Sunday, May26, 2019

Universal Atomic 4 Operator's Manual


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       150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319


       150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
                   MARINE ENGINES
                         BIG KING V-8 MODELS

                        MARINE ENGINE WARRANTY




















                     TABLE          OF       CONTENTS

                          SECTION I
                     GENERAL INFORMATION
Paragraph   Title
    1       Introduction                                 1

    2       Factory Preparation for Shipment             1

    3       Treatment of Engine on Arrival               1

   4        Engine Rotation                              2

   5        Engine Identification                        2

                               SECTION II
    1       Preparation for Installation                 4
   2        Installing the Propeller Shaft               5
   3        Installing Engine Stringers and Beds         7
   4        Aligning the Engine                          8

   5        Exhaust Piping                               9
   6        Cooling Water System                         9
   7        Th~rmostat   and By-Pass Valve              10

   8        Fuel System                                 11

   9        Electrical System                           12

   10       Finishing the Job                           12

   11       V-Drive Installation                        13
   12       Special Equipment                           16
   13       Engine Scale Drawings                       21

                                SECTION III
   1        Preliminary Checks                          33
   2        Starting Electric Starting Models           33
                           TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.)
Paragraph   Title
    3       Stopping Engine
   4        Break-In
   5        Starting Magneto Models
    6       Starting FUel Oil-Kerosene Models          34
   7        Operation of Standard Reversing Gear       36
   8        Operation of Hydraulic Reversing Gear      )6
   9        Cold Weather Operation                     J7
    10      Preparing Engine for Storage               37

                            SECTION IV
                       THEORY OF OPERATION
    1       General Theory of Operation                38
   2        Theory of Ignition Systems                 38
   3        Lubrication System                         39
   4        Fuel System
   5        Cooling System                             4·1
   6        Reversing Gears                            41
   7        Reduction Gears                            42

                                 SECTION       V
                            PERIODIC        SERVICE
   1        General                                    43
   2        Pre-operational Check                      43
   3        Fifty Hour Cbeck                           44
   4        One HUndred Hour Check                     44
   5        One Hundred Fifty Hour Cbeck               44
   6        Twice a Season Cbeck                       44
   7        Once a Season Check                        44
   8        Three     Thousand Hour Check              45
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.)
                                 SECTION VI
Paragraph   Title                                           Page
    1       Distributor Maintenance                         45
    2       Timing Procedure                                 46
    3       General Maintenance                              47
    4       starter Maintenance                              48

   5        Magneto Maintenance                              49
    6       Carburetor   ~mintenance                        50
   7        Valve   ~appet    Adjustment                    54
   8        Reversing Gear Adjustment - Joes Models         54
    9       Reversing Gear Adjustment - Paragon Manual      54
    10      Reversing Gear Adjustment - Paragon Hydraulic   55
    11      Sta-Nu-Tral Manual Transmission                 56
    12      Oil Pressure Regulator Adjustment               56
    13      Spark Plug Maintenance                          57
    14      Fuel Pump Maintenance                           58
    15      Maintenance of V-Drive Units                    59
    16      Repair Parts Kit                                60
                            SECTION VII
                         TROUBLE SHOOTING
            Trouble Shooting Procedures                     60
                                SECTION VIII
    1       Major Repairs                                   64
   2        Conclusion                                      64

                                 SECTION IX
                 LIST     OF       ILLUSTRATIONS

No.       Description                                           Page
1         Location of Underwater Gear                             4
2         Method of Locating Shaft Hole                           5
3         Shaft Log                                               5
4         Method of Drilling Shaft Hole                           6

5         Photo of Drilling Operation                             6
6         Photo of Engine Stringers                               7
7         Engine Bed Construction                                 7
8         Photo of Exhaust Piping                                 9
9         Method of Cooling Water Discharge                       9
10        Suggested Battery Installation                          9
11        Methods of Engine Temperature Control                  10
12        Typical Shaft Location                                 13
13        Wedge Sizes                                            13
14        Drill Block Details                                    14
15        Typical Bed, Stringer and       Steering Set-Up        14
16        Typical V-Drive Layout                                 15
17        Photo of Typical V-Drive Installation                  15
18        Photo of 3-Unit Instrument Panel                       17
19        5-Uni,t Instrument Panel                               17
20        Wiring Diagram - 3-Unit Panel                          18
21        Wiring Diagram - 5-Unit fanel                          19
22        Wiring Diagram - Std. 12 Volt and 12 Volt 24 Amp.      20
23 - 59   Installation Drawings                               21 - 32

                   LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont.)
No.    Description
60     Distributor Body                             45
61     Sanding Distributor Brushes                  47
62     Bendix Drive                                 49
63     Magneto - American Bosch                     49
64     Magneto - Fairbanks-Morse                    50
65     Carburetor - 63M and 263M Series             52
66     Carburetor - 61M Series                      52
68     Carburetor - Adjustments                     53
69     Carburetor - Adjustments                     53
70     Valve Tappet - Adjustment                    54
71     Reverse Gear - Adjustment - Joes Model       55
72     Reverse Gear - Cam Adjustment - Joes Model   55
73     Sta-Nu-Tral - Reverse Gear                   56
74     Reverse Gear - Adjustment - Paragon          57
75     Oil Pressure Regulator - Adjustment          57
76     Oil Pressure Regulator - Adjustment          57
77     Fuel Pump                                    59

                              LI ST   OF    TABLES

No.     Description
1       General Engine Data                           3
2       Installation Data                            16
3       Electric System Wire Sizes                   17
4       Lubrication Requirement Data                 35
5       Fuel Oil Specifications                      36
6       Trouble Shooting Procedures                  60
7       Valve and Piston       Data                  65
8       Torque   ~Vrench   Tensions                  65
9       Bearing Data                                 65
10      Spark Plug Data                              58
11      Valve Timing                                 65

                           SECT ION I
                      GENERAL INFORMATION

1. INTRODUCTION                             d. Every modern facility is employed
                                            in building these marine engines.
This instruction book gives general         Yet metals will wear, and as time
instructions for the installation,          goes on, certain adjustments will
oper'ation and maintenance of all cur-      be necessary. It is, tberefore, the
rent production models of UNIVERSAL         purpose of this book to show you the
and former NORSEMAll. models listed on      "wby" and "bow" of operation and
title page. Instructions througbout         maintenance. A reasonable amount of
the book generally pertain to all of        care will assure your complete sa-
the models listed. When specific            tisfaction.
differences occur, the model or mo-
dels to which the instructions per-          2. FACTORY PREPARATION FOR SHIP}lliNT
tain will be referred to directly.
                                            a. Each Universal built engine is
a. Marine engine requirements differ        run on its own power from idle speed
radically from those of the automo-         to full throttle. Each is checked
bile. This fact was recognized as           for oil leaks, water leaks, oil
far back as 1898 when the founders          pressure, and all otber conditions
of the Universal Motor Company con-         which will assure the engine opera-
ceived and built the first 100%             ting satisfactorily when installed.
marine engine. Through tbe years, as        All adjustments are made during test
model after model was designed, ex-         and are undisturbed when the engine
clusively for marine service, im-           is shipped.
provements and refinements bave been
continually added. Today Universal          b. Run-in lubricating oil is drained
is tbe world's largest builder of           from the oil pan, all openings sealed
100% Mar ine Engines.                       and the engine painted with special
                                            marine paint.
b. To provide for the more severe
service that mar ine engines encounter      c. Special rust     preventive oil,
in use, Universal has pioneered many        drawn into the engine through the
advancements. These include larger          spark plug openings, gives a rust
water jackets, with water supplied          resisting coating to valves, pistons
to all cylinders in equal quantities        and cylinder walls. This prevents
and at even temperature; water jacket       corrosion within the engine durin
clean-out plate; corros ion-res istant      shipment and storage.
metals; built-in, not attached, re-
verse and reduction gears;        oil       d. Heavy frame shipping skids and
coolers; and gear-type water pumps          crates insure the customer receiving
of non-corroding construction.              the engine in excellent condition
                                            and ready for      installation and
c. Universal engines have many ex-          operation.
clusive features not found in other
marine engines -- features you will         3. TREATMENT OF ENGINE ON ARRIVAL
come to appreciate more and more as
you become familiar and experienced          Before   installing a new engine
wi th your Universal. Each one is de-        make a complete inspection of the
signed to assure long, dependable            engine for damaged or loose parts.
and economical service afloat.               New gaskets tend to compress so it
                                             is wise to check all accessible
                                         -1- nuts and bolts for tigbtness. The
is wise to check all accessible                use left hand propellers. Opposite
nuts and bolts for tightness. The              rotation engines are available in
various tags and decals attached to            all of the six and eight cylinder
the engine contain important informa-          series and in every case utilize a
t ion which should be carefully noted.         left hand propeller.
4. ENGINE ROTATION                             5. ENGINE IDENTIFICATION
Engines designated as standard                 Each engine bears a name plate
rotation use a right hand propeller            indicating the engine model desig-
in all types and gear ratios with              nation and the individual engine's
only two exceptions, and these are             serial number. The combination of
the reduction gear models of the               the model designation and the ser-
Utility Four and Super-Four series.            ial number constitutes    positive
These two models utilize external              identification of the engine. It
type reduction gears which change              is, therefore, very essential that
the rotation and they therefore                you use this identification every
                                               time you request information about
                                               your engine or order parts.

                                                                          Table 1-
                                                                       GENERAL DATA
                                   No.                      Piston Max.  Reduction                    Standard
                                   of                       Disp. Engine Gear                         Propeller Reversing Standard           Standard
                    Model HP       Cyl. Bore         Stroke Cu. In. RPM  Ratie..                      Rotat ion Gea1:'    Ignition           Coupling
Blue Jacket Twil AFT          12    2    3"          3-1/2"       49.5    2200   ---                  R.H.     Manual      Magneto              7/8"
                 AFTL         12    2    3"          3-1/2"       49.5    2200   ---                  R.H.     Manual      6 V. Elec.           7/8"
Atomic Four         UJ        30 4              2-9/16" 3-1/8"    6'+.46 3500    ---                  R.H.
                                                                                                                           6 V. Elec.
                                                                                                                           6 V. Elec.
                    UJR       30 4              2-9/16" 3-1/8"    64.46 3500     2:1                                                         1-1/8"
                    UJ-VD     30 4              2-9/16" 3-1/8"    64.46 3500     1 : 1 , 1.29 : 1 ,   il.H.     Manual     6 V. Elec.        7/8" & 1"
                             _._ .. _. ------ r-------                           1. 67: 1,2: 1
Ut i l i ty Four    BN        25    4    2-3/4"      4"           95      2200   ---                  R.H.     Manual      6 V. Elec.           7/8"
                    BNM       25    4    2-3/ 4 "    4"           95      2200   ---
                                                                                                                           6 V. Elec.
                    BNR       25    4    2-3/ 4 "    4"           95      2200
                    BNMR      25    4    2-3/4"      4"           95      2200   2.28:1               L.H.     Manual      Magneto            1-1/8"
Unimite Four        HF       70    4     3-1/4"      4-1/4" 141           3500   ---                  R.H.
                                                                                                                           6 V. Elec.
                                                                                                                           6 V. Elec.
                    HFR      70    4     3-1/4"      4-1/4" 141           3500   2:1
                    HF-VD    70    1+    3-1/4"      4-1/4" 141           3500   1:1,1.29:1           R.H.     Manual      6 V. Elec.         7/8"& 1"
Super-Four          LSG      55     4    3-1/4" 4-1/2" 149.3 3000                ---                  R.H.
                                                                                                                           6 V. Elec.
                                                                                                                           6 V. Elec.
                    LSGR     55     4    3-1/411     4-1/2"      149~3    3000   2.28:1                                                       1-3/8"
Arrow               230      100    6    3-7/16"     4-1/8"      230      3200   ---
                    231      100    6    3-7/16"     4-1/8"      230      3200
                    232      100    6    3-7/16"     4-1/8"      230      3200   2.44:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.    1-1/4"
                    233      100    6    3-7/16"     4-1/8"      230      3200   3·32:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.    1-3/8"
                    234      100    6    3-7/16"     4-1/8"      230      3200   4.12: 1              R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.    1-1/2"
Bluefin             SY230
                                         3-7/16" 4-1/8" 230
                                         3-7/16" 4-1/8" 230
                                                                                 1.5: 1
                     SY232   113    6    3-7/16" 4-1/8" 230               3500   2:1                  R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.    1-114"
                                         3-7/16" 4-1/8" 230
                                         3-7/16" 4-1/8" 230
                    SY232P   113    6    3-7/16" 4-1/8" 230               3500   2:1                  R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elec.    1-1/4"
                   VSY230P   113    6    3-7/16" 4-1/8" 230               3500   1:1,1.5:1,           R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elee.   1 to 1-1/4"
Marlin              320      110    6    4"          4-1/4" 320           2500   ---                  R.H.
                    321      110    6    4"          4-1/4" 320           2500   1.88:1                                                       1-1/4"
                    322      110    6    4"          4-1/4" 320           2500   2.44:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.    1-3/8"
                    323      110    6    4"          4-1/4" 320           2500   3.32:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.    1-3/4"
                    324      110    6    4"          4-1/4" 320           2500   4.12:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.    2"
Tarpon              Y330     140    6    4"          4-1/4" 320           3000   ---                  R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.   1-1/8"
                    Y330P    140    6    4"          4-1/4" 320           3000   ---                  R.H.
                    Y331P    140    6    4"          4-1/4"      320      3000   1.5: 1
                    Y332P    140    6    4"          4-1/4"      320      3000   2:1                  R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elee.   1-3/8"
                    Y333P    140    6    4"          4-1/4"      320      3000   2.5: 1               R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elec.   1-1/2"
                                                                                 1.88: 1
                    332      140    6    4"          4-1/4"      320      3000   2.44:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.   1-1/2"
                    333      140    6    4"          4-1/4"      320      3000   3.32:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.   1-3/ 4"
                    334      140    6    4"          4-1/4"      320      3000   4.12: 1              R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.   2"
Knight              Y350
                                                     4-1/2" 340
                                                     4-1/2" 340
                    Y351P    165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   1.5:1                R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elce.   1-1/2"
                    Y352P    165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   2:1                  R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elec.   1-1/2"
                    Y353P    165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   2.5:1                R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elec.   1-3/4"
                    350      165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   -.,..-               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.   1-1/4"
                    351      165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   1.88:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.   1-1/2"
                    352      165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   2.44:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.   1-3/ 4"
                    353      165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   3.32:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.   2"
                    354      165    6    4"          4-1/2" 340           3300   4.12:1               R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elec.   2-1/4"
Little King          LEV     188
                                         3-7/8" 3"               283      4000
                                                                                 ---                  R.H.
                     LEV15               3-7/8" 3"               283             1.5:1
                     LEV20   188   v8    3-7/8"      3"          283      4000   2:1                  R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.   1-1/4"
                     LEV25   188    va   3-7/8"      3"          283      4000   2.5:1                R.H.     Manual      12   V.   Elee.   1-1/4"
                                                                                 1.5: 1
                    LEVH20   188   v8    3-7/8"      3"          283      4000   2:1                  R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elee.   1-1/4"
                    LEVH25   188   v8    3-7i8"      3"          283      4000   2.5: 1               R.H.     Hydraulic   12   V.   Elee.   1-1/4"
Big King            NXEV     277   v8    4.3"        3.7"        430      4000   ---                  R.H.     Hydraulic 12 V. Elee.
                                                                                                               Hydraulic 12 V. Elee.
                    NKEV25 277 v8 4.3"               3.7"        430      4000   2.5:1                R.H.                                   1-1/2"

                              SECT ION II
1. PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION                moving the rudder is more satisfac-
                                             tory. It is, of course, also neces-
Remember that as much of the work            sary to know the exact location of
of installing an engine takes place          tbe engine and tbe manufacturer's
under and around the boat as inside.         recommended maximum and mInImum
Provide plenty of room. Remember,            angles of engine operation.
too, that the boat and the engine
amount to a considerable weight and          If full scale drawings of the boat
all blocking must be strong enough           are available, locating tbe sbaft
to support this weight plus that of          bole and establishing the angle is
the people working in the boat.              simple. It is only necessary to lay
                                             down a full-sized profile in some
As the first step, shore up the boat         convenient spot and place over this
until tbe bull is approximately              drawing full-size cutouts of the
three feet off tbe floor. For most           engine,rudder and propeller in their
small boats, a three-point suspen-           proper places. Tbe cutout for the
sion will be sufficient. Blocking            propeller need only be an oblong of
should be placed about six feet              cardboard with tbe center carefully
abaft tbe bow and at each corner of          marked. Tbe length sbould equal tbe
the transom. Tbis type of blocking           diameter, and. tbe widtb, tbe pitcb
will give adequate support and at            divided by tbe number of blades. For
the same time leave tbe stern sec-           example, a 12 x 12 propeller would
tion free of obstruction. On larger          be represented by a piece 12" long
boats,extra blocking sbould be used          and 4" wide for a three-blade prop
along tbe keel.                              and 6" wide for a two-blade. Tbe
                                             engine cutout should be a fairly
Tbe next step in tbe procedure is            accurate reproduction of the lower
determining tbe location and angle           balf of the engine with the sbaft
of the shaft hole. A number of               centerline clearly marked.       This
things must be considered before             sbould be drawn witb care on a large
tbis can be establisbed.(See Fig.l)          piece of paper using tbe dimensions
                                             given on tbe engine scale . drawing.
The width of tbe rudder, size of
the propeller, and the clearance         With the rudder and propeller fac-
between the propeller and tbe bot-       similes in place and proper clear-
tom of the boat (minimum 2").            ance accounted for, the cutout of
Clearance between tbe rudder and         tbe engine is then moved about un-
tbe propeller sbould not be less         til tbe centerline of tbe shaft
tban 4", and room to allow removal       lines up with tbe centerline of tbe
of the propeller witbout first re-       propeller, and tbe spot and angle
                                         wbere this line passes througb tbe
                                         keel carefully noted. The position
                                         of tbe engine is then carefully
                                         cbecked to be sure there is suffi-
                                         cient clearan~e between it and tbe
                                         bottom of tbe boat and tbat tbe angle
                                         of tbe engine does not exceed tbe
                  Fig.l Location         recommended operating angle (5 to
                of Underwater Gear       14 degrees in most engines). The

               A                                                     justed to obtain proper propeller
                                                                     clearances and crankcase and fly-
                                                                     wheel clearance for the engine. When
                                                                     the position of the string has been
                                                                     accurately determined, the place it
                                                                     passes each of the sticks is care-
                                                                     fully marked and the jig placed back
                                                                     in the boat. It is then a simple
                                                                     matter to lay a straightedge along
     ~~~-   -----    _ -   ----:c-- -:: __   -::;.::----=---
                                                                     these marks (1,2,3 on Fig.2) to the
                                \.                      \            bottom of the boat which will give
                                                                     the position and angle of the shaft

                                                                     2. INSTALLING THE PROPELLER SHAFT
                                                                     A wedge is now constructed which
Fig.2 :Method of Locating Sbaft Hole                                 will fit between the keel and the
                                                                     inboard shaft log. This wedge may
engine must be lined up eitber by                                    be fashioned from any hardwood, but
raising or lowering it or changing                                   mabogany is recommended since it is
the angle. Do not move the engine
fore-or-aft from its    previously
determined location.
If full scale drawings of the boat
are not available, another simple
method of locating this spot is to
lay a length of 1 x 4 lumber from
the center of the transom forward to a
spot well beyond the determined en-
gine 10cation.(See Fig.2). Tempora-
r i ly prop this str ip (A) in place so
it is roughly parallel to the keel.                                           Fig. 3   Shaft Log
To this,and at a right angle to it,
nail another strip (B) at the point                                  easy to work with and is an excel-
where the flywheel of the engine                                     lent marine material. This wedge
will be located. Fasten a second                                     should be as wide and as long as the
strip (C) so that it passes outside                                  shaft log to be used and cut at an
the stern, follows the angle of the                                  angle corresponding with the angle
stern and projects at least three                                    of the shaft hole minus the angle
feet below the bottom of the boat.                                   of the shaft log. (See Fig.3) The
Narrow strips are nou fastened to                                    thickness of the wedge will vary
the top strip, approximately every                                   with the angle but the thin edge
foot along its length and at right                                   should be approximately 1/2 inch
angles to it, so that the ends of                                    thick. In some cases, the width of
the sticks just touch the bottom of                                  wedge may exceed the width of the
the boat. This jig, which actually                                   keel since it must be as wide as the
is a full sized pattern of the in-                                   shaft log.
s ide of the boat, can now be removed
and laid flat on the floor.                                          In this event, the underside of the
                                                                     wedge should be shaped to fit the
A string is then stretched from the                                  keel and tbeedges shaped to fit
board which represents the transom                                   alongside the keel and fit the hull
to the one represent ing the locat ion                               as snugly as possible. The wedge
of the fl~1heel. The string is ad-                                   should also be notched out to fit
any ribs which might interfere. The                       A drill 1/8 inch larger than the
wedge is then screwed into position                       shaft diameter should be used to
over the locat ion of the shaft hole.                     provide PI' opel' c-learance. Any type
Use a good grade bedding compound                         of drill may be used which will
between the wedge and the keel and                        drill a clean hole and has a shank
fasten securely to the keel with                          long enough to pass through the two
scre'ws, being careful to place these                     blocks and the keel. A standard car-
scre'~Ts 'where they will not interfere                   penter's auger is not recommended
with the shaft log mounting screws.                       since the "wore" tends to follow
                                                          the grain end using it may result in
                                                          a wandering hole. If a drill cannot
                                                          be found with a sufficiently long
                                                          shank,it can be extended by welding
                                                          on a stee 1 I' ad. ~;ll.en the dr i 11 has
                                                          passed completely through the keel
                                                          and the bottom block, it can be re-
                   --:::::- -   -   -   -   I<£EL
                                                          moved and the two temporary drilling
                                                          blocks unscrewed from the boat.
                                                          Now lay the shaft log on the wedge
                                                          and over the shaft hole. In some
                                                          cases, it will be necessary to chisel
Fig.4 Method of Drilling Shaft Hole                       out the wedge to conform to the bot-
                                                          tom of the shaft log. Make this
After the wedge is in place, pre-                         notch slight ly larger than necessary
pare for the drilling of the shaft                        to allow for later alignment.Fashion
hole. Preparation for this step                           a gasket from 1/16" rubber or 1/32"
consists of the construction of two                       gasket mat er ial and place it between
hardwood blocks which will act as                         the shaft log and wedge.
guides in getting the shaft hole
started properly and keeping the
angle of drilling fairly accurate.
These blocks should be of straight-
grained hardwood         maple or oak
wi 11 do. They should be approximately
2" thick, 5" wide and 10" long.
One of these blocks (See Fig. 4
and 5) is fastened to the    inside
of the boat so that the center of
the block lines up approximately
with the position of the shaft                              Fig.5 Photo of Drilling Operation
hole and th9 other is fastened to
the bottom of the boat at the ap-                         Insert the propeller shaft in the
proximate position the hole will                          shaft hole and uith the shaft log
emerge. The face of the block fas-                        over the hole, position the shaft
tened to the inside of the boat is                        log so that the propeller shaft is
cut so as to be at right angles to                        approximately in the center of the
the drilling angle. In order to                           halo in the shaft log. Coat both
keep the drilling angle accurate,                         sides of the shaft log gasket with
a guide block can be fastened 3"                          a good marine sealer and fasten the
to 6" from this starting block. A                         shaft log in place with screws long
notch cut in this block to fit the                        enough to pass through the 'wedge
shank of the drill will support the                       and well into the keel.
drill at the proper angle. (See
Fig ~ 5)                                                  Next slip the shaft     strut over the
shaft and move it along the pro-               gine beds. They should rest firmly
peller shaft with the base pressed             on the hull ribs and be cross-braced
firmly against the keel until the              at intervals by notching into 2" by
shaft is approximately in the center           8-" members .Lunning at right angles
of the bear ing hole. Screw the strut          to them. :~d braces and stringers
to the keel at this point but do not                                                                  -l-;;;FT
tighten down. Using small wooden
wedges, center the propeller shaft
in the shaft hole. Make final ad-
                                                --      _      _ ENG!
                                                                         N[ fll,4fr CENT[R -                           TO JlANGER

justment of the strut and tighten
its hold-down screws and angle ad-
                                                                       IN-LINE PANGERS
justing nuts securely.

3. INSTALLING ENGINE STRINGERS AND                                    _ EtJu1tJE JHAf
                                                                                         r   CEtJ TER -    -1 --        JJlAFTTOIIAIVGEk
                                                                                                                  ..J.-- tJl/TAIVCE
                 BEDS                            _-t
                                               )}/I/FT TO IIANGER \                          ~f~;'i~
Engine stringers should now be in-                PlfTANC£   ~           -- _
                                                                         _-      -
                                                                                       - - - - : - - 8£0 - -
                                                                                         - --   - -       ----.
stalled (See Fig.6). These longi-
tudinal members should run at least
                                                                              OFF5ET NANGI:RJ
two-thirds the length of the hull,
and to them the engine bed will be
fastened.   In most modern      hulls,            Fig.7               Engine Bed vonstruction
these members will be included in
the hull plans and usually will be             should be drift-bolted together.
placed to take an engine with 22~"             These cross-braces should   conform
mount ing centers. If these str ingers         to the shape of the hull and those
                                               that will be under the engine must
                                               be cut to fit the contour of the
                                               underside of the engine.

                                               The next step is the construction
                                               of the engine bed.      (See Fig. 7).
                                               These are pieces of 2" hardwood 8 n
                                               to 10" longer than the length of
                                               the engine. The width of the mate-
                                               rial needed will depend on the angle
                                               at which the engine is to be mounted,
                                               the depth of the engine below the
                                               shaft line, and the type of engine
                                               hanger - that is, whether the han-
                                               gers are parallel to the shaft line
                                               or offset in height. The height of
                                               these engine beds is easily deter-
                                               mined by removing the propeller
                                               shaft   and    stretching a string
  Fig.6 Photo of Engine Stringers              through the strut, shaft hole and
                                               stuffing box and fastening it to a
are not in place, they should be               piece of stock tacked temporarily
constructed of 8" by 2" oak      or            in place somewhat forward of the
maple and should run from the tran-            engine location.
som to at least three feet forward
of the engine location. The dis-               A piece of engine bed material is
tance between them should be    the            then placed on edge alongside the
distance between mounting centers              string in the position ~here the
of the engine plus one thickness               engine is to be mounted. It is then
of the material to be used for en-             a simple matter   to measure down

from the string, which represents               tightened. Use washers under all
the center of the shaft, to the                 nuts. The position of the engine
position of the hangers using the               hold-down bolts is now marked on
figures given on the engine scale               the top surface of the engine beds.
drawing.    If the mounting lugs are            In some cases, it will be possible
parallel to the centerline of the               to drill these holes without dis-
shaft, the top of the engine beds               turbing the engine;     in others, the
are then simply cut at the same an-             engine must be removed. Drill these
gle as the string and below it the              holes us ing a dr ill 1/8 inch smaller
distance of the mounting lugs.     If           than the lag screws to be used for
the forward and rear mounting lugs              fastening the engine in         place.
are offset, the top of the engine               Three-eighths-inch lag screws which
bed is cut in steps at the angle of             will project three inches into the
the string with the distance from               engine beds will be sufficient.
the str ing to the top of each equal-           Insert the engine hold-down bolts
ing the distance from the centerline            with washers under the heads and
of the engine to the mounting lugs.             screw them to within three or four
                                                turns of being tight.
After the pattern of the engine bed
is completed, replace the propeller             4. ALIGNING   THE ENGINE
shaft and fasten the          propeller
coupling in place on the shaft. The             The blocking can now be removed. from
engine must now be lifted into the              the engine and the engine lined up
boat and temporarily blocked in                 with the propeller shaft. The en-
place with the propeller coupling               gine will be in alignment when the
in as close alignment to the coup-              faces of the two halves of the
ling half on the propeller shaft as             propeller    coupling are parallel
possible.    If the engine is a small           within .003 of an inch or less. A
one, this can be done by fastening              feeler gauge is us~d,    checking all
a pole securely to the lifting eye              around the two faces and shims ad-
on the engine and with two men on               ded under the engine hangers until
each end of the pole bodily lifting             the two faces are in alignment. If
the engine in place.      If the engine         no feeler gauge is available,    four
is large or help is not available,              narrow str ips of paper can be placed
an "A I! frame wi th a block and tackle         between the two faces at four points
can be used. Or the job can be done             around the circle. Any variation of
by a trucl{ equipped with a winch.              alignment can then be felt by the
In any case,    extreme care must be            looseness of anyone of the strips.
taken that all hitches used are se-             Each time a shim is added or removed,
cure and all tackle of sufficient               tighten all hold-down bolts and re-
strength to hold the load. A broken             check alignment. Extra care at this
rope or slipped knot at this point              time will payoff in terms of fu-
could result in a very leaky boat               ture performance.
and a very discouraged boatman.
                                                Do not attempt to bring the two
With the engine securely blocked in             faces of the coupling together by
place, slide the engine beds in                 springing the propeller shaft. ,~rhen
place under the engine and on the               the engine is in perfect alignment,
inside of the stringers. i~'hen in              bolt the two halves of the coupling
place, fasten them temporarily with             together and remove the wedges from
~4C" clamps.  Four 1/2" holes are               around the propeller shaft. ~ith
then bored equally spaced along the             the engine in neutral, the propeller
length of the engine bed,   through             shaft should turn easily.    If not,
the stringers and bed.     One-half             check for tightness in the stuffing
inch carriage bolts are then in-                box or slight misalignment in strut
serted in the holes and securely                location or angle.

                                         to direct cooling_ uater from the
                                         engine into the exhaust line. In
                                         so doing, two purposes are served:
                                         the hot exhaust line is cooled be-
                                         low the daI.lg~r point and the ~7ater
                                         quiets the ,,-,.:haust. In this type of
 ENGINE                                  installation, two precautions must
                                         be oTJserved. First, the '"Jater must
                                         enter the exhaust no less than 5"
                                         belm'! the bottoD of the manifold
                                         opening and some provision oust be
                                         made to direct the flm'! of 't"later
                                         away from the manifold. Tbese pro-
                                         visions are necessary to prevent
With engine installed and properly       cooling water from backing up into
aligned, it must now be supplied
with fuel, '1ater, and electrical
power, and provisions made for ex-
haust. now these elements are to
be installed will depend to some
extent on the model of engine being
used, location of the gas tank, lo-
cation of the instrument panel and
personal preference as to side or
stern exhaust. In any case these
things should be installed in a
workmanlike manner and certain good
practices adhered to.                         Fig. 9   Hethod of Cooling   \~'ater
Exhaust piping should be at least       the exhaust manifold and perhaps
a~ large as the opening on the ex-      warping the hot exhaust valves.
haust mp.nifold. Either copper tubing
or galv2nized pipe may be used. If      There are several types of water·
                                        cooled elbows on the market '7hicb
                                        't7ill serve both of the above pur-
                                        pose~ ~nd are worth their cost in
                                         labor of fabricating a substitute.
                                        Hm1ever, a subst i tute can be made
                                        by welding a steel elbow into the
                                        exhaust line at least 4" bel0'\7 the
                                        exhaust oanifold in such a T,;rf:'.Y that
                                        the uater '7i 11 be directed avray from
                                        the ~anifold. (See Fig. 9)
                                         6. COOLIh'G r,'ATER SYSTEM
     Fig. 8   Photo of Exhaust Piping
                                              piping can best be done with
elbows are nece'ssary in the 1 ine,     standard copper tubing. Again, a
they should never exceed 45 degrees.    short piece of flexible hose should
A short piece of steam hose (See        be used between the intake piping
Fig. 8) placed in the exhaust line      and the engine. The water intake
close to the engine will help quiet     scoop should be located as close to
the exhaust and prevent fracture of     the water intake on the engine as
exhaust line due to vibration of        installation permits. Some engines
the engine. It is common practice       are equipped with reversing and re-
                                                 Installation of the water scoop is
                                                 a simple process. A 3" square by
                                                 3/4" thick block" is fastened to tbe
                                                 inside of tbe bottom of tbe bull
                                                 witb four wood screws and set in
                                                 bedding compound. A bole is then
                                                 drilled tbrougb the block and bull
                                                 the same diameter as the     outside
                                                 di~cnsion of tbe water scoop pipe.
                                                 The scoop pipe is then inserted in
                                                 tbe h~le from tbe bottom of tbe
                                                 bull and fastened in place. A seal-
                                                 ing compound is placed around the
                                                 pipe on the inside and tbe locknut
Fig.IO Suggested Battery Installation            tightened.
duct ion gears tbat are also water               7. THER£.fOSTAT AND BY-PASS VALVE
cooled, in wbicb case tbe manufac-               Host often engines are installed
turer recommends tbat tbe cooling                witb water piping that simply dravls
water enter at tbis point and be                 water to tbe pump directly from the
piped from tbere to tbe engine.                  sea, circulates it through the en-
                                                 gine and discbarges it all over-
                                                 board.    In tbis type of system, en-
                                                 gine temperature is determined by
                                                 the temperature of the incoming
                                                 water, pump capacity and the degree

                                                                 WATER OUTLET TO

                                                                      TO SUCTION SIDE
                                                                      OF WATER PUMP


                           BY-PASS LINE     -{

                                    HULL~'                  RETURN CONNECTION
                                                            BELOW WATERLINE
                                                                                ~   BE

               Fig. 11   Methods of Engine Temperature Control

of restriction to flow offered by           the valve.
the piping. It is quite common to
find engine operating temperatures          On installations using the hand
as low as 90 0 F. in these installa-        control valve, water should be noted
t ions. We do not recommend this type       issuing from the exhaust pipe soon
system because the usually low oper-        after the engine is started. A lack
ating temperature is conducive to           of water indicates the pump has not
valve sticking, sludge formation in         primed and the engine should be
the crankcase, dilution of crank-           stopped until the source of trouble
case oil with cylinder wall conden-         is found.
sation and shortened valve spring
life. We recommend a nominal opera-         On installations using a thermostat,
tion temperature of 150 0 F. obtained       only a trickle of water and      some-
through the use of a by-pass system         times only steam will issue from
as shown in the piping diagrams of          the exhaust unt il the engine reaches
Fig. 11. Do not attempt to control          operat ing temperature at ,."hich time
temperature by restricting the flow         the thermostat will open to dis-
of water either into the pump or            charge more water overboard. The
overboard.                                  thermostat is designed to allow a
                                            small quantity of water to pass it
In the by-pass syetem a quantity of         and keep the exhaust pipe cool un-
warm water leaving the engine is            til the engine reaches operating
diverted back into the pump suction         temperature. \~ben start ing a cold
line to be recirculated through the         engine always keep a close watch
engine. By varying the amount of            on the temperature gauge until it
warm water fed back to the pump the         steadies to a constant value.
engine temperature. can be controlled.
Control of water passing through the        8. FUEL SYSTE1f
by-pass line is accomplished with
either a hand control valve or a            A marine type gasoline tank should
thermostat installed as shown in            be used in all installations, con-
the piping diagrams. Opening the            structed with internal baffle plates
valve wiil divert a larger amount           and a filler pipe which goes nearl~'
of warm water back into the engine          to the bottom of the tank. Should a
and raise its operat ing temperature.       fire occur during the filling of
If a thermostat is used it will             such a tank only that vapor trapped
automatically divert nearly all of          in the filling tube will burn anc
the warm water leaving the engine           this can be snuffed out by placing
back to the pump for recirculation          something over the neck of the tube.
when the engine is cold. When en-           The gasoline outlet from the tank
gine temperature nears 150 0 F. the         also enters at the top of the tank
thermostat will react to decrease           and passes down through the tank to
the amount of recirculated water            just a short distance off the bot-
and will divert only enough to              tom. This pipe should be slightly
maintain    engine    temperature at        larger in size than that required
about 150 0 F.                              by the fuel pump on the engine.
Generally, the thermostat will give         The tank will also have a vent and
faster warm up and closer tempera-          overflow tube coming off the top of
ture control over the engine speed          the tank of at least half-inch copper
range than will the hand control            tube size. This tube should be run
valve. The hand control valve should        as directly as possible to a suit-
be adjusted to give adequate tem-           able through-hull fitting, located
perature at the usual running speed         in most cases just below the sheer
of the engine. It should not be ne-         line of the hull. Overflow gasoline
cessary to continually re-adjust            and tank vapors will thereby be
discharged harmlessly over the side.       with most engines or one of several
Connection from the tank to the            types of controls available. These
engine should be made with copper          controls may be operated from a
tubing of a size recommended by the        remote lever, either mechanically
engine manufacturer. A short sect ion      through a system of rods or hydrau-
of flexible line should be placed          lically through piping.
in the line at the point of attach-
ment to the fuel pump to prevent               With the engine installed, the pro-
leaks occurring due to fatigue of              peller is then fastened to the
the metal tubing.                              shaft, care being taken to maintain
                                               proper clearances from the bottom
9. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                           of the boat and the rudder.
The importance of adequate and safe        After the engine is installed and
wir ing aboard a boat cannot be over-      all connections completed, the en-
emphasized. All connections must be        gine should be enclosed in an en-
clean, tight, and free from oil.           gine box. In designing this box,
'There solder connections are neces-       keep in mind the possibility that
sary, the connection should be made        it may be necessary to make adjust-
mechanically secure before soldering       ments or repairs in the future. A
Use only rosin flux when soldering         box with removable top and sides
to prevent corrosion. All wiring           is desirable.
should be kept as short as possible
to mInImIze voltage drop in the            It must also be kept in mind that
circuits.                                  an internal combustion engine uses
                                           roughly 14 parts of air to one part
A battery box should be built as           of gasoline when operating. There-
close to the engine as possible,           fore, sufficient ventilation must
securely fastened to the boat and          be provided to allow it to operate
of a size to prevent shifting of           at full efficiency. This will vary
the battery. Any cover on the box          with the size of the engine; the
should be readily removable for            higher the horsepower the greater
periodic checking of water level           must be the ventilating area. Five
in the battery (See Fig. 10).              square inches of ventilating area
                                           is sufficient for engines up to 25
All wiring should be run in such           H.P. and 15 square inches for' en-
a fashion as to prevent mechanical         gines up to 150 H.P.
injury.   Wires for all circuits
should be of a large enough size to        After complet ion of the installat ion
minimize voltage drop in the cir-          and with the boat in the water, the
cuit and of sufficient current car-        alignment of the engine to the
rying capacity to prevent overheat-        propeller shaft should be checked
ing. (See Table J)                         once more. The engine may then be
                                           started and all connections checked
10. FINISHING THE JOB                      for signs of leaks. Oil pressure
                                           and water temperature gauges should
The instrument panel may be in-            be closely watched for signs of im-
stalled at any convenient location         proper operation. After making sure
at the control station. Oil pres-          that everything is operating properl
sure and water temperature gauges          the boat should be taken on a short
should be connected in accordance          run at slow speed. Final checking
~ith  the instructions that come           and adjusting is done on this trip
with the unit.                             and the boat is now ready for opera-
Gear shifting can be    accomplished
by using the shifting lever supplied
        11. V-DRIVE INSTALLATION                                        In this case, the keel should be
                                                                        leveled from the transom to about
        In recent years two factors have                                six feet forward to aid in deter-
        had a great influence on power for                              mining the shaft bole location and
        outboard type hulls. One of these                               angle.
        is the demand for greater speed and
        the other a requirement for engines                             Location of tbe sbaft hole and de-
        with sufficient power for towing                                termining its angle are tbe next
        water skiers. In many cases the de-                             steps. Any of tbe methods described
        mand for additional power and speed                             before will work. However, since
        has been met by the use of a higher                             the keel bas been leveled and the
        horsepower outboard or by instal-                               distances involved are short, de-
        ling twin motors. A second solution                             termination of the shaft angle by
        has been the installation of an in-                             means of a simple, full-size sketch
        board engine ~ith V-drive.                                      is the easiest   (See Fig. 12). In
    \    \

        \ \
                            AFT LINE 7"

                                          FROM HORIZ,
                                                                                   I                          I .+
                                                                                   r--=13f~ 3°
         \ \             ENGINE SHAFT ANGLE 24"

             'II,         KEEL                          KEEL                   -Lc                           J~
                                                                               ®                                     f
Dr TRANSOM                                                                         WEDGE          DIMENSIONS
                                                                                   MATERIAL - MAHOGANY

                                                                               KEEL THICKNESS            F         H

                                                                                    1'/2"                ''Ia''   "//6 "
               Fig. 12    Typical Sbaft Location                                    15/s "
                                                                                                         1'/."    91,& "
        These V-drive engines are designed                                             , 7/8"            ,
                                                                                                                   7/" "
        to be mounted in tbe extreme stern                                          2"                    'le"    '11,"
        of tbe boat. Tbey are suitable for
        most outboard bulls 17' and over
        and are being used successfully in
        houseboat hulls up to 32' in lengtb.                                    Fig. 13            Wedge Sizes
        Tbe installation of a V-drive engine                            making this sketch, two parallel
        differs from the installation of a                              lines are dralm approximately six
        conventional drive engine in that                               feet long, with the distance     be-
        the engine is mounted aft and in                                tween tbem equalling the thickness
        the reverse position, witb tbe fly-                             of the keel. A line is then drawn
        wheel toward the stern of tbe boat.                             on tbe sketch, indicat ing the crank-
        Tbe installation of a typical V-                                sbaft center, at an angle to the
        drive engine will be described berea                            keel equal to the recommended engine
        The general principles and prac-                                mounting angle (7 0 in Fig. 12). The
        tices will serve for most V-drive                               prop sbaft line is now drawn slant-
        engines altbougb tbe angles and                                 ing down and through the keel at an
        dimensions may vary.                                            angle to the crankshaft line equal
                                                                        to the engine sbaft angle.       This
        Preparation for mounting the V-                                 angle is obtained from the manufac-
        drive    engine is like that for                                turer's scale d.rawings or from ac-
        mounting conventional engines and                               tual measurement of·the engine (24 0
        tbe same steps are followed in                                  in Fig. 12). A third line is tben
        each case. As before, the first                                 drawn from the point tbe shaft line
        step is the blocking up of the boat.                            intersects the top of the keel, at
                       STERN OF BOAT
                                            BLOCK "A"


                                                   BLOCK "8"

                  MATERIAL - MAPLE OR OAK         MATERIAL
                   ,.---_ _---,-L                MAPLE OR OAK     \\4   ~.   -j    I   L

                   I            "ND                              ~I     t&        zZI

                   1--,0,,---1T I- 5·:..j               , -= -===Lt [±]
                   DETAIL   OF BLOCK "B"
                                                        ~'Z"--l f-5~
                                                        DETAIL   OF BLOCK "A"

                          Fig. 14      Drill Block Details
an angle to the shaft line equal to                distance from tbe prop sbaft center
tbe angle of tbe sbaft log to be                   to tbe bottom of the keel is equal
used (14 0 in Fig. 12). The angle                  to balf tbe prop diameter plus two
this line makes with tbe keel tben                 inches. Mark a spot four incbes plus
determines tbe angle of wedge needed               balf tbe widtb of the rudder to-
(3 0 in Fig. 12).                                  ward tbe stern along the sbaft line
                                                   from tbe after end of tbe prop hub
The location of the shaft bole can                 line. Draw a line from tbis point at
now be determined. Its distance                    rigbt angles to tbe keel. This line
from tbe transom will be controlled                now represents the inside of tbe
by the dimensions of the rudder be-                transom. Meas"uing from tbis point
ing used, clearance     between tbe                to tbe spot where tbe shaft line
rudder and propeller, prope ller dia-              passes tbrough tbe keel will give
meter and propeller clearance to                   tbe location of tbe shaft hole.
the bottom of the boat. Locate the
after end of the propeller        hub              A wedge can now be cut to fit be-
wbicb will be at that point- on the                tween tbe shaft log and keel as
prop sbaft where the rigbt angle                   previously described. Fig. 13 gives

             Fig. 15    Typical Bed, Stringer and Steering Set-up
dimensions of typical )0                        wedges                two-thirds the length of the hull
for varying keel thickness.                                           are now installed and fastened se-
                                                                      curely to the transom, and the
Afte~  installation of the wedge,                                     rudder installed and braced to the
preparations can be made for dril-                                    stringers. A typical installation
ling the shaft hole. Fig.14 gives                                     is shoun in Fig. 15.
dimensions and angles for drilling
blocks for installation requiring                                     The gas tank comes   next.   In   most
         _______ a   ___________________________ _


                     MAINTAIN THIS DIMENSION
                     TO REPACK SHAFT LOG
                       STllfflNG BOX

Fig.16   Typical

                                                                      Fig. 17   Photo of Typical V-Drive
a shaft angle of 17 0 · Pre-drilled                                   V-drive installations, the tank is
blocks are available in most cases,                                   installed between the engine and
which will greatly simplify this                                      transom as shown in Fig. 16. The
step.                                                                 same safety features described for
                                                                      conventional   installation  apply
Following previous   instructions,                                    equally well in this case.
the shaft log, propeller shaft,
strut and coupling may now be in-                                     From this pOint, installation is
stalled.                                                              the same as for conventional drive
                                                                      engines. The engine beds are con-
Engine   stringers             running at least                       structed, engine blocked in place
temporarily, beds slid into place                               Because of installation at the ex-
under the engine and clamped for                                treme stern, the engine can be en-
marking of the mounting bolts. The                              closed by building a seat over or
engine is then removed, beds fas-                               in front of the engine with the seat
tened in place and the engine in-                               back acting as the forward bulkhead
stalled and brought into proper                                 of the engine box. However, care
alignment.                                                      must be used in designing this seat
                                                                to provide access for maintenance
The installation of water intake                                and adequate ventilation for opera-
scoop, fuel lines, oil lines, in-                               tion and safety.
strument panel, battery and exhaust
can now be accomplished as des-                                 After   installation is complete,
cribed for conventional engines.                                the engine and shaft alignment
                                                                should be rechecked and all controls
Shifting is controlled in a con-                                operated to assure ease of opera-
ventional manner by connecting the                              tion, as in the case of conven-
reverse gear lever on the engine                                tional installations.
with any commercially available re-
mote shifting lever by means of a                               12. SPECIAL EQUIP}ffiNT
pipe or rod stock. Due to the fact
that the V-dr ive engine is installed                           Two types of instrument panels are
in the reverse position, the result                             available as special      equipment.
of a direct connection will be that                             An instrument panel of the three-
the remote lever will operate in re-                            unit type is available and consists
verse of the normal. That is, to go                             of an oil pressure gauge, ammeter,
forward, it is nec~ssary to pull                                and ignition switch. This instrument
                                                      Table 2
 ~____________-,~____<=~I=N=S~T=A=L=L~ATION                                       DATA
                                               Max.             Compartment IExhaust!Cooling System           Fuel Pump
  Model                                                     I
                                               Engine Ventilator

                                                                              Pipe I_J'.!E~_ Size__ Intake Copper
  B=,"Na='"I~=:-=----J-=a----:ck:-e-t-:-T='-V-::-in-+A='liAe--- Si e ~q. H!~: ~~~i-2,d{/2ii---- ----1-~7~11~· Tu~il~~ze
  Atomic Four                                    140              5 sq. in. 1-1/4" I 3/8"          I 1/2" I     5/16"
  Utility Four                                   12 0             5 sq. in. 1-1/4"! 1/4.1          I  1/2" I    5/16"
  Super-Four                                     12 0             5 sq. in. 2"        13/8"        I 1/2"       5/16"
  Unimite Four                                   140              5 sq. in. 2"        13/8"
                                                                                      I               1/2"      5/16"
  Arrow                                          12 0            15 sq. in. 2-1/2" 13/ 4 "         I 3/4"       3/8"
  Bluefin                                        12 0            15 sq. in. 2-1/2" 113/411         I 3/4"       3/8"                                        12 0            20 sq. in. 2-1/2" 3/4"               3/4"      3/8"
  Tarpon                                         12 0            20 sq. in. 3"        13/4"           3/4"      3/8"
  Knight                                         12 0            20 sq. in. 3"        13/4"           3/4"      3/8"
  Little King                                    160             20 sq. in. 2-1/2" 2-3/4"              *        3/8"
  Big King                                   I   16 0            25 sq. in. 3"        12 - 1"          *        1/2"
                               *Cast in manifold                                       i         I

back on the lever, and to reverse,                              panel is cadmium-plated and the
the lever is pushed forward. This                               instruments   are   constructed of
may confuse the experienced opera-                              brass. See Fig. 18. The five-unit
tor, but can be changed to the con-                             panel consists of an ammeter, oil
ventional method of forward on the                              pressure gauge,    heat indicator,
lever to go ahead, and back to go                               tachometer head, and engine    hour
astern by introducing a bell crank                              meter. See Fig. 19. Wiring diagrams
in the linkage. Figs. 16 and     17                             for the three and five-unit panels
show how this can be done, using a                              are shown in Fig. 20 and Fig. 21.
bell crank.
                                     SPARK   PLUG'S
                      -4          #3           #2

     GROUNDED BACK TO ENGINE.                                    Wiring Diagram - Motorola
   LEAD @ IS CUSTOMER INSTALLED. USE MIN. OF MI                        Alternator - 12 volt -
                                                            35 ampere - Solid State Regulator
      OC NOT IN:;TALL THIS WIRE IF A PANEL MTD. AMMETER                    Figure 4
      IS USE~.
            BACK SIDE OF 3 UNIT A\NEL

         ((---                I~N~ r-®~==+--. "\
                              ~        (     1I
OIL PRESS.                                            AMMETER

   *OIL TUBE                                                         3 Unit Instrument Panel

                                                                            Figure 5

              TO T TERMINAL
                                              TO BATT.  +
                                               ON START MOTOR SOLENOID
               OF IGN. COIL

                                 a      TO ALT. OUTPUT TERMINAL
                                         ON ALTERNATOR

                           TO "S" TERMINAL ON
       NOTES:-              S TART MOTOR SOLENOID
            CIRCUITS UNCER 15 FT., *6 GA. \MRE ~ ClRCUTS FR(J.1
            15 TO 25 FT.
          LEADS .' SIZE                                                                                                                   r             \
               "B" SIZE
        - - - - WIRE


                                                                                                         '*' HEAT

                                                                                                        ENG. BY
                                                                                                        .   , "
                                                                                                        CUSTOMER ______
                                                                                                                                        "           ~B              ...J   ....
                                                                                                        A SIZE WIRE         ,\G~WON
                                                                                                                              ~                   DISTRIFIlj ror.
                                                                                                                                                                    u       W'RE

         liEGULATOfl MUST E'E                                                                                                                       MOUNT SEPARATE
         I/()I JNTED \EP,!CALL\                                                                                                                     FROM ENG. AND IN
          WITH TERMINALS D0W",                                                                                                                      VERTICAL POSITION

       L -________         REGULATOh

                                 GEN. IiGl..
                                                                                                          TERMINAL    =", "-
                                                                                                                          ,\:-ARM, TERMINAL
                                                                                                            ENG. AT
                                                                                                                      10)        'f.' SIZE WIRE
                                                                           "C-;-E - IMPORTANT               FACTORY                                                                NOTE: IMPORTANT

                   () I                      ,"
                                      GROUNDED TO
                                      ENGINE AI
                                                                       BATTERY Af'.,1) REGULATOR MUST
                                                                       81=: GROUNDED T0 Ef\'G INE BY
                                                                                                        WIRE It CAI:ll.E SIZES FOR 12 V. CIRCUIT
                                                                                                                             GA.NO,        LENGTH
                                                                                                                                                                                  BATTERY ... t\D REGUl...ATOR r.llST
                                                                                                                                                                                  BE GRLtUt\DED TO EKGI:SE BY
                                                                                                                                                                                  Cl!ST0H£R BEFIJRE OPERAT ING
                                                                       CI.:'STVMER BEFORE OPERATING                                                                               THE ENGI~E.
 I                                     FAC~ORY                                                          GENERATOR             12    6'OR LESS
                                                                       THE ENGINE.                                               10   6'TO 10'
         ALTERNATCI'-                                                                                                                                                        ~hen non-metalic flexible
         GENERATOF                                                                                                               Il   !CiTO 15'                                   oil tube or heat indicator
         12-V,-ro AMp,                                                                                                            6   15' TO 25'                                  connection is used, ground
                                                                                                                                  5   2.5'TO ~O'                                  enp.ine d1.rect to instrument
        FOR NEGATIVE GR0UND SYSTEM                                                                       STARTING                 0   6 OR LESS                                   pane 1.
                                                                                                         CIRCUIT            I    00   6'TO 7 1/2'
                                                                                                                                CUG   7  V2'TO 10'
                                                                                                        ,HORN                     10
                     REcur·il-'£~'IJJ::r HINIMt:M /Ii'I!'tE SIZE FOR                                     LIGHTING               10 MAX OF FOUR 21·C.P.
                     CO:SKECTING rtLTERNATuR & REGl'LATuR                                                                       LAMPS PER CIRCUIT
                     Total Length uf 11I~IISi2.e
                     Circuit In Jo"eet  ...lire
                                                        I   "BuSize
                                                                                                        UGNITION                12 NITH I COIL
                                                                                                                                                                    RecolTlTlended minimum wire size
                                                                                                         REPOLARIZI~G ~                                             for connectin~ generator and
                     151 or less                  118         1116                                                                                                  re2.ulator
                     15' to 25'                   .6    TfIT4                                            After reconnectin~ leads and before startin~
                                                                                                         the engine, momentari ty connect a jump lead                                                     liB" size
                                                                                                         between the "BAT" terminal of the reeulator                                                       wire
                                                                                                         and the IIAII terminal of the eenerator. This
                                                                                                         allows a momentary sur~t' of current to flow                                                       016
                                                                                                         through the 2enerator, correctly polarizin.2               IS' to 2S'                I #6           lifli
                                                                                                         it. Reversed polarity may result 1n vibratine
                                                                                                         arcinsz: and burntn@: of the cutout relay
                                                                                                         contact points.

                                                                                                                      12 VOLT IGNITION WIRING DIAGRAM \\ITH
                                                                                                                      5 UNIT PANEL FOR NEC-;ATlliE GROUND

                          Wiring Diagram - Leece Neville                                                  Fig. 21-A                   Wiring Diagram - Auto-Lite
       Fig. 21                                                                                                                        Generator - 12 volt, 12 amp.
                          Alternator - lZ Volt, 60 Amp
      ......      12 VOLT 24 AMP. GENERATOR IS USED.             PREFERABLY IN A VERTICAL
                  OR NEGATIVE GROUND.
                                                    - --                                      ----,
                                                                     ------           -
                                                                               GR. TO
                                                                 - - - - - --. ENGINE                            STRIP
       ......     FIELD                                                           1
       ......     TERMINAL                                            --,         I
      (Jq                                                                     I
       ......                                                                 I   I       r-
       I;»                                                                    I   I  ,
       I;                                                                     L -l-Ji'--
       ~                                                                         ,   I
                                                                                  L_ 1 __
        d-                            TERMINAL                                            I
       ·                                                                                  I
                   GROUND                                                                 I
       .....       TERMINAL
                                                                            Ail. __ J·

                                                            II       POSe
        .....     WIRING DIAGRAM FOR STANDARD 12 VOLT                                         WIRING   DIAGRAM FOR

                  BATTERY CHARGING GENERATOR (AUTO-LITE)         NEG.                         12 VOLT 24 AMP. HIGH
        t:!                                                                                   CHARGE RATE GENERATOR
                                                                        12 VOLT               AS USED ON UJ AND BN
        .....                                                                                 (DELCO-REMY)

                     nal of the generator.    This allows a momentary surge of current to flow
          e             through the generator, correctly polarizing it.      Reversed polarity may
          ·             result in vibrating, arcing and burning of the cutout relay contact points ·
                            INSTALLATION                                                 DRAWl NGS
------~----------------~BLUE                                           JACKET TWIN                SERIES----------------~------

                                                                                          i   PIPE TAP
                                                                                                WATER OUTLET

                                  BORE   S
                                  K["fWAY    ~ ~ II        :   3a

                  Fig. 23                                                                                                   I   1

                                                           !       I FOR ~ BOLT   i

                                             I             l   2
                                                                             8!J:.j.                   ~ ~~   3y ..
                                             lZ2 :                      8~'"              13~            -?I~- 3~
                                                      16   L             a                                            - .. 16

----------------------------ATOMIC FOUR SERIESi--------------------------
                                                                                  t-----I7"* - - - - I

       i- i X i

                                                                                                                                              Fig. 24

                                  DIRECT DRIVE
                                                                                                                                          1 - -17            *-------
                                                                                                                                          ~.- sli ----~ a.f6-~
                                                                                                                                      ~---                        5f~-'"
                                                                                                                                      I i                    (I        I   w.o.
                                                                                                                                      I   i    ~-        .        -    .          IEXI1.

                                                                                                                                      ~   I                                       1--,

           Fig. 25                                                                                                                                                                  .r

----------------------~ATOMIC    FOUR SERIES (Cont.)----------------------

                                                                     Fig. 26

   AQUA-PAX V-DRIVE 1:1, 1.29:1, 1.67:1 & 2:1 RATIO

--------------------------UTILITY FOUR SERIES--------------------------

                                                           tPIPE TAP
                                                            WATER OUTLET

                                 Fig. 27

                                                              .)4~   3

                                                        DIRECT DRIVE

                 -rP1Pr TAP
                   _TtR OUTLET

                                                      Fig. 28


----------------------------SUPER-FOUR SERIES---------------------------

                                                                                      DIRECT DRIVE
                                                                                    RIGID MOUNTINGS

                                                                                      Fig. 29

                      DIRECT DRIVE
                   RUBBER MOUNTINGS

                             Fig. 30


 ~~                                                                                          REDUCTION DRIVE
~~                                                                                           RIGID MOUNTINGS
Y                                                                                               Fig. 31
 H I .:
  ' _ !r 3 .3IJ..-+--'-::~
  L                                                               _, '"" i
    -3 ~                         --"'~                        ~I
      '---I~~-------'--12l--                  - ..i.. __ -   -Il----~
      I                                  __   47------


                  Fig. 32

-----------------------UNIMITE FOUR SERIES--------------------------

                                                          DIRECT DRIVE
                                                        RUBBER MOUNTINGS

                                                            Fig. 33

         Fig. 34

                              ,CENTER OF GRAVITY
                         H      -2"L._,.
                         I,       1:              I
                                                        AQUA-PAK V-DRIVE
                                                      DRIVE & ALL REDUCTION RATIOS
                                                        RUBBER MOUNTINGS

                                                             Fig. 35

---------------------------------ARROW                                    8~Hl~8------------------______________

Fig. 36

                                                                                      ,---.---- -~~--- "'5 !--~-~

                                                          STA-NU-TRAL GEAR - DIRECT DRIVE

               ~llHA.UST     EITHEI1    ~NO
               FOI1   2i   TU&IN6 011   2Fp.   SIZE

                                                                                                                    Fig.   37

                                                                      I                                     i
                                                                   54~-------- -~------ ----~-----,

           ST.!-NU-TRAL GEAR                          1.88:1 REDUCTION RATIO
                                                      /EXHAUST EITHeR END
                                         II--~/         FOR 2! TLJeINb 0112Fp. 5IZE

 Fig. 38



                                                ST.!-NU-TRAL GEAR - 2.44:1 REDUCTION RATIO

------------------------------BLUEFIN SERIES-----------------------------
                                                                                          EXHAUST EITHER END FOR
                                                                                          3 TUBING, 2~ PIPE OR TUBE

 1.5:1    & 2:1                                             DIRECT DRIVE                                                                    Fig.         39
                                                        MANUAL REVERSING GEAR

                                                                                         EXHAUST EITHER END FOR
                                                                                                    ' PIPE OR TUBE-.------''-1.~ ....

                                                              REDUCTION DRIYJ<~, 2.~;: 1 P.ATIO
                                                                HYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR

                               SECT ION III

1. PRELIMINARY CHECKS                         j. Open shut-off valve below fuel
                                              tank.   Operate hand   primer, on
a. Check to be sure the engine is             models so equipped, to fill feed
filled with oil to the     "full"             line and sediment bowl with fuel.
mark on the bayonet stick. See
Table 4 for proper grade.                     k. Remove shipping cover from flame
b. On models equipped     with hy-
draulic reversing gears,   fill the           1. Close all water   drain cocks and
reversing gear case with the grade            drain plugs.
oil shown in Table 4, Note 2.
                                              2. STARTING ELECTRICAL STARTING
c. On models   requiring   separate                         MODELS
lubrication of    reduction gears,
fill reduction gear housing. Check            a. Place clutch in neutral.
Table 4 for proper type gear lubr i-
cant.                                         b. Open   throttle     approximately
do Fill fuel tank with 80-90 octane
gasoline. Fuel oil-kerosene models            c. Full out choke.
are equipped with a one quart gas-
oline tank for starting purposes &            d. Turn on ignition switch.
See Table 5 for fuel specifications
of fuel oil-kerosene models.                  e. Push starter button.  If engine
                                              fails to start ~ithin 30 seconds r
c On electrical starting models be            see Table 6 to determine cause of
sure all connections are correct              trouble.
and secure. Check battery to be
sure it is fully charged and that             f. As soon as engine    starts    push
the water level is approximately              in choke rod.
3/8" above the plates~
f. Open cooling system water inlet             Do not run engine with choke out
valve (if used). Be sure water                 any longer than necessary. Over-
lines are properly connected on                choking will dilute crankcase
both intake and overflow sides of              oil and possibly cause motor
water pump.                                    failure due to raw gasoline being
                                               sucked into combustion chamber.
g. Check all controls for    smooth
and proper operation.                         g. Check water pump      for proper
                                              operation.  If water fails to cir-
h. Air out bilge to remove      any           culate, turn water pump grease cup
dangerous gasoline fumes.                     in one or two turns    (on gear type
                                              water pumps only).  If water still
i. With ignition off and engine in            fails to Circulate, stop engine im-
neutral, turn motor over several              mediately. See Table 6 for correc-
times to be sure everything is                tion of trouble.
working freely.

h. Check oil pressure gauge for op-              in your locality and with the fuel
eration of oil pump. If gauge does               available. If readjustment is at-
not indicate oil pressure, stop en-              tempted it should be done by a com-
gine. Table 4 gives proper oil                   petent mechanic.
pressure for each model engine.
                                                 The engine will not be thoroughly
              CAUTION                            broken in until approximately 35
 Do not race engine with clutch                  hours of operation have been at-
 disengaged at any time. Racing                  tained. DO NOT CONTINUOUSLY RUN
 a cold engine will cause exces-                 YOUR ENGINE OVER 2000 RPM DURING
 sive wear and may seriously dam-                THIS PERIOD AND AVOID LONG PERIODS
 age engine. New motors should be                OF SLOW IDLING. OCCASIONALLY DURING
 run at one-half .throttle for a                 BREAK-IN YOU :MAY RUN THE ENGINE AT
 period of 15 hours.                             FULL THROTTLE BUT NOT FREQUENTLY
                                                 OR FOR PERIODS OVER ONE MINUTE IN
                 NOTE                            DURATION. ALWAYS WARM UP THE ENGINE
 If the engine temperature is con-               BEFORE ANY RUN.
 trolled with a manual by-pass
 valve as shown in Fig. 11, water                5. STARTING MAGNETO MODELS
 \iill issue froD the exbaust pipe
 as soon as the pump has primed and              a. Retard spark lever half way.
 the engine filled with water. If
 tile engine temperature is controlled           b. Open throttle approximately one-
 by thermostat, only a trickle of                quarter.
 water will issue from the exhaust
 pipe until the engine reaches its               c. Full choke out all the way.
 normal operating temperature and
 the thermostat opens to dump water              d. Crank engine two or three turns.
                                                 e. Push choke in half way.
                                                 f. Crank engine by bringing it to
The speed of your boat should be                 compression and then giving a quick
gradually reduced while you are                  pull. DO NOT SPIN.
still some distance from the moor-
ing or landing. Before stopping                  g. When engine starts push choke in
the engine, close the throttle and               all the way.
disengage the clutch. Allow the en-
gine to idle for a minute or so be-              6. STARTING FUEL OIL-KEROSENE MODELS
fore turning     off the ignition.
Stopping in this manner will permit              a. Start engine on gasoline as des-
excessive heat to be absorbed by                 cribed in Paragraph 2.
the cooling system.
                                                 b. Allow engine to run for a period
4. BREAK-IN                                      of 3 to 5 minutes to allow it to
                                                 reach proper operating temperature
Your UNIVERSAL engine was run and                of 130 to 180 degrees.
tested for six hours on one of our
test stands with electric dynamome-              c. Switch over to fuel oil by turn-
ter. It was adjusted and checked                 ing the three-way cock, located in
for maximum power at rated speed.                the fuel line, to the proper posi-
However, those adjustments were cor-             tion.
rect only for the prevailing at-                                 NOTE
mospheric conditions and fuel used.              Before stopping engine, switch from
You may      find it     necessary to            fuel oil to gaso.line and allow en-
slightly readjust the carburetor and             gine to run approximately 2 minutes
igni t ion timing for peak per formance          in preparation for the next start.
                                              Table 4
                                      LUBRICATION REQUIREMENTS

                              S.A.E. VISCOSITY NUMBERS FOR                                 Herringbone
                                 ENGINE CRANKCASE OIL                       Average       Reduct ion Gear
                    Surrounding       Surrounding      Surrounding        Engine Oil     Lubricant S.A.E.
                     Air Temp.         Air Temp.        Air Temp.           p..ressure   Viscosity Number
MODEL              Over 90 0 F. and   J2 to 90 0 F.    Below J2 0 F.      (Hot Engine)     .Separately
NAME               Maximum Service Average Service Average Service           Lbs.           Lubricated
Blue Jacket Twin      S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   20
                                                                              JO         --- Note #1
Atomic Four           S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.            45         See
Utility Four          S.A.E.    40     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   20       45         S.A.E. 90 to    140
Super-Four            S.A.E.    40     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   20       45         S.A.E. 90 to    140
Unimite Four          S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   20       JO         See Note #1
Arrow                 S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   JO       JO         See Note #1
Bluefin               S.A. E.   JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   JO       JO         See Notes #1    &   #2
Marlin                S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JQ          S.A.E.   JO       JO         See Note #1
Tarpon                S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   JO       JO         See Notes #1    &   #2
Knight                S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   JO       JO         See Notes #1    &   #2
Little King           S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   JO                  See Notes #1    &   #2
Big King              S.A.E.    JO     S.A.E.   JO          S.A.E.   )0                  See Note #2

                      Note 1                                                  Note J
                                                            We do not recommend the use of heavy-duty,
     The reduction gears of these engines (on               high detergent oils      during break-in.
     engines   with manual type     reversing               These oils have such extremely good lub-
     gears), are lubricated from the main en-               ricating qualities     that correct and
     gine oil supply and, therefore, use the                thorough break-in is difficult if not
     same S.A.E. number of oil as the engine,               impossible.    This is particularly true
     and do not have to be separately lubri-                with respect to seating of piston rings.
     cated.                                                 We recommend the use of a straight
                                                            mineral oil of S.A.E. JO weight during
                                                            the break-in period.
                                                            Most oil companies have now adopted a
                                                            standard system of rating the service
                      Note 2                                for which an oil is intended.    In this
                                                            system an oil designated for ML service
    The hydraulic reversing gear is entirely                is a straight mineral oil without addi-
    self-contained and independent of the                   tives and intended for light service.
    engine oil pressure system (sealed off                  The heavy-duty, high detergent oils are
    from engine oil pressure system). Use                   deSignated MS and DG for severe gaso-
    same S.A.E. number oil as in the engine                 line engine service and general diesel
    of good quality non-foaming type. If                    service. An oil designated for ML ser-
    extreme foaming is encountered due to                   vice should be used during break-in
    unusual installation or operating con-                  and an oil deSignated for MS and DG
    ditions,  it will further reduce foaming                service used thereafter.
    if type "A" automatic transmission oil
    is used.                                                Avoid using any oil that does not speci-
                                                            fically state the service rating on the
    When engines have both hydraulic revers-                can.   Watch the' oil level gauge in the
    ing gear and reduction gear, the reduc-                 oil pan and always keep the oil up to
    tion gear is lubricated from the oiling                 the mark.
    system of the hydraulic reversing gear.
    The oil level should be checked periodi-                Check the oil level stick before start-
    cally by means of the bayonet dipstick                  ing and several times while filling to
    located on the side at the forward end                  prevent overfilling. Keep oil     level
    of the hydraulic reversing gear housing.                to the full mark on the oil stick.
    Oil level shOi.lld be maintained between                Amounts of oil required vary with the
    the marks on the bayonet dipstick.                      engine model and the angle at which the
                                                            engine is mounted.

                                   Table       5
                                 FIRING ORDER

              NO. OF
             CYLINDERS       STANDARD ROT.             OPPOSITE ROT.
             2              1-2
             4              1-2-4-3
             6              1-5-3-6-2-4               1-4-2-6-3-5
             V-8 LEV        1-2-7-5-6-3-4-8           1-8- 1+-3-6-5-7 -2
             V-8 SEVH       1-2-7-5-6-3-4-8           1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2
             V-8 NKEV       1-5-6-3-4-2-7-8           1-8-7-2-4-.3-6-5

7. OPERATION OF STANDARD REVERSING            gear positions are stamped on the
             GEAR                             top cover. See Paragraph 6, Section
                                              IV for detailed operation.
Several types of reversing gears are
used on UNIVERSAL engines.       The          (1) Moving the lever, on the    top
operation, however, is the same in            cover, to the "F" position places
all cases. See Paragraph 6, Sec-              the transmission in forward drive.
tion IV, for detailed operation.
                                              (2) Moving the lever to the "R"
a. Moving the lever to the forward            position places the transmission
position (toward engine) places the           in reverse drive.
transmission in forward drive.
                                              () Moving the lever to the center,
b. Moving the lever to the stern              or "N" position places the trans-
position (away from the engine)               mission in neutral.
places the transmission in reverse
drive.                                        b. The design of the reversing gear
                                              is such that the operation of both
c. Moving the lever to the center             the forward and reverse drives is
position puts the transmission in             almost instantaneous with the move-
neutral and no power is delivered             ment of the shifting control lever.
to the propeller shaft.                       This condition exists even at low
                                              speeds. For this reason it is not
8. OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC REVERSING           necessary to race the engine to ob-
              GEARS                           tain good shifting characteristics.
                                              In fact, it is advisable to shift
a. The hydraulic reversing gear is            at low speeds, below 1400 RPM, and
basically a hydraulically operated            preferably in the 800 to 1000 RPM
multiple disc clutch in comb.ination          range. Shifting at conservative
with   a   hydraulically   operated           engine speeds will avoid damage to
planetary reversing gear train. The           the boat, engine reversing gear,

shafting and propeller caused by               b. Manifold
the shock of rapid shifting at high            Open drain cocks in exhaust manifold
engine speeds.                                 and drain watet from the manifold.
9. COLD WEATHER OPERATION                      c. Water Pump
                                               Water pumps are particularly sus-
Special precautions must be taken              ceptible to damage from freezing.
when operating    engines in cold              The pump should be carefully drained.
weather to insure efficient opera-             A drain plug is provided on the bot-
tion and to prevent damage to the              tom of the pump housing. Six cylin-
engine. Some items to be considered            der engines are equipped wi th Jabsco
are listed below:                              pumps and to drain loosen end cover.
a. Keep battery fully charged to               d. Lubrication System
prevent freezing and to get maximum            The oil pan and lubrication system
starting power.                                should be drained of old or conta-
                                               minated oils so that moisture or
b. Be sure fuel lines and tanks are            acid present in the old oil will
free of water to prevent stoppage              not cause corrosion. Two or three
in the fuel system due to freezing.            quarts of new, clean oil should be
                                               pumped through the system by turning
c. Substitute   lighter   engine oil.          the motor by hand or electric starter.
See Table 4.                                   Doing so will distribute a clean
                                               film of oil which will act as a
d. When engine is stopped after a              rust preventative.
run, drain all water from cylinder
block, water pump, and water lines             e. Cylinders
before the water has time to freeze.           Remove the spark plugs and pour one
                                               or two ounces of new oil into the
Starting an engine with the water              combustion chamber of each cylinder
pump frozen will probably break the            to give lubr icat ion to piston rings,
drive shaft or damage the gears. Be            cylinder walls, and valves. Turn
sure the water pump is thoroughly              the engine over a few times to be
thawed out before attempting to                sure of distribution before repla-
start the engine.                              cing spark plugs.
e. Extra choking or external heat              f. Valves and Tappets
may be required to get sufficient              Remove the valve tappet covers and
vaporization in the manifold for               oil valves and tappets with clean
cold starts.                                   oil.   Replace tappet covers and
                                               seal breather tube end with tape.
f. Give the engine sufficient time
to warm up both water and oil be-              g. Distributor
fore subjecting it to heavy loads.             See that the distributor is clean
                                               and well lubricated. Special care
10. PREPARING ENGINE FOR STORAGE               should be ta~en to prevent the en-
                                               trance of moisture during storage.
Neglect in preparing an engine for
winter storage may lead to annoying            h. Starting Motor
and costly damage. The engine shoulu           The start ing motor must be protected
be carefully covered to give com-              against rain and snow. The starter
plete protect ion from rain and snow.          pinion and screw shaft should be
                                               clean and covered with a film of
a. Cylinder Block                              light oil. The bearings
Open all drain cocks on cylinder               well lubricated. The motor should
block. Leave drain cocks open.                 be sealed to prevent corrosion of
commutator and brushes.   Do not oil          ~. Battery
the commutator.                               Remove battery and store in a warm
                                              dry place. Battery sbould be fully
i. Generator                                  cbarged wben placed in storage and
Oil bearings. Seal moisture    tight          cbecked periodically. Occasional
to prevent corrosion.                         cbarging may be desirable to pro-
                                              long battery life. Terminals sbould
                                              be clean and coated witb vaseline
                                              to prevent corrosion.

                           SECTION IV
                      THEORY OF OPERATION
1. GENERAL THEORY OF OPERATION                piston down and the power developed
                                              by the sudden tbrust is transmitted
a. UNIVERSAL engines are four cycle,          by means of connecting rod and
water cooled, "L" bead and valve-             cranksbaft to the propeller sbaft.
in-head engines. While various mo-
dels of the engine may ·use differ-           (4) Exhaust Stroke
ent fuels and may vary in number              The fourth and last stroke occurs
of cylinders, the basic operation             wben the piston again starts its
of the engine remains tbe same.               upward travel. During tbis period
                                              the exhaust valve opens and the
b. While operating, a four cycle              burned gases are forced out of tbe
engine goes through four separate             combustion chamber, into tbe ex-
steps to complete one working or              baust manifold and out tbe exbaust
power cycle.  These   steps   are:            system.
intake, compression, power and ex-
haust.                                        c. The exbaust stroke marks the end
                                              of one complete operating cycle.
(1) Intake Stroke                             After completion of the exhaust
As the piston travels down in the             stroke, the cycle repeats, starting
cylinder, tbe intake valve opens.             with the intake stroke and con-
Vacuum formed on top of the cyl-              tinues as long as the engine is in
inder caused by the downward move-            operation.
ment of the piston draws tbe fuel
mixture from tbe carburetor, through          2. THEORY OF IGNITION SYSTEMS
the intake manifold, and into tbe
cylinder compression chamber.                 The Blue Jacket Model AFT and tbe
                                              Utility Models BNM and BNMR are
(2) Compression Stroke                        equipped with a ~agneto ignition
As the piston travels up, both                system. All other models described
intake and exbaust valves close               in this book have either a 6 or 12
and tbe fuel mixture is compressed            volt, battery operated electrical
between the top of the piston and             ignition system.
the cylinder head.
                                              a. Battery Operated Electrical
(3) Power Stroke                                       Ignition System
When the piston has reached the
top of its stroke and has just                (1) The ignition system consists of
started down,   a properly timed              the battery, distributor, ignition
spark causes tbe fuel mixture to              coil, ignition switch, and spark
explode. This explosion drives tbe            plugs.
(2) Two separate circuits, primary              (2) The high tension type magneto
and secondary, make up the ignition             used on UNIVERSAL engines has a
system. The primary low tension cir-            secondary winding,     comprIsIng a
cui t cons ists of the battery, low             great number of turns of fine wire,
voltage distributor points, primary             superimposed upon the primary wind-
coil winding and condenser. The                 ing. The primary winding is short
secondary high tension circuit con-             circuited by means of an auxiliary
sists of the secondary winding of               device, during the building uP. of
the coil, distributor rotor      and            the field in the armature coil. When
cap, high tension wiring, and spark             the energy in the primary circuit
plugs.                                          has reached a maximum, this circuit
                                                is opened, and at the same instant,
(J) In operation,     current from the          due to the rotat ion of the armature,
battery passes to the primary wind-             the magnetic field is removed. The
ing of the ignition coil, through               energy of the primary winding is
the breaker pOints of the distribu-             discharged through the secondary,
tor. Periodic opening and closing               and due to the ratio of primary to
of the breaker points causes the                secondary turns, a considerable in-
flow of current to start and stop,              crease in voltage results. The re-
thus causing an alternate build-up              sulting high-tension current is then
and collapse of the magnetic field              distributed to the spark plugs.
around the primary winding of the
coil.     This fluctuating magnetic             (J) Because the spark intensity of
field cuts the secondary winding of             a magneto varies directly with the
the ignition coil, causing a very               engine speed, an increase of energy
high voltage to be induced in it.               is available at high speeds. At low
Current from the secondary of the               engine speeds, such as when the en-
igni t ion coil is then passed through          gine is hand cranked, the    magneto
the distributor rotor to contacts               would sometimes fail to produce a
in the distributor cap and finally              voltage sufficient to spark across
to the spark plug.                              the spark plug gap. In order to pre-
                                                vent this from occurring, the mag-
 (4) Arcing across the low voltage              netos used are equipped with an im-
 points of the distributor caused               pulse coupling    which serves to
 by the collapsing magnetic field               couple the magneto to the engine,
 around the primary winding of the              and at the same time, accelerate
,coil is reduced by use of a con-               its speed of rotation during the
 denser connected across the points.            starting period.
b. Magneto Ignition Systems                     J. LUBRICATION SYSTEM
(1) Magnetos are a special applica-             All UNIVERSAL engines are equipped
tion of the electric generator and              with a full pressure lubrication
are usually used where the output               system.
of energy required is small. They
are used on some models of UNIVERSAL            a. Full Pressure Lubrication System
engines to furnish energy for igni-
tion of the compressed gases in the             (1) The full pressure lubrication
cylinder chambers. The elements of              system effectively lubricates all
construction comprise a permanent               necessary moving parts of the en-
magnetic field, armatures, which                gine with the exception of those
rotate within that field, a circuit             accessories mounted on the outside
breaker and a distr ibut ing mechanism          of the engine. See Table 4 for
which serves to carry the generated             those models which require separate
current to the spark plug.                      lubrication of reduction gears.

(2) The gear driven oil pump, lo-              working off     an eccentric   on   the
cated in the oil base, draws oil               camshaft.
through an intake screen.     Oil is
forced to all main, connecting rod             (2) As the high point of the cam is
and camshaft bearings; through jet             reached, the plunger is forced down,
holes in the connecting rods for               causing a vacuum above the diaphragm.
cylinder wall, piston and wrist pin            The vacuum draws gasoline from the
lubrication. Drilled holes in the              tank, through the inlet valve and
cylinder block provide lubrication             into the fuel chamber of the pump.
for the valve tappets. Oil is sup-             The return stroke releases the com-
plied to the reversing gear through            pressed diaphragm spring, expelling
a drilled hole in the end of the               gasoline through the outlet valve
crankshaft.    Hydraulic   reversing           into the carburetor bowl.
gears are separately lubricated from
their own oil supply.                          (J) After several diaphragm strokes,
                                               the carburetor bowl fills and its
(J) All models using the full pres-            float mechanism rises, thus seating
sure system are equipped with an               the needle valve and stopping fur-
oil pressure regulator which may be            ther passage of fuel from the pump.
adjusted for proper oil pressure.              With the carburetor bowl filled and
See Table 4 for proper setting.                needle valve closed, back pressure
                                               is created on the diaphragm. i~7i th
(4) Six and eight cylinder models              this back pressure on the diaphragm~
and. the Super-Four models are equip-          the rocker arm movement continues,
ped with oil coolers. Oil from the             but is taken up by the linkage,
oil pump is circulated to the cooler           rather than being transmitted to
aDd cooled by water trom the engine            the diaphragm. As pressure reduces
cooling system. A by-pass (except              in the fuel chamber because of car-
on Super-Foul' models) built into the          buretor demands, the diaphragm will
cooler short circuits the oil di-              take longer strokes" Fuel flow is
rectly from the pump to the oil line           thus maintained in accordance with
in the event the cooler becomes                engine operating conditionG.
                                               b. Carburetor
                                               The function of the carburetor is
The fuel system consists of fuel               to furnish the correct mixture of
tank, fuel line, strainer, pump                gasoline and air to the engine in
(except on Blue Jacket Twin models),           the proper proport ion for all opera-
carburetor,    flame arrestor~ and             ting conditions, idling to full
intake manifold. Gasoline from the             throttle. To accomplish thiS, the
tank enters the fuel pump through              gasoline is accurately metered at
the strainer and into the carbure-             all speeds, atomized or broken up
tor where it is vaporized and drawn            into small particles, and mixed
through the intake manifold, through           with air. The fuel is vaporized and
the valves, and into the combustion            preheated in the intake manifold
chamber of the cylinder.                       before being drawn into the cylinder
                                               through the intake valve.
a. Fuel Pump
                                               c. Flame Arrestor
(1) The purpose of the fuel pump is
~o supply an adequate amount of gaso-          A flame arrestor attached to the air
line from the tank to the carburetor           inlet of the carburetor eliminates
to meet engine requirements at all             the possibility of fire being caused
speeds. This pump is of the diaphragm          by backfiring through the carburetor.
type and is operated by a plunger              A special element, consisting of
curved plates, dissipates the heat           Super-Four series engines only.
and prevents fire from extending
through the arrestor.                        (2) The forward .d.r ive on this unit is
                                             a double friction clut9h. On the
5. COOLING SYSTEM                            propeller end are a series of fric-
                                             tion discs of steel and bronze which
a. All engines are equipped with a           are mortised into the engine and
positive displacement type water             propeller drives and casing. On the
pump. Six and eight cylinder en-             engine end, a split cone clamps the
gine pumps are rubber      impeller          engine shaft and frictionally locks
type. Two and four cylinder engines          the gears to it.
have bronze gear pumps. The oppo-
site type in each case can be ob-            (3) When the reversing gear lever is
tained on special order.                     moved forward the toggles force home
                                             the plungers, clamping all friction
b. In the Twin, Atomic, Utility              surfaces together. All moving parts
and Super-Four, the water flow is            are then locked and the whole unit
from pump to block, to head, to              functions as a solid coupling be-
manifold, then overboard.                    tween the motor and propeller shafts.
In the case of the Unimite, the              (4) Reverse drive is obtained by
flow is from pump to manifold, to            throwing the lever back. This re-
block, to head, then overboard.              leases the forward drive and throws
                                             on the brake band by means of a camG
All six cylinder engines have the            This cam passes through a slot in
same flow which is: pump to oil              the camshaft that operates between
cooler, to manifold for one com-             the cam roll and cam shoe. This
plete pass, then into block through          clamps the brake band and prevents
four to six holes (depending on              the outside case from revolving.
engine size), then to head, to               When the casing is thus held from
heat riser on intake manifold, and           revolving, the gearing drives the
then overboarde                              propeller in the reverse direction
                                             at 80 - 88% of the motor speed~
c. See special diagram of rather
complicated water flow in special            (5) To place in neutral, the leve=
manual furnished with each v-8               is placed midway bety/een forward
engineo                                      and reverse, which releases both
                                             the reverse and forward drives and
d. Where either manual or automatic          permits the gearing to run idle~
temperature control is used, vary-
ing amounts of discharge water will          b. Paragon Model Reversing Gears
be recirculated. See Fig. 11.
                                             (1) Paragon reversing gears are
6. REVERSING GEARS                           used on all current production en-
                                             gines except the Super-Four and
Four types of reversing gear sys-            those models which are equipped with
tems are used on UNIVERSAL engines           hydraulically   operated reversing
covered   by these   instructions.           gears or Sta-Nu-Tral manual gears.
Three of these are mechanically
operated, and the fourth is a hy-            (2) Power from the engine is trans-
draulic system.                              mitted through the engine sleeve
                                             gear and the reverse idler pinions
a. Joes Model Reversing Gear                 to the forward clutch or to the re-
                                             verse drive gear.
(1)   The Joes model reversing gear
is    currently being used on the            (3) The forward clutch     consists of
a ser ies of fr ict ion discs , alternate          reversing gears is provided by the
ones held in the reverse gear drum                 transmission oil pump mounted in-
and on the tailshaft clutch carrier.               side the reversing gear case and
This group of discs can be clamped                 driven continuously by the engine
together by a pressure plate oper-                 while the engine- is running. From
ated by three toggle arms attached                 the oil pump the oil under'pressure
to clutch adjustment plate. These                  is delivered to the pressure relief
toggles are moved by the yoke and                  valve and control valve.
collar assembly on the tailshaft.
In the forward position the entire                 (3) The operation of the system is
drum and clutch assembly rotates                   controlled by a control valve mounted
wi th the crankshaft. When in neutral              on the top cover. Moving the lever
and in the reverse posit ion the for-              determines whether the actuating oil
ward clutch plates are free to turn                is delivered to the forward or re-
with respect to each other.                        verse mechanism.
(4) The reverse   clutch consists of               (4) The forward clutch is engaged by
a brake band around the drum with                  moving the shifting lever to the
an operating mechanism for clamping                forward position. This operates the
the band to the drum. The band is                  control valve so that it in turn
supported and rotation prevented by                directs the pressure oil from the
the band feet which zest on the                    pump to the forward piston in its
support flanges in the reverse gear                cylinder. The forward piston squeezes
housing. When the operating lever                  the forward multiple disc clutch
is moved to the rear, the band clamp-              and so turns the propeller shaft in
ing toggle levers pull the open ends               the proper direction to move      the
of the band together, clamping the                 boat ahead.
band. tightly around the drum. This
prevents rotation of the drum and                  (5) The reverse band is similarly
the planet pinions or idle pinions.                engaged by moving the shift ing lever
This causes the tailshaft to be                    to the reverse      position.    This
rotated in the opposite direction                  operates the control valve so that
to the crankshaft. The arrangement                 it in turn directs the pressure oil
of forward and reverse clutches                    from the pump to the reverse piston
prevents both being actuated at the                in its cylinder. The reverse posi-
same time.                                         tion clamps the brake band on the
                                                   planetary gear train and so turns
(5) When the operating lever is                    the propeller shaft in the reverse
placed in the center position the                  direction, thus moving the boat
drum and forward clutch plates are                 astern.
free to turn and no power is trans-
mitted from the engine to the pro-                 (6) Neutral, or center position,
peller shaft.                                      of the control lever prevents any
                                                   pressure oil from entering either
c.Paragon Hydraulic Reversing Gears                the forward or reverse cylinders.
                                                   In addition the control valve opens
(1) The Paragon hydraulic reversing                drains in both cylinders so that
gear is basically a hydraulically                  any oil in either cylinder is drained
operated multiple disc clutch in                   out and the pistons completely re-
combination with a hydraulically                   tract disengaging both forward and
operated planetary reversing gear                  reverse drives.
train. The unit is self-contained
and independent of the engine oil                  7. REDUCTION GEARS
                                                   Some models of UNIVERSAL engines
(2) Power for the     operation of the             are equipped with reduction gears
in   ratios    varying   from   1.5:1 to          the heavy axial propeller thrust
J..j,.12:1. Reduction gears supplied              in addition to the radial load ic-
with various model engines are shown              posed by the helical gear.
in l'able 1.
                                                  (3) The propelter shaft coupling is
a. Helical Reduction Gears                        keyed to the end of the reduction
                                                  gear shaft and held in place by a
(I) The reduct ion gear unit cons ists            lock nut. The propeller shaft coup-
of a helical drive pinion mounted                 ling iR supported by the large
on the reverse gear tailshaft sup-                double ron ball bearing.
ported in the reduction gear front
cover and an internal helical gear                (4) A ring type oil seal pressed
rigidly supported on large capacity               into the propeller thrust bearing
ball bearings in the reduction gear               retainer rubs on the polished sur-
housing. The reduction gear ratio                 face of the propeller thrust coup-
is determined by the number of teeth              ling. This prevents loss of reduc-
in pInIon and internal gears. The                 tion gear oil from the housing and
centerline offset is the difference               the entrance of water or dirt into
in pitch radii of the pinion and                  the reduction gear.
the internal gears. The pinion gear
is keyed to the reverse gear tail-                (5) On some models the reduction
shaft and held in place by a nut.                 gear is oiled by crankcase pressure
It is supported in a large       ball             and on others separate lubrication
bearing in the adaptor plate and                  is provided. See Table 4.
reverse   gear    housing.    Correct
alignment of the pinion gear is                   b. Universal l-{eduction Drive
maintained by this ball bearing and
the one on the engine sleeve gear                 The Universul reduction drive con-
at the forward end of the tai lshaft.             sists of two herringbone gears, a
                                                  small gear press fit on the reverse
(2) The  internal helical gear is                 gear tailsbaft, and a larger gear
bolted to a flanged reduction gear                which floats OD the spline shaft
shaft rigidly mounted on two large                below it. Both the drive shaft and
ball bearings. The one next to the                the lower spline shaft are supported
gear and carrying most of the ra-                 by heavy duty ball bear ings. Running
dial load is a single row unit.                   in a continuous bath of oil, this
The propeller thrust bearing is a                 type of drive is positive, quiet,
double row unit capable of taking                 and smooth.

                                   SECTION            V
                                PERIODIC          SERVICE
Periodic    maintenance   procedures              every UNIVERSAL engine.
will do much to keep your engine
operating at top efficiency. Regu-                 2. PHE-OPERATIONAL CHECK
lar inspection of the engine fol-
lowing the proce&lres listed in                    a. Check" engine oil level. If neces-
Paragraph 2 through 8 will reduce                  sary, Add oil to bring it up to the
~aintenanc0   costs Rnd uphold the                 full mark on the bayonet stick.
high standar(lR of quietness, reI ia-              Sec TobIe h for proper ~eight oil.
bility, und performance built into
b. On engines having separately         sediment.
oiled reduction gears, check oil
level and if necessary refill. See      b. Inspect flame arrestor to be
Table 4 for engine requirements.        sure air pass~ges are clean and
                                        free from oil. If dirty remove and
c. On engines equipped with hy-         wash with kerosene. Be' sure ar-
draulic reversing gears, check to       restor is thoroughly dry before re-
see that oil level is at full mark      placing.
on bayonet stick. If necessary re-
fill with same grade oil used in        c. Check adjustment of clutch. See
engine.                                 Paragraphs 8 and 9, Section VI.
d. Turn grease cup on water pump        5. ONE HUNDRED FIFTY HOUR CHECK
one turn. If necessary refill with
good grade waterproof     grease.       a. Check valve tappet adjustment.
(Bronze gear water pumps only).         See Paragraph 7, Section VI.
e. With engine   operating check oil    b. Remove, clean, and reset spark
pressure.                               plugs. See Paragraph 13, Section VI.
f. With engine operating, check         c. Tighten all nuts   and capscrews.
temperature. On engines equipped
with temperature indicators, tem-       6. TWICE A SEASON CHECK
perature should be between 130 and
160 degrees F. (Fresh water 160 0 -     a. Apply one drop of light engine
salt water 140 0 ). If engine is not    oil to the breaker arm hinge pin
equipped with a temperature gauge,      in distr ibutor.
a rough determination can be made
by placing a hand on the engine         b. Apply two or three drops of
block. Engine should operate at a       light engine oil to the felt in the
temperature which will allo~ hold-      top of the breaker cam and to the
ing a hand on the block for a per iod   governor weight pivots of the dis-
of 15 to 30 seconds.                    tr ibutor rotor.
3. FIFTY HOUR CHECK                     c. Clean the engine thoroughly.
a. Using sump pump, remove all oil      d. Tighten all lag    bolts
from crankcase. Refill with a good      engine to bed.
grade oil as specified in Table 4.
                                        e. Check engine alignment.        See
b. Inspect oil cooler and remove        Paragraph 4, Section II.
any accumulation of grit or dirt.
                                        f. Check   carburetor   adjustment.
c. Oil generator, using three     to    See Paragraph 6, Section VI.
five drops of light engine oil.
                                        g. Clean and adjust distributor,
d. Add three or four drops of med-      magneto breaker points. See Para-
ium engine oil to distributor oil       graphs 1 and 5, Section VI.
                                        h. Oil or replace cam lubricating
e. Clean fuel pump strainer.            wicks on magneto. See Paragraph 5,
                                        Sect ion VI.
                                        7. ONCE A SEASON CHECK
a. Remove glass bowl from fuel
pump and clean out   accumulated        a. Clean generator commutator.    See
Paragraph 3, Section VI.                        e. Lubricate and repack bearings on
                                                magneto. See Paragraph 5, Section VI.
b. Check generator     and starter
brushes for wear. If worn replace.              B. THREE THOUSAND HOUR CHECK
See Paragraphs 3 and 4, Section VI.             At the end of three thousand hours
                                                of operation the engine should be
c. Adjust valve tappets if neces-               completely overhauled. All bearings
sary. See Paragraph 7, Section VI.              should be checked for wear, valves
                                                ground, piston rings replaced, and
d. Remove and clean muffler.                    the engine thoroughly cleaned.

                                SECTION VI
1. DISTRIBUTOR   1~INTENANCE                    of O.OIB   to   0.022 inch.   See   Fig.
                                                60 (1).
a. Removal
                                                (2) Badly worn or pitted points
(1) Unsnap the two springs holding              should be replaced. When replacing
the cap to the distributor body.                points be sure they are properly
Remove the cap.                                 aligned. Bend stationary arm (2)
                                                slightly to align points. Do not
(2) Loosen the clamping screw       at          bend breaker arm ()).
the base of the distributor.
(3)  Remove the timing adjusting
screw which holds the clamp to the
engine block.
(4) Note the position of the dis-
tributor in relation to the engine,
to facilitate replacement in the
same relative position.
(5) Remove distributor from engine.
b. Inspection
(1) Inspect the distributor for
cracked, broken, or worn parts and                   Fig.60     Distributor Body
for excessive burning. Replace all
defective parts.                                d. Adjustment of Breaker Arm Spring
(2) Clean all    parts   with   carbon
tetrachloride.                                  (1) Hook a spring scale to the
                                                contact end of the breaker arm and
c. Adjustment and Replacement of                bold at right angles to the contact
              Points                            surfaces.
(1) Points which show only a slight             (2) Read the scale just as the con-
discoloration and are not badly                 tacts separate. Scale reading should
pitted should be cleaned with a                 be between 17 and 20 ounces.
fine point file and reset for a gap
(3) If the scale reading is not                 Engine Hodel                  loct.;,ticD of
within the above limits, loosen                                              No. 1 Cylinder
the terminal post, holding the end
of the spring (Fig. 60 (4) and                  Blue Jacket Twin            Flywheel End
slide the end of the spring in or               Atomic Four                     "      "
out as necessary.                               Ut il i ty Four                 il     "
                                                Super-Four                      "      "
(4) Tighten  terminal post    and re-
check tension.                                  Unimite Four                Reverse Gear End
                                                ArrOl'.'                        "      "    "
e. G0vernor Adjustment                          Bluefin                         "      "    "
                                                r.lar 1 in
Sinco setting of the governor re-               Tarpon
                                                                                "      "    "

quires special equipment, it should             Knight                          "
be done only by an experienced ser-
                                                                                       "    It

vice man or by the Universal fac-               Litt Ie King                Flywheel End
tory.                                           Big King                        "      "
f. Replacement on Engine                        b. Remove spark plug           from   No.   I
                                                cyl inder.
 (1) Replace the distributor in the
 same relative position as it was               c. Place thumb over No. I spark
'when removedo                                  plug hole in cylinder head and
                                                crank engine over until compression
(2) Replace the timing adjusting                pressure i8 evident.
screw, but do not tighten.
                                                                        ;-leal] center of
                                                d. Dcter r:l inl111·( top
g. lubricati.on                                 No. 1 ~yllndpT compression stroke
                                                varies froP' 1i;(,del to model thus:
(1) Place one drop of light engine
oil on the breaker arm hinge pin.               Blue .TacJ{ct Twin      Turn flywheel
See Fig. 60 (6).                                  in normal cranking direction un-
                                                  til marking is lined up Ylith part-
(2) Place three drops  of light en-               ing line of cylinder block.
gine oil on the felt in the top of              Atomic Four - TUIn flywheel in nor-
the breaker cam. See Fig. 60 (5).                 mal cranking      direction   until
                                                  cranking pin is straight up and
(3) Place three drops of light en-                dov,n.
gine oil on the governor    ueight              Utility Four       Same as above but
pivots.                                           until pin is horizontal.
                                                Super-Four      Necessary to remove
(4) Add three to five drops of light              flywheel    cover to see timing
oil to the oiler on the outside of                mark on flywheel. :Mark should be
the distributor base.                             located straight up by above pro-
2. TIMING PROCEDURE                             All Others - All have timing marks
                                                  to mntch up on flywheel and fly-
a. The first step is to locate your               wheel housing.
UNIVERSAL engine model in the folloYl-
ing list to determine the location              e. Loosen distributor so it can be
of No. I cyl inder upon ,-,'hich the            lifton up to disengage distributor
y.'hole procedure is based.                     drive ~e~r. Set distributor so that

rotor points to slot in distributor                fully pull      generator     auay     from
case when distributor drive gear is                housing.
re-engaged. Rotate distributor body
unt i 1 breaker po ints are just begin-            (3) On model:: belt driven from fly-
ning to open.                                      wheel, remove belt, remove nut hold-
                                                   ing generator pulley to shaft, re-
f. Tighten clamp holding distr ibutor              move bol t8 ho l!ling generator to fly-
in position. Engine is now roughly                 wheel housing, and carefully pull
timed.                                             generator away from housing.
g. Replace distributor cap on dis-                 (4) On models belt driven from water
tributor body. No. I spark plug                    pump, remove belt adjusting screw,
wire goes into the connection di-                  belt, and hinge bolt.
rectly above the flat on the dis-
tributor body at which the rotor                   (5) Loosen clamping screw           and re-
is aimed. The rest of the wires are                move head band.
inserted in the distributor cap in
the proper rotation of firing order                (6) Remove brushes from brush holder.
go ing from No. 1 in a clockwise di-
rect ion.                                          (7) Place     neu   brushes    in    brush
h. Final sett ing for peak efficiency
must be uJade '\"lith engine running.              (8) Draw a piece of 00 sandpaper
                                                   bet'ween the brushes and in the di-
i. With engine running at a fixed                  rection of the brush holder to
throttle setting, loosen distribu-                 properly seat the brush against the
tor and rotate to maximum RP11, re-                commutator. See Fig. 61.
tighten at that point.     Engines
having matching timing marks are                   (9) Blo"l out accumulated sand and
best adjusted with a timing light.                 dust and replace head band.
Generators used on UNIVERSAL engines
are nonventilated, three brush and
shunt types. With the exception of
periodic lubrication and occasional
replacement of brushes and cleaning
of the commutator, no maintenance
should be required. If trouble of a
major nature is encountered the
generator should be sent to the
Universal factory for repair.
a. Replacement of Brushes                              I
If brushes should become oil soaked,               Fig.61   Sanding Distributor Brushes
or have worn to less than one-half
their original length, they should                 (IO)Replace   generator on     engine.
be replaced.
                                                   (11) On belt driven models          adjust
(1) Disconnect generator uiring.                   position of generator for           proper
                                                   belt tension.
(2) On gear driven nodels, remove
bolts holding       generator to the
t iwing gear tra in hous ing, and car e-

b. Lubrication                                  (-1) Disconnect start ing motor wir ing.

The generator should be lubricated              (2) Remove bolts holding starting
every 100 hours of operation. Place             motor to fl~vheel housing.
three to five drops of light en-
gine oil in the oil cups at each                (J) Remove ~otor from housing.
end of the generator. Do not over
oil.                                            (4) Loosen the clamping screw and
                                                slide head band off motor.
c. Cleaning Commutator
                                                (5) Remove brushes from holders.
(1) Remove generator from   engine              If brush lead is riveted to brush
as described in subparagraph a (1)              holder, remove the rivet. If brush
through (5) above.                              lead is soldered to field coil
                                                line, unsolder and bend open the
(2) Loosen clamping screw      and re-          loop on the field coil lead.
move headband.
                                                (6) Install new brushes. Be sure
(J) Remove brushes from holders.                bevel of brush fits the commutator.
(4) Hold a piece of 00 sandpaper                (7) Draw a piece of 00 sandpaper
against commutator and rotate ar-               between the brushes and in the
mature until commutator is clean.               direction of the brush holder to
                                                properly seat the brush against
(5) Blm'l out sand and dust, re-                the commutator. See Fig. 61.
place brushes in holders, replace
headband, and install generator on              (8) Blowout sand and dust and re-
engine.                                         place motor on engine.
4. STARTER MOTOR MAINTENANCE                    b. Cleaning of Commutator
With the exception of      periodic             (1) Remove starting motor from en-
lubrication and occasional replace-             gine and remove brushes from brush
ment of brushes and cleaning of the             holders as described in subpara-
commutator, the starting     motors             graph a (1) through (4).
used on UNIVERSAL engines will re-
quire very little     maintenance   0           (2) Hold a piece of 00 sandpaper
Every starting motor is equipped                against the commutator and rotate
with a Bendix drive which acts as               armature until commutator is clean c
an automatic clutch that engages
the starting motor uith the engine              (J) Blowout sand and dust, replace
fl~vheel  when the motor cranks the             brushes in holders, replace headband,
engine and disengages when the en-              and install starting motor on en-
gine starts. This drive should be               gine.
inspected once each season and worn
parts replaced. If trouble of a                 c. Bendix Drive liaintenance
major nature is encountered the
starting motor should be sent to                (1) Remove starting motor from en-
the UNIVERSAL factory for repair.               gine, remove head band and brushes
                                                as described above.
a. Replacement of Brushes
                                                (2) Remove the pinion housing hold-
If brushes have become oil soaked               ing screws.
or have worn to less than one-half
of their original length, they                  (J) Pull arcature and pinion housing
should be replaced.                             from the mot or.
                                               it from the engine.
                                               b. Inspection and Cleaning
                                               (1) Loosen the screws and ~emove
                                               the end cap from the magneto. Be
                                               careful not to damage the gasket
                                               betueen the end cap and the magneto
                                               (2) Remove the distributor cap from
                                               the end cap.
                                               (J) Inspect magneto for worn or bro-
        Fig.62   Bendix Drive                  ken parts. Check end and distributor
                                               caps for cracks and burned areas.
(4) Press .the armature   out of the
pinion housing.                                (4) Replace all worn or broken parts.

(5) Remove the Bendix head spring              (5) Clean all exposed portions of
scre~ (screw nearest armature or               the magneto with carbon tetrachloride.
on end of shaft), and slide the
Bendix from the shaft. See Fig. 62.            c. Adjustment of POints, American
(6) Inspect all parts for wear and
distortion. Replace all defective              (1) Inspect the points for evidence
parts.                                         of pitting or burning. If points are
                                               only slightly burned, dress with
(7) Reassemble and install on engine.          fine point file. If points are badly
                                               burned, replace.
d. Lubrication
The service requirements of this
unit are light and it requires very
little lubrication. Once each season
the motor should be disassembled                  I
and the bronze bearings soaked in                 Z
oil. Some models are equipped with
oil holes on the commutator end of
the shaft. Three or four drops of
light oil every 100 hours of opera-
t ion placed in this oil hole is suf-
5. MAGNETO MAINTENANCE                          Fig.6J   :Magneto - American Bosch
a. Removal                                     (2) Turn the magneto shaft until
                                               the cam shoe rides on the highest
(1) Pull the ignition ~ires free of            point of the cam.
the magneto distributor cap.
                                               (J) Loosen the locking screw (I).
(2) Remove the two capscrews holding
the magneto to the mounting bracket.           (4) Turn the eccentric adjusting
                                               screw (2) until the points are open
() Pull the magneto in a direction             0.015". Tighten the locking screw.
a1vay from the drive shaft and lift
d. Adjustment of POints,                                (2) Further lubrication of the mag-
      Fairbanks-Uorse                                   neto by the operator is not recom-
(1) Inspect the points for evidence
of pitting or burning.                                  g. Timing, American Bosch
(2) If points are badly pitted, re-                     (1) Remove    the   distributor     plate
place. If pitting is minor, dress                       end cap.
with fine point file.
                                                        (2) Turn  the distributor shaft in
(3) Loosen       the two locking     screws             the oPPosite direction from its
(1 and 2).                                              normal rotation until the arrow on
                                                        the end of the shaft points to the
(4) Turn the magneto shaft until                        center of cable outlet No.1.
the cam shoe rests on the highest
point of the cam.                                       (3) Crank the engine until piston
                                                        No. 1 is at the top dead center
(5) Insert a scre,\7 dr iver in the                     position. This point is indicated
slot (3) underneath the      breaker                    by a mark on the flywheel.
arm. Turn the scre'\7dr iver against
the two projections until a sepa-                       (4) Mount the magneto on the engine.
ration at the points of 0.015" is
obtained.   Tighten     the  locking                    (5) Loosen the impulse coupling ad-
screws.                                                 justable drive and turn the magneto
                                                        shaft until the points are just be-
                                                        ginning to open.
                                                        (6) Tighten the impulse         coupling
                                                        and replace the end cap.
                                                        h. Timing, Fairbanks-Morse
                                                        (1) Remove the distributor cap.
                                                        (2) Turn the magneto shaft until
                                                        the distributor rotor lines up with
                                                        the projection on the inner wall
  Fig.64      Uagneto - Fairbanks-1Iorse                of the end cap.
e. Lubrication, American Bosch                          (3) Replace the distributor cap.
          (Fig. 63)
                                                        (4) Crank the engine unt il the No.
(1) Place two drops          of light      oil          1 cylinder is at the top dead cen-
on the cam wick (3).                                    ter position.     This position is
                                                        indicated by a mark on the flywheel.
(2) Lubrication of the remainder of
the magneto requires special tools                      (5) l.fount the magneto on the en-
for disassembly and should not be                       gine. Be careful not to disturb
attempted by the operator.                              the setting of the magneto. If ne-
                                                        cessary loosen the impulse coupling
:t:.   Lubr icat ion, FairbanIcs-1.Iorse                connector and turn it until it is
                 (Fig. 64)                              properly aligned.
(1) If the cam Y.'ick (4) is dry and                    6. CARBURETOR I.JA INTENANCE
hard, replace with new uick.                            All   UNIVERSAL       l;arine     Engines

covered by these instructions are            (9) Hold the adjusting screw in
supplied with Zenith marine type             place and tighten the packing nut.
safety non-drip carburetors, ex-
cept the V-8 models (See special             (10) Return the throttle to idle
V-8 instruction books.) With the             position and readjust idle needle
exception of the following ad-               valve slightly   for best idling
justments, maintenance of the car-           performance.
buretor by the operator is not
recommended. If difficulties arise           b. Carburetor
which are not correctable by the
following adjustments, it is recom-          The carburetors used on six cyl-
mended   that the    carburetor be           inder gasoline marine engines are
sent to the UNIVERSAL factory for            the Zenith updraft type with both
repair or replacement.                       idling and high-speed adjustments.
                                             Each has a large air entrance whose
a. Adjustment of Throttle Stop               bowl shaped bottom acts as a drip
   Screw, Idle Needle Valve and              collector with automatic drain.
            :Main Jet
                                             A properly    adjusted   carburetor
(1) Before any of the above ad-              should be left alone.
justments to the carburetor are
made, the engine should be opera-            If the fuel is free from dirt or
ted for a sufficient length of               other impurities, the carburetor
time to reach operating tempera-             should not clog up or give trouble.
                                             We recommend that a large size
(2) With throttle in idling posi-            fuel strainer be inserted in the
tion,   adjust the throttle stop             gasoline line     between the fuel
screw for desired idling speed.              pump and carburetor to trap dirt
See Fig. 65 and 66.                          and condensation.
(3) Turn the idle needle valve               Since a marine engine      operates
in and out until the speed of                under more or less steady load
the engine is steady and as fast             conditions,   it is comparatively
as this throttle    position will            easy to- adjust the carburetor. To
permit.                                      facilitate adjustment of the car-
                                             buretor it is fitted with an id-
(4) Readjust the     throttle stop           ling jet "A", high speed jet "Btl,
screw for desired    engine idling           choke "C" and idling adjustment
speed.                                       screw "D" as shown in Fig. 68.
(5) Open the throttle approximately          When adjusting your carburetor, be
one-third.                                   sure that the flame arrestor is
                                             clean and free of obstructions,
(6) Loosen the packing nut   on the          and that the choke "C" is wide open.
main jet adjustment.                         1;'arm the engine up thoroughly be-
                                             fore attempting the adjustment.
(7) Turn the main jet adjustment
screw in until the engine speed is           With the engine idling turn the id-
noticeably reduced.                          ling jet "A" slowly to the right
                                             and left until the setting is found
(8) Turn the main jet adjustment             that will    let the engine idle
screw out until the engine runs              smoothly and as fast as that throt-
smoothly and as fast as this throt-          tle setting will permit. Adjust the
tle position will permit.                    idling adjustment screw "D" to the




  Fig.65          Carburetor - 63~1 and   263~I            Fig.66    Carburetor -   61~   Series
desired idling speed and repeat the                      jet size is No. 42 (2.1 mm.) This
adjustment of idling jet "A".                            jet size should be correct for all
                                                         applications., However, if the oper-
iVi th the boat under way on smooth                      ator desires very fine tuning he
water, open the throttle approxi-                        may try jets varying from size 41
mately 75%. Turn the high speed                          to 44. but not scalIer than 41.
 jet "B" in until the engine loses
power and RPM. Now open the jet                          At the bottom ot" the car'buretor
slowlyuntil the engine runs smoothly                     float bowl will be found a hexagon
and at its higbest RPM for this                          head brass plug ';7bere a ve.'.rial>le
throttle setting.                                        main jet is usually found on mar-
                                                         ine carburetors. The mein jet is
The carburetor should now be cor-                        reached by removing this plug. The
rectly adjusted for smooth opera-                        jet itself is a soall, brass threaded
tion and maximum        pouer at all                     cylinder uith a shoulder e~d a
speeds. A slightly rich fuel mix-                        screwdriver slot at one end. ne~ove
ture is preferable to a lean mix-                        and instC'Jll the jet 't"/ith F:, SC1'e\1-
ture as a lean mixture has the ap-                       driver using care Dot to damage
parent effect      'of reducing the                      the jet or the threeds in the
octane rating of the fuel and can                        carburetor. !Jowl casting. ,The size
result in a tendency toward detona-                      number is stamped on the end of
tion (ping),      burned valves and                      the jet.
scored or 'Worn cyl inders. Therefore,
do not lean out the fuel mixture                         This carburet 01' , part number 9005
in an attempt at fuel economy.                           120, has a t'rlo-hole idle system
                                                         that is rf>,ther sensitive in ad-
Knight engines with serial number                        justment.   It 't1ill require more
4979 to 6346 were equipped with a                        care in adjusting tbe idle jet
fixed main jet carburetor intended                       than with the former Knight car-
to discourage tbe general tendency                       buretor.
to lean out the fuel mixture for
economy but which is actually det-                       The pC'Jrt number of each carburetor
rimental to the engine. Standard                         model will be found stawped on the
 small, round brass    disc   riveted        fully observe the reaction of the
,to the car!Juretor.                         tachometer. If the tachometer shows
                                             a steady decrease as the throttle
The Zenith       carburetor  supplied        is retarded, the stop screw is not
on the l.Iodel 250, 155 II. P. Knight        needed in adjusting the carburetor.
may require      adjustment  of    the       Ho~ever,   if the tachometer first
throttle plate stop scre'w "An at            increases to a maximum and then
the full throttle position        (See       falls off as the throttle is re-
Fig. 69.) This carburetor is some-           tarded, the stop screw must be used
'7hat sensit ive     to the thrott Ie        to correctly position the throttle
plate positioning in that if it              plate as follo'rls: Find the thrott Ie
goes slightly past the vertical             position that will give maximum en-
POSition, it will upset fuel dis-            gine RP:U and stop the engine without
tribution in the ~anifold and cause          disturbing the throttle setting.
~~ l!Iar!ced decrease in engine p017er       Screw the stop screw in until it
and speed at full throttle. The              just touches the stop pin. Restart
carburetor is correctly set on en-          the engine and check to see that
gines tested at the factory, but             it uill still attain its peak RPU
replacement carburetors '"/ill have          as noted before the adjustment. It
to be adjusted in the field.                would be preferable if the adjust-
                                            ment or setting of the stop screw
l7ith the carburetor attached and           't7as made with the engine running,
the engine ready to run,     loosen         but this is not possible or advis-
the stop screw "A" until it does             able in many installations.
not contact the stop pin f'B" with
the throttle lever "c" at the full          Always take every precaution against
throttle position' as sho~m in Fig.         fire hazards when working around
69. In this position the cast lug           your fuel system. Be sure to dis-
on the throttle lever should touch          connect batteries; do not turn on
the stop pin. Now with the engine           flashlights,    operate   electric
running at full throttle,     close         switches or turn over the starter
the throttle very slowly and care-          or generator.

                                                 THROTTlE LEVER "C" IN
                                                FULL THROTTLE POSITION   ~_J

 Fig.68   Carburetor - Adjustoents           Fig.69        Carburetor - Adjustments
7. VALVE TAPPET ADJUSTIlENT                       plate.
a. Valve tappet adjustments ere to                (2) Loosen the screw (2) 17hich holds
be made with the piston on top dead               the clip (3) in the notcQes cut in
center of the compression stroke                  the gear case housing until the clip
with both valves closed.                          can be lif+-j out of the notch. See
                                                  Fig. 71.
b. Two t-YPBS of tappet adjust ing
screrls ar-e-used: one is of the self-             (3) Turn the gear case cover clock-
locking type and the other has a                  'r:ise one notch.
locking nut for holding the adjust-
ing screw in place. Before malring                                 CAUTION
the adjustment, this locking nut                        Overtightening may cause re-
~ust be    loosened and the adjusting                   verse gear drum to break when
nut held in place when it is re-                        shift lever is moved.
tightened after the adjustment is
co~pleted.    See Fig. 70.                        (4) Place the clip in the notch and
                                                  tighten screw.
                                                  (5) Repeat  the process until the
                                                  clutch does not slip under full
                                                  drive of the engine.
                                                  (6)  Replace          the       reversing    gear
                                                  cover plate.
                                                  b. neverse Drive Adjustoent
                                                  (1) TIeoove the reversing gear cover
 Fig.70    Valve Tappet - f...djustoent           (2) Remove cotter pin and slack off
                                                  adjusting nut (1). See Fig. 71.
(1) Bemove the valve cover plate on
the carburetor side of the engine.                (3) Full operating lever toward
Be careful not to damage the valve                reverse position until cam roll
plate gasl{et.                                    rests on cam at point (A), Fig. 72.
(2) Cran!r: the engine until the pis-             (4) Tighten adjusting nut until
ton is in the top dead center                     drum uill not revolve 'l,7ith the lever
posit ion.                                        in reverse position and the engine
                                                  at full pO't7er.
(3) Adjust the     tappets to        the
clearance shown in Table 7.                                        CAUTION
                                                        Do not adjust so tightly that
 (4) Replace the valve cover. If the                    the cam roll cannot ride out
 gasket is damaged, replace with a                      of the notch at point (C),
 neVl gaslcet us ing a good grade gasket                Fig. 72 ·
                                                  9. REVERSING GEAR ADJUSTI.1ENT,
8. REVERS H:rG GEAR ADJUST1.1ENT,                          Pf ... RAGOH 1,1J:.. NUAL I.IODEL
             JOBS I.1ODEL
                                                  a. Forward Drive Adjustment
c... Forl7C'ord dr i ve Adjustoent
                                                  (1) TIemove the reversing gear cover
(1)   ~emove   the reversing gear cover           plate.
(2) Back out lockscreu (1) until              to the reverse position.    See   Fig.
the end is free of the Detch cut              74 (A. and B).
in the adjusting collar. See Fig.
74 (A and B).                                 (4) Tighten the adjusting bolt (2)
                                              until the brake band prevents the
(3) Turn the adjusting collar clock-          gear case from revolving. Turn the
vise until the lockscreu is oppo-             adjusting bolt approxi@ately one-
site the next notch in the collar.            half turn past this point to com-
                                              pensate for Vlear on the brake band.
(4) Tighten the lockscrew being
sure that the end of the scrm.,               (5) Replace the locking wire on the
enters the notch in the collar.               adjusting bolt.

(5) Repeat the above process until            10. REVERSING GEAR ADJUSTLillNT,
the clutch does not slip with the                  IIYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
engine at full power.                         The hydraulic reversing gear is de-




Fig.71   Reverse Gear - Adjustment -               Fig.72     Reverse Gear - Cam
                 Joes Hodel                                 Adjustment - Joos Hodel

b. Reverse Drive Adjustment                   signed so that in normal service
                                              no adjustments are necessary. As
(1) Remove the reversing gear cover           the clutch plates near, ttie forvlard
plate.                                        piston compensates for this ,veal'
                                              by moving further foruard.    As the
(2) Remove the locking wire     from          brake band lining wears, the re-
the adjusting bolt.                           verse piston moves further dovlD to
                                              compensate fol' this 'wear.
(3) With the engine turning over
slowly, move the operating lever

II. STA-NU-TRAL l1ANUAL TRANSI.IlSSION           the reverse band evenly Gbout the
                                                 drurr. 1\'i th the reverse gear in the
The adjustments that follo~ for the              forward or neutral position the re-
Sta-~u-Tral   manual transmission
should be made periodically. They
are especially important 't7here re-
mote control type of eqniIrnent is
used for shifting and the operator
cannot feel the tension on the
Tee transmission is of the planetary
type , 'with which is incorporated a
multiple-disc clutch running in en-
gine oil. Tension of the reverse
lever "B",     Fig. 7), determines
vhether or not adjust~ent of the
clutch is required.
Adjustment of the clutch in for't'Jard
motion is as follows: Remove top
cover of    reverse gear housing.
Place shifting fork in the reverse
position and pullout spring-loaded
pin "A" in after plate of reverse
gear and clutch assembly.       This
plate is threaded i~to the reverse               Fig.7)     Sta-Ku-Tral - Reverse Gear
gear drum. Rotate the end plate in
a clocm7ise direction until pin                  verse band should be free of pres-
"A" seats itself in the next ad-                 sure contact 't",ith the drum, i.e.,
joining hole in the clutch plate.                you should be able to Uniggle" the
Try the shifting lever to see if                 band easily uith the fingers. If
desired result has been obtained.                the band is dragging against the
Repeat performance until     clutch              drum, it can be raised or 10TIered
adjustment is satisfactory.                      sli~htly by  adjusting the nuts on
                                                 the anchor bolt "H".
17hen adjusting clutch for reverse,
set reverse lever "B" in reverse                 12. OIL PRESSUTIE REGULATOR
positionc Slack off locknut "F"and                         ADJUSTIJEHT
adjust stop screw fiG" until reverse
lever remains in reverse position.               The oil pressure reguletor is set
1~'ben this result has been obtained,            at the factory for proper pressure
lock stop scre't7 17ith locknut. NOTE:           and further adjustlllent should ilot
This adjustment is made at the                   be necessary. £o~ever, if adjustment
factory and is rarely required in                should becoue necessary,   proceed
the field.                                       as follm'!fJ:
Next, nhile still holding; reverse               (l) nun    the   en~ine   until it       ~ms
lever in the     reverse position,               reached   oper~ting te~percture.
slack off locknut "c n and screu
dm1n on adjusting screu nDn until                (2) Loosen the p7essure £eGuletor
there is c 1/16" gap under '\,asher              locking nut. See Fie;. 75. Loc2.ted
"E". tben this edjustoent has been               inside oil p2D on si~ cylinder
made, tighten locknut "Cu.                       enGines. See FiGe 76.
Anchor bolt   "H"   is used to   center          ()} ilold the    locking nut   t:::!.'ld tUl'l1
                Fig. 7 L!-   Reverse Gear - Adjustr:Jent - Paragon
the pressure regulat ing scre'rl in            I) ·    SPARK PLUG   l.lA INTENANCE
or out until the proper pressure
sho-rm in Table 4 is reached.                   Spark plugs should be inspected
                                                and cleaned from time to time ano
(4) Hold the regulating screw in                the gap bet~'leen the electrodes se1
place uith a       screwdriver and              for proper     clearance.   Table Ie
ti 6 hten the locking nut.                      gives tIle proper size spark plug

                                                      CROW FOOT

Fig.75   Oil Fressure aegulator -
                                                              Oil Pressure negulator -
and gap setting for each engine                          (3) Check diaphragm return springs.
covered by these instructions.
                                                     (4) Check cam roll      and cam arm for
14. FUEL Pma' 1IA.INTENANCE                          worn parts.
         (See     Fig.77)
                                                     c. Replacement of Parts
a. DiE assembly
                                                     (1) Replace all parts '7hich are
(1) Disconnect fuel lines            and re-         damaged or show signs of wear.
move pump from engine.
                                                     (2) A special fuel pump repair kit
(2) Loosen nut holding bale                  to      is available from the Universal
sediment bowl and remove bowl.                       factory.
(3) Remove screen and gasket.                        d. Assembly
(4) Remove screws         holding     primer         (1) Put    diaphragm       assembly    in
to bottom of pump.                                   place on pump body.
(5) Remove      springs     and    retaining         (2) Insert pin securing       diaphragm
caps.                                                plunger to cam lever.
(6) Remove spring clips from pin,                        (3) Replace retaining clips on pin.
holding cam lever to diaphragm
plunger, and remove pin.                             (1I) Replace primer pump cover. Be
                                                     sure springs are in place and pro-
(7) Remove screws holding      pump                  perly seated on retaining plugs in
cover to pump body. Be careful not                   cover.
to damage diaphragm when separating                  (5) Replace pump cover. Tighten all
cover from pump body.                                screws evenly and check to be sure
                                                     diaphragm lies flat and smooth.
b. Inspect ion
                                                     (6) Replace screen,         gasket    and
(1) Inspect      screen for       tears     and      sediment bowl.
                                                     (7) Replace fuel pump on         engine
(2) Inspect diaphragm for            cracks,         and reconnect fuel lines.
breaks and punctures.
                                             Table 10
                                          SPARK PLUG DATA

                 ENGINE                NUMBER                  SIZE         GAP SETTING
      Blu e Jacket Tw in                  D-16M               18    rrun.      .025
      Atomic Four                         J-8                 14-   mm.        .035
      Utility :Four                       D-16M               18    rrun.      .030
      Unimite four                        J-8                 14    mm.        .035
      Super-Four                          D-16M               18    rrun.      .030
      Arrow                               ,J -7               14    mm.        .030
      Bluefin                             J-7                 14-   rrun.      .030
      Marlin                              J-7                 14-   rrun.      .030
      Tarpon                              J-7                 14    mm.        .030
      Knight                              J-7                 14    rrun.      .030
      Little King                         UJ-6M               14-   rrun.      .028
      Big King                            F-IIY               14    rrun.   .033 - .038



                                                            "'4---!-~ JfDIMEN!


                                   Fig.??      Fuel Fump

15.   n~INTENANCE   OF V-DRIVE UNITS           b. Lubrication

a. General                                     (1) The unit must be kept filled to
                                               the full mark on the bayonet sticko
(1) The Universal V-Drive unit is              Use a good grade EP-90 universal
incorporated into the Atomic, Uni-             gear lubricant.
mite, Bluefin and Knight models,
and is designed as an integral part                          CAUTION
of the engine. The unit is directly               New units shipped from the
coupled to the engine by a spline                 factory do not contain lubri-
shaft and coupling.                               cant. F-ill and check unit
                                                  carefully   lJefore  starting
(2) The V-Drive unit is a self-                   engine.
contained, non-adjustable, 'vater-
cooled unit. i7ater cooling is ac-             (2) After the first 50 hours of
complished by direct connection to             operation, drain unit and refill
the main water supply of the en-               to full mark on the bQyonet stick.
gine.                                          Clean magnetic drain plug before
(3) The unit requires no adjustment
and very little maintenance uith               (3) Change lubricant       every   500
the exception of proper lubrication            hours of operation.
and the maintenance of proper uater

                                                         engine l]C'.,intenance. The kit con-
A factory pack~ged repair       parts                    tains parts most likely to require
!cit is C1vailable for all models of                     replaceoent through normal engine
engines covered by these instruc-                        operction. .c:ach part is carefully
tions. Parts included in the kit                         ':Tapped L. d 17aterproof ,n'apping
have been selected by the Universal                      and packed in a convenient size
:i:.lot or Company Service Department                    oetel box deSigned for lasting
based on years of experience in                          storage.

                                    SECTION VII
                                 TROUBLE SHOOTING

Any gasoline engine depends upon                         to help the operator locate and
three   main factors       for proper                    overcome some of the most probable
operation: an unfailing fuel sup-                        causes of engine failure or im-
ply, uninterrupted ignition, and                         proper operation. In Table 6 "Pro-
good compress ion. ,".llen anyone of                     bable Causes"are listed in the most
these is not present or present                          likely order of occurrence. Only
only intermittently, engine failure                      one correction should be attcopted
will result. The following "trouble                      at a tiDe and that possibility eliUl-
shooting" information is designed                        inated before going on to the next.

                                               Table 6
                              TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES

 Trouble                     Probable Cause                  Correction
 Starter will not crank      Discharged battery              Charge or replace battery
                             Corroded battery terminals      Clean terminals
                             Loose connection in starting    Check and tighten all connections
                             Defective starting switch       Replace switch
                             Starter motor brushes dirty     Clean or replace brushes. See Par. 4,
                             or worn                         Sec. VI.
                             Jammed Bendix gear              Loosen starter motor to free ge,ar
                             Defective starter motor         Replace motor
 Starter motor turns but     Partially discharged battery    Charge or replace battery
   does not crank engine
                             Defective wiring or wiring      Check wiring for worn or acid eaten
                             of too low capacity             spots. See Table ), Sec. I for proper
                                                             size wire.
                             Broken Bendix drive             Remove starter motor and repair drive.
                                                             See Par. 4, Sec. VI.
 Engine will not start       Empty fuel tank                 Fill tank with proper fuel. See Table
   (Defective fuel system)                                   5 for fuel oil models
                             Flooded engine                  Remove spark plugs and crank engine
                                                             several times. Replace plugs.

                                                       Table G
                                             TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
.-------------r-----------------,--- .-- ---- -----------.-----.---.-- ----- ----
                                                     ____________                   -.-L
                                                                  ~ .;1) r_r~:,·' i II                              /J

 Engine will not start            Water in fuel system                                     T f II II t I '      r        I'          "",           I,      . 1< ' ,tt I t it II k ,      !    lIt"   i
   (Defective fuel system)                                                                 lilj(·...; dnd                 "l;·~'~.                  l~·r.           1<£:fi11             II   i t It
           (Cont. )                                                                        pr IJI",r ,"I' ,.

                                  Inoperative or             stickin~                      t'lu'("J..:     \~t      1\1',            J lrd..:a:...:."/·,        dTlII     ('ilok('            !'[)d       (lj

                                  choke valve                                              cabl(:          1'1')1'        !1J'1)}Wr                0IH:fit      t   itlll.

                                  Improperly adjusted carbure-                             Ad,ju"t              CaI'IJIIJ'LtlJ.I.'.
                                  tor                                                      n.
                                  Clogged fuel lines or de-                                1l1""UIJlW('t 1'11<:[ lill" 'It ("Il'/)'U",ld.
                                  fective fuel pump                                        II' fuel ,park ,,1101Ild jump between wire and   !
                                  (Battery in good condition)                              block when engine is cranked. Clean and I
                                     (Timer models only)                                   "et timer points. If srark still is not I'
                                                                                           present when engine is cranked, replace
                                                                                           coil.                                    I
                                  Improper timing                                          Check anc1 set timing. See Par. 1, Sec.
                                                                                           VI for electrical ignition models, Pal'.
                                                                                           5, Sec. VI for magneto models.                                                                                        i


                                          Table 6
                                TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
                                          (Cont. )
Trouble                   Probable Cause                 Correction
Engine will not start     Air leak around intake mani-   Check for leak by squirting oil around
  (Poor compression and   fold                           intake connections. If leak is found,
      otber causes)                                      tighten manifold and if necessary re-
                                                         place g~. __ :~cts.
                          Loose spark plugs              Check all plugs for proper seating, gas-
                                                         ket and tightness. Replace all damaged
                                                         plugs and gaskets.
                          Loosely seating valves         Check for broken or weak valve springs,
                                                         warped stems, carbon and gum deposits,
                                                         and insufficient tappet clearance. See
                                                         Par. 7, Sec. VI.
                          Damaged cylinder head gasket   Check for leaks around gasket when en-
                                                         gine is cranked. If a leak is found,
                                                         replace gasket.
                          Worn or broken piston rings    Replace broken and worn rings. Check
                          or damaged cylinder walls      cylinders for "out of round" and "taper"
Excessive engine tem-     No water circulation           Check for clogged water lines and re-
  perature                                               stricted inlets and outlets. Check for
                                                         broken or stuck thermostat. Look for
                                                         worn or damaged water pump or water
                                                         pump drive.
Engine temperature too    Broken or stuck thermostat     Replace thermostat
No oil pressure           Defective gauge or tube        Replace gauge or tube
                          No oil in engine               Refill with proper grade oil.     See
                                                         Table 4.
                          Dirt in pressure relief        Clean valve
                          Defective oil pump, leak       Check oil pump and oil pump drive for
                          in oil lines or broken oil     worn or broken parts. Tighten all oil
                          pump drive                     line connections.
Low oil pressure          Too light body oil             Replace with proper weight oil.     See
                                                         Table 4.
                          Oil leak in pressure line      Inspect all oil lines.   Tighten all
                          Weak or broken pressure re-    Replace spring.
                          lief valve spring
                          Worn oil pump                  Replace pump
                          Worn or loose bearings         Replace bearings
Oil pressure too high     Too heavy body oil             Drain oil and replace with oil of
                                                         proper weight. See Table 4.
                          Stuck pressure relief valve    Clean or replace valve
                          Dirt or obstruction in lines   Drain and clean oil system. Check for
                                                         bent or flattened oil lines and re-
                                                         place where necessary.

                                         Table 6
                               TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
                                         (Cont. )
Trouble                 Probable Cause                  Correction
Sludge in oil           Infrequent oil changes          Drain and refill with proper weight oil
                        Water in oil                    Drain and refill. If trouble persists,
                                                        check for cracked block, defective head
                                                        gasket and cracked head
                        Dirty oil filter                Replace filter
Loss of RPM             Obstructed fuel line, air       Correction of these difficulties is
  (Engine)              leak in fuel line,dirty fil-    covered under "Engine will not start"
                        ter or air cleaner,defective    portions of this table
                        fuel pump or carburetor out
                        of adjustment
                        Fouled or broken spark          Correction of these difficulties is
                        plugs,distributor points out    covered under "Engine will not start"
                        of adjustment, or incorrect     portions of this table
                        Valve tappets out of adjust-    Correction of these difficulties is
                        ment,warped or burned valves, covered under "Engin~ will not start"
                        worn piston rings,too heavy     portions of this table
                        lubricating oil or leaking
                        cylinder head gasket
Loss of RPM             Damaged propeller
  (Boat or associated   Bent rudder
     equipment)         Misalignment
                        Too tight stuffing box pack-
                           ing gland
                        Dirty boat bottom
Vibration               Misfiring or pre-ignition       See correction under misfiring and pre-
                        Loose foundation or founda-
                           tion bolts
                        Propeller shaft out of line
                           or bent
                        Propeller bent or pitch out
                           of true
Pre-ignit ion           Defective spark plugs           Check all spark plugs for broken por-
                                                        celain, burned electrodes or electrodes
                                                        out of adjustment. Replace all defec-
                                                        tive plugs or clean and reset.
                        Improper timing                 See Par. 1, 2 and 5, Sec. VI.
                        Engine carbon                   Remove cylinder head and clean out
                        Engine overheating              See correction under "Engine Overheating"
                                                        portion of this table.
Misfiring               Defective spark plugs, im-     See correction under "Engine will not
                        properly adjusted distribu-    start" portions of this table
                        tor pOints, or defective
Backfiring              Insufficient fuel reaching     See correction under "Engine will not
                        engine due to dirty lines,     start" portions of this table.
                        strainer or blocked fuel
                        tank vent. Water in fuel.
                        Poorly adjusted distributor    See correction under "Engine will not
                                                       start" port ions of this table.

                              SECT ION V III
1. MAJOR REPAIRS                               (3) Method of shipment desired:
                                               parcel post, express, truck, or
a. It is not recommended that the              rail freight. If freight shipment
operator perform any repairs more              is desired, give name of truck
complex than those covered under               line or railroad and specify
the maintenance section of this in-            closest freight station.
struction book.    If repairs of a
major nature should become neces-         2. CONCLUSION
sary, the engine should be serviced       a. OUr interest in you does not
by an authorized Universal dealer         diminish after you have purchased
or shipped direct to the Universal        our product. Our claims will al-
factory. However, should the opera-       ways be made good.      l~re agree  to
tor prefer to make his own repairs,       give you    satisfactory       service
Tables 7 througb   9 list    proper       within the limits of our specifica-
clearances and torque wrench set-         tions and are ready at all times
tings for all models covered by           to assist you in obtaining satis-
these instructions as an aid in           faction.   Do not hesitate to come
making these repairs.                     to us if you feel that we can be
                                          of any assistance.   Your inquiries
b. Only genuine Universal parts,          will be promptly answered and you
specially designed for marine en-         will be advised with care in a
gines,   should be used.       Repair     manner easily understood. ile want
parts for all models of Universal         every UNIVERSAL owner to be a living,
engines up to 21 years old are            talking advertisement and a friend.
available for immediate shipment
from Universal dealers or directly        b. We feel that you are willing to
from the Universal factory. l'lhen        do your part and that you will use
ordering parts it is essent ial that      care and judgment in the running
the following information be in-          of your engine. Do not expect the
cluded with the order.                    impossible, and remember that by
                                          using good quality lubricants, by
  (1) Model and    serial number of       careful attention to detect the
  the engine.                             first sign of trouble, and by prompt
                                          correction of troubles as they oc-
  (2) Part number or full descrip-        cur, the length of life and useful-
  tion and sketch of part.                ness of your engine will be greatly
                           CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL SIZE

     MODEL                      MAIN BFARING                      CONNECTING ROD

Blue Jacket Twin            1.748 +.000/-.001                 1.748 +.000/-.001
Atomic Four                 1.9880 +.0005/-.0000              1.5625 +.0000/-.0005
Utility Four                1.498 - 1.497                     1.498 - 1.499
Super Four                  1.9985 +.0005/-.0005              1.9985 +.0005/-.0005
Unimite Four                1. 988 - 1. 987                   1. 7 48 - 1. 7 47
Arrow                       2 .L~98 - 2.4·97                  1.988 - 1.987
Bluefin                     2.498 - 2.497                     1.988 - 1.987
Marlin                      2.498 - 2.497                     1.988 - 1.987
Tarpon                      2.498 - 2.497                     1.988 - 1.987
Knight                      2.498 - 2.497                     1.988 - 1.987
Little King                 2.2978 - 2.2988                   1.999 - 2.000
Big King                    2.899 - 2.900                     2.599 - 2.600

                                                       Table 7
                                                VALVE AND PISTON DATA
MODEL                 PISTON               PISTON              VALVE SEAT VALVE TAPPET                            VALVE STEM
NAME                 CLEARANCE              RING                 ANGl.E    CLEARANCE                          CLEARANCE IN GUIDE
                                            GAP                INTAKE AND     (!C I,D
                                                                 EXHAUST INT.         EXH.                  INTAKE            EXHAUST
Blue Jacket Twin        .0015"          .009    -    .014"      45 0              .008" .010"       .0015     - .002"     .0015         -   .002"
Atomic Four
Utility Four
                        .0015"          .007    -    .015"      45 0              .008" .010"       .001      - .0015"    ·. 0015       -   .0025"
                        .002"           .008    -    .013"      45 0              .006" .008"       .0015     - .002"     .0015         -   .002"
Super-Four              .0015"          .010    -    .015"      45 0              .010" .012"       .0015     - .002"     .0015         -   .002"
Unimite Four            .003"           .015    -    .020"      30 0              .010" .010"       .001      - .0015"    .0025         -   .003"
Arrow              .0025 - .003"        .015    -    .020"      30 0              .010" .014"       .0025     - .003"     .0025         -   .003"
Bluefin            .0025 - .003"        .015    -    .020"      30 0              .010" .014"       .0025     - .003"     .0025         -   .003"
                   .004    -.0045"
                   .004 - .0045"
                                                                30 0
                                                                30 0
                                                                                  .012" .016"
                                                                                  .012" .016"
                                                                                                              - .003"
                                                                                                              - .003"
Little King
                   .005    -.0055"
                   .0006 - .001"
                                                                30 0
                                                                46 0
                                                                                  .012" .018"       .0025
                                                                                                              - .003"
                                                                                                              - .0027"
Big King           .0011 - .0029"       · 015   -    .025"      30 0 Int ·
                                                                45 0 Exh.
                                                                                                    .001      - .0024"
                                                                                                                          .001          - .0024"

                                                       Table 8
                                                TORQUE WRENCH TENSION
                                                   In Foot/Pounds
MODEL              CYLINDER HEAD         CONNECl'ING ROD             MAIN BEARINGS           MAIN BEAR INGS          MANIFOLD               SPARK
NAME               BOLTS OR NUTS             NUTS                    FRONT & INTER.          CENTER & REAR            STUDS                 PLUGS
Blue Jacket Twin               40                    40                           60                 60                  35                  35
Atomic Four                                                                       60                 60
                                                     33                                                                  35                  30
Ut ility Four                                        25                           60                 60                  40                  35
Super-Four                55                         50                          100                100                  45                  35
Unimi te Four             40                         42                          77                     77               35                  30
Arrow                     60                         39                        70                    60                                      30
Bluefin                   60                         39                        70                    60                                      30
Marlin                    65                         56                        70                    60                                      30
Tarpon                    65                         56                        70                    60                                      30
Knight                    65                         56                        70                    60                                      30
Little King               65                         33                        65                    65                30                    23
Big King                95-105                      45:"'50                  95-105                95-105             23-28                 15:"20

                                                           Table 9
                                                         BEARING DATA
NAME                 CLEARANCE             END PLAY                   BEARING                 CLEARANCE AT       CLEARANCE
                     (Diameter)                                      CLEARANCE               THRUST BEARING       (Diameter)
Blue Jacket Twin   .0015   -    .0025      .002      -   .003     .0015      -    .0025          .002   -    .003        .0025      -       .003
Atomic Four        .001    -    .0025      .004      -   .008     .001       -    .0025          .002   -    .003        .002       -       .0025
Utility Four       .0015   -    .0025      .002      -   .003     .0015      -    .002           .002   -    .003        .0025      -       .003
Super-Four         .002    -    .003       .002      -   .003     .002       -    .003           .003   -    .004        .0025      -       .003
Unimite Four       .001    -    .0015      .005      -   .010     .002       -    .0025          .002   -    .004        .0015      -       .0025
Arrow              .0015   -    .002       .005      -   .010     .0015      -    .003           .002   -    .004        .0015      -       .0025
Bluefin            .0015   -    .002       .005      -   .010     .0015      -    .003           .002   -    .004        .0015      -       .0025
Marlin             .002    -    .0025      .005      -   .010     .0015      -    .003           .002   -    .004        .0015      -       .0025
Tarpon             .002    -    .0025      .005      -   .010     .0015      -    .003           .002   -    .004        .0015      -       .0025
Knight             .0025   - .Ooa          .005      -   .010     .0015      -    .003           .002   -    .004        .0015      -       .0025
L1 tt Ie King
Big King
                           - .00
                           - .0026
                                        2 ).008

                                                            Table 11
                                                          VALVE TIMING
MODEL                       INLET VALVE                       INLET VALVE                 EXHAUST VALVE                   EXHAUST VALVE
NAME                           OPENS                            CLOSES                        OPENS                           CLOSES
Blue Jacket Twin           50 after TDC         45 0 after LDC                            40 0   before      LDC                    TDC
Atomic Four                   before TDC         oo after LDC                                    before      LDC          10 0 after TDC
Utility Four
                           5° after TDC                   a
                                                 50 after LDC
                                                                                          40 0
                                                                                          50 0
Super-Four                 50 after TDC         55° after LDC
Unimite Four               50 before TDC        55 0 after LDC                            45 0   before      LDC          15°    after         TDC
Arrow                      50 before TDC        55° after LDC                             45°    before      LDC          15°    after         TDC
Bluefin                    5° before TDC        55° after LDC                             45 0   before      LDC          15°    after         TDC
Marlin                     50 before TDC        55° after LDC                             45°    before      LDC          15°    after         TDC
Tarpon                     50 before TDC        55° after LDC                             45°    before      LDC          15°    after         TDC
Knight                     50 before l'DC       55° after LDC                             45°    before      LDC          15°    after         TDC
                           TDC means TOP DEAD CENTER
                           LDC means LOWER DEAD CENrER
                           See Table 7 for Valve Tappet Clearance
                           SECTION IX

Aligning the Engine                           8

Bearing Data (Table 9)                       65
Break-in                                     34

Carburetor Maintenance                      50

Cold Weather - Operation                     37
Cooling Sy stem                              41
Cooling Water System - Installation of        9

Crankshaft Data                              64

Distributor Maintenance                      45

Electrical System - Installation of         12

Engine Identification                         2

Engine Models - General Data (Table 1)        3

Engine Rotation                               2

Engine Stringers & Beds - Installation of     7

Exhaust Piping - Installation of              9

Fifty Hour Check                            44

Finishing Engine Installation               12

Firing Order (Table 5)                      36

Fuel Pump Maintenance                       58

Fuel System - Installation                  11

Fuel System - Theory of                     40

Generator Maintenance                       47

Ignition System - Theory of                 38

Installation Data (Table 2)                 16

Installation - Preparation for                4

INDEX (Cont.)                                 Page
Instrument Panels                              17
Introduction                                    1

Lubrication Chart (Table 4)                    35
lubrication System                             39
Magneto Maintenance                           49
Major Repairs                                  64
Oil Pressure Regulator Adjustment             56
Once a Season Check                            44
One Hundred Hour Check                         44
One Hundred Fifty Hour Check                   44
Periodic Service - General                     43
Preliminary Checks - Operation                 33
Pre-Operational Cbeck                         43
Preparation for Shipment - Factory              1

Preparation for Storage                       37
Propeller Shaft - Installation of              5
Reduction Gears - Theory of Operation         42
Repair Parts Kits                              60
Repolarizing Generator (Fig. 22)              20
Reverse Gear Adjustment - Joes                54
Reverse Gear Adjustment - Paragon Hydraulic   55
Reverse Gear Adjustment - Paragon Manual      54
Reverse Gear Operation - Hydraulic            36
Reverse Gear Operation - Manual               36
Reverse Gears - Theory of Operation           41
Scale Drawings - Engines                      21
Spark Plug Data (Table 10)                    58

INDEX (Cont.)

Spark Plug Maintenance                                  57
Special Equipment                                       16

Sta-Nu-Tral Manual Gear                                 56

Starter Maintenance                                     48

Starting - Electric Ignition Models                     33

Starting - Fuel Oil and Kerosene Models                 34

Starting - Magneto Models                               34

Stopping Engine                                         34

Theory of Operation                                     38

Thermostat & By-Pass Valve - Installation of            10

Three Thousand Hour Check                               45

Timing Procedure - Ignition                             46

Torque Wrench Tensions (Table 8)                        65

Treatment of Engine on Arrival                           1

Trouble Shooting                                        60

Twice a Season Check                                    44

V-Drive Installation                                    13

V-Drive Unit - Maintenance                              59

Valve and Piston Data (Table 7)                         65

Valve Tappet Adjustment                                 54

Valve Timing (Table 11)                                 65

Wire Sizes - Electrical System (Table 3)                17

Wiring Diagram - 5-unit Panel (Fig. 20)                 18

Wiring Diagram - 3-unit Panel (Fig. 20-A)               18

Wiring Diagram - 60 Ampere Alternator (Fig. 21)         19

Wiring Diagram - 12 Volt Generator (Fig. 21-A)          19

Wiring Diagram - 12 Volt Shunt Generator Standard and
                 24 Amp. (Fig. 22)                      20


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