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Universal Atomic 4 Operator's Manual




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ATOMIC 4
OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
PART NUMBER
WESTERBEKE
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319
ATOMIC 4
OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
PART NUMBER
WESTERBEKE
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319
INSTALLATION OPERATION
MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS
UNIVERSAL
MARINE ENGINES
BLUE JACKET TWIN ATOMIC FOUR UTILITY FOUR SUPERFOUR
UNIMITE FOUR ARROW SIX BLUEFIN SIX MARLIN SIX
TARPON SIX KNIGHT SIX LITTLE KING V8 and
BIG KING V8 MODELS
MARINE ENGINE WARRANTS ALL PRODUCTS AND PARTS OF ITS O MANUFACTURE IN MATERIAL OR WORKMANSHIP FOR A PERIOD OF ONE 1 YEAR FROM
DATE OF SHIPMENT WHEN GIVEN NORMAL AND PROPER USAGE AS DETERMINED BY
SELLER UPON EXAMINATION AND WHEN OWNED BY THE ORIGINAL PURCHASED BY SELLER AS COMPLETE UNITS AND USED AS AN INTEGRAL
PART OF SELLERS EQUIPMENT WILL BE COVERED BY THE STANDARD WARRANTY OF
THE MANUFACTURE THEREOF SELLER WILL REPAIR OR REPLACE FOB POINT BUT NOT INSTALL ANY PART OR PARTS OF ITS IN ITS JUDGMENT SHALL DISCLOSE DEFECTS IN
EITHER MATERIAL IF REQUESTED BY SELLER PARTS FOR WHICH A WARRANTY CLAIM
IS MADE ARE TO BE RETURNED PREPAID TO OUR FACTORY
THIS WARRANTY BECOMES VOID IF ARTICLE CLAIMED TO BE DEFECTIVE HAS BEEN
REPAIRED OR ALTERED IN ANY WAY OR WHEN THE ARTICLE HAS BEEN SUBJECT
TO MISUSE NEGLIGENCE OR ACCIDENT OR WHEN INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLING
OR OPERATING HAS BEEN DISREGARDED WE MAKE NO OTHER WARRANTY EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED AND MAKE NO WARRANTY OF OR OF FITNESS FOR
ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES WHICH EXTEND BEYOND
THE DESCRIPTION ON THE FACE HEREOF NO EMPLOYEE OR IS
AUTHORIZED TO CHANGE THIS WARRANTY IN ANY WAY OR GRANT ANY OTHER WARRANTY
THE REMEDIES HEREINABOVE AFFORDED TO THE PURCHASER ARE EXCLUSIVE OF
ALL OTHER REMEDIES PROVIDED BY LAW SELLER SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR
INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHERE THE LOSS SUSTAINED IS OF A
COMMERCIAL MANUFACTURER RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MAKE PRODUCT IMPROVEMENTS AT ANY
TIME WITHOUT TAKING OR OBLIGATION TO MAKE SIMILAR CHANGES
OR ADD SIMILAR IMPROVEMENTS ON ANY ENGINES DELIVERED PRIOR TO WITH EACH ENGINE IS A WARRANTY REGISTRATION CARD THIS CARD
MUST CONTAIN THE OWNERS NAME ADDRESS SERIAL NUMBER OF THE AND REVERSE GEARS AND RETURNED TO MEDALIST BEFORE THE EFFECTIVE THIS WARRANTY REGISTRATION
MUST TAKE PLACE WITHIN
24 HOURS AFTER RECEIPT OF THE FOLLOWING SERVICES AND EQUIPMENTS WILL NOT BE REIMBURSED UNDER
THE WARRANTY
1 REPAIRS DUE TO NEGLECT MISUSE IMPROPER APPLICATION ACCIDENT
RACING AND INSTALLATIONS THAT DO NOT MEET MINIMUM STANDARDS AS
SET FORTH IN THE INSTRUCTION MANUAL
2 TUNEUP OR ADJUSTMENT EXPENSES NEEDED FOR CLEANING OF FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS DUE TO 3 DAMAGE OR LOSS TO PERSONAL PROPERTY LOSS OF REVENUE TOWING
CHARGES STORAGE FEES FUEL AND TELEPHONE CALLS
4 DAMAGES OR LOSSES RELATED TO HANDLING AND SHIPPING
5 EXPENSES RELATED TO REPLACEMENT OF LUBRICANTS ANTIFREEZE OR
SPECIAL ADDITIVES
6 FAILURE DUE TO NOT FOLLOWING RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
7 ALL CHPGES WILL BE THE OBLIGATION OF THE OWNER
SUCH AS FREIGHT TRAVEL TIME AND TOLLS
8 WARRANTY ITEMS RETURNED TO THE FACTORY COLLECT WILL BE BILLED TO
THE AUTHORIZATION IS REQUIRED FROM THE FACTORY ERE COMPLETE REPLACE
MENT OR OVERHAULING OF THE FOLLOWING IS NECESSARY
1 COMPLETE ENGINE ASSEMBLY
2 CYLINDER HEADS OR ENGINE BLOCK
3 IINE REVERSE GEAR OR VDRIVE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION I
GENERAL Title
1 Introduction 1
2 Factory Preparation for Shipment 1
3 Treatment of Engine on Arrival 1
4 Engine Rotation 2
5 Engine 2
SECTION II
INSTALLATION
1 Preparation for Installation 4
2 Installing the Propeller Shaft 5
3 Installing Engine Stringers and Beds 7
4 Aligning the Engine 8
5 Exhaust Piping 9
6 Cooling Water System 9
7 Thrmostat and ByPass Valve 10
8 Fuel System 11
9 Electrical System 12
10 Finishing the Job 12
11 VDrive Installation 13
12 Special Equipment 16
13 Engine Scale Drawings 21
SECTION III
OPERATION
1 Preliminary Checks 33
2 Starting Electric Starting Models 33
TABLE OF CONTENTS Title
3 Stopping Engine
4 BreakIn
5 Starting Magneto Models
6 Starting FUel OilKerosene Models 34
7 Operation of Standard Reversing Gear 36
8 Operation of Hydraulic Reversing Gear 6
9 Cold Weather Operation J7
10 Preparing Engine for Storage 37
SECTION IV
THEORY OF OPERATION
1 General Theory of Operation 38
2 Theory of Ignition Systems 38
3 Lubrication System 39
4 Fuel System
5 Cooling System 41
6 Reversing Gears 41
7 Reduction Gears 42
SECTION V
PERIODIC SERVICE
1 General 43
2 Check 43
3 Fifty Hour Cbeck 44
4 One HUndred Hour Check 44
5 One Hundred Fifty Hour Cbeck 44
6 Twice a Season Cbeck 44
7 Once a Season Check 44
8 Three Thousand Hour Check 45
TABLE OF CONTENTS Cont
SECTION VI
Title Page
1 Distributor Maintenance 45
2 Timing Procedure 46
3 General Maintenance 47
4 starter Maintenance 48
5 Magneto Maintenance 49
6 Carburetor mintenance 50
7 Valve appet Adjustment 54
8 Reversing Gear Adjustment Joes Models 54
9 Reversing Gear Adjustment Paragon Manual 54
10 Reversing Gear Adjustment Paragon Hydraulic 55
11 StaNuTral Manual Transmission 56
12 Oil Pressure Regulator Adjustment 56
13 Spark Plug Maintenance 57
14 Fuel Pump Maintenance 58
15 Maintenance of VDrive Units 59
16 Repair Parts Kit 60
SECTION VII
TROUBLE SHOOTING
Trouble Shooting Procedures 60
SECTION VIII
REPAIR
1 Major Repairs 64
2 Conclusion 64
SECTION IX
INDEX
Index
LIST OF Description Page
1 Location of Underwater Gear 4
2 Method of Locating Shaft Hole 5
3 Shaft Log 5
4 Method of Drilling Shaft Hole 6
5 Photo of Drilling Operation 6
6 Photo of Engine Stringers 7
7 Engine Bed Construction 7
8 Photo of Exhaust Piping 9
9 Method of Cooling Water Discharge 9
10 Suggested Battery Installation 9
11 Methods of Engine Temperature Control 10
12 Typical Shaft Location 13
13 Wedge Sizes 13
14 Drill Block Details 14
15 Typical Bed Stringer and Steering SetUp 14
16 Typical VDrive Layout 15
17 Photo of Typical VDrive Installation 15
18 Photo of 3Unit Instrument Panel 17
19 5Unit Instrument Panel 17
20 Wiring Diagram 3Unit Panel 18
21 Wiring Diagram 5Unit fanel 19
22 Wiring Diagram Std 12 Volt and 12 Volt 24 Amp 20
23 59 Installation Drawings 21 32
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Distributor Body 45
61 Sanding Distributor Brushes 47
62 Bendix Drive 49
63 Magneto American Bosch 49
64 Magneto 50
65 Carburetor 63M and 263M Series 52
66 Carburetor 61M Series 52
68 Carburetor Adjustments 53
69 Carburetor Adjustments 53
70 Valve Tappet Adjustment 54
71 Reverse Gear Adjustment Joes Model 55
72 Reverse Gear Cam Adjustment Joes Model 55
73 StaNuTral Reverse Gear 56
74 Reverse Gear Adjustment Paragon 57
75 Oil Pressure Regulator Adjustment 57
76 Oil Pressure Regulator Adjustment 57
77 Fuel Pump 59
LI ST OF Description
1 General Engine Data 3
2 Installation Data 16
3 Electric System Wire Sizes 17
4 Lubrication Requirement Data 35
5 Fuel Oil 36
6 Trouble Shooting Procedures 60
7 Valve and Piston Data 65
8 Torque Vrench Tensions 65
9 Bearing Data 65
10 Spark Plug Data 58
11 Valve Timing 65
SECT ION I
GENERAL INTRODUCTION d Every modern facility is employed
in building these marine engines
This instruction book gives general Yet metals will wear and as for the installation goes on certain adjustments and maintenance of
all cur be necessary It is tberefore the
rent production models of UNIVERSAL purpose of this book to show you the
and former NORSEMAll models listed on wby and bow of operation and
title page Instructions througbout maintenance A reasonable amount of
the book generally pertain to all of care will assure your complete sa
the models listed When specific occur the model or mo
dels to which the instructions per 2 FACTORY PREPARATION FOR will be referred to directly
a Each Universal built engine is
a Marine engine requirements differ run on its own power from idle from those of the automo to full throttle Each is checked
bile This fact was recognized as for oil leaks water leaks oil
far back as 1898 when the founders pressure and all otber conditions
of the Universal Motor Company con which will assure the engine opera
ceived and built the first 100 ting when engine Through tbe years as All adjustments are made during test
model after model was designed ex and are undisturbed when the for marine service im is and refinements bave added Today
Universal b Runin lubricating oil is drained
is tbe worlds largest builder of from the oil pan all openings sealed
100 Mar ine Engines and the engine painted with special
marine paint
b To provide for the more that mar ine engines encounter c Special rust preventive oil
in use Universal has pioneered many drawn into the engine through These include larger spark plug openings gives a rust
water jackets with water supplied resisting coating to valves pistons
to all cylinders in equal quantities and cylinder walls This prevents
and at even temperature water jacket corrosion within the engine plate corros ionres istant shipment and builtin not attached re
verse and reduction gears oil d Heavy frame shipping skids and
coolers and geartype water pumps crates insure the customer receiving
of noncorroding construction the engine in excellent condition
and ready for installation and
c Universal engines have many ex features not found in other
marine engines features you will 3 TREATMENT OF ENGINE ON ARRIVAL
come to appreciate more and more as
you become familiar and experienced Before installing a new engine
wi th your Universal Each one is de make a complete inspection of the
signed to assure long dependable engine for damaged or loose parts
and economical service afloat New gaskets tend to compress so it
is wise to check all accessible
1 nuts and bolts for tigbtness The
is wise to check all accessible use left hand propellers Opposite
nuts and bolts for tightness The rotation engines are available in
various tags and decals attached to all of the six and eight cylinder
the engine contain important informa series and in every case utilize a
t ion which should be carefully noted left hand propeller
4 ENGINE ROTATION 5 ENGINE designated as standard Each engine bears a name use a right hand propeller
indicating the engine model desig
in all types and gear ratios with nation and the individual engines
only two exceptions and these are serial number The combination of
the reduction gear models of the the model designation and the ser
Utility Four and SuperFour series ial number constitutes two models utilize external of the engine It
type reduction gears which change is therefore very essential that
the rotation and they therefore you use this every
time you request information about
your engine or order parts
Table 1
GENERAL DATA
No Piston Max Reduction Standard
of Disp Engine Gear Propeller Reversing Standard Standard
Model HP Cyl Bore Stroke Cu In RPM Ratie Rotat ion Gea1 Ignition Coupling
Blue Jacket Twil AFT 12 2 3 312 495 2200 RH Manual Magneto 78
AFTL 12 2 3 312 495 2200 RH Manual 6 V Elec 78
Atomic Four UJ 30 4 2916 318 646 3500 RH
Manual
Manual
6 V Elec
6 V Elec
UJR 30 4 2916 318 6446 3500 21 118
UJVD 30 4 2916 318 6446 3500 1 1 129 1 ilH Manual 6 V Elec 78 1
r 1 67 12 1
Ut i l i ty Four BN 25 4 234 4 95 2200 RH Manual 6 V Elec 78
BNM 25 4 23 4 4 95 2200
2281
Manual
Manual
Magneto
6 V Elec
BNR 25 4 23 4 4 95 2200
BNMR 25 4 234 4 95 2200 2281 LH Manual Magneto Four HF 70 4
314 414 141 3500 RH
Manual
Manual
6 V Elec
6 V Elec
11411
HFR 70 4 314 414 141 3500 21
HFVD 70 1 314 414 141 3500 111291 RH Manual 6 V Elec 78 1
LSG 55 4 314 412 1493 3000 RH
Manual
Manual
6 V Elec
6 V Elec
LSGR 55 4 31411 412 1493 3000 2281 138
Arrow 230 100 6 3716 418 230 3200
1881
Manual
Manual
Elec
Elee
231 100 6 3716 418 230 3200
232 100 6 3716 418 230 3200 2441 RH Manual 12 V Elee 114
233 100 6 3716 418 230 3200 3321 RH Manual 12 V Elee 138
234 100 6 3716 418 230 3200 412 1 RH Manual 12 V Elee SY230
SY231
3716 418 230
3716 418 230
3500
3500
15 1
Manual
Manual
Elee
Elee
SY232 113 6 3716 418 230 3500 21 RH Manual 12 V Elec 1114
SY230P
SY231P
3716 418 230
3716 418 230
3500
3500
Hydraulic
Hydraulic
Elec
Elec
SY232P 113 6 3716 418 230 3500 21 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elec 114
VSY230P 113 6 3716 418 230 3500 11151 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elee 1 to 114
Marlin 320 110 6 4 414 320 2500 RH
Manual
Manual
Elec
Elee
321 110 6 4 414 320 2500 1881 114
322 110 6 4 414 320 2500 2441 RH Manual 12 V Elec 138
323 110 6 4 414 320 2500 3321 RH Manual 12 V Elec 134
324 110 6 4 414 320 2500 4121 RH Manual 12 V Elec 2
Tarpon Y330 140 6 4 414 320 3000 RH Manual 12 V Elee 118
Y330P 140 6 4 414 320 3000 RH
Hydraulic
Hydraulic
Elec
Elee
Y331P 140 6 4 414 320 3000 15 1
Y332P 140 6 4 414 320 3000 21 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elee 138
Y333P 140 6 4 414 320 3000 25 1 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elec 112
3000
3000
188 1
Manual
Manual
Elee
Elec
332 140 6 4 414 320 3000 2441 RH Manual 12 V Elec 112
333 140 6 4 414 320 3000 3321 RH Manual 12 V Elee 13 4
334 140 6 4 414 320 3000 412 1 RH Manual 12 V Elee 2
Knight Y350
Y350P
412 340
412 340
3300
3300
Manual
Hydraulic
Elec
Elec
Y351P 165 6 4 412 340 3300 151 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elce 112
Y352P 165 6 4 412 340 3300 21 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elec 112
Y353P 165 6 4 412 340 3300 251 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elec 134
350 165 6 4 412 340 3300 RH Manual 12 V Elec 114
351 165 6 4 412 340 3300 1881 RH Manual 12 V Elee 112
352 165 6 4 412 340 3300 2441 RH Manual 12 V Elee 13 4
353 165 6 4 412 340 3300 3321 RH Manual 12 V Elec 2
354 165 6 4 412 340 3300 4121 RH Manual 12 V Elec 214
Little King LEV 188
378 3 283 4000
4000
Manual
Manual
Elee
Elee
LEV15 378 3 283 151
LEV20 188 v8 378 3 283 4000 21 RH Manual 12 V Elee 114
LEV25 188 va 378 3 283 4000 251 RH Manual 12 V Elee 114
LEVH
LEVH15
4000
4000
15 1
Hydraulic
Hydraulic
Elee
Elee
LEVH20 188 v8 378 3 283 4000 21 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elee 114
LEVH25 188 v8 37i8 3 283 4000 25 1 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elee 114
Big King NXEV 277 v8 43 37 430 4000 RH Hydraulic 12 V Elee
Hydraulic 12 V Elee
NKEV25 277 v8 43 37 430 4000 251 RH 112
SECT ION II
PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION moving the rudder is more satisfac
tory It is of course also that as much of the work sary to know the exact location of
of installing an engine takes place tbe engine and tbe and around the boat as inside recommended maximum and plenty of room
Remember angles of engine that the boat and the engine
amount to a considerable weight and If full scale drawings of the boat
all blocking must be strong enough are available locating tbe sbaft
to support this weight plus that of bole and establishing the angle is
the people working in the boat simple It is only necessary to lay
down a fullsized profile in some
As the first step shore up the boat convenient spot and place over this
until tbe bull is approximately drawing fullsize cutouts of the
three feet off tbe floor For most enginerudder and propeller in their
small boats a threepoint suspen proper places Tbe cutout for the
sion will be sufficient Blocking propeller need only be an oblong of
should be placed about six feet cardboard with tbe center tbe bow and at each corner of marked Tbe length sbould equal tbe
the transom Tbis type of blocking diameter and tbe widtb tbe pitcb
will give adequate support and at divided by tbe number of blades For
the same time leave tbe stern sec example a 12 x 12 propeller would
tion free of obstruction On larger be represented by a piece 12 blocking sbould be used and 4 wide for a threeblade prop
along tbe keel and 6 wide for a twoblade Tbe
engine cutout should be a fairly
Tbe next step in tbe procedure is accurate reproduction of the tbe location and angle balf of the engine with the sbaft
of the shaft hole A number of centerline clearly marked This
things must be considered before sbould be drawn witb care on a large
tbis can be Figl piece of paper using tbe dimensions
given on tbe engine scale drawing
The width of tbe rudder size of
the propeller and the clearance With the rudder and propeller fac
between the propeller and tbe bot similes in place and proper clear
tom of the boat minimum 2 ance accounted for the cutout of
Clearance between tbe rudder and tbe engine is then moved about un
tbe propeller sbould not be less til tbe centerline of tbe shaft
tban 4 and room to allow removal lines up with tbe centerline of tbe
of the propeller witbout first re propeller and tbe spot and angle
wbere this line passes througb tbe
keel carefully noted The position
of tbe engine is then carefully
cbecked to be sure there is suffi
cient clearane between it and tbe
bottom of tbe boat and tbat tbe angle
of tbe engine does not exceed tbe
Figl Location recommended operating angle 5 to
of Underwater Gear 14 degrees in most engines The
A justed to obtain proper propeller
clearances and crankcase and fly
wheel clearance for the engine When
the position of the string has been
accurately determined the place it
passes each of the sticks is care
fully marked and the jig placed back
in the boat It is then a simple
matter to lay a straightedge along
c these marks 123 on Fig2 to the
bottom of the boat which will give
the position and angle of the shaft
hole
2 INSTALLING THE PROPELLER SHAFT
A wedge is now constructed which
Fig2 Method of Locating Sbaft Hole will fit between the keel and the
inboard shaft log This wedge may
engine must be lined up eitber by be fashioned from any hardwood but
raising or lowering it or changing mabogany is recommended since it is
the angle Do not move the from its location
If full scale drawings of the boat
are not available another simple
method of locating this spot is to
lay a length of 1 x 4 lumber from
the center of the transom forward to a
spot well beyond the determined en
gine 10cationSee Fig2 Tempora
r i ly prop this str ip A in place so
it is roughly parallel to the keel Fig 3 Shaft Log
To thisand at a right angle to it
nail another strip B at the point easy to work with and is an excel
where the flywheel of the engine lent marine material This wedge
will be located Fasten a second should be as wide and as long as the
strip C so that it passes outside shaft log to be used and cut at an
the stern follows the angle of the angle corresponding with the angle
stern and projects at least three of the shaft hole minus the angle
feet below the bottom of the boat of the shaft log See Fig3 The
Narrow strips are nou fastened to thickness of the wedge will vary
the top strip approximately every with the angle but the thin edge
foot along its length and at right should be approximately 12 inch
angles to it so that the ends of thick In some cases the width of
the sticks just touch the bottom of wedge may exceed the width of the
the boat This jig which actually keel since it must be as wide as the
is a full sized pattern of the in shaft log
s ide of the boat can now be removed
and laid flat on the floor In this event the underside of the
wedge should be shaped to fit the
A string is then stretched from the keel and tbeedges shaped to fit
board which represents the transom alongside the keel and fit the hull
to the one represent ing the locat ion as snugly as possible The wedge
of the fl1heel The string is ad should also be notched out to fit
any ribs which might interfere The A drill 18 inch larger than the
wedge is then screwed into position shaft diameter should be used to
over the locat ion of the shaft hole provide PI opel clearance Any type
Use a good grade bedding compound of drill may be used which will
between the wedge and the keel and drill a clean hole and has a shank
fasten securely to the keel with long enough to pass through the two
screws being careful to place these blocks and the keel A standard car
screTs where they will not interfere penters auger is not the shaft log mounting screws since the wore tends
to follow
the grain end using it may result in
a wandering hole If a drill cannot
be found with a sufficiently long
shankit can be extended by welding
on a stee 1 I ad llen the dr i 11 has
passed completely through the keel
and the bottom block it can be re
moved and the two temporary drilling
blocks unscrewed from the boat
Now lay the shaft log on the wedge
and over the shaft hole In some
cases it will be necessary to chisel
Fig4 Method of Drilling Shaft Hole out the wedge to conform to the bot
tom of the shaft log Make this
After the wedge is in place pre notch slight ly larger than for the drilling of the shaft to allow for
later Preparation for this step a gasket from 116 rubber or of the construction of two gasket mat er
ial and place it blocks which will act as the shaft log and wedge
guides in getting the shaft hole
started properly and keeping the
angle of drilling fairly blocks should be of hardwood maple or oak
wi 11 do They should be thick 5 wide and 10 long
One of these blocks See Fig 4
and 5 is fastened to the inside
of the boat so that the center of
the block lines up the position of the shaft Fig5 Photo of Drilling and th9 other is fastened to
the bottom of the boat at the ap Insert the propeller shaft in the
proximate position the hole will shaft hole and uith the shaft log
emerge The face of the block fas over the hole position the shaft
tened to the inside of the boat is log so that the propeller shaft is
cut so as to be at right angles to approximately in the center of the
the drilling angle In order to halo in the shaft log Coat both
keep the drilling angle accurate sides of the shaft log gasket with
a guide block can be fastened 3 a good marine sealer and fasten the
to 6 from this starting block A shaft log in place with screws long
notch cut in this block to fit the enough to pass through the wedge
shank of the drill will support the and well into the keel
drill at the proper angle See
Fig 5 Next slip the shaft strut over the
shaft and move it along the pro gine beds They should rest firmly
peller shaft with the base pressed on the hull ribs and be against the keel until the at intervals by notching into 2 by
shaft is approximately in the center 8 members Lunning at right angles
of the bear ing hole Screw the strut to them d braces and stringers
to the keel at this point but do not down Using small center the propeller shaft
in the shaft hole Make final ad
N fll4fr CENTR TO JlANGER
of the strut and tighten
its holddown screws and angle ad
INLINE nuts securely
3 INSTALLING ENGINE STRINGERS AND EtJu1tJE JHAf
r CEtJ TER 1 J
tJlTAIVCE
BEDS t
IFT TO IIANGER stringers should now be in PlfTANC
80
stalled See Fig6 These members should run at least
OFF5ET the length of the hull
and to them the engine bed will be
fastened In most modern hulls Fig7 Engine Bed members will be included in
the hull plans and usually will be should be driftbolted to take an engine with 22 These crossbraces should conform
mount ing centers If these str ingers to the shape of the hull and those
that will be under the engine must
be cut to fit the contour of the
underside of the engine
The next step is the construction
of the engine bed See Fig 7
These are pieces of 2 hardwood 8 n
to 10 longer than the length of
the engine The width of the mate
rial needed will depend on the angle
at which the engine is to be mounted
the depth of the engine below the
shaft line and the type of engine
hanger that is whether the han
gers are parallel to the shaft line
or offset in height The height of
these engine beds is easily deter
mined by removing the propeller
shaft and stretching a string
Fig6 Photo of Engine Stringers through the strut shaft hole and
stuffing box and fastening it to a
are not in place they should be piece of stock tacked of 8 by 2 oak or in place somewhat forward of the
maple and should run from the tran engine location
som to at least three feet forward
of the engine location The dis A piece of engine bed material is
tance between them should be the then placed on edge alongside the
distance between mounting centers string in the position here the
of the engine plus one thickness engine is to be mounted It is then
of the material to be used for en a simple matter to measure down
from the string which represents tightened Use washers under all
the center of the shaft to the nuts The position of the of the hangers using the holddown bolts is now marked on
figures given on the engine scale the top surface of the engine If the mounting lugs are In some cases it will be to the
centerline of the to drill these holes without dis
shaft the top of the engine beds turbing the engine in others the
are then simply cut at the same an engine must be removed Drill these
gle as the string and below it the holes us ing a dr ill 18 inch of the mounting lugs If than the lag screws to be used
the forward and rear mounting lugs fastening the engine in place
are offset the top of the engine lag screws which
bed is cut in steps at the angle of will project three inches into the
the string with the distance from engine beds will be str ing to the top of each equal Insert the engine holddown bolts
ing the distance from the centerline with washers under the heads and
of the engine to the mounting lugs screw them to within three or four
turns of being tight
After the pattern of the engine bed
is completed replace the propeller 4 ALIGNING THE ENGINE
shaft and fasten the in place on the shaft The The blocking can now be removed from
engine must now be lifted into the the engine and the engine lined up
boat and temporarily blocked in with the propeller shaft The en
place with the propeller coupling gine will be in alignment when the
in as close alignment to the coup faces of the two halves of the
ling half on the propeller shaft as propeller coupling are If the engine is a small within 003 of an inch or less A
one this can be done by fastening feeler gauge is usd checking all
a pole securely to the lifting eye around the two faces and shims ad
on the engine and with two men on ded under the engine hangers until
each end of the pole bodily lifting the two faces are in alignment If
the engine in place If the engine no feeler gauge is available four
is large or help is not available narrow str ips of paper can be placed
an A I frame wi th a block and tackle between the two faces at four points
can be used Or the job can be done around the circle Any variation of
by a trucl equipped with a winch alignment can then be felt by the
In any case extreme care must be looseness of anyone of the strips
taken that all hitches used are se Each time a shim is added or removed
cure and all tackle of sufficient tighten all holddown bolts and re
strength to hold the load A broken check alignment Extra care at this
rope or slipped knot at this point time will payoff in terms of fu
could result in a very leaky boat ture a very discouraged boatman
Do not attempt to bring the two
With the engine securely blocked in faces of the coupling together by
place slide the engine beds in springing the propeller shaft rhen
place under the engine and on the the engine is in perfect of the stringers ihen in bolt the two halves of the fasten
them temporarily with together and remove the wedges from
4C clamps Four 12 holes are around the propeller shaft ith
then bored equally spaced along the the engine in neutral the of the engine bed through shaft should turn easily If not
the stringers and bed Onehalf check for tightness in the stuffing
inch carriage bolts are then in box or slight misalignment in strut
serted in the holes and securely location or angle
to direct cooling uater from the
engine into the exhaust line In
so doing two purposes are served
the hot exhaust line is cooled be
low the daIlgr point and the 7ater
quiets the haust In this type of
ENGINE installation two precautions must
ENlJ
be oTJserved First the Jater must
enter the exhaust no less than 5
belm the bottoD of the manifold
opening and some provision oust be
made to direct the flm of tlater
away from the manifold Tbese pro
visions are necessary to prevent
With engine installed and properly cooling water from backing up into
aligned it must now be supplied
with fuel 1ater and and provisions made for ex
haust now these elements are to
be installed will depend to some
extent on the model of engine being
used location of the gas tank lo
cation of the instrument panel and
personal preference as to side or
stern exhaust In any case these
things should be installed in a
workmanlike manner and certain adhered to Fig 9 Hethod of Cooling ater
Discharge
5 EXHAUST piping should be at least the exhaust manifold and perhaps
a large as the opening on the ex warping the hot exhaust valves
haust mpnifold Either copper tubing
or galv2nized pipe may be used If There are several types of water
cooled elbows on the market 7hicb
t7ill serve both of the above pur
pose nd are worth their cost in
labor of fabricating a substitute
Hm1ever a subst i tute can be made
by welding a steel elbow into the
exhaust line at least 4 bel07 the
exhaust oanifold in such a TrfY that
the uater 7i 11 be directed avray from
the anifold See Fig 9
6 COOLIhG rATER SYSTEM
Fig 8 Photo of Exhaust Piping
piping can best be done with
are necessary in the 1 ine standard copper tubing Again a
they should never exceed 45 degrees short piece of flexible hose should
A short piece of steam hose See be used between the intake piping
Fig 8 placed in the exhaust line and the engine The water intake
close to the engine will help quiet scoop should be located as close to
the exhaust and prevent fracture of the water intake on the engine as
exhaust line due to vibration of installation permits Some engines
the engine It is common practice are equipped with reversing and re
Installation of the water scoop is
a simple process A 3 square by
34 thick block is fastened to tbe
inside of tbe bottom of tbe bull
witb four wood screws and set in
bedding compound A bole is then
drilled tbrougb the block and bull
the same diameter as the outside
dicnsion of tbe water scoop pipe
The scoop pipe is then inserted in
tbe hle from tbe bottom of tbe
bull and fastened in place A seal
ing compound is placed around the
pipe on the inside and tbe Suggested Battery Installation ion gears tbat are also water 7 THERfOSTAT AND BYPASS VALVE
cooled in wbicb case tbe manufac Host often engines are recommends tbat tbe cooling witb water piping that simply dravls
water enter at tbis point and be water to tbe pump directly from the
piped from tbere to tbe engine sea circulates it through the en
gine and discbarges it all over
board In tbis type of system en
gine temperature is determined by
the temperature of the incoming
water pump capacity and the degree
WATER OUTLET TO
TO SUCTION SIDE
OF WATER PUMP
BYPASS LINE
HULL RETURN CONNECTION
BELOW WATERLINE
Fig 11 Methods of Engine Temperature Control
of restriction to flow offered by the valve
the piping It is quite common to
find engine operating temperatures On installations using the hand
as low as 90 0 F in these installa control valve water should be noted
t ions We do not recommend this type issuing from the exhaust pipe soon
system because the usually low oper after the engine is started A lack
ating temperature is conducive to of water indicates the pump has not
valve sticking sludge formation in primed and the engine should be
the crankcase dilution of crank stopped until the source of trouble
case oil with cylinder wall conden is found
sation and shortened valve spring
life We recommend a nominal opera On installations using a temperature of 150 0 F obtained only a trickle of water and some
through the use of a bypass system times only steam will issue from
as shown in the piping diagrams of the exhaust unt il the engine reaches
Fig 11 Do not attempt to control operat ing temperature at hich by restricting the flow the thermostat will open to dis
of water either into the pump or charge more water overboard thermostat is designed to allow a
small quantity of water to pass it
In the bypass syetem a quantity of and keep the exhaust pipe cool un
warm water leaving the engine is til the engine reaches back into the pump suction temperature ben start ing a cold
line to be recirculated through the engine always keep a close watch
engine By varying the amount of on the temperature gauge until it
warm water fed back to the pump the steadies to a constant value
engine temperature can be of water passing through the 8 FUEL line is accomplished with
either a hand control valve or a A marine type gasoline tank installed as shown in be used in all con
the piping diagrams Opening the structed with internal baffle plates
valve wiil divert a larger amount and a filler pipe which goes nearl
of warm water back into the engine to the bottom of the tank Should a
and raise its operat ing temperature fire occur during the filling of
If a thermostat is used it will such a tank only that vapor divert nearly all of in the filling tube will burn anc
the warm water leaving the engine this can be snuffed out by placing
back to the pump for recirculation something over the neck of the tube
when the engine is cold When en The gasoline outlet from the tank
gine temperature nears 150 0 F the also enters at the top of the will react to decrease and passes down through the tank to
the amount of recirculated water just a short distance off the bot
and will divert only enough to tom This pipe should be engine temperature at larger in size than that 150 0 F
by the fuel pump on the the thermostat will give The tank will also have a vent and
faster warm up and closer tempera overflow tube coming off the top of
ture control over the engine speed the tank of at least halfinch copper
range than will the hand control tube size This tube should be run
valve The hand control valve should as directly as possible to a suit
be adjusted to give adequate tem able throughhull fitting at the usual running speed in most cases just below the sheer
of the engine It should not be ne line of the hull Overflow to continually readjust and tank vapors will thereby be
harmlessly over the side with most engines or one of from the tank to the types of controls available These
engine should be made with copper controls may be operated from a
tubing of a size recommended by the remote lever either manufacturer A short sect ion through a system of rods or hydrau
of flexible line should be placed lically through piping
in the line at the point of attach
ment to the fuel pump to prevent With the engine installed the pro
leaks occurring due to fatigue of peller is then fastened to the
the metal tubing shaft care being taken to maintain
proper clearances from the bottom
9 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM of the boat and the rudder
The importance of adequate and safe After the engine is installed and
wir ing aboard a boat cannot be over all connections completed the All connections must be gine should be enclosed in an en
clean tight and free from oil gine box In designing this box
There solder connections are neces keep in mind the possibility that
sary the connection should be made it may be necessary to make secure before soldering ments or repairs in the future A
Use only rosin flux when soldering box with removable top and sides
to prevent corrosion All wiring is be kept as short as possible
to mInImIze voltage drop in the It must also be kept in mind an internal combustion engine uses
roughly 14 parts of air to one part
A battery box should be built as of gasoline when operating There
close to the engine as possible fore sufficient ventilation must
securely fastened to the boat and be provided to allow it to operate
of a size to prevent shifting of at full efficiency This will vary
the battery Any cover on the box with the size of the engine the
should be readily removable for higher the horsepower the checking of water level must be the ventilating area Five
in the battery See Fig 10 square inches of ventilating area
is sufficient for engines up to 25
All wiring should be run in such HP and 15 square inches for en
a fashion as to prevent mechanical gines up to 150 HP
injury Wires for all be of a large enough size to After complet ion of the installat ion
minimize voltage drop in the cir and with the boat in the water the
cuit and of sufficient current car alignment of the engine to the
rying capacity to prevent overheat propeller shaft should be checked
ing See Table J once more The engine may then be
started and all connections checked
10 FINISHING THE JOB for signs of leaks Oil pressure
and water temperature gauges should
The instrument panel may be in be closely watched for signs of im
stalled at any convenient location proper operation After making sure
at the control station Oil pres that everything is operating properl
sure and water temperature gauges the boat should be taken on a short
should be connected in accordance run at slow speed Final checking
ith the instructions that come and adjusting is done on this trip
with the unit and the boat is now ready for opera
tion
Gear shifting can be using the shifting lever supplied
11 VDRIVE INSTALLATION In this case the keel should be
leveled from the transom to about
In recent years two factors have six feet forward to aid in deter
had a great influence on power for mining the shaft bole location and
outboard type hulls One of these angle
is the demand for greater speed and
the other a requirement for engines Location of tbe sbaft hole and de
with sufficient power for towing termining its angle are tbe next
water skiers In many cases the de steps Any of tbe methods described
mand for additional power and speed before will work However since
has been met by the use of a higher the keel bas been leveled and the
horsepower outboard or by instal distances involved are short de
ling twin motors A second solution termination of the shaft angle by
has been the installation of an in means of a simple fullsize sketch
board engine ith Vdrive is the easiest See Fig 12 In
AFT LINE 7
FROM HORIZ
I I
r13f 3
ENGINE SHAFT ANGLE 24
II KEEL KEEL Lc J
INSIDE EDGE
Dr TRANSOM WEDGE DIMENSIONS
MATERIAL MAHOGANY
KEEL THICKNESS F H
12 Ia 6
Fig 12 Typical Sbaft Location 15s
1 91
These Vdrive engines are designed 78
to be mounted in tbe extreme stern 2 le 11
of tbe boat Tbey are suitable for
most outboard bulls 17 and over
and are being used successfully in
houseboat hulls up to 32 in lengtb Fig 13 Wedge Sizes
Tbe installation of a Vdrive engine making this sketch two parallel
differs from the installation of a lines are dralm approximately six
conventional drive engine in that feet long with the distance be
the engine is mounted aft and in tween tbem equalling the thickness
the reverse position witb tbe fly of the keel A line is then drawn
wheel toward the stern of tbe boat on tbe sketch indicat ing the crank
Tbe installation of a typical V sbaft center at an angle to the
drive engine will be described berea keel equal to the recommended engine
The general principles and prac mounting angle 7 0 in Fig 12 The
tices will serve for most Vdrive prop sbaft line is now drawn slant
engines altbougb tbe angles and ing down and through the keel at an
dimensions may vary angle to the crankshaft line equal
to the engine sbaft angle This
Preparation for mounting the V angle is obtained from the manufac
drive engine is like that for turers scale drawings or from ac
mounting conventional engines and tual measurement ofthe engine 24 0
tbe same steps are followed in in Fig 12 A third line is tben
each case As before the first drawn from the point tbe shaft line
step is the blocking up of the boat intersects the top of the keel at
STERN OF BOAT
BLOCK A
KEEL
BLOCK 8
MATERIAL MAPLE OR OAK MATERIAL
L MAPLE OR OAK 4 j I L
I ND I t zZI
101T I 5j Lt
DETAIL OF BLOCK B
Zl f5
DETAIL OF BLOCK A
Fig 14 Drill Block Details
an angle to the shaft line equal to distance from tbe prop sbaft center
tbe angle of tbe sbaft log to be to tbe bottom of the keel is equal
used 14 0 in Fig 12 The angle to balf tbe prop diameter plus two
this line makes with tbe keel tben inches Mark a spot four incbes tbe angle of wedge needed balf tbe widtb of the
rudder to
3 0 in Fig 12 ward tbe stern along the sbaft line
from tbe after end of tbe prop hub
The location of the shaft bole can line Draw a line from tbis point at
now be determined Its distance rigbt angles to tbe keel This line
from tbe transom will be controlled now represents the inside of tbe
by the dimensions of the rudder be transom Measuing from tbis point
ing used clearance between tbe to tbe spot where tbe shaft line
rudder and propeller prope ller dia passes tbrough tbe keel will give
meter and propeller clearance to tbe location of tbe shaft hole
the bottom of the boat Locate the
after end of the propeller hub A wedge can now be cut to fit be
wbicb will be at that point on the tween tbe shaft log and keel as
prop sbaft where the rigbt angle previously described Fig 13 gives
Fig 15 Typical Bed Stringer and Steering Setup
of typical 0 wedges twothirds the length of the hull
for varying keel thickness are now installed and fastened se
curely to the transom and the
Afte installation of the wedge rudder installed and braced to can be made for dril
stringers A typical the shaft hole Fig14 gives is shoun in Fig and angles for for installation requiring
The gas tank comes next In most
a
TOPVlfW
MAINTAIN THIS DIMENSION
TO REPACK SHAFT LOG
STllfflNG Typical
VDrive
Layout
Fig 17 Photo of Typical VDrive
shaft angle of 17 0 Predrilled Vdrive the tank is
blocks are available in most cases installed between the engine and
which will greatly simplify this transom as shown in Fig 16 The
step same safety features described for
conventional installation previous instructions equally well in this case
the shaft log propeller shaft
strut and coupling may now be in From this pOint installation is
stalled the same as for conventional drive
engines The engine beds are con
Engine stringers running at least structed engine blocked in place
beds slid into place Because of installation at the ex
under the engine and clamped for treme stern the engine can be en
marking of the mounting bolts The closed by building a seat over or
engine is then removed beds fas in front of the engine with the seat
tened in place and the engine in back acting as the forward and brought into proper of
the engine box However must be used in designing this seat
to provide access for installation of water intake and adequate ventilation for opera
scoop fuel lines oil lines in tion and panel battery and exhaust
can now be accomplished as des After installation is for conventional engines the
engine and shaft alignment
should be rechecked and all is controlled in a con operated to assure ease of manner by connecting the
tion as in the case of gear lever on the engine tional any commercially available re
mote shifting lever by means of a 12 SPECIAL or rod stock Due to the fact
that the Vdr ive engine is installed Two types of instrument panels are
in the reverse position the result available as special equipment
of a direct connection will be that An instrument panel of the three
the remote lever will operate in re unit type is available and of the normal That is to go of
an oil pressure gauge it is necssary to pull and ignition switch This instrument
Table 2
DATA
Max Compartment System Fuel Pump
Model I
Engine Ventilator
Pipe IJE Size Intake Copper
Si e q H 1711 Tuilze
Atomic Four 140 5 sq in 114 I 38 I 12 I 516
Utility Four 12 0 5 sq in 114 141 I 12 I 516
SuperFour 12 0 5 sq in 2 138 I 12 516
Unimite Four 140 5 sq in 2 138
I 12 516
Arrow 12 0 15 sq in 212 13 4 I 34 38
Bluefin 12 0 15 sq in 212 113411 I 34 38
Marlin 12 0 20 sq in 212 34 34 38
Tarpon 12 0 20 sq in 3 134 34 38
Knight 12 0 20 sq in 3 134 34 38
Little King 160 20 sq in 212 234 38
Big King I 16 0 25 sq in 3 12 1 12
Cast in manifold i I
back on the lever and to reverse panel is and the
the lever is pushed forward This instruments are constructed of
may confuse the experienced opera brass See Fig 18 The but can be changed to the con panel
consists of an ammeter oil
ventional method of forward on the pressure gauge heat to go ahead and back to go
tachometer head and engine hour
astern by introducing a bell crank meter See Fig 19 Wiring diagrams
in the linkage Figs 16 and 17 for the three and fiveunit panels
show how this can be done using a are shown in Fig 20 and Fig 21
bell crank
SPARK PLUGS
4 3 2
NOTES
LEAD CD IS CUSTOMER INSTALLED USE MIN OF I
HEAVY DUTy BATTERY CASLE THIS WIRE MUST BE
GROUNDED BACK TO ENGINE Wiring Diagram Motorola
LEAD IS CUSTOMER INSTALLED USE MIN OF MI Alternator 12 volt
HEAVY OUT BATTERY CABLE
35 ampere Solid State Regulator
LEAD 3 IS CuTOMER INSTALLED USE MIN OF 8 WIRE
OC NOT INTALL THIS WIRE IF A PANEL MTD AMMETER Figure 4
IS USE
ALTERNATOR REGULATOR START MOTOR ARE GROUNDED
TO ENGINE AT FACTORY
ALTERNATOR FIELD IS INTERNALLY CONNECTED UNDER
REGULATOR
BACK SIDE OF 3 UNIT ANEL
IN r
OIL PRESS AMMETER
OIL TUBE 3 Unit Instrument Panel
Figure 5
TO T TERMINAL
TO BATT
TERMINAL
ON START MOTOR SOLENOID
OF IGN COIL
STARTER SWITCH NOT
FURNISHED BY U MCO
a TO ALT OUTPUT TERMINAL
ON ALTERNATOR
TO S TERMINAL ON
NOTES S TART MOTOR SOLENOID
LEADS CDlIRE CUSTOMER INSTALLED USE 8 GA WIRE
CIRCUITS UNCER 15 FT 6 GA MRE ClRCUTS FRJ1
15 TO 25 FT
LEADS Zl ARE CUSTOMER INSTALLED USE 16 GA WIRE FOR
CIRCUITS UNDER IS FT 14 GA WIRE FOR CIRCUITS FROM
IS TO 25 FT
WHEN NONMETALLIC FLEXIBLE OIL TUBE IS USED GROUND
INSTRUMENT NEL DIRECTLY TO ENGINE
Figure 8
TO ALT OUTPUT TERM ON ALT ORG
TO DISTHTERM AT COIL GRAY
GROUND TO ENG BOCK BLACK
PRATURE SENDER TAN
AMMETER
01 L PRESSURE SENDER BLUE
TO TERM OF IGN COIL OF START MOTOR SOL WHITE
TO BAT TERM ON START MOTORsQL
ENGINE HARNESS CONNECTOR CONNECTOR
AT ENGINE AT PANf
INST PANEL
Electric Instrument Panel with GRAY TAPED LESi
DO NOT U
BLACK GROUNDED TO
BACK OF PANEL
Figure 9
TO ALT OUTPUT TERM ON ALT ORG
TO DISTHTERM AT COIL GRAY
GROUND TO ENG BLOCK BLACK
TEMPERATURE SENDER TAN
OIL PRESSURE SENDER BLUE AMMETER
T t TERM OF IGN COIL PURPLE
TO STERM OF START MOTOR SOL WHITE
TO BAT TERM ON START MOTOR SOL
ENGINE HARNESS CONNECTOR CONNECTOR
AT ENGINE AT PANEl
INST PANEL IS GROUOEP
THRU TACH MT RK INST PANEL
Electric Instrument Panel less 18
BACK SmEOF 5 UNIT PANEL BACK SIDE UNlT PANEe
NOTE
I SIZE r
WIRE
B SIZE
WIRE
TACHOMETER
HEAT
GROUNDED
ENG BY
CUSTOMER
B J
A SIZE WIRE GWON
DISTRIFIlj ror
u WRE
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
liEGULATOfl MUST EE MOUNT
SEPARATE
II JNTED EPCALL FROM ENG AND IN
WITH TERMINALS D0W VERTICAL
POSITION
L REGULATOh
GEN IiGl
GROUND
TERMINAL
ARM TERMINAL
GROUND
ENG AT
10 f SIZE WIRE
CE IMPORTANT FACTORY NOTE I
GROUNDED TO
ENGINE AI
BATTERY Af1 REGULATOR MUST
81 GROUNDED T0 EfG INE BY
WIRE It CAIllE SIZES FOR 12 V CIRCUIT
GANO LENGTH
BATTERY tD REGUlATOR rllST
BE GRLtUtDED TO EKGISE BY
ClST0HR BEFIJRE OPERAT ING
CISTVMER BEFORE OPERATING THE ENGIE
I FACORY GENERATOR 12 6OR LESS
THE ENGINE 10 6TO 10
ALTERNATCI
hen nonmetalic flexible
GENERATOF Il CiTO 15
oil tube or heat indicator
12Vro AMp 6 15 TO 25
connection is used ground
5 25TO O enpine d1rect to instrument
FOR NEGATIVE GR0UND SYSTEM STARTING 0 6 OR LESS
pane 1
CIRCUIT I 00 6TO 7 12
CUG 7 V2TO 10
HORN 10
HINIMtM IiItE SIZE FOR LIGHTING 10 MAX OF FOUR 21CP
COSKECTING rtLTERNATuR REGlLATuR LAMPS PER CIRCUIT
Total Length uf 11IIISi2e
Circuit In Joeet lire
I BuSize
11re
UGNITION 12 NITH I COIL
minimum wire size
REPOLARIZIG for connectin generator and
151 or less 118 1116
re2ulator
15 to 25 6 TfIT4 After reconnectin leads and before startin
the engine momentari ty connect a jump lead liB size
between the BAT terminal of the reeulator wire
and the IIAII terminal of the eenerator This
allows a momentary surt of current to flow 016
through the 2enerator correctly polarizin2 IS to 2S I 6 lifli
it Reversed polarity may result 1n vibratine
arcinsz and burntn of the cutout relay
contact points
12 VOLT IGNITION WIRING DIAGRAM ITH
5 UNIT PANEL FOR NECATlliE GROUND
SYSTEM
Wiring Diagram Leece Neville Fig 21A Wiring Diagram AutoLite
Fig 21 Generator 12 volt 12
Alternator lZ Volt 60 Amp
THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF ENGINE MUST REGULATOR IS TO BE MOUNTED
HAVE NEGATIVE GROUNDED BATTERY WHEN SEPARATE FROM ENGINE AND
12 VOLT 24 AMP GENERATOR IS USED PREFERABLY IN A VERTICAL
Jq REGULATOR FURNISHED WITH STANDARD 12 POSITION
VOLT GENERATOR CAN BE EITHER POSITIVE
OR NEGATIVE GROUND
GR TO
ENGINE STRIP
FIELD 1
TERMINAL I
Jq I
I I r
I I I
I L lJi
L 1
d TERMINAL I
GROUND I
TERMINAL
Ail J
II POSe
WIRING DIAGRAM FOR STANDARD 12 VOLT WIRING DIAGRAM FOR
BATTERY CHARGING GENERATOR AUTOLITE NEG 12 VOLT 24 AMP HIGH
t CHARGE RATE GENERATOR
12 VOLT AS USED ON UJ AND BN
DELCOREMY
BATTERY
REPOLARIZING GENERATOR
I After reconnecting leads and before starting the engine momentarily connect
a jumper lead between the BAT terminal of the regulator and the A termi
nal of the generator This allows a momentary surge of current to flow
e through the generator correctly polarizing it Reversed polarity may
result in vibrating arcing and burning of the cutout relay contact points
INSTALLATION DRAWl JACKET TWIN
i PIPE TAP
WATER OUTLET
BORE S
KfWAY II 3a
Fig 23 I 1
I FOR BOLT i
I l 2
8Jj 3y
lZ2 8 13 I 3
16 L a 16
FOUR tI7 I
i i X i
Fig 24
DIRECT DRIVE
1 17
sli af6
I i I I wo
I i IEXI1
I 1
Fig 25
r
FOUR SERIES Fig 26
AQUAPAX VDRIVE 11 1291 1671 21 FOUR tPIPE TAP
WATER OUTLET
Fig 27
4 3
DIRECT DRIVE
rP1Pr TAP
TtR OUTLET
Fig 28
REDUCTION DRIVE
DIRECT DRIVE
RIGID MOUNTINGS
Fig 29
DIRECT DRIVE
RUBBER MOUNTINGS
Fig 30
REDUCTION DRIVE
RIGID MOUNTINGS
Y Fig 31
H I
r 3 L i
3 I
i Il
I 47
REDUCTION DRIVE
RUBBER MOUNTINGS
Fig 32
FOUR DIRECT DRIVE
RUBBER MOUNTINGS
Fig 33
21 REDUCTION DRIVE
RUBBER MOUNTINGS
Fig 34
CENTER OF GRAVITY
H 2L
I 1 I
AQUAPAK VDRIVE
DRIVE ALL REDUCTION RATIOS
RUBBER MOUNTINGS
Fig 35
STANUTRAL GEAR DIRECT DRIVE
llHAUST EITHEI1 NO
FOI1 2i TUIN6 011 2Fp SIZE
Fig 37
I i
54 STNUTRAL GEAR 1881 REDUCTION RATIO
EXHAUST EITHeR END
II FOR 2 TLJeINb 0112Fp 5IZE
Fig 38
STNUTRAL GEAR 2441 REDUCTION RATIO
EXHAUST EITHER END FOR
3 TUBING 2 PIPE OR TUBE
151 21 DIRECT DRIVE Fig 39
MANUAL REVERSING GEAR
EXHAUST EITHER END FOR
PIPE OR 3 TUBING 2
to EXHAUST I
8O OFFSET
ISI RED i OIA BOLTS
RUBBER MOUNTS
I 13 OFFSET 12jb
21 RED 21
I
AOIA BOLTS
SOLID MOUNTS
i MIN BORE I
MIN BORE
Ij MAX BORE f 4 1 I MAX BORE
151 21 DIRECT DRIVE Fig 40
HYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
Fig 41
WATER INLET I RATIO
100 TO I
146 TO I
VDRIVE HYDRAULIC GEAR ALL RATIOS
300TO I
lOx KV
USoPI JaOx m
105 KeV
4
JiOalKV
STANUTRAL REVERSE GEAR 1881 REDUCTION GEAR
Fig 43
se STANUTRAL REVERSE GEAR 2441 REDUCTION GEAR
Fig 44
STANUTRAL REVERSE GEAR 3321 REDUCTION GEAR
EXHAUST fITHR END FOR
EXHAUST
i DIABOLTS
RUBBER MOUNTS
ADIAIOLTS
SOLID MOUNTS
MIN BORE
Ii MAX BORE
Direct Dr ive
Fig 45 MANUAL REVERS ING GEAR
EXHAUST
Direct Drive
105 OFFSET
151 RED
151 21
Fig 46 HYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
flHAUST EITHfR END FOR
EXHAUST
21 0R 3 PIPE OR TUBE t
lJif
ADIA BOLTS
SOLID MOUNTS
Direct Drive
Fig 47 MANUAL REVERS ING GEAR
i DIA BOLTS
RUBBER MOUNTS
105 OFFSET
151 RED
I 2 IDIAIOLTS
16 OFFSET
21 RED
I I H I 4 SOLID MOUNTS
60
t
f 4
7 i i FOR RUBBER MOUNTS 71t
I
16 31
Direct Drive 151 21
Fig 48 HYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
WATER INLET
Fig 49 VDRIVE HYDRAULIC GEAR ALL RATIOS
KING VB nNUAL REVERSING GEAR
Fig 50
DIRECT DRIVE
Fig 51
REDUCTION DRIVE 151 RATIO
Fig 52
REDUCTION DRIVE 21 RATIO
Fig 53
REDUCTION DRIVE 251 RATIO
KING SERIES HYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
Fig 54
DIRECT DRIVE
Fig 55
RED0CTION DRIVE 151 RATIO
Fig 56
REDUCTION DRIVE 21 HATI
Fig 57
REDUCTION DRIVE 251 RATIO
KING V8 I
t AA
Fig 58
DIRECT DRIVE
HYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
1 1
REDUCTION DRIYJ 2 1 PATIO
HYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
SECT ION III
PRELIMINARY CHECKS j Open shutoff valve below fuel
tank Operate hand primer on
a Check to be sure the engine is models so equipped to fill feed
filled with oil to the full line and sediment bowl with fuel
mark on the bayonet stick See
Table 4 for proper grade k Remove shipping cover from flame
arrestor
b On models equipped with hy
draulic reversing gears fill the 1 Close all water drain cocks and
reversing gear case with the grade drain plugs
oil shown in Table 4 Note 2
2 STARTING ELECTRICAL STARTING
c On models requiring separate of reduction gears
fill reduction gear housing Check a Place clutch in 4 for proper type gear lubr i
cant b Open throttle Fill fuel tank with 8090 Fuel
oilkerosene models c Full out choke
are equipped with a one quart gas
oline tank for starting purposes d Turn on ignition switch
See Table 5 for fuel fuel oilkerosene models e Push starter button If engine
fails to start ithin 30 seconds r
c On electrical starting models be see Table 6 to determine cause of
sure all connections are correct trouble
and secure Check battery to be
sure it is fully charged and that f As soon as engine starts push
the water level is approximately in choke rod
38 above the plates
CAUTION
f Open cooling system water inlet Do not run engine with choke out
valve if used Be sure water any longer than necessary Over
lines are properly connected on choking will dilute intake and overflow sides of oil and possibly cause motor
water pump failure due to raw gasoline being
sucked into combustion chamber
g Check all controls for smooth
and proper operation g Check water pump for proper
operation If water fails to cir
h Air out bilge to remove any culate turn water pump grease cup
dangerous gasoline fumes in one or two turns on gear type
water pumps only If water still
i With ignition off and engine in fails to Circulate stop engine im
neutral turn motor over several mediately See Table 6 for correc
times to be sure everything is tion of freely
h Check oil pressure gauge for op in your locality and with the fuel
eration of oil pump If gauge does available If readjustment is at
not indicate oil pressure stop en tempted it should be done by a com
gine Table 4 gives proper oil petent for each model engine
The engine will not be thoroughly
CAUTION broken in until approximately 35
Do not race engine with clutch hours of operation have been at
disengaged at any time Racing tained DO NOT CONTINUOUSLY RUN
a cold engine will cause exces YOUR ENGINE OVER 2000 RPM DURING
sive wear and may seriously dam THIS PERIOD AND AVOID LONG PERIODS
age engine New motors should be OF SLOW IDLING OCCASIONALLY DURING
run at onehalf throttle for a BREAKIN YOU MAY RUN THE ENGINE AT
period of 15 hours FULL THROTTLE BUT NOT FREQUENTLY
OR FOR PERIODS OVER ONE MINUTE IN
NOTE DURATION ALWAYS WARM UP THE ENGINE
If the engine temperature is con BEFORE ANY RUN
trolled with a manual bypass
valve as shown in Fig 11 water 5 STARTING MAGNETO MODELS
iill issue froD the exbaust pipe
as soon as the pump has primed and a Retard spark lever half way
the engine filled with water If
tile engine temperature is controlled b Open throttle approximately one
by thermostat only a trickle of quarter
water will issue from the exhaust
pipe until the engine reaches its c Full choke out all the way
normal operating temperature and
the thermostat opens to dump water d Crank engine two or three turns
overboard
e Push choke in half way
3 STOPPING THE ENGINE
f Crank engine by bringing it to
The speed of your boat should be compression and then giving a reduced while you are pull DO NOT SPIN
still some distance from the moor
ing or landing Before stopping g When engine starts push choke in
the engine close the throttle and all the the clutch Allow the en
gine to idle for a minute or so be 6 STARTING FUEL OILKEROSENE MODELS
fore turning off the in this manner will permit a Start engine on gasoline as heat to be absorbed by cribed in
Paragraph 2
the cooling system
b Allow engine to run for a period
4 BREAKIN of 3 to 5 minutes to allow it to
reach proper operating UNIVERSAL engine was run and of 130 to 180 for six hours on one of our
test stands with electric dynamome c Switch over to fuel oil by turn
ter It was adjusted and checked ing the threeway cock located in
for maximum power at rated speed the fuel line to the proper those adjustments were cor tion
rect only for the prevailing at conditions and fuel used Before stopping engine switch from
You may find it necessary to fuel oil to gasoline and allow en
slightly readjust the carburetor and gine to run approximately 2 minutes
igni t ion timing for peak per formance in preparation for the next start
Table 4
LUBRICATION SAE VISCOSITY NUMBERS FOR Herringbone
ENGINE CRANKCASE OIL Average Reduct ion Gear
Surrounding Surrounding Surrounding Engine Oil Lubricant SAE
Air Temp Air Temp Air Temp pressure Viscosity Number
MODEL Over 90 0 F and J2 to 90 0 F Below J2 0 F Hot Engine Maximum Service Average Service Average Service
Lbs Jacket Twin SAE JO SAE JO SAE 20
JO Note 1
Atomic Four SAE JO SAE JO SAE 45 See
Utility Four SAE 40 SAE JO SAE 20 45 SAE 90 to SAE 40 SAE JO SAE 20
45 SAE 90 to 140
Unimite Four SAE JO SAE JO SAE 20 JO See Note 1
Arrow SAE JO SAE JO SAE JO JO See Note 1
Bluefin SA E JO SAE JO SAE JO JO See Notes 1 2
Marlin SAE JO SAE JQ SAE JO JO See Note 1
Tarpon SAE JO SAE JO SAE JO JO See Notes 1 2
Knight SAE JO SAE JO SAE JO JO See Notes 1 2
Little King SAE JO SAE JO SAE JO See Notes 1 2
Big King SAE JO SAE JO SAE 0 See Note 2
Note 1 Note J
We do not recommend the use of heavyduty
The reduction gears of these engines on high detergent oils during breakin
engines with manual type reversing These oils have such extremely good lub
gears are lubricated from the main en ricating qualities that correct and
gine oil supply and therefore use the thorough breakin is difficult if not
same SAE number of oil as the engine impossible This is particularly true
and do not have to be separately lubri with respect to seating of piston rings
cated We recommend the use of a straight
mineral oil of SAE JO weight during
the breakin period
Most oil companies have now adopted a
standard system of rating the service
Note 2 for which an oil is intended In this
system an oil designated for ML service
The hydraulic reversing gear is entirely is a straight mineral oil without addi
and independent of the tives and intended for light service
engine oil pressure system sealed off The heavyduty high detergent oils are
from engine oil pressure system Use deSignated MS and DG for severe gaso
same SAE number oil as in the engine line engine service and general diesel
of good quality nonfoaming type If service An oil designated for ML ser
extreme foaming is encountered due to vice should be used during breakin
unusual installation or operating con and an oil deSignated for MS and DG
ditions it will further reduce foaming service used thereafter
if type A automatic transmission oil
is used Avoid using any oil that does not speci
fically state the service rating on the
When engines have both hydraulic revers can Watch the oil level gauge in the
ing gear and reduction gear the reduc oil pan and always keep the oil up to
tion gear is lubricated from the oiling the mark
system of the hydraulic reversing gear
CAUTION
The oil level should be checked periodi Check the oil level stick before start
cally by means of the bayonet dipstick ing and several times while filling to
located on the side at the forward end prevent overfilling Keep oil level
of the hydraulic reversing gear housing to the full mark on the oil stick
Oil level shOilld be maintained between Amounts of oil required vary with the
the marks on the bayonet dipstick engine model and the angle at which the
engine is mounted
Table 5
FIRING ORDER
NO OF
CYLINDERS STANDARD ROT OPPOSITE ROT
2 12
4 1243
6 153624 142635
V8 LEV 18 13657 2
V8 SEVH V8 NKEV OPERATION OF STANDARD REVERSING gear positions are stamped on the
GEAR top cover See Paragraph 6 Section
IV for detailed types of reversing gears are
used on UNIVERSAL engines The 1 Moving the lever on the however is the same in cover to the F position places
all cases See Paragraph 6 Sec the transmission in forward drive
tion IV for detailed operation
2 Moving the lever to the R
a Moving the lever to the forward position places the toward engine places the in reverse in forward drive
Moving the lever to the center
b Moving the lever to the stern or N position places the away from the engine mission in the transmission in
b The design of the reversing gear
is such that the operation of both
c Moving the lever to the center the forward and reverse drives is
position puts the transmission in almost instantaneous with the move
neutral and no power is delivered ment of the shifting control lever
to the propeller shaft This condition exists even at low
speeds For this reason it is not
8 OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC REVERSING necessary to race the engine to ob
GEARS tain good shifting In fact it is advisable to shift
a The hydraulic reversing gear is at low speeds below 1400 RPM and
basically a hydraulically operated preferably in the 800 to 1000 RPM
multiple disc clutch in combination range Shifting at a hydraulically operated engine speeds will avoid damage to
planetary reversing gear train The the boat engine reversing gear
and propeller caused by b Manifold
the shock of rapid shifting at high Open drain cocks in exhaust speeds and drain watet from the manifold
9 COLD WEATHER OPERATION c Water Pump
Water pumps are particularly sus
Special precautions must be taken ceptible to damage from operating engines in cold The pump should be carefully to
insure efficient opera A drain plug is provided on the bot
tion and to prevent damage to the tom of the pump housing Six Some items to be considered der engines are equipped wi th
Jabsco
are listed below pumps and to drain loosen end cover
a Keep battery fully charged to d Lubrication freezing and to get maximum The oil pan and lubrication power
should be drained of old or conta
minated oils so that moisture or
b Be sure fuel lines and tanks are acid present in the old oil will
free of water to prevent stoppage not cause corrosion Two or three
in the fuel system due to freezing quarts of new clean oil should be
pumped through the system by turning
c Substitute lighter engine oil the motor by hand or electric starter
See Table 4 Doing so will distribute a clean
film of oil which will act as a
d When engine is stopped after a rust drain all water from water pump and water lines e the water has time to freeze
Remove the spark plugs and pour one
or two ounces of new oil into the
Starting an engine with the water combustion chamber of each cylinder
pump frozen will probably break the to give lubr icat ion to piston rings
drive shaft or damage the gears Be cylinder walls and valves Turn
sure the water pump is thoroughly the engine over a few times to be
thawed out before attempting to sure of distribution before repla
start the engine cing spark plugs
e Extra choking or external heat f Valves and Tappets
may be required to get sufficient Remove the valve tappet covers in the manifold for oil valves and tappets with clean
cold starts oil Replace tappet covers and
seal breather tube end with tape
f Give the engine sufficient time
to warm up both water and oil be g subjecting it to heavy loads See that the distributor is clean
and well lubricated Special care
10 PREPARING ENGINE FOR STORAGE should be taen to prevent the en
trance of moisture during in preparing an engine for
winter storage may lead to annoying h Starting Motor
and costly damage The engine shoulu The start ing motor must be protected
be carefully covered to give com against rain and snow The starter
plete protect ion from rain and snow pinion and screw shaft should be
clean and covered with a film of
a Cylinder Block light oil The bearings all drain cocks on cylinder well lubricated The motor should
block Leave drain cocks open be sealed to prevent corrosion of
and brushes Do not oil Battery
the commutator Remove battery and store in a warm
dry place Battery sbould be fully
i Generator cbarged wben placed in storage and
Oil bearings Seal moisture tight cbecked periodically Occasional
to prevent corrosion cbarging may be desirable to pro
long battery life Terminals sbould
be clean and coated witb vaseline
to prevent SECTION IV
THEORY OF OPERATION
1 GENERAL THEORY OF OPERATION piston down and the power developed
by the sudden tbrust is UNIVERSAL engines are four cycle by means of connecting rod and
water cooled L bead and valve cranksbaft to the propeller engines While various mo
dels of the engine may use differ 4 Exhaust Stroke
ent fuels and may vary in number The fourth and last stroke occurs
of cylinders the basic operation wben the piston again starts its
of the engine remains tbe same upward travel During tbis period
the exhaust valve opens and the
b While operating a four cycle burned gases are forced out of tbe
engine goes through four separate combustion chamber into tbe ex
steps to complete one working or baust manifold and out tbe exbaust
power cycle These steps are compression power and ex
haust c The exbaust stroke marks the end
of one complete operating cycle
1 Intake Stroke After completion of the exhaust
As the piston travels down in the stroke the cycle repeats tbe intake valve opens with the intake stroke and con
Vacuum formed on top of the cyl tinues as long as the engine is in
inder caused by the downward move of the piston draws tbe fuel
mixture from tbe carburetor through 2 THEORY OF IGNITION SYSTEMS
the intake manifold and into tbe
cylinder compression chamber The Blue Jacket Model AFT and tbe
Utility Models BNM and BNMR are
2 Compression Stroke equipped with a agneto ignition
As the piston travels up both system All other models and exbaust valves close in this book have either a 6 or 12
and tbe fuel mixture is compressed volt battery operated the top of the piston and ignition system
the cylinder head
a Battery Operated Power Stroke Ignition System
When the piston has reached the
top of its stroke and has just 1 The ignition system consists of
started down a properly timed the battery distributor causes tbe fuel mixture to coil ignition switch and This explosion
drives tbe plugs
2 Two separate circuits primary 2 The high tension type magneto
and secondary make up the ignition used on UNIVERSAL engines has a
system The primary low tension cir secondary winding comprIsIng a
cui t cons ists of the battery low great number of turns of fine wire
voltage distributor points primary superimposed upon the primary wind
coil winding and condenser The ing The primary winding is high tension circuit con circuited by means of an of the
secondary winding of device during the building uP of
the coil distributor rotor and the field in the armature coil When
cap high tension wiring and spark the energy in the primary has reached a maximum this circuit
is opened and at the same instant
J In operation current from the due to the rotat ion of the passes to the primary wind the magnetic field is removed The
ing of the ignition coil through energy of the primary winding is
the breaker pOints of the distribu discharged through the Periodic opening and closing and due to the ratio of primary to
of the breaker points causes the secondary turns a considerable in
flow of current to start and stop crease in voltage results The re
thus causing an alternate buildup sulting hightension current is then
and collapse of the magnetic field distributed to the spark plugs
around the primary winding of the
coil This fluctuating magnetic J Because the spark intensity of
field cuts the secondary winding of a magneto varies directly with the
the ignition coil causing a very engine speed an increase of energy
high voltage to be induced in it is available at high speeds At low
Current from the secondary of the engine speeds such as when the en
igni t ion coil is then passed through gine is hand cranked the magneto
the distributor rotor to contacts would sometimes fail to produce a
in the distributor cap and finally voltage sufficient to spark across
to the spark plug the spark plug gap In order to pre
vent this from occurring the mag
4 Arcing across the low voltage netos used are equipped with an im
points of the distributor caused pulse coupling which serves to
by the collapsing magnetic field couple the magneto to the engine
around the primary winding of the and at the same time is reduced by use of a con its speed of rotation during the
denser connected across the points starting period
b Magneto Ignition Systems J LUBRICATION SYSTEM
1 Magnetos are a special applica All UNIVERSAL engines are equipped
tion of the electric generator and with a full pressure usually used where the output system
of energy required is small They
are used on some models of UNIVERSAL a Full Pressure Lubrication to furnish energy for igni
tion of the compressed gases in the 1 The full pressure chambers The elements of system effectively lubricates comprise a
permanent necessary moving parts of the en
magnetic field armatures which gine with the exception of those
rotate within that field a circuit accessories mounted on the and a distr ibut ing mechanism of the engine See Table 4 for
which serves to carry the generated those models which require to the spark plug lubrication of reduction gears
2 The gear driven oil pump lo working off an eccentric on the
cated in the oil base draws oil an intake screen Oil is
forced to all main connecting rod 2 As the high point of the cam is
and camshaft bearings through jet reached the plunger is forced down
holes in the connecting rods for causing a vacuum above the wall piston and wrist pin The vacuum draws gasoline from
Drilled holes in the tank through the inlet valve and
cylinder block provide lubrication into the fuel chamber of the pump
for the valve tappets Oil is sup The return stroke releases the com
plied to the reversing gear through pressed diaphragm spring expelling
a drilled hole in the end of the gasoline through the outlet Hydraulic reversing into the carburetor bowl
gears are separately lubricated from
their own oil supply J After several diaphragm strokes
the carburetor bowl fills and its
J All models using the full pres float mechanism rises thus seating
sure system are equipped with an the needle valve and stopping fur
oil pressure regulator which may be ther passage of fuel from the for proper oil pressure With the carburetor bowl filled and
See Table 4 for proper setting needle valve closed back pressure
is created on the diaphragm i7i th
4 Six and eight cylinder models this back pressure on the the SuperFour models are equip the rocker arm movement with oil
coolers Oil from the but is taken up by the linkage
oil pump is circulated to the cooler rather than being transmitted to
aDd cooled by water trom the engine the diaphragm As pressure system A bypass except in the fuel chamber because of car
on SuperFoul models built into the buretor demands the diaphragm will
cooler short circuits the oil di take longer strokes Fuel flow is
rectly from the pump to the oil line thus maintained in accordance with
in the event the cooler becomes engine operating b Carburetor
4 FUEL SYSTEM
The function of the carburetor is
The fuel system consists of fuel to furnish the correct mixture of
tank fuel line strainer pump gasoline and air to the engine in
except on Blue Jacket Twin models the proper proport ion for all flame arrestor and ting conditions idling to full
intake manifold Gasoline from the throttle To accomplish thiS the
tank enters the fuel pump through gasoline is accurately metered at
the strainer and into the carbure all speeds atomized or broken up
tor where it is vaporized and drawn into small particles and mixed
through the intake manifold through with air The fuel is vaporized and
the valves and into the combustion preheated in the intake of the cylinder before being drawn into the cylinder
through the intake valve
a Fuel Pump
c Flame Arrestor
1 The purpose of the fuel pump is
o supply an adequate amount of gaso A flame arrestor attached to the air
line from the tank to the carburetor inlet of the carburetor eliminates
to meet engine requirements at all the possibility of fire being This pump is of the diaphragm by backfiring through the and is
operated by a plunger A special element consisting of
curved plates dissipates the heat SuperFour series engines only
and prevents fire from the arrestor 2 The forward dr ive on this unit is
a double friction clut9h On the
5 COOLING SYSTEM propeller end are a series of fric
tion discs of steel and bronze which
a All engines are equipped with a are mortised into the engine and
positive displacement type water propeller drives and casing On the
pump Six and eight cylinder en engine end a split cone clamps the
gine pumps are rubber impeller engine shaft and frictionally locks
type Two and four cylinder engines the gears to it
have bronze gear pumps The oppo
site type in each case can be ob 3 When the reversing gear lever is
tained on special order moved forward the toggles force home
the plungers clamping all friction
b In the Twin Atomic Utility surfaces together All moving parts
and SuperFour the water flow is are then locked and the whole unit
from pump to block to head to functions as a solid coupling be
manifold then overboard tween the motor and propeller shafts
In the case of the Unimite the 4 Reverse drive is obtained by
flow is from pump to manifold to throwing the lever back This re
block to head then overboard leases the forward drive and throws
on the brake band by means of a camG
All six cylinder engines have the This cam passes through a slot in
same flow which is pump to oil the camshaft that operates to manifold for one com the cam roll and cam shoe This
plete pass then into block through clamps the brake band and prevents
four to six holes depending on the outside case from size then to head to When the casing is thus held from
heat riser on intake manifold and revolving the gearing drives the
then overboarde propeller in the reverse direction
at 80 88 of the motor speed
c See special diagram of water flow in special 5 To place in neutral the leve
manual furnished with each v8 is placed midway betyeen and reverse which releases both
the reverse and forward drives and
d Where either manual or automatic permits the gearing to run control is used vary
ing amounts of discharge water will b Paragon Model Reversing Gears
be recirculated See Fig 11
1 Paragon reversing gears are
6 REVERSING GEARS used on all current production en
gines except the SuperFour and
Four types of reversing gear sys those models which are equipped with
tems are used on UNIVERSAL engines hydraulically operated by these instructions gears or StaNuTral manual gears
Three of these are and the fourth is a hy 2 Power from the engine is system mitted through the engine sleeve
gear and the reverse idler pinions
a Joes Model Reversing Gear to the forward clutch or to the re
verse drive gear
1 The Joes model reversing gear
is currently being used on the 3 The forward clutch consists of
a ser ies of fr ict ion discs alternate reversing gears is provided by the
ones held in the reverse gear drum transmission oil pump mounted in
and on the tailshaft clutch carrier side the reversing gear case and
This group of discs can be clamped driven continuously by the by a pressure plate oper while the engine is running
From
ated by three toggle arms attached the oil pump the oil clutch adjustment plate These is delivered to the pressure
are moved by the yoke and valve and control valve
collar assembly on the tailshaft
In the forward position the entire 3 The operation of the system is
drum and clutch assembly rotates controlled by a control valve mounted
wi th the crankshaft When in neutral on the top cover Moving the lever
and in the reverse posit ion the for determines whether the actuating oil
ward clutch plates are free to turn is delivered to the forward or re
with respect to each other verse The reverse clutch consists of 4 The forward clutch is engaged by
a brake band around the drum with moving the shifting lever to the
an operating mechanism for clamping forward position This operates the
the band to the drum The band is control valve so that it in and rotation prevented by directs the pressure oil from
the band feet which zest on the pump to the forward piston in its
support flanges in the reverse gear cylinder The forward piston When the operating lever the forward multiple disc
clutch
is moved to the rear the band clamp and so turns the propeller shaft in
ing toggle levers pull the open ends the proper direction to move the
of the band together clamping the boat ahead
band tightly around the drum This
prevents rotation of the drum and 5 The reverse band is similarly
the planet pinions or idle pinions engaged by moving the shift ing lever
This causes the tailshaft to be to the reverse position This
rotated in the opposite direction operates the control valve so that
to the crankshaft The arrangement it in turn directs the pressure oil
of forward and reverse clutches from the pump to the reverse both being actuated at the in its cylinder The reverse
posi
same time tion clamps the brake band on the
planetary gear train and so turns
5 When the operating lever is the propeller shaft in the in the center position the direction thus moving the
boat
drum and forward clutch plates are astern
free to turn and no power is trans
mitted from the engine to the pro 6 Neutral or center shaft of the control lever prevents any
pressure oil from entering Hydraulic Reversing Gears the forward or reverse cylinders
In addition the control valve opens
1 The Paragon hydraulic reversing drains in both cylinders so that
gear is basically a hydraulically any oil in either cylinder is multiple disc clutch in out and the pistons
completely with a hydraulically tract disengaging both forward and
operated planetary reversing gear reverse The unit is independent of the engine oil 7 REDUCTION
Some models of UNIVERSAL engines
2 Power for the operation of the are equipped with reduction gears
in ratios varying from 151 to the heavy axial propeller Reduction gears supplied in addition to the radial load ic
with various model engines are shown posed by the helical gear
in lable 1
3 The propelter shaft coupling is
a Helical Reduction Gears keyed to the end of the reduction
gear shaft and held in place by a
I The reduct ion gear unit cons ists lock nut The propeller shaft coup
of a helical drive pinion mounted ling iR supported by the large
on the reverse gear tailshaft sup double ron ball in the reduction gear front
cover and an internal helical gear 4 A ring type oil seal supported on large capacity into the propeller thrust bearing
ball bearings in the reduction gear retainer rubs on the polished sur
housing The reduction gear ratio face of the propeller thrust coup
is determined by the number of teeth ling This prevents loss of reduc
in pInIon and internal gears The tion gear oil from the housing offset is the difference the entrance of water or dirt
into
in pitch radii of the pinion and the reduction gear
the internal gears The pinion gear
is keyed to the reverse gear tail 5 On some models the and held in place by a nut gear is oiled by crankcase pressure
It is supported in a large ball and on others separate in the adaptor plate and is provided See Table 4
reverse gear housing of the pinion gear is b Universal leduction by this ball bearing and
the one on the engine sleeve gear The Universul reduction drive con
at the forward end of the tai lshaft sists of two herringbone gears a
small gear press fit on the reverse
2 The internal helical gear is gear tailsbaft and a larger gear
bolted to a flanged reduction gear which floats OD the spline shaft
shaft rigidly mounted on two large below it Both the drive shaft and
ball bearings The one next to the the lower spline shaft are and carrying most of the ra by heavy duty ball bear ings
Running
dial load is a single row unit in a continuous bath of oil this
The propeller thrust bearing is a type of drive is positive quiet
double row unit capable of taking and smooth
SECTION V
PERIODIC SERVICE
1 maintenance procedures every UNIVERSAL engine
will do much to keep your at top efficiency Regu 2 CHECK
lar inspection of the engine fol
lowing the procelres listed in a Check engine oil level If 2 through 8 will reduce sary Add oil to bring it up to
costs Rnd uphold the full mark on the bayonet stick
high standarlR of quietness reI ia Sec TobIe h for proper eight oil
bility und performance built into
b On engines having separately reduction gears check oil
level and if necessary refill See b Inspect flame arrestor to be
Table 4 for engine requirements sure air passges are clean and
free from oil If dirty remove and
c On engines equipped with hy wash with kerosene Be sure ar
draulic reversing gears check to restor is thoroughly dry before re
see that oil level is at full mark placing
on bayonet stick If necessary re
fill with same grade oil used in c Check adjustment of clutch See
engine Paragraphs 8 and 9 Section VI
d Turn grease cup on water pump 5 ONE HUNDRED FIFTY HOUR CHECK
one turn If necessary refill with
good grade waterproof grease a Check valve tappet gear water pumps only See Paragraph 7 Section VI
e With engine operating check oil b Remove clean and reset plugs See Paragraph 13 Section VI
f With engine operating check c Tighten all nuts and On engines equipped
with temperature indicators tem 6 TWICE A SEASON should be between 130 and
160 degrees F Fresh water 160 0 a Apply one drop of light engine
salt water 140 0 If engine is not oil to the breaker arm hinge pin
equipped with a temperature gauge in distr ibutor
a rough determination can be made
by placing a hand on the engine b Apply two or three drops of
block Engine should operate at a light engine oil to the felt in which will allo hold top of the breaker cam and to the
ing a hand on the block for a per iod governor weight pivots of the dis
of 15 to 30 seconds tr ibutor rotor
3 FIFTY HOUR CHECK c Clean the engine Using sump pump remove all oil d Tighten all lag bolts holding
from crankcase Refill with a good engine to bed
grade oil as specified in Table 4
e Check engine alignment See
b Inspect oil cooler and remove Paragraph 4 Section II
any accumulation of grit or dirt
f Check carburetor Oil generator using three to See Paragraph 6 Section VI
five drops of light engine oil
g Clean and adjust Add three or four drops of med magneto breaker points See Para
ium engine oil to distributor oil graphs 1 and 5 Section VI
h Oil or replace cam Clean fuel pump strainer wicks on magneto See Paragraph 5
Sect ion VI
4 ONE HUNDRED HOUR CHECK
7 ONCE A SEASON CHECK
a Remove glass bowl from fuel
pump and clean out accumulated a Clean generator commutator 3 Section VI e Lubricate and repack bearings on
magneto See Paragraph 5 Section VI
b Check generator and for wear If worn replace B THREE THOUSAND HOUR CHECK
See Paragraphs 3 and 4 Section VI At the end of three thousand hours
of operation the engine should be
c Adjust valve tappets if neces completely overhauled All See Paragraph 7 Section VI should be checked for wear valves
ground piston rings replaced and
d Remove and clean muffler the engine thoroughly cleaned
SECTION VI
DISTRIBUTOR 1INTENANCE of OOIB to 0022 inch See Fig
60 1
a Removal
2 Badly worn or pitted points
1 Unsnap the two springs holding should be replaced When replacing
the cap to the distributor body points be sure they are the cap aligned Bend stationary arm 2
slightly to align points Do not
2 Loosen the clamping screw at bend breaker arm
the base of the distributor
3 Remove the timing which holds the clamp to the
engine block
4 Note the position of the dis
tributor in relation to the engine
to facilitate replacement in the
same relative position
5 Remove distributor from engine
b Inspect the distributor for
cracked broken or worn parts and Fig60 Distributor Body
for excessive burning Replace all
defective parts d Adjustment of Breaker Arm Spring
Tension
2 Clean all parts with 1 Hook a spring scale to the
contact end of the breaker arm and
c Adjustment and Replacement of bold at right angles to the contact
Points surfaces
1 Points which show only a slight 2 Read the scale just as the and are not badly tacts separate Scale reading should
pitted should be cleaned with a be between 17 and 20 ounces
fine point file and reset for a gap
3 If the scale reading is not Engine Hodel loctticD of
within the above limits loosen No 1 Cylinder
the terminal post holding the end
of the spring Fig 60 4 and Blue Jacket Twin Flywheel End
slide the end of the spring in or Atomic Four
out as necessary Ut il i ty Four il
SuperFour
4 Tighten terminal post and re
check tension Unimite Four Reverse Gear End
ArrOl
e G0vernor Adjustment Bluefin
rlar 1 in
Sinco setting of the governor re Tarpon
quires special equipment it should Knight
be done only by an experienced ser
vice man or by the Universal fac Litt Ie King Flywheel End
tory Big King
f Replacement on Engine b Remove spark plug from No I
cyl inder
1 Replace the distributor in the
same relative position as it was c Place thumb over No I spark
when removedo plug hole in cylinder head and
crank engine over until Replace the timing adjusting pressure i8 but do not tighten
leal center of
d Dcter rl inl111 top
g lubrication No 1 yllndpT compression stroke
varies froP 1idel to model thus
1 Place one drop of light engine
oil on the breaker arm hinge pin Blue TacJct Twin Turn flywheel
See Fig 60 6 in normal cranking direction un
til marking is lined up Ylith part
2 Place three drops of light en ing line of cylinder block
gine oil on the felt in the top of Atomic Four TUIn flywheel in nor
the breaker cam See Fig 60 5 mal cranking direction until
cranking pin is straight up and
3 Place three drops of light en dovn
gine oil on the governor ueight Utility Four Same as above but
pivots until pin is horizontal
SuperFour Necessary to remove
4 Add three to five drops of light flywheel cover to see timing
oil to the oiler on the outside of mark on flywheel Mark should be
the distributor base located straight up by above pro
cedure
2 TIMING PROCEDURE All Others All have timing marks
to mntch up on flywheel and fly
a The first step is to locate your wheel engine model in the folloYl
ing list to determine the location e Loosen distributor so it can be
of No I cyl inder upon hich the lifton up to disengage procedure is based drive er Set distributor so that
rotor points to slot in distributor fully pull generator auay from
case when distributor drive gear is Rotate distributor body
unt i 1 breaker po ints are just begin 3 On model belt driven from fly
ning to open wheel remove belt remove nut hold
ing generator pulley to shaft re
f Tighten clamp holding distr ibutor move bol t8 ho lling generator to fly
in position Engine is now roughly wheel housing and carefully pull
timed generator away from housing
g Replace distributor cap on dis 4 On models belt driven from body No I spark plug pump remove belt adjusting
screw
wire goes into the connection di belt and hinge bolt
rectly above the flat on the dis
tributor body at which the rotor 5 Loosen clamping screw and re
is aimed The rest of the wires are move head in the distributor cap in
the proper rotation of firing order 6 Remove brushes from brush holder
go ing from No 1 in a clockwise di
rect ion 7 Place neu brushes in brush
holders
h Final sett ing for peak be uJade lith engine running 8 Draw a piece of 00 sandpaper
between the brushes and in the di
i With engine running at a fixed rection of the brush holder to
throttle setting loosen distribu properly seat the brush against the
tor and rotate to maximum RP11 re commutator See Fig 61
tighten at that point matching timing marks are 9 Blol out accumulated sand and
best adjusted with a timing light dust and replace head band
3 GENERATOR used on UNIVERSAL engines
are three brush and
shunt types With the exception of
periodic lubrication and of brushes and cleaning
of the commutator no be required If trouble of a
major nature is encountered the
generator should be sent to the
Universal factory for repair
a Replacement of Brushes I
If brushes should become oil soaked Fig61 Sanding Distributor Brushes
or have worn to less than original length they should IOReplace generator on engine
be replaced
11 On belt driven models adjust
1 Disconnect generator uiring position of generator for proper
belt tension
2 On gear driven nodels remove
bolts holding generator to the
t iwing gear tra in hous ing and car e
b Lubrication 1 Disconnect start ing motor wir ing
The generator should be lubricated 2 Remove bolts holding 100 hours of operation Place motor to flvheel to five drops of
light en
gine oil in the oil cups at each J Remove otor from housing
end of the generator Do not over
oil 4 Loosen the clamping screw and
slide head band off motor
c Cleaning Commutator
5 Remove brushes from holders
1 Remove generator from engine If brush lead is riveted to brush
as described in subparagraph a 1 holder remove the rivet If brush
through 5 above lead is soldered to field coil
line unsolder and bend open the
2 Loosen clamping screw and re loop on the field coil lead
move headband
6 Install new brushes Be sure
J Remove brushes from holders bevel of brush fits the Hold a piece of 00 sandpaper 7 Draw a piece of 00 commutator and
rotate ar between the brushes and in the
mature until commutator is clean direction of the brush holder to
properly seat the brush against
5 Blml out sand and dust re the commutator See Fig 61
place brushes in holders and install generator on 8 Blowout sand and dust and re
engine place motor on engine
4 STARTER MOTOR MAINTENANCE b Cleaning of the exception of periodic 1 Remove starting motor from and occasional
replace gine and remove brushes from brush
ment of brushes and cleaning of the holders as described in the starting motors graph a 1 through 4
used on UNIVERSAL engines will re
quire very little maintenance 0 2 Hold a piece of 00 starting motor is equipped against the commutator and rotate
with a Bendix drive which acts as armature until commutator is clean c
an automatic clutch that engages
the starting motor uith the engine J Blowout sand and dust when the motor cranks the brushes in holders replace and
disengages when the en and install starting motor on en
gine starts This drive should be once each season and worn
parts replaced If trouble of a c Bendix Drive nature is encountered the
starting motor should be sent to 1 Remove starting motor from en
the UNIVERSAL factory for repair gine remove head band and brushes
as described above
a Replacement of Brushes
2 Remove the pinion housing hold
If brushes have become oil soaked ing screws
or have worn to less than onehalf
of their original length they J Pull arcature and pinion be replaced from the mot or
it from the engine
b Inspection and Cleaning
1 Loosen the screws and emove
the end cap from the magneto Be
careful not to damage the gasket
betueen the end cap and the magneto
body
2 Remove the distributor cap from
the end cap
J Inspect magneto for worn or bro
Fig62 Bendix Drive ken parts Check end and distributor
caps for cracks and burned areas
4 Press the armature out of the
pinion housing 4 Replace all worn or broken parts
5 Remove the Bendix head spring 5 Clean all exposed portions of
scre screw nearest armature or the magneto with carbon end of shaft and slide the
Bendix from the shaft See Fig 62 c Adjustment of POints American
Bosch
6 Inspect all parts for wear Replace all defective 1 Inspect the points for of pitting or
burning If points are
only slightly burned dress with
7 Reassemble and install on engine fine point file If points are badly
burned replace
d service requirements of this
unit are light and it requires very
little lubrication Once each season
the motor should be disassembled I
and the bronze bearings soaked in Z
oil Some models are equipped with
oil holes on the commutator end of
the shaft Three or four drops of
light oil every 100 hours of opera
t ion placed in this oil hole is MAGNETO MAINTENANCE Fig6J Magneto American Bosch
a Removal 2 Turn the magneto shaft until
the cam shoe rides on the highest
1 Pull the ignition ires free of point of the cam
the magneto distributor cap
J Loosen the locking screw I
2 Remove the two capscrews holding
the magneto to the mounting bracket 4 Turn the eccentric adjusting
screw 2 until the points are open
Pull the magneto in a direction 0015 Tighten the locking screw
a1vay from the drive shaft and lift
d Adjustment of POints 2 Further lubrication of the mag
neto by the operator is not recom
mended
1 Inspect the points for evidence
of pitting or burning g Timing American Bosch
2 If points are badly pitted re 1 Remove the distributor plate
place If pitting is minor dress end cap
with fine point file
2 Turn the distributor shaft in
3 Loosen the two locking screws the oPPosite direction from its
1 and 2 normal rotation until the arrow on
the end of the shaft points to the
4 Turn the magneto shaft until center of cable outlet No1
the cam shoe rests on the highest
point of the cam 3 Crank the engine until piston
No 1 is at the top dead center
5 Insert a scre7 dr iver in the position This point is 3 underneath the breaker by a mark on the Turn
the scre7dr iver against
the two projections until a sepa 4 Mount the magneto on the at the points of 0015 is
obtained Tighten the locking 5 Loosen the impulse coupling ad
screws justable drive and turn the magneto
shaft until the points are just be
ginning to open
6 Tighten the impulse coupling
and replace the end cap
h Timing 1 Remove the distributor cap
2 Turn the magneto shaft until
the distributor rotor lines up with
the projection on the inner wall
Fig64 Uagneto of the end cap
e Lubrication American Bosch 3 Replace the distributor cap
Fig 63
4 Crank the engine unt il the No
1 Place two drops of light oil 1 cylinder is at the top dead cen
on the cam wick 3 ter position This position is
indicated by a mark on the flywheel
2 Lubrication of the remainder of
the magneto requires special tools 5 lfount the magneto on the en
for disassembly and should not be gine Be careful not to by the operator the setting of the
magneto If ne
cessary loosen the impulse coupling
t Lubr icat ion connector and turn it until it is
Fig 64 properly aligned
1 If the cam Yick 4 is dry and 6 CARBURETOR IJA replace with new uick All UNIVERSAL larine
Engines
covered by these instructions are 9 Hold the adjusting screw in
supplied with Zenith marine type place and tighten the packing nut
safety nondrip carburetors ex
cept the V8 models See special 10 Return the throttle to idle
V8 instruction books With the position and readjust idle of the following ad valve slightly for best maintenance of the
car by the operator is If difficulties arise b are not correctable by the
following adjustments it is recom The carburetors used on six cyl
mended that the carburetor be inder gasoline marine engines are
sent to the UNIVERSAL factory for the Zenith updraft type with both
repair or replacement idling and highspeed adjustments
Each has a large air entrance whose
a Adjustment of Throttle Stop bowl shaped bottom acts as a drip
Screw Idle Needle Valve and collector with automatic drain
Main Jet
A properly adjusted Before any of the above ad should be left to the carburetor are
made the engine should be opera If the fuel is free from dirt or
ted for a sufficient length of other impurities the to reach operating tempera should not clog up or give
We recommend that a large size
2 With throttle in idling posi fuel strainer be inserted in the
tion adjust the throttle stop gasoline line between the fuel
screw for desired idling speed pump and carburetor to trap dirt
See Fig 65 and 66 and Turn the idle needle valve Since a marine engine operates
in and out until the speed of under more or less steady load
the engine is steady and as fast conditions it is this throttle position will easy to adjust the carburetor To
permit facilitate adjustment of the car
buretor it is fitted with an id
4 Readjust the throttle stop ling jet A high speed jet Btl
screw for desired engine idling choke C and idling screw D as shown in Fig 68
5 Open the throttle approximately When adjusting your carburetor be
onethird sure that the flame arrestor is
clean and free of Loosen the packing nut on the and that the choke C is wide open
main jet adjustment 1arm the engine up thoroughly be
fore attempting the Turn the main jet in until the engine speed is With the engine idling turn the reduced ling
jet A slowly to the right
and left until the setting is found
8 Turn the main jet adjustment that will let the engine idle
screw out until the engine runs smoothly and as fast as that and as fast as this throt tle setting will permit Adjust the
tle position will permit idling adjustment screw D to the
IDLE ADJUSTING
NEEDLE
IDlE
MAIN Fig65 Carburetor 631 and 263I Fig66 Carburetor 61 Series
idling speed and repeat the jet size is No 42 21 mm of idling jet A jet size should be correct for
However if the oper
iVi th the boat under way on smooth ator desires very fine tuning he
water open the throttle approxi may try jets varying from size 41
mately 75 Turn the high speed to 44 but not scalIer than 41
jet B in until the engine loses
power and RPM Now open the jet At the bottom ot the the engine runs smoothly float bowl will be found a
hexagon
and at its higbest RPM for this head brass plug 7bere a setting main jet is usually
found on mar
ine carburetors The mein jet is
The carburetor should now be cor reached by removing this plug The
rectly adjusted for smooth opera jet itself is a soall brass threaded
tion and maximum pouer at all cylinder uith a shoulder ed a
speeds A slightly rich fuel mix screwdriver slot at one end neove
ture is preferable to a lean mix and instCJll the jet tith F SC1e1
ture as a lean mixture has the ap driver using care Dot to damage
parent effect of reducing the the jet or the threeds in the
octane rating of the fuel and can carburetor Jowl casting The size
result in a tendency toward detona number is stamped on the end of
tion ping burned valves and the jet
scored or Worn cyl inders Therefore
do not lean out the fuel mixture This carburet 01 part number 9005
in an attempt at fuel economy 120 has a trlohole idle system
that is rfther sensitive in ad
Knight engines with serial number justment It t1ill require more
4979 to 6346 were equipped with a care in adjusting tbe idle jet
fixed main jet carburetor intended than with the former Knight car
to discourage tbe general tendency buretor
to lean out the fuel mixture for
economy but which is actually det The pCJrt number of each to the engine Standard model will be found
stawped on the
small round brass disc riveted fully observe the reaction of the
to the carJuretor tachometer If the tachometer shows
a steady decrease as the throttle
The Zenith carburetor supplied is retarded the stop screw is not
on the lIodel 250 155 II P Knight needed in adjusting the require adjustment of the Hoever if the tachometer plate stop
screw An at increases to a maximum and then
the full throttle position See falls off as the throttle is re
Fig 69 This carburetor is some tarded the stop screw must be used
7hat sensit ive to the thrott Ie to correctly position the positioning in that if it plate as follorls Find the thrott Ie
goes slightly past the vertical position that will give maximum en
POSition it will upset fuel dis gine RPU and stop the engine in the anifold and cause disturbing the throttle setting
lIarced decrease in engine p017er Screw the stop screw in until it
and speed at full throttle The just touches the stop pin is correctly set on en the engine and check to see that
gines tested at the factory but it uill still attain its peak carburetors ill have as noted before the adjustment It
to be adjusted in the field would be preferable if the adjust
ment or setting of the stop screw
l7ith the carburetor attached and t7as made with the engine running
the engine ready to run loosen but this is not possible or advis
the stop screw A until it does able in many contact the stop pin fB with
the throttle lever c at the full Always take every precaution position as shom in Fig fire hazards when working around
69 In this position the cast lug your fuel system Be sure to dis
on the throttle lever should touch connect batteries do not turn on
the stop pin Now with the engine flashlights operate at full throttle close switches or turn over the starter
the throttle very slowly and care or generator
THROTTlE LEVER C IN
FULL THROTTLE POSITION J
Fig68 Carburetor Adjustoents Fig69 Carburetor Adjustments
7 VALVE TAPPET ADJUSTIlENT plate
a Valve tappet adjustments ere to 2 Loosen the screw 2 17hich holds
be made with the piston on top dead the clip 3 in the notcQes cut in
center of the compression stroke the gear case housing until the clip
with both valves closed can be lifj out of the notch See
Fig 71
b Two tYPBS of tappet adjust ing
screrls areused one is of the self 3 Turn the gear case cover type and the other has a rise one nut for holding the
adjust
ing screw in place Before malring CAUTION
the adjustment this locking nut may cause re
ust be loosened and the adjusting verse gear drum to break when
nut held in place when it is re shift lever is after the adjustment is
copleted See Fig 70 4 Place the clip in the notch and
tighten screw
5 Repeat the process until the
clutch does not slip under full
drive of the engine
6 Replace the reversing gear
cover plate
b neverse Drive Adjustoent
1 TIeoove the reversing gear cover
pl2te
Fig70 Valve Tappet fdjustoent 2 Remove cotter pin and slack off
adjusting nut 1 See Fig 71
1 Bemove the valve cover plate on
the carburetor side of the engine 3 Full operating lever toward
Be careful not to damage the valve reverse position until cam roll
plate gaslet rests on cam at point A Fig 72
2 Cranr the engine until the pis 4 Tighten adjusting nut until
ton is in the top dead center drum uill not revolve l7ith the lever
posit ion in reverse position and the engine
at full pOt7er
3 Adjust the tappets to the
clearance shown in Table 7 CAUTION
Do not adjust so tightly that
4 Replace the valve cover If the the cam roll cannot ride out
gasket is damaged replace with a of the notch at point C
neVl gaslcet us ing a good grade gasket Fig 72
cement
9 REVERSING GEAR REVERS HrG GEAR ADJUST11ENT Pf RAGOH 11J NUAL IIODEL
JOBS I1ODEL
a Forward Drive Forl7Cord dr i ve Adjustoent
1 TIemove the reversing gear cover
1 emove the reversing gear cover plate
2 Back out lockscreu 1 until to the reverse position See Fig
the end is free of the Detch cut 74 A and B
in the adjusting collar See Fig
74 A and B 4 Tighten the adjusting bolt 2
until the brake band prevents the
3 Turn the adjusting collar clock gear case from revolving Turn the
vise until the lockscreu is oppo adjusting bolt approxiately one
site the next notch in the collar half turn past this point to com
pensate for Vlear on the brake band
4 Tighten the lockscrew being
sure that the end of the scrm 5 Replace the locking wire on the
enters the notch in the collar adjusting bolt
5 Repeat the above process until 10 REVERSING GEAR clutch does not slip with the IIYDRAULIC REVERSING GEAR
engine at full power The hydraulic reversing gear is de
C441
ROLL
NEtTIML
Reverse Gear Adjustment Fig72 Reverse Gear Cam
Joes Hodel Adjustment Joos Hodel
b Reverse Drive Adjustment signed so that in normal service
no adjustments are necessary As
1 Remove the reversing gear cover the clutch plates near ttie piston compensates for this veal
by moving further foruard As the
2 Remove the locking wire from brake band lining wears the re
the adjusting bolt verse piston moves further dovlD to
compensate fol this wear
3 With the engine turning over
slowly move the operating lever
II STANUTRAL l1ANUAL the reverse band evenly Gbout the
drurr 1i th the reverse gear in the
The adjustments that follo for the forward or neutral position the manual be made periodically They
are especially important t7here re
mote control type of eqniIrnent is
used for shifting and the feel the tension on transmission is of the with which is incorporated clutch running in en
gine oil Tension of the reverse
lever B Fig 7 or not adjustent of the
clutch is of the clutch in is as follows Remove top
cover of reverse gear shifting fork in the and pullout A in after plate of reverse
gear and clutch assembly This
plate is threaded ito the reverse Fig7 StaKuTral Reverse Gear
gear drum Rotate the end plate in
a clocm7ise direction until pin verse band should be free of pres
A seats itself in the next ad sure contact tith the drum ie
joining hole in the clutch plate you should be able to Uniggle the
Try the shifting lever to see if band easily uith the fingers If
desired result has been obtained the band is dragging against the
Repeat performance until clutch drum it can be raised or is satisfactory slihtly by adjusting the nuts on
the anchor bolt H
17hen adjusting clutch for reverse
set reverse lever B in reverse 12 OIL PRESSUTIE Slack off locknut Fand stop screw fiG until reverse
lever remains in reverse position The oil pressure reguletor is set
1ben this result has been obtained at the factory for proper pressure
lock stop scret7 17ith locknut NOTE and further adjustlllent should ilot
This adjustment is made at the be necessary oever if and is rarely required in should becoue necessary proceed
the field as nhile still holding reverse l nun the enine until it ms
lever in the reverse position reached operting off locknut c n and screu
dm1n on adjusting screu nDn until 2 Loosen the p7essure is c 116 gap under asher locking nut See Fie 75 Loc2ted
E tben this edjustoent has been inside oil p2D on si tighten locknut Cu enGines See FiGe 76
Anchor bolt H is used to center ilold the locking nut tld tUll1
Fig 7 L Reverse Gear AdjustrJent Paragon
the pressure regulat ing screrl in I SPARK PLUG llA INTENANCE
or out until the proper in Table 4 is reached Spark plugs should be inspected
and cleaned from time to time ano
4 Hold the regulating screw in the gap betleen the electrodes se1
place uith a screwdriver and for proper clearance Table Ie
ti 6 hten the locking nut gives tIle proper size spark plug
CROW FOOT
Oil Fressure aegulator
Adjustment
Oil Pressure negulator
Adjustment
and gap setting for each engine 3 Check diaphragm return by these 4
Check cam roll and cam arm for
14 FUEL Pma 1IAINTENANCE worn parts
See Fig77
c Replacement of Parts
a DiE assembly
1 Replace all parts 7hich are
1 Disconnect fuel lines and re damaged or show signs of wear
move pump from engine
2 A special fuel pump repair kit
2 Loosen nut holding bale to is available from the bowl and remove bowl factory
3 Remove screen and gasket d Assembly
4 Remove screws holding primer 1 Put diaphragm assembly in
to bottom of pump place on pump body
5 Remove springs and retaining 2 Insert pin securing plunger to cam lever
6 Remove spring clips from pin 3 Replace retaining clips on pin
holding cam lever to and remove pin 1I Replace primer pump cover Be
sure springs are in place and pro
7 Remove screws holding pump perly seated on retaining plugs in
cover to pump body Be careful not cover
to damage diaphragm when separating 5 Replace pump cover Tighten all
cover from pump body screws evenly and check to be sure
diaphragm lies flat and smooth
b Inspect ion
6 Replace screen gasket and
1 Inspect screen for tears and sediment bowl
holes
7 Replace fuel pump on engine
2 Inspect diaphragm for cracks and reconnect fuel lines
breaks and punctures
Table 10
SPARK PLUG DATA
ENGINE NUMBER SIZE GAP SETTING
Champion
Blu e Jacket Tw in D16M 18 rrun 025
Atomic Four J8 14 mm 035
Utility Four D16M 18 rrun 030
Unimite four J8 14 mm 035
SuperFour D16M 18 rrun 030
Arrow J 7 14 mm 030
Bluefin J7 14 rrun 030
Marlin J7 14 rrun 030
Tarpon J7 14 mm 030
Knight J7 14 rrun 030
Little King UJ6M 14 rrun 028
Big King FIIY 14 rrun 033 038
JCPEEN
4 JfDIMEN
BOWL
PRIMER
LEVER
Fig Fuel Fump
15 nINTENANCE OF VDRIVE UNITS b General 1 The unit must be kept filled to
the full mark on the bayonet sticko
1 The Universal VDrive unit is Use a good grade EP90 into the Atomic Uni gear Bluefin and Knight models
and is designed as an integral part CAUTION
of the engine The unit is directly New units shipped from the
coupled to the engine by a spline factory do not contain lubri
shaft and coupling cant Fill and check unit
carefully lJefore starting
2 The VDrive unit is a self unit i7ater cooling is ac 2 After the first 50 hours of
complished by direct connection to operation drain unit and refill
the main water supply of the en to full mark on the bQyonet stick
gine Clean magnetic drain plug before
The unit requires no very little maintenance uith 3 Change lubricant every 500
the exception of proper lubrication hours of the maintenance of proper 59
16 REPAITI PARTS KIT
engine The kit con
A factory packged repair parts tains parts most likely to require
cit is C1vailable for all models of replaceoent through normal covered by these instruc operction cach
part is Parts included in the kit Tapped L d 17aterproof been selected by the Universal and packed in a
convenient size
ilot or Company Service Department oetel box deSigned for lasting
based on years of experience in storage
SECTION VII
TROUBLE SHOOTING
Any gasoline engine depends upon to help the operator locate and
three main factors for proper overcome some of the most an unfailing fuel sup causes of engine
failure or im
ply uninterrupted ignition and proper operation In Table 6 Pro
good compress ion llen anyone of bable Causesare listed in the most
these is not present or present likely order of occurrence Only
only engine failure one correction should be result The following trouble at a tiDe and that possibility
information is designed inated before going on to the next
Table 6
TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
Trouble Probable Cause Correction
Starter will not crank Discharged battery Charge or replace battery
engine
Corroded battery terminals Clean terminals
Loose connection in starting Check and tighten all connections
circuit
Defective starting switch Replace switch
Starter motor brushes dirty Clean or replace brushes See Par 4
or worn Sec VI
Jammed Bendix gear Loosen starter motor to free gear
Defective starter motor Replace motor
Starter motor turns but Partially discharged battery Charge or replace battery
does not crank engine
Defective wiring or wiring Check wiring for worn or acid eaten
of too low capacity spots See Table Sec I for proper
size wire
Broken Bendix drive Remove starter motor and repair drive
See Par 4 Sec VI
Engine will not start Empty fuel tank Fill tank with proper fuel See Table
Defective fuel system 5 for fuel oil models
Flooded engine Remove spark plugs and crank engine
several times Replace plugs
Table G
TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
1 rr i II J
Engine will not start Water in fuel system T f II II t I r I I 1
tt I t it II k lIt i
Defective fuel system lilj dnd l lr 1fi11
II i t It
Cont pr IJIr I
Inoperative or stickin tluJ t 11 J dTlII ilok d lj
choke valve cabl 111 1J1Wr 0IHfit t itlll
Improperly adjusted carbure Adjut tor
n
Clogged fuel lines or de 1l1UIJlWt 111 lill It fective fuel pump
II fuel lIW It 1111 C11y 1 ill II 11
sciJu i lankld OlluJl luL Lill tlld
dimpnt bOIl 111111 till II Iwt
Io fltl ilJtlr rUIJtjr 11
repl 1111TI1 1111 lj OIe l 1
NOTE On fuel oilkerosene lIIoelel 111 110 i III
proper pOSition for startiIl OIl Engine will not start flll 1 t 11 I r
Defective ignition defective
system
Fouled or broken spark plugs I1ltTlOf JtlIJ Ull UlllI1L l
Iirt ICiJlt lI
ilp Sec Par l t 1
Improperly set worn or pit Remove cntr wir from iIi
ted listributor point Il I and hoI witllin lies inch nl motor block
fcctive conelenser Defective Crank ninf Clal 1mIll park hould
ignition coil jump beteIl wire and block when poiTlt
open Clnn an at1just paints SCI 1a1
1 Sec YI If spark iii weak or yellow
after adjllstment of loints replace
conener 11 park still is weak 01
not preAnt replace ignition coil
Wet crackeel or broken WiJJe inile snrfaces of distributor lry
c1istributor with cl1n cloth Inspect for cracked
or broken JJllts Replace part where
Improperly set worn or Rcmoe park plug wire and hold within
pitted magneto breaker JJoints JH inch of eng inc block Clean sharp
Magneto models only spark should jump betven wire anel
block when engine is cranked If spark
is wPHk ur not present clean and ad
just breaker points See Par 1 Sec
Improperly set worn or pit HCIIIOYC park plug wire and hold within
I
ted timer pOints Defective lH inch of engine block A clean sharp
coil park 1101Ild jump between wire and
Battery in good condition block when engine is cranked Clean and I
Timer models only et timer points If srark still is not I
present when engine is cranked replace
coil I
Improper timing Check anc1 set timing See Par 1 Sec
VI for electrical ignition models Pal
5 Sec VI for magneto models i
Table 6
TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
Cont
Trouble Probable Cause Correction
will not start Air leak around intake mani Check for leak by squirting oil around
Poor compression and fold intake connections If leak is found
otber causes tighten manifold and if necessary re
place g cts
Loose spark plugs Check all plugs for proper seating gas
ket and tightness Replace all damaged
plugs and gaskets
Loosely seating valves Check for broken or weak valve springs
warped stems carbon and gum deposits
and insufficient tappet clearance See
Par 7 Sec VI
Damaged cylinder head gasket Check for leaks around gasket when en
gine is cranked If a leak is found
replace gasket
Worn or broken piston rings Replace broken and worn rings Check
or damaged cylinder walls cylinders for out of round and engine tem No water circulation Check for clogged water lines and re
perature stricted inlets and outlets Check for
broken or stuck thermostat Look for
worn or damaged water pump or water
pump drive
Engine temperature too Broken or stuck thermostat Replace thermostat
No oil pressure Defective gauge or tube Replace gauge or tube
No oil in engine Refill with proper grade oil See
Table 4
Dirt in pressure relief Clean valve
valve
Defective oil pump leak Check oil pump and oil pump drive for
in oil lines or broken oil worn or broken parts Tighten all oil
pump drive line oil pressure Too light body oil Replace with proper weight oil See
Table 4
Oil leak in pressure line Inspect all oil lines Tighten all
connections
Weak or broken pressure re Replace spring
lief valve spring
Worn oil pump Replace pump
Worn or loose bearings Replace bearings
Oil pressure too high Too heavy body oil Drain oil and replace with oil of
proper weight See Table 4
Stuck pressure relief valve Clean or replace valve
Dirt or obstruction in lines Drain and clean oil system Check for
bent or flattened oil lines and re
place where 62
Table 6
TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
Cont
Trouble Probable Cause in oil Infrequent oil changes Drain and refill with proper weight oil
Water in oil Drain and refill If trouble persists
check for cracked block defective head
gasket and cracked head
Dirty oil filter Replace filter
Loss of RPM Obstructed fuel line air Correction of these difficulties is
Engine leak in fuel linedirty fil covered under Engine will not start
ter or air portions of this table
fuel pump or carburetor out
of adjustment
Fouled or broken spark Correction of these difficulties is
points out covered under Engine will not start
of adjustment or incorrect portions of this table
timing
Valve tappets out of adjust Correction of these difficulties is
mentwarped or burned valves covered under Engin will not start
worn piston ringstoo heavy portions of this table
lubricating oil or leaking
cylinder head gasket
Loss of RPM Damaged propeller
Boat or associated Bent rudder
equipment Misalignment
Too tight stuffing box pack
ing gland
Dirty boat Misfiring or preignition See correction under misfiring and pre
ignition
Loose foundation or founda
tion bolts
Propeller shaft out of line
or bent
Propeller bent or pitch out
of ion Defective spark plugs Check all spark plugs for broken por
celain burned electrodes or electrodes
out of adjustment Replace all defec
tive plugs or clean and reset
Improper timing See Par 1 2 and 5 Sec VI
Engine carbon Remove cylinder head and clean out
carbon
Engine overheating See correction under Engine Overheating
portion of this Defective spark plugs im See correction under Engine will not
properly adjusted distribu start portions of this table
tor pOints or defective
Insufficient fuel reaching See correction under Engine will not
engine due to dirty lines start portions of this table
strainer or blocked fuel
tank vent Water in fuel
Poorly adjusted distributor See correction under Engine will not
start port ions of this table
SECT ION V III
REPAIR
1 MAJOR REPAIRS 3 Method of shipment desired
parcel post express truck or
a It is not recommended that the rail freight If freight perform any repairs more is desired give name of truck
complex than those covered under line or railroad and specify
the maintenance section of this in closest freight book If repairs of a
major nature should become neces 2 the engine should be serviced a OUr interest in you does not
by an authorized Universal dealer diminish after you have purchased
or shipped direct to the Universal our product Our claims will al
factory However should the opera ways be made good lre agree to
tor prefer to make his own repairs give you satisfactory 7 througb 9 list proper within the limits of our and torque
wrench set tions and are ready at all times
tings for all models covered by to assist you in obtaining satis
these instructions as an aid in faction Do not hesitate to come
making these repairs to us if you feel that we can be
of any assistance Your inquiries
b Only genuine Universal parts will be promptly answered and you
specially designed for marine en will be advised with care in a
gines should be used Repair manner easily understood ile want
parts for all models of Universal every UNIVERSAL owner to be a up to 21 years old are talking advertisement and a for immediate
shipment
from Universal dealers or directly b We feel that you are willing to
from the Universal factory llhen do your part and that you will use
ordering parts it is essent ial that care and judgment in the running
the following information be in of your engine Do not expect the
cluded with the order impossible and remember that by
using good quality lubricants by
1 Model and serial number of careful attention to detect the
the engine first sign of trouble and by prompt
correction of troubles as they oc
2 Part number or full descrip cur the length of life and useful
tion and sketch of part ness of your engine will be greatly
increased
CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL SIZE
MODEL MAIN BFARING CONNECTING ROD
Blue Jacket Twin 1748 000001 1748 Four 19880 00050000 15625 Four 1498 1497
1498 1499
Super Four 19985 00050005 19985 Four 1 988 1 987 1 7 48 1 7 47
Arrow 2 L98 2497 1988 1987
Bluefin 2498 2497 1988 1987
Marlin 2498 2497 1988 1987
Tarpon 2498 2497 1988 1987
Knight 2498 2497 1988 1987
Little King 22978 22988 1999 2000
Big King 2899 2900 2599 2600
Table 7
VALVE AND PISTON DATA
MODEL PISTON PISTON VALVE SEAT VALVE TAPPET VALVE STEM
NAME CLEARANCE RING ANGlE CLEARANCE CLEARANCE IN GUIDE
GAP INTAKE AND C ID
EXHAUST INT EXH INTAKE EXHAUST
Blue Jacket Twin 0015 009 014 45 0 008 010 0015 002 0015 002
Atomic Four
Utility Four
0015 007 015 45 0 008 010 001 0015 0015 0025
002 008 013 45 0 006 008 0015 002 0015 0015 010 015 45
0 010 012 0015 002 0015 002
Unimite Four 003 015 020 30 0 010 010 001 0015 0025 003
Arrow 0025 003 015 020 30 0 010 014 0025 003 0025 003
Bluefin 0025 003 015 020 30 0 010 014 0025 003 0025 004
0045
004 0045
30 0
30 0
012 016
012 016
0025
0025
0025
0025
King
005 0055
0006 001
30 0
46 0
012 018 0025
0027
0025
0017
0034
King 0011 0029 015 025 30 0 Int
45 0 Exh
001 0024
001 0024
Table 8
TORQUE WRENCH TENSION
In CYLINDER HEAD CONNEClING ROD MAIN BEARINGS MAIN BEAR INGS MANIFOLD SPARK
NAME BOLTS OR NUTS NUTS FRONT INTER CENTER REAR STUDS PLUGS
Blue Jacket Twin 40 40 60 60 35 35
Atomic Four 60 60
33 35 30
Ut ility Four 25 60 60 40 35
SuperFour 55 50 100 100 45 35
Unimi te Four 40 42 77 77 35 30
Arrow 60 39 70 60 30
Bluefin 60 39 70 60 30
Marlin 65 56 70 60 30
Tarpon 65 56 70 60 30
Knight 65 56 70 60 30
Little King 65 33 65 65 30 23
Big King 95105 4550 95105 95105 2328 1520
Table 9
BEARING DATA
MODEL CONNECTING ROD CONNECTING ROD CRANK8WFl MAIN CRANKSHFl THRUST CAMSHFl BEARING
NAME CLEARANCE END PLAY BEARING CLEARANCE AT CLEARANCE
Diameter CLEARANCE THRUST BEARING Diameter
Jacket Twin 0015 0025 002 003 0015 0025 002 003 0025 003
Atomic Four 001 0025 004 008 001 0025 002 003 002 0025
Utility Four 0015 0025 002 003 0015 002 002 003 0025 002 003
002 003 002 003 003 004 0025 003
Unimite Four 001 0015 005 010 002 0025 002 004 0015 0025
Arrow 0015 002 005 010 0015 003 002 004 0015 0025
Bluefin 0015 002 005 010 0015 003 002 004 0015 0025
Marlin 002 0025 005 010 0015 003 002 004 0015 0025
Tarpon 002 0025 005 010 0015 003 002 004 0015 0025
Knight 0025 Ooa 005 010 0015 003 002 004 0015 0025
L1 tt Ie King
Big King
0006
0026
2 008
0009
0029
0015
0035
Table 11
VALVE TIMING
MODEL INLET VALVE INLET VALVE EXHAUST VALVE EXHAUST VALVE
NAME OPENS CLOSES OPENS CLOSES
Blue Jacket Twin 50 after TDC 45 0 after LDC 40 0 before LDC TDC
Atomic Four before TDC oo after LDC before LDC 10 0 after TDC
Utility Four
5 after TDC a
50 after LDC
40 0
50 0
before
before
50 after TDC 55 after LDC
Unimite Four 50 before TDC 55 0 after LDC 45 0 before LDC 15 after TDC
Arrow 50 before TDC 55 after LDC 45 before LDC 15 after TDC
Bluefin 5 before TDC 55 after LDC 45 0 before LDC 15 after TDC
Marlin 50 before TDC 55 after LDC 45 before LDC 15 after TDC
Tarpon 50 before TDC 55 after LDC 45 before LDC 15 after TDC
Knight 50 before lDC 55 after LDC 45 before LDC 15 after TDC
TDC means TOP DEAD CENTER
LDC means LOWER DEAD CENrER
See Table 7 for Valve Tappet Clearance
SECTION IX
INDEX
Page
Aligning the Engine 8
Bearing Data Table 9 65
Breakin Maintenance 50
Cold Weather Operation 37
Cooling Sy stem 41
Cooling Water System Installation of 9
Crankshaft Data Maintenance System Installation of 12
Engine 2
Engine Models General Data Table 1 3
Engine Rotation 2
Engine Stringers Beds Installation of 7
Exhaust Piping Installation of 9
Fifty Hour Check 44
Finishing Engine Installation 12
Firing Order Table 5 36
Fuel Pump Maintenance 58
Fuel System Installation 11
Fuel System Theory of 40
Generator Maintenance 47
Ignition System Theory of Data Table 2 Preparation for 4
INDEX Cont Panels Chart Table 4
System 39
Magneto Maintenance 49
Major Repairs 64
Oil Pressure Regulator Adjustment 56
Once a Season Check 44
One Hundred Hour Check 44
One Hundred Fifty Hour Check 44
Periodic Service General Checks Operation Cbeck for Shipment Factory
for Storage 37
Propeller Shaft Installation of 5
Reduction Gears Theory of Operation 42
Repair Parts Kits Generator Fig 22 20
Reverse Gear Adjustment Joes 54
Reverse Gear Adjustment Paragon Hydraulic 55
Reverse Gear Adjustment Paragon Manual 54
Reverse Gear Operation Hydraulic 36
Reverse Gear Operation Manual 36
Reverse Gears Theory of Operation 41
Scale Drawings Engines 21
Spark Plug Data Table 10 58
INDEX Plug Maintenance 57
Special Equipment Manual Gear 56
Starter Maintenance 48
Starting Electric Ignition Models 33
Starting Fuel Oil and Kerosene Models 34
Starting Magneto Models 34
Stopping Engine 34
Theory of Operation ByPass Valve Installation of 10
Three Thousand Hour Check 45
Timing Procedure Ignition 46
Torque Wrench Tensions Table 8 65
Treatment of Engine on Arrival 1
Trouble Shooting 60
Twice a Season Check 44
VDrive Installation 13
VDrive Unit Maintenance 59
Valve and Piston Data Table 7 65
Valve Tappet Adjustment 54
Valve Timing Table 11 65
Wire Sizes Electrical System Table 3 17
Wiring Diagram 5unit Panel Fig 20 18
Wiring Diagram 3unit Panel Fig 20A 18
Wiring Diagram 60 Ampere Alternator Fig 21 19
Wiring Diagram 12 Volt Generator Fig 21A 19
Wiring Diagram 12 Volt Shunt Generator Standard and
24 Amp Fig 22 20

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