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Universal Diesel M 25xpa Operator's Manual




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OPERATORS MANUAL
Unlvarsal
MARINE DIESEL M320B M25XPA M25XPB
M35A M35B
PUBUCATION 200494
1ST EDITION I APRIL 1997
WESTERBEKE CORPORATION AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK
AVON MA 02322 TEL 508 588noo FAX 508 5599323
N MMAMmMr NaJolllll Marin Manufocturrrs OPERATORS MANUAL
Univarsal
MARINE DIESEL M320B M25XPA M25XPB
M35A M35B
PUBLICATION 200494
1ST EDITION I APRIL 1997
WESTERBEKE CORPORATION AVON INOUSTRIAL PARK
AVON MA 02322 TEL 508 5887700 FAX 508 5599323
iIIr
NMMA Member Nalional Marine CALIFORNIA
PROPOSmON 65 engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer birth defects and harm
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
UNIVERSAL DIESEL PREVENT BURNS HOT ENGINE
Rem this safety manlllll carefully Most accidents are caused
IJy failure to follow juruiJlmenJal rules and precautions A WARNING Do not much hat engine parts or
Know when dangerous conditions erist and take the exhaust system components A running engine precautions to protect yourself your
personnel vert hat
and your foUuwing safety instructions are in compliance with Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant
the American Boat and Yacht Council ABYC staruiJlrtis recovery ELECTRIC SHOCK IA WARNING
Steam can cause injury or death
A WARNING Do nat touch AC electrical In case of an engine overheat allow the engine to cool
nile engine is running IX nen connected to shore before touching the engine or checking the coolant
power Lethal roltage is present at these connections
PREVENT BURNS ARE
Do not operate this machinery without electrical
enclosures and covers in place IA WARNING Steam can cause injury or death
Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical
equipment Prevent flash fires Do not smoke or permit flames or
sparks to occur near the carburetor fuel line filter fuel
Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical pump or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel
equipment vapors Use a suitable container to catch all fuel when
removing the fuel line carburetor or fuel filters
Make sure your clothing and skin are dry not damp
particularly shoes when handling electrical equipment Do not operate with the Coast Guard Approved flame
arrester removed Backfire can cause severe injury or
Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
death
electrical equipment
Do not operate with the air removed
Do not connect utility shore power to vessel s AC
circuits except through a shiptoshore double throw Backfire can cause severe injury or death
transfer switch Damage to vessels AC generator may Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near the
result if this procedure is not followed fuel system Keep the compartment and the
ator clean and free of debris to minimize the chances of
Electrical shock results from handling a charged capacitor
fire Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil
Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together
Be aware diesel fuel will bum
PREVENT BURNS EXPlOSION
A WARNING Explosions from fuel raptllS can cause
injury Dr death
SAFETY BURNS EXPLOSION continued BATTERY EXPLOSION
Follow refueling safety instructions Keep the vessel s
hatches closed when fueling Open and ventilate cabin A WARNING Battery explasian can cause injury
after fueling Check below for fumesvapor before running
the blower Run the blower for four minutes before start
ing your engine
ardeath
Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
All fuel vapor are highly explosive Use extreme care when being serviced Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen a
handling and storing fuels Store fuel in a highly explosive gas which can be ignited by electrical
area away from equipment and out of the arcing or by lit tobacco products Shut off all electrical
reach of children equipment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing during
seJVicing
Do not fill the fuel tanks while the engine is running
Never connect the negative battery cable to the posi
Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing tive connection terminal of the starter solenoid Do not
the fuel system Take care in catching any fuel that might test the battery condition by shorting the terminals
spill DO NOT allow any smoking open flames or other together Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapor
sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servicing Ventilate any compartment containing baneries to prevent
Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the fuel accumulation of explosive gases To avoid sparks do not
system disturb the battery charger connections while the battery is
being cbarged
Do not alter or modify the fuel system
Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve Avoid contacting the terminals with tools etc to prevent
bums or sparks that could cause an explosion Remove
Be certain fuel line firtings are adequately tightened and wristwatch rings and any other jewelry before handling
free of leaks the battery
Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is Always tum the battery cbarger off before properly maintained Be familiar
with its proper use the battery connections Remove the negative lead first
rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate and reconnect it last when disconnecting the battery
for all applications encountered in this environmenL
BATTERY STARTING
A WARNING Sulphuric acid in batteries can cause
AWARNING Accidetrtal slaTting can cause iajuty sereTe iajury If death
ar death
When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
Disconnect the battery cables before servicing the engine level wear rubber gloves a rubber apron and eye protec
generator Remove the negative lead first and reconnect tion Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is destructive If
it last it comes in contact with your skin wash it off at once
with water Acid may splash on tbe skin or into the eyes
Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before inadvertently when removing electrolyte caps
starting
Make certain all covers guards and hatches are re
installed before starting the engine
SAFETY EXHAUST GASES AVOID MOVING PARTS
IA WARNING Calllon monoxide CO is a deadly gas AWARNING Rotating parts can cause injury
Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
or death
discharged from the engine Check the exhaust system Do not service the engine while it is running If a situation
regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifolds arises in which it is absolutely necessary to make operat
are securely attached and no warping exists Pay close ing adjustments use extreme care to avoid touching mov
attention to the manifold water injection elbow and ing parts and hot exhaust system componets
exhaust pipe nipple
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing
Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated equipment avoid wearing loose jackets shirts sleeves
rings neckJaces or bracelets that could be caught in
In addition to routine inspection of the exhaust system moving parts
install a carbon monoxide detector Consult your boat
builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened
Keep protective shields and guards in their respective
For additional information refer to ABYC T22 educa
places at all times
tional information on Carbon Monoxide
Do not check fluid levels or the drive belts tension while
A WARNING Carbon monoxide CO is an invisible the engine is operating
odOfless gas Inhalation produces flulike symptDms Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling
nausea Of death when the engine is running hair and clothing can easily
be caught in these rotating parts
Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems Diesel
fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust sys HAZARDOUS NOISE
tems Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of copper
tubing resulting in exhaustwater leakage A WARNING High noise eres can cause hearing
Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
through portholes vents or air conditioners If the engine
exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline water could
loss
Never operate an engine without its muffler installed
enter tbe exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
flow of exhaust Avoid overloading the craft Do not run an engine with the air intake silencer
removed
Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as toxic as
exhaust fumes from gasoline engines carbon monoxide Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures
gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes Some of the symp OpeD
toms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or poisoning
A WARNING Do not work on machinery when you
Vomiting are mentally or physically incapacitated by fatigue
Dizziness
Throbbing in temples OPERATORS MANUAL
Muscular twitching Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
Intense headache notes to highlight critical information Read your manual
carefully maintain your equipment and follow all safety
Weakness and sleepiness
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
RECOMMENDED INSTALlATION CODES AND SAfETY INSTALlATIONS ABYC NFPA AND USCG PUBUCATIONS to install an engine
should begin with a thor INSTAWNG DIESEL ENGINES
ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht Council s
ABYC standards These standards are a combination of Read the following ABYC NFPA and USCG including the USCG and the NFPA
for safety codes and standards Follow their recommenda
tions when installing your UNIVERSAL of the ABYC standards of particular interest are
ABYC American Boat and Yacht Council
H2 Ventilation Safety Standards for Small Craft
Pl Exhaust systems
P4 Inboard engines Order From
E9 DC Electrical systems ABYC
15 East 26th Street
All installations must comply with the Federal Code of New York NY FCR
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
Fire Protection Standard for Motor Craft
Order From
NFPA
1 Banerymarch Park
PO Box 9101
Quincy MA 022699101
USCG United States Coast Guard
USCG 33CFR183
Order From
US Government Printing Office
Washington D C 20404
TABLE OF Description 20
Warranty Procedures 2 Alternator 20
Typical Customer Card 2 Checking for Propcr Voltage 20
Product Software 2 Engine 12 Volt DC Control Circuit 21
Notes Cautions and Warnings 2 Drivc Belt Adjustmcnt 21
Serial Number Location 3 Battery Care 21
Understanding the Diesel Engine 3 Glow Plugs 21
Ordering Parts 3 Wiring Diagram 22
Spares and Accessories 3 Wiring Schematic Protecting Your Investment 3 Engine Adjustments 24
Admiral Control Panel Throttle and Stop Assembly 24
Captain Control Panel Valve Clearance 24
Diesel Fuel Engine Dil and Engine Coolant 6 Water Heater Connections Diesel Fuel 6 Water
Heater Installations 25
Care of the Fuel Supply 6 Engine Engine Oil 6 Control Panel Engine Coolant 6
Manual Starter Disconnect Toggle Switches 28
Coolant and Recovery Tank 6 Water Temperature for Initial StartUp 7 Oil Pressure Gauges 28
Prestart Inspection 7 Tachometer Procedure 29
Starting Procedure 8 Hourmeter Inoperative 29
Preheat 8 Tachometer Inoperative 29
Start 8 Tachometer Sticking 29
Starting Under Cold Conditions 8 Calibration 29
Stopping Procedure 8 HBW Transmission Procedure Initial Operation 30
The First 50 Hours 9 Gearbox Operation 30
When Under Sailor Being Towed 30
The Daily Routine 10
Locking the Prop 30
Check List 10
Control Cables 30
Start Your Engine I 0
Maintenance Schedule 11 Transmission Fluid 31
Engine Cooling Circuit 13 Capacity 31
Description 13 Fluid Change 31
To Refill With Coolan 13 Checking the Bowdin Cable or Rod Linkage 31
Thermostat 14 Propeller Shaft Alignment 31
To Replace the Thermostat 14 31
Raw Water Cooling Circuit 14 LayUp and Raw Water Pump 14 LayUp 32
Changing the Raw Water Impeller 15 Propeller Shaft Coupling 32
Heat Exchanger 15 Fresh Water Cooling System 32
Zinc Anode 15 Lubrication System 32
Engine Oil Change Fuel System 32
Drain the Sump 16 Raw Water Circuit 32
Replacing the Oil Filter 16 Intake Manifold 32
Refill the Oil Sump 16 Starter Motor 33
Remote Oil Filter 17 Cylinder Lubrication 33
Installation 17 Transmission 33
Fuel System Spares 33
Fuel Filters 18 Batteries 33
Fuel Water Separator 18 33
Fuel Additivcs 19 Spares 19 Parts Primary BlecdingThe Fuel System 19 Metric
37
Air 19 Standard Hardware Torques 3R
DC Electrical System Spare Parts
new high perfonnance UNIVERSAL marine diesel PRODUCT are a product of technology and their combined years of experience
Product software tech data parts lists manuals hrochurcs quality marine engines We take great pride in catalogs provided from
sources other than liNTVERSAL arc not
the superior durability and dependable performance of our within UNIVERSALS engines Thank you for selecting UNIVERSAL
UNIVERSAL CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
In order to get the full use and benefit from your engine it is CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE MAKES NO that you operate and maintain it correctly
This RANTIES OR WlTH is designed to help you do this Please read this THERETO INCLUDING ACCURACY TIMELINESS OR
manual carefully and observe all the safety precautions COMPLETENESS THEREOF AND WILL IN NO An extensive network of UNIVERSAL
BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR distributors dealers and service centers are INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH OR
ARISING OUT
available worldwide Should your engine require servicing OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH your nearest dealer for assistance
UNIVERSAL customers should also keep in mind the time
This is your operators manual A Parts Catalog is also span between printings of UNIVERSAL product and a Technical Manual is
available from your and the unavoidable existence of earlier dealer Also if you are planning to instal this manuals In
summation product software provided contact your UNIVERSAL dealer for UNNERSAL products whether from UNIVERSAL or
installation manual suppliers must not and cannot be relied upon exclusively as
the definitive authority on the respective product It not only
makes good sense but is imperative that appropriate PROCEDURES tatives of UNNERSAL or the
supplier in question be con
Your UNIVERSAL Warranty is included in a separate folder sulted to detennine the accuracy and currentness of the
If you have not received a customer card regis product software being consulted by the your warranty 60 days after submitting the fonn
please contact the factory in writing with NOTES CAUTIONS AND information including the units serial number date
As this manual takes you through the operating procedures
maintenance schedules and of your marine
engine critical information will be highlighted by NOTES
CAUTIONS and WARNINGS An explanation follows
NOTE An operating procedure essential to note
Customer A CAUTION Procedures which if not strictly
observed can result in the damage or destruction of
UNIVERSAL OWNER your engine
MAIN STREET
HOMETOWN USA
AWARNING Procedures which if not properly fol
lowed can result in personal injury or loss of life
Model M35B Sec XXXXD704
Expires CUSTOMER CARD
The UNIVERSAL serial number is an that can assist in determining the date of your UNIVERSAL engine The first character after the
dash indicates the decade A1960s B1970s 990s etc the second character represents the year in
the decade and the fourth and fifth numbers represent the
month of 2
NUMBER LOCATION ORDERING PARTS
An nameplate that displays the engine model Whenever replacement parts are needed always provide the
number and engine serial number is mounted on the side of engine model number and engine serial number theya
the engines manifold Take the time to enter this information appear on the silver and black nameplate
on the blank decal provided below This will provide a quick located on the manifold You must provide us with this when seeking technical
information andor ordering mation so we can identify your engine In addition include a
parts complete part description and part number for each part
needed see the separately furnished Parts Catalog Also
insist upon packaged parts
because will fit or generic parts are frequently not made to
the same as original MODE SPEC SERNO SPARES AND ACCESSORIES
Certain spares will be needed to support and maintain
your UNIVERSAL marine engine Your UNIVERSAU
WESTERBEKE dealer will assist you in preparing an THE DIESEL ENGINE board inventory of spare parts See the
UNIVERSAL SPARE
PARTS page in this manual for a suggested list
The diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine
since the mechanism is essentially the same The cylinders
are arranged above a closed crankcase the crankshaft is of PROTECTING YOUR same general type as that of a gasoline engine and the
Care at the factory during assembly and thorough engine has the same types of valves camshaft pistons have resulted in a UNIVERSAL diesel
engine capable of
connecting rods and lubricating system many thousands of hours of dependable service However the
To a great extent a diesel engine requires the same preven manufacturer cannot control how or where the engine is
tive maintenance as a gasoline engine Most important are installed in the vessel or the manner in which the unit is
proper ventilation and proper maintenance of the fuel lubri operated and serviced in the field This is up to the
cating and cooling systems Replacement of fuel and lubri filter elements at the time periods specified and NOTE Six important
sleps to ensure long engine bfe
frequent checking for contamination water sediment etc in
the fuel system are essentiaL Also important is the consistent o Proper engine installation and of a brand of high detergent diesel lubrication
designed specifically for diesel engines o An efficient welldesigned exhaust system that includes
an antisiphon break to prevent water from entering the
The diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine how engine
ever in its method of handling and firing of fuel The carbu
retor and ignition systems are done away with and in their o Changing the engine oil and oil filters every JOO operating
hours
place is a single component the fuel injection pump the function of both o Proper maintenance of all engine
components according
to the maintenance schedule in this manual
o Use clean tiltered diesel fucl
o Winterize your engine according to the LAYUP AND
section in this manual
ADMIRAL CONTROL PANEL
UNIVERSAL offers two optional panels Refer to the When the engine is shut down with the Key Switch turned
instruction page that applies to the panel you purchased off the water temperature gauge will continue to register the
Jat temperature rcading indicated hy the gauge bctllfC elec
ADMIRAL PANEL tncal power was turned off The oil pressure gauge will fall
to zero when the Key Switch is turned oft The control panel is equipped with a Key gauge will once again register the engines true and
RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME metcr when electrical power is restored to the gauge
which measures the engines running time in hours and in
1110 hours The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERA A searatc alarm buzzer with harness is supplied with every
TURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees Admiral Panel The installer is responsible for an OIL PRESSURE gauge which
measures the connecting the buzzer to the fourpin connection on the
engine5 oil pressure in pounds per square inCh and a DC engines electrical harness The installer is also circuit VOLTAGE gauge which
measures the sys or installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and
tem5 voltage All gauges are illuminated when the key where it will be audible 10 the operator should it sound while
switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine teengine is running The buzzer will sound when the igni
is in operation The panel also contains two rubberbooted hon key IS turned on and should silence when the engine one for PREHEAT and one
for START started and the engines oil pressure rises above 15 psi
OtL PRESSURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS GRADU
ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH PSI AND IS
WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS
GRADUATED IN DEGREES fAHRENHEIT AND IS TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING
ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 3060 PSI
TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING
TEMPERATURE IS 170190 f GAUGE REGIS
TERS MINUTE OF THE
ENGINE AND CAN FOR
ACCURACY FROM THE
REAR Of THE ElAPSED KEY SWITCH AND SHOULD BE
POWER ONLY TO THE
USED AS A GUIDE FOR INSTRUMENT PANEL
THE MAINTENANCE
INDICATES THE AMOUNT THE
BATTERY IS BEING CHARGED
SHOULD SHOW 13V TO 14V
PREHEAT BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES REGUlATOR THE FUEL LIFT PUMP THE
fUEL SOLENOID ON THE INJECTION PUMP AND THE AUTOMATIC ALARM GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES THE I
HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM AN ALARM BUZZER HAS BEEN
OIL PRESSURE AlARM SWITCH IN ADDITION I SUPPLIED WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL If THE ENGINES FRESH
BUDON ENERGIZES THE START BUDON WATER COOLANT REACHES 210 f 19BOC THIS SWITCH WILL CLOSE
SOUNDING THE AlARM WHICH WILL EMIT A
START BUTTON WHEN CONTINUOUS SOLENOID I
THIS BUDDN WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY LOW OtL PRESSURE AlARM A LOW OIL PRESSURE AlARM SWITCH
UNLESS THE PREHEAT BUDON IS PRESSED AND HELD IS LOCATED OfF THE ENGINES OIL GALLERY THIS SWITCH SAME TIME
THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE SHOULD THE ENGINEiS OIL PRESSURE
FALL TO 510 PSI THE SWITCH WILL CLOSE SOUNDING THE ALARM
IN THIS EVENT THE AlARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL
CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL
and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE ft
CAPTAIN PANEL also includes an alarm buzzer for low OfL PRESSURE or
This control panel is equipped with a Key high WATER TEMPERATURE The RPM gauge is an RPM gauge PREHEAT and START buttons an
nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains TEST button and three indicator lamps one nated while the engine is in
ALTERNATOR DISCHARGE one for low OlL ALARM THE ALARM WILL SOUND If THE ENGINES
OIL PRESSURE fALLS
BELOW 15 PSI IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIG
NAl THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOUND If THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN THE
fRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 20Sf IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM
RPM GAUGE WILL EMIT A REVOLUTIONS PER NOTE
THE ALARM WILL SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON
MINUTE Of THE ENGINE AND CAN BE THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAl ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE fOR ACCURACY fROM
OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI THE ALARM WILL SILENCE
THE REAR Of THE PANEl
Oil PRESSURE ALTERNATOR ALARM
ALARM LIGHT LIGHT
TEST BUTTON WHEN
PRESSED TESTS THE
ALTERNATOR THE OIL
PRESSURE AND THE
WATER TEMPERATURE
CONTROL CIRCUITS
WHEN PRESSED THE
ALTERNATOR THE OIL
PRESSURE AND THE
WATER TEMPERATURE
INDICATOR LIGHTS
ILLUMINATE IN ADDI
TION TD SOUNDING
THE ALARM BUZZER
KEY SWITCH
PROVIDES POWER TO
THE INSTRUMENT
PANEL CLUSTER AND
THE DC ALTERNATOR
REGULATOR TERMINAL
WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM
LIGHT
START BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE
STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE THIS PREHEAT BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE fUEL
BUTTDN WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE LIfT PUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS ANa BYPASSES
PREHEAT BUTTON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDITION
TIME THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES THE START BUTTON
DIESEL FUEL ENGINE OIL AND ENGINE FUEL ENGINE COOLANT
Use fuel that meets the requirements or specification of Class UNNERSAL recommends a mixture of 50 antifreeze and
2D ASTM and has a cetane rating of 45 or better 50 distilled water Distilled water is free from the chemi
cals that can corrode internal engine Of The Fuel Supply The antifreeze performs double duty It
allows the engine to
run at proper temperatures by transferring heat away from the
Use only clean diesel fuel The clearance of the components
engine to the coolant and lubricates and protects the cooling
in your fuel injection pump is very critical invisible dirt par
circuit from rust and corrosion Look for a good quality
tides which might pass through the filter can damage these
antifreeze that contains Supplemental Cooling finished parts It is important to buy clean fuel and
SCAs that keep the antifreeze chemically balanced crucial
keep it clean The best fuel can be rendered by
to long term handling or improper storage facilities To assure that
the fuel going into the tank for your engines daily use is The distilled water and antifreeze should be premixed before
clean and pure the following practice is advisable being poured into the cooling a wellknown brand of fuel
NOTE Look for the flew IOllR lalfinf
antifreeze that is nol1 and regularly service a good visualtype between the fuel tank and the engine Raycor 500 Antifreeze mixtures
will protect against an unexpected freeze
FG or 900 FG is a good example of such a filter and they are beneficial to the engines cooling system They
retard rust and add to the life of the circulating pump seal
ENGINE OIL
ANTIFREEZE a heavy duty engine oil with an API of CF
or CG4 or better Change the engine oil after an initial 50 Antifreeze concen1ration 23 30 35 50
hours of breakin operation and every 200 hours of operation Freezing Temperature WF 8F 4F For recommended oil
viscosity see the following 5C 13C 20C
COOLANT RECOVERY TANK
Operating Temperature Oil Viscosity
A coolant recovery tank kit is supplied with each
Above 68F 2DC SAE 30 or 1OW3D
UNIVERSAL diesel engine The purpose of this recovery
41 68F 52DC SAE 20 or 1DW3D tank is to allow for engine coolant expansion and contraction
during engine operation without the loss of coolant and
Below 41F 5C SAE 1DW3D without introducing air into the cooling system This kit is
provided and must be installed before running the engine
A CAUTION 00 not allow two or more brands of
engine oil to mix Each brand contains its own additives
additives of different brands could react in the mixture
to produce properties harmful to your engine
COOLANT RECOVERY TANK
PREPARATIONS FOR INITIAL INSPECTION o Check the DC electrical system Inspect wire connections
and battery cable starting your engine for the first time or after a pro
longed layoff check the following items o Visually examine the unit Look for loose or missing
parts disconnected wires unattached hoses and check
o Check the engine oil1evel add oil to maintain the level at threaded connections
the high mark on the dipstick
o Check the coolant level in the plastic recovery tank and at
o Check the fuel supply and examine the fuel the manifold
bowls for NOTE If the engine has not yet been filled with coolanT refer
o Check the transmission fluid level to the ENGINE COOLING CIRCUIT section of this manual
NOTE Refer to the pages in this manual for
fuel oil and transmission types and
RECOVERY
TANK
MANIFOLD
M35B SHOWN
the transmission in neutral and advance the throttle ACAUTloN Prolonged cranking intervals without the
control to slightly open engine starting can result in the engine exhaust system
filling with raw water This may happen because the
pump is pumping raw water through the raw water cool
A CAUTION Make certain the transmission is in neu
tral starting in gear could result in serious damage to ing system during cranking This raw water can enter the
engines cylinders by way of the exhaust manifold once
your transmission your boat and vessels nearby
the exhaust system fills Prevent this from happening by
closing the raw water supply throughhull the KEY SWlTCH to the ON position 2 oclock
draining the exhaust muffler and correcting the Depress the PREHEAT switch The voltmeter and of the excessive engine cranking
Engine damage result
panel lights gauges and meters will be aClivated The PRE ing from raw water entry is not a warrantable issue the
HEAT switch should be depressed in accordance with the
should keep this in chart
Once the engine starts check instruments for proper oil pres
Abnospheric Temperalure Preheating lime
sure and battery charging voltage
41F5C or higher Approx 10 seconds
4n5C to 2n 5C Approx 15 seconds
NOTE Never attempt to engage the starter while the engine is
running
23F5C or lower Approx 20 seconds
Limit of continuous use 30 seconds before cranking NOTE Some unstable running may occur in a cold engine
Depressing the Preheat switchor 05 second intervals will
help stabilize the engine RPM until the operating While still depressing the PREHEAT switch depress
ture reaches J70o190F 7788C and a propeller load is
the START switch This will engage the starter solenoid
applied to the engine When the engine i running and the
Upon engine starting release the START switch Do not
preheat switch is depressed a charging load on the DC the PREHEAT switch until the oil pressure reaches
nator will be psi Then as long as the high water temperature and low
oil pressure protective circuits do not activate the engine will
remain energized and continue to run STARTING UNDER COLD CONDITIONS
VOLTAGE
DROP Make certain the lubricating oil confonns with the ratings for
the prevailing temperature Check the table on the engine oil
NOTE When starting section of this manual
A voltage drop will occur
The battery should be fully charged to minimize voltage
when the preheat switch drop
is depressed
Use a sufficient amount of preheat to aid in starting see
chart On this page
Should the engine not start when the START switch is
depressed for 10 to 20 secolds release both switches and STOPPING 30 seconds repeat the procedure above and preheat To
stop the engine bring the throttle to an idle position and
longer Never run the starter lor more than 30 seconds place the transmission in neutral Allow the engine to idle for
a few moments to stabilize temperatures Pull the STOP lever
to shut down the engine Then turn OFF the key 10 close
down the electric fuel pump and Made certain the key switch is in the OFF
position 12
oclock If the Key Switch is left ON the battery will diS
charge An engine alarm buzzer is provided to warn the oper
ator of this condition Key Switch ON The best method of
preventing the battery from discharge is to remove the key
from the Key Switch after stopping the engine
BREAKIN FIRST 50 HOURS Breakingin a new engine hasically involves seating the pis
ton rings 10 the cylinder walls This cannot be your engine has experienced a minimum of one hy long periods of running at iulc nor hy
early running at
hour of test operations to ensure accurate assemhly and full rpm Idle running may glaze the eylinuer walls operation of all systems
hrcakin lime is required in excessive oil consumption and smoky service life of your engine is dependent upon how the Excessive
speed or heavy overloading especially with a
engine is operated and serviced during its initial 50 hours of cold engine may cause scoring of the cylinder walls produc
usc ing similar results Operate the engine in moderation during
the 50hour breakin period Don baby the engine bu do
Your new engine requires approximately 50 hours of initial
not abuse operation to hreak in cach moving part in order
to maximize the performance and service life of the this conditioning carefully keeping in mind the Start the engine according to the Starting
Procedure sec
tion in this manual run the engine at fast idle while
checking that all systems raw water pump oil pressure
battery charging arc Allow the engine to warm up preferably by running at fast
idle until the water temperature gauge moves into the
130 o J40F range
NOTE Allemptillg to reduce idle speed helow the minimum
3 While using the vessel run the engine at varying engine shown may product wisiahle ellgine operatioll and stalling
rpms for the first 25 hours
NOTE The propeller should he eithcr 2 or 3 Node It should
4 Avoid rapid acceleration especially with a cold engine allow the enRine to rfach iiS maximum rated rpm at full open
throttle undenvay ill forward gear to ensure the Usc caulion nol 10 overload the engine The presence of a
of rated horsepower whell Iletded
gray or black exhaust and the inahility of the engine 10
reach its full rated rpm arc signs of an overload NOTE See the TRANSMISSION section of this manual jor
hreakill illformation Oil your During the next 25 hours the engine may be operated at
varying engine rpms with short runs at full rated rpm
Avoid prolonged idling during this breakin period
THE DAILY ROUTINE
CHECK LIST START YOUR ENGINE
Each day before starting your engine take a few moments to NOTE See STARTING STOPPING PROCEDURE in Ihis
run this check list manual for more detailed Visually inspect the engine for fuel oil or water
leaks I Put transmission in neutral throttle advanced
o Check the oil level 2 Turn KEY to the ON position 2 oclock
o Check the transmission fluid level 3 Depress PREHEAT IOta IS seconds
o Check for loose wires at the alternator 4 While pressing PREHEAT push START
When engine starts release START
o Check the starting batteries level weekly
5 Hold PREHEAT until oil pressure reaches 15 psi andlor
D Check drive belts for wear and proper tension weekly alarm shuts Qff
D Log your engine running time These hours relate to NOTE Should engine fail to stan wait 30 seconds repeaT the
scheduled maintenance above procedure and PREHEAT longer
o Check fuel supply always keep fuel tanks as full as pos 6 Allow a few minutes for the engine to warm at a comfort
sible able rpm approx 1200 rpm then reduce the rpm shift
o Look for clean fuel in the fueVwater separator bowl into gear and get underway
o Check the coolant level in the plastic recovery tank A CAUTION When shifting the transmission always
NOTE Excessive loss of coolant indicates a cooling system reduce the engine rpm to idle then shift the Check the entire system If
necessary use a cooling sys
sion firmly from one direction to another A slight pause
tem pressure tester to pressurize the cooling system to locate
he area of leakage In cases of excessive coolant loss refill in neutral will allow the propeller to slow Shifting at
Ihe S1Slem as oUllined ill Ihe ENGINE COOLING CIRCUIT high rpm will damage the ill this manuaL
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
A WARNING Never attempt to perform any service while the engine is
running Wear the proper safety eqUipment such as goggles and gloves and
use the correct tools for each job Disconnect the battery terminals when
servicing any of the engines DC electrical equipment
NOTE Man athe following maintenance jobs are simple but others are more
difficult and may require the expert knowledge of a service mechanic
CHECK HOURS OF EACH EXPLANATION OF
DAY 50 100 250 500 750 1000 1250 Supply 0
Diesel No2 rating of 45 cetane or Separator 0 Check for water and dirt in
fuel filter
if Oil Level 0 Oil level should indicate between MAX and LOWon
0 Check at recovery tank if empty check at manitold
Add coolant if needed
Drive Belts 0 Inspect for proper tension 38 to 12 depreSSion
and adjust it needed Check belt edges for ot Engine 0 NOTE Please keep engine suiface clean Check tor tuel oil and water leaks
Inspect wiring
Dir and oil will inhibillhe engines ability and electncal connections Keep bolts nuts tight
10 remain cool Check for loose belt Throttle and 0 0 0 0 0 0
Check tor loose tiltings colter pins Control Lubricate with WO40 or and Shutoff
Levers
Adjust Engine Idle Speed 0 Adjust to 7501200 rpm
Fuel Filter 0 0 0 0 0 0 Initial change at 50 hrs then change every 250 hrs
Starting Batteries 0 Every 50 operating hours check electrolyte levels
and House Batteries and make sure connections are very tight Clean oft
excessive Oil and Filter 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Initial engine oil tilter change at 50 hrs then
change both every 100 Cylinder Head At engine overhaul or cylinder head overhaul
Hold Down Panel Key 0 At first 100 hrs then each year at with Fluid
0 0 0 0 0 Initial fluid change at 50 hrs then every 250 hrs
or once a year
Air Cleaner 0 0 0 0 0 Clean the filter and System 0
0 0 Imtlal check at 50 hrs then every 500 hrs Inspect
tor leaks Check siphon break operation Check the
exhaust elbow for carbon andor corrosion buildup
on inside passages clean and replace as neces
sary Check that ali connections are tight
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
NOTE Use the engine hour meter gauge to log your engine hours or record your
engine hours by running time
CHECK HOURS OF OPERATION
SCHEDULED EACH EXPLANATION OF SCHEDULED
MAINTENANCE DAY 50 100 250 500 750 1000 1250 MAINTENANCE
Engine Hoses 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hose should be hard tight Replace if soft or
spongy Check tighten all hose clamps
Heat Exchanger 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clean or replace anode Open heat exchanger end
Zinc Anode cap and clean out debris Remove every 1000 hours
for professional cleaning and pressure testing
Electric Fuel Lift 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clean at 50 hours then clean every 250 hours
Pump Filter if applicable
Raw Water Pump 0 0 0 Remove pump cover and inspect impeller for wear
replace if needed Also replace gasket Lubricate
both when reassembled Inspect pump for internal
wear cover plate wear and cam wear
Coolant System 0 0 Drain flush and refill cooling system With appro
priate antiireeze mix
Fuel Injectors 0 Check and adjust Injection opening pressure and
spray condition see Engine Starter Motor 0 0 Check solenoid and motor for corrosion
Remove
and lubricate Clean and lubricate the Starter motor
pinion drive
Preheat Circuit 0 0 Check operatIOn of preheat solenoid Remove and
clean glow plugs check resistance 1112 ohms
Engine Cylinder 0 0 Incorrect valve clearance will result in poor engine
Compression and pertormance check compression pressure and timing
Valve Clearance and adjust valve clearances
DC Alternator 0 0 0 Check DC charge from aernator Check mounting
bracket tighten electrical connections
Heat Exchanger 0 Remove have cleaned and pressure
tested
REngine Transmission 0 Chattering at idle and low rpms is an indication of
Damper Plate damper plate wear Remove and recommends this service be pertormed by
an authorized 12
ENGINE COOLING Drain the engine coolant by loosening the drain plug on the
engine block and opening the manifold pressure cap Flush
The engine is fresh water cooled engine coolant by an the system with fresh water then start the refill process heat
exchanger Raw water is pumped the Parts photos in this manual for the heat exchanger by a geardriven positive
impeller pump After the raw water cools the NOTE The petcack on the heat exchanger can also be used fo
engine coolant in the heat exchanger it mixes with the help drain engine exhaust gases cools the exhaust gases and dis
charges overboard AWARNING Beware of the hot engine coolant Wear
The engines coolant is circulated by a beltdriven centrifu protective metal impeller pump mounted on the front of the
engine The engines coolant temperature is To Refill With
With the engine running in idle slowly pour clean premixed
The engines coolant must be changed according to the main coolant into the schedule in this manuaL If the coolant is allowed to
become contaminated it can lead to overheating problems NOTE Open the petcacks on the thermostat housing and heat
exchanger to heip remove air from the system When a steady
flow of coolant appears at the drain plug opening close the
ACAUTIDN Proper cooling system maintenance is water drain plug and continue to fill the system until the
critical a substantial number of engine failures can be manifold remains full Close the petcock on the heat
traced back to cooling system corrosion exchanger when antifreeze flows from it
Monitor the coolant in the manifold and add as needed Fill
the manifold to the filler neck and install the pressure
COOLANT capThe petcock on the thennostat should also be opened
ORAIN when refilling to allow trapped air to escape
Remove the cap on the coolanl recovery tank fill with
coolant mix to halfway between LOW and MAX and
replace the cap Run the engine close all petcocks and
observe the coolant expansion tlow into the recovery tank
After checking for leaks stop the engine and allow it to cool
Coolant should draw back into the cooling system as the
engine cools down Add coolant to the recovery tank if
needed Clean up any spilled coolant
f CAP
RECOVERY
TANK
NOTE Periodically check the condition of the pressure cap
MANIFOlO Ensure that the upper and lower rubber seals are in good
condition and check that the vacuum valve opens and closes
tightly Carry a spare cap
A coolant recovery tank allows for engine coolant expansion
and contraction during engine operation without any signifi
cant loss of coolant and without introducing air into the cool
ing system This tank is best located at or above the level and should be easily
ENGINE COOLING RAW WATER COOLING CIRCUIT
A thermostat located ncar the manifold at the front of the The raw water flow is created by a positive controls the coolant temperature as
it continuously impeller pump This pump draws water directly from the
flows through the closed cooling circuit When the engine is ocean lake or river from a throughhull opening through a
first started the closed thermostat prevents coolant from flow hose to the water strainer The raw water passes from the
ing some coolant is bypassed through a hole in the thermo strainer through the pump to a heat exchanger through the
stat to prevent the exhaust manifold from overheating As heat exchanger tubes where it cools the engines engine warms up the thermostat
gradually opens The fresh water coolant The raw water is then discharged into is accessible and can be checked cleaned or
water injected exhaust elbow mixing with and cooling the
replaced easily Carry a spare thermostat and gasket exhaust gasses This mixture of exhaust gas and raw water is
driven through the stern tuhe and overboard
THERMOSTAT Raw Water Pump
TIle raw water pump is a selfpriming rotary pump with a
nonferrous housing and a neoprene impeller The impeller
has flexible vanes which wipe against a curved cam plate
within the impeller housing producing the pumping action
On no account should this pump be run dry as water acts as a
lubricam for the impeller There should always be a spare
impeller and impeller cover gasket aboard an impeller kit
Raw water pump impeller failures occur when lubricant raw
GASKET
water is not present during engine operation Such failures
are not warrantable and operators are cautioned to make sure
raw water flow is present at startup
THERMOSTAT i RAW WATER PUMP
THERMOSTAT
HOUSING
SEAL
To Replace the the two cap screws and disassemble as illustrated WEAR PLATE
When assembling the new thermostat and gasket put a thin
coat of sealant on both sides of the gasket before pressing the engine and check for normal temperatures and that
there are no leaks at the thermostat housing
HOUSING
ENGINE COOLING the Raw Water Impeller 12 Mount the pump to the engine taking care thai the end
seal and gasket are in place Do not tighten the pump
1 Close the raw water intake mounting screws just finger tight
2 Remove the inlet and outlet rxrt hoses from the pump 13 Rcasemhlc the hose connections and open the raw
noting the port location and positioning water intake
3 Remove the pump assembly and its gasket from the 14 Start the engine in idle this will allow the pump to align
engine itself with its drive shaft
4 Remove the three hex head screws that hold the housing 15 Stop the engine and tighten the pump assembly mount
to the cover ing screws
5 Tap the housingcover assembly on its side to loosen and 16 Start and run the engine check for leaks and check for a
separate the cover from its housing norrnal operating Remove the cover and its Oring and remove the impeller
NOTE Should a failure occur with the pumps internal parts
gasket and plate seals and bearings it may be more cost efficient to purchase
a new pump The price of individual parts would almost
7 Remove the retaining ring circ1ip and pry out the
match the price of a new pump
impeller Take care not to lose the key off the shafts key
Heat Exchanger
ACAUTION If any of the vanes have broken off the The heat exchanger is a copper tUhe which encloses a num
impeller they must be found to prevent blockage in the ber of small copper tubes Raw water is pumped through the
cooling circuit They often can be found in the heat small copper tubes and the freshwater coolant from the
engine is circulated around the copper tubes The raw water
exchanger
removes heat from the freshwater coolant To keep the heat
exchanger operating efficiently it should be removed from
8 Replace the gasket impeller and Oring the engine every 1000 hours to be thoroughly cleaned and
pressure tested
9 Apply a film of petroleum jelly or silicone to the inner
surface of the impeller housing
HEAT Just coat the surface do not over apply
10 Install the cover housing over Install the three hex screws and tighten
DRAIN
CLEAR OUT
DEBRIS
ORING POOR
Zinc Anode
ZINC ANODE i
A zinc anode or pencil is located in the raw water cooling cir
cuit within the heat exchanger The purpose of the zinc anode
is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking place in the
raw water cooling circuit therehy reducing the effects of elec
trolysis on other components of the system The condition of
the zinc anode should be checked monthly and the anode
cleaned or replaced a required Spare anodes should he car
ried onboard The area in the exchanger where the anode is
located should periodically he cleaned of anode dehris
ENGINE OIL CHANGE
DRAIN THE SUMP Replacing the Oil Filter
The engine oil should be warm Remove the oil drain hose When removing the used oil filter you may find it helpful
from its attachment bracket and lower it into a container and and cleaner to punch a hole in the upper and lower portion of
allow the oil to drain or attach a pump to the end of the drain the old filter to drain the oil from it into a container before
hose and pump out the old oil Make sure the oil drain hose removing it This helps to lessen spillage
is capped and properly secured in its holder after all the old
oil has been drained NOTE Do not punch this hole without first loosening he filter
to make certain it will come off
NOTE Thread size for the lube oil drain hose capped end is
114 NPT An automotive filter wrench should be helpful in removing
the old oil filter Place some paper towels and a plastic bag
Always observe the old oil as it is removed A yellowgray around the filter when unscrewing it to catch any oil left in
emulsion indicates the presence of water in the oil Although the filter Inspect the old oil tilter as it is removed to make
this condition is rare it does require prompt attention to pre sure that the ruhber scaling gasket comes off with the old oil
vent serious damage Call a competent mechanic if water is filter If this rubber sealing gasket remains sealed against the
present in the oiL Raw water present in the oil can be the engine block gently remove it When installing the new oil
result of a fault in the exhaust system attached to the engine filter element wipe the filter gaskets sealing surface on the
andor a siphoning of raw water through the raw water cool engine block free of oil and apply a thin coat of clean engine
ing circuit into the exhaust filling the engine This problem oil to the rubber gasket on the new oil filter Screw the filter
is often caused by the poor location or the ack of an anti onto the threaded oil filter stub and tighten the filter firmly
siphon valve See UNIVERSALS Installation Manual by hand
NOTE Use genuine UNIVERSAL oil filters generic filters
are nol REFILL THE DlL SUMP
Add fresh oil through the filler cap After refilling run the
engine for a few moments while checking the engines oil
pressure Make sure there is no leakage around the new oil
filter or from the oil drain system and then stop the engine
Then check the quantity of oil with the lube oil dipstick If
OIL DRAIN HOSE the engine requires additional oil fill to but not over the
high mark on the dipstick
OIL CONTAINER Used engine oil contains hannful Avoid prolonged skin contact Clean skin and
nails thoroughly using soap and water launder or dis
card clothing or rags containing used oil Discard used
OIL FILTER
oil APPLY OIL TO GASKET
WHEN ASSEMBLING
NEW FILTER
SPINON OIL FILTER
REMOTE OIL Always install this kit with the oil filter facing down as illus
trated
This popular accessory is used to relocate the engines oil fil
ter from the engine to a more convenient location such as an Contact your dealer for more
engine room bulkhead Refer to the ENGINE OIL CHANGE page in this NOTE
Westerbeke is not responsible for engine failure due to
manualor instructions on removing the oil filter incorrect installation athe Remote Oil Filrer
To install simply remove the engine oil filter and thread remote oil filter kit as shown
FASTEN SECURELY TO A BULKHEAO
SCREWS ARE OWNER APPLY A THIN COAT OF CLEAN OIL TO THE ORING WHEN
INSTALLING THIS KIT THREAD THE KIT ON THEN TIGHTEN BY
HAND A 314 TURN AFTER THE ORING CONTACTS THE BASE
APPLY A THIN COAT OF CLEAN OIL TO THE FILTER GASKET
WHEN INSTALLING ONCE THE FILTER CONTACTS THE BASE
TIGHTEN IT A 314 TURN
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL WATER SEPARATOR
AWARNING Shut off the fuel valve at the tank when
A primary fuel filter of the water separating type must be
servicing the fuel system Take care in catching any fuel installed between the fuel tank and the engine to remove
that may spill 00 NOT aIow any smoking open flames water and other contaminants from the fuel before they can
or other sources of fire near the fuel system when ser be carried to the fuel system on the engine
vicing Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing
Most installers include a lype of filterwater separator with
the fuel system the installation package as they are aware of the problems
that contaminants in the fuel can cause
FUEL FILTERS A typical fuel filterwater separator is illustrated in this dia
gram This is the Rayeor Model 500 MA Keep in mind that
The fuel injection pump and the fuel injectors are precisely if a water separator type filter is not installed between and they must
receive clean diesel fuel free fuel supply tank and fuel system any water
from water and dirt To ensure this flow of clean fuel the fuel in the fuel will affect the fuel pump engine filter and injec
must pass through at least two fuel filters a fueVwater sepa tion equipment The is responsible for making
rator and the engine5 spinon fuel filter Visually inspect certain the fuel reaching the engines injection equipment is
clean and change these filters according to the maintenance free of impurities This process is accomplished by in this manual
and maintaining a proper system
I Shut fuel supply off
2 Loosen the fuel filter turning with a fil
ler wrench FROM
FUEL
3 Using a rag wipe clean the sealing face on the housing TANK
bracket so the new filter can be seated properly
4 Lightly oil the sealing Oring on the new filter To rein
stall turn the filter assembly clockwise carefully until the
Oring contacts the sealing surface of the housing bracket
TO ENGINE
Tum 23 further with the filter wrench
5 Tum on the fuel and start the engine The nonnal preheat
function should quickly prime the system and the engine
should start FUEL FILTER
NOTE The cartridge contains fuel Take care not 10 spill it disassembl Peiform the PRIMING TIlE
FUEL
SYSTEM after replacing the spinon Jilt
DRAIN
FUEL FILTER
TO SPINON FUEL FILTER
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL ADDITIVES If it becomes necessary to bleed air from the system use the
following procedure
If fungus or bacteria is causing fuel problems you should
have an authorized dealer correct these problems Then use a Loosen all the high pressure injector lines not injectors and
diesel fuel biocide to sterilize the fuel follow the manufac crank the engine starter motor as fue I spurts from
the nut and the line tighten the injector Jines in sequence and
then tighten the bleed NOTE Do not attempt this procedure on a hot engine
While the likelihood of having to service the fuel system at
sea is slim the possibility does exist Therefore we recom
A WARNING Always wear protective clothing safety
mend that banjo washers injector seat washers and a fuel fil glasses and gloves when bleeding high pressure injector
ter be earned on board at all times Purchase needed spares lines
from your local UNIVERSAL dealer or distributor If a leak
should develop at a banjo washer that cannot be corrected by
a simple tightening of the fitting replace the sealing washer
BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM
fiLTER ELEMENT
The onengine fuel system is virtually self priming circumstances the engines electric fuel lift pump
which is energized by the key button will
supply a continuous flow of fuel from the tank This fuel is
drawn through the fuelwater separator to the engine lift
pump the primary spinon fuel filter and the injection pump
AIR A WARNING Do not allow smoking or open flames ENGINE M3S8 SHOWN
near the fuel system when servicing Also provide proper
ventilation
Air Some UNIVERSAL engines use a replaceable air filter cle
ment wrapped around a metal canister This element can be
removed and brushed off or cleaned with an air hose When
TO FUEL FILTER
it become too contaminated it can be replaced The canister
with its interior element should also be removed and cleaned
periodically Simply wash the assembled unit in a nonflarn
mabIe cleaning solvent Use this same cleaning procedure for
FROM FUEL TANK
other UNIVERSAL air cleaners that use a similar type canis
NOTE To operate efficiently a diesel engine must intake a
1 L CHECK AND CLEAN
continuous volume of clear air Hard starting an erratic idle
filTER AT OIL CHANGE alld black exhaust smoke are all symptoms of a restricted air
intake
TO FUEl FILTER
FUEL LIFT PUMPS
FROM FUEL TANK
DC ELECTRICAL charging system consists of an alternator with a mounted A WARNING Before starting the engine make regulator an engine
DC wiring harness a mounted that everyone is clear Df mDving parts Keep away frDm
DC circuil breaker and a battery and connection wires sheaves and belts during test of the use of integrated circuits Ies the
electronic
voltage regulator is very compact and is mounted internally
or on the back of the alternator 5 Start the engine
6 The voltage reading for a properly operating should be between 135 and 145 volts If your
alternator
is over or have it repaired at a reliable
If you suspect that the alternator is not producing enough service shop
voltage to charge the engines battery check the following
NOTE Before removing the alternator for repair use your
voltmeter to ensure that 12 volts DC excitation is preselll at
A WARNING A failed alternator can becDme very the R terminal if the previous lest showed ollly ballery volt
hDt Do nDt touch until the alternator has cODled dDwn age at the B output terminal
o Make certain your alternator is securely mounted
o Check the drive belts for proper tension
o Inspect for loose or disconnected wires at the An isolator with a diode a solenoid or a battery 14 switch is usually mounted in the
circuit to isolate the
balleries so the starting ballery is not discharged along with
the house batteries If the isolator is charging the but not the house ballery the alternator is OK and
the problem is in the ballery charging circuit
A WARNING Shut Dff the engine battery switch Dr TYPICAL UNIVERSAL 51 AMP
ALTERNATOR CONNECTIONS
discDnnect from the battery when wDrking Dn the engine
electrical for Proper Voltage
If you suspect the alternator has failed perform the with the engine off
1 Using a voltmeter connect the voltmeter red wire clip to
the output terminal B
2 Connect the voltmeter negative wire to any ground on the
engine
3 Check the battery voltage It should read 12 to 12 volts
14 PINK8LUE
4 Check the voltage between the alternator positive ter
minai B and any engine ground If the circuit is good the
voltage at the alternator should be the same as the battery
unless theres an isolator in the circuit then the reading 14 PINKIBLUE
would be zero L JOI 814 BROWN
A CAUTION TD aVDid damage tD the battery charging
circuit never shut Dff the engine battery SWitch when
the engine is running 1U RED
OPTIONAL 72 AMP
ALTERNATOR CONNECTIONS
DC ELECTRICAL 12 VOLT DC CONTROL CIRCUIT
The engine has a 12 volt DC electrical control circuit that is
A WARNING Sulfuric acid in lead batteries can
cause severe burns on skin and damage clothing Wear
shown on the wiring diagrams that follow Refer to these dia
grams when or when servicing the DC elec protective gear
trical system on the BELT ADJUSTMENT
A CAUTION When quick charging the battery with an
external charger be sure to disconnect the battery
cables from the battery so the quick charge doesnt
A CAUTION Drive belts must be properly tensioned damage the alternator diodes
Loose drive belts will not provide proper alternator
charging and will eventually damage the alternator GLOW PLUGS
Drive belts that are too tight will pull the alternator
The glow plug is a small heater installed in each precombus
out of alignment andor cause the alternator to wear tion chamber They run off the engine starting bauery and
out prematurely become red hot when activated
The glow plugs are wired through the preheat tension adjustment is made by pivoting the alternator on
When preheat is pressed at the control panel this solenoid
its base mounting bolt should click on and the glow plug terminal should begin to
1 Loosen the alternator adjusting strap bolt and the base get hal
mounting bolt Glow plugs can be checked by unscrewing and holding them
2 Pivot the alternator on the base mounting bolt to the left or against a good ground engine block and turning them on
right as required The tip should glow red hot You can also usc an ammeter to
test the power drain 8 to 9 amps per plug or an ohmmeter
3 Tighten the base mounting bolt and the adjusting strap to test resistance I to 12 ohms
bolL
4 Operate the engine for about 5 minutes at idle then shut
down and recheck belt tension
A WARNING These glow plugs will become very hot
to the touch Be careful not to burn your fingers when
testing plugs
BElT TENSION Reinstall the plugs in the engine and test them again The
plugs should get very hot at the terminal end with 20 to 25
seconds If the plugs dont heat up quickly check for a short
circuit
A CAUTION Do not keep glow plug on for more than
BATTERY CARE 30 the and then estab GLOW PLUG
lish a systematic maintenance schedule for your engine start TERMINAL PREHEAT GLOW PLUGS
ing batteries and house batteries
o Monitor your voltmeter for proper charging during engine
operation
o Check the electrolyte level and specific gravity with a
hydrometer CENTRE SHAFT
o Use only distilled water to bring electrolytes to a proper SILICON CAP y
lcvel
o Make certain that battery cable connections are clean and
tight to the battery posts and to your engine
o Keep your batteries clean and free of corrosion FROM PREHEAT
SOLENOID
TUBE
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING DIAGRAM 31944
This diagram illustrates the 12 VDC negative ground electrical circuit
Two optional instrument panels are also shown the Captain Panel and the
Admiral Panel
9 ONOFF SWITCH
SHOULD BE
INSTALLED BE1WEEN
THE BATIERY AND
STARTER TO DISCON
NECT THE BATIERY IN
ADMIRAL
AN EMERGENCY AND PANEL
WHEN LEAVING THE
BOAT A SWITCH WITH
A CONTINUOUS RAT
ING OF 175 AMPS AT
12 vae WILL SERVE
THIS FUNCTION THIS
SWITCH SHOULD NOT
BE USED TO MAKE OR
BREAK THE CIRCUIT
CAPTAIN
PANEL
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING SCHEMATIC 31944
0 n
CAPTAIN
PANEL
till
51 AMP AI JEBNATOR oPRESTO ITF AfP AI T
SHWPARD ALTERNA10 ON TN
3 a 3C 0 liB ll 315 Ii
loeB i t He n r
o IN I VERSAI ON
PRESTO I TF o i AMP AI
OPT I aNAl AI HENAIORS
A to A Too
rvJ xu g n u 23
ENGINE AND STOP ASSEMBLY Firing Orders
The throttle and engine stop levers arc located on the out 3 Cylinder Models 1 3 2
board side of the engine just below the fuel injection pump 4 Cylinder Models are provided for pushpull cables
that run to the steering station Adjust the valves beginning with Cylinder 1 Rotate the
crankshaft slowly and observe the operation of the valves for
The throttle high speed adjustment has been factory set and is
Cylinder 1 Watch for the intake valve to open indicating the
wire locked The throttle idle screw is adjustable
piston is on its intake stroke the piston is moving down in the
These levers and brackets should be periodically lubricated cylinder Continue to rotate the crankshaft slowly and look
and checked for loose fastenings for the intake valve to close The piston is now starting its
compression stroke the piston is moving up in the cylinder
lowards IDC
STOP MODELS M320 SPEED ADJUSTMENT
TIMING
LEVER MARK
STOP AND THROmE LEVERS Watch the timing hole in the bell housing for timing numbers
to appear Position the ITC Mark in alignment with the notch
in the timing hole The piston in Cylinder is at TDe
Adjust the valves in Cylinder 1
HIGH SPEED ADJUSTMENT
FACTORY SET
MODELS M25 M35
Proceed to the nexl cylinder in the firing order
VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
Three cylinder models
NOTE Valve adjustment should nOl be necessary under nor
Rotate the crankshaft 240 0 in the normal direction of rotation
ma operating conditions These adjustments when required
and adjust the 3 Cylinders valves Rotate the be performed by an authorized mechanic
another 2400 and adjust the 2 Cylinders the valve rocker cover to expose the engines valve
train Remove the glow plugs from each of the cylinders to
Four cylinder models
enable the engine to be easily rotated by hand to position
each cylinder for valve adjustment Rotate the crankshaft 80 0 in the normal direction of rotation
and adjust the 3 Cylinders valves Rotate the are adjusted with the piston in the cylinder being another 800 and adjust the 4 Cylinders
valves Rotate the
adjusted at TOC Top Dead Center of its compression stroke crankshaft another 180 0 and adjust the 2 Cylinders valves
Each cylinder is adjusted following the engines firing order
WATER HEATER CONNECTIONS
WATER HEATER INSTALLATIONS The pressure cap on the engines manifold should be
installed after the engines cooling system is filled with
This engine is equipped with connections for the plumbing of coolant Finish filling the cooling system from the remote
engine coolant to heat an onboard water heater The water tank after the system is filled and is free of air and exhibits
heater should be mounted in a convenient location either in a good coolant circulation During engine operation checking
high or low position in relation to the engine so that the con the engines coolant should be done at the remote tank and
necting hoses from the heater to the engine can run in a rea not at the engine manifold cap The hose connection from the
sonably direct line without any loops which might trap air heater to the remote expansion tank should be routed and
Hoses should rise continuously from their low point at the supported so it rises continuously from the heater to the tank
heater to the engine so that air will rise naturally from the enabling any air in the system to rise up to the tank and out
heater to the engine If trapped air is able to rise to the heater of the system
then an air bleed petcock must be installed at the higher fit NOTE Air bleed petcocks are located on the engines heat
ting on the heater for bleeding air while filling the system exchanger and on the thermostat housing Open these pet
NOTE If any portion of the heating circuit rises above the cocks when filling the enginesJresh water SSlel7l to allmA
engines closed cooling system pressure cap then a pressur air in the coolant circuil O escape Close lighlV after al the
ized aluminum remote expansion lank must be installed in air is removed
the circuit to become the highest point Tee the remote expan
sion tank into the heater circuit choosing the higher of the
Mo connections for the return Tee at the heater and plumb a THERMOSTAT HOUSING
single line up to the tanks location and the other back to the
engines return Instalthe remote expansion lank in a con
venient location so the fresh water coolant level can easily be
HEATER BELOW THE ENGINE
checked The remote expansion lank will now serve as a
check and system fill point The plastic coolant recovery lank
is not used when the remote expansion lank kit is installed
since this tank serves the same
WATER
y HEATER
REMOTE EXPANSION l
HEATER ABOVE THE ENGINE TANK j 1
t WATER
ENGINE following trouble shooting chart describes certain prob NOTE The engine s electrical system is protected by a 20
lems the probable causes of the problems and the recom Ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on the to overcome the
problems on he left side of he engine The preheat solenoid is
moullled on lhe same bracket
Problem Probable Cause Key switch on PREHEAT switch 1 Battery Switch not
on 1 Check switch andor battery connections
depressed no panel indications
fuel solenoid or electrical fuel pump 2 20Amp circuit breaker tripped 2 Reset breaker if breaker trips again check preheat solenoid
circuit and check Circuit for shorts to ground
J 10Amp breaker tripped J Check voltage at and after breaker
4 Loose battery connections 4 Check connection to starier solenoid and connection to
engine ground stud Check battery cable connections
5 Preheat solenoid not operating 5 Check solenoid
Key switch on PREHEAT switch 1 Connection to solenoid faulty 1 Check connection at solenoid
depressed START switch depressed
no starter engagement 2 Faulty START switch 2 Check switch with ohmmeter
J Faulty solenoid J Check that 12 volts are present at starter solenoid activation
connection
4 loose battery connections 4 Check connection to starter solenoid and connectIOn to
engine ground stud Check battery cable connections
5 Low batteries 5 Check battery charge state
Engine cranks but does not 1 Faulty fueling system 1 Check that fuel valves are open
start
2 Preheat solenoid faulty 2 Check solenoid
J low compression J Compression test the engine
Engine cant be stopped 1 Faulty shutoff lever at engine 1 Reconnect shut off lever
2 Pushpull shut off cable from steering 2 Reconnect pushpull cable
station to engine Engine stops 1 Fuelhft pump failure 1 Fuel lift pump should make a distinct ticking
sound Replace
pump with spare
2 Switches andor wiring loose 2 Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose connections
or disconnected Inspect switches for proper operation
J Fuel starvation J Check fuel supply fuel valves fuel lift pump
4 20 Amp circuit breaker tripping 4 Check for high DC amperage draw during operation
Ensure breaker is not overly sensitive to heat which would
cause tripping
5 Exhaust system is restricted 5 Check for blockage collapsed hose carbon buildup at
exhaust elbow
6 Water in fuel 6 Pump water from fuel tanks change filters and
bleed fuel system
Battery not charging 1 Alternator drive 1 Check drive belt tension Aternator should turn freely Check
for loose connections Check output with voltmeter Ensure 12
volts are present at the Exc terminal
ENGINE Problem Probable Cause runs down 1 Oil
Pressure switch 1 Observe if gauges and panel lights are activated when engine is
not running Test the oil pressure switch
2 High resistance leak to ground 2 Check wiring Insert sensitive 0 25 amp mete in battery lines
Do not start engine Remove connections and replace after short
is located
3 Low resistance leak 3 Check all wires for temperature fise to locate the fault
4 Alternator 4 Disconnect alternator at output after a good battery charging If
leakage stops remove alternator and bench test Repair or replace
5 Poor battery connections 5 Check cable connections at overheats 1 Raw water not circulating
1 Broken or loose belt at raw water pump
NOTE Shut engine down immediately 2 Coolant not circulating 2 Raw water pump failure Check impeller replace
2a Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water filter
2b Thermostat remove and test in hot water
Replace thermostat
2c Loss of coolant check hoses hose clamps drain plug etc for
leaks
2d Broken or loose belts 2e Air leak in system run engine and
open cooling system petcocks
heat exchanger manifold etc to bleed air Add coolant as smoking problems 1 Blue smoke 1 Incorrect
grade of engine oiL
la Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil oil is blowmg out through
the exhaust
2 White smoke 2 Engine is running cold
2a Faulty injector or incorrect injector timing
3 Black or gray smoke 3 Improper grade of fuel
3a Fuel bum incomplete due to high back pressure n exhaust or
insufficient air for proper combustion Check for restrictions in
exhaust system check air intake
3b Improperly timed fuel system misadjusted valves or poor
compression
3e Lack of air check air intake and air filter Check for proper
ventilation
3d Overload
3e will not shift in or out 1 Transmission faHure la Check cable connections at steering station and at
of gear or drive the vessel transmission lever
lb Check transmission fluid
1 Check shaft couplings or engine damper plate
ld Check engines damper vibration 1 Faulty engine alignment 1 Check the coupling
lalnspect all engine mounts
2 Cutless bearings support strut and 2 Inspect propeller and shaft
propeller could all be suspect
MARINE POWER
CONTROL PANEL MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT TOGGLE SWITCHES
NOTE The engine control system is protected by a 20 amop manual resel circuil breaker
located on the engine as close as possible to the power source
Problem Probable Cause PREHEAT depressed no panel indications 1 Oil
Pressure switch 1 Check switches andor battery connections
fuel solenoid electric fuel pump and
preheat solenoid not energized 2 20 amp circuit breaker tripped 2 Reset breaker If opens again check preheat solenoid circuit
and run circuit for shorts 10 ground
START SWITCH DEPRESSED no starter 1 Connection to solenoid faulty 1 Check connection
engagement
2 Faulty switch 2 Check switch with ohmmeter
3 Faulty solenoid 3 Check that 12 volts are present at the solenoid connection
4 loose battery connections 4 Check battery connections
S Low battery S Check battery charge state
NO IGNITION cranks does nol start 1 Faulty fueling system 1 Check for fuel
2 Check for air in the fuel system 2 Allow system to bleed
3 Faulty fuel lift pump 3 Replace fuel lift pump
NDT CHARGING BATIERY 1 Faulty alternator drive 1 Clleck tile drive belt and its tension Be sure the
alternator
turns freely Check for loose connections Check the
output with a voltmeter Ensure 12V are present at tile
regulator terminal
BATIERY RUNS DOWN 1 Oil pressure SWltcll 1 Observe if the guages and panel lights are activated when
engine is not runnmg Test tile oil pressure switch
2 High resistance leak to ground 2 Check the wiring Insert sensitive 025 amp meter in battery
lines Do NOT start engine Remove connections and replace
after short is located
3 low resistance leak to ground 3 Check all wires for temperature riuse to locate the fault
4 Faulty alternator 4 After a good battery charging disconnect alternator at output
If leakage stops Remove alternator and benck test Repair or
replace
WATER TEMPERATURE AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGES
If the gauge reading is other than what is normally indicated If both of the above gauge tests are positive the gauge is
by the gauge when the instrument panel is energized the first undoubtedly OK and the problem lies either with the conduc
step is to check for 12 volts DC between the ignition B tor from the sender to the gauge or with the sender
and the Negative B terminals of the gauge
If either of the above gauge tests are negative the gauge is
Assuming that there is 12 volts as required leave the instru probably defective and should be panel energized key switch on and
perform the
following steps Assuming the gauge is OK check the conductor from the
sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the
gauge reads zero which is the normal reading for this situa Check that the engine block is connected to the ground
tion Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the bat
tery is connected to the starter both plus and minus termi
2 Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and nals the ground side will not necessarily he connected to the
see if the gauge reads full scale which is the normal reading block
for this 28
TACHOMETER used in propulsion engine instru a With a handheld tach on the front
of the crankshaft pul
ment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a ley retaining nut or using a strohe type lach read the front
common ground One circuit operates the hounneter and the crankshaft pulley rpm
other the tachometer The hounneter circuit operates on 12
volts alternator charging voltage supplied to the terminal b Adjust the tachometer with a sma Phillips type screw
on the back of the instrument driver through the calibration access hole in the rear of the
tachometer Zero the tach and bring it to rpm scI by using
The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6 8 Yolts fed a strobe or hand tach verify rpm at idle and at high speed
from one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to the 1500 2500 3000 rpm Adjust the tach as needed
tach iop terminal while the engine is running and producing battery charging voltage 130 148 NOTE Current use a coarse DC
dial to set the tachometer 0 the crankshaft pulley rpms The
calibrating screw is hen used for fine luning
The following are procedures to follow when fault in either of the two circuits in a
Inoperative
TACH INP
Check for the proper DC voltage between and Voltage present meter is defective repair or replace
b Voltage not present trace and electrical connec
tions for fault Jump 12 volts DC to meter terminal to
verify the operation Voltage present attempt
adjusting meter through cali EARLY MODEL TACHOMETERS
bration access hole No results repair or replace meter TERMINAL
h AC voltage not present check for proper alternator DC
output voltage
c Check for AC voltage at tach terminal on alternator to
ground
d Check electrical connections from tach inp terminal to
alternator connection 1 TERMINAL
Tachometer Sticking
a Check for proper AC voltage between tach inp tenninal
and terminal
h Check for good ground connection between meter ter
minal and Check that alternator is well grounded to engine block at
alternator pivot bolt
COARSE 1
TERMINAL
CURRENT TACHOMETER
ZlItI TERMINAL
FINE INP
HBW OPERATION Locking the Prop
All HBW marine transmissions are testrun on dynamometer If you prefer to lock the propeller when sailing simply shift
with the engine at the factory prior to delivery into reverse Do not shift into forward gear Locking the
For safety reasons the fluid is drained before shipment propeller shaft by an additional hrakc is unnecessary Return
the shift lever to neutral before starting the engine
Fill the gearbox with Automatic Transmission Fluid
DEXRON II or DEXRON III The fluid level should be up
to the index mark on the dipstick To check the fluid level
just insert the dipstick do not screw it in Screw the dipstick
A WARNING 00 not start the engine with the
transmission in gear Always return the shift lever
into the case after the fluid level is checked and tighten Do
forget the sealing ring under the hex head of the for leaks and change the fluid after the first 50 hours
TO CHECK FLUID LEVEL CONTROL CABLES
The transmission is suitable for single lever remote control
Upon loosening the retaining screw the shift lever can be
moved to any position required for the control elements
cable or rod linkage Make certain that the shift lever docs
not contact the shift lever cover plate the minimum distance
between lever and cover should be O5mm
The control cable or rod should be arranged at a right angle
to the shift lever when in the neutral position The neutral
FLUID LEVEL position of the operating lever on the control console should
coincide with the neutral position of the shift lever on the
gear box
The shifting travel a measured at the pivot point of the shift
DIPSTICK FLUID LEVEL lever between the neutral position and end positions A and B
GEARBOX OPERATION should be at least 35mm for the outer and 30mm for the
inner pivot point
The neutral position of the operating lever on the must coincide with the neutral position of the actuat A greater amount of shift lever
travel is in no way detrimen
ing lever on the transmission Shifting is initiated by a cable tal and is recommended However if the shift lever travel is
or rod linkage via the actuating lever and an actuating cam shorter proper dutch engagement might be impeded which
The completion of the gear changing operation is servoauto in tum would mean premature wear excessive heat controlled within the gear Gear
changing should be tion and clutch plate failure This would be indicated by slow
smooth not too slow and continuous without clutch engagement or no engagement at all
Direct changes from forward to reverse are permissible since
the multipledisc clutch permits gear changing at high rpm NOTE Check jor proper shift lever travel at least each sudden reversing at top
speeds in the event of
FORWARD 0
CABLEBR A
WHEN UNDER SAIL OR BEING TOWED 0
Rotation of the propeller without load such as when the boat I CONTROL SHIFTING
is sailing being towed or anchored in a river as well as of the engine with the propeller stopped for charg
ing the battery will have no detrimental effects on the COUNTER CLOCKWISE When the boat is
sailing engine ofJ the gear lever TRANSMISSION COVER PLATE
can be set in the neutral pOSition the propeller flOW at idle
can free wheel without causing any problem SHIFTING
00 NOT LOOSEN LEVER
THESE FOUR BOLTS
SHIFTING LEVER 05 mm CLEARANCE
HBW TRANSMISSION
Checking the Bowden Cable or Rod Linkage
A WARNING The position of the cover plate under The Bowden cable or rod linkage should be checked at regu
neath the actuating lever is to ensure lar intervals Check the neutral position of the operating lever
equal shift lever travel from neutral position to A and B on the control console and the actuating lever on the gear
If this side shift cover is removed or in any way tam box The minimum lever travel from the neutral position to
pered with the transmission warranty will be void the operating positions 0 A 0 B should be 35mm for
Authorized Hurth personnel only may adjust or remove the outer and 30mm for the inner pivot point Make certain
that these minimum values arc safely reached Check the
this cover cable or rod linkage for easy movahility and proper attach
ment
NOTE When installing the gearbox make cenain that shifting Propeller Shaft Alignment
is not impeded by restricted movability of the Bowden cable
or rod linkage by positioned guide sheaves too The engines transmission must be exactly aligned with the
small a bending radius etc A shift cable attachment is pro propeller shaft Misalignment will create excessive shaft and
vided with each transmission bearing wear and can cause the rear seal to
leak The coupling alignment should be Fluid
periodically and always when the boat is being recommis
sioned after winter storage
To ensure troublefree operation of the gearbox only use Transmission Fluid ATF Dexron II or
If the transmission is not used for periods of more than one
year it should he completely filled with transmission fluid to
Add the fluid quantity for the proper model transmission to prevent corrosion Protect the input shaft and the output
the gearbox After filling check the fluid level with the dip flange by means of an anticorrosive coating as Adjust level as needed Install
the dipstick with the
sealing washer operate unit check fluid check for leaks
HBW TRANSMISSION
Transmission Fluid Quantity
HBW50 029 Quarts 0 30 Liters
HBW 100 033 Quarts 035 Liters
SHAFT
HBW 150 059 Quarts 056 Liters
HBW 150V 110 Quarts 105 Liters
HBW 250 184 Quarts 175 Change
Change the fluid for the first time after about 50 hours of
operation then every 250 operating hours or at least once a
year or when you change engine oiL When changing the
fluid also check the gearbox cooling device and clean or
replace it as When changing the fluid take care flot to lose the plug sealing HQsher The drain plug will leak
without
rhis sealing washel
LAYUP AND owners rely on their boatyards to prepare their craft
A CAUTION 00 not leave the engines old engine oil
in the sump over the layup period Engine oil and engines and generators for layup during the off
bustion deposits combine to produce hannful or for long periods of inactivity Others prefer to
accomplish layup preparation themselves which can reduce the life of the engines internal parts
The following procedures will allow you to perform your
own layup and or you may use them as a FUEL SYSTEM
check list for others These procedures should afford your
engine protection during a layup and also help familiarize Top off your fuel tanks with No2 diesel fueL Fuel additives
you with the maintenance needs of your engine should be added at this time to control algae and a fuel con
ditioner such as STABIL Care should be taken that the addi
If you have any questions regarding layup procedures call tives used are compatible with the primary local servicing dealer he will be
more than willing to separator used in the system Change the element in your pri
provide assistance mary fuel filterwater separator if the fuel system contains
one and clean the separator sediment SHAFT COUPLING Change the fuel filter elements on the engine and
bleed the
The transmission and propeller half couplings should always system as needed Start the engine and allow it to run for 5
be opened up and the bolts removed when the boat is hauled 10 minutes to make sure no air is left in the fuel system
out of the water or moved from land to water and during Check for any leaks that may have been created in the fuel
storage in a cradle The flexibility of the boat often puts a system during this servicing correcting them as strain on the propeller shaft
Or coupling or both while
the boat is taken out or put in the water In some cases the RAW WATER CIRCUIT
shaft has actually been bent by these strains This does not
apply to small boats that are hauled out of the water when Close the throughhull fitting Remove the raw water intake
not in use unless they have been dry for a considerable hose from the fitting Place the end of this hose into fl 5gal
period of time Ion bucket of clean fresh water Before starting the engine
check the zinc anode found in the heat exchanger on the
engine and clean or replace it as required Clean the raw
FRESH WATER CODLING SYSTEM water strainer if one is installed in the inside of the hull
A 5050 solution of antifreeze and distilled water is recom
Start the engine and allow the raw water pump to draw fresh
mended for use in the freshwater coaling system at all times
water through the system When the bucket is empty stop the
This solution may require a higher concentration of
engine and refill the bucket with an antifreeze depending on the areas winter climate Check the
slightly stronger then needed for winter freeze protection in
solution to make sure the antifreeze protection is adequate
your area
Should more antifreeze be needed drain an appropriate
Start the engine again and allow all of this mixture to be
amount from the engine block and add a more concentrated
drawn through the raw water system Once the bucket is
mixture Operate the engine to ensure a complete circulation
empty stop the engine This antifreeze mixture should pro
and mixture of the antifreeze concentration throughout the
tect the raw water circuit from freezing during the winter lay
cooling system Now recheck the antifreeze solutions
up as well as providing corroSIOn Remove the impeller from your raw water pump
SYSTEM antifreeze mixture will accompany it so catch it in a bucket
Examine the impeller Acquire replacement if needed and a
With the engine warm drain all the engine oil from the oil cover gasket Do not replace the impeller into the pump
sump Remove and replace the oil filter Place some paper until but replace the COver and and a plastic bag around the filter to catch
the oil dur
ing its installing the new oil filter be sure to apply a small
amount of oil on the rubber sealing gasket at the base of the
filter Fill the sump with the correct amount of oil for your
engine model Refer to the section of this
manual Usc an oil with an API specification of CF or CG4
or better Run the engine and check for proper oil pressure
and make sure there are not leaks Stop the engine check oil
level and add oil as needed to bring level to dipstick 32
LAYUP AND MOTOR and cleaning of the starter drive pinion is advis The of your
UNIVERSAL engine after a
able if access to the starter permits its removal Make slIre seasonal layup generally foHows the same procedures as
the battery connections arc shut off before attempting to those presented in the PREPARATIONS FOR the starter Take care in properly
replacing any elec section regarding preparation for starting and normal connections removed from the starter
However some of the layup procedures will need to be
counteracted before starting the LUBRICATION 1 Remove the oilsoaked cloths from the intake
manifold
It is not necessary to remove the glow plugs from the cylin 2 Remove the raw water pump cover and gasket Discard
der head to squirt light engine oil into the cylinders for the the gaoket Install the raw water pump impeller removed
few months of normal layup However if you anticipate a during Jayup or a replacement if required Install the
longer layup period 12 months or more we recommend raw water pump cover with a new cover gasket
that this procedure be performed The light oil in the cylin
ders will prevent the pistons rings from sticking to the cylin 3 Reconnect the shaft coupling and check for proper align
der walls With oil in the cylinders turn the engine over by ment
hand two revolutions
4 Reinstall the batteries that were removed during the lay
up and reconnect the battery cables making sure the minals are clean and that the
connections are tight Check
to make sure the batteries are fully or change fluid in the transmission as required Keep
full 10 prevent corrosion Wipe off grime and grease and 5 Check the condition of the zinc anode in the raw water
touch up unpainted areas Protect coupling and output flange circuit and clean or replace the anode ao netded Note that
with anticorrosion coating it is not necessary to flush the solu
tion from the raw water coolant system When the engine
SPARES is put into operation the system will selfflush in a short
period of time with no adverse time provides a good opportunity to inspect engine to see if external items such as drive 6 Start the
engine in accordance with procedures in the
belts or coolant hoses need replacement Check your basic PREPARATIONS FOR INITIAL STARTUP section of
spares kit and order items not on hand or replace those items this manual
used during the layup such as filters and zinc batteries are to be left on board during the layup period
make sure they are fully charged and will remain that way to
prevent them from freezing If you have any doubt that the
batteries will not remain fully charged or that they will be
subjected to severe environmental conditions remove the
batteries and store them in a warmer more compatible A WARNING Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen a
highly explosive gas which can be ignited by electrical
arcing or lighted tobacco products Do not smoke or
allow an open flame near the battery being serviced
Shut off all electrical equipment in the vicinity to pre
vent electrical arcing during servicing Wear rubber
gloves a rubber apron and eye protection when servic
ing 33
UNIVERSAL MARINE ENGINES Four cycle freshwater cooled vertical inline marine diesel engines
M320A M25XPA 18 3600 rpm 23 3200 rpm
30 3 3 4
BORE ANO STROKE 260 x 245 in 295 x 276 in 295 x 276 in
64 x 70 mm 76 x 70 mm 76 x 70 CHAMBER spherical type three
vortex combustion cubic inches 389 C1 57 CI 755 RATIO
231 21 1 21 1
FIRING ORDER 123 123 OIL
SAE 30 lOW 30 or lOW 40 Above CF or CG4 Grade
VALVE CLEARANCE 0057 to 007014 to 018 mm
ENGINE OIL CAPACITY 320ts3L 43 Ots4L 5 HBW50
HBW50 FlUIO Dexron II or Dexron III
ENGINE DRY WEIGHT wlrans 2351bsl06kg 285 Ibs129kg 335
No2 Diesel Oil cetane rating of 45 or CAPACITY 30ts28L 5Ots47L
5 COOLING block controlled with raw water exchanger and
centrifugal fresh water Clockwise when viewed from the front
FUEl NOZZLE TYPE Bosch throttle type
FUEL INJECTION PUMP Bosch PerMD Type MOTOR 12 volt
12 kw activated shiff AIO Voltage 105 120 VDCCurrent 87 90 tO 12 STANDARD 51 amp 12 volt
with internal regulator Reg set volts MARINE POWER
UNIVERSAL MARINE ENGINES Four cycle freshwater cooled vertical inline marine diesel engines
M320B M25XPB M35B
HORSEPOWER 20 3500 rpm 26 3000 rpm 353000rpm
CYLINDERS 3 3 4
BORE AND STROKE 264 x 268 in 299 x 290 in 299 x 290 in
67 x 58 mm 76 x 736 mm 76 x 736 mm
COMBUSTION CHAMBER Spherical type three vortex combustion system
DISPLACEMENT cubic inches 4389 C1 6108 C1 8145 C1
COMPRESSION RATIO 231 231 231
FIRING ORDER 123 123 1342
VALVE CLEARANCE 005 to 0071014 to 018 mm
ENGINE DlL SAE 30 1OW 30 or 1OW 40 Above CF Or CG4 Grade
ENGINE DlL CAPACITY 40 Ots38L 40 Ots38L 544 Qts51L
TRANSMISSION HBW50 HBW50 HBW100
TRANSMISSION FLUID Dexron II or Dexron III
ENGINE DRY WEIGHT wlrans 2411bs110kg 295 Ibsl134kg 352 Ibs159kg
FUEL No2 Diesel Oil cetane rating of 45 or higher
COOLANT CAPACiTY 375 Qts35L 4 Ots38L 6 Ots56L
ENGINE COOLING block controlled with raw water exchanger and
centrifugal fresh water pump
ROTATION Clockwise when viewed from the front
FUEL NOZZLE TYPE Bosch throttle type
FUEL INJECTION PUMP Bosch PerMD Type minipump
STARTING MOTOR 12 volt 12 kw activated shih wSolenoid
STARTING AID Voltage 105 120 VDCCurrent 87 90 10 12 Ohms
ALTERNATOR STANDARD 51 amp 12 volt with internal regulator Reg set volts
UniVGrsal
MARtHE POWER
UNIVERSAL ENGINES PARTS TYPICAL ENGINE MODEL 358 SHOWN
MAINFOLD
PRESSURE MANIFOLD
51 AMP DC
ALTERNATOR
10 NAME PLATE
HEAT EXCHANGER
TRANSMISSION
CONTROL
BRACKET
SHAFT
COUPLING
FLEXIBLE MnIMT
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMISSION
OIL PAN CONNECTION
SENDER
FRONT LEFT SIDE REAR
FILL
AIR FILTER THERMOSTAT
SILENCER HOUSING
FUEL INJECTION
PUMP
FUEL LIFT PUMP 6
FRESHWATER
PUMP
HEAT EXCHANGER
ZINC RAW WATER
PUMP
STOP AND
THROTTLE
CONTROLS
COOLANT
LEVER OIL DRAIN
HOUSE
FLEXIBLE MOUNT
TIMING MARK THROTTLE CONTROL
LOCATION BRACKET
FUEL FILTER
REAR LEFT SIDE FRONT
METRIC CONVERSIONS
INCHES TO MILLIMETERS MILLIMETERS TO INCHES
Inches mm Inches mm mm Inches mm Inches
1 2540 15 38100 1 00394 15 05906
2 5080 20 50800 2 00787 20 07874
3 7620 25 63500 3 01181 25 09843
4 10160 30 76200 4 01575 30 11811
5 12700 35 88900 5 01969 35 13780
10 25400 40 101600 10 03937 40 15748
10 MILLIMETERS 1CENTIMETER 100 CENTIMETERS 1 METER 3937 INCHES 33 FEET
INCHES TO METERS METERS TO INCHES
Inches Meters Inches Meters Meters Inches Meters Inches
1 00254 7 01778 01
I 3937 07 27559
2 00508 8 02032 02 7874 08 31496
00762
01016
02286
02540
I 03
11811
15748
35433
39370
5 01270 11 02794 05 19685 11 43307
6 01524 12 03048 06 23622 12 47244
TO CONVERT METERS TO CENTIMETERS MOVE OECIMAL POINT TWO PLACES TO THE RIGHT
YARDS TO METERS METERS TO YARDS
Yards Meters Yards Meters Meters Yards Meters Yards
1 091440 6 548640 1 109361 6 656168
2 182880 7 640080 2 218723 7 765529
3 274320 8 731520 3 328084 8 874891
4 365760 9 822960 4 437445 9 984252
5 457200 10 914400 5 546807 10 1093614
MOVE DECIMAL POINT FOR HIGHER VALUES eg 6000 METERS 656168 YARDS
POUNDS TO KILOGRAMS KILOGRAMS TO POUNDS
Ib kg Ib kg kg Ib kg Ib
1 0454 6 2722 1 2205 6 13228
2 0907 7
i 3175 2 4409 7 15432
3 1361 8 3629 3 I 6614 8 17637
4 1814 9 4082 4 8818 9 19842
5 2268 10 4536 5 I 11023 10 22046
GALLONS TO LITERS LITERS TO Liters Gallons liters Liters
Gallons Liters Gallons
1 379 10 3786 1 026 60 1566
2 757 20 7571 2 053 90 2377
3 1136 30 11357 5 132 120 3132
4 1514 40 15142 10 264 150 3962
5 1893 50 18928 20 528 180 4754
PINTS TO LITERS LITERS TO PINTS
Pints Liters Pints Liters II Liters Pints Liters Pints
1 047 6 284 1 211 6 1268
2 095 7 331
II 2 423 7 1479
3 142 8 379 3 634 8 1691
4 189 9 426 4 845 9 1902
5 237 10 473 5 1057 10 2113
TEMPERATURE
32 40 50 60 70 75 85 95 105 140 175 212 OF
I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 60 80 100 C
STANDARD HARDWARE TORQUES
NOTE Unless stated otherwise for a specific assembly use the following torque values when tightening standard hardware
Pitch Ibft kgm
Grade 4
6mm bolt headnut 2951 0407
8rnm boll headnut 125 72116 1016
10mm bolt headnut 125 137224 1931
10mm bolt headnut 15 130217 1830
12mm bolt headnut 125 ISO 253398 3555
12mm bolt headnut 15 253398 3555
12mm bolt headnut 175 217362 3050
13mm bolt headnut 15 325506 4570
14mm bolt headnut 15 362579 5080
14mm bolt headnut 2 340557 4777
16mm bolt headnut 15 542796 75110
16mm bolt headnut 2 514767 71106
Grade 6T
6mm bolt headnut 4365 0609
8mm bolt headnut 125 108159 1522
10mm bolt headnut 125 217325 3045
10mm bolt headnut 15 195304 2742
12mm bolt headnut 125 ISO 362579 5080
12mm bolt headnut 15 362506 5070
12mm bolt headnut 175 347492 4868
Grade 7T ST and 8S
6mm bolt headnut 5887 0812
8mm bolt headnut 125 145217 2030
10mm bolt headnut 125 289398 4055
10mm bolt headnut 15 268376 3752
12mm bolt headnut 125 ISO 542759 75105
12mm bolt headnut 15 506651 7090
12mm bolt headnut 175 434615 6085
13mm bolt headnut 15 579868 80120
14mm bolt headnut 15 7231085 100150
14mm bolt headnut 2 6871013 95140
16mm bolt headnut 15 10851664 150230
16rnm bolt headnut 2 10131591 140220
Grade 5 Cap Screw
14 UNC 911 1215
14 UNF 1113 1518
5116 UNC IS20 252S
5116 UNF 2123 2932
38 UNC 2833 3746
38 UNF 3035 4148
716 UNC 4449 616S
7116 UNF 5055 6976
12 UNC 6S73 94101
12 UNF 73S0 38
UNIVERSAL SPARE PARTS
OIL FILTER THERMOSTAT and GASKET
Change every 100 Hours Carry a spare for extended RAW
WATER IMPELLER
FUEL FILTER
Change every 2 Check once a year
CLEANER ELEMENT
Clean every 250 EXCHANGER END GASKET
Check once a year
ZINC ANODES
Od
DRIVE BELTS
Always carry a spare Cheek weekly f and proper
B Kit
Impeller Kit Impeller Kit
Heat Exchanger Gasket Oil Filter
Fuel Filter Water Pump Repair Kit
Fuel Filter with Gasket Zinc Anodes
Oil Filter Heat Exchanger Gasket
Fan Belt Thermostat Kit
Zinc Anodes Complete Gasket Kit
Injector
Fuel SPARE PARTS KITS
Fucl Filter with also offers two Spare Parts Fan Belt
Kits cach packaged in a rugged hinged tool Glow Plug
box Kit A includes the basic spares Kit
B is more extensive for off shore
WESTERBEKE CORPORATION AVON INOUSTRIAL PARK
AVON MA 02322 TEL 508 5887700 FAX 508 5599323

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Disclaimer:
The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.