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Universal Diesel M 25xpa Operator's Manual



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                                  ·         ·




    OPERATORS MANUAL

      Unlvarsal
  MARINE DIESEL ENGINES
M3·20A M3·20B M·25XPA M·25XPB
         M·35A M·35B

                    PUBUCATION 200494
                  1ST EDITION I APRIL 1997




                                      I~
        WESTERBEKE CORPORATION· AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK
       AVON, MA 02322 · TEL: (508) 588-noo · FAX: (508) 559-9323
          "'~~~

       ---
         N MMAM~mMr NaJ;olllll Marin~ Manufocturrrs Association
    OPERATORS MANUAL

      Univarsal
  MARINE DIESEL ENGINES
M3-20A M3-20B M-25XPA M-25XPB
         M-35A M-35B

                    PUBLICATION 200494
                  1ST EDITION I APRIL 1997




                                     I~
        WESTERBEKE CORPORATION· AVON INOUSTRIAL PARK
       AVON, MA 02322 · TEL: (508) 588-7700 · FAX: (508) 559-9323
             iIIr~~
          ....
         NMMA Member Nalional Marine Maflujacluren;Assocullion
       ...,.".,..,
            CALIFORNIA
       PROPOSmON 65 WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other
reproductive harm.
                                            SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
                                                UNIVERSAL DIESEL ENGINES


INTRODUCTION                                                     PREVENT BURNS - HOT ENGINE
Rem! this safety manlllll carefully. Most accidents are caused
IJy failure to follow juruiJlmenJal rules and precautions.        A WARNING: Do not much hat engine parts or
Know when dangerous conditions erist and take the                  exhaust system components. A running engine gets
necessary precautions to protect yourself, your personnel,         vert hat!
and your machinery.
The foUuwing safety instructions are in compliance with          · Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant
the American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) staruiJlrtis.           recovery tank.


PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK                                           IA WARNING:         Steam can cause injury or death!

 A WARNING: Do nat touch AC electrical CI1IIIIIiCtions           · In case of an engine overheat, allow the engine to cool
 nile engine is running, IX nen connected to shore                 before touching the engine or checking the coolant.
 power. Lethal roltage is present at these connections!
                                                                 PREVENT BURNS - ARE
· Do not operate this machinery without electrical
   enclosures and covers in place.                               IA WARNING:         Steam can cause injury or death!
· Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical
  equipment.                                                     · Prevent flash fires. Do not smoke or permit flames or
                                                                   sparks to occur near the carburetor, fuel line, filter, fuel
· Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical                pump, or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel
  equipment.                                                       vapors. Use a suitable container to catch all fuel when
                                                                   removing the fuel line, carburetor, or fuel filters.
· Make sure your clothing and skin are dry, not damp
  (particularly shoes) when handling electrical equipment.       · Do not operate with the Coast Guard Approved flame
                                                                   arrester removed. Backfire can cause severe injury or
· Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
                                                                   death.
  electrical equipment.
                                                                 · Do not operate with the air cieaner/siJencer removed.
· Do not connect utility shore power to vessel 's AC
  circuits, except through a ship-to-shore double throw            Backfire can cause severe injury or death.
  transfer switch. Damage to vessel's AC generator may           · Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near the
  result if this procedure is not followed.                        fuel system. Keep the compartment and the engine/gener-
                                                                   ator clean and free of debris to minimize the chances of
· Electrical shock results from handling a charged capacitor.
                                                                   fire. Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil.
  Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together.
                                                                 · Be aware -    diesel fuel will bum.

                                                                 PREVENT BURNS - EXPlOSION

                                                                  A WARNING: Explosions from fuel raptllS can cause
                                                                  injury Dr death!
                                              SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

PREVENT BURNS - EXPLOSION (continued)                                   BATTERY EXPLOSION
· Follow re-fueling safety instructions. Keep the vessel 's
  hatches closed when fueling. Open and ventilate cabin                  A WARNING: Battery explasian can cause injury
  after fueling. Check below for fumes/vapor before running
  the blower. Run the blower for four minutes before start-
  ing your engine.
                                                                        I
                                                                        · ardeath!

                                                                        · Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
· All fuel vapor.; are highly explosive. Use extreme care when            being serviced. Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen, a
  handling and storing fuels. Store fuel in a well-ventilated             highly explosive gas, which can be ignited by electrical
  area away from spark-producing equipment and out of the                 arcing or by lit tobacco products. Shut off all electrical
  reach of children.                                                        equipment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing during
                                                                            seJVicing.
· Do not fill the fuel tank(s) while the engine is running.
                                                                        · Never connect the negative (-) battery cable to the posi-
· Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing            tive (+) connection terminal of the starter solenoid. Do not
  the fuel system. Take care in catching any fuel that might              test the battery condition by shorting the terminals
  spill. DO NOT allow any smoking, open flames, or other                  together. Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapor.;.
  sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servicing.            Ventilate any compartment containing baneries to prevent
  Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the fuel                  accumulation of explosive gases. To avoid sparks, do not
   system.                                                                  disturb the battery charger connections while the battery is
                                                                            being cbarged.
· Do not alter or modify the fuel system.
· Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve.              · Avoid contacting the terminals with tools, etc., to prevent
                                                                          bums or sparks that could cause an explosion. Remove
· Be certain fuel line firtings are adequately tightened and                wristwatch, rings, and any other jewelry before handling
  free of leaks.                                                            the battery.

· Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is              · Always tum the battery cbarger off before disconnecting
  properly maintained. Be familiar with its proper use.                   the battery connections. Remove the negative lead first
  Extinguisher.; rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate                    and reconnect it last when disconnecting the battery.
  for all applications encountered in this environmenL
                                                                        BATTERY ACID
ACCIDENTAL STARTING
                                                                         A WARNING: Sulphuric acid in batteries can cause
 AWARNING:        Accidetrtal slaTting can cause iajuty                  sereTe iajury /If death!

I
· ar death!
                                                                        · When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
· Disconnect the battery cables before servicing the engine!                level, wear rubber gloves, a rubber apron, and eye protec-
   generator. Remove the negative lead first and reconnect                  tion. Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is destructive. If
   it last.                                                                 it comes in contact with your skin, wash it off at once
                                                                            with water. Acid may splash on tbe skin or into the eyes
· Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before                 inadvertently when removing electrolyte caps.
  starting.

· Make certain all covers, guards, and hatches are re-
  installed before starting the engine.




                                                                   ii
                                               SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

TOXIC EXHAUST GASES                                                     AVOID MOVING PARTS
IA WARNING:           Cal'llon monoxide (CO) is a deadly gas!             AWARNING:          Rotating parts can cause injury

· Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
                                                                        I
                                                                        · or death!

  discharged from the engine. Check the exhaust system                  · Do not service the engine while it is running. If a situation
  regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifolds                 arises in which it is absolutely necessary to make operat-
  are securely attached and no warping exists. Pay close                    ing adjustments, use extreme care to avoid touching mov-
   attention to the manifold, water injection elbow, and                    ing parts and hot exhaust system compone~ts.
   exhaust pipe nipple.
                                                                        · Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing
· Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated.                equipment; avoid wearing loose jackets, shirts, sleeves,
                                                                            rings, neckJaces or bracelets that could be caught in
· In addition to routine inspection of the exhaust system,                  moving parts.
  install a carbon monoxide detector. Consult your boat
   builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors.            · Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened.
                                                                          Keep protective shields and guards in their respective
· For additional information refer to ABYC T-22 (educa-
                                                                          places at all times.
  tional information on Carbon Monoxide).
                                                                        · Do not check fluid levels or the drive belt's tension while
 A WARNING: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible                          the engine is operating.
 odOfless gas_ Inhalation produces flu-like symptDms,                   · Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling
 nausea Of death!                                                           when the engine is running; hair and clothing can easily
                                                                            be caught in these rotating parts.
· Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems. Diesel
   fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust sys-              HAZARDOUS NOISE
   tems. Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of copper
   tubing resulting in exhaust/water leakage.                            A WARNING: High noise /ere/s can cause hearing
· Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
  through portholes, vents, or air conditioners. If the engine
  exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline, water could
                                                                        I
                                                                        · loss!

                                                                        · Never operate an engine without its muffler installed.
   enter tbe exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
   flow of exhaust. Avoid overloading the craft.                        · Do not run an engine with the air intake (silencer)
                                                                            removed.
· Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as toxic as
  exhaust fumes from gasoline engines, carbon monoxide                  · Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures
  gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes. Some of the symp-                 OpeD.
  toms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or poisoning
   are:
                                                                         A   WARNING: Do not work on machinery when you
          Vomiting                                                       are mentally or physically incapacitated by fatigue!
          Dizziness
          Throbbing in temples                                          OPERATORS MANUAL
          Muscular twitching                                            Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
                                                                        in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
          Intense headache                                              notes to highlight critical information. Read your manual
                                                                        carefully, maintain your equipment, and follow all safety
          Weakness and sleepiness
                                                                        procedures.




                                                                  iii
                                            SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
                           RECOMMENDED INSTALlATION CODES AND SAfETY STANDARDS
ENGINE INSTALlATIONS                                          ABYC, NFPA AND USCG PUBUCATIONS FOR
Preparations to install an engine should begin with a thor-   INSTAWNG DIESEL ENGINES
ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht Council 's
(ABYC) standards. These standards are a combination of        Read the following ABYC. NFPA and USCG publications
sources including the USCG and the NFPA.                      for safety codes and standards. Follow their recommenda-
                                                              tions when installing your UNIVERSAL engine
Sections of the ABYC standards of particular interest are:
                                                              ABYC (American Boat and Yacht Council)
         H-2 Ventilation                                      " Safety Standards for Small Craft"
         P-l Exhaust systems
         P-4 Inboard engines                                  Order From:
         E-9 DC Electrical systems                              ABYC
                                                                15 East 26th Street
All installations must comply with the Federal Code of          New York, NY 10010
Regulations (FCR).
                                                              NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
                                                              "Fire Protection Standard for Motor Craft"

                                                              Order From:
                                                                NFPA
                                                                1 Banerymarch Park
                                                                P.O. Box 9101
                                                                Quincy. MA 02269-9101
                                                              USCG (United States Coast Guard)
                                                              "USCG 33CFR183"
                                                              Order From:
                                                                U.S. Government Printing Office
                                                                Washington, D. C. 20404
                                                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction .......................................................................2                Description ............             . ...................................... 20
      Warranty Procedures .. __ ............................................ __ .. 2                     Alternator Troubleshooting ................................. 20
      Typical Customer Identification Card .......................... 2                                  Checking for Propcr Voltage .............................. .20
      Product Software .......... _ ........... _........... _....................... 2              Engine 12 Volt DC Control Circuit ............................ 21
      Notes, Cautions and Warnings ..................................... 2                           Drivc Belt Adjustmcnt .............................................. .21
      Serial Number Location ............................................... 3                       Battery Care ............................................................... 21
      Understanding the Diesel Engine ................................. 3                            Glow Plugs ................................................................ 21
      Ordering Parts .............................................................. 3            Wiring Diagram .............................................................. .22
      Spares and Accessories ................................................ 3                  Wiring Schematic ...........................................................23
      Protecting Your Investment .......................................... 3                    Engine Adjustments ...................................................... .24
Admiral Control Panel .....................................................4                        Throttle and Stop Assembly ....................................... 24
Captain Control Panel .....................................................5                         Valve Clearance .......................................................... 24
Diesel Fuel, Engine Dil and Engine Coolant ............... 6                                     Water Heater Connections ............................................25
      Diesel Fuel ................................................................... 6              Water Heater Installations .......................................... 25
          Care of the Fuel Supply ........................................ 6                     Engine Troubleshooting .................................................26
          Engine Oil ............................................................. 6             Control Panel Troubleshooting ....................................28
      Engine Coolant ............................................................. 6                 Manual Starter Disconnect (Toggle Switches) .......... 28
      Coolant and Recovery Tank ......................................... 6                          Troubleshooting Water Temperature and
Preparations for Initial Start-Up ................................... 7                              Oil Pressure Gauges ................................................... 28
      Prestart Inspection ........................................................ 7             Tachometer Troubleshooting ........................................ 29
StartingJStopping Procedure ..........................................8                              Tachometer/Hourmeter ............................................... 29
   Starting Procedure ........................................................ 8                           Hourmeter Inoperative ........................................ 29
    Preheat .......................................................................... 8                  Tachometer Inoperative ...................................... .29
   Start .............................................................................. 8                 Tachometer Sticking ........................................... 29
   Starting Under Cold Conditions ................................... 8                                   Calibration .......................................................... 29
   Stopping Procedure ...................................................... 8                   HBW Transmission ..........................................................30
Break-In Procedure ..........................................................9                       Initial Operation ......................................................... 30
   The First 50 Hours ....................................................... 9                      Gearbox Operation ..................................................... 30
                                                                                                     When Under Sailor Being Towed ............................. 30
The Daily Routine ........................................................... 10
                                                                                                     Locking the Prop ....................................................... .30
      Check List .................................................................. 10
                                                                                                     Control Cables ........................................................... .30
      Start Your Engine ....................................................... I 0
                                                                                                     Maintenance ............................................................... 31
Maintenance Schedule .................................................. 11                                Transmission Fluid .............................................. 31
Engine Cooling Circuit... ................................................ 13                             Capacity .............................................................. 31
      Description ................................................................. 13                     Fluid Change ...................................................... .31
          To Refill With Coolan!... ..................................... 13                              Checking the Bowdin Cable or Rod Linkage ..... 31
      Thermostat .................................................................. 14                    Propeller Shaft Alignment ................................ .31
          To Replace the Thermostat ................................. 14                                   Lay-Up/Winterize ............................................... .31
      Raw Water Cooling Circuit ........................................ 14                      Lay-Up and Recommissioning ......................................32
          Raw Water Pump ................................................ 14                         Lay-Up ....................................................................... 32
          Changing the Raw Water Impeller. ..................... 15                                  Propeller Shaft Coupling ........................................... .32
          Heat Exchanger ................................................... 15                      Fresh Water Cooling System ...................................... 32
          Zinc Anode .......................................................... 15                   Lubrication System ................................................... .32
Engine Oil Change ..........................................................16                       Fuel System ................................................................ 32
       Drain the Sump .......................................................... 16                  Raw Water Circuit ..................................................... .32
           Replacing the Oil Filter.. ..................................... 16                       Intake Manifold ......................................................... .32
           Refill the Oil Sump ............................................. 16                      Starter Motor .............................................................. 33
Remote Oil Filter ............................................................ 17                    Cylinder Lubrication ................................................. 33
       Installation .................................................................. 17            Transmission .............................................................. 33
Fuel System ....................................................................18                   Spares ......................................................................... 33
       Fuel Filters ................................................................ 18              Batteries ...................................................................... 33
       Fuel Water Separator .................................................. 18                    Recommissioning ....................................................... 33
       Fuel Additivcs ............................................................ 19            Specifications .................................................................34
       Spares ......................................................................... 19       Parts Identification ........................................................36
       Primary (Blecding/The Fuel System) ........................ 19                            Metric Conversions......................................              .......... 37
           Air Cleaner/Silencer ............................................ 19                  Standard Hardware Torques .......................                     .......... 3R
DC Electrical System .................................................20                         Spare Parts ....................................................................39



                                                                                             1
                                                       INTRODUCTION
These new high perfonnance UNIVERSAL marine diesel                       PRODUCT SOFTWARE
engines are a product of UNIVERSAL/WESTERBEKE's
design technology and their combined years of experience                 Product software (tech data, parts lists, manuals, hrochurcs and
manufacturing quality marine engines. We take great pride in             catalogs) provided from sources other than liNTVERSAL arc not
the superior durability and dependable performance of our                within UNIVERSAL'S CONTROL
marine engines. Thank you for selecting UNIVERSAL.
                                                                         UNIVERSAL CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
In order to get the full use and benefit from your engine, it is         CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE, MAKES NO WAR-
important that you operate and maintain it correctly. This               RANTIES OR REPRESENTATIONS WlTH RESPECT
manual is designed to help you do this. Please read this                 THERETO, INCLUDING ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR
manual carefully and observe all the safety precautions                  COMPLETENESS THEREOF AND WILL IN NO EVENT
throughout An extensive network of UNIVERSAL!                            BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR INJURY
\VESTERBEKE distributors. dealers and service centers are                INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT
available worldwide. Should your engine require servicing,               OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.
contact your nearest dealer for assistance.
                                                                         UNIVERSAL customers should also keep in mind the time
This is your operators manual. A Parts Catalog is also                   span between printings of UNIVERSAL product software
provided and a Technical Manual is available from your                   and the unavoidable existence of earlier UNIVERSAL
UNIVERSAL dealer. Also, if you are planning to instal! this              manuals. In summation, product software provided with
equipment, contact your UNIVERSAL dealer for                             UNNERSAL products, whether from UNIVERSAL or other
UNIVERSAL'S installation manual.                                         suppliers, must not and cannot be relied upon exclusively as
                                                                         the definitive authority on the respective product. It not only
                                                                         makes good sense but is imperative that appropriate represen-
WARRANTY PROCEDURES                                                      tatives of UNNERSAL or the supplier in question be con-
Your UNIVERSAL Warranty is included in a separate folder.                sulted to detennine the accuracy and currentness of the
If you have not received a customer identification card regis-           product software being consulted by the customer.
tering your warranty 60 days after submitting the warranty
registration fonn, please contact the factory in writing with            NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
model information, including the unit's serial number and
commission date.                                                         As this manual takes you through the operating procedures,
                                                                         maintenance schedules, and troubleshooting of your marine
                                                                         engine, critical information will be highlighted by NOTES.
                                                                         CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. An explanation follows:

                                                                         NOTE: An operating procedure essential to note.


   Customer Identification                                                A CAUTION: Procedures, which if not strictly
                                                                          observed, can result in the damage or destruction of
  UNIVERSAL OWNER                                                         your engine,
  MAIN STREET
  HOMETOWN, USA
                                                                          AWARNING: Procedures, which if not properly fol-
                                                                          lowed, can result in personal injury or loss of life,
  Model M-35B                           Sec #XXXX-D704
  Expires 7/20/97

TYPICAL CUSTOMER IDENTIFICATION CARD
The UNIVERSAL serial number is an alphanumeric
number that can assist in determining the date of manufacture
of your UNIVERSAL engine. The first character after the
dash indicates the decade [A=1960s, B=1970s, C=1980s,
D:::::! 990s, etc.:.], the second character represents the year in
the decade, and the fourth and fifth numbers represent the
month of manufacture.




                                                                     2
                                                     INTRODUCTION

SERIAL NUMBER LOCATION                                               ORDERING PARTS
An identification nameplate that displays the engine model           Whenever replacement parts are needed, always provide the
number and engine serial number is mounted on the side of            engine model number and engine serial number theya,
the engine's manifold. Take the time to enter this information       appear on the silver and black identification nameplate
on the blank decal provided below. This will provide a quick         located on the manifold. You must provide us with this infor-
reference when seeking technical information and/or ordering         mation so we can identify your engine. In addition, include a
parts.                                                               complete part description and part number for each part
                                                                     needed (see the separately furnished Parts Catalog). Also
                                                                     insist upon UNIVERSAUWESTERBEKE packaged parts
                                                                     because will fit or generic parts are frequently not made to
                                                                     the same specifications as original equipment.


·        MODE'-   SPEC                            SER.NO.    ·       SPARES AND ACCESSORIES.
                                                                     Certain spares will be needed to support and maintain
                                                                     your UNIVERSAL marine engine. Your UNIVERSAU
                                                                     WESTERBEKE dealer will assist you in preparing an on
UNDERSTANDING THE DIESEL ENGINE                                      board inventory of spare parts. See the UNIVERSAL SPARE
                                                                     PARTS page in this manual for a suggested list.
The diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine,
since the mechanism is essentially the same. The cylinders
are arranged above a closed crankcase; the crankshaft is of          PROTECTING YOUR INVESTMENT
the same general type as that of a gasoline engine, and the          Care at the factory during assembly and thorough testing
diesel engine has the same types of valves, camshaft, pistons,       have resulted in a UNIVERSAL diesel engine capable of
connecting rods and lubricating system.                              many thousands of hours of dependable service. However the
To a great extent, a diesel engine requires the same preven-         manufacturer cannot control how or where the engine is
tive maintenance as a gasoline engine. Most important are            installed in the vessel or the manner in which the unit is
proper ventilation and proper maintenance of the fuel, lubri-        operated and serviced in the field. This is up to the
cating and cooling systems. Replacement of fuel and lubri-           buyer/owner-operator.
cating filter elements at the time periods specified and             NOTE: Six important sleps to ensure long engine bfe:
frequent checking for contamination (water, sediment, etc.) in
the fuel system are essentiaL Also important is the consistent       o Proper engine installation and alignment.
usc of a brand of high detergent diesel lubrication oil
designed specifically for diesel engines.                            o An efficient well-designed exhaust system that includes
                                                                        an anti-siphon break to prevent water from entering the
The diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine, how-            engine.
ever, in its method of handling and firing of fuel. The carbu-
retor and ignition systems are done away with and in their           o Changing the engine oil and oil filters every JOO operating
                                                                        hours.
place is a single component (the fuel injection pump) which
pcrfonns the function of both.                                       o Proper maintenance of all engine components according
                                                                        to the maintenance schedule in this manual.
                                                                     o Use clean. tiltered diesel fucl.
                                                                     o Winterize your engine according to the LAY-UP AND
                                                                       RECOMMISSIONING section in this manual.




                                                                 3
                                                  ADMIRAL CONTROL PANEL
 UNIVERSAL offers two optional panels. Refer to the                   When the engine is shut down with the Key Switch turned
 instruction page that applies to the panel you purchased.            off, the water temperature gauge will continue to register the
                                                                      Ja~t temperature rcading indicated hy the gauge bctllfC elec-
ADMIRAL PANEL                                                         tncal power was turned off. The oil pressure gauge will fall
                                                                      to zero when the Key Switch is turned oft·. The temperature
This manually-operated control panel is equipped with a Key           gauge will once again register the engine's true temperature
Switch and RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME metcr                       when electrical power is restored to the gauge.
which measures the engine's running time in hours and in
 1110 hours. The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERA·                 A se~aratc alarm buzzer with harness is supplied with every
TURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees               Admiral Panel. The installer is responsible for electrically
Fahrenheit, an OIL PRESSURE gauge which measures the                  connecting the buzzer to the four~pin connection on the
engine'5 oil pressure in pounds per square inCh, and a DC             engine's electrical harness. The installer is also responsible
control circuit VOLTAGE gauge which measures the sys-                 ~or installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and
tem'5 voltage. All gauges are illuminated when the key                where it will be audible 10 the operator should it sound while
switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine           t~eengin.e is running. The buzzer will sound when the igni-

is in operation. The panel also contains two rubber-booted            hon key IS turned on and should silence when the engine has
pushbuttons, one for PREHEAT and one for START.                       started and the engine's oil pressure rises above 15 psi.



                                                                                              OtL PRESSURE GAUGE: THIS GAUGE IS GRADU-
                                                                                              ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (PSI) AND IS
                                WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE: THIS GAUGE IS                        ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS
                                GRADUATED IN DEGREES fAHRENHEIT AND IS                        TURNED ON. THE ENGINE'S NORMAL OPERATING
                                ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS                           OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 30·60 PSI
                                TURNED ON. THE ENGINE'S NORMAL OPERATING
                                TEMPERATURE IS 170°·190° f 177°·BBOC).

RPM GAUGE: REGIS·
TERS REVOLUTIONS
PER MINUTE OF THE
ENGINE AND CAN BE
RECALIBRATEO FOR
ACCURACY FROM THE
REAR Of THE PANEL



HOURMETER:
REGISTERS ElAPSED                                                                                                      KEY SWITCH: PROVIDES
TIME, AND SHOULD BE                                                                                                    POWER ONLY TO THE
USED AS A GUIDE FOR                                                                                                    INSTRUMENT PANEL
THE MAINTENANCE                                                                                                        CLUSTER.
SCHEDULE.




                                                                                                                       INDICATES THE AMOUNT THE
                                                                                                                       BATTERY IS BEING CHARGED
                                                                                                                       SHOULD SHOW 13V TO 14V.
PREHEAT BUTTON: WHEN PRESSED. ENERGIZES THE
ALTERNATOR'S REGUlATOR, THE FUEL LIFT PUMP, THE
fUEL SOLENOID ON THE INJECTION PUMP, AND THE                                AUTOMATIC ALARM SYSTIM
ENGINE'S GLOW PLUGS, AND BYPASSES THE      I                                HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM: AN ALARM BUZZER HAS BEEN
OIL PRESSURE AlARM SWITCH. IN ADDITION, I                                   SUPPLIED WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL If THE ENGINE'S FRESH
BUDON ENERGIZES THE START BUDON.                                            WATER COOLANT REACHES 210° f 19BOC), THIS SWITCH WILL CLOSE
                                                                            SOUNDING THE AlARM WHICH WILL EMIT A
START BUTTON: WHEN                                                          CONTINUOUS SIGNAL.
STARTER'S SOLENOID                     I
THIS BUDDN WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY                                    LOW OtL PRESSURE AlARM: A LOW OIL PRESSURE AlARM SWITCH
UNLESS THE PREHEAT BUDON IS PRESSED AND HELD                                IS LOCATED OfF THE ENGINE'S OIL GALLERY THIS SWITCH MONITORS
ATTHE SAME TIME.                                                            THE ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE. SHOULD THE ENGINEiS OIL PRESSURE
                                                                            FALL TO 5·10 PSI, THE SWITCH WILL CLOSE SOUNDING THE ALARM.
                                                                            IN THIS EVENT, THE AlARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL




                                                                 4
                                          CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL
                                                                       and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE. ft
CAPTAIN PANEL                                                          also includes an alarm buzzer for low OfL PRESSURE or
This manually~operated control panel is equipped with a Key            high WATER TEMPERATURE. The RPM gauge is illumi·
Switch, an RPM gauge, PREHEAT and START buttons, an                    nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains illumi-
fNSTRUMENT TEST button and three indicator lamps, one                  nated while the engine is in operation.
for ALTERNATOR DISCHARGE, one for low OlL PRES·
SURE,




                                                                       ALARM: THE ALARM WILL SOUND If THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE fALLS
                                                                       BELOW 15 PSI. IN THIS EVENT. THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIG·
                                                                       NAl. THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOUND If THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN THE
                                                                       fRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 20S'f. IN THIS EVENT. THE ALARM
RPM GAUGE:                                                             WILL EMIT A SIGNAl.
REGISTERS REVOLUTIONS PER                                              NOTE: THE ALARM WILL SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON.
MINUTE Of THE ENGINE AND CAN BE                                        THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAl. ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE ENGINE'S
RECALIBRATED fOR ACCURACY fROM                                         OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI, THE ALARM WILL SILENCE.
THE REAR Of THE PANEl.
                                    Oil PRESSURE   ALTERNATOR ALARM
                                    ALARM LIGHT    LIGHT


                                                                                                                     TEST BUTTON: WHEN
                                                                                                                     PRESSED, TESTS THE
                                                                                                                     ALTERNATOR. THE OIL
                                                                                                                     PRESSURE. AND THE
                                                                                                                     WATER TEMPERATURE
                                                                                                                     CONTROL CIRCUITS
                                                                                                                     WHEN PRESSED. THE
                                                                                                                     ALTERNATOR. THE OIL
                                                                                                                     PRESSURE, AND THE
                                                                                                                     WATER TEMPERATURE
                                                                                                                     INDICATOR LIGHTS
                                                                                                                     ILLUMINATE IN ADDI·
                                                                                                                     TION TD SOUNDING
                                                                                                                     THE ALARM BUZZER




                                                                                                                      KEY SWITCH:
                                                                                                                      PROVIDES POWER TO
                                                                                                                      THE INSTRUMENT
                                                                                                                      PANEL CLUSTER AND
                                                                                                                      THE DC ALTERNATOR
                                                                                                                      REGULATOR TERMINAL.

                                  WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM
                                  LIGHT



                     START BUTTON: WHEN PRESSED. ENERGIZES THE
                     STARTER'S SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE THIS                   PREHEAT BUTTON: WHEN PRESSED. ENERGIZES THE fUEL
                     BUTTDN WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE                   LIfT PUMP AND THE ENGINE'S GLOW PLUGS. ANa BYPASSES
                     PREHEAT BUTTON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME                    THE ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH. IN ADDITION.
                     TIME.                                                             THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES THE START BUTTON




                                                                   5
                       DIESEL FUEL, ENGINE OIL AND ENGINE COOLANT

DIESEL FUEL                                                             ENGINE COOLANT
Use fuel that meets the requirements or specification of Class          UNNERSAL recommends a mixture of 50% antifreeze and
2-D (ASTM), and has a cetane rating of #45 or better.                   50% distilled water. Distilled water is free from the chemi-
                                                                        cals that can corrode internal engine surfaces.
Care Of The Fuel Supply                                                 The antifreeze performs double duty. It allows the engine to
                                                                        run at proper temperatures by transferring heat away from the
Use only clean diesel fuel! The clearance of the components
                                                                        engine to the coolant, and lubricates and protects the cooling
in your fuel injection pump is very critical; invisible dirt par~
                                                                        circuit from rust and corrosion. Look for a good quality
tides which might pass through the filter can damage these
                                                                        antifreeze that contains Supplemental Cooling Additives
finely finished parts. It is important to buy clean fuel, and
                                                                        (SCAs) that keep the antifreeze chemically balanced, crucial
keep it clean. The best fuel can be rendered unsatisfactory by
                                                                        to long term protection.
careless handling or improper storage facilities. To assure that
the fuel going into the tank for your engine's daily use is             The distilled water and antifreeze should be premixed before
clean and pure, the following practice is advisable:                    being poured into the cooling circuit.
Purchase a well-known brand of fuel.                                    NOTE: Look for the flew environmenwl(v-jriendiy IOllR la.l'finf!,
                                                                        antifreeze that is nol1.'· available.
Install and regularly service a good, visual~type filter/water
separator between the fuel tank and the engine. Raycor 500              Antifreeze mixtures will protect against an unexpected freeze
FG or 900 FG is a good example of such a filter.                        and they are beneficial to the engine's cooling system. They
                                                                        retard rust and add to the life of the circulating pump seal.
ENGINE OIL
                                                                                             ANTIFREEZE PROTECTION
Use a heavy duty engine oil with an API classification of CF
or CG4 or better, Change the engine oil after an initial 50             Antifreeze concen1ration      23%        30%       35%       50%
hours of break-in operation, and every 200 hours of operation           Freezing Temperature          WF          8"F       -4"F     -40"F
thereafter. For recommended oil viscosity, see the following                                         (-5"C)     (-13"C)   (-20"C)   (-40"C)
chart:
                                                                        COOLANT RECOVERY TANK
       Operating Temperature           Oil Viscosity
                                                                        A coolant recovery tank kit is supplied with each
         Above 68"F (2D"C)          SAE 30 or 1OW-3D
                                                                        UNIVERSAL diesel engine. The purpose of this recovery
         41 "-68"F (5-2D"C)         SAE 20 or 1DW-3D                    tank is to allow for engine coolant expansion and contraction
                                                                        during engine operation, without the loss of coolant and
         Below 41"F (5"C)              SAE 1DW-3D                       without introducing air into the cooling system. This kit is
                                                                        provided and must be installed before running the engine.

 A CAUTION: 00 not allow two or more brands of
 engine oil to mix, Each brand contains its own additives;
 additives of different brands could react in the mixture
 to produce properties harmful to your engine.




                                                                          COOLANT RECOVERY TANK




                                                                    6
                                PREPARATIONS FOR INITIAL START-UP

PRESTART INSPECTION                                                     o Check the DC electrical system. Inspect wire connections
                                                                            and battery cable connections.
Before starting your engine for the first time or after a pro-
longed layoff - check the following items.                              o Visually examine the unit. Look for loose or missing
                                                                            parts, disconnected wires, unattached hoses, and check
o Check the engine oil1evel; add oil to maintain the level at               threaded connections.
   the high mark on the dipstick.
                                                                        o Check the coolant level in the plastic recovery tank and at
o Check the fuel supply and examine the fuel filter/separator               the manifold.
   bowls for contaminants.
                                                                        NOTE: If the engine has not yet been filled with coolanT. refer
o Check the transmission fluid level.                                   to the ENGINE COOLING CIRCUIT section of this manual.
NOTE: Refer to the specifications pages in this manual for
fuel, oil, and transmission types and quantities.




                                                                                                                 _DIPSTICK




              RECOVERY
              TANK




                                                                 MANIFOLD




                                                           (M-35B SHOWN)




                                                                   7
                                     STARTING/STOPPING PROCEDURE

STARTING PROCEDURE
Place the transmission in neutral and advance the throttle               ACAUTloN: Prolonged cranking intervals without the
control to slightly open.                                                 engine starting can result in the engine exhaust system
                                                                          filling with raw water. This may happen because the
                                                                         pump is pumping raw water through the raw water cool·
 A CAUTION: Make certain the transmission is in neu-
 tral. starting in gear could result in serious damage to                ing system during cranking. This raw water can enter the
                                                                         engine's cylinders by way of the exhaust manifold once
 your transmission, your boat, and vessels nearby.
                                                                         the exhaust system fills. Prevent this from happening by
                                                                         closing the raw water supply through-hull Shut-off,
Turn the KEY SWlTCH to the ON position (2 o'clock)
                                                                         draining the exhaust muffler, and correcting the cause
PREHEAT: Depress the PREHEAT switch. The voltmeter and                   of the excessive engine cranking. Engine damage result-
panel lights, gauges and meters will be aClivated. The PRE-              ing from raw water entry is not a warrantable issue; the
HEAT switch should be depressed in accordance with the
                                                                         owner/operator should keep this in mind.
following chart:
                     TemperatureJPreheat
                                                                        Once the engine starts, check instruments for proper oil pres-
    Abnospheric Temperalure              Preheating lime
                                                                        sure and battery charging voltage.
      +41°F(+5°C) or higher             Approx. 10 seconds
   +4n(+5°C) to 2n (-5°C)               Approx. 15 seconds
                                                                        NOTE: Never attempt to engage the starter while the engine is
                                                                        running.
      +23°F(-5°C) or lower              Approx. 20 seconds
     Limit of continuous use        30 seconds before cranking          NOTE: Some unstable running may occur in a cold engine.
                                                                        Depressing the Preheat switch/or /0-/5 second intervals 'will
                                                                        help stabilize the engine RPM until the operating tempera-
START: While still depressing the PREHEAT switch, depress
                                                                        ture reaches J70o-190°F (77°_88°C) and a propeller load is
the START switch. This will engage the starter solenoid.
                                                                        applied to the engine. When the engine i~' running and the
Upon engine starting, release the START switch. Do not
                                                                        preheat switch is depressed, a charging load on the DC alter-
release the PREHEAT switch until the oil pressure reaches
                                                                        nator will be discernible.
15 psi. Then as long as the high water temperature and low
oil pressure protective circuits do not activate, the engine will
remain energized and continue to run.                                   STARTING UNDER COLD CONDITIONS
                                                    VOLTAGE
                                                    DROP                Make certain the lubricating oil confonns with the ratings for
                                                                        the prevailing temperature. Check the table on the engine oil
NOTE: When starting:                                                    section of this manual.
A voltage drop will occur
                                                                        The battery should be fully charged to minimize voltage
when the preheat switch                                                 drop.
is depressed.
                                                                        Use a sufficient amount of preheat to aid in starting, see
                                                                        Temperature/Preheat chart On this page.

Should the engine not start when the START switch is
depressed for 10 to 20 secol!ds, release both switches and              STOPPING PROCEDURE
wait 30 seconds; repeat the procedure above and preheat                 To stop the engine, bring the throttle to an idle position and
longer. Never run the starter lor more than 30 seconds.                 place the transmission in neutral. Allow the engine to idle for
                                                                        a few moments to stabilize temperatures. Pull the STOP lever
                                                                        to shut down the engine. Then turn OFF the key 10 close
                                                                        down the electric fuel pump and accessories.

                                                                        Made certain the key switch is in the OFF position (12
                                                                        o'clock). If the Key Switch is left ON. the battery will diS-
                                                                        charge. An engine alarm buzzer is provided to warn the oper-
                                                                        ator of this condition (Key Switch ON). The best method of
                                                                        preventing the battery from discharge is to remove the key
                                                                        from the Key Switch after stopping the engine.




                                                                    8
                                              BREAK-IN PROCEDURE

THE FIRST 50 HOURS                                                   Breaking-in a new engine hasically involves seating the pis-
                                                                     ton rings 10 the cylinder walls. This cannot be accomplished
Although your engine has experienced a minimum of one                hy long periods of running at iulc, nor hy early running at
hour of test operations to ensure accurate assemhly and              full rpm. Idle running may glaze the eylinuer walls. resulting
proper operation of all systems. hrcak~in lime is required.          in excessive oil consumption and smoky operation.
The service life of your engine is dependent upon how the            Excessive speed or heavy over-loading. especially with a
engine is operated and serviced during its initial 50 hours of       cold engine. may cause scoring of the cylinder walls. produc-
usc.                                                                 ing similar results. Operate the engine in moderation during
                                                                     the 50-hour break-in period. (Don', baby the engine_ bu! do
Your new engine requires approximately 50 hours of initial
                                                                     not abuse it.)
conditioning operation to hreak in cach moving part in order
to maximize the performance and service life of the engine.
Perform this conditioning carefully. keeping in mind the fol-
lowing:

1. Start the engine according to the Starting Procedure sec-
   tion in this manual; run the engine at fast idle while
   checking that all systems (raw water pump, oil pressure,
   battery charging) arc functioning.

2. Allow the engine to warm up (preferably by running at fast
   idle) until the water temperature gauge moves into the
   130 o -J40°F range.
                                                                     NOTE: Allemptillg to reduce idle speed helow the minimum
3. While using the vessel, run the engine at varying engine          shown may product' wisiahle ellgine operatioll and stalling.
   rpms for the first 25 hours.
                                                                     NOTE: The propeller should he eithc!r 2 or 3 Node. It should
4. Avoid rapid acceleration, especially with a cold engine.          allow the enRine to rf!ach iiS maximum rated rpm at full open
                                                                     throttle undenvay ill forward gear to ensure the ami/ahility
S. Usc caulion nol 10 overload the engine. The presence of a
                                                                     of rated horsepower whell Ilet'ded.
   gray or black exhaust, and the inahility of the engine 10
   reach its full rated rpm, arc signs of an overload.               NOTE: See the TRANSMISSION section of this manual jor
                                                                     hreak-ill illformation Oil your transmissio!l.
6. During the next 25 hours, the engine may be operated at
   varying engine rpms, with short runs at full rated rpm.
   Avoid prolonged idling during this break-in period.




                                                                 9
                                                 THE DAILY ROUTINE
CHECK LIST                                                             START YOUR ENGINE
Each day before starting your engine, take a few moments to            NOTE: See STARTING STOPPING PROCEDURE in Ihis
run this check list:                                                   manual for more detailed instructions.
o Visually inspect the engine for fuel, oil, or water leaks.           I. Put transmission in neutral, throttle advanced.

o Check the oil level.                                                 2. Turn KEY to the ON position (2 o'clock)

o Check the transmission fluid level.                                  3. Depress PREHEAT (IOta IS seconds).
o Check for loose wires at the alternator.                             4. While pressing PREHEAT, push START.
                                                                          When engine starts - release START.
o Check the starting batteries level (weekly)
                                                                       5. Hold PREHEAT until oil pressure reaches 15 psi andlor
D Check drive belts for wear and proper tension (weekly),                 alarm shuts Qff.
D Log your engine running time. These hours relate to                  NOTE: Should engine fail to stan, wait 30 seconds, repeaT the
  scheduled maintenance.                                               above procedure, and PREHEAT longer
o Check fuel supply; always keep fuel tank(s) as full as pos-          6. Allow a few minutes for the engine to warm at a comfort-
   sible.                                                                 able rpm (approx. 1200 rpm), then reduce the rpm, shift
o Look for clean fuel in the fueVwater separator bowl.                    into gear, and get underway.

o Check the coolant level in the plastic recovery tank.                 A    CAUTION: When shifting the transmission, always
NOTE: Excessive loss of coolant indicates a cooling system              reduce the engine rpm to idle, then shift the transmis-
leak. Check the entire system. If necessary, use a cooling sys-
                                                                        sion firmly from one direction to another_ A slight pause
tem pressure tester to pressurize the cooling system to locate
[he area of leakage. In cases of excessive coolant loss, refill         in neutral will allow the propeller to slow. Shifting at
Ihe S1'Slem as oUllined ill Ihe ENGINE COOLING CIRCUIT                  high rpm will damage the transmission/damper plate.
section ill this manuaL.




                                                                  10
                                             MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

                           A    WARNING: Never attempt to perform any service while the engine is
                           running. Wear the proper safety eqUipment such as goggles and gloves, and
                           use the correct tools for each job. Disconnect the battery terminals when
                           servicing any of the engine's DC electrical equipment.


                         NOTE: Man)' a/the following maintenance jobs are simple but others are more
                         difficult and may require the expert knowledge of a service mechanic.


                               CHECK                 HOURS OF OPERATION
SCHEDULED                       EACH                                                              EXPLANATION OF SCHEDULED
MAINTENANCE                      DAY    50     100     250   500    750 1000 1250                       MAINTENANCE
Fuel Supply                      0                                                     Diesel No.2 rating of 45 cetane or higher
Fuel/Waler Separator             0                                                     Check for water and dirt in fuel (drain/replace filter
                                                                                       if necessary).
Engine Oil Level                 0                                                     Oil level should indicate between MAX. and LOWon
                                                                                       dipstick.
CoolanlLevel                     0                                                     Check at recovery tank; if empty, check at manitold.
                                                                                       Add coolant if needed.
Drive Belts                      0                                                     Inspect for proper tension (3/8" to 1/2" depreSSion)
                                                                                       and adjust it needed. Check belt edges for wear
Visuallnspeclion ot Engine       0     NOTE:  Please keep engine suiface clean.        Check tor tuel, oil and water leaks. Inspect wiring
                                       Dir! and oil will inhibillhe engine's ability   and electncal connections. Keep bolts & nuts tight
                                       10 remain cool.                                 Check for loose belt tension.
Engine Throttle and                     0              0     0       0      0      0   Check tor loose tiltings, colter pins, etc.
Transmission Control                                                                   Lubricate with WO-40 or equivalent
Cables and Shutoff Levers
Adjust Engine Idle Speed         0                                                     Adjust to (750-1200 rpm).
Fuel Filter                             0              0     0       0      0      0   Initial change at 50 hrs, then change every 250 hrs.
Starting Batteries               0                                                     Every 50 operating hours check electrolyte levels
(and House Batteries)                                                                  and make sure connections are very tight Clean oft
                                                                                       excessive corrosion.
Engine Oil and Filter           0       0      0       0     0       0      0      0   Initial engine oil & tilter change at 50 hrs .. then
                                                                                       change both every 100 hours.
'Torque Cylinder Head                                                                  At engine overhaul or cylinder head overhaul.
 Hold Down Bolts
Lubricate Panel Key                            0                                       At first 100 hrs., then each year at wlntenzing.
Switch with '"Lockeze"
Transmission Fluid                      0              0     0       0             0   Initial fluid change at 50 hrs, then every 250 hrs.
                                                                                       or once a year.
Air Cleaner                                            0     0       0      0      0   Clean the filter and element
Exhaust System                          0                            0             0   Imtlal check at 50 hrs .. then every 500 hrs. Inspect
                                                                                       tor leaks. Check siphon break operation. Check the
                                                                                       exhaust elbow for carbon and/or corrosion buildup
                                                                                       on inside passages; clean and replace as neces-
                                                                                       sary. Check that ali connections are tight




                                                                   11
                                             MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
                         NOTE: Use the engine hour meter gauge to log your engine hours or record your
                         engine hours by running time.                                        '


                                CHECK               HOURS OF OPERATION
 SCHEDULED                      EACH                                                        EXPLANATION OF SCHEDULED
 MAINTENANCE                     DAY    50    100     250   500   750 1000 1250                   MAINTENANCE
  Engine Hoses                          0     0       0     0     0      0   0    Hose should be hard & tight. Replace if soft or
                                                                                  spongy. Check & tighten all hose clamps.
  Heat Exchanger                        0      0      0     0     0      0   0    Clean or replace anode. Open heat exchanger end
  Zinc Anode                                                                      cap and clean out debris. Remove every 1000 hours
                                                                                  for professional cleaning and pressure testing.
  Electric Fuel Lift                    0             0     0     0      0   0    Clean at 50 hours, then clean every 250 hours.
  Pump Filter (if applicable)
  Raw Water Pump                                      0           0          0    Remove pump cover and inspect impeller for wear;
                                                                                  replace if needed. Also replace gasket. Lubricate
                                                                                  both when reassembled. Inspect pump for internal
                                                                                  wear, cover plate wear and cam wear.
  Coolant System                                            0                0    Drain, flush, and refill cooling system With appro-
                                                                                  priate antiireeze mix.
  Fuel Injectors                                                  0               Check and adjust Injection opening pressure and
                                                                                  spray condition (see Engine Adjustments).
 rt hoses from the pump,              13. Rca<;semhlc the hose connections and open the raw
   noting the port location and positioning.                               water intake.
3. Remove the pump assembly and its gasket from the                    14. Start the engine in idle, this will allow the pump to align
   engine.                                                                 itself with its drive shaft.
4. Remove the three hex head screws that hold the housing              15. Stop the engine and tighten the pump assembly mount-
   to the cover.                                                           ing screws.
5. Tap the housing/cover assembly on its side to loosen and            16. Start and run the engine, check for leaks and check for a
   separate the cover from its housing.                                    norrnal operating temperature.
6. Remove the cover and its O-ring and remove the impeller             NOTE: Should a failure occur with the pumps internal parts
   gasket and plate.                                                   (seals and bearings) it may be more cost efficient to purchase
                                                                       a new pump. The price of individual parts would almost
7. Remove the retaining ring (circ1ip) and pry out the
                                                                       match the price of a new pump.
   impeller. Take care not to lose the key off the shaft's key-
   way.
                                                                       Heat Exchanger
 ACAUTION: If any of the vanes have broken off the                     The heat exchanger is a copper tUhe which encloses a num-
 impeller they must be found to prevent blockage in the                ber of small copper tubes. Raw water is pumped through the
 cooling circuit. They often can be found in the heat                  small copper tubes and the freshwater coolant from the
                                                                       engine is circulated around the copper tubes. The raw water
 exchanger.
                                                                       removes heat from the freshwater coolant. To keep the heat
                                                                       exchanger operating efficiently, it should be removed from
8. Replace the gasket, impeller, and O-ring.                           the engine every 1000 hours to be thoroughly cleaned and
                                                                       pressure tested.
9. Apply a film of petroleum jelly or silicone to the inner
   surface of the impeller housing.
                                                                                HEAT EXCHANGER
NOTE: Just coat the surface, do not over apply.
10. Install the cover housing over impeller.

11. Install the three hex screws and tighten.



                                                                                                                       DRAIN

                                                                                           CLEAR OUT
                                                                                           DEBRIS
                                                                                O-RING                                   POOR




                                                                       Zinc Anode
                                                                                                        ZINC ANODE    i
                                                                       A zinc anode or pencil, is located in the raw water cooling cir-
                                                                       cuit within the heat exchanger. The purpose of the zinc anode
                                                                       is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking place in the
                                                                       raw water cooling circuit, therehy reducing the effects of elec-
                                                                       trolysis on other components of the system. The condition of
                                                                       the zinc anode should be checked monthly and the anode
                                                                       cleaned or replaced, a<; required. Spare anodes should he car-
                                                                       ried onboard. The area in the exchanger where the anode is
                                                                       located should periodically he cleaned of anode dehris.




                                                                  15
                                                 ENGINE OIL CHANGE
DRAIN THE SUMP                                                               Replacing the Oil Filter
The engine oil should be warm. Remove the oil drain hose                     When removing the used oil filter, you may find it helpful
from its attachment bracket and lower it into a container and                and cleaner to punch a hole in the upper and lower portion of
allow the oil to drain, or attach a pump to the end of the drain             the old filter to drain the oil from it into a container before
hose and pump out the old oil. Make sure the oil drain hose                  removing it. This helps to lessen spillage.
is capped and properly secured in its holder after all the old
oil has been drained.                                                       NOTE: Do not punch this hole without first loosening [he filter
                                                                            to make certain it will come off!
NOTE: Thread size for the lube oil drain hose capped end is
114 NPT                                                                     An automotive filter wrench should be helpful in removing
                                                                            the old oil filter. Place some paper towels and a plastic bag
Always observe the old oil as it is removed. A yellow/gray                  around the filter when unscrewing it to catch any oil left in
emulsion indicates the presence of water in the oil. Although               the filter. Inspect the old oil tilter as it is removed to make
this condition is rare, it does require prompt attention to pre-            sure that the ruhber scaling gasket comes off with the old oil
vent serious damage. Call a competent mechanic if water is                  filter. If this rubber sealing gasket remains sealed against the
present in the oiL Raw water present in the oil can be the                  engine block, gently remove it. When installing the new oil
result of a fault in the exhaust system attached to the engine              filter element, wipe the filter gasket's sealing surface on the
and/or a siphoning of raw water through the raw water cool-                 engine block free of oil and apply a thin coat of clean engine
ing circuit into the exhaust, filling the engine. This problem              oil to the rubber gasket on the new oil filter. Screw the filter
is often caused by the poor location or the !ack of an anti-                onto the threaded oil filter stub, and tighten the filter firmly
siphon valve. See UNIVERSAL'S Installation Manual.                          by hand.

                                                                            NOTE: Use genuine UNIVERSAL oil filters - generic filters
                                                                            are nol recommended.


                                                                            REFILL THE DlL SUMP
                                                                            Add fresh oil through the filler cap. After refilling, run the
                                                                            engine for a few moments while checking the engine's oil
                                                                            pressure. Make sure there is no leakage around the new oil
                                                                            filter or from the oil drain system, and then stop the engine.
                                                                            Then check the quantity of oil with the lube oil dipstick. If
                                                         OIL DRAIN HOSE     the engine requires additional oil, fill to, but not over, the
                                                                            high mark on the dipstick.

                             OIL CONTAINER _ _ ...r--,

AWARNING: Used engine oil contains hannful conta-
minants. Avoid prolonged skin contact. Clean skin and
nails thoroughly using soap and water. l.aunder or dis-
card clothing or rags containing used oil. Discard used
                                                                                                                                OIL FILTER
oil properly.




                                                                          APPLY OIL TO GASKET - - - - -
                                                                          WHEN ASSEMBLING
                                                                          NEW FILTER.
                                                                                                           /
                                                                                          SPIN·ON OIL FILTER




                                                                   16
                                                 REMOTE OIL FILTER
INSTALLATION                                                            Always install this kit with the oil filter facing down as illus-
                                                                        trated.
This popular accessory is used to relocate the engine's oil fil-
ter from the engine to a more convenient location such as an            Contact your UNIVERSALIWESTERBEKE dealer for more
engine room bulkhead.                                                   infonnation.

NOTE: Refer to the ENGINE OIL CHANGE page in this                       NOTE: Westerbeke is not responsible for engine failure due to
manual/or instructions on removing the oil filter                       incorrect installation a/the Remote Oil Filrer

To install, simply remove the engine oil filter and thread on
UNIVERSAL's remote oil filter kit as shown.                                                             FASTEN SECURELY TO A BULKHEAO
                                                                                                         (SCREWS ARE OWNER SUPPLIED)




    APPLY A THIN COAT OF CLEAN OIL TO THE O-RING WHEN
    INSTALLING THIS KIT. THREAD THE KIT ON, THEN TIGHTEN (BY
    HAND) A 314 TURN AFTER THE O-RING CONTACTS THE BASE.




                                                                                 APPLY A THIN COAT OF CLEAN OIL TO THE FILTER GASKET
                                                                                 WHEN INSTALLING. ONCE THE FILTER CONTACTS THE BASE,
                                                                                 TIGHTEN IT A 314 TURN.




                                                                   17
                                                        FUEL SYSTEM

                                                                        FUEL WATER SEPARATOR
 AWARNING: Shut off the fuel valve at the tank when
                                                                        A primary fuel filter of the water separating type must be
 servicing the fuel system. Take care in catching any fuel              installed between the fuel tank and the engine to remove
 that may spill. 00 NOT aI/ow any smoking, open flames                  water and other contaminants from the fuel before they can
 or other sources of fire near the fuel system when ser-                be carried to the fuel system on the engine.
 vicing. Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing
                                                                        Most installers include a lype of filter/water separator with
 the fuel system.                                                       the installation package as they are aware of the problems
                                                                        that contaminants in the fuel can cause.

FUEL FILTERS                                                            A typical fuel filter/water separator is illustrated in this dia-
                                                                        gram. This is the Rayeor Model 500 MA. Keep in mind that
The fuel injection pump and the fuel injectors are precisely            if a water separator type filter is not installed between the
manufactured and they must receive clean diesel fuel, free              fuel supply tank and engine-mounted fuel system, any water
from water and dirt. To ensure this flow of clean fuel, the fuel        in the fuel will affect the fuel pump, engine filter, and injec-
must pass through at least two fuel filters, a fueVwater sepa-          tion equipment. The owner/operator is responsible for making
rator and the engine'5 spin-on fuel filter. Visually inspect,           certain the fuel reaching the engine"s injection equipment is
clean, and change these filters according to the maintenance            free of impurities. This process is accomplished by installing
schedule in this manual.                                                and maintaining a proper filtration/separation system.
I. Shut fuel supply off.

2. Loosen the fuel filter, turning counterclockwise with a fil-
   ler wrench.                                                                                                      FROM
                                                                                                                    FUEL
3. Using a rag, wipe clean the sealing face on the housing                                                          TANK
   bracket so the new filter can be seated properly.
4. Lightly oil the sealing O-ring on the new filter. To re,in-
   stall, turn the filter assembly clockwise carefully until the
   O-ring contacts the sealing surface of the housing bracket.
                                                                            TO ENGINE
   Tum 2/3 further with the filter wrench.
5. Tum on the fuel and start the engine. The nonnal preheat
   function should quickly prime the system and the engine
   should start.                                                                                                  FUEL FILTER
NOTE: The cartridge contains fuel. Take care not 10 spill it                                                      WATERISEPARATOR
during disassembl". Peiform the PRIMING TIlE FUEL
SYSTEM after replacing the spin-on Jilt"

                                                                                                          DRAIN


FUEL FILTER

                                              TO INJECTORS




                                      SPIN-ON FUEL FILTER




                                                                   18
                                                        FUEL SYSTEM

FUEL ADDITIVES                                                          If it becomes necessary to bleed air from the system, use the
                                                                        following procedure:
If fungus or bacteria is causing fuel problems, you should
have an authorized dealer correct these problems. Then use a            Loosen all the high pressure injector lines (not injectors) and
diesel fuel biocide to sterilize the fuel (follow the manufac-          crank the engine starter motor; as fue I spurts from between
turer's instructions).                                                  the nut and the line, tighten the injector Jines in sequence and
                                                                        then tighten the bleed screw.

SPARES                                                                  NOTE: Do not attempt this procedure on a hot engine.
While the likelihood of having to service the fuel system at
sea is slim, the possibility does exist. Therefore, we recom-
                                                                         A    WARNING: Always wear protective clothing, safety
mend that banjo washers, injector seat washers, and a fuel fil-          glasses and gloves when bleeding high pressure injector
ter be earned on board at all times. Purchase needed spares              lines.
from your local UNIVERSAL dealer or distributor. If a leak
should develop at a banjo washer that cannot be corrected by
a simple tightening of the fitting, replace the sealing washer.
                                                                                                   CANISTER
PRIMING (BLEEDING) THE FUEL SYSTEM
                                                                            fiLTER ELEMENT
The on-engine fuel system is virtually self priming. Under
ordinary circumstances the engine's electric fuel lift pump,
which is energized by the key switch/preheat button, will
supply a continuous flow of fuel from the tank. This fuel is
drawn through the fuel/water separator to the engine lift
pump, the primary spin-on fuel filter, and the injection pump.

                                                                                                                 AIR CLEANERISILENCER
 A WARNING: Do not allow smoking or open flames                                                                  (ENGINE M·3S8 SHOWN)
 near the fuel system when servicing. Also provide proper
 ventilation.
                                                                        Air Cleaner/Silencer
                                                                        Some UNIVERSAL engines use a replaceable air filter cle-
                                                                        ment wrapped around a metal canister. This element can be
                                                                        removed and brushed off or cleaned with an air hose. When
                                  TO FUEL FILTER
                                                                        it become too contaminated it can be replaced. The canister
                                                                        with its interior element should also be removed and cleaned
                                                                        periodically. Simply wash the assembled unit in a non*flarn*
                                                                        mabIe cleaning solvent. Use this same cleaning procedure for
                                    FROM FUEL TANK
                                                                        other UNIVERSAL air cleaners that use a similar type canis-
                                                                        ter.
                                                                        NOTE: To operate efficiently a diesel engine must intake a
                 1 L _ - - - CHECK AND CLEAN
                                                                        continuous volume of clear air. Hard starting, an erratic idle,
                             filTER AT OIL CHANGE                       alld black exhaust smoke are all symptoms of a restricted air
                                                                        intake.

                                                       TO FUEl FILTER




           FUEL LIFT PUMPS


                                                   -   FROM FUEL TANK




                                                                  19
                                             DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION
The charging system consists of an alternator with a mounted               A   WARNING: Before starting the engine make certain
voltage regulator, an engine DC wiring harness, a mounted                 that everyone is clear Df mDving parts! Keep away frDm
DC circuil breaker, and a battery and connection wires.                   sheaves and belts during test prDcedures.
Because of the use of integrated circuits (Ie's) the electronic
                                                                                    .
voltage regulator is very compact and is mounted internally
or on the back of the alternator.                                        5. Start the engine.

                                                                         6. The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator
Alternator Troubleshooting                                                  should be between 13.5 and 14.5 volts. If your alternator
                                                                            is over- or undercharging, have it repaired at a reliable
If you suspect that the alternator is not producing enough                  service shop.
voltage to charge the engine's battery, check the following:
                                                                         NOTE: Before removing the alternator for repair, use your
                                                                        voltmeter to ensure that 12 volts DC "excitation is preselll at
 A WARNING: A failed alternator can becDme very                         the R terminal if the previous lest showed ollly ballery volt-
 hDt. Do nDt touch until the alternator has cODled dDwn.                age at the B output terminal.


o Make certain your alternator is securely mounted.
o Check the drive belts for proper tension.
o Inspect for loose or disconnected wires at the alternator.
NOTE: An isolator with a diode, a solenoid, or a battery                .14 PINK!1IlUE

selector switch is usually mounted in the circuit to isolate the
balleries so the starting ballery is not discharged along with
the house batteries. If the isolator is charging the slarling
ballery but not the house ballery, the alternator is OK and
the problem is in the ballery charging circuit.


 A   WARNING: Shut Dff the engine battery switch Dr                                                                     TYPICAL UNIVERSAL 51 AMP
                                                                                                                        ALTERNATOR CONNECTIONS
 discDnnect from the battery when wDrking Dn the engine
 electrical system.

Checking for Proper Voltage
If you suspect the alternator has failed perform the following
tests with the engine off:

1. Using a voltmeter, connect the voltmeter red wire clip to
   the output terminal B+.

2. Connect the voltmeter negative wire to any ground on the
   engine.

3. Check the battery voltage. It should read 12 to 12 volts.
                                                                                        '14 PINK/8LUE

4. Check the voltage between the alternator (+) positive ter~
   minai B and any engine ground. If the circuit is good, the
   voltage at the alternator should be the same as the battery
   (unless there's an isolator in the circuit, then the reading                                                ='1iiif<:=;cz::n;E§ '14 PINKIBLUE
   would be zero).                                                                                         L __JOI~~~==- 814 BROWN
 A    CAUTION: TD aVDid damage tD the battery charging
 circuit, never shut Dff the engine battery SWitch when
 the engine is running!                                                   .1U RED       ==!t:::::,....             /.,
                                                                                                                                           WATER
                                               ---y~                                                                                       HEATER

                                               REMOTE EXPANSION   'l:
 HEATER ABOVE THE ENGINE                       TANK     j\        1°

                                               .        I
                                                    t ~,                WATER
                                                                        HEATER


THERMOSTAT
HOUSING




                                                                           25
                                            ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
The following trouble shooting chart describes certain prob-                   NOTE: The engine s electrical system is protected by a 20-
lems, the probable causes of the problems, and the recom-                      Ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on the bracket
mendations to overcome the problems.                                           on [he left side of [he engine. The preheat solenoid is
                                                                               moullled on lhe same bracket.

                 Problem                          Probable Cause                                         VerificationJRemedy
 Key switch on, PREHEAT switch           1. Battery Switch not on.                     1. Check switch and/or battery connections.
 depressed: no panel indications:
 fuel solenoid or electrical fuel pump   2. 20-Amp circuit breaker tripped.            2. Reset breaker; if breaker trips again. check preheat solenoid
                                                                                           circuit and check Circuit for shorts to ground.
                                         J. 10-Amp breaker tripped.                    J. Check voltage at and after breaker.
                                         4. Loose battery connections.                 4. Check (+) connection to starier solenoid and (-) connection to
                                                                                          engine ground stud. Check battery cable connections.
                                         5. Preheat solenoid not operating.            5. Check solenoid.
 Key switch on, PREHEAT switch           1. Connection to solenoid faulty.             1. Check connection at solenoid.
 depressed: START switch depressed;
 no starter engagement.                  2. Faulty START switch.                       2. Check switch with ohmmeter.
                                         J. Faulty solenoid.                           J. Check that 12 volts are present at starter solenoid activation
                                                                                           connection.
                                         4. loose battery connections.                 4. Check (+) connection to starter solenoid and (-) connectIOn to
                                                                                          engine ground stud. Check battery cable connections.
                                         5. Low batteries.                             5. Check battery charge state.
 Engine cranks, but does not             1. Faulty fueling system.                     1. Check that fuel valves are open.
 start.
                                         2. Preheat solenoid faulty.                   2. Check solenoid.
                                         J. low compression.                           J. Compression test the engine.
 Engine can't be stopped.                1. Faulty shut-off lever at engine.           1. Reconnect shut off lever
                                         2. Push-pull shut off cable from steering     2. Reconnect push-pull cable.
                                             station to engine disconnected.
 Engine stops.                           1. Fuelhft pump failure.                      1. Fuel lift pump should make a distinct ticking sound. Replace
                                                                                          pump with spare.
                                         2. Switches and/or wiring loose               2. Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose connections.
                                             or disconnected.                              Inspect switches for proper operation.
                                         J. Fuel starvation.                           J. Check fuel supply, fuel valves, fuel lift pump.
                                         4. 20 Amp circuit breaker tripping.           4. Check for high DC amperage draw during operation
                                                                                          Ensure breaker is not overly sensitive to heat which would
                                                                                          cause tripping.
                                         5. Exhaust system is restricted.              5. Check for blockage. collapsed hose, carbon buildup at
                                                                                          exhaust elbow.

                                         6. Water in fuel.                             6. Pump water from fuel tank{s); change filters and
                                                                                          bleed fuel system.
 Battery not charging                    1. Alternator drive.                          1. Check drive belt tension. Aternator should turn freely. Check
                                                                                          for loose connections. Check output with voltmeter. Ensure 12
                                                                                          volts are present at the Exc terminal




                                                                       26
                                           ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING

              Problem                            Probable Cause                                          VerificalionJRemedy
Battery runs down.                      1. Oil Pressure switch.                        1. Observe if gauges and panel lights are activated when engine is
                                                                                          not running. Test the oil pressure switch.
                                        2. High resistance leak to ground.             2. Check wiring. Insert sensitive (0 ·. 25 amp) mete in battery lines.
                                                                                           (Do not start engine.) Remove connections and replace after short
                                                                                           is located.
                                        3. Low resistance leak.                        3. Check all wires for temperature fise to locate the fault.
                                        4. Alternator.                                 4. Disconnect alternator at output. after a good battery charging. If
                                                                                          leakage stops, remove alternator and bench test. Repair or replace.
                                        5. Poor battery connections.                   5. Check cable connections at battery.
Engine overheats.                       1. Raw water not circulating.                  1. Broken or loose belt at raw water pump
NOTE: Shut engine down immediately.     2. Coolant not circulating.                    2. Raw water pump failure. Check impeller - replace.
                                                                                       2a. Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water filter.
                                                                                       2b. Thermostat - remove and test in hot water.
                                                                                           Replace thermostat.
                                                                                       2c. Loss of coolant - check hoses. hose clamps. drain plug, etc. for
                                                                                           leaks.
                                                                                       2d. Broken or loose belts - tighten/replace.
                                                                                       2e. Air leak in system; run engine and open cooling system petcocks,
                                                                                           heat exchanger, manifold. etc. to bleed air. Add coolant as needed.
Exhaust smoking problems                1. Blue smoke.                                 1. Incorrect grade of engine oiL
                                                                                       la. Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil (oil is blowmg out through
                                                                                           the exhaust).
                                        2. White smoke.                                2. Engine is running cold.
                                                                                       2a. Faulty injector or incorrect injector timing.
                                        3. Black or gray smoke.                        3. Improper grade of fuel.
                                                                                       3a. Fuel bum incomplete due to high back pressure :n exhaust or
                                                                                           insufficient air for proper combustion (Check for restrictions in
                                                                                           exhaust system; check air intake).
                                                                                       3b. Improperly timed fuel system, misadjusted valves or poor
                                                                                           compression.
                                                                                       3e. Lack of air - check air intake and air filter. Check for proper
                                                                                           ventilation.
                                                                                       3d. Overload.
                                                                                       3e. Propeller.
Transmission will not shift in or out   1. Transmission faHure.                        la. Check cable connections at steering station and at
of gear, or drive the vessel.                                                              transmission lever.
                                                                                       lb. Check transmission fluid.
                                                                                       1&. Check shaft couplings or engine damper plate.
                                                                                       ld. Check engine's damper plate.
Excessive vibration                     1. Faulty engine alignment                     1. Check the shaftJtransmlssion coupling.
                                                                                       la.lnspect all engine mounts,
                                        2. Cutless bearings. support strut and         2. Inspect propeller and shaft.
                                           propeller could all be suspect.




                                                               .~       MARINE POWER


                                                                        27
                                         CONTROL PANEL TROUBLESHOOTING
                                  MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (TOGGLE SWITCHES)
                       NOTE: The engine control system is protected by a 20 amop manual resel circuil breaker
                       located on the engine as close as possible to the power source.

               Problem                                Probable Cause                                         VerilicalionJRemedy
  PREHEAT depressed, no panel indications   1. Oil Pressure switch,                         1. Check switches and/or battery connections.
  fuel solenoid, electric fuel pump and
  preheat solenoid not energized.           2. 20 amp circuit breaker tripped.              2. Reset breaker. If opens again, check preheat solenoid circuit
                                                                                               and run circuit for shorts 10 ground.
  START SWITCH DEPRESSED, no starter        1, Connection to solenoid faulty.               1. Check connection.
  engagement.
                                            2. Faulty switch                                2. Check switch with ohmmeter.
                                            3. Faulty solenoid.                             3. Check that 12 vol:ts are present at the solenoid connection.
                                            4. loose battery connections.                   4. Check battery connections.
                                            S. Low battery.                                 S. Check battery charge state.
  NO IGNITION, cranks, does nol start.      1. Faulty fueling system.                       1. Check for fuel.
                                            2. Check for air in the fuel system.            2. Allow system to bleed.
                                            3, Faulty fuel lift pump.                       3. Replace fuel lift pump.
 NDT CHARGING BATIERY                       1. Faulty alternator drive.                     1. Clleck tile drive belt and its tension. Be sure the alternator
                                                                                               turns freely. Check for loose connections. Check the
                                                                                               output with a voltmeter. Ensure 12V are present at tile
                                                                                               regulator terminal.
 BATIERY RUNS DOWN                          1. Oil pressure SWltcll.                        1. Observe if the guages and panel lights are activated when the
                                                                                                engine is not runnmg. Test tile oil pressure switch.
                                            2. High resistance leak to ground.             2. Check the wiring. Insert sensitive (0-.25 amp) meter in battery
                                                                                              lines (Do NOT start engine). Remove connections and replace
                                                                                              after short is located.
                                            3. low resistance leak to ground.              3. Check all wires for temperature riuse to locate the fault.
                                            4. Faulty alternator.                          4. After a good battery charging, disconnect alternator at output
                                                                                              If leakage stops. Remove alternator and benck test. Repair or
                                                                                              replace.


                           TROUBLESHOOTING WATER TEMPERATURE AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGES
If the gauge reading is other than what is normally indicated                      If both of the above gauge tests are positive, the gauge is
by the gauge when the instrument panel is energized, the first                     undoubtedly OK and the problem lies either with the conduc-
step is to check for 12 volts DC between the ignition (B+)                         tor from the sender to the gauge or with the sender.
and the Negative (B-) terminals of the gauge.
                                                                                   If either of the above gauge tests are negative, the gauge is
Assuming that there is 12 volts as required, leave the instru-                     probably defective and should be replaced.
ment panel energized (key switch on) and perform the
following steps:                                                                   Assuming the gauge is OK, check the conductor from the
                                                                                   sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for continuity.
1. Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the
gauge reads zero, which is the normal reading for this situa-                      Check that the engine block is connected to the ground.
tion.                                                                              Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the bat-
                                                                                   tery is connected to the starter (both plus and minus termi-
2. Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and                          nals), the ground side will not necessarily he connected to the
see if the gauge reads full scale, which is the normal reading                     block.
for this situation.




                                                                            28
                                     TACHOMETER TROUBLESHOOTING
 TACHOMETER/HOURMETER                                                     Calibration
The tachometerlhounneter used in propulsion engine instru~                a. With a hand-held tach on the front of the crankshaft pul-
ment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a                 ley retaining nut or using a strohe type lach, read the front
common ground. One circuit operates the hounneter and the                    crankshaft pulley rpm.
other the tachometer. The hounneter circuit operates on 12
volts alternator charging voltage supplied to the (+) terminal            b. Adjust the tachometer with a sma\! Phillips type screw-
on the back of the instrument.                                               driver through the calibration access hole in the rear of the
                                                                             tachometer. Zero the tach and bring it to rpm scI by using
The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6 - 8 Yolts, fed               a strobe or hand tach (verify rpm at idle and at high speed
from one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to the                 1500 - 2500 - 3000 rpm). Adjust the tach as needed.
"tach iop." terminal while the engine is running, and the
alternator producing battery charging voltage 13.0 - 14.8                 NOTE: Current modellachometers use a coarse adjustment
volt, DC.                                                                 dial to set the tachometer [0 the crankshaft pulley rpms_ The
                                                                          calibrating screw is [hen used for fine luning.
The following are procedures to follow when troubleshooting
a fault in either of the two circuits in a tachometerlhounneter.
                                                                                                                LIGHT

Hourmeter Inoperative
                                                                                                                               TACH INP
Check for the proper DC voltage between (+) and (-) termi-
nals.

a. Voltage present -    meter is defective -   repair or replace.
b. Voltage not present - trace (+) and (-) electrical connec-
   tions for fault. (Jump 12 volts DC to meter (+) terminal to
   verify the operation.)                                                                                                        CALIBRATE


Tachometer Inoperative
a. Voltage present - attempt adjusting meter through cali-              EARLY MODEL TACHOMETERS
   bration access hole. No results, repair or replace meter.                                                                      (-) TERMINAL

h. AC voltage not present -     check for proper alternator DC
   output voltage.

c. Check for AC voltage at tach terminal on alternator to
   ground.

d. Check electrical connections from "tach inp." terminal to
   alternator connection.                                                                                                      1-) TERMINAL
                                                                                                                ~~
Tachometer Sticking
a. Check for proper AC voltage between "tach inp." tenninal
   and (-) terminal.

h. Check for good ground connection between meter (-) ter-
   minal and alternator.

C.   Check that alternator is well grounded to engine block at
     alternator pivot bolt.


                                                                         COARSE AOJIJST"ENT--f:jj~


                                                                                                                                      1-) TERMINAL
                                                                    CURRENT TACHOMETER
                                                                                                                          ~"ZlIt----I+)   TERMINAL

                                                                                        FINE CAI.lBR'ATING.-~~~:"~
                                                                                                                                          INP




                                                                    29
                                                 HBW TRANSMISSION

INITIAL OPERATION                                                       Locking the Prop
All HBW marine transmissions are test-run on dynamometer                If you prefer to lock the propeller when sailing. simply shift
with the engine at the factory prior to delivery.                       into reverse. Do not shift into forward gear. (Locking the
For safety reasons the fluid is drained before shipment.                propeller shaft by an additional hrakc is unnecessary). Return
                                                                        the shift lever to neutral before starting the engine.
Fill the gearbox with Automatic Transmission Fluid
(DEXRON II or DEXRON III). The fluid level should be up
to the index mark on the dipstick. To check the fluid level,
just insert the dipstick, do not screw it in. Screw the dipstick
                                                                         A. WARNING: 00 not start the engine with the
                                                                         transmission in gear. Always return the shift lever
into the case after the fluid level is checked, and tighten. Do
                                                                         tooneutral!
not forget the sealing ring under the hex head of the dipstick.
Check for leaks and change the fluid after the first 50 hours.

                            TO CHECK FLUID LEVEL                        CONTROL CABLES
                                                                        The transmission is suitable for single lever remote control.
                                                                        Upon loosening the retaining screw, the shift lever can be
                                                                        moved to any position required for the control elements
                                                                        (cable or rod linkage). Make certain that the shift lever docs
                                                                        not contact the shift lever cover plate: the minimum distance
                                                                        between lever and cover should be O.5mm.
                                                                        The control cable or rod should be arranged at a right angle
                                                                        to the shift lever when in the neutral position. The neutral
                                          FLUID LEVEL                   position of the operating lever on the control console should
                                                                        coincide with the neutral position of the shift lever on the
                                                                        gear box.
                                                                        The shifting travel, a<; measured at the pivot point of the shift
                                      DIPSTICK FLUID LEVEL              lever, between the neutral position and end positions A and B
GEARBOX OPERATION                                                       should be at least 35mm for the outer and 30mm for the
                                                                        inner pivot point.
The neutral position of the operating lever on the control
console must coincide with the neutral position of the actuat-          A greater amount of shift lever travel is in no way detrimen-
ing lever on the transmission. Shifting is initiated by a cable         tal, and is recommended. However, if the shift lever travel is
or rod linkage via the actuating lever and an actuating cam.            shorter, proper dutch engagement might be impeded which,
The completion of the gear changing operation is servo-auto-            in tum, would mean premature wear. excessive heat genera-
matically controlled within the gear. Gear changing should be           tion and clutch plate failure. This would be indicated by slow
smooth, not too slow, and continuous (without interruption).            clutch engagement or no engagement at all.
Direct changes from forward to reverse are permissible, since
the multiple-disc clutch permits gear changing at high rpm,             NOTE: Check jor proper shift lever travel at least each season.
including sudden reversing at top speeds in the event of                                                               NEUTRAL
danger.                                                                                                      FORWARD      0
                                                                        CABLEBR~                                A

WHEN UNDER SAIL OR BEING TOWED                                                   0)                             \
                                                                         .. -_ .. - ~ :,\\1;"'\-\;;;:.: .'
Rotation of the propeller without load such as when the boat                        ® I CONTROL SHIFTING
is sailing, being towed, or anchored in a river, as well as                                 CABLE~
operalion of the engine with the propeller stopped (for charg-
ing the battery), will have no detrimental effects on the                                         COUNTER CLOCKWISE              CLOCKWISE
tranmission

NOTE: When the boat is sailing (engine ofJ), the gear lever                   TRANSMISSION COVER PLATE
can be set in the neutral pOSition, the propeller (flOW at idle)
                                                                                                                Q.,
can free wheel without causing any problem.                                                                                      SHIFTING
                                                                                            00 NOT LOOSEN                        LEVER
                                                                                            THESE FOUR BOLTS




                                                                                                SHIFTING LEVER HUB-----..



                                                                                                     0.5 mm CLEARANCE
                                                                   30
                                                   HBW TRANSMISSION
                                                                        Checking the Bowden Cable or Rod Linkage
 A WARNING: The position of the cover plate under-                      The Bowden cable or rod linkage should be checked at regu-
 neath the actuating lever is factory-adjusted to ensure                lar intervals. Check the neutral position of the operating lever
 equal shift lever travel from neutral position to A and B.             (on the control console) and the actuating lever (on the gear-
 If this side shift cover is removed or in any way tam-                 box). The minimum lever travel from the neutral position to
 pered with, the transmission warranty will be void.                    the operating positions (0 - A = 0 - B) should be 35mm for
 Authorized Hurth personnel only may adjust or remove                   the outer and 30mm for the inner pivot point. Make certain
                                                                        that these minimum values arc safely reached. Check the
 this cover.                                                            cable or rod linkage for easy movahility and proper attach-
                                                                        ment.
NOTE: When installing the gearbox, make cenain that shifting            Propeller Shaft Alignment
is not impeded by restricted movability of the Bowden cable
or rod linkage, by unsuirabl:..,-' positioned guide sheaves, too        The engine's transmission must be exactly aligned with the
small a bending radius, etc. A shift cable attachment is pro-           propeller shaft. Misalignment will create excessive shaft and
vided with each transmission                                            bearing wear and can cause the transmission'5 rear seal to
                                                                        leak fluid.
MAINTENANCE                                                             The shaft/transmission coupling alignment should be checked
Transmission Fluid                                                      periodically and always when the boat is being recommis-
                                                                        sioned after winter storage.
To ensure trouble-free operation of the gearbox, only use               Lay-up/Winterize
Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF). (Dexron II or III).
Capacity                                                                If the transmission is not used for periods of more than one
                                                                        year, it should he completely filled with transmission fluid to
Add the fluid quantity for the proper model transmission to             prevent corrosion. Protect the input shaft and the output
the gearbox. After filling, check the fluid level with the dip-         flange by means of an anticorrosive coating, as required.
stick. Adjust level as needed. Install the dipstick with the
sealing washer. operate unit, check fluid, check for leaks.
                                                                        HBW TRANSMISSION
    Transmission Fluid                    Quantity
        HBW50                     0.29 Quarts (0.. 30 Liters)
        HBW 100                   0.33 Quarts (0.35 Liters)
                                                                         SHAFT
        HBW 150                   0.59 Quarts (0.56 Liters)
        HBW 150V                  1.10 Quarts (1.05 Liters)
        HBW 250                   1.84 Quarts (1.75 Liters)

Fluid Change
Change the fluid for the first time after about 50 hours of
operation, then every 250 operating hours or at least once a
year or when you change engine oiL When changing the
fluid, also check the gearbox cooling device and clean or
replace it as necessary.

NOTE: When changing the fluid. take care flot to lose the                                   COUPLING
drain plug sealing H'Qsher. The drain plug will leak without
rhis sealing washel:




                                                                   31
                                      LAY-UP AND RECOMMISSIONING
LAY-UP
Many owners rely on their boatyards to prepare their craft,
                                                                         A.. CAUTION: 00 not leave the engine's old engine oil
                                                                         in the sump over the lay-up period. Engine oil and com-
including engines and generators, for lay-up during the off-
                                                                         bustion deposits combine to produce hannful chemicals
season or for long periods of inactivity. Others prefer to
accomplish lay-up preparation themselves.                                which can reduce the life of the engine's internal parts.

The following procedures will allow you to perform your
own lay-up and recommissioning, or you may use them as a                FUEL SYSTEM
check list for others. These procedures should afford your
engine protection during a lay-up and also help familiarize             Top off your fuel tanks with No.2 diesel fueL Fuel additives
you with the maintenance needs of your engine.                          should be added at this time to control algae, and a fuel con-
                                                                        ditioner such as STABIL. Care should be taken that the addi-
If you have any questions regarding lay-up procedures, call             tives used are compatible with the primary filter/water
your local servicing dealer; he will be more than willing to            separator used in the system. Change the element in your pri-
provide assistance.                                                     mary fuel filter/water separator, if the fuel system contains
                                                                        one, and clean the separator sediment bowl.
PROPELLER SHAFT COUPLING                                                Change the fuel filter elements on the engine and bleed the
The transmission and propeller half couplings should always             system as needed. Start the engine and allow it to run for 5-
be opened up and the bolts removed when the boat is hauled              10 minutes to make sure no air is left in the fuel system.
out of the water or moved from land to water, and during                Check for any leaks that may have been created in the fuel
storage in a cradle. The flexibility of the boat often puts a           system during this servicing. correcting them as needed.
severe strain on the propeller shaft Or coupling, or both, while
the boat is taken out or put in the water. In some cases, the           RAW WATER CIRCUIT
shaft has actually been bent by these strains. This does not
apply to small boats that are hauled out of the water when              Close the through-hull fitting: Remove the raw water intake
not in use, unless they have been dry for a considerable                hose from the fitting. Place the end of this hose into fl 5-gal-
period of time.                                                         Ion bucket of clean fresh water. Before starting the engine,
                                                                        check the zinc anode found in the heat exchanger on the
                                                                        engine and clean or replace it as required. Clean the raw
FRESH WATER CODLING SYSTEM                                              water strainer, if one is installed in the inside of the hull.
A 50-50 solution of antifreeze and distilled water is recom-
                                                                        Start the engine and allow the raw water pump to draw fresh
mended for use in the freshwater coaling system at all times.
                                                                        water through the system. When the bucket is empty, stop the
This solution may require a higher concentration of
                                                                        engine and refill the bucket with an antifreeze solution
antifreeze, depending on the area's winter climate. Check the
                                                                        slightly stronger then needed for winter freeze protection in
solution to make sure the antifreeze protection is adequate.
                                                                        your area.
Should more antifreeze be needed, drain an appropriate
                                                                        Start the engine again and allow all of this mixture to be
amount from the engine block and add a more concentrated
                                                                        drawn through the raw water system. Once the bucket is
mixture. Operate the engine to ensure a complete circulation
                                                                        empty, stop the engine. This antifreeze mixture should pro-
and mixture of the antifreeze concentration throughout the
                                                                        tect the raw water circuit from freezing during the winter lay-
cooling system. Now recheck the antifreeze solution's
                                                                        up, as well as providing corroSIOn protection.
strength.
                                                                        Remove the impeller from your raw water pump (:-;ome
LUBRICATION SYSTEM                                                      antifreeze mixture will accompany it, so catch it in a bucket).
                                                                        Examine the impeller. Acquire replacement. if needed, and a
With the engine warm, drain all the engine oil from the oil             cover gasket. Do not replace the impeller (into the pump)
sump. Remove and replace the oil filter. (Place some paper              until recommissioning, but replace the COver and gasket.
towels and a plastic bag around the filter to catch the oil dur-
ing its removal.)
When installing the new oil filter, be sure to apply a small
amount of oil on the rubber sealing gasket at the base of the
filter. Fill the sump with the correct amount of oil for your
engine model. (Refer to the SPECIFICATIONS section of this
manual.) Usc an oil with an API specification of CF or CG4
or better. Run the engine and check for proper oil pressure
and make sure there are not leaks. Stop the engine, check oil
level and add oil as needed to bring level to dipstick full
mark.




                                                                   32
                                      LAY-UP AND RECOMMISSIONING
STARTER MOTOR                                                           RECOMMISSIONING
Lubrication and cleaning of the starter drive pinion is advis-          The recommissioning of your UNIVERSAL engine after a
able, if access to the starter permits its removal. Make slIre          seasonal lay-up generally foHows the same procedures as
the battery connections arc shut off before attempting to               those presented in the PREPARATIONS FOR STARTING
remove the starter. Take care in properly replacing any elec-           section regarding preparation for starting and normal starts.
trical connections removed from the starter.                            However, some of the lay-up procedures will need to be
                                                                        counteracted before starting the engine.
CYLINDER LUBRICATION                                                    1. Remove the oil-soaked cloths from the intake manifold.
It is not necessary to remove the glow plugs from the cylin-            2. Remove the raw water pump cover and gasket. Discard
der head to squirt light engine oil into the cylinders for the             the gao;;ket. Install the raw water pump impeller removed
few months of normal lay-up. However, if you anticipate a                  during Jay-up (or a replacement, if required). Install the
longer lay-up period (12 months or more), we recommend                     raw water pump cover with a new cover gasket.
that this procedure be performed. The light oil in the cylin-
ders will prevent the pistons' rings from sticking to the cylin-        3. Reconnect the shaft coupling and check for proper align-
der walls. With oil in the cylinders, turn the engine over by              ment.
hand two revolutions.
                                                                        4. Reinstall the batteries that were removed during the lay~
                                                                           up, and reconnect the battery cables, making sure the ter-
TRANSMISSION                                                               minals are clean and that the connections are tight. Check
                                                                           to make sure the batteries are fully charged.
Check or change fluid in the transmission as required. Keep
full 10 prevent corrosion. Wipe off grime and grease and                5. Check the condition of the zinc anode in the raw water
touch up unpainted areas. Protect coupling and output flange               circuit and clean or replace the anode ao;; net!ded. Note that
with anticorrosion coating.                                                it is not necessary to flush the antifreeze/freshwater solu-
                                                                           tion from the raw water coolant system. When the engine
SPARES                                                                     is put into operation, the system will self-flush in a short
                                                                           period of time with no adverse affects.
Lay-up time provides a good opportunity to inspect your
UNIVERSAL engine to see if external items such as drive                 6. Start the engine in accordance with procedures in the
belts or coolant hoses need replacement. Check your basic                  PREPARATIONS FOR INITIAL START-UP section of
spares kit and order items not on hand, or replace those items             this manual.
used during the lay-up, such as filters and zinc anodes.


BATTERIES
If batteries are to be left on board during the lay-up period,
make sure they are fully charged and will remain that way, to
prevent them from freezing. If you have any doubt that the
batteries will not remain fully charged, or that they will be
subjected to severe environmental conditions, remove the
batteries and store them in a warmer, more compatible envi-
ronment.


 A    WARNING: Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen, a
 highly explosive gas, which can be ignited by electrical
 arcing or lighted tobacco products. Do not smoke or
 allow an open flame near the battery being serviced.
 Shut off all electrical equipment in the vicinity to pre-
 vent electrical arcing during servicing. Wear rubber
 gloves, a rubber apron and eye protection when servic-
 ing batteries.




                                                                   33
                   UNIVERSAL MARINE ENGINES SPECIFICATIONS
                 Four cycle, fresh-water cooled, vertical in-line marine diesel engines.



                                       M3-20A                               M-25XPA                             M-35A
HORSEPOWER                             18 @3600 rpm                          23 @3200 rpm                     30 @3200rpm

CYlINOERS                                    3                                      3                                   4

BORE ANO STROKE                        2.60 x 2.45 in                        2.95 x 2.76 in                    2.95 x 2.76 in
                                       (64 x 70 mm)                          (76 x 70 mm)                      (76 x 70 mm)

COMBUSTION CHAMBER                                          spherical type; three vortex combustion system

OISPLACEMENT (cubic inches)              38.9 C.1.                               57 C.I.                         75.5 C.I.

COMPRESSION RATIO                          23:1                                   21 :1                            21 :1

FIRING ORDER                               1.2.3                                  1.2.3                           1.3.4.2

ENGINE OIL                                               SAE 30, lOW 30 or lOW 40 (Above CF or CG·4 Grade)

VALVE CLEARANCE                                                     .0057 to .007"/0.14 to 0.18 mm

ENGINE OIL CAPACITY                     3.20ts/3L                              4.3 Ots/4L                       5 Ots/4.7L

TRANSMISSION                             HBW-50                                 HBW-50                           HBW-l00

TRANSMISSION FlUIO                                                       Dexron II or Dexron III

ENGINE DRY WEIGHT (w/lrans)            2351bs/l06kg                          285 Ibs/129kg                    335 Ibs/152kg

FUEl                                                         No.2 Diesel Oil cetane rating of 45 or higher

COOLANT CAPACITY                        30ts/2.8L                              5Ots/4.7L                        5 Ots/4.7L

ENGINE COOLING                          Freshwater-cooled block, thermostatically controlled with raw water exchanger and
                                        centrifugal fresh water pump.

ROTATION                                                        Clockwise when viewed from the front.

FUEl NOZZLE TYPE                                                         Bosch "throttle" type

FUEL INJECTION PUMP                                                 Bosch Per-MD Type, mini-pump

STARTING MOTOR                                                  12 volt 1.2 kw activated shiff w/Solenoid

STARTING AIO                               Voltage: 10.5 -12.0 VDC/Current: 8.7 - 9.0 Amps/Resistance: t.O -1.2 Ohms

ALTERNATOR - STANDARD                            51 amp 12 volt with internal regulator. Reg. set volts 14.7v-maximum




                                           ....UnlVGrsal
                                                     MARINE POWER


                                                        34
                       UNIVERSAL MARINE ENGINES SPECIFICATIONS
                     Four cycle, fresh-water cooled, vertical in-line marine diesel engines.


                                          M3-20B                              M-25XPB                              M-35B

    HORSEPOWER                            20 @3500 rpm                         26 @3000 rpm                       35@3000rpm

    CYLINDERS                                    3                                     3                                    4

    BORE AND STROKE                        2.64 x 2.68 in                       2.99 x 2.90 in                     2.99 x 2.90 in
                                           (67 x 58 mm)                        (76 x 73.6 mm)                     (76 x 73.6 mm)

    COMBUSTION CHAMBER                                         Spherical type; three vortex combustion system

    DISPLACEMENT (cubic inches)              43.89 C.1.                           61.08 C.1.                         81.45 C.1.

    COMPRESSION RATIO                          23:1                                  23:1                              23:1

    FIRING ORDER                               1.2.3                                 1.2.3                            1.3.4.2

    VALVE CLEARANCE                                                    .005 to .007"10.14 to 0.18 mm

    ENGINE DlL                                              SAE 30, 1OW 30 or 1OW 40 (Above CF Or CG-4 Grade)

    ENGINE DlL CAPACITY                    4.0 Ots/3.8L                          4.0 Ots/3.8L                      5.44 Qts/5.1L

    TRANSMISSION                             HBW-50                                HBW-50                            HBW-100

    TRANSMISSION FLUID                                                      Dexron II or Dexron III

    ENGINE DRY WEIGHT (w/lrans)            2411bs/110kg                         295 Ibsl134kg                     352 Ibs/159kg

    FUEL                                                         No.2 Diesel Oil cetane rating of 45 or higher

    COOLANT CAPACiTY                       3.75 Qts/3.5L                          4 Ots/3.8L                        6 Ots/5.6L

    ENGINE COOLING                          Freshwater-cooled block, thermostatically controlled with raw water exchanger and
                                            centrifugal fresh water pump.

    ROTATION                                                       Clockwise when viewed from the front.


.
    FUEL NOZZLE TYPE                                                        Bosch "throttle" type

    FUEL INJECTION PUMP                                                Bosch Per-MD Type, mini-pump

    STARTING MOTOR                                                 12 volt 1.2 kw activated shih w/Solenoid

    STARTING AID                               Voltage: 10.5 -12.0 VDC/Current: 8.7 - 9.0 Amps/Resistance: 1.0 - 1.2 Ohms

    ALTERNATOR - STANDARD                            51 amp 12 volt with internal regulator. Reg. set volts 14.7v-maximum




                                               ··UniVGrsal
                                                        MARtHE POWER


                                                            35
                            UNIVERSAL ENGINES PARTS IDENTIFICATION
                                           TYPICAL ENGINE (MODEL 358 SHOWN)

                                MAINFOLD
                                PRESSURE                          MANIFOLD
   51 AMP D.C.
   ALTERNATOR
                                                                                   1.0. NAME PLATE

                                                                                         HEAT EXCHANGER

                                                                                                 TRANSMISSION
                                                                                                 CONTROL
                                                                                                 BRACKET




    OIL



                                                                                                         SHAFT
                                                                                                         COUPLING

 STARTER/SOLENOID

 FLEXIBLE MnI'MT·""'-

                                                  OIL PRESSURE                         TRANSMISSION
                                 OIL PAN                          CONNECTION
                                                  SENDER

                         FRONT                       LEFT SIDE                  REAR
                                                                                                 FILL
                                     AIR FILTER                                                   THERMOSTAT
                                     SILENCER                                                     HOUSING
                                                                                                        FUEL INJECTION
                                                                                                        PUMP
                 FUEL LIFT PUMP - - - - - ' 6
                                                                                                        FRESHWATER
                                                                                                        PUMP
            HEAT EXCHANGER
            ZINC                                                                                        RAW WATER
                                                                                                        PUMP

                                                                                                        STOP AND
                                                                                                        THROTTLE
                                                                                                        CONTROLS
                                                                                                        COOLANT
                                                                                                        DRAIN
TRANSMISSION
SHIFT LEVER                                                                                      OIL DRAIN
                                                                                                 HOUSE

                                                                                          FLEXIBLE MOUNT
                 TIMING MARK      THROTTLE CONTROL
                 LOCATION         BRACKET
                                                                 FUEL FILTER

                         REAR                        LEFT SIDE                 FRONT


                                                             36
                                  METRIC CONVERSIONS
                INCHES TO MILLIMETERS                                      MILLIMETERS TO INCHES
Inches               mm          Inches           mm                 mm             Inches           mm             Inches

   1              25.40               15        381.00                1             0.0394           15            0.5906
   2              50.80               20        508.00                2             0.0787           20            0.7874
   3              76.20               25        635.00                3             0.1181           25            0.9843
   4             101.60               30        762.00                4             0.1575           30            1.1811
   5             127.00               35        889.00                5             0.1969           35            1.3780
  10             254.00               40       1016.00               10              03937           40            1.5748
       10 MILLIMETERS = 1CENTIMETER, 100 CENTIMETERS = 1 METER = 39.37 INCHES (3.3 FEET)
                     INCHES TO METERS                                          METERS TO INCHES
Inches              Meters       Inches         Meters             Meters           Inches          Meters         Inches

   1             0.0254                7        0.1778              0.1        ,
                                                                               I     3.937           0.7           27.559
   2             0.0508                8        0.2032              0.2              7.874           0.8           31.496
   3
   4
                 0.0762
                 0.1016
                                       9
                                      10
                                                0.2286
                                                0.2540
                                                           I        0.3
                                                                    0.4
                                                                                    11.811
                                                                                    15.748
                                                                                                     0.9
                                                                                                     1.0
                                                                                                                   35.433
                                                                                                                   39.370
   5             0.1270               11        0.2794              0.5             19.685           1.1           43.307
   6             0.1524               12        0.3048              0.6             23.622           1.2           47.244
       TO CONVERT METERS TO CENTIMETERS, MOVE OECIMAL POINT TWO PLACES TO THE RIGHT

                     YARDS TO METERS                                           METERS TO YARDS
Yards               Meters       Yards          Meters             Meters           Yards           Meters          Yards
   1             0.91440          6             5.48640               1            1.09361            6            6.56168
   2             1.82880          7             6.40080               2            2.18723            7            7.65529
   3             2.74320          8             7.31520               3            3.28084            8            8.74891
   4             3.65760          9             8.22960               4            4.37445            9            9.84252
   5             4.57200         10             9.14400               5            5.46807           10           10.93614
           MOVE DECIMAL POINT FOR HIGHER VALUES - e.g. 6,000 METERS = 6,561.68 YARDS
                POUNDS TO KILOGRAMS                                        KILOGRAMS TO POUNDS
  Ib                 kg            Ib             kg                 kg                  Ib           kg              Ib
   1                0.454              6         2.722                1              2.205            6            13.228
   2                0.907              7   !
                                           i     3.175                2              4.409            7            15.432
   3                1.361              8         3.629                3        I     6.614            8            17.637
   4                1.814              9         4.082                4              8.818            9            19.842
   5                2.268             10         4.536                5        I    11.023           10            22.046
                     GALLONS TO LITERS                                         LITERS TO GALLONS
Gallons             Liters Gallons   liters                         Liters         Gallons          Liters         Gallons
   1              3.79            10             37.86                1                 0.26         60            15.66
   2              7.57            20             75.71                2                 0.53         90            23.77
   3             11.36            30            113.57                5                 1.32        120            31.32
   4             15.14            40            151.42               10                 2.64        150            39.62
   5             18.93            50            189.28               20                 5.28        180            47.54
                       PINTS TO LITERS                                             LITERS TO PINTS
 Pints              Liters       Pints          Liters    II        Liters              Pints       Liters          Pints
   1                0.47           6             2.84                1               2.11             6            12.68
   2                0.95           7             3.31
                                                          II         2               4.23             7            14.79
   3                1.42           8             3.79                3               6.34             8            16.91
   4                1.89           9             4.26                4               8.45             9            19.02
   5                2.37          10             4.73                5              10.57            10            21.13
            I
                                                TEMPERATURE
   32           40         50     60       70     75  85  95                       105        140   175 212          OF
       I        I            I    I        I       I           I          I         I           I    I        I
       I        I           I      I        I      I            I          I        I          I      I       I
       0        5          10     15       20     25           30         35       40         60     80      100     °C




                                                         37
                              STANDARD HARDWARE TORQUES
NOTE: Unless stated otherwise for a specific assembly. use the following torque values when tightening standard hardware.

      Pitch                                                               Ib-ft                     kg-m
      Grade 4
              6mm bolt head/nut                                          2.9-5.1                    0.4-0.7
              8rnm boll head/nut                 1.25                   7.2·11.6                    1.0-1.6
              10mm bolt   head/nut               1.25                  13.7-22.4                    1.9-3.1
              10mm bolt   head/nut               1.5                   130-21.7                     1.8-3.0
              12mm bolt   head/nut               1.25 (ISO)            25.3-39.8                    3.5-5.5
              12mm bolt   head/nut               1.5                   25.3-39.8                    3.5-5.5
              12mm bolt   head/nut               1.75                  21.7-36.2                    3.0-5.0
              13mm bolt   head/nut               1.5                   32.5-50.6                    4.5-7.0
              14mm bolt   head/nut               1.5                   36.2·57.9                    5.0-8.0
              14mm bolt   head/nut              2                      34.0-55.7                    4.7-7.7
              16mm bolt   head/nut              1.5                    54.2-79.6                   7.5-11.0
              16mm bolt   head/nut              2                      51.4-76.7                   7.1-10.6

     Grade 6T
           6mm bolt head/nut                                            4.3-6.5                     0.6-0.9
           8mm bolt head/nut                    1.25                   10.8-15.9                    1.5-2.2
           10mm bolt head/nut                   1.25                   21.7-32.5                    3.0-4.5
           10mm bolt head/nut                   1.5                    19.5-30.4                    2.7-4.2
           12mm bolt head/nut                   1.25 (ISO)             36.2-57.9                    5.0-8.0
           12mm bolt head/nut                   1.5                    36.2-50.6                    5.0-7.0
           12mm bolt head/nut                   1.75                   34.7-49.2                    4.8-6.8

     Grade 7T, ST and 8.S
           6mm bolt head/nut                                            5.8-8.7                     0.8-1.2
           8mm bolt head/nut                    1.25                   14.5-21.7                    2.0-3.0
            10mm bolt head/nut                  1.25                   28.9-39.8                    4.0-5.5
            10mm bolt head/nut                  1.5                    26.8-37.6                    3.7-5.2
           12mm bolt head/nut                   1.25 (ISO)             54.2-75.9                   7.5-10.5
            12mm bolt head/nut                  1.5                    50.6-651                     7.0-9.0
            12mm bolt head/nut                  1.75                   43.4-61.5                    6.0-8.5
            13mm bolt head/nut                  1.5                    57.9-86.8                   8.0-12.0
            14mm bolt head/nut                  1.5                   72.3-108.5                   10.0-15.0
            14mm bolt head/nut                  2                     68.7-101.3                   9.5-14.0
            16mm bolt head/nut                  1.5                   108.5-166.4                  15.0-23.0
              16rnm bolt head/nut               2                     101.3-159.1                  14.0-22.0

      Grade 5 Cap Screw
            1/4 UNC                                                      9-11                       1.2-1.5
            1/4 UNF                                                      11-13                      1.5-1.8
            5116 UNC                                                     IS-20                      2.5-2.S
            5116 UNF                                                     21-23                      2.9-3.2
            3/8 UNC                                                      28-33                      3.7-4.6
            3/8 UNF                                                      30-35                      4.1-4.8
            7/16 UNC                                                     44-49                      6.1-6.S
            7116 UNF                                                     50-55                      6.9-7.6
             1/2 UNC                                                     6S-73                     9.4-101
             1/2 UNF                                                     73-S0                     10.1-11.1




                                                         38
                                            UNIVERSAL SPARE PARTS


OIL FILTER                                                  THERMOSTAT and GASKET
Change every 100 Hours.                                     Carry a spare for extended cruising.




                                                            RAW WATER IMPELLER
FUEL FILTER
Change every   2~~~~                                        Check once a year.

                                       .;,~ ~ ~,


                                                ,- :
                                                L-
                                       1;,--:;'1,"
                                       '>--.---~




AIR CLEANER ELEMENT __
Clean every 250 hours.




HEAT EXCHANGER END GASKET
Check once a year.                                                                        ..,
                                                            ZINC ANODES                          '
                                                            O'd    ~"'"". ~~
                                                            DRIVE BELTS
Always carry a spare.                                       Cheek weekly   f~ Mg£Pil::\!itlii;;~/
                                                            and proper tension.



AKit                                                                                            B Kit
Impeller Kit                                                                                    Impeller Kit
Heat Exchanger Gasket                                                                           Oil Filter
Fuel Filter                                                                                     Water Pump Repair Kit
Fuel Filter with Gasket                                                                         Zinc Anodes
Oil Filter                                                                                      Heat Exchanger Gasket
Fan Belt                                                                                        Thermostat Kit
Zinc Anodes                                                                                     Complete Gasket Kit
                                                                                                Injector
                                                                                                Fuel Filter
UNIVERSAL SPARE PARTS KITS
                                                                                                Fucl Filter with Gasket
UNIVERSAL also offers two Spare Parts                                                           Fan Belt
Kits cach packaged in a rugged hinged tool                                                      Glow Plug
box. Kit "'A" includes the basic spares. Kit
"B" is more extensive for off shore cruising.




                                                       39
,




.
                                                            ·




 WESTERBEKE CORPORATION' AVON INOUSTRIAL PARK
AVON, MA 02322. TEL : (508) 588-7700· FAX: (508) 559-9323


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