wrench should he used set to the tension given
5 Remove all traces of the old joint from the in Section B
cylinder block rear face and fit new joint
treatedwith a compound Lock setscrews in position by meansof the tab
washers
6 Lightly paint the faces of the two housings Fit crankshaft rear end oil seal as previously
with a suitable jointing compound described
7 Spread a film of graphited greaseover the as required lnd to tbe
exposedinner diameter surface of the strip instructions given fot the various operations
8 Assemblethe half the rear It is important that new locking washers of
of the crankshaft and fasten together by the the correct type are fitted when two setscrews been

Page M
DRIVE M
To and plaiD lock
setscrews
with locking wire
head SeeSection H
Remove timing case front cover To Replace Camshaft
Remove sump See Section P See tbat tappets are in position
Replace camsbaft
Remove lubricating oil pump See Section P
Replace idler gear but do not lock idler gear
Remove timing case Power Take Olf facing retaining setscrew
cover Reset timing SeeSection N
Note timing marks See Section Nl as required and to tbe
1 Removeidler gear instructions given for tbc various operations
Ir engineis in a swivel stand turn enginecom To RemoveFoei Pump
pletely over Ir not lar engine over at an angle Removefuel injection pipe lines from atomisers
This wilt prevent the tappets dropping out when and fuel pump
the camshart is removed
Disconnect fuel supply lines
Remove tbe tbe fuel pump
to tbe timing caseand removefuel pump
To Gear To remove tbe fuel pump gear remove tbe three
To from tbe gear to tbe fuel pump
the three setscrews in the centre of the gear adaptor
The gear can now be removedfrom the camshaft
To Replace Foei Pump
Ir the gearbas tbe fuel pump
To Gear
refit gear or if necessary
fit Tbe three drilled at equaI angies The three slotted holes in tbe gear are for fitting
are the holesfor attachingthe gearto the camshaft the gear to the fuel pump adaptor
Tbc three slotted holes are for use with the fuel
Fit fueI pump to timing case
pump
Time fueI pump in conjunction witb the engine
When fitting to the camshaft as given in Section N
turn the camshaft untiI No I cam is upright It Replace atomisers
will be observedthat a tapped hole on the cam
Connectup fueI supply lines
shaft hub is also at the top in line with No I cam
Look at the gear and it will be noticed that one of Replace fueI injection pipes
the holes in the gear has the letter D adjacent When fitting a new or pump
to it remove the pump and pour suffi
cient engine oil into the spring chamber untiI oil
Placc the gear on the hub with thesetwo holes comes out of the overflow Refit the inspection
in line cover
Page N 1
TIMING N
NOTE When checking and adjusting valve clearances the engineshould
be turned to bring the respective pistons to TDC on The timing or resettl1gof the timing on the the fuel pump adaptor in line with the
scribed line
Perkins L4 engine can be simply and expediently on the pointer of the fuel pump
carried out if the following instructions are fol
Rotate camshaft to bring inlet and exhaust
lowed
valvesof No 4 cylinder to rocking position
It is well to remembr hat if tbc cylinder hcad
With the crankshaft set as has been removed it does not in any way affect
idler gear in position ensuring that the timing
the timing of the engine
marks line up correctly Replace idlcr gear set
screwtightcn and lock with tab washer
MARKINGS
The timing gears are marked as shown in Fig N1 VALVE nG
so that if for any reason the timing has to be
If for any reason a new camshaft gear bas been
broken the engine can easily be reset to its
fitted it may be necessaryto retime the engine
original timing
Fit replacement gear as instructed in Section L
Tbere are two different markings on the Cuet and proceed as follows
pump adaptor One is a scribed line marked
with tbe letter S whicb should coincide witb Bring Nos I and 4 pistons to T DC That
T DC bas been obtained on Nos I and 4 pistons
tbe scribed line on the pointer of the Cuet pump
can be checked by examining the flywheel or the
wben the engine is set at T DC firing on No r
crankshaft at the front end where the key for the
cylinder Sec Fig N 2
fan belt pulley should be at the top of its periphery
Tbe altemative scribed line on tbe fuel pump
Remove idler gear
adaptor denotes spill timing 21 BTC In the
caseof L4 enginesfitted to the Marshall Crawler
Tractor the spill timing is 24 BTDC
To obtain access to the fuel pump markings it
is necessary to remove the inspection plate situated
on the left hand side of the timing case
To Reset Engine to its Original Timing
Remove atomisers
Brlng Nos I and 4 pistons to the top That
TDC bas been obtained can he checked by
examining tbe flywheel or tbc front end of the
crankshaft where the key of the fan belt pulley
should he at tbc top of its periphcry
Set fucl pump gear with scribed linc S on
Page N2 Turn camshaft until equal lift is obtainecl on Turn
thc enginc through two revoluons of thc
tbc tappcts of No 4 cylinder crankshaft and checkthe fuel pump timing accord
ing to instructions for checking injection timing
Turn fuel pump gear until scribed line marked
with the letter S on thc fuel pump adaptor is
in linc with the scribed linc on the pointer on the TO CHECK pump
To check timing proceed as follows
Placetbc idler gear in position a Valve Timing
Remove valve cover
Replace push rods and rocker sbft valve and injection timing If found to be Remove atomisers
correct tighten idler gear retaining jetscrew and
lock witb tab washer For Turn engine until equal lift is obtained on the
tappets of No 4 cylinder In this position set
and cbeckingvalve timing secmethod To the clearance on No I inlet valve to 025 in 64mm r
Turn enginein the normal direction of rotation
until the inlet push rad of No 1 cylinder just
beginsto tighten This is the point at which the
inlet valve begins10 TIMING Checkthrougb the in tbe flywbeel T
bousing that tbe flywbeel T DC mark is centra
If thc fucl pump bas a replace
witbin tbe inspection hole Ifthe TDC mark on
ment pump is to bc fitted it will be necessary to the flywhee is witbin plus or minus 3 of TDC
time thc fucl pump in conjunction with thc engine r
position then the valve timing is correct
Proceed as follows Having checked the valve timing thc valve
Remove atomisers
be reset to 010 in 25 mm
with engine warm When checking and adjusting
valve clearancesthe engine should be tumed to
Remove valve cover bring the to TDC on com
pression
Turn enginc to bring Nos 1 and 1 pistons to
tbc top No 1 piston being on thc compression b Injection thc rockers of No 4 cylinder being just
rocking To check the fuel pump timing proceed as
follows
Check that Nos 1 and 4 pistons ace at T DC
by cxamining thc flywhccl Turn the fuel pump gear until the scribed lino Remove valve cover
marked S on the fuel pump adaptor is in lino r
Remove tbe inspection plate 011the side of the
with the scribed lino on the pointer of the fuel
timing case
pump
Turn the engine in the normal direction of r
Providing tbe engine is still set as mentioned rotation and bring Nos 1 and 4 pistons to the top
above the fuel pump maf then be placed in No 1 pistcn being on the compression and tbe securing the rockers of No 4 cylinder
being just rocking T
Timing conllnued Page N3
Check that Nos 1 and 4 pistons are at T OC Sbould tbc scribed lines mentioned above not
by examining the flywheel coincide adjustment CaDbe made by slackcning
tbe three setscrews in tbe ccntre of tbe fuel pump
Check through tbe inspection hole that the gear tben turning thc fuel pump adaptor in thc
scribedline marked S on the fuel pump adaptor direction required
is in line with the scribedline on the pointer of the To obtam accessto tbe tbe
fuel pump See Fig N2 plate on thc front uf tbe timing Fig N2 Diagram
showing fuel pump gear and scribed I
1
Page PI
SYSTEM CP
Note Lubricating Gil in Appendix are in line with the feed from the centre main
bering oil flows to the top face of the cylinder
Tbe importance of correct and clean lubrication block Since coincide but momen
cannot be stressed toa highly and all referencesto tarily for every revolution of the camshaftonly a
engineoil should be taken to mean lubricating oil
which raIls within the in the
Appendix Care should be taken that the oil
of oil is deliveredto the drilling
leading to the top tlce of the cylinder block
This drilling matchesup with a vertical passage
chosenis that specifiedfor the climatic conditions to the top face of the cylinder
undcr which the engine is operated head from whencethe oil is taken by an external
Tbe sump should be filled with suitable lubri pipe to the hollow rocker shaft Drillings in this
Iantto the correct level but do not attempt to shaft allow the oil to passto the rockersthe over
overfill above the ruIl mark Before filling or flow being returned to the sump by way of the
checking the dipstick ensure that the engine is push rod chamber
level Gil also flows from the front main hearing
bracketvia a hole drilled in the front of the cylinder
Gil Circulation block to the idler gear spigot from which it escapes
Tbe system of lubritation is pressure reed to through a drilling in the boss of the idler gear
main and big end beanngsto camstlaft bearings to lubricate the timing gears
and to vaJverocker assembly A further drilling from No I Main Bearing
The pump draws oil through the strainer from Housing conveysoil to the front the sump and delivers it by an extern al pipe
surplus oil returning to the sump
inside tbe a drilling in tbe side
of tbe cylinder block thence through the lubri Oil Pressure
cating oil filter bracket to the lubricating oil filter Sec tbat oil pressureis registeredon the gauge
From the tilter it is delivered througb a second The actual pressure may vary with individua
drilling in the lubricating oil filter bracket and engines and under different operating conditions
cylinder block to the pressure rail wbich is an but shoud he 2550 Ibs per sqin internal passagewitbin the crankcase holes are
sqcm at working temperature and maximum
drilled which lead from the pressure rail to tbe engine speed
crankshaft main hearingsand holes dril led in tbe Ir the oil pressureas registeredon the gauge is
cranksbaft carry oil to the big end bearings below normal check the following in tbe order
Surplus oil returns to the sump gJvenbelow
A seal prevents oil leaking from the rear end I Dipstick Ensure that there is sufficient oi
of the crankshaft in the sump
The smalt end bushesare lubricated by splash 2 Oil pressure gauge Check for accuracy
and lubricating oil mist with master gauge
3 Lubricating oil filter May be choked clean
A passage from tbe centremain bearing conveys or rencw oil to tbe centre camshaft hearing which is also
in open communication with the top face of the F
4 Sumpstrainer This may cylinder block by means of a vertical drilling clean and replace for removal instructions sec
In conjunction with tbe Page P2
this servesto provide oil at a teduced 5 Lubricating oil pump Ensure that suction
pressureto tbe top face of tbe cylinder block and and delivery pipe unions are tight
thenceto the rocker assembly 6 Oil pressure relief valve Foreign matter
The camshaft journal contains two drilled may be preventing the valve from closing For
passages and when as in Fig P2 these drillings cleaning ifistructions Page P3
Page P2 Lubrication the
climate in which the engine is operated See
Appendix
General
Particular care must be taken to wipe oir any
water which may have splashedonto the enginear
any time sincewater which may find its war into
the sumpfrom the exterior will tend to form sludge
Failure to change the oil at the recommended
intervals is the oil seems good
at the time of recommended change
Dirty lubricating oil filters aggravatethe forma
tion of sludgewhich in turn will further choke the
filters Regular filter inspection and cleaning at
the specified periods is essentialsee Section F
To RemoveClean and ReplaceSump Strainer
Drain oil into a after removing
the drain plug Remove setscrews holding sump
strainer cover This cover is situated near the
drain plug
Drop cover and strainer will come away witb
cover
Wash and clean strainer in clean fuel oil or
The OU Valve paraffin
To reassemble reversetbe order of operations r
1he oil pressure reliefvalve which is incorporated
Ensure that the oil pump suction pipe enters thc
in the pump prevents the ex
hole provided in the as might the engine
is cold If is taken when removing and
replacing sump strainer cover tbc joint wiIl not
When the predetermined pressure is exceeded
require renewingevcry time the strainer is removed
the valve spring and sameof the
oil is bypassedback into the sump Tbat the oil warms up and fiows at the desired
To RemoveSnmp r
oressure Tbe valve then closes Removedrain plug and drain ofT oil
Cn early engines the oil valve Remove integral with the bottom cover of the Remove sump strainer as oil pump and to obtain
accessto the Removeall setscrews securingsump to for cleaning seePageP3 and lower sump
As from Engine No lubri Removeall traces of old joints and sump cork
cating oil pumps ipcorporate a detachable pressure strip from timing casebottom cover and rear main
relief valve which is screwedinto the outlet side bearing cap
of the pump body SeeFig Pl The action of
this valve is identical to that described above To Replace Sump
and cleaning instructions are given on page P3
Assembiencw joints and cork strips
Men to Renewthe Oil Lightly smear crankcase races with a thin
Thc oil in tbc sump must be drained in accor coating of jointing compound and place joints
dance witb periodical attentions Section F and in position ensuring all holes line up
new oil of a for When placing joints in position it is Lubricalion that the mitred ends go right up into the recesses
Reassemble
Page P3
bottom cover to pump using a ncw
u of the timing case bottom cover and rear main
hearing cap
Cut cork joints to required length and lightly
coat one face and the two sideswith jointing com
bottom coverjoint
When reassembling bottom cover to pump
note the waming gjven on page P4
On engines subsequent to No 6032453 the
pound and place in position lubricating oil pump relief valve may be rmloved
To facilitate assemblyof the sump screw two and cleaned without dismantling the pump from
guide studs into the crankcaseone on each side the engine
The studs will position the sump accuratelyand Af ter the sump bas locking
prevent the joints wire and unscrew the relief valve assemblyfrom
Placethe sump in position and insert the screws the sideof the oil pump body of
the valve assembly should be in Remove guide studs
instructions detailed below
When all the setscrews have been tighten evenly all round Do not overtighten To DismantIe the Oil Pump
setscrews Removepump from Replace sump strainer and cover plate as
Removelocking wire from suction and delivery
previously described pipe banjo balts and remove pipes In the case
1 To Removeand Refit OU Pump
of No 6032453it will be
necessary to remove the relief valve assemblyin
Remove sump and sump strainer see previous
order to releasethe delivery or outlet pipe
headings
Removethe setscrews securingthe bottom cover
Disconnect Dil pump delivery pipe from the
and gear housing
Tbe idler gear can now be removed
centre main hearing cap
thus releasingthe Dil suction pipe Pressoff spiral driving gear
Unscrew the lubricating oil pump locating set Tbe drive shaft and gear can now be removed
screw This screwis situated outside the cylinder To remove gear from shaft use suitable press
block See Fig Pol To remove the idler gear shaft withdraw the
The oil pump may ncw be Pol split pin fust the shaft caD then be pressedout
Unless areplacement shaft is to be fitted it is not
To refit reversethe above order of operations
necessaryto remove this shaft and pin
To Removeand Clean OU Valve Tbe cleaning of the pressure relief valve bas
With engines prior to No 6032453 the oil been dealt with under a previous heading
valve forms part of the oil pump
bottom cover The breaking pressureis set and Inspection
1 adjusted at the factory and unless special test All the parts of the pump should be cleaned
equipmentis available no attempt should be made and inspected for wear The fit of the shaft in
to dismantie the oil valve the pump body should be carefully checked The
To obtain access to the relief valve foT cleaninR shaft should work easily without lateral movement
proceedas follows in the bushesfitted in the body If the bushesare
wom they should be replaced
Removesump and sump strainer
If tbc oil pump gears show signs of wear they
oil pump from engine
shouid be renewed
Removethe setscrews securingthe bottom cover
and removebottom cover To Reassemble the Dil Pump
Wash the valve in clean fuel oil and blow the Pressdrive shaft gear on to shaft The end of
valve dry with compressed air the shaft should be flush with the bottom faceof the
Secthat the balI and bali seatare perfectly clean gear
and bedding correctly Assembiegear and shaft to pump body
Page P4
Lubrication System continued
Assembie idler gear pump housing and joint Using a suitable press press the spiral driving
to body secureby using setscrewswith suitable gear on to tbe shaft Tbe shaft end should be
just level with the top face of the spiral gear
Check that there is idler gear and bottom
and gears coverto pump body usingnew Place bottom cover joint on bottom face of
for tbc secunng setscrews
housing and with a straight edgeand feeier gauge APPLICABLE WHEN
check tbe straight edgeand REASSEMBLING BOTrOM COVER CARE
face of gears This be 002in MUST BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT
to 006 in 051 to 152mm ft is important that
THE COVER IS ASSEMBLED WITH THE
this clearancedoes not exceed006 in 152 mm
otherwisethe pump output will be insufficient and OIL RELlEF VALVE ON THE DELlVERY
SIDE OF THE PUMP
the lubricating system adversely affected
New joints should be used when carrying Qut Replace suction and delivery pipes and lock
the above test banjo balts with locking wire
pump housingand idlef gear Reassemblc
pump to enginc
r
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00 Paee Q
W A TER PUMPQ
The cooling water is circulated by a centrifugal When cylinder block a new
type pump mounted on the front end of the joint should be used to cnsure that a watertight
cylinder block and driven by a Vee belt from joint is made
the engine crankshaft Provision is made for
To Dismande Water Pump
fitting a fan on the front of the water pump pulley
Remove split pin from slotted nut securing
water pump pulley and removenut and washer
Tbe pump does not require greasing as the
Iearingsare treated with a special greasebefore Removewater pump pulley
assembly from shaft
Remove front bearing re
taining circlip using long
1r14
nosepliers for the purpose
Removerear seal
Using a suitable press
press the shaft out of the
body from the impeller end
leaving tbe thrower loose
in the body Thesecan now
be removedfrom the body
Removethe front sealand
tlanges The two bearings
and distance piece will still
be on the water pump shaft
These can be removed by
J
J
means of a suitable press
Inspection
Fil Ql WaterPumpin Section
Ir the water pump drive
shaft shows signs of wear
in the region of the bear
I Body 6 Hearings 12 2 Impellcr 7 Plain Washer 13 Front Scal ings the
shaft must be
3 Sbaft 8 Split Pin Retaining Plate renewedas a wam shaft in
4 RcarScal 9 Slotted Nut 14 Front Scal
SThrowcr 10 Pulley IS Front Seal this region wilt allow the
11 Circlip Housing inner race of the bearingto
rotate on the shaft
To Remoyeand Refit Water Pump Clean impeller and check for cracks and broken
Slacken dynamo securing screws and remove blades
fan belt Examine casing for cracks
Removefan thin lubricating oil and examine
for pitting corrosion or wear Ir Unscrew nuts securingwater pump to cylinder
block and removewater pump hearings
To refit pump to cylinder block is a reversalof To ReAssemble Water Pump
the above procedure 1 Press rear hearing on to shaft fit
r
Page Q2
then presson front bearing hand to ensure that ther is no undue re
Ensure that each hearing end cover faces istance to rotation
outwards towards the ends of the shaft
8 Presson the pulley making certain that no
2 The front seal retaining plate should then he rearward axial movemem of the shaft is r
placed in position against the back face of incurred
the rear hearing This retaining plate is
dished and when positioned the centre 9 The impelle should now be pressed on to the
of the plate must not be in contact with the shaft With the impeller fitted care should
rear bearing be taken to ensurethat a clearanceof 015
025 in 38 to 64 mm is 3 Fit the feit sealand that these the inner edge of the impeller vanes and the
bear on the retaining plate water pump body As a guide to obtaining a
4 Prcssthe water pump thrower on to the shaft
so that the thrower Rangefaces towards the
rear bearing
correct clearancein this respectthe impeller
should be so positioned as to allow a straight
edgeto the back face of
S The whole of the foregoing the pump body and the two raised extractor
then be pressedinto the water pump body hole racesin the teat of the impeller
from the front end and the circlip securely 10 Refit plain washerand slotted nut and secure
positioned in the recessforward of the front with a new split pin
bearing Before pressing the assemblyinto r
the pump body however the bearings and Modified Water Pump
the two be
half filled with a high melting point grease L4 to No 6036233
arc fittcd
6 Fit the rear sealinto the pump body ensuring
with a modificd water pump
that the carbon face is positioned towardsthe This latcst assembly Fig Q2 incorporates
rear ofthe pump body When fitted the seal largcr impcller shaft bcaringsthan must rest squarelyon its scat and not be utiliscd and
interior dimensions
canted in any way of tbc body have beenamcnded r
7 At this stage the shaft should be turned by In addition the the latcst water
0 Cl
1 Body
2 Impe11cr
I 3 Shaft
4 RcarScal
5 Bcarings
Sclf Locking Nut
Pulley
8 Circlip
k 9 Distancc Piccc
0 10
Front ScaI Rctaining Platc
Fro t cal Housing
Front Scal
0 Ql Modified
Water
Pump
inSection
u pump body and pulley result in a very limited
these components so that the
Page Q3
A modification to the impeller shaft dispenses
with the thrower flange previously fitted at the rear
u labyrinth sealing effect obtained offers increased
restriction to the passage
front bearing
of dust to the water pump
of the front seal and selflocking nut replacesthe
retaining slotted nut and split pin previously fitted
to retain the water pump Sincethe width of the pump bearingshave been The processof dismantling and reassemblyuf
increaseda shorter distance piece is now fttted the water pump applicable
between the bearings and the to the latest type pump with the exceptionof those
diameter use of a larger front remarks in respect of the thrower flange and
circlip slotted pulley retaining nut and split I
u Page Rl
FAN AND Incorrect adjustment of the fan and dynamo the radiator The output of the dynamo would
belt can result in the fraying of the belt and even also he reduccd
tual failure To ensure the belt is correctly
adjusted it should be checked every 50 hours
Method of AdjustmeDL
Tight tend to overloadthe bearings
in the dynamoand water pump which consequently Pressthe fan belt with the thumb at the centre
may result in damage to these components If poiDt betwecnthe water pump and the cranksbaft
the adjustment is too slack belt slip wil occur pulley in a sideways direction Sec Fig Rl
Check the amount of movement of tbe fan belt
which should he tin 1905 mm if correctly
adjusted
Metbod of Adjustment
Unscrew the dynamo adjusting lever setscrew
the setscrew securing adjusting lever to timing
case and dynamo support bracket bolts Th
dynamo caD then be moved inwards towards the
engine to slacken the belt and in an outwards
direction to ghten it When the belt is tensioned
correctly tighten dynamo adjusting lever setscrew
the setscrew timing case
and support bracket balts
In the event of a new belt being fitted it is ad
1 visabie to check the adjustment again after a few
hours running to ensure no initial stretching has
occurred Should this have developed re dj ust
a already described
DynamoBracket LOating Screw
This in position
Fig Rl in the rear arm of the dynamo support bracket
This couJdresuJtin overheatingof the enginedue and should alwaysbe tight againsttbe rear dynamo
to the reduced efficiency of the water pump and lug before tbe support bracket nuts and bolts are
the inability of the fan to draw cool air through FUEL
Page SI
u SY STENl S
This sectionis included mainly for the benefit of for those in outofthe way places
u As dcscribed the maintenance and repair operations are made to appear quite simple in
reality the risk of amistake occurring which would causedamageto costly parts is such as to make it
inadvisable for any but experts to undertake the The principal componentsof tbe equipmentfor
delivering the fuel oil to tbe are
filters fuel lift pump fuel pump and atomisers
the lift pump is removed and a blanking plate
fitted in its place
The lift pump is of the simple Tbe fuel lift pump lifts tbe fuel from tbe plunger type It is driven by one of the cams on
tank to tbe fuel pump which conveysit in measured
quantities and at appropriate intervals to the
atomisers
Tbe normal course of tbe fuel from the tank
the camshaft of the fuel pump on the side of
which it is fitted It is shown in Fig 51
A hand primer is fitted Fig 51 for use if tlle
supply of fuel from the tank has at any time failed
To use this primer unscrew me handle which
to the engineis by way of first the fuellift pump
tben tbe paper element type fi1ter tbe fuel pump is free to lift and then pump by hand until the
and the atomisers pipes lift pump and fuel pump are ruIl of fuel oiJ
To ensure that this is so proceed as instructed
On certain installations the fuel system is
on page 56
gravity red and therefore no fuel lift pump is
fitted Tbe fi1ter system in these applications
onsists of a water trap and a paper elementtype Fuel Pump
filter The fuel pump is an instrument of precision
Two conditions are essentialfor efficient opera lts working parts are made to extremelyfine limits
tion and mishandling in any shape or form or the
First that the fuel oil should he cleanfree from entry of the smallest particle of dirt into its
dirt sandor other foreign matter working parts may damage it and diminish its
and shouldconform to the following accuracyof operation Hence the importance of
ensuring that the fuel is thoroughly Britisb Standard2869 1957 Class A the pump is reached
Second that tbe fuel reaches the fuel pump When fitting a new or pump
in a state removethe pump and pour suffi
Fuelshould he filtered tank cient engine oil into the spring chamber until oil
Given ninety per cent at least comesout of the oil overlow Refit the inspection
of potential would be eliminated cover
The attention of tbc operator is on that account the oil level and top up with
eamestly directed towards those paragraphs of fresh oil when 100 hours or as
this Manual which refer to the care and upkeep often as is necessary to maintain the correct leve
of tbe filtering apparatus The outside of the pump should be
removing the to ensuredirt does
The FueJLift Pump not enter thc pump
The Cuelift pump is fitted in pressure red Refer now to Fig Sll the sectional Jrawing
systemsoniy In the caseof gravity red systems of the fuel pump
Page 52 Fue fnection Oil is supplied from the lift pump through the
the port When that happens communication is
fuel inlet connection 25 and entirely fills the established betweenthe oil above the plunger and
fuel pump gallery 23 That is a tubular passage that in the gallery via la lhe vertIcal the fuillength of the Cue pump and closed b the
annular groove c the port in the pump
at lhe end opposite to the inlet by the vent barrel See Fig S2
plug This fuel pump gallery is 11lat is the position shown in the ports with all the pump barrels 19 of Fig S2
In the baseof the body of the pump is a cam Tbe Dil then ceases to flow to the In contact with each cam is a cam roller is merely
thesepassages to tbe
14 fuel pump gallery
The roller is held in close contact with the
cam by the spring 15 The top of this tappet
is in closecontact with the lower end of the pump y
plunger 20 contact being maintained between L
plunger and tappet by the pressureof the oU above
the plunger
As the pump plunger falls oil fiows into the
barrel through the port As the plunger rises it
closesthe port and propels the oil past the 21 into the pipe leading to the atomiser
Fig S2 showshow the upper part of the pump
plunger is formed Observe that an annular
v G AC r
groove is cut in the plunger The lower edge of p
this groove is level or horizontal the upper edge
B is helical In addition there is avertical groove
cut right to the top of the plunger and running
into the annular groove
This groove is the meansof varying the quantity
of Cueldelivered per stroke See below
The first sketch in Fig S3 shows the working
end of the plunger and barrel with the fuel port
in the latter which it should be rememberedis
in communication with the fuel gallery 23 of
the pump Fig SlI The plunger is shown at
the bottom of its stroke with the cam at its bottom
dead centre
As the camshaft turns the plunger rises but
nothing happensuntil the top end of the plunger Q
bas reached the upper edge of the port in the
barrel and closes it Then the oU is propelled
I IJ
past the delivery valve and injection commences
FIG SI FuEL LIFT PUMP
The camshaft of the fuel pump is direct driven
from the engine timing gear at half engine speed Tbe preliminary fiJler is not always
supplied
It is timed like the magneto or distributor B TappetRoller S a petrol engineso that the closing of the port E
FuelOutlet T Valve Plugs
F Outlet Valve U commencing of fuel delivery to the engine G Plunger Spring Sealing
Washen
H Inlet Valve V Spring Chamber Caps
that is injection comesat a J Inlet W Lift Pump Body
in the compression stroke The timing of course L Plunger X
N Guide SpindIe Gauze Container
is preciselythe sameCoreach cylinder P Preliminary Filter Y SpindIe Guide
Oil continues to fiow until the helical upper Gauze Z Primer
edgeB of the groovein the pump plunger uncovers
Q ClampingNut AC Inlet Plug Filter
R Firna Sm G117
Fue lnjection Page S3
The upper and helical edge of the annular position the vertical groove is now in
line with
groovethus servesas a valve The higher that the delivery port to the fuel pump
gallery whicb
u edge is in relation to the top of the plunger the
sooner the cutoir and the less quantity of oil
supplied to the atomiser per stroke
By varying the level of that edge the quantity
is thus put into communication with the top of
the plunger and oil passes
It is not deliveredto the atomisers
down
this vertical groove as the pump plunger rises
Rotation of the plunger into these different
of oil supplied is controlled
1 positions is brought about in
this war Near the
lower end of each plunger are two lugs see Fig
To alter that level so that it uncoversthe port
in the pump barrel to vary the quantity of fuel 53 The lugs are held in a slot on
the actuating
delivered the plunger is turned in its barre by a sleeve which is mounted on the
outside of the
simple means to he pump barrel and can be rotated Clampedto the
upper end of each sleeveis a toothed quadrant
In the first and second sketches of Fig S2 the The teeth of the quadrant are engagedby a
rack
plunger is tumed to one extreme position with the on the control rad Fig 511 To and
fro move
vertical groove just clear of anc of the two port ment of the rack turns the quadrants
the sleeves
holes in the pump barrel In that position the and the plungers
helical edge of the circular groove is at its lowest Between the fuel pump and the
atomisers are
point and so far as the port in tbc barrel is delivery valves 21 one to each pump
plunger
concemed the maximum these serve the important purpose of preventing
quantity of oil is delivered dribble at the atomisers They do that by causing
That is the setting of the a sharp cut off in the oil supply at the end of
plunger for starting tbc each injection
engine Fig 54 showsa delivery valve It is at one and
In the third and fourth the sametime a poppet valve and a piston valve
sketches the plunger is The head is poppet valve shapedand below that
shown set fot normal is a cylindrical portion which servesas a piston
running The precise valve In the lefthand sketch of Fig 54 the
position is varied by valve is shown closed
tuming the plunger so This valve bas a high lift so that as shown in
that a greater or lesser Fig 54 the cylindrical part of the valve risesclear
quantity of oil is de of the valve scat when the valve is fully open
livered to conform with The war in which this valve operatesto prevent
the demand for power dribble at the atomiser is as follows
The otber extreme 50 long as the fuel pump is delivering fuel oil
position of the plunger the pressureof that oil on the underside of the
FIG SJ Pump element is shown in the fifth valve keeps it wide open as in the
third sketch
shown in section sketch This is the stop
of Fig 54
Page S4 Fue Injection against
the resistanceof the light spring shown
As soon as the helicat edge of the on the pump plunger uncovcrs the port disposed within the righthand chamber
in the pump barrel the pressurcof the oil below
the dclivery valve falls and that valvc is promptly
It will be as the butterfly valve
is closed the vacuum increases and the diaphragm r
closedby its spring As it falls the effectsof the moves to the of the piston part of the valvc within The centte of the diaphragm is
coupled to the
tbc seat causesa drop in pressurcin the pipe to
tbc atomiser causing the nozzle valve to snap
control rod of the fuel pump Movement of this
rod towards the governor tends to reduce the
on to its seat sharply cutting off tbe fuel supply
supply of fuel to the atomisers as explained on
so tbat there is na dribble
page S3
A steelpeg is used to centralise the upper end Thus closing the butterfly valve the valve spring and also to reducethe capacity vacuum
in the chamber moves the diaphragm
of the holder thereby improving injection control to the light and reducesthe suppy of Cue to the
engine
The butterfly valve is operated by the throttle valve levers and in that way the speed
Thc position of tbc control rack by mcans of of the engineis the quantity of fucl delivered to tbc engine
is rcgulated as is determined by Now here is a point of the very greatestim
a pneumatic governor This govemor part of is in tbe farm of a venturi in the enginc Any leaks in the joints of the pipe 29 in the
induction system operates the control rack pipe itself or in the diaphragm will to tbc degrecof vacuum in tbc vcnturi the degree of
vacuum and cause the engine to
passagc run raster than it should and ide erratically
Hence the instructions given later urging cara
Tberc is a buttertly valve in the venturi When
that valve is closed or nearly closed tbe suction
in ensuring that there are no air leaks in the
system
on tbc engine side of it is tbc valvc is opened If the pipe 29 were to become detached or
be eft uncoupled and the engine run it woud
A pipe 29 connects this venturi passagcwitb race and very smous damage be caused
a governor casing which is mounted on tbc fucl
Hence the warning repeated later that the
pump See Fig Sll
engine must never be run unless the venturi
Reference to the drawing of tbc pneumatic control unit pipe and induction manifold are il1
govemor Fig Sll will enable its operation to position and all joints are tight
be understood
Tbc important elcmcnt is tbe tlexible 28 which divides the space inside
tbc govcrnor casing into two which that on tbe right is airtight
This airtight compartment is in tbc venturi by means of a pipe 29 The
vacuum in tbc vcnturi is thus cmmunicated to
tbe airtight compartmcnt and tbc righthand side
of tbc diaphragrn r
Tbc chambcr to the left of the not subject to vacuum
closed open
Tbc diaphragrn thereforc is constantly subject
to a pressurc tending to move it to the right FIG 54 Delivery Valve
u Fuel lniection Idllng Speed
Page S5
in the fifth sketch of Fig S2 the no Cue tion
An important function of this pneumatic
govemor is that of controlling the idling speed Atomisers
of the engine
Af ter leaving the fuel pump the fuel passes
Tbat is the speedat which it rotates when the through short steel pipcs 35 to the atomisers
butterfly is in its nearly closed position That Atomisers perform the function of injecting the
position is detennined and limited by an adjust fue in the form of fine spraysinto the cylinders
able stop mounted on the body of the venturi at the moment when the air in the cylinder has
With the butterfly valve control lever in this been as the result of the com
limiting position the vacuum in the airtight prcssion is at a temperature sufficient to ignite
chamber is at a maximum and the diaphragm the incoming fuel
together with the fuel pump control rad is as An atomiser compriscs two principal parts
far to the right as the damping spring desribed the nozzle45 with its valve44 and the atomiser
below will allow it to go Tbe minimum quantity body 41
of fuel just sufficient to idle the engine is
then being delivered The atomiser nozzle and nozzle valves are the
important parts They are shown in Fig S8
J Vader these conditions there is a tendencyfor
the engine to hunt that is for its speed to
fluctuate
Fuel is fed to tbc upper channel in the nozzle
from the atomiser body and travels thencealong a
number of drilledholcs to the lower circumfer
It is to eliminate hunting and to ensure a ential channel The outlet from the Iatter is
oteadyidling speedthat the damping mechan normally closed by the valve as shown
ism shown on the extremeright of the pneumatic The atorniser body complete with nozzle and
govemor is provided Refer agam to FIg Sll nozzle valve lis shown in Fig Sll The nozzle is
J Tbe idling control spindle 33 which is under
the control of a small strong spring 32 contacts
the centre of the diaphragm when the latter is in
held in place by the nozzle holder cap nut 43
This holds the upper face of the nozzle in close
contact with the corrcsponding lower face of the
the extremeright or idling position and steadies atomiser body A metal to metal joint is made
Adjustment is provided for the positioo of this
here
Fuel is supplied thrOUgh the fue inlet con
spindie nection 36 and drilled holes
down to the channel in the face of the nozzle
Screwing the adjustment in drives the spindie
further io and increasesthe idling speed In the centreof the atomiser body is the spindle
42 surmounted by the valve spring 40 and
Adjustmeot of the idliog speed is etfectcd by washeron the top of which bearsthe compIession
altemate manipulation of the screw 00 the end screw38 There is a lock nut on this screw A
of the poeumatic governor and the stop foT the coveringnut protectsthe upper part of the Itomiser
venturi lever body and the This is a very delicate operation ooly to be The small quantity
of fuel wbich bypasses
attempted by experts Tt is complcted at the the nozzle valve and accumulatcs within thc
works for every cngine atomiser body lubricatcs the mcchanism and is
led away by a pipe 37 connectedto the teakalT
There is another adjustable stop 00 the venturi
nippe stud At the start of injection the fue
to limit the maximum speedof the enginewhich
pump delivels fue at a bigh prcssure into th
is sealed Disturbance of this seal may iovolve
channe round the lower end of the nozzle Tbe
forfeiture of the guarantee
prcssureof this fue on the end surfaceof the cone
Tostop the cngine the stop lever 34 is moved of the valve lifts it against the tension of the
clockwisc carrying the control rack with it and spring and fuel passes through two small bocs in
tuming the pump plungcr into the position shown the end of tbc nozzle as two fine S6
Fue Injection CAREOF THE INJEcnON FILTERS SeeSection G
Condition or suggcsted
Possible Cause Location rcmcdy for correct
LIFTPUMP working
Tbe inlet valve of the lift pump is accessible f Main pipe Main filter Llean and vent air as
after removal of the hand primer Tbe outlet line filter i nstrUcted In this page
is under the plug T Fig SI Theevalves a Air locked Main filter Vent air by opening
and their seatsmust he perfectly clean system vent screw on main
filter and allowing fue
Tbe following are with the lift 0 flow until perfectly
free from bubblcs See
pump and the way in which they can he remedied below
1 Lift Pump does not dever FueL Air Venting the Foei System
Condition or suggestcd If tbe fuel systembas been openedat any Causc location rcmedy for correct
working sar for au overhaul it is necessary
to ensurethat
a Fuel tank Fuel tank Must contain an ade
all air bas been removed before attempting to
empty quate supply start the engine This should he done as follows
b Fuel cock Fuel cock Must be open to iu
closed ruIl extent
c Preliminary Preliminary filter Remove by loosening PressureFed Systems
filter choked gauze P round nut Q and lift
ing fixing strap R Slacken small plug on the top of final filter
Wash in clean fuel
lil or paraffin Ir and operate the hand primer on the fuel lift
damaged replace pump until Cuefree from air
fake care to repJace
washer S the plug hole Tighten the plug
d Inlet or Valves F H Remove by unscrewing
outlet valve hexagon plug T and Slackentbe bleed cock on the top of the fuel
fouJed or primer Z Clean in
damaged fuel oil or paraffin pump
Take care to screw
plug Tand primer Z Again operate the hand primer on the fuel lift
in to the full etent pump unti fuel issuesfrom the bleed cock and all
when Plunger or Plunger L and Etract after unscrew signs of air have disappeared
tappet spin tappet spindIe jng cap V Oean in
dIe fouled N fuel oil or paraffin Tighten the beed cock securely and give the r
or damaged primer a few more strokes in order to deliver tbe
NOTE If damaged return
complete with body to Cuethrougb the relief valve on tbe final filter
nearest authorised clearing this part of thc systcm of air
agent r
2 Lt Pump does oot dever Sufficient Fuel Gravity Fed Systems
Condition or suggested
Slacken small plug on the top of the final Cause Location remedy for correct
and turn on fuel tank supply tap until fuel free
working
from air bubbles issues from the plug hole
a Connection Connection pipe Sec that aJI joints and Tighten the plug
or pipes beo pipes are perfectly air
tween the tight
lift pump Slacken the bleed cock on the top of the fuel r
and Cuel pump and allow fuel to run until no trace of air
pump teak
ing remains
b nIet or out Yalves F H rreat as for d
Iet valves Tighten the bleed cock securely whilst fuel is
leaking still issuing
c Plunger Plunger L Treat as ror 1 0
leaking
d Plunger Plunger Replace
spring spring G ENGINE TROUBLES
darnaged
e Preliminary Preliminary Treat as for 1 c Fuel injection difficulties can arise on the engine
filter ob filter
trnd Gg1l7 P from some of which mav he traced
Iel Injecton Pag 57
to the Cuet pump Such difficulties with the 2 Enginedoesnot pull
likely causeand suggested cure are set out on the
following tabie The fust move when a Cuel pump
is be to uncouple the piping
betweenthe fuel pump and the atomisers If the Quantity of a Delivery
fuel delivered valve 21
engineis then rotated with the pump control rod per stroke
set at ruil load position it will be seen whether
b Pressure Ir leaking clean joint
or not the Cuelis being delivered Observeeach system joints racesand tighten
discharge outlet on the fuel pump to see if all
are in order On the following 3 Engine emits black smoke
table the word pump applies to the pump unit Condition or sugaested
block as a whole or to individual elementsand Possible Cause Location remedy for correct
working
the numbers reCerred10 are shown in Fig Sll
Quantity of Ca Regulating Ir moved duo to scrow
Cuedelivered quadrant 24 being 10050proceed as
per stroke in r
excessive
1 Engine will not Start or Stops after a short
time
Condition or suggcsted
Poiblc Causc Location remedy for correct
working Control rad a Pump Proceedasin r
hasjammcd plunger20
Pump does not a Fuel cock Must be open b Control rod Proceedasin r
deliver fuel
NOTE Ir air is in system the suction side of lift
b Fuel tank Must contain an ade
quate supply pump should fust be examined
c Fuel inlet pipe
or filter
elements
Clean pipes examine
filter elements and if
choked clean them as
descnbed in Section G
PNEUMAnc GOVERNOR
Adjustment of tbe pneumatic govemor is
d Air in pump Air vent filter and
pump as described on etfected at the works when the engineis erected
page 56 It is an operation requiring considerable skill
e Delivery Clean and inspect Ir Tbe idling stop on the buttertly valve and tbe
Valve21 worn or damaged re
place both valve and adjusting screw on the cap of the govemor have
seating to be manipulated altematively until smooth
f Pump
plunger20
Return the pump in
tact to the nearest
service station or to
running at the desired idling speed is achieved
No is in fact needed
Perkins Engines ltd
Any deterioration in the smoothnessof idling is
Pump does g Air in pump Air vent filter and
not deliver
fuel uniformly
h Delivery valve
spring 22
pump as described on
page 56
Replace if broken
due to some defect which bas arisen elsewhele
and should he looked for under the paragraphs
in tbis section devoted to care of tbe fuel system
j Delivery If damaged on face or generally
valve guide replace
k Tappet See f above
1 spring 1S MAINTENANCE
1 Pump 5ee f above Tbe tmiest pinhole or crack in the leather
plunger 20
diaphragm will affect the operation of the gover
m Fuel inlet Proceed as c
pipes or filter nor If such a ault is suspected
test in this way
elements
a Remove vacum pipe
n Fuellift This pump may not he
pump operating efficiently
b Move the stop lever into stop position
See instructions on
page 56 c Place a finger over the diaphragm housing
0 Tappet ad Proceedas in f above union in order to seal it
justing scrcw
p Cam profiles Proceed as in f above d Releasethe stop

Page S8 Fue Injection

FIG SS Removing diaphragm from pneumatic govemor
e Tbe control rod should then slowly return For preference usea picce of sheetmetal about
to the maximum speed position after a tin 190 mm wide shaped at tbc end to fit
quick initial movement for a fraction of the curve of the rim and sharpened to an edge
the distance Ir it returns quickly for the similar to that of a screwdriver
whole movement and the housings are
Lift the edgc of tbc rim carefully at round
clampedfirmly togetherthen the diaphragm
is leaking and should be replaced by an When tbc rim is frec slide tbc socket at tbe
back of tbc diaphragm off tbc pin in tbc control
authorised agent Instructions for replace
ment are given below rod r
If the diaphragm appearsto be sound as indi Be careful not to mark tbc face of tbc fuel
cated by this test suspectthe vacuum pipe and pump on to which the governor casing fits
test in a similar way Replacethe union of this To rcplace tbc diaphragm first place the socket
pipe on the governor casing and uncouple it at on tbc pin in tbc control rod
the butterfly end Repeat the test as before but
Then prcssthe rim tirmJy in its place
placing the finger on the uncovered end of the
vacuum pipe Replacc the governor casing being careful to
screw the setscrewsvery tightly and evenly in
position
To Renew Leather Diaphragm
To renew the Ieather diaphragm proceed as
follows CAunON
Disconnectthe vacuum pipe Tbe pneumatic governor depndstor its action
Take out the screws holding the pneuma tic upon set up in the air intake
pipe of the engine by the venturi control valve
governor in place
If this should be removed either by itself or with
Tbe diaphragm will then he accessible lt is the inlet manifold during overhaul or it the vaCUUJT
held in a light Usection meml riJn which must be
prised from the cas ing Sec Fig S5
pipe unions are not always kept perrectly tight
then the governor may rail to operate causing
Great care must be exercisedin this operation damage to the engine
Fuel Injection Page
IN NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE Examine the brass nippies which wlll be found
ENGINE BE RUN WITHOUT VENTURI on each end of thesepipes
CONTROL UNIT VACUUM PIPE OR If the union nuts have at any time been over
1 rNLET MANJFOLD tightened there is a risk that the nippies will have
cracked or been unduly compressed If 50
Atomisers leakage will result
Each atomiser body consists of a steel body
held to the cylinder head by means of a flange In this in mind that the working
pressurewhich thesejoints must sustain is several
and two studs
thousand pounds per sq in Only a perfect
Tbe joint between the atomiser and cylinder joint is head is made by a specialcopper the lower face of the nozzlecap nut and
the metal It is quite easyto of the cylinder Clean up a length of pipe near the end using a
fine cut file for the purpose until the nipple wil
When preparing to fit the atomiser into place
in the cylinder head care should be taken that slide on tI it
only this special type of copper washer is used Remove tbe nipple and replace the union nut
to make this joint The metal of the cylinder and steel washer The Iatter must have its coun
head the facesof the copper joint ring and the tersunk face towards the nipple
on the nozzle holder cap nut
should be perfectly clean if a leakproof joint is Now press the nipple on to the pipe leaving
to resut 164 in 40 mm of the Iatter protruding
It is advisableto fit a ncw joint washer when Hold the pipe in tbe vice 50 that the niiPle
the atomiseris replacedafter having beenremoved rests on the washer and the washer rests on the
for any reason top of the vice
Rivet the protruding portion of the pipe over
1 Ensure that the old washer has been removed
from atomiseror cylinder head the nipple
Take care that the hole in the pipe is not closed
This joint washer should be an easy but not
loosefit for the atomiser nozzle and it is because whilst rivetting
1 this is such an important feature that the washers
for the purpose should be used
Clean off witb a fine cut file
and none other On no account should ordinary When refitting take care that it is the brass
sparking plug type was hers be used nipple which makes the joint and not the actual
riveted portion of the pipe
The atomiser can now be fitted in place care
being taken to sec that it is an easy fit in the Af ter fitting ncw nippies WASH THE FUEL
u cylinder head and on the holdingdown studs
so that it can be placed down on the copper
joint without force of any kind The nuts on the
flange should then be tightened down evenly in
order to prevent the atomiser nozzle being canted
PIPE WITH CLEAN FUEL OIL using either
the atomiser testing pump or the engine fuel
pump thus removing any filings which may be
in the pipe
Offer up the pipe to the delivery valve and
and so nipped in the cylinderhead This is
atomiser unions to check that the pipe fits square
very important sinceany unevenness in tightening at both ends Do not fit one and then bend the
down may of the pipe to square it with the other union
resulting in its failure and will most certainly
result in blowby When fitting tbe pipe tighten the unions alter
nately a little at a time first one end and then the
Foei Pipes
other
No two of the from fuel pump
to atomisersare alike Keep this in mind when If the nippIes have been properly fitted and the
replacing pipe is squareto the unionsat eachend J
Fuel SlO
force wiil be neededto makea good
joint No force should be used
Use only a standard openendedi in by 1in r
spanner
If the union is tightened excessively
the nipple
may collapse and split Tbe same danser exists r
if the pipe is not square to and central with the
union
When changing an atomiser always remove the r
pipe entircly Never undo only ODeend leaving
the other tight Never bqid the pipe
FIG 56 5howing plalc Cor holding Atorniscr whilc
is bcinl disrnantlcd
MAINTEN AN CE
Atomisers should he taken out for examination Often tbe pamcular atomiser or atomisers
at regular intervals How long this interval should causing trouble maf he determined by releasing
be is difficult to advise becauseof the widely
thc pipe union nut on each atomiser in turn conditions under which enginesopera te the enginerunning at a fast tickover This will
When combustion conditions in the engine are prevent fuel heing pumped through the nozzle
good and the fuel tank and filtering system are to the thereby altering the fust classorder it is often sufficient revolutions If after
slackeninga pipe union nut
if the atornisersare tested twicc yearly tbe cngine revolutions remain constant this
For detailed times refer to periodical mainten denotesa faulty Section F It is no use taking atomisers
Tbe nuts from the flangcofthe doubtful atomiscr
out for attention ess the equipment described
should bc rcmovcd and tbc complete unit witb
on page Sll is available or spare atomisersare
drawn from tbc cylinder head and tumcd round
at hand for substitution atomiscr nozzle outwards unwipcd on its
The nearer thc ideal conditions of good fitting pipc and tbc unions retightcacd After slacken
with adequate cooling and absolutely clean fuel ing tbc unions of tbc other atomiscr pipes to
arc realised the less attention the atomiscrs will avoid the possibility of tbc enginc starting the
nced and so the langer their efficient life In enginc should bc tumcd until tbc nozzlc sprays
this conncction sinco there is no other item of into tbc rir whcn it wiJl bc sccnat onceif tbc spray
tbc equipment upon which thc performance of is in order If tbc spray is unduly wct or
streaky or obviouslyto anc sideor tbc atomiscr
an engine depends so much it pays the uscr
nozzlc dribbles tbe spray holes should be
handsomely to sec that the engine never runs
with anv of its atomisersout of order probcd with the specialtooi S9
Ir aftcr probing tbc spray holes tbc condition of
tbc atomiser is still faulty removc tbc in Semce unit
The first symptomsof usually
rail in ODeor more of the following headings Great care shoud be taken to prevent the hand
from setting into contact with the spray as the
I Knocking in one or more cylinders working pressurewil cause oil to penetrate the
2 Engine overheating skin with case
3 Loss of power Tbc spare atomiser from the tooi kit should be
tltted the faulty unit being placed in the tooi kit
4 Smoky exhaust black
securely wrapped in ciean or
5 Increased fuel consumption rag for attention on the maintnanc Inch
Fue lnjection Page SII
The only exception is in the case of atomisers
fttted to L4 in Marshall Crawler
tv Tractors where the setting is 160
rJJft
Atomisers set at 120 white
painted capsand the caps of atomisers set at 160
atmospheres are painted silver
u lI
An altemative means of is a tab
washer fttted under the atomiser cap nut bearing
the letter J for 120 atmospheres
V for 160 atmospheres
or the letter
L4 atomisers supplied under the Perpetuity
9Jf Schemehave green painted caps with white Ol
c silver on the top or a tab washerunder the atomiser
cap nut signifying the setting and type
u
FIG 57 The spray should now be observed for uni
formity at a rate of pumping of not less than
20 strokes per minute
Each should be a misty spray spreadingto about
ExaminadoD and TestiDg 3 inches75 mIn diameter at about one root away
A bench suitable for working with atomisersis from tbc atomiser nozzle then breaking into a
preferably with glass 00 top vcry Me mist There should be two It should he enrely reservedfor this work and cach
atomiser nozzle one pointing outwards from
kept from din The use of cotton the top hole and the other pointing downwards
wasteor fluffy rags must be absolutely forbidden from the lower hole when the atomiser is in a
The bench should have a dust proof drawer position correspunding to its working for holding the atomiser cleaningtools and equip
An atomiseris good for service if ment describedin detail below tbc atomiser testing pump at the
abovc speedit
gives two etfectivc sprays as above described
A plate made up as shown in Fig 56 should An atomiser is dirty and requircs recondition
he secured to the bench lts purposeis to hold the
ing if a when proccedingas abovc it throws out
atomiser securely whilst various maintenance solid wet jets and not braken up spray or b
operaons are proceeding if eithcr of the holesare chokedor partially choked
An No ET122AFig 57 so that spray issues from one hole in the
should he available This outfit bas beenspecially atomiscr only or appreciably more spray issues
designed to provide a reliable means of tesng from one hole than the othcr
and setting the atomisers It is made up of parts In this connection as tbc Perkins enginc idles
similar to the injection to engilles at about 500 rpm the atolniser is never called
The doubtfuI atomiser should
be removed from its wrappings A
and fitted I
still unwiped0 the testing pump I
No observaons should be
madeuntil at leastten fuil strokes
I
of the hand pump to expel all air from the system
Atomiser Pressures
The pressureat which the spray
breaks should then be recorded
and checked against the recom rCMISD NOULI TOMIS
00 asu Acr NO VALV
mended pressure which is 120
FIG S8 Diagrams of Atomiser and Atomiser Body the letters have
atmospheres referencc in the lext
Page 512 Fuelnjection
r
upon to walk in the engine more slowly than 250 the atomiser nozzle should he cLeanand bnght
free from undersurface C minute Thus by taking the atomiser
of the flange the face of the atomiser body D
spray at 20 strokes per minute ample margin is
allowed 4nd the interior retaining shoulder of the nozzle r
When removing an atomiser from the testing holder cap nut All of thesemust close valve by rotating he handwheeland
absolutely cLeanlyand squarely to fonn the high
screw olf the union nut a little at a time so that pressure joint between the atomiser body and
the pressure raIls gradually nozzle
Atomisers are set to operate at th pressures The atomiser body should now he previously works If a from the plate and together
with the cap nut
ncw atomiser nozzle is fitted to an atomiser body immersedin clean paraffin and left to soak in a
suitable container The nozzle valve should be
it is necessaryto reset the pressure After the
atomiser bas been in service fOT same time the grasped by the stalk between finger and thumb
opening pressuretends to raIl but provided that and withdrawn carefully for examination The
the atomiser nozzle holes do not choke up there stem of the nozzle valve should be clean and
bright and free from high spots bad scratches
is no need to adjust the pressure
NO ATTEMPT SHOULD BE MADE TO or dull patches and the grooves free from dirt
ADJUST THE INJECTION PRESSURE meta particles or other foreign A PROPER TESTING PUMP The
stem and the valve scat of the nozzl r
AND PRESSURE GAUGE AS DESCRIBED valve should now be examined and if dirty or
AND ILLUSTRATED IT IS QUITE coked cleaned until bright metal is TO ADJUST THE SETTING
OF ATOMISERS WITH ANY DEGREE OF WITHOUT PROPER EQUIP Assumingthat the nozzlevalve bas
beensoaking
and the two surfaces A and B on the top
MENT
If the atomisers are interfered with on the of the atomiser nozzle flange already that so maar turns of the adjusting are
clean and free from damagethe inside of the
screw representsso maar pounds they may vary atomiser nozzle should he examinedThe kit of
asmuch oae and another tools shownin Figs S9and SlO are The three small
drilled passages G Fig S8
With engine
should be explored to seethat they are clear and r
cannot possibly give of its best
If the spray is still after clean followed by an examination of the valve
brushing the carbon away from around the stem bore in which the nozzle valve slides This
atomiser nozzlewith the fine wire brush specially surface should be clean and bright and free from
designed for the purposeand illustrated in Fig S9 high spots or scratches or dull patches The
valve seating 1 Fig S8 should now come
the atomiser should be placed on the atomiser
holding plate already described see Fig S6 under observation under a strong light to ascer
Before attempting to dismantle the atomiser tain whether or not it is free from dirt or carbon
If this is not so and indeed in any case it is r
the tension on the spring should be releasedby
unscrewing the compression screw38 The nozzle advisablc to usc tbc soft brass scat scraper No
holder cap nut 43 Fig Sll should be slackened ETO70 scc Fig S9 to remove any carbon or
with the special ring spanner provided ETll6 particles that may he imprisoned on the scat
seeFig SIO To hold the nozzle holder cap nut The gallery H Fig S8shouldncw be cleancd
in the vice or to use illfitting packed or adjus with tbc ajd of the special soft brass scraper No
table spannersor wrenchesis to invite disaster ETO71sec Fig S9 to ensurethat it is also clean
Examine the pressureface of the nozzle holder and frec from dirt or carbon
cap nut to see it is not damagedso as to have The spray holes in tbc atomiser nozzle end
c nipped the atomiser nozzle in any way should he probed with thc specialtooi ET120see
The nozzle holder cap nut should aow be Fig the completely lifted In caseswhere the holes cannot be cleaned by
from the atomiser body fOT examination The this process the complete atomiscr should be
surf acesccA and B in Fig S8 on the top of rctumed packedas described
Fueinjection Page SI3
COMPLETEKIT taken to ensure that the highly ground
face D Fig S8 is clean and free
ET 141
from scratches This face must register
with the atomiser nozzle flange cleanly
and squarelyto forn1a
and must therefore he handled in such
a war as to avoid damageto the surface
l1I1 The exterior of the atomiser body of
courseshould be from
Jf dirt and grease in the usual manner
1 ff the
interior
is advisable
the atomiser
to dismantie
body to
1 examine the springs40 Fig S11spring
plate and nozzle spindie 42 Wben
dismantling the special spanners Nos
ETl17 and ETl18 sec Fig SlO should
be applied for the removal of the nozzle
J bolder spring cap 39 Fig SII which
is revealed after the removal of the
gj l l ETI20 I I
ET124I ET138
covering protection cap The interior of
the atomiser body and the palts removed
ET068 ETO71 11069 ET072 should he washed carefully to remove
J FIG S9 Complete Kit of TooI for use when cleanin
and overhauling atomisers
above Assuming that the spray holes have been
any dirt or moisture If the spring
and the parts are in good condition
they should be reassem bied carefully
cleaned the atomiser nozzle caD aud perferably after having been slightly coated
then he placedin the container to soak in paraffio with lubricating oil
or preferably assembiedin the atomiser flushing
tooi No ET427 Fig SlOand thoroughly flushed The serviceable life of the atomiser valve spring
through to ensure that all carbon particles are can be by careful treatment
removed trom the inside of the atomiser nozzle and be taken to avoid the damage
Tbe nozzle valve should now he polished by likely to be causedby moisture corrosion arising
rubbing with an absolutely clean clotha piece in or by reasonof J of used boiled cotton is bestupon which there
is no suggestion of fluff Particular attention should
he given to the valve seato This and the smaller
owing to temperature changes in service It is
these valve springs should be
above it called the stem inspected cleaned and greased whenever the
and cone in Fig S8 can he cleaned with the atomisers are removed for cleaning whilst care
should be taken in storing sparesto preclude alf
fine brass wire brush Toensure that the stem possibility of the access of moisture
and coneare free from any particlesthe soft brass
stem cleaner No ETOn should be applied with
a rotary action pressingthe nozzle valve into the ReAssembly of Atomisers
cleaning tooi with the fingers Tbe atomiserbody and now
Af ter ensuringthat the exterior of the atomiser
be assembIed carefully after having immersedthe
nozzle is clean and free from carbon the valve each in clean fuel oil to ensure
and atomiser nozzle may be assem bied together that they are free from dirt Tbe nozzleholder cap
This should be after the two parts have been nut 43 should be crewedon to the body by
thoroughly washed in clean paraffin or fuel oil use of the special spanner Excessive and placed together preferably with the
tingers
whilst submergedin the clean oil
Tbe atomiserbody shouldnow receive attention
it should be washedin clean paraffin care bein
of the nozzle holder cap nut may result in con
striction or distortion of the atomiser nozzle and
its care should be exercised
to ensurethat the leveraee aDDliedis not 514 Fuelnjection
r
Af ter cleaning the atomiser shoud he the atomiser testing pump as previously
The rnodified atomiser is
r
described If the pressure at hich the spray the previous type providing a new type not that quoted above it can he adjusted
teakoIrpipe is fitted To ensure this new type
by the spring adjusting screw and lock nut using
spanner ET119 Fig SlO
teakoIr pips are supplied with all
Sparesand the modi
A perfect atomiser when tested by pumping fied type Previoustype through it in the open air gives a short
pinging sound as the fuel emergesfrom the
holes no matter how slowly tbe fuel be pumped
re lS0supplied with the previous type auxiliary
teakoIrpipes in order to effect with engines incorporating the later type
atornisers
After tbe atomiser has been in service for some
time the pinging changes to a It is not until tbe dead
that its condition is likely to affect tbe running of
the engine
When replacing tbe atomiser in the cylinder
head follow carefully tbe instructions for fitting
given on page S9
WASHERS LOCKNUT
MODIFlED ATOERS ADJUSTING
As from EngineNo 6012782 a modified atomiser SCREW
SHIMWASHER
was introduced on L4 engines the two main
differences from the previous type being the aux
iliary leakoff pipe connectionand the screwseeFig 512
The auxiliary leakoff pipe connectionis now on NOZZLE
the side of the atomiser body fixing previously it was situatedjust abovethe inlet pipe
union nut This of a new type
SPINOLE
leakoff pipe
The atomiser adjusting screw now into the atomiser body and also comprises
the atomiser valve spring cap
o
ET 6
rCfff1
FJL1
NOZZLE
CAP NUT
HOLDER
Er 2
f Q
E T S
lYfi
1
NOZZLE
YALYE
0 lA
eT7 tf NOZZLE
E T 137
E T 427
Fig SlO Spanners and clcaning tools ror usc with atomisers Fig S12 Diagram of Modified Atomiset
33 0 n
n n
3 0 C
O
0
0 n oo
Ccn n
5nn o
0 0
3
1
a
1
r1
J z NN NNN
c
oooO
3 N 3 0
w
0 o O
OQOQO
Q
g
5 n
Q1
I
Page Tl
Certain L4 engines are equippedwith a mechani
cal governor in place of the pneumatic governor
This governoris set and the engine
leaves the factory and no further adjustment
shouid be necessary
Any settings and adjustments which may be
necessaryas when the engine has undergone a
major overhaulor the fuel pump should only be carried out by trained personnel
Instrucons tor To carry out the it will be
necessaryto remove the cover situated at the
front of the govemor and the govemor housing
rear cover
1 Preliminary Settings
1 Ensure that the governor weights move FIG T2
freely when operated with the finger If they are
stiff it is probably due to distortion set up in the
weight carrier when holding screwsare tightened
reached unscrew adjusting screw oDe turn The
idling spring control screw is situated at the rear
To correct this it will be necessaryto remove of the fuel pump See Fig T 3
carrier plate and seetbat tbe rear face is clean and 3 Reducetension on mainspring with control
free from dirt Seealso that tbe front of the fuel lever in ruil speed position
pump gear is clean and free from dirt
4 Set anchorageto innermost
2 Hold the stop controllever on the fuel pump position R Min See Fig Tl
in the stop position and screwin tbe idling spring
control screw until the spring is coil bound ie 5 Place govemor lever in the idle position
until adjustmentof the screwjust begins to move presstoes of forked lever on to sleevetbrust race
tbc stop control lever Wben this position is and adjust fuel pump actuating lever until this is
clear of fuel pump push rad by t in 159 mm
when fuel pump control rad is at maximum fuel
position See Fig T2
Allen key 532in across flats is required to
unlock and lock fuel pump actuating lever
J Seethat by moving the weightsto the outermost
position the fuel purup control rad moves to the
point of no fuel within t in 159 mm of total
control rad movement
Test Bed Procedure
A Start engineand warm up to water and oil
B Set engineto rated load and speed lt win
FIG T he necessaryto increasethe main spring T2 echanica
WARNING In no any
attempt be made to speedwith the
idling spring control screw
i E Finally recheck governing from ruIl load
SCREWIDLING CON TROL
half load to no load to ensure
FUEL PUMP the governor is stabIe throughout its range
Field Procedure
Tbe preliminary settingsare as already described
and should be carried out then proceedas follows
1 Start engineand warm up to 2 Set lever to running position and check
maximum no laad rpm Such inertia laad as is
available should then be applied and removed in
rapid successionto check the stability of the
governor Any should be
made as described in Test Bed Procedure para
FIG T3 graph C
3 Carry out operation D in Test Bed full laad caDjust be obtained at tbe appro 4 Finally recheck maximum no laad r pm
priate speed Main spring tension adjustment is and idling out by alteration of the govemor lever adjusting screw See Fig T4
C note speed If this is load and
try a sudden removal to check stability of Greater stability may be obtained by R of tbe spring lever by rotating
thc spring anchorage Eccentric adjustment be
tween R Min and R Max being obtainable see
Fig T1
D Having obtained set
lever to idling position and check light load idling
speed Adjust as necessaryon the idling stop
screw Fig T4 Ir it is not possible to reduce
idling speedto tbe required rpm by adjustment
of tbe idling stop screw it wil be reduce the load in tbe idling spring
This cao be obtained by screwing out tbe fuel
pump idling spring control screw at tbe TeaTof
the fuel pump SeeFig T3
Pae U
FLYWHEEL AND
u Ij
ensurethat the mating facesof the cylinder block
or back plate when fitted and housing are per
fectly clean and free from bum
u
Put the housing on to the studs replace spring
washers and nuts Tighten nuts evenly do not
overtighten so as to allow Alignment of Flywheel Housing
Bore
of Secure the base of an indicator stand to the fiange
the crankshaft
Ir Set the needIeof the gaugeto the interior of the
bored hole in the fiywheel housing See fig UI
Ic r i Turn tilt crankshaft and check that this hole is
ntral The housing is adjusted until the bored
hole is central with the crankshaft within the
following limits total
Diameter of Houslng
Bore x Allowance TIR
Up to 141 in 0006in
362mrn 015mm
7 141to 2Ot in 0008in
fr 362 to 511 mm 020mm
2Ot to 251 in 0010in
ra 511 to 648 mm 025mm
Fis UI 251 to 31 in 0012in
648 to 787 mm 030mm
It is most important tbat tbe flywbeel bousing Alignment of Flywheel Housing Face
he correctly aligned witb tbe cranksbaft tberefore With the base of the indicator standstill secured
if a bousing bas been removed tbe greatestcare f1i
must be taken on replacementto of alignment
For conveniencein turning tbe engine it is
advisable to release but not remove tbe nuts
holding tbe atomisersin place when carrying out
alignment of flywheel and flywheel housing
To Remove the locking wire from the set screws
1 which securetbe flywheelto the crankshaft flange
Turn the engineto bring oae setscrew
Removetros setscrew
to tbe top
and screwin a stud in its j
place as a temporary measure to prevent the
tlywheel from dropping
Remove remainder of setscrews
Remove flywheel
To Hoing
Removal of Duts and spring washersfrom the
studs securingtbe flywheel housing to the cylinder
block or back plate if fitted win enable the
flywheel housing to be removed
To Refit Flywheel Housing
Before fitting or refitting flywheel housing U2
FlywheeJand Flywheel tbe cranksbaft flange adjust to set tbe needIe
of tbe indicator against tbe vertical machined
face on the flywhee1 U2
Turn cranksbaftand checkthat this faceis at tbe cranksbaft axis This facing must be
within tbe following limits at truc right anglesto Bore MaxAllowance TIR
Up to 141 in 0006 in
362mm 015mm
141 to 2Ot in 0008 in
362 to 511 mm 020 mm
2Ot to 25t in 0010 in
511 to 648 mm 025 mm
25t to 31 in 0012 in
648 to 787 mm 030 mm
AU adjustments to bring tbe within tbe limits specifiedmust be on tbe flywhee1
housing and under NO CONOmONS must tbe
rear of tbe cylinder b1ock or adaptor plate be
interfered witb
When tbe housing is aligned to tbe above limits Fig U4
tighten the securing Guts evenly order to wnen removing but the following must
Ream tbe two dowe1holes and fit the correct also be carried out
length and size of dowe1s Secthat the flywhecl face and crankshaft flange
To Reit Flywheel are perfectly clean and free from burrs before
The rep1aced in the reverse fitting the flywheel
When replacing the evenly
and for final tightening a torque wrenchshould be
used set to the in SectionB
Checking Alignment of Flywheel
When the flywheel bas been removed it is
necessary to check the alignment on replacement
as Secure the base of a dial indicator stand to
tbe flywheel housing
Witb the flywheel at top centre set the needle of
tbe indicator on tbe flywheel periphery at T DC
seeFig U3
Turn the crankshaft and check the clock The
flywheel should run truc within 012 in 31 mm
total indicator reading
With tbc base of thc indicator stand still bolted
to tbc flywheel housing adjust to bring thc
indicator vertical machined face
of the flywheel Seefig U4
Again turn the crankshaft and check the clock
The flywheel should be within 0001 in per inch
002 mmoper 25 mm of radius from the centre
of flywheel to indicator needIe
When tbe flywheel bas been checked fot thc
correct limits lock thc setscrews with we
Page VI
SCHEDULE OF CLEARANCES TOLERANCES V
u All threads ed 00 the L4 Eogine except 00 prGprietary equipment
and the crankshaft are Unified Series aod Americao Pipe Series Tbe
crankshaft aod starting dog nut are threaded1 inch Americao Natiooal
Fine of 14 TPI
UI The new threads are not with BSF and althougb
BSW have the same number of threads per inch as the Unified Coarse
Series intercbanging is not to a difference in thread form
U The data regarding clearnncesand tolerancesare given as a guide
for personnel engagedupon major 2 Tbe figures in the column Permissible Dimensionst are the
drawing sizesto which tbe parts are made These given in limit farm and representtbe minimum and maximum sizes
to which parts may be accepted when new as ror example
4985
499 111ntPn
The difference
1 fnr
qhft the
between nimtpr
minimum and maximum 3
quoted in para 2 is known as thc manufacturing tolerance This
tolerancc is necessary as an aid to manufacture and its numerical
valuc is an expression of the accuracy of the design it mayalso be
considered as a numerical expression of the desired quality of work
manship For the example referred to in para 2 thc tolerance is
u 4
00005
If when carrying out a major overhaul it is found that a bush and
corresponding shaft have worn and that the majority of wear has
u taken place in the bush it may be necessary to renew the bush only
Similarly if the majority of wear has taken place on the shaft it
might only be necessary to rencw thc shaft
u 5 During the overhaul of wom components personal initiative must
be exercised at all times It is obviously uneconomical to return
wom parts to service with an expectation of lire which may involve
labour costs agai1 at an carly date
6 Further information can be obtained on request rom the Service
Division Perkins Engines Ltd Peterborough England
u To ensure rou obtain the best results from your engine
and to safeguard your own guarantee fit only genuine
Perkins Parts These are readily obtainable throughout
the wor J
PageV2
SCHEDULE OF BunnING CLEARANCES AND TOLERkCESTO BB ADHEREDTO
WHEN OVERHAULING ENGINES TO FACTORY STANDARDS ENGINE TYPE L4
SCHEDULE OF BmLDG
Page V3
CLEARANCES AND TOLERANCES TO BE ADHERED TO
WHEN OVERHAUUNG ENGrnES TO FACTORY STANDARDS NGrnE TYPE L4
Page V4
SCHEDULE OF BUnDING CLEARANCES AND TOLERANCES TO BE ADHERED TO
WHEN OVERHAULING ENGINES TO FACTORY STANDARDS ENGINE TYPE U
u Page Y5
SCHEDULE OF BrnLDG CLEARANCES AND TOLERANCES TO BE ADHERED TO
u WHEN OVERHAULING ENG TO FACTORY STANDARDS ENGINE TYPE
u J
L4 MARINE Settingsand Data
L4 MARINE
Maximum Rating 58 BHP at 2000 rpm
ahead to astern or vice versa the engine throttle
must passthrough the idling position thus enabling
Sump Capacity gallons 136 litres an easygear changeto be attained
In conjunction with tbis control system pro
Engine Types vision may be madefor the fitting of a cable to the
There are two principal types of L4 Marine throttle so that the throttle may be partly opened
ngine one type having pneuma tic governing to and the other having When an oil operated gearbox is fitted an oi
The standard pneumatic governing is set tor cooler must be fitted in order to cao the gearbox
variabie speedwhich is controlled by a lever from oil The mounting for this cooler is on the top
the air intake venturi of the gearbox
The mechanically governed engine is virtually An interlocking control may afso be usedin the
identical to its pneuma tic governed counterpart case of a pneumatically governed engine fitted
the one main difference being the mechanica with a governor incorporated in the timing gear housing The system employed
ensuresthat the engine
This governor also is of variabie speed and is throttle is automaticaly returned to iding when
controlled by a lever on the side of the governor the gear lever enters the neutral position An
housing forward of the fuel injection pump ampe measure of protection is thus afforded
the gearbox inasmuch as when engaging or
Gearboxes changing gears the engine throttle must alway
The 14Marine enginemay be fitted with either be in or pass through the idling position How
a mechanicalor hydraulic operated gearbox ever with n bath casesthe drive to the gearbox is taken t type of gearbox fitted
there is
from an input shaft fitted to the no systemof Iinkage offered whereby the gearbox
Lubrication of the mechanica I gearbox is by may be effectively coupled to the engine throttle
meansof gravity The gearbox possesses its own controls
sump from which the oil is picked up by a rotating Reduction gears of 2 1 and 3 1 fot Ieft or
disc and deivered to a drip plate at the top of right hand rotation propellors may be fitted as
the gearbox which passesthe lubricant to the optional equipment
working parts NB When converting a mechanical gearbox
The hydraulic gearbox incorporates its own
oil pump and is in no war dependent on the from straight through drive to 2 I or 3 1
enginetor its oil supply coupling at the rear of the box must be replaced
Where an oil operated gearbox is fitted to an reduction the split type balI race behind the
by a standard type of balI race
engine employing pneumatic goveming a single
lever throttle control systemmay be incorporated
linking the gearbox to the By this Gearbox and Input means gearbox engagement is determined by Both types of gearbox may be
removed in the
movement of the throttle lever With the engine following manner
idling initial movement of the throttle lever
engagement of the gearoox with shaft
out increasing engine speed Engine rpm may Remove 12 setscrews and washers located
then be increaseri by further opening of the around gearbox periphery
throttle control lever beyond a predetermined Withdraw gearboxtrom input shaft
point
Thus the engine cannot be speededin neutra The input shaft which is affixed to the engine
gear thertby eliminating the risk of damagewhen flywheel may be removedas follows
the gearoox is engaged When changing trom Cut locking wire
t4 MARINE ENGINESW2
Remove eight securing setscrews and A 12 or 24volt insulating return system may be
washers fitted as optional extra The dynamo is loatedon
the starboard sideof the engine The starter motor
Replacing Input Shaft and Gearbox
is flange mounted on the port side cf the engine
First ensure that the tlywheel housing and tly the starter pinion engagingwith the starter ring cn
wheel are correctly aligned SeeSection U the flywheel at the aft end of the engine
Using the eight setscrews completewith washers I
fit the input shaft to the engine tlywheel and
tighten evenly
Securethe baseof a clock the
and adjust the clock so as to set
ce D
the needle on the outside diameter of the input I
shaft and check that the shaft is central The
limit in respectof inpu1 shaft concentricity is set
at 003 in 076 mm total indicator reading
With satisfactory alignment attained the secur
ing setscrews should then be wired together
The gearbox may then be eased into position
on the input shaft With the
care should be taken to ensurethat tbe key on the
input shaft is in line with the keyway in the gear
box hearing Secure the gearbox to the tlywheel
houing by meansof the 12 setscrews and washers
and refit propellor shaft
Locating Gearbox
A modified bevel locating ring locking plate has
been incorporated in mechanical gearboxes for I
fitment to L4 marine engines
This latest locking plate is trucker in section
than the original type and of different specification
material and bas been incorporated to eliminate
any possibility of bending or failure of the plate
in service
With the advent of tbis modification the locking
medium whereby this plate is securedwas altered bid
so that now two holes fr in BSF by f6 in
1429 mm deep are drilled and tapped in the
locating ring and pinion cageto accommodate
Allen grubscrews
fr in BSF by tin 1270mm
long FigWI
It should be noted that after assembly the edges 1 and 2 From the 18 Diameter Pilot holes in t evelloca
ting Ring drill two holes 1764 Diameter to a depth of
of the slots bevel ring locating 38 in bevel wh1 casiCW and tap 516 BSF to a depth
plates should be peenedover as also should the ot 14 in bevel wheel cAing to accommodate two Allen
Screws 516 BSF x 12 in length These two holes
drillings into wbich are fitted the grubscrews must not be drilled and tapped until the bevel locating r
Details of are illustrated in ring has been locked in position with locking plates and
slots peenedover
Figure Wl illustration and it is recommended that 3 Bevel locating ring locking slots peened over locking
all gears sent in for servicebe similarly modified plates or
when necessary
Water Circulation
Electrical Equipment The engine may he so arranged as ro accom
With the L4 Marine engine a 12volt earth modare any one of the foIIowing three types of
return systemis employedas standard equipment cooling system
L4 MARINE ENGINESW3
along the keel of the craft Prior to reaching the
water pump the coolant passes through the lubri
cating oU cooler which is fitted as standard equip
ment to engines employing this type of cooling
system The coolant then enters the engineat the
u forward end of the cylinder block and is expelled
at the forward end of the cylinder head From
the cylinder head the water is discharged back
into the keel pipes via the cool
ing jacket It will be observedthat this is a closed
circuit type of cooling system the water in the
keel pipes being cooled by the water through
u I
which the craft passes
With this type of cooling systema thermostat
is fitted as optional extra
Information Keel Pipes
may be obtainedon requestfrom sion Perkins Indirect Cooling System Heat This type of cooling system utilised
in con
junction with a heat separate water pumps viz the rubber and centrifugal types
The rubber impeller type pump is used to
circulate sea water through the heat exchanger
which is affixed to the front of the cylinder head
Overboard dischargeis taken through the exhaust
manifold cooling jacket The lubricating oil cooler
which is indirectly cooled
engines is fitted to the front end of the engine
sump and is on the suction side of the sea water
pump
Circulation of the closed fresh water systemis
u etIected by means of the centrifugal pump which
is belt driven from the crankshaft pulley Water is
drawn from the heat exchanger and enters the
cylinder block at the rear of the water pump
Af ter circulation through the engine the water is
expelled from the front of the cylinder head back
into the heat The top part of the heat exchanger fornls a
header tank fjr the fresh water and a pressure
type filler caf with overflow pipes is The valve in the cap operates between 3 and
4ilbssq in 2330 kgsq cm A thermostat
is supplied as standard for this type of cooIing
system
u Water Pum
From the foregoing it will be apparent that alt
L4 Marine engines irrespective of incorporate the rubber impeller type of water
pump while those indirect
lA MARINE cooling also incorporate a water pump When replacing the cam fitted in the impeller
of the centrifugal variety housing be certain to treat the entire top surface
rear face and securing setscrewhole with a Water Pump able jointing compoundNOTE This cam will go
Sincethe centrifugal type water pump employed into placeone war only
on those Marine engines incorporating indirect With the assem bied pump fitted to the engine
heat exchanger cooling systems is identica backlash between the pump and Iamshaft gears
with that pump titted to L4 engines in genera should be 003 in to 009 in 08 to 23 mm for this type of pump achieve this in production
two joints may have
may be obtained by referring to Section Q been fitted betweenthe pump gear wheel housing
and the ngine timing case Should this be SQ
Rubber Impeller Type
ensure that both joints or two new joints are
This type of pump is gear driven inasmuchas a
replacedwhen refitting the pump
gear wheel attached to the impeller driving shaft
ti the engine is to be withdrawn from service
is in constant meshwith the gear
for any length of time it will be the pump itsef being ocated on the star
effect lubrication of the rubber impeller at the
board side of the engine directly below the
the storage period Tbis may
dynamo be achieved by removing the end cover Item 1
Removal aod Dismaotling Fig W2 and placing glycerine betweenthe vanes
First disonnect water inlet and outlet hoge if the impeller Item 2 Fig The pump may then be detached by

Exhaust the setscrews that secure it to the engine
timing case The exhaust manifold is water cooled and
constructed of cast iron An air releasecock is
To dismantie the pump proceed as follows
provided at the forward end of the manifold
Remove rear end cover
jacket whereby any air present in th water
Remove impeller
cooling systemmay be removed
Remove wearplate
W ith the front bearing cover removed a suitable OU Cooler
press may be used to press out the impeller shaft Provision is made at the front end of tle sump
together with the front bearing leaving the driving for the fitment of an oir cooler
gear wheelloose in its housing With this heat from the engine oir is lost as it
The cam in the impeller housing maf then he circulates round a systemof tubes through by removing the single securing setscrew are
pumped water from the cooling system
Remove rubber seal in impeller housing With the fitting of a hydraulic gearbox a
Remove rubber 0 ring further similar type oir cooler must be titted in
Remove order to cool the gearbox oirtThe mounting for
this additional cooler is on the top of the gearbox
The driving gear wheel housing and impeller
The pump necessary to lift the oil is rear hearing may then be removed from the
the gearbox
pump body
Finally remove front rubber seal Sump Oir Pump Hand Operated
To reassemble the water pump the reverse On the majority of marine installations it is
order of the above procedure should be adopted impossible to gain accessto the sump drain plug
care being taken when replacing the rubber which is situated on the bottom of the that the blades alllay in the same direc Therefore
in order to facilitate the draining ot
tion relative tv the rotation of the pump ie the engine oil a hand pump may be trailing This pump when
used must be titted emote from
When reassembling ensure that the rubber the engine Drainage of the sump is etfected by
impeller is coated with a layer of water resisting operation of the pump after attachirg a length of
grease It should also be noted that if necessary suitable piping to the inlet side of the pump and
the impeller may be dismantled without removing placing the free end of the pipe into the SIImpvia
the water pump the dipstick orifice
J
14 MARINE EN GINEs W 5
L4 MARINE ENGINES
y DAlLY
Check Dil level in sump and gearbox
strainer when fitted
Examine engine holding down balts
Checkcooling water circulation Drain oil trom sump and fill with new lubricatlt
oil pressure Clean feIt elementin lubricating oil filter
Check water level in header tank of heat Unscrew drain plug on final fuel filter replace
exchangerwhen fitted vhenclean fuel appears
u EVERY 50 HOURS
Clean gearbox oil filter hydraulic type gearbo
EVERY 500 HOURS
Clean and only Renew feIt elementin lubricating oil filter
Check and if necessary top up batteries with Clean gauze trap in Jubricating filter body
distilled water
EVERY 100 HOURS EVERY When fitted examine
heat exchangerfur scale
Check oil level in reduction gearbox where
fitted formation and descaJe
if necessary
Lubricate and examine adjustment of single Inspect commutators and brushes of dynamo
and starter motor
lever throttle control if fitted
Clean prefilter if fitted to lift pump Renew element in Final Fuel Filter
Checkoil filw to rocker shaft is removednom Boat
Examine valve springs and check tappets Clean sump strainer
u Examine and clean water inlet weed trap and Cleanout fuel tank
For preservation of laid up engines see page F 2
u
APPROVED
Available trom V L Churchill Co Ltd Daventry England
PD IC Valve Guide Remover and Replacer R6 P3144 3152 83152 4192 4203
Engine Type All Removes water pump pulley on1yon
With tbis tooI all valve guidescan he removedand 6305 L4 4270 499 4107 4108
replaced provided pulIer bars are available Removeswater pump pulley and camshaft gear
PD ICI PuIIer Bars 6354
Engine Type All
Two bars are supplied for usewith PD ICto suit PD lSSA2 SDM1D Adjustable PuJIer Adaptors
h in and i in ict valve guide bores Engine Type P3 P4 P6
To remove Iow position water pump pulley
PD IC2 Valve Guide RepJacing Stop
EngineType 499 4107 4108 PD lSSA4 smaU Adjustabie ruller Adaptor
When the valve guide is replaced using one of EngineType
thesestopsit will ensurethat the guide protrudes P3144 3152 B3152 4192 4203
the correct amount above tbe top face of the Removal of Dil pump gear
cylinder head
No 3 Tension Wrench
PD IC3 Valve Guide Replacing Stop Engine Type All
Engine Type 6354 4236 t in squaredrive 25 to 170lbf ft
Remarks SeePD 1C2
PD ISO Cylinder Liner Remover and Replacer
PD lC4 Valve Guide Engine Type
Engine Type
6354 4236 3152 03152 4203 04203
P3 P3144 B3152 3152 4192 4203
6305
P4 P6 6288 6305
Remarks SeePD lC2 PD 1501Cylbttr Liner
Pa
38 U3 Piston AssemblyRing Engine Type
Engine Type All 6354 4236 3152 03152 4203 D4203
This is an expandable piston assemblyring for 6305
Stctand all enginetypes For usewith PD 150
PD 37 Flywheel Runout Gauge 316X Vatve SeatCutter HandJe
Engine Type All EngineType AII
With this tooi a check caD speedily be made on This tooi is required for the operation of ali
the alignment of the or cutters and pilots
back plate
31610Valve Seat Cutter Pilot
PD 418 PNon Height and Vatve Depth Gauge
Engine Type
Engine Type All P3 P3144 3152 B3152 4107 499 4108
For heightsand valve depths 4192 4203 P4 P6 6288 6305
PD 155A ruller This pilot is suitable for all guides that have a
Engine Type All nominal frr in id bore
CaD be used with suitable adaptors to remove
CutterPilot
water pump pulley oil pump drive gears and
camshaft gear Engine Type
L4 4270 R6 F340 56 4236 6354
PD 155Al Small Adjustable PuUerAdaptors This pilot is suitable for all guides having a
Engine Type nominal t in iid Pilot 7066Orcfip Pliers
T
EngineType 42360015in oversize Engine Type AII
This piJot is for vaJve bores which have been Two types of points are available t in shaft size
reamed0015 in oversize t in 1 in B shaft sire I in 3 in
31613Valve SeatCutter Pilot Alignment Jig
Engine Type 42360030in oversize Engine Type All
This piJot is for vaJve bores which have been Enables a quick check to be made on the align
reamed0030 in oversize ment of connecting rods various adaptors are
PD 137 Valve Bore Reamer 0015 in overstze required as follows
EngineType 4236 336 Con Rod Arbor T
This reamer is only suitable for guideJess
cylinder Engine Type All
heads Required with the above tooI
PD 138 Valve Bore Reamer 0030 in oversize PD 3361 Adaptor r
Engine Type 4236 Engine Type
This reamer is onJysuitable for guideJess
cyJinder P3 P3I44 B3152 3152 4192 4203 P4
heads P6 6288 6305
PD 31723Valve SeatCutter Exhaust This adaptor is fitted into the big end bore when
PD 31726Valve SeatCutter fnlet checking alignment Thin wall bearings Breaker Exhaust PD 3363
GJazeBreaker fnlet Engine Type L4 4270
Engine Type Remarks SeePD 3361
P3 P3144 B3152 3152 4192 4203 P4
P6 6288 6305 PD 3365 Adaptor
The above cutters have cut seats Engine Type 499 4107
to the correct angle and at the same time reduce Remarks SeePD 3361
seat width It is strongly the PD 3366 Adaptor
glaze breakers be used first as this will greatly Engine Type 6354 chattering of the cutters Remarks SeePD 3361
PD 31725Valve SeatCutter Exbaust 6118 VaJveSpring Compressor
PD 31729Valve SeatCutter fnlet Engine Type Breaker Exhaust and fnlet Thirivalve spring compressorbas to
Engine Type remove valve springs without removing the cylin
L4 4270 R6 F340 der head providing the adaptors are SeePD 31723
PD 61181Valve Spring SeatCutter Exbaust and Inlet Engine Type 499 4107 Breaker Exbaust and fnlet The adaptor is fitted
to the rocker shaft Type studs
6354 4236 D4203 D3152
PD 61182 Valve Spring SeePD 31723
Engine Type
PD 31718Valve SeatCutter Exhaust P3 P4 P6 6288 6305 S6
PD InJet Remarks SeePD 6118 1
317G19 Glaze Breaker Exhaust and fnJet
Engine Type PD 61183 Valve Spring Engine Type
499 4107 4108 P3144 B3152 3152 4192 4203 L4
Remarks SeePD 31723 4270 R6 F340
FC9900 Ator Tester Remarks SeePD All PD Compressor
Adaptor
This is a portable tester fitted with a paper filter Engine Type 6354 Remarks SeePD 61181
PD 130Foei PumpAllen Screw Wreoch 6000c4 Comon Tester Adaptor
Engine Type 4192 4203 499 4107 4108 Engine Type 6354 4270 4236
Used to removethe Allen fuel Remarks See6000c3
injection pump
6000C9 ComD Tester Adaptor
Tester Engine Type 499 4107 4108
EngineType Seeadaptor details Remarks See 6003
Usedlor compressions
when using
he following adaptors 6400 Crankshait F1l1etRadii Rollblg Tooi
Engine Types
6000C3Comon Tester Adaptor
P4 4192 4203 P6 6288 6305 4270
Engine Type For co1d rolling of fillet radii on certain crankshaft
P3 P6 P3144 83152 3152 P4 4192 main joumals
4203 6288 6305 L4 R6 F340
This adaptor replacesthe atomiserlor compres 64001 Adaptor Set
SjOR testing For use with the
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Disclaimer:
The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.