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Universal Diesel M 25xpb Technical Manual




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SERVICE MANUAL
DIESEL ENGINES
M25XPB
M35B
M40B
PUBLICATION NO 200554
1st 2001
WESTERBEKE CORPORATION MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319 USA
TEL FAX WEBSITE JlrJlrJlr
IIIMMA
Member National Marine Manufacturers Association
CALIFORNIA
PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer birth defects and other
reproductive harm
A gasses contain Carbon Monoxide an odorless and
colorless gas Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can and death Symptoms of Carbon can Include
Dizziness Throbbing in Muscular Vomiting
Weakness and Sleepiness Inability to Think YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS
GET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY If symptoms persist
seek medical attention Shut down the unit and do not restart
until it has been inspected and repaired
This WARNING DECAL is provided by
UNIVERSAL and should be fixed to a
bulkhead near your engine or generator
UNIVERSAL also recommends installing
CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the
quarters of your Engines PnxIJce CARBON MONOXIDE
They are inexpensive and easily
Regular Maintenance Required obtainable at your local marine store
SAFETY PREVENT BURNS FIRE
Read these safety instructions carefully before servicing your
engine Most accidents are caused by failure to rules and precautions Know when dangerous
A WARNING Fire can cause injury or exist and take the necessary precautions to protect
Prevent flash fires Do not smoke or permit flames or
yourself your personnel and your machinery sparks to occur near the carburetor fuel line filter fuel
The following safety instructions are in compliance with the pump or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel
American Boat and Yacht Council ABYC standards vapors Use a suitable container to catch all fuel when
removing the fuel line carburetor or fuel ELECTRIC SHOCK Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved
flame
arrester removed Backfire can cause severe injury or
death
A WARNING Do not touch AC electrical connections Do not operate with the air removed
while engine is running or when connected to shore Backfire can cause severe injury or death
power is present at these connections Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near
the fuel system Keep the compartment and the engine
Do not operate this machinery without electrical clean and free of debris to minimize the chance of fire
enclosures and covers in place Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil
Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical Be aware diesel fuel will burn
equipment
Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical PREVENT BURNS EXPLOSION
equipment
Make sure your clothing and skin are dry not damp
particularly shoes when handling electrical equipment
A WARNING Explosions from fuelllapors can cause
injury or death
Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
electrical equipment Follow refueling safety instructions Keep the vessels
Do not connect utility shore power to vessels AC hatches closed when fueling Open and ventilate cabin
circuits except through a shiptoshore double throw after fueling Check below for fumesvapor before run
transfer switch Damage to vessels AC generator may ning the blower Run the blower for four minutes before
result if this procedure is not followed starting your engine
Electrical shock results from handling a charged capaci All fuel vapors are highly explosive Use extreme care
tor Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together when handling and storing fuels Store fuel in a wellven
with an insulated tool tilated area away from equipment and
out of the reach of BURNS HOT ENGINE Do not fill the fuel tanks while the engine is running
Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing
A WARNING Do not touch hot engine parts or the fuel system Take care in catching any fuel that might
spill DO NOT allow any smoking open flames or other
exhaust system components A running engine gets sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servic
lIery hot ing Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the
fuel system
Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant
Do not alter or modify the fuel system
recovery tank
Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve
Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and
A WARNING Steam can cause injury or death free of leaks
Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is
In case of an engine overheat allow the engine to cool properly maintained Be familiar with its proper use
before touching the engine or checking the coolant Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate
for all applications encountered in this SAFETY STARTING
TOXIC EXHAUST GASES
A WARNING Accidental starting can cause injury A WARNING Carbon monoxide CO is a deadly gas
or death
Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
Disconnect the battery cables before servicing the engine
discharged from the engine Check the exhaust system
Remove the negative lead first and reconnect it last
regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifolds
Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before are securely attached and no warping exists Pay close
starting attention to the manifold water injection elbow and
Make certain all covers guards and hatches are re exhaust pipe nipple
installed before starting the engine Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated
In addition to routine inspection of the exhaust EXPLOSION install a carbon monoxide detector
Consult your boat
builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors
A WARNING Battery explosion can cause injury For additional information refer to ABYC T22 educa
tional information on Carbon Monoxide
or death
Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
being serviced Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen a A WARNING Carbon monoxide CO is an invisible
highly explosive gas which can be ignited by electrical odorless gas Inhalation produces flulike symptoms
arcing or by lit tobacco products Shut off all electrical nausea or death
equipment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing dur
ing servicing Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems Diesel
Never connect the negative battery cable to the posi fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust sys
tive connection terminal of the starter solenoid Do tems Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of copper
not test the battery condition by shorting the terminals tubing resulting in exhaustwater leakage
together Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapors Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
Ventilate any compartment containing batteries to prevent through portholes vents or air conditioners If the engine
accumulation of explosive gases To avoid sparks do not exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline water could
disturb the battery charger connections while the battery enter the exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
is being charged flow of exhaust Avoid overloading the craft
Avoid contacting the terminals with tools etc to prevent Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as 10xic as
bums or sparks that could cause an explosion Remove exhaust fumes from gasoline engines carbon monoxide
wristwatch rings and any other jewelry before handling gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes Some of the symp
the battery toms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or poisoning
Always tum the battery charger off before disconnecting are
the battery connections To avoid sparks from an Dizziness Throbbing in temples
accidental short circuit always remove the negative lead Headache Muscular twitching
first and reconnect it last when servicing the battery Nausea Weakness and sleepiness
Vomiting Inability to think ACID
AVOID MOVING PARTS
A WARNING Sulfuric acid In batteries can cause A WARNING Rotating parts can cause Injury
severe injury or death
or death
When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
level wear rubber gloves a rubber apron and eye protec Do not service the engine while it is running If a situa
tion Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is destructive tion arises in which it is absolutely necessary to make
If it comes in contact with your skin wash it off at once operating adjustments use extreme care to avoid touching
with water Acid may splash on the skin or into the eyes moving parts and hot exhaust system components
inadvertently when removing electrolyte caps
SAFETY Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing ABYC NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR
equipment tie back long hair and avoid wearing loose
jackets shirts sleeves rings necklaces or bracelets that
INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES
could be caught in moving parts Read the following ABYC NFPA and USCG publications
for safety codes and standards Follow their recommenda
Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened
tions when installing your engine
Keep protective shields and guards in their respective
places at all times ABYC American Boat and Yacht Council
Do not check fluid levels or the drive belts tension while
Safety Standards for Small Craft
the engine is operating Order from
Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling ABYC
when the engine is running hair and clothing can easily 3069 Solomons Island Rd
be caught in these rotating parts Edgewater MD 21037
NFPA National Fire Protection NOISE Fire Protection Standardfor Motor Craft
Order from
A WARNING High noise levels can cause hearing NFPA
loss 11 Tracy Drive
Avon Industrial Park
Never operate an engine without its muffler installed Avon MA 02322
Do not run an engine with the air intake silencer USCG United States Coast Guard
removed USCG 33CFR183
Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures Order from
open
US Government Printing Office
Washington DC 20404
A WARNING Do not work on machinery when you are
mentally or physically incapacitated by MANUAL
Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
notes to highlight critical information Read your maintain your equipment and follow all to install an engine should begin with a thor
ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht standards These standards are a combination of
sources including the USCG and the of the ABYC standards of particular interest are
H2 Ventilation
Pl Exhaust systems
P4 Inboard engines
E9 DC Electrical systems
All installations must comply with the Federal Code FCR
installing UNIVERSAL engines it is important that strict attention be paid
to the following AND regulations ABYC guidelines and safety codes must be complied with
when installing engines and generators in a marine installations where the exhaust exhaust elbow is close
to or will be below the vessels waterline provisions must be made to install in the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow This hose must
be looped a minimum of 20 in 51 em above the vessels waterline Failure to
use a siphonbreak when the exhaust manifold injection pori is at or below the
load waterline will result in raw water damage to the engine and possible flood
ing of the boat
If you have any doubt about the position of the exhaust elbow rela
tive to the vessels waterline under any of the vessels various operating conditions
or when the vessel is not underway install a siphonbreak This precaution is
necessary to protect your engine
NOTE A siphonbreak requires periodic inspection and cleaning to ensure Failure to properly maintain a siphonbreak can result in damage Consult the
siphonbreak manufacturer for a proper SYSTEM
The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use The system must be designed
to prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any
angle of the vessels hull
A detailed 40page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and
diesel engines and generators is available from your UNIVERSAL dealer
TABLE OF 2
Parts 4
Testing for OverhauL 6
Engine 7
Service Standards 15
Engine Description 18
Engine Disassembly 21
Engine Service 32
Engine Adjustments 43
Exhaust Manifold Service System Description System Service 50
Cooling System Description 52
Cooling System Service 54
Fuel System 56
Fuel System Disassembly 60
Fuel System Service 61
Admiral Control PaneL 63
Captain Control PaneL 64
Control Panel 65
Glow Plug Service 67
Starter Service 68
Mando Alternator Service 72
Prestolite Alternator Service 82
Wiring Diagram 39144 94
Wiring Schematic 39144 95
Wiring Diagram 200360 Catalina yachts 96
Wiring Schematic 200360 Catalina Yachts 97
Hurth HBW 101
Special Tools 102
Torques 104
Standard Hardware Sealants Lubricants 105
Metric Conversions 106
Standard and Metric Conversion 107
Index 108
it itUnlvarsal
32 1i JjijeiW3i
OVERHAUL
This service manual contains detailed information relating A WARNING Procedures which if not properly fol
to the servicing and overhaul of the Universal M25XPB lowed can result in personal injury or loss of life
M35B and M40B marine diesel engines the construction and function of the various systems
and components can be found in the Description sections CUSTOMER CARD
For the major engine overhaul procedure refer to the
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY and sections Additional service information for spe
cific components and systems may be found by referring to
the TABLE OF CONTENTS and the INDEX Refer also to
your UNIVERSAL parts Catalog Customer service procedures are intended for the guidance of
UNIVERSAL equipped and staffed marine engine service facilities and should only be undertaken by such MAIN and their personnel
HOMETOWN USA
The service information in this manual generally applies to
all three models covered by this manual The will only be noted where information does not apply Model M358 Ser
XXXXD704
to all three models
Expires software tech data parts lists manuals brochures The UNIVERSAL engine serial number is an catalogs provided from sources other than
UNIVER number that can assist in determining the date of manufac
SAL are not within UNIVERSALS CONTROL ture of your UNIVERSAL engine The CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
code is placed at the end of the engine serial number and
CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE MAKES NO WAR consists of a character followed by three numbers The
RANTIES OR WITH RESPECT character indicates the decade D1990s E2000s the INCLUDING ACCURACY TIMELINESS OR
number represents the year in the decade and the THEREOF AND WILL IN NO EVENT and third numbers represent the
month of LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT
ORDERING PARTSSERIAL NUMBER LOCATION
OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE Whenever replacement parts are needed always provide
the engine model number and engine serial number as customers should also keep in mind the time
appear on the silver and black between printings of UNIVERSAL product software
located on the side of the engines exhaust manifold The
and the unavoidable existence of earlier UNIVERSAL manu
engine serial number can also be found stamped into the
als Product software provided with UNIVERSAL products
engine block on the left side of the engine below the from UNIVERSAL or other suppliers must not and
der head cover You must provide us with this be relied upon exclusively as the definitive authority
so we may properly identify your engine In addition
on the respective product It not only makes good sense but
include a complete part description and part number for
is imperative that appropriate of UNIVER
each part needed see the separately furnished Parts List
SAL or the supplier in question be consulted to determine
Also insist upon UNIVERSAL packaged parts because will
the accuracy and currentness of the product software being
fit or generic parts are frequently not made to the by the customer
as original CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
As this manual takes you through the service of your marine engine critical informa
tion will be highlighted by NOTES CAUTIONS and WARN
INGS An explanation An operating procedure essential to note NOTE Component locations in this manual are referenced
from the front of the engine which is the pulleydrive belt
end Left and right sides are determined as follows imag
A CAUTION Procedures which if not strictly ine straddling the engine facing in the same direction as
observed can result in the damage or destruction of the front of the engine the left side is at your left the right
your engine side is at your right The cylinder number sequence starts
with the No1 cylinder located at the front of the engine
PARTS MANIFOLD PRESSURE
CAP COOLANT FILL OIL FILL
THERMOSTAT
ASSEMBLY
INJECTION PUMP
AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
AIR INTAKE SILENCER PRESSURE CAP
SILENCER
ID NAMEPLATE
TRANSMISSION
CONTROL
BRACKET
TRANSMISSION RAW
FLUID DRAIN PUMP
MODEL M25XPB
OIL PAN
MODEL M25XPB
MANIFOLD PRESSURE
CAP COOLANT FILL
INJECTION PUMP
AIR INTAKE
SILENCER
AIR INTAKE PRESSURE CAP
CONTROL
MANIFOLD
t1 ID TRANSMISSION
FLUID DRAIN MODELS M35B M40B
OIL DRAIN
RAW WATER
PUMP
OIL FILTER OIL PAN
MODELS M35B M40B
UNIVERSAL MODEL
M25XPB M35B M40B
ENGINE
Engine Type Diesel fourcycle fresh water cooled vertical inline overhead valve mechanism
Horsepower 26 3000 rpm 35 3000 rpm 375 3000 rpm
Cylinders 3 I 4
Aspiration Naturally aspirated
Bore Stoke 299 x 290 in 760 x 736 mm 307 x 309 in 780 x 784 mm
Combustion Chamber Spherical type three vortex combustion system
Displacement 612 cu in 10 liters 8147 cu in 1335 liters 9141 cu in 1498 liters
Compression Ratio 231
Firing Order 12 3 1342
Crankshaft Direction of Rotation as viewed from flywheel end
Maximum Torque 47 ftIbs 65 kgm 2440 rpm 62 ftIbs 86 kgm 2460 rpm 73 ftIbs 101 kgm 2180 rpm
Dry Weight with Dimensions
295 Ibs 1338 kg
Length 284 in 17214 mml
Width 189 in 4BO1 mm
Height 221 in 5613 mm
352 Ibs 1590 kg
Length 327 in 30 6 mml
Width 1B9 in 4801 mm
Height 220 in 55B9 mm
356 Ibs 1615 kg
Length 332 in 8433 mml
Width 189 in 14BO1 mm
Height 221 in 5613 mm
Maximum Angle of Installation Not to exceed 14 24 rad
Maximum Angle of Rotation Not to exceed 25 44 rad
Engine Speed Idle speed M25XPB 1000 1200 rpm M35B M40B BOO 1000 rpm
Cruise Speed M25XPB M35B M40B 2000 2500 rpm
Engine Timing 18 0314 rad before lDC
Engine Stop SYSTEM
Type of System Forced lubrication by gear pump
Oil Grade API Specification CF or CG4 SAE 30 10W30 15W40
Oil Filter Fullflow spinon filter element
Lubricant Capacity 40 qts38 liters 45 qts 43 liters
Operating Oil Pressure Engine Hot 4060 psi 276414 kPa at rated speed
FUEL SYSTEM
Type of System Open flow self priming
Fuel No2 Diesel Oil cetane rating of 45 or higher
Fuel Injection Pump Bosch inline plunger type
Fuel Injectors Bosch throttle type
Governor Centrifugal mechanical type
Fuel Lift Pump 12 volt 5 ft lift capacity solid state
Fuel Filter Full flow spinon element
Fuel Supply Return Piping 18 in 10 318 mm minimum 38 in 10 952 mm maximum
Typical Fuel Consumption 10 gallhr 38 litershr 13 gallhr 49 litershr 14 gallhr 53 litershr
2500 rpm
Air Intake Silencer Cleanable replaceable filter element
Air Flow 3000 rpm 531 cfm 15035 Ipm 707 cfm 20018 Ipm 793 cfm 22453 Ipm
Engine Combustion
UNIVERSAL MODEL
M25XPB I M35B I M40B
COOLING SYSTEM
Type of System Fresh water cooled block controlled with
raw water heat exchanger and centrifugal fresh water pump
Operating Temperature 170 190 F 77 88C
Coolant Pump Centrifugal type metal impeller beltdriven
Coolant Capacity 40 qts 38 liters 1 60 qts 56 liters I 45 qts 43 liters
Raw Water Pump Positive displacement neoprene impeller gear driven
Raw Water Flow 3000 rpm 70 galmin 265 litersmin
before discharge into exhaust SYSTEM
Starting Battery 12 volt DC negative ground
Battery Capacity 400 600 cold cranking amps CCA
Mando 51 amp 12 volt beltdriven with internal regulator
Starter Motor 12 volt reduction gear actuated shift with solenoid
Starting Aid 12 volt sheathed type glow Model HURTH HBW50
I HURTH HBW100 J HURTH HBW150
Type of Transmission Casehardened helical gears with a multiple disc clutch
Gear Ratio Forward Std 2051 1 1791 I 1881
Propeller Shaft Rotation Right hand standard transmission
Lubrication Fluid ATF type A Dextron II or Dextron III
Transmission Sump Capacity 037 qt 035 liter I 058 qt 056 liter
TESTING FOR OVERHAUL
HOW TO DETERMINE WHEN Measuring Compression Pressure
TO OVERHAUL THE ENGINE To check the compression pressure see ENGINE of Low Compression
SION TEST under ENGINE the time at which an engine should be overhauled NOTE Do not guess the conditions of
other cylinders from a
is determined by various conditions such as lowered engine result of testing one cylinder Be sure to measure the com
power output decreased compression pressure and increased pression pressure for each cylinder Look for cylinders with
fuel and oil consumption The lowered engine power output dramatically at least 20 lower compression than the aver
in the case of diesel engines is not necessarily due to trouble age of the other cylinders If the weak cylinder is flanked by
with the engine itself but is sometimes caused by injector healthy cylinders the problem is either valve or wear or injection pump wear It
is most reasonable to related Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder indi
judge by a decrease in compression pressure The decrease in cates gasket failure Abnormally high readings on all pressure is caused by many
factors It is there ders indicate heavy carbon a condition that
fore necessary to determine a cause or causes on the basis of might be accompanied by high pressures and noise
data produced by periodic inspection and maintenance Oil NOTE In case of severe vibrations and detonation on a seasonal basis is a good
means of monitoring have the injectors overhauled by an authorized fuel internal wear When caused by worn cylinders or pis
service center Poor fuel quality contaminants and loss of
ton rings the following symptoms will occur positive fuel pressure to the injection pump will result in
Low engine power output injector faults
Increased fuel consumption OVERHAUL CONDITIONS
Increased oil consumption Compression pressure tends to increase a little in a new
Hard engine starting engine until the piston rings and valve seats have been bro
ken in Thereafter it decreases gradually with the progressive
Noisy engine operation
wear of these parts
These symptoms often appear together Increased fuel con
When the decrease of compression pressure reaches its and hard engine starting can also result from exces
see SERVICE STANDARDS the engine must be over
sive fuel injection improper injection timing and wear of the
hauled The engine also requires an overhaul when oil pump and nozzles They are also caused by defec
sumption is high when blowby is evident and when
tive electrical components such as the battery alternator
compression values are at a minimum or and glow plugs Therefore it is desirable to judge the
optimum engine overhaul time by the lowered compression NOTE Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS chart during an
pressure caused by worn cylinders and piston rings plus engine overhaul It gives the measurements and values for
increased oil consumption In diesel engines satisfactory the repair or replacement of the engine is obtained only under sufficient
compression NOTE The ENGINE section may be
pressure If an engine lacks compression pressure incomplete helpful in determining the need for an engine of fuel will take place even if
other parts of the
engine are operating properly To determine the period of
engine overhaul it is important to measure the engine com
pression pressure regularly At the same time the engine
speed at which the measurement of compression pressure is
made should be checked because the compression with engine rpm The engine rpm can be measured at
the front end of the 6
ENGINE following table describes certain problems NOTE The engines electrical system is protected by a 20
relating to engine service the probable causes of these prob ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on a and the to overcome these
problems The preheat solenoid is mounted on the same bracket
PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE HARD STARTING LOW CRANKING SPEED
1 Engine oil viscosity too high 1 Replace engine oil with less viscous oil
2 Rundown battery 2 Recharge battery
3 Worn battery 3 Replace battery
4 Battery terminals loosely connected 4 Clean terminals and tighten cables
5 Defective starter 5 Repair or replace starter
DEFECTIVE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
1 No fuel at injectors 1 Check a through e
a No fuel in fuel tank andor fuel shutoff a Fill fuel tank Open shutoff and bleed system
b Fuel filter clogged b Replace filter and bleed
c Injection pump faulty c Inspect pump Repair or replace pump as
needed
2 Fuel injectors faulty inadequate spray 2 Remove and test nozzles Repair nozzles as
needed
3 Low injection pressure 3 Adjust injection pressure
4 Injection timing incorrect 4 Check and adjust timing
5 Poor quality fuel 5 Drain and replace with proper fuel
6 Water andor air in fuel system 6 Remove water andor bleed air from fuel system
Check fuel system for leaks and fuel tank for
water MAIN ENGINE TROUBLES
1 Low compression 1 Check a through k
a Leaking compression from fuel injector gasket a Tighten fuel injector or replace gasket
b Incorrect valve clearance b Adjust valve clearance
c Inadequate contact of valve seat c Lap valve
d Valve stem seized d Replace valve and valve guide
e Weak or broken valve spring e Replace valve spring
f Bent push rod f Replace push rod
g Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket g Replace gasket
h Cracked or worn piston h Replace piston
i Piston ring seized i Replace piston and piston ring
j Worn piston ring or cylinder liner j Replace piston ring or cylinder liner
k Cracked or distorted cylinder head k Replace cylinder head
I Fuel camshaft worn I Replace fuel camshaft
2 Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber 2 Clean
UnlvaHal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE IDLING 1 Idle speed too low
1 Adjust idle stop as needed
TOO LOW
2 Fuel filter clogged 2 Replace filter and bleed fuel system
3 Incorrect injection pump timing 3 Check timing and adjust as needed
4 High pressure injection line leaking 4 Slacken attaching nut and retighten
5 Fuel injector leaking at sealing gasket in head 5 Retighten injector andor replace sealing washer
6 Injection nozzle not operating properly 6 Check nozzle and adjust as needed
7 Engine air intake obstructed 7 Check air intake silencer and air flow into
engine IDLING MALFUNCTION OF COMPONENTS
1 Improper valve clearance 1 Adjust clearance
2 Poor valve to valve seat contact 2 Repair or replace valve
3 Failure of cylinder head gasket 3 Replace gasket
4 Governor 4 Repair governor
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEM
1 Faulty idling speed 1 Adjust idling speed
2 Faulty injection timing 2 Adjust injection timing
3 Clogged fuel line or fuel filter 3 Clean fuel line or replace fuel filter
4 Leak in fuel line or fuel filter 4 Repair fuel line or replace fuel filter
5 Air in injector fuel line injection pump fuel filter 5 Bleed air
or fuel filterwater separator
6 Seized or leaky delivery valve 6 Clean or replace delivery valve
7 Faulty injection starting pressure 7 Adjust starting pressure
S Injection nozzle malfunction S Clean or replace injection nozzle
9 Feed pump malfunction 9 Clean or replace feed pump
10 Injection pump malfunction 10 Take to a fuel injection pump service facility
or replace the SLOWS 1 Fuel lift pump failure 1 Check fuel lift pump STOPS
2 Switches andor wiring loose or disconnected 2 Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose
connections Inspect switches for proper
operation
3 Fuel starvation 3 Check fuel supply fuel valves fuel lift pump
4 20 amp circuit breaker tripping 4 Check for high DC amperage draw during
operation Ensure breaker is not overly sensi
tive to heat which would cause tripping
5 Exhaust system is restricted 5 Check for blockage collapsed hose carbon
buildup at exhaust elbow
6 Water in fuel 6 Pump water from fuel tanks change filters
and bleed fuel system
Unlvarsal
2 8
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE OUTPUT LOW COMPRESSION See Low
Compression under HARD STARTING
INJECTION SYSTEM OUT OF ADJUSTMENT
1 Incorrect injection timing 1 Adjust injection timing
2 Insufficient injection 2 Repair or replace injection pump
3 Low injection pressure 3 Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure
INSUFFICIENT FUEL
1 Air trapped in fuel system 1 Bleed and check for source
2 Clogged filter 2 Clean or replace filter element
3 Contaminated or inferior fuel 3 Purge fuel system and replace with quality
fuel
4 Contaminated fuel tank 4 Clean fuel tank
OVERHEATING
1 Low coolant level 1 Add coolant
2 Loose Vbelt 2 Adjust or replace Vbelt
3 Incorrect injection timing 3 Adjust injection timing
4 Low engine oil level 4 Add engine oil
OTHER
1 Insufficient intake air 1 Increase engine compartment air ENGINE KNOCKS WITHOUT MUCH SMOKE
1 Main engine troubles 1 Check a and b
a Overheated cylinder a See ENGINE DOWN LOW OUTPUT
b Carbon deposits in cylinder h Clean
2 Injection timing too early 2 Correct the timing
3 Injection pressure too high 3 Correct the pressure
4 Improper fuel 4 Replace with proper fuel
KNOCKING WITH DARK SMOKE
1 Poor compression 1 See Low Compression under HARD
STARTING
2 Injection pump 2 3 Nozzle 3 Check a through d
a Poor spray a Clean or replace nozzle
h Chattering h Repair or replace nozzle
c drip c Repair or replace nozzle
d Nozzle needle valve seized d Replace needle SOUND CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARING
OR NOISE
1 Badly worn main bearing 1 Replace bearing and grind crankshaft
2 Badly worn crankshaft 2 Grind crankshaft
3 Melted bearing 3 Replace bearing and check lubrication system
4 Excessive crankshaft end play 4 Repair or replace
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE SOUND CONNECTING ROD AND CONNECTING ROD BEARING
OR NOISE Contd
1 Worn connecting rod big end bearing 1 Replace bearing
2 Worn crankpin 2 Grind crankshaft
3 Bent connecting rod 3 Correct bend or replace
4 Excessive connecting rod bearing oil clearance 4 Repair or replace bearing
5 Connecting rod bearing seized or heatdamaged 5 Replace bearing
PISTON PISTON PIN PISTON RING CYLINDER LINER
1 Worn cylinder liner 1 Repair or replace liner
2 Worn piston or piston pin 2 Replace piston
3 Piston seized 3 Replace piston and rebore cylinder
4 Piston seized and ring worn or damaged 4 Replace piston and rings
VALVES OR PARTS
1 Worn camshaft 1 Replace camshaft
2 Excessive valve clearance 2 Adjust valve clearance
3 Worn timing gear 3 Replace timing gear
4 Broken valve spring 4 Replace valve spring
5 Excessive clearance between rocker arm and 5 Replace bushing
bushing
6 Excessive clearance between idler gear bushing and 6 Replace bushing
spindle
FUEL SYSTEM
1 Poor quality andor incorrect fuel 1 Use No2 diesel fuel
2 Incorrect injection timing Timing too advanced 2 Check and correct injection timing
3 Fuel injector stuck open 3 Locate and remove faulty injector Rebuild or
replace
OTHER
1 Coolant pump bearing worn or seized 1 See Coolant Pump under COOLING SYSTEM
2 Improper drivebelt tension 2 Adjust
3 Malfunction of alternator bearing 3 See Alternator under
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
4 Exhaust gas leakage 4 OPERATION INJECTION 1 Uneven injection
1 Adjust injection or replace parts
2 Inadequate injection nozzle spray 2 Replace injection nozzle
GOVERNING SYSTEM
1 Governor lever 1 Check governor shaft and adjust
2 Fatigued governor spring 2 Replace spring
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE EXHAUST WHITISH OR PURPLISH
1 Engine is running cold 1 Warmup engine
2 Excessive engine oil 2 Correct oil level
3 Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber 3 Check a through f
a Poor piston contact a Check
b Piston ring or liner worn or seized b Clean or replace
c Excessive clearance c Correct or replace
d Worn valve stem and valve guide d Replace valve stem and guide
e Low engine oil viscosity e Replace engine oil
f Excessive oil pressure f Inspect the lubrication system See
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
4 Injection timing is too late 4 Adjust timing
5 Insufficient compression 5 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING
BLUE
1 Incorrect grade of engine oil 1 Use the correct grade of oil see Oil Grade
under 2 Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil oil is blow 2 Decrease oil level
ing out through the exhaust
BLACKISH OR DARK GRAYISH
1 Poor compression 1 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING
2 Improper valve clearance 2 Adjust valve clearance
3 Improper injection timing 3 Adjust injection timing
4 Improper fuel 4 Replace with proper fuel
5 High backpressure in exhaust 5 Check for restrictions in exhaust system
6 Insufficient intake air 6 Increase engine compartment air supply
7 Overload 7 Reduce load
BLACK LARGE AMOUNT
1 Clogged fuel filter 1 Replace fuel filter and bleed system
2 Restricted air intake 2 Remove air obstruction
3 Engine overloaded 3 Check engine propeller size and engine
performance noload through fully loaded
4 Injection timing 4 Check the injection pump timing and adjust as
needed
5 Fuel injectors not operating properly 5 Check nozzle spray pressure setting
6 Improper grade of fuel 6 Use specified grade of SMOKE 1 Faulty injection timing
1 Adjust timing
2 Water in injection pump fuel filter or fuel filterwater 2 Drain fuel system
separator
3 Faulty injection starting pressure 3 Adjust starting pressure
4 Injection pump 4 Replace injection pump
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE SOUND
1 Clean or replace filter
1 Fuel filter clogged
2 Fuel line sucks air 2 Retighten fuel line joints or replace fuel line
3 Water mixed in fuel 3 Replace FUEL ENGINE 1 Noisy knocking
1 See KNOCKING
2 Smoky exhaust 2 See SMOKY EXHAUST
3 Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn 3 Repair or replace
4 Poor compression 4 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING
5 Improper valve timing 5 Adjust timing
6 Improper valve clearance 6 Adjust clearance
INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR
1 Air intake obstructed 1 Remove FUEL INJECTION PROBLEMS
1 Injection timing incorrect 1 Adjust timing
2 Faulty injection starting pressure 2 Adjust starting pressure
3 Seized nozzle 3 Replace nozzle
4 Worn nozzle 4 Replace nozzle
5 Nozzle leaking 5 Tighten nozzle or replace sealing gasket
6 Injector not operating properly 6 Adjust nozzle spray pressure
7 Clogged fuel filter 7 Replace filter
S High idling speed S Adjust idling speed
FUEL PROBLEMS
1 Improper fuel 1 Replace with proper fuel
2 Fuel leaks 2 Find fuel leaks
ENGINE OVERLOADED
1 Propeller size 1 Check propeller size and engine performance
at rated OIL OIL 1 Defective oil seals 1 Replace oil seals
2 Broken gear case gasket 2 Replace gasket
3 Loose gear case attaching bolts 3 Retighten bolts
4 Loose drain plug 4 Retighten plug
5 Loose oil line connector 5 Retighten oil line connections
6 Broken rocker cover gasket 6 Replace gasket
7 Loose rocker cover attaching bolts 7 Retighten attaching bolts
UnivQrsal
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE OIL OIL LEVEl
1 Correct ring gap 1 Incorrectly positioned piston ring gaps
2 Displaced or twisted connecting rod 2 Replace connecting rod
3 Worn piston ring or piston ring groove 3 Replace ring or piston
4 Oil ring worn or stuck 4 Replace oil ring
5 Worn piston or cylinder liner 5 Repair or replace
6 Worn crankshaft bearing and crankpin bearing 6 Replace
OIL LEVEL FALLING
1 Defective stem seal 1 Replace stem seal
2 Worn valve and valve guide 2 Replace valve and valve guide
LOW OIL PRESSURE 1 Worn main or connecting rod bearings 1 Replace bearings
2 Relief valve malfunction 2 Overhaul oil pump
3 Diesel fuel is diluting the oil 3 Injection pump repair
4 Oil strainer clogged 4 Clean oil strainer
5 Excessive oil clearance of crankshaft bearing 5 Replace crankshaft bearing
6 Excessive oil clearance of crankpin bearing 6 Replace crankpin bearing
7 Excessive oil clearance of rocker arm bearing 7 Replace rocker arm bearing
8 Oil passage clogged 8 Clean oil passage
9 Improper grade of oil 9 Replace with specified grade of oil
HIGH OIL PRESSURE 1 Relief valve defective 1 Overhaul oil pump
2 Improper grade of oil 2 Replace with specified grade of oil
FUEl MIXED INTO 1 Injection pump plunger worn 1 Replace pump element or injection pump
LUBE OIL 2 Deficient nozzle injection 2 Repair or replace nozzle
3 Injection pump malfunction 3 Replace injection MIXED INTO 1 Defective cylinder head gasket 1 Replace
cylinder head gasket
LUBE OIL 2 Defective cylinder head or cylinder block 2 Replace cylinder head or cylinder OVERHEATS 1 Vbelt slackening or
slippery with oil 1 Adjust replace or clean belt
SHUTS DOWN
2 Low oil level or poor oil quality 2 Add or change oil
3 Knocking 3 See KNOCKING
4 Moving parts seized or damaged 4 Replace
5 Lack of coolant 5 Add coolant
6 Raw water not circulating 6 Check a and b
a Raw water pump failure Check impeller
replace if necessary
b Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water
filter
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE OVERHEATS 7 Coolant not circulating
7 Check a through d
SHUTS DOWN a Thermostat remove and test in hot
Replace thermostat
b Loss of coolant check hoses hose clamps
drain plug etc for leaks
c Broken or loose belt d Air leak in system run engine and open the
pressure cap to bleed air Add coolant as
needed
Unlvarsal
2
SERVICE service standards specify the values at which the Valve Timing
engine components will require adjustment repair It is important to observe these standards for DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE
LIMIT
your engine and to take action when necessary to maintain Intake Valve Open 14 024 rad BlOC
a high level of safety dependability and performance
Intake Valve Closed 30 052 rad ABDC
NOTE Most of the service standards given in this section Exhaust Valve Open 55 096 rad BBDC
apply to all three UNNERSAL Engine Models covered in
this manual M25XPB M35B M40B These engine Exhaust Valve Closed 14 024 rad AlOC
models will only be listed where a particular service stan
dard does not apply to all three models Valve Spring
ENGINE COMPONENTS
Free Length 1457 1476 in 1437 in
Cylinder Head 370 375 mm 365 mm
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Setting Loadl 264 Ibs 1 122 in 225 Ibs 1 122 in
Setting Length 1174 N310 mm 1 000 N 1310 mm
Cylinder Head 00019 in 197 kgf 1310 mm 102 kgf 1310 mm
Surface Flatness 005 mm
Tilt 0039 in
Top Clearance 00217 00295 in 10 mm
055 075 mm
Compression 412 469 psi 327 psi
Pressure 290 330 kgfcm 2 23 kgfcm2 Rocker Arm
284 323 MPa 225 MPa
Clearance between 00006 00018 in 00039 in
Variance Among 10 or less Rocker Arm Shaft 0016 0045 mm 010 mm
Cylinders and Rocker Arm
Rocker Arm 04714 04718 in
Valves Shaft 00 11973 11984 mm
Rocker Arm 10 04724 04731 in
Valve Clearance 00057 00072 in 12000 12018 mm
Cold 0145 0185 mm
Valve Seal Width
Intake 00835 in Tappet
212 mm
Clearance between 00008 00024 in 00028 in
Exhaust 00835 in Tappet and Guide 0020 0062 mm 007 mm
212 mm
Tappet 00 07858 07866 in
Valve Seal Angle 19959 19980 mm
Intake 60 Tappet Guide 10 07874 07882 in
1047 rad 20000 20021 mm
Exhaust 45
0785 rad
Camshaft
Valve Face Angle
Intake 60 Camshaft Side 00028 00087 in 00118 in
1047 rad Clearance 007 022 mm 03 mm
Exhaust 45 Camshaft Alignment 00004 in
0785 rad 001 mm
Valve Recessing 00020 00060 in 0016 in Cam Height
005 025 mm 04 mm Intake 11339 in 11319 in
Clearance between 00014 00025 in 00039 in 2880 mm 2875 mm
Valve Stem and 0035 0065 mm 01 mm Exhaust 11417 in
Valve Guide 11398 in
2900 mm 2895 mm
Finishing Size Camshaft Oil 00020 00036 in 00047 in
Intake Valve 02741 02764 in Clearance 0050 0091 mm 012 mm
Guide 10 6960 6975 mm Camshaft 14147 13799 in
Exhaust Valve 02760 02765 in Journal 00 35934 35050 mm
Guide 10 7010 7025 mm Camshaft 1417314183 in
Bearing 10 36000 36025 mm
SERVICE Gear Connecting Rod
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Timing Gear Connecting Rod 00020 in
Backlash Alignment 005 mm
Crank Gear 00013 00045 in 00059 in Clearance between 00006 00015 in 00059 in
Idler Gear No1 0032 0115 mm 015 mm Piston Pin and Small 0014 0038 mm 015 mm
End Bushing
Idler Gear No1 00014 00045 in 00059 in
Cam Gear 00360114 mm 015mm Piston Pin 00 08662 08666 in
22002 22011 mm
Idler Gear No1 00013 00046 in 00059 in
Injection Pump 0034 0116 mm 015 mm Small End 08671 08677 in
Gear Bushing 10 22025 22040 mm
Idler Gear No1 00013 00046 in 00059 in
Idler Gear No2 0033 0117 mm 015mm
Crankshaft
Idler Gear No2 00012 00046 in 00059 in
Governor Gear 00300117 mm 015mm Crankshaft Alignment 00008 in
Clearance between 002 mm
Idler Gear Shaft and Oil Clearance between 00013 00045 in 00079 in
Idler Gear Bushing Crankshaft and 0034 0114 mm 020 mm
Idler Gear No1 00008 00021 in 00039 in Crankshaft Bearing No1
0020 0054 mm 010 mm Crankshaft 00 18872 18878 in
Idler Gear 10236 10244 in 47934 47950 mm
Bushing 10 26000 26021 mm Crankshaft 18891 18917 in
Idler Gear Shaft 10223 10228 in Bearing No1 10 47984 48084 mm
No1 00 25967 25980 mm Oil Clearance between 00013 00037 in 00079 in
Idler Gear No2 00008 00021 in 00039 in Crankshaft and 0034 0095 mm 020 mm
0020 0054 mm 010mm Crankshaft Bearing No2
Crankshaft 00 18872 18878 in
Idler Gear 10236 10244 in
Bushing 10 26000 26021 mm 47934 47950 mm
Crankshaft 18891 18909 in
Idler Gear Shaft 10223 10228 in
No2 00 25967 25980 mm Bearing No2 10 47984 48029 mm
Idler Gear Side Oil Clearance between 00013 00039 in 00079 in
Clearance Crankshaft and 0034 0098 mm 020 mm
Crankshaft Bearing NO3
Idler Gear No1 00079 00200 in 00315 in
020 051 mm 08 mm Crankshaft 00 20441 20449 in
51921 51940 mm
Idler Gear No2 00079 00200 in 00315 in
020 051 mm 008 mm Crankshaft 20462 20480 in
Bearing NO3 10 51974 52019 mm
Oil Clearance between 00011 00036 in 00079 in
Piston Piston Ring Crank Pin and 0029 0091 mm 020 mm
Crank Pin Bearing
Piston Pin Bore 08661 08687 in 08673 in Crank Pin 00 15732 15738 in
22000 22013 mm 2203 mm 39959 39975 mm
Clearance between 00033 00044 in 00079 in Crank Pin 15750 15768 in
Compression Ring 0085 0112 mm 020 mm Bearing 10 40004 40050 mm
No2 and Ring Groove
Crankshaft Side 00059 00122 in 000197 in
Clearance between 00008 00021 in 00059 in Clearance 015 031 mm 050 mm
Oil Ring and Ring 0020 0055 mm 015 mm
Groove
Ring Gap Cylinder liner
Compression 00118 00170 in 00492 in Cylinder Liner 10
Ring No1 030 0045 mm 125 mm
M25XPB 29921 29929 in 00059 in
Compression 00118 00170 in 00492 in M35B 76000 76019 mm 015 mm
Ring No2 030 0045 mm 125 mm
M40B 30709 30716 in 00059 in
Oil Ring 00098 00157 in 00492 in 78000 78019 mm 015 mm
025 0040 mm 125 mm
Oversized Cylinder 00197 in 00059 in
Liner 10 05 mm 015 mm
SERVICE SYSTEM ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Oil Pump Starter
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Engine Oil Pressure Commutator 00 11811 in 11417 in
At Idle Speed 7 psi 300 mm 290 mm
05 kgfcm2 Mica Undercut 00197 00315 in 0079 in
49 kPa 05 08 mm 02mm
At Rated Speed 280 640 psi 213 psi Brush Length 05118 in 03346 in
20 45 kgfcm2 15 kgfcm 2 130 mm 85 mm
1960 4410 kPa 1471 kPa
Clearance between 00024 00071 in
Inner Rotor and 006 018 mm Alternator
Outer Rotor
Noload Voltage 137 147 V at 1500 2000 rpm
Clearance between 00039 00071 in
Outer Rotor and 0100 0180 mm Stator Resistance 41 47Q at 70 80F21 27C
Pump Body
Brush Length minimum 025 in 6 mm
End Clearance 00098 00295 in
between Inner Rotor 0025 075 mm
and Cover Glow Plug
COOLING SYSTEM I Glow Plug Resistance I Approx 09 12Q Valve 1571 1625F

Opening Temperature 695 at 185F
which Thermostat Opens
FUEL Pump
Injection Timing
Spill Timing
3000 rpm 18 20 BTDC
031 035 rad
Pump Element Fuel 2133 psi
Tightness 150 kgfcm 2
147 MPa
Delivery Valve Fuel 10 seconds or more 5 seconds
Tightness 2133 1990 psi 2133 1990 psi
150 140 kgfcm2 50 140 kgfcm2
147 137 MPa 147 137 Nozzle
Fuel Injection 1991 2133 psi
Pressure p 40 150 kgfcm2
373 1471 MPa
Nozzle Valve Seat When the pressure is
Tightness 1849 psi 130 kgfcm2
1275 MPa the
valve seat must not
leak fuel
Unlvarsal
3 17
ENGINE BLOCK In the precombustion chamber the intake air is whirled
and mixed efficiently with the fuel assuring proper com
The engine has a high durability tunneltype cylinder block
bustion and reducing fuel consumption The shape of the
in which the crank bearing component is a constructed body
throat in the air inlet to the combustion chamber produces
under compression an ideal mixture of air and fuel
FUEL INJECTOR
NOZZLE
HEAD
The crossflow type intake and exhaust ports in this engine
have their openings at both sides of the cylinder head
Because the overlaps of the intake and exhaust ports are AIR INLET
than in the ports of other types of engines which have openings on one side the intake air is protected from
The crankshaft with the connecting rod converts the recip
being heated and expanded by the heated exhaust air The
rocating motion of the piston into a rotating motion The crank
cool highdensity intake air has high volume efficiency and
shaft is made of tough special alloy steel and the journals the power of the engine Distortion of the cylinder
and oil seal sliding portions are for higher
head by heated exhaust gas is reduced because the intake
wear resistance The front journal is supported by a solid type
ports are arranged alternately
bearing the intermediate journal by a split type bearing and the
rear journal by a split type bearing with thrust bearings The
crankshaft has an oil gallery through which engine oil is fed
to the crankpin to lubricate it
CRANKSHAFT
BEARINGS THRUST
into the precombustion chamber are a throttle type
fuel injector and a rapidheating sheathedtype glow plug
The glow plugs assure easier engine starts even at 5 F
15 C
PISTON AND PISTON RINGS
The piston has a slightly oval shape when cold due to ther
mal expansion and a concave head Three rings are installed
in grooves in the piston
The top ring is a keystone type which can stand heavy
FUEL
INJECTOR loads and the barrelshaped facing on this ring fits well to
the cylinder wall
The second ring is an undercut type which effectively pre
vents the oil from being carried The oil ring has chamfered contact faces and an
ring which increases the pressure of the oil ring against the
cylinder wall
ENGINE DESCRIPTION
ADJUSTING SCREW
ffiA
LOCKNUT
OCKER
i i
RACKET
Several grooves are cut into the pistons crown to swirl the
fuelair mixture for complete combustion and to allow a of the exhaust gas
DEPRESSION
ROCKER ARM
SHAFT
ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
CAMSHAFT
The camshaft is made of special cast iron and the journal
and cam sections are hardened to resist wear The journal
sections are VALVE
The connecting rod connects the piston to the big end of the connecting rod has a split type and the small end has a solid type bushing
SMALL END
BUSHING
CONNECTING ROD
FUEL CAMSHAFT
The fuel camshaft controls the reciprocating movement of
the injection pump The fuel camshaft is made of carbon
CRANKPIN
BEARING
steel and the cam sections are quenched and tempered to
provide greater wear resistance P
INJECTION
PUMP GEAR I
CONNECTING ROO
ROCKER ARM
The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms rocker
arm brackets and rocker arm shaft This assembly converts D C
9J V
the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an
openclose movement of the intake and exhaust valves
oil is forcefed through the bracket to the rock
FUEL CAMSHAFT
er arm shaft which by its reciprocating motion distributes
oil throughout the entire rocker arm assembly
FUEL CAMSHAFT
ENGINE flywheel stores the rotating force of the as inertial energy reduces crankshaft rotating and maintains smooth rotating conditions periphery
is inscribed with marks showing the
fuel injection timing angle lines and the top dead center
mark Te It has gear teeth around its outer rim that mesh
with the starters drive pinion
FLYWHEEL
SCREW
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY disassembling your engine read the following Replace plain bearings if they are peeling burned or
GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES and GENERAL otherwise PROCEDURES They will provide impor
Reassemble parts eg pistons piston rings information to ensure the proper servicing of your bearing caps in their proper order
positions and
engine directions relative to the engine block Avoid reversed
The EXTERNAL COMPONENTS DISASSEMBLY orientation note that the cylinder head gasket section gives the order of
removal of the bolt washers and thermostat are assymetrical Any
engines external components alternator heat exchanger mating marks that were drawn or scribed during disas
air intake silencer etc These components are reinstalled sembly should be positioned correctly for the reverse of their order of
disassembly Position gaskets carefully especially the head information is provided so they will not be
damaged during assembly
for the main engine parts bearings crankshaft pistons Inspect all critical clearances end plays oil in individual sections
and bends Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS
DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES
Use liquid sealants when specified or needed on nuts
NOTE Before disassembly and cleaning carefully check bolts and gaskets Use Permatex No2 or defects which cannot be found after
disassembly and Dont use tape sealants Refer to SEALANTS
cleaning LUBRICANTS in this manual
All disassembled parts should be carefully arranged in Tighten the bolts and nuts on the important parts of the
the order of reassembly Mark or label the parts as engine to the specified torques using a reliable torque
needed to insure proper mating and reassembly in the wrench Tighten fasteners in the specified torque
proper directions and positions sequences and in three steps 112 23 and 111 torque
If the disassembly procedure is complex requiring many Exceptions are head bolts and rocker
parts to be disassembled the parts should be disassem arm shaft fasteners The former are torqued as indicat
bled in a way that will allow them to be efficiently ed The latter rocker shaft fasteners should be
reassembled without any change in the engines exter brought down in very small increments working from
nal appearance or its performance the center bolts out Where a tightening torque is not
Do not remove or disassemble parts that require no specified tighten evenly to an ordinary torque
disassembly After completion of reassembly recheck for any abnor
Carefully inspect each part after removal for damage malities Then fill the engine cooling system with
deformation and other problems premixed coolant 5050 good quality antifreeze and
distilled water Fill the engine oil sump to the mark on
Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals even if the dipstick with lube oil AP1 spec CF or CG4
checking is not specified Replace with new ones if
defective Test run the engine under load prior to reinstalling At
this time readjust the valve clearances on the hot
Be careful not to damage the disassembled parts Keep engine
the parts clean
Allow the engine to cool to room temperature and
Use the proper tools Apply oil when necessary Take retorque the cylinder head bolts and recheck the valve
special care to keep the fuel system parts free from the clearances see ENGINE intrusion of dust and dirt
REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES 1 Unplug the instrument panel wiring harness
Clean or wash the parts to be reassembled Apply lubri
2 Drain the transmission fluid
cating oil when specified or as needed to the surfaces
of moving parts during reassembly Heavily oil sliding 3 Unbolt the transmission from the engine
turning rotating and reciprocating parts lightly oil NOTE For transmission service and maintenance refer to
head bolts and other fasteners except those that pene your transmission owners manual To rebuild a transmis
trate into the water jacket These fasteners should be sion contact your WESTERBEKE dealer or a qualified
sealed with Permatex No 2 or a hightack equivalent marine transmission service facility
Make sure that moving parts after assembly onto the
engine are not subject to binding or excessive tension If the transmission is not being rebuilt it should be visually
inspected Inspect and lubricate the gear shift linkage and
Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals even if the propeller shaft coupling Clean and repaint the trans
checking is not specified Use new gaskets lockwash mission and change the transmission fluid Refer to the
ers and Orings TRANSMISSIONS section in this manual
Be careful not to mix bolts and nuts Both metric and
SAE bolts are used on various engine assemblies
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
After servicing the engine reinstall the in the reverse of their order of removal
With the transmission separated from the engine begin the
following stepbystep disassembly procedure
1 Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt
and oil
2 Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand for
disassembly
3 Drain the coolant from the engine and engine hoses
and from the heat exchanger Drain the fuel and drain
or pump out the engine oil
4 Remove the engine wiring harness in its entirety Label
the terminal connections to insure proper 11 Remove the exhaust manifold
When Retighten the exhaust manifold using the same torque
after idling for 20 minutes
LABEL THE TERMINAL
CONNECTIONS
When Check all AC and DC wiring connections by referring
to the UNIVERSAL wiring diagrams and schematics
5 Remove the engine heat exchanger If possible leave
one end of each hose connection attached to the heat
exchanger The heat exchanger should be serviced 12 Remove the drive belt alternator and alternator adjust
when the engine is overhauled see HEAT EXCHANG ing strap
ER under COOliNG SYSTEM for inspection and See ALTERNATOR for testing
servicing information information
When A CAUTION Connect the alternator properly
HEAT EXCHANGER Should the polarity be reversed a powerful cur
rent would flow from the battery into the alterna
tor damaging the diodes and wiring harness
a Install the alternator cap screw through the alterna
tor leg underside and spacer into the alternator
bracket
b Swing the alternator into position on the adjusting
strap and fasten Lightly tighten
c Install the drive belt and adjust the belt tension
6 Remove the starter motor d Tighten both bolts and recheck the belt tension
7 Remove the engine bellhousing NOTE Make certain the belts are perfectly aligned with
8 Remove the transmission damper plate the alternator and engine pulleys If not insert or
remove spacers as needed to align the alternator
9 Remove the flywheel and flywheel washer
10 Remove the engine back plate
UnlvQrsal
22 22
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
21 Remove the air intake silencer
22 Remove the front and rear lifting eyes
23 Remove the intake manifold
24 Remove the alternator bracket
25 Remove the crankcase breather hose
LTERNATOR
ADJUSTING
STRAP
ALTERNATOR
BRACKET
13 Remove the raw water pump
14 Remove all the high pressure injector lines from the
injection pump to the injectors Leave the upper line
clamps in place
NOTE Cap the ends of the lines and the connections
at the injection pump and at the injectors to prevent
entry offoreign material
15 Remove the oil level dipstick
16 Remove the oil filteroil cooler assembly
17 Remove the fuel line to the injection pump Note the
arrangement of the sealing washers on the banjo bolts
CRANKCASE
at the fuel filter and the injection pump BREATHER HOSE
18 Remove the fuel return lines from the top of the injec
26 Remove the glow plugs
tors and from the fuel injection pump Note the
washer arrangement on the fuel return line banjo bolts CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
Cap all openings on the fuel return line injectors and
injection pump
Nozzle Holder Assembly
19 Remove the fuel filter and fuel filter
1 Loosen the screws on the fuel injection line clamps
bracket 2 Remove the injection lines
20 Remove the thermostat housing gasket and the ther 3 Remove the fuel overflow lines
mostat Leave the temperature sender in place 4 Loosen the injector and unscrew it from the
cylinder head
5 Remove the copper washers on the seats
NOZZLE
HOLDER
ASSEMBLY
THERMOSTAT
HOUSING
GASKET
FUEL
1111 THERMOSTAT
HOUSING
6 Remove the nozzle heat seal
NOTE Use a Phillips screwdriver that has a diameter
larger than the heat seal hole 025 in 6 mm
a Insert the screwdriver lightly into the heat seal hole
THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
b Tum the screwdriver three or four times in each
direction While turning the screwdriver slowly ROCKER ARM
ASSEMBLY
pull the heat seal out together with the injection
nozzle copper washer
c If the heat seal drops repeat the above procedure
The heat seal and injection nozzle copper washer
must be changed when the injection nozzle is
removed for cleaning or for Cylinder Head
1 Remove the air breather hose
2 Remove the cylinder head screws in a descending
sequence see Model M25XPB from 14
to 1 Models M35B and M40B from 18 to 1 Then
remove the cylinder head
3 Remove the cylinder head gasket and Oring
When 1 Replace the head gasket with a new one
Cylinder Head Cover
2 Install the cylinder head using care not to damage the
1 Remove the cylinder head cover cap nuts
Oring
2 Remove the cylinder head cover
3 After applying engine oil tighten the cylinder head
When Reassembling screws gradually in an ascending sequence see illustra
1 Check the cylinder head cover gasket if it is defective tion Model M25XPB from 1 to 14 Models M35B
replace it and M40B from 1 to 18
4 Retighten the cylinder head screws after running the
engine for 30 minutes
REAR
MODEL M25XPB
0 14 06 03
0 18 010 02 07
REAR
00 00 00 00 Arm and Push Rod 0 0 1300
01 1 0 9
0 12
0 16
0 0
1 Remove the rocker arm bracket mounting nuts
MODELS M35B M4oB
2 Detach the rocker arm as an assembly
Tappets
3 Remove the push rods
1 Remove the tappets from the NOTE Mark the cylinder numbers on the tappets
1 When installing the push rods onto the tappets make prevent sure their ends are properly engaged with the grooves
When After reassembling the rocker arm assembly be sure
to adjust the valve clearances 1 Before installing the tappets apply engine oil thinly
around them
t Unlvarsal
2 24
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
Gear Case
1 Remove the gear case
When 1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
to both sides of the gear case gasket
2 Apply a thin coat of grease to the oil seal and install it
ensuring the lip does not come off
Remove the valve cap
2 Remove the valve spring collet with a valve lifter
3 Remove the valve spring retainer valve spring and
valve
When Wash the valve stem and valve guide hole and apply GEAR CASE
sufficient engine oil
2 After installing the valve spring collet lightly tap the Length of the gear case mounting bolts see valve stem to assure a proper fit
A 45 mm E 68 mm
B 50mm F 80mm
C 55 mm G Nut
D 59mm
GEAR CASE
GEAR CASE
Engine Stop Solenoid optional and
Coolant Pump Speed Control Plate
1 Remove the coolant pump flange
1 Remove the engine stop 2 Remove the speed control plate with the governor
1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent springs
to both sides of the water pump flange gasket
When 1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
to both sides of the solenoid cover gasket and control
plate gasket
2 Be careful not to drop the governor springs into the
it Unlvarsal
COOLANT PUMP
s 25
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
Engine Serial Numbers 489291 and up
1 Apply sealant to both sides of the soft metal gasket
shim Liquid gasket is not required
2 The addition or subtraction of a shim 00020 in
005 mm delays or advances the injection timing
by approx OS 00087 rad
ENGINE STOP SOLENOID 3 In disassembling and replacing shims be sure to
8 SPEED CONTROL PLATE use the same number of new gasket shims having
the same INJECTION
PUMP
Injection Pump
1 Align the control rack pin with the notch on the
crankcase and remove the injection pump NOTCH
2 Remove the injection pump shims
NOTE The fuel injection pump is a very important com
ponent of the diesel engine requiring the utmost care in
handling It has been thoroughly benchtested and is cautioned not to attempt to service it
If the fuel injection pump requires servicing remove it and
take it to an authorized fuel injection pump service facility
Do not attempt to disassemble and repair it If the pump is
defective UNIVERSAL recommends that you replace the
entire pump
The only adjustments the servicing mechanic should make
to the fuel injection pump are the adjustments for idle
speed see IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT under and injection timing see ADJUSTMENT below
When When installing the injection pump insert the control
rack pin firmly into the groove of the fork lever and
thrust lever
Fuel Camshaft
2 Install the shims as follows
1 Remove the fuel camshaft stopper
Engine Serial Numbers up to 489290
2 Pull out the fuel camshaft and injection pump gear
1 Insert the same number of shims as used before
between the crankcase and the injection pump When 2 The addition or subtraction of a shim 00059 in 1 Apply a thin
coat of engine oil to the fuel camshaft
015 mm delays or advances the injection timing before installing
by approx 150 0026 rad
3 Apply a liquidtype gasket HIGH TACK or equiva
lent to both sides of the injection pump shim before
FUEL CAMSHAFT
Unlvarsal STOPPER FUEL CAMSHAFT
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Shaft Fork Lever
1 Remove the snap ring from the governor shaft 1 Remove the start spring
2 Remove the fork lever shaft cover
3 Remove the fork lever shaft
4 Remove the spacer bearing and fork levers 1 and 2
2 Remove the governor shaft
Make sure the external snap ring for the governor shaft
is installed
2 Check the governor shaft for smooth When replacing the ball bearing for the securely fit the ball bearing to the crankcase apply
an adhesive Three Bond 1324B or equivalent to the set When and insert the set screw until its tapered part con
tacts the side of the ball bearing 1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
to both sides of the fork lever shaft cover
BALL BEARING
GOVERNOR SHAFT 2 Assemble the fork lever shaft cover with the mark
UP on it facing upward
3 Make sure the start spring is assembled
NOTE Assemble fork lever 2 to the right side of the fuel
limit bolts as shown in the LIMIT BOLT
SETSCREW
GOVERNOR SHAFT
FORK LEVER 2
Unlvarsal
aS 27
Camshaft Gear and Idler Gear 1
1 Remove the snap ring
2 Remove the idler gear
3 Remove the camshaft stopper mounting bolt
4 Remove the When installing the idler gear be sure to align the
alignment marks on the gears Make sure to assemble the
external snap ring and stopper
OIL PAN
MOUNTING
OIL PAN SCREWS
PAN FILTER
Connecting Rod Cap
1 Remove the connecting rod screws from the connecting
rod caps
2 Remove the connecting rod caps
When 1 Align the marks A with each other Face the marks
INJECTION toward the injection pump
PUMP GEAR
2 Apply engine oil to the connecting rod screws and
lightly screw them in by hand then tighten them to the
specified torque If a connecting rod screw doesnt
screw in smoothly clean the threads If the screw is
still hard to screw in replace it
Connecting rod screws 303 339 ftIbs
tightening torque 42 47 kgfm
IDLER 412 461 Nm
AND CONNECTING ROD
Oil Pan and Oil Pan Filter
1 Remove the oil pan mounting screws
2 Remove the oil pan by lightly tapping the rim of the
pan with a wooden hammer
3 Remove the oil pan filter
When Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
to both sides of the oil pan gasket REMOVING CONNECTING ROO CAPS
2 To avoid uneven tightening tighten the mounting
screws in a diagonal pattern from the center
3 Clean the oil pan filter and install it Take care not to
damage the Oring
MARKS Al
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Piston Ring and Connecting Rod
1 Tum the flywheel and bring the No 1 piston to top 1 Remove the piston rings using a piston ring tool
dead center TDC
2 Align the casting mark i on the piston as shown in
2 Pull the piston out upward by lightly tapping it from the the bottom of the crankcase with the handle of a hammer
3 Remove the piston pin and separate the connecting rod
from the piston
CONNECTING
When Before inserting the piston into the cylinder apply When engine oil to the cylinder
1 When installing the rings assemble them so that the
2 When inserting the piston into the cylinder face the mark near the gap faces the top of the
mark on the connecting rod toward the injection pump piston
NOTE Do not change the combinations of cylinder and
piston Make sure of the location of each piston by mark
ing it For example mark1 on the No1 piston
3 When inserting the piston into the cylinder place the
gap of compression ring No1 on the side opposite
the combustion chamber and place the gaps of com
pression ring No2 and the oil ring at right angles from
the gap of compression ring No1 see Carefully insert the pistons using a piston ring com 2 When installing the oil ring onto the piston
place the
pressor otherwise their chromeplated sections may expander joint on the opposite side of the oil ring gap
become scratched causing trouble inside the liner
Hi Oil RING GAP
3 Apply engine oil to the piston pin
4 Before installing the piston pin immerse the piston in
176 0 F 80 0 C oil for 10 to 15 minutes then insert the
piston pin into the piston
S When installing the connecting rod to the piston align
the mark on the connecting rod to the casting mark on
the piston
PISTON
PIN HOLE Dll RING GAP Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
PISTON RING GAP POSITIONS
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
Bearing Case Cover and Crankshaft
NOTE Before check the side clearance of
the crankshaft Also check it during reassembly
1 Remove the bearing case cover mounting bolts
Unscrew the eight inside bolts first then the nine out
side bolts
2 Screw two removed bolts into the right and left bolt
holes of the bearing case cover to remove it
NOTE Mark the same number on both the connecting rod
and the piston so as not to change the AND Remove the starter
REMOVING
THE BEARING
CASE COVER
3 Remove the bearing case bolt 2
4 Pull out the Lock the flywheel so it will not tum
2 Remove the flywheel screws except for two which
must be loosened and left as they are
3 Use a flywheel puller and remove the flywheel or
work the flywheel off using two Apply engine oil to the flywheel screws REMOVING THE BEARING CASE BOLTS
REMOVING THE FLYWHEEL
REMOVING THE 30
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Reassembling When Install the crankshaft subassembly aligning the
1 Clean the oil passage in the main bearing case
bolt hole of main bearing case 2 with the bolt hole in 2 Apply clean engine oil on crankshaft bearing 2 and the
the cylinder block thrust bearings
2 Apply engine oil to the seat and thread of bearing case 3 Since the diameters of the main bearing case vary
bolt 2 and tighten it install them in the order of the markings CA B C from
3 Install the bearing case cover with its casting mark UP the gear case side
facing upward 4 When installing the main bearing case assemblies 1 2
4 Tighten the bearing case cover mounting bolts with even and 3 face the mark FLYWHEEL toward the fly
force on the diagonal line wheel
Main Bearing Case Assembly 5 Be sure to install the thrust bearing with its oil groove
facing outward
1 Remove the two main bearing case bolts 1 and remove
the main bearing case assembly being careful with the
thrust bearings and crankshaft bearing 2
2 Remove the main bearing case assemblies I 2 and 3 as
above
MAIN BEARING CASE ASSEMBLY
MAIN BEARING
CASE ASSEMBLY
MAIN BEARING CASE
ASSEMBLIES 1 2 3
REMOVING THE MAIN
BEARING CASE 31
ENGINE SERVICE
NOTE Servicing are included in this section
Also refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS Cylinder heads with serial numbers 489291 on up 1m8I1 fDJlWl
are partially modified because of the introduction of the
nozzle heat seal When replacing the cylinder head see
the parts list and choose the right one in reference to its
serial number
RCAA
RED PERMEATIVE
atAD
DETERGENT
HEAD LIQUID Head Distortion
Valve Recession
1 Thoroughly clean the cylinder head surface 1 Clean the cylinder head valve face and seat
2 Place a straightedge on the cylinder head and measure 2 Insert the valve into the valve guide
for distortion in the six directions A through F as shown
in the illustration Measure the clearance with a feeler 3 Measure the valve recession with a depth gauge
gauge 4 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the valve
NOTE Do not place the straightedge on the combustion If the measurement still exceeds the limit after replacing
chamber the valve correct the valve seat face of the cylinder
head with a valve seat cutter or valve seat grinder Then
3 If the measurement exceeds the limit correct it with a correct the cylinder head surface with a surface grinder
surface grinder or replace the cylinder head
NOTE Be sure to check the valve recession after
IO co 0
o 0
0 eOoe
oOOoOOc
Valve Stem to Valve Guide Clearance
1 Remove carbon from the valve guide
2 Measure the valve stem DD with an outside micro
meter t
CHECKING VALVE STEM
OIL Head Flaw 3 Using a small hole gauge measure the valve guide LD
where it shows maximum wear Then calculate the
1 Prepare an air spray red check
clearance
2 Clean the surface of the cylinder head with detergent
4 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the valve If
3 Spray the cylinder head surface with red permeative it still exceeds the limit replace the valve guide
liquid Wait five to ten minutes after spraying
4 Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder
head surface with the detergent
S Spray the cylinder head surface with white developer
6 If the surface is flawed the flaws will be identified as
red marks
ENGINE SERVICE
Valve Seating c After resurfacing the seat inspect for even valve
seating then apply a thin film of compound
1 Coat the valve face lightly with prussian blue and put
between the valve face and valve seat and fit them
the valve on its seat to check the contact
with a valve lapping tool
2 If the valve does not seat allthe way around the seat
d Check the valve seating with prussian blue The
or the valve contact is less than 70 correct the
valve seating surface should show good contact all
valve seating as follows
around
3 If the valve contact does not comply with the reference
value replace the valve or correct the valve seating
15 0262 rad or
30 0523 rad
45 0785 rad or
60 1047 rad
o Valve and Valve Seat
o INCORRECT
1 CHECK CONTACT
30 0523 rad or
15 0262 rad
2 CORRECT SEAT Before correcting the valve and seat check the valve IDENTICAL and the ID
of the valve guide and repair them if nec
essary After correcting the valve seat be sure to check the
valve recession 3 CHECK CONTACT
1 Correcting the Valve Valve lapping
a Correct the valve with a valve refacer 1 Apply compound evenly to the valve lapping surface
2 Insert the valve into the valve guide Lap the valve
onto its seat with a valve lapper or screwdriver
3 After lapping the valve wash the compound away and
apply oil then repeat the valve lapping with the oil
4 Apply prussian blue to the contact surface to check the
seated surface If it is less than 70 repeat the valve
lapping again
NOTE When valve lapping is peiformed be sure to check
the valve recession and adjust the valve clearance after
assembling the valve
2 Correcting the Valve Seat
a Slightly correct the seat surface with a 60
1047 rad seat cutter intake valve or a 45
0785 rad seat cutter exhaust valve
b Resurface the seat surface with a 30 0523 rad
valve seat cutter for the intake valve seat and with a
15 0262 rad valve seat cutter for the exhaust
valve seat so that the width is close to the specified
valve seat width of 00835 in 212 mm
ENGINE Valve Guide Valve Spring Setting load
When removing 1 Place the valve spring on a tester and compress it to the
same length that it is compressed in the engine
1 Using a valve guide replacing tool see SPECIAL
TOOLS press out the existing valve guide 2 Read the compression load on the gauge
When installing 3 If the measurement is less than the limit replace the
valve spring
2 Clean a new valve guide and apply engine oil to it
3 Using a valve guide replacing tool see SPECIAL
TOOLS press in a new valve guide until it is flush
with the cylinder head as shown in the Ream the JD of the valve guide precisely to the speci
fied dimension
A CAUTION Do not hit the valve guide with a
hammer during replacement only use the valve
guide replacing tool
Oil Clearance between Rocker Arm Shaft and Bearing
1 Measure the rocker arm bearing ID with an inside
micrometer
2 Measure the rocker arm shaft OD with an outside
micrometer then calculate the oil clearance
3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the rocker
arm and measure the oil clearance again If it still
exceeds the limit replace the rocker arm shaft also
REMOVING INSTALLING
VALVE GUIDE VALVE Valve Spring
1 Measure the free length of the valve spring A with Push Rod Alignment
vernier calipers If the measurement is less than the 1 Check both ends of the push rod for cracks damage and
limit replace it unusual wear
2 Put the spring on a level surface place a square on the 2 Measure the bending of the push rod with a dial
side of the spring and check to see if the entire side is indicator
in contact with the square Then rotate the spring and
measure the maximum B If the measurement exceeds 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the push
the limit replace the spring rod
3 Check the entire surface of the spring for scratches and
replace the spring if there are any
bl1 rJiAII
ENGINE SERVICE
Oil Clearance between Tappet and Tappet Guide Bore Camshaft Side Clearance
1 Measure the tappet OD with an outside micrometer 1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the camshaft
2 Measure the ID of the tappet guide bore with a cylin 2 Measure the side clearance by moving the cam gear to
der gauge and calculate the oil clearance the front and to the rear
3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit or the tappet is 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the
damaged replace the tappet camshaft GEARS AND Gear Backlash
Camshaft Alignment
1 Set a dial indicator lever type with its tip on the gear 1 Support the camshaft with V blocks on the surface plate
tooth and set a dial indicator with its tip on the Move the gear to measure the
backlash holding its journal at a right angle
mating gear 2 Rotate the camshaft on the V blocks and get the mis
3 If the backlash exceeds the limit check the oil clearance alignment half of the of the shaft and gear
3 If the misalignment exceeds the limit replace the
4 If the oil clearance is correct replace the gear Cam Height
Idler Gear Side Clearance 1 Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with
an outside Set a dial indicator with its tip on the idler gear
2 If the measurement is less than the limit replace the
2 Measure the side clearance by moving the idler gear to camshaft
the front and to the rear
3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the idler
gear collar
ENGINE Journal Oil Clearance PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
1 Measure the aD with an outside Piston Pin Bore 10
micrometer 1 Measure the piston pin bore LD in both the horizontal
2 Measure the cylinder block bore LD for the camshaft and vertical directions with a cylinder gauge
with an inside micrometer Calculate the oil clearance 2 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the
3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the camshaft Clearance between Idler Gear Shaft and
Idler Gear Bushing
1 Measure the idler gear shaft aD with an outside Oil Clearance between Piston Pin and Connecting
micrometer Rod Small End Bushing
2 Measure the idler gear bushings LD with an inside 1 Measure the aD of the piston pin where it contacts
micrometer and calculate the oil clearance the bushing with an outside If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the
2 Measure the LD of the piston pin bushing at the con
bushing B necting rod small end with a cylinder gauge Calculate
the oil clearance
3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the bushing
If it still exceeds the limit replace the piston the Idler Gear Bushing
1 Using an idler gear bushing replacing tool see
SPECIAL TOOLS press out the existing bushing
2 Clean a new idler gear bushing and the idler gear bore
and apply engine oil to them
3 Using the idler gear bushing replacing tool press in a
new bushing to the specified dimension see Replacing Connecting Rod Small End
Bushing
When removing
BUSHING
REPLACING 1 Press out the existing bushing using a small end bush
TOOL ing replacing tool
When installing
1 Clean a new small end bushing and bore and apply
engine oil to them
2 Insert the new bushing onto the tool and pressfit it so
that the seam of the bushing is positioned as shown
in the illustration and the bushing is flush with the con
necting rod
PRESSING OUT
PRESSING IN EXISTING BUSHING NEW BUSHING ib 36
ENGINE SERVICE
RING NO1
KEYSTONE TYPE
PRESSING OUT PRESSING IN
EXISTING BUSHING NEW BUSHING
3 Drill a hole through the bushing aligning with the oil
hole in the connecting rod Use a 0157 in 40 mm
dia drill
NOTE Be sure to chamfer the oil hole with an oilstone
SEAM
45 079 rad
RING NO 2OIL RING
PISTON RING CLEARANCES
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Piston Ring Gap
Ring No1 00079 in
1 Insert the piston ring into the lower part of the liner Keystone Type 020 mm
the least worn out part of the liner using the piston
Ring No2 00033 00044 in 00079 in
2 Measure the ring gap with a feeler gauge 0085 0112 mm 020 mm
3 If the gap exceeds the limit replace the piston ring Oil Ring 00008 00021 in 00059 in
0020 0055 mm 015 mm
Connecting Rod Alignment
NOTE Since the JD of the connecting rod small end bush
ing is the basis of this check check this bushing for wear
beforehand
1 Remove the crankpin bearing and install the connecting
rod cap
2 Install the piston pin in the connecting rod
3 Install the connecting rod on the connecting rod align
ment tool
Piston Ring Clearances 4 Put a gauge over the piston pin and move it against
1 Remove carbon from the ring grooves the face plate
2 For Ring No1 keystone type measure the clearance 5 If the gauge does not fit squarely against the face plate
between the outer side of the ring and the side of the measure the space between the pins of the gauge and the
piston face plate
3 For Ring No2 and the Oil Ring measure the clearance 6 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the con
between the rings and the grooves with a feeler gauge necting rod
or depth gauge
4 If a clearance exceeds the limit replace the ring
5 If the clearance still exceeds the limit after replacing
the ring replace the piston
ENGINE SERVICE
OVERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL
0008 in 0016 in
02 mm 04 mm
Dimension
11102 11122 in 1118111201 in
A 2820 2825 mm 2840 2845 mm
B 2028 2035 in 2031 2039 in
515 517 mm 516 518 mm
C 0091 0106 in radius 0091 0106 in radius
23 27 mm radius 23 27 mm radius
The crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than Side Clearance
1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the end of the
crankshaft o
2 Measure the side clearance by moving the crankshaft
to the front and to the rear
3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the thrust
bearings c
4 If a samesize thrust bearing is inadequate because of
crankshaft journal wear replace it with an oversize Crankshaft Alignment
thrust bearing see illustration and table 1 Support the crankshaft with V blocks on the surface
plate and set a dial indicator with its tip on the interme
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT diate journal at a right angle
Crankshaft 00059 00122 in 00197 in 2 Rotate the crankshaft on the V blocks and get the mis
side clearance 015 031 mm 050 mm
alignment half of the 3 If the misalignment exceeds the limit replace the
CRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT
OVERSIZE THRUST BEARING
OVERSIZE BEARING MARKING Oil Clearance between Crankpin and
0008 in Thrust bearing No1 02 Crankpin Bearing
020 OS
02 mm Thrust bearing No2 02 1 Clean the crankpin and crankpin bearing
0016 in Thrust bearing No1 04 040 OS 2 Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the crankpin
04 mm Thrust bearing No2 04
3 Install the connecting rod cap and tighten the connect
ing rod screws to the specified torque then remove the
Unlvarsal
a Mill lj4V93i
ENGINE SERVICE
4 Measure the amount of flattening with the scale and A
get the oil clearance
Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and
Crankshaft Bearing No1
5 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the 1 Measure the OD of the crankshafts front journal with
crankpin bearing an outside If a samesize bearing is too big because of crankpin
wear replace it with an undersize bearing see illustra
tion and table
NOTE Never insert the plastigauge into the crankpin oil
hole Be sure not to move the crankshaft while the con
necting rod screws are tightened
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Oil Clearance 000114 000358 in 00079 in
between crankpin 0029 0091 mm 020 mm
and crankpin bearing
STANDARD VALUE
Crankpin 00 157319 157382 in
39959 39975 mm
2 Measure the LD of the crankshaft bearing No1 with
Crankpin bearing 157496 157677 in
10 40004 40050 mm an inside micrometer and calculate the oil clearance
UNDERSIZE CRANKPIN BEARING
UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING
0008 in Crankpin bearing 02
02 mm 020 US
0016 in Crankpin bearing 04 040 US
04 mm
UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF A
0008 in
02 mm
01102 01260 in radius
28 32 mm radius
0016 in
04 mm
01102 01260 in radius
28 32 mm radius
B 00394 00591 in radius 00394 00591 in radius
10 15 mm radius 10 15 mm radius 3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace crankshaft
bearing No1
C 156531 156594 in 155744 155807 in
39759 39775 mm 39559 39575 mm 4 If a samesize bearing is too big because of crankshaft
journal wear replace it with an undersize bearing see
The crankpin must be finefinished to higher than lVVV illustration and table
ENGINE SERVICE
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT STANDARD VALUE
Oil Clearance 000134 000449 in 00079 in Dimension A o 00118 in
between crankshaft 00340114 mm 020 mm 0 03 mm
journal and crank
shaft bearing No 1
STANDARD VALUE
Crankshaft journal 188716 188779 in
00 47934 47950 mm BEARING NO1
Crankshaft bearing 188913 189165 in
No1 10 47984 48048 mm
UNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO1
UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING
0008 in CYLINDER
02 mm Crankshaft bearing No1 02 020 US BLOCK
0016 in
04 mm Crankshaft bearing No1 04 040 US
Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and
Crankshaft Bearings No2 No3
UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT 1 Put a strip of plastigauge on
the center of the journal
0008 in 0016 in 2 Install the bearing case and tighten the bearing case
02 mm 04 mm
Dimension screws to the specified torque then remove the bearing
00906 01063 in radius 00906 01063 in radius case
A 23 27 mm radius 23 27 mm radius 3 Measure the amount of the flattening with the scale
B 00394 00591 in radius 00394 00591 in radius and get the oil clearance
10 15 mm radius 10 15 mm radius
C 187929 187992 in 187142 187204 in
47734 47750 mm 47534 47550 mm
The crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than JlV
4 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the
crankshaft Crankshaft Bearing No1 S If a samesize bearing is too big because of the crank
When removing shaft journal wear use an undersize one see illustra
tion and table
1 Press out the existing crankshaft bearing No1 using a
crankshaft bearing No 1 replacing tool NOTE Be sure not to move the crankshaft while the bear
ing case screws are being Clean a new crankshaft bearing No1 and the crank STANDARD VALUE
LIMIT
shaft journal bore then apply engine oil to them Oil Clearance 000134 000374 in 00079 in
2 Using the crankshaft bearing No1 replacing tool between crankshaft 0034 0095 mm 020 mm
journal and crank
press in a new bearing No1 so that its seam faces the shaft bearing No2
exhaust manifold side
s Unlvarsal
3S ijijWJ 3i
ENGINE SERVICE
STANDARD VALUE journal 188716 188779 in Cylinder Wear
00 47934 47950 mm 1 Measure the ID of the cylinder at the six bearing 188913 189091 in
shown in the illustration with a cylinder gauge to find
No2 10 47984 48029 mm the maximum and minimum IDs
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Oil Clearance 000134 000386 in 00079 in
between crankshaft 0034 0098 mm 020 mm
journal and crank
shaft bearing NO3
STANDARD journal 204413 204488 in
00 flywheel side 51921 51940 bearing 204622 204799 in
NO3 10 51974 52019 mm
UNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARINGS NO2 NO3
UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING
0008 in Crankshaft bearing No2 02
02 mm Crankshaft bearing NO3 02 020 US
TOP RIGHTANGLE
0016 in Crankshaft bearing No2 04 TO PISTON PIN
Crankshaft bearing NO3 04 040 US
04 mm
UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL
MIODlE
0008 in 0016 in
02 mm 04 00906 01063 in radius 00906 01063 in radius PISTON
A 23 27 mm radius 23 27 mm radius
BonOM
DIRECTION
SKIRT
00394 00591 in radius 00394 00591 in radius
B 10 15 mm radius 10 15 mm radius
187929 187992 in 187141 187204 in 2 Determine the difference maximum wear between the
C 47734 47750 mm 47534 47550 mm
maximum and minimum LDs
D 203626 203700 in 202838 202913 in
51721 51740 mm 51521 51540 mm 3 If the maximum wear exceeds the limit bore and hone
to the oversize dimension see Correcting Cylinder
O8S below
The crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than Vil1
4 Visually check the cylinder wall for scratches If deep
scratches are found the cylinder should be bored see
Correcting Cylinder below
A STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Cylinder 10
M25 XPB 29921 29929 in
M35B 76000 76019 mm
M40B 30709 30716 in
78000 78019 mm
Maximum Wear
00059 in
O15mm
ENGINE Cylinder
1 When the cylinder is worn beyond the limit bore and
hone it to the specified dimension
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Cylinder ID
M25XPB 30118 30126 in
M35B 76500 76519 mm
M40B 30906 30913 in
78500 78519 mm
Maximum Wear
00059 in
015 mm
Finishing Hone to 000047 000079 inR max
12 20 R max
2 Replace the piston and the piston rings with oversize
05 mm rings
MODEL MARKING
M25XPB
Piston M35B 05 OS
M40B
Piston Ring M25XPB
Assembly M35B 05 OS
M40B
NOTE When an oversize cylinder is worn beyond the limit
sleeve the block to return the cylinder to the standard size
CYLINDER 10
BEFORE
CORRECTION
OVERSIZE
CYLINDER 10
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust
ments be performed by a competent engine mechanic The information
below is provided to assist the CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT Four Cylinder Models
NOTE Valve adjustments should not be necessary under Rotate the crankshaft 180 0 in the normal direction of rota
normal operating conditions These adjustments when tion and adjust the No3 Cylinders valves Rotate the
required should be performed by an authorized mechanic crankshaft another 180 0 and adjust the No4 Cylinders
valves Rotate the crankshaft another 180 0 and adjust the
Remove the valve rocker cover to expose the engines valve
train Remove the glow plugs from each of the cylinders to No2 Cylinders the engine to be easily rotated by hand to position
VALVE
cylinder for valve adjustment
The valves are adjusted with the piston in the cylinder posi
tioned at TDC Top Dead Center of its compression stroke t
Each cylinder is adjusted following the engines Order 3 Cylinder Models 1 2 3
4 Cylinder Models 1 3 4 2
STANDARD VALUE
Adjust the valves beginning with Cylinder No 1 Rotate
the crankshaft slowly and observe the operation of the Valve clearance 00071 00087 in
engine cold 018 022 mm
valves for Cylinder No1 Watch for the intake valve to
open indicating the piston is on its intake stroke the piston
is moving down in the cylinder Continue to rotate the TOP slowly and look for the intake valve to close
The piston is now starting its compression stroke the pis 1 Remove the cylinder head remove the cylinder head
ton is moving up in the cylinder towards TDC gasket the timing hole in the bellhousing for the timing 2 Bring
the piston to its top dead center Measure the top
numbers to appear Position the lTC mark in alignment clearance using a plastigauge Position the the notch in the timing hole The
piston in Cylinder on the piston top
No1 is now at TDC Adjust the valves in Cylinder No 1 3 Bring the piston to its middle position install the to the next cylinder in the
firing order der head and tighten the cylinder head bolts to their
specified torque The head gasket must be changed to
a new one
4 Tum the crankshaft until the piston exceeds its top dead
center
S Remove the cylinder head and measure the clearance
6 If the measurement is not within the standard value
check the oil clearance of the crankpin journal and the
piston pin
Top clearance Standard value 00217 00295 in
055 075 mm
Tightening torque Cylinder head 470 506 ftIbs
mounting bolts 65 70 kgfm
637 686 Nm
TIGHTENING THE CYLINDER HEAD BOLTS
Three Cylinder Models Pull off the air breather pipe from the rocker cover and
remove the rocker cover Retighten the cylinder head bolts
Rotate the crankshaft 240 0 in the normal direction of rota
to their specified torque as shown in the diagram Make
tion and adjust the No2 Cylinders valves Rotate the
sure the engine is cold when this is done Before another 240 0 and adjust the No3 Cylinders
the specified torque to a bolt loosen it 114 to 112 a tum and
valves
then apply the torque
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust
ments be performed by a competent engine mechanic The information
below is provided to assist the the cylinder head bolts in an ascending sequence Checking the Oil Pressure
Model M25XPB from 1 to 14
1 Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical
Model M35B from 1 to 18
oil pressure gauge in its place
Model M40B from 1 to 18
2 Start the engine After warming up to operating temper
ature measure the oil pressure at both idling and rated
speeds
3 If the oil pressure is less than the specified limit check
the following
a Engine oil MODEL M25XPB b Oil pump defective
c Oil strainer clogged
d Oil filter
06 03 01 e Oil gallery clogged
0 2 07 0 f Excessive oil clearance of bearing
00 00 00 00
01 1 0 0900 0
0 13 05
1 0 0
0 12
0 16
g Foreign matter in the relief valve
When MODELS M35B M40B 1 After checking the engine oil pressure tighten the
engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque
OIL PRESSURE Oil pressure at idle speed
The engines oil pressure during operation is indicated by 15 psi 105 kglcm2 1034 kPa
the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel During nor Oil pressure at rated speed
mal operation the oil pressure will range between 40 and 40 60 psi 28 42 kglcm2 276 414 kPa
60 psi 28 and 42 kgcm2 Oil pressure switch torque
108 145 ftIb 15 20 kgm
NOTE A newly started cold engine can have an oil pres
sure reading up to 60 psi 42 kgcm 2 A warmed engine TESTING ENGINE have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi 25
Make certain the oil level dipstick is at the correct level
kgcm 2 These readings will vary depending upon the tem
and the air intake filter is clean The battery and starter of the engine and the rpms
must also be in good Oil Pressure 1 Warm the engine to normal operating specified safe
minimum oil pressure is 5 10 psi 035 2 Move the control lever to a position for shutting off the fuel
070 kgcm 2 A gradual loss of oil pressure usually indi Disconnect the wires if a fuel shutdown solenoid is used
cates worn bearings For additional information on low oil
3 Remove all the glow plugs from the engine and readings see ENGINE TROUBLE SHOOTING
the compression gaugeadapter combination to the
cylinder on which the compression is to be measured
OIL PRESSURE
SWITCH
OIL PRESSURE
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH MEASURING
A AUnlvarsal
D 44
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNNERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust
ments be performed by a competent engine mechanic The information
below is provided to assist the mechanic
4 Close the raw water seacock Crank the engine and allow the gauge to reach a maxi A WARNING Never attempt to check or adjust
mum reading Record the reading drive belts tension while the engine is in operation
6 Repeat this process for each cylinder Look for cylin
ders with dramatically at least 20 lower compres Checking Belt Tension
sion than the average of the others
1 To check the belt tension press the belt at the midpoint
Compression pressure at cranking speed between the alternator pulley and the crankshaft pulley
Standard value 412 469 psi 29 33 kgfcm2 with a force of 221bs 10 kfg 98 N The belt deflec
284 324 MPa tion should be 38 in 112 in 10 12 mm deep
Limit 327 psi 23 kgfcm2 226 MPa
Maximum difference between cylinders
10 or less
NOTE If the readings are below the limit the engine
needs an overhaul
7 Reinstall the glow plugs use antiseize compound on COOLANT PUMP
the threads and reset the fuel shutoff to the run PULLEY
position
ALTERNATOR
8 Open the raw water seacock thruhull PULLEY
If a weak cylinder is flanked by healthy cylinders the prob
lem is either valve or piston related Check the valve CRANKSHAFT
for the weak cylinder adjust as needed and test
again If the cylinder is still low apply a small amount of
oil into the cylinder to seal the rings and repeat the test If
the compression comes up the rings are high readings on all cylinders indicate heavy
carbon accumulation a condition that might be accompa CHECKING BELT TENSION
nied by high pressures and noise
NOTE In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise
have the injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized Adjusting Belt Tension
fuel injection service center Poor fuel quality contami 1 To adjust the belt tension loosen the alternator and loss of positive fuel
pressure to the injection strap bolt and the base mounting bolt
pump will result in injector faults 2 With the belt loose inspect the belt for damage wear
When low compression is found determine the cause by cracks and frayed edges If the belt is damaged a small amount of oil in the
cylinder through the it If it is nearly worn out and deeply sunk in the pulley
glow plug hole Allow the oil to settle groove replace it
Install the pressure gauge and repeat the above test If reading rises dramatically the fault is with the
rings If the compression value does not rise the problem
is with the valves
A slight rise in compression would indicate a problem with
both the rings and the valves
GOOD BAD
DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT BELT BELT
The drive belt must be properly tensioned A loose drive 3 Pivot the alternator on the base mounting bolt to the left
belt will not provide proper alternator charging and will or right as required to loosen or damage the alternator A drive belt that
is too 4 Tighten the base mounting bolt and the adjusting strap
tight will pull the alternator out of alignment andor cause bolt securely
the alternator to wear out prematurely Excessive drive belt
5 Run the engine for about 5 minutes then shut down
tension can also cause rapid wear of the belt and reduce the
and recheck the belt life of the coolant pumps bearing A slack belt or
the presence of oil on the belt can cause belt in high operating temperatures and
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust
ments be peiformed by a competent engine mechanic The information
below is provided to assist the SPEED ADJUSTMENT Adjusting the Idle Speed
TACHOMETER CHECK New Installation 1 Loosen the locknut on the idle adjustment bolt on the
Checking the Idle Speed fuel injection pump
Use a tachometer to check the idle speed 2 Turn the idle adjustment bolt until the idling speed is
NOTE In a new installation having new instrument panels within the standard range The idle speed will increase
the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to when the adjusting bolt is turned clockwise and
the engines rpm This calibration should be checked in all decrease when the bolt is turned
3 Tighten the locknut
1 Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature 4 Race the engine several times to ensure the idle speed
Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a remains as set
clean cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape NOTE Should the engine rpm be in question verify the
on the pulley to facilitate the use of the tachometer tachometer readings as shown at the instrument panel with
2 Start and idle the engine a mechanical or strobetype tachometer at the engine
3 Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape crankshaft
to confirm the engine speed Check the instrument
panel tachometer reading Adjust the tachometer in the
panel by using the instrument calibration pod as needed
to bring the instrument panel tachometer into the same
rpm reading as the engine
4 Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within
THROTTLE
the specified value LEVER
Normal idle speed
Model M2SXPB 1000 1200 rpm
Model M3SB 800 1000 rpm
Model M40B 800 1000 rpm
ADJUSTING THE IDLE SPEED
CHECKING THE IDLE SPEED
EXHAUST MANIFOLD MANIFOLD ASSEMBLY
The exhaust manifold which was disassembled from the 1 If the manifold was removed as an assembly and left
cylinder head should be inspected before reassembly intact it can be replaced on the cylinder head in the
1 Remove the exhaust nipples elbows and plugs from the reverse order of removal
manifold Do not reuse the gaskets install new ones
2 Examine all parts for defects corrosion and wear and a Loosely attach the manifold elbows to the cylinder
replace as needed head using new gaskets Do not use any gasket seal
3 Flush out the manifolds interior with a liquid cleaner and ant on these gaskets
rinse thoroughly with fresh water b Gradually tighten each fitting to ensure proper
4 Use a pipe cleaner to clear the passage that connects the alignment of all the parts This should be done in
filler neck to the coolant recovery tank tubing three steps
5 Flush out the coolant recovery tank and its connecting 2 Reinstall the exhaust connections Use new gaskets and
tube check the exhaust clamps condition
Replace it if necessary
3 Check the manifold pressure cap Open the valve by
pulling it and make sure it closes when released Make
certain the upper and lower seals are in good condition
If any doubt replace the cap
RUBBER SEALS
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
MODEL M35B SHOWN
CHECKING THE PRESSURE CAP
LUBRICATION SYSTEM Some of the oil that lubricates these components or is
splashed by the crankshaft also reaches and lubricates the
The lubricating system consists of an oil strainer oil pump
pistons cylinders small ends of the connecting rods tap
relief valve oil filter and oil pressure switch
pets pushrods intake and exhaust valves and timing gears
The oil pump draws lubricating oil from the oil sump The oil then returns to the oil sump to repeat the the oil strainer to the oil
filter Then the oil is ous cycle When the oil pressure exceeds the under pressure to the crankshaft connecting rods pressure the
oil pushes open the relief valve in the oil
idler gear governor shaft camshaft and rocker arm shaft pump and returns to the oil sump keeping the oil oil galleries in the engine
block within its specified range
ROCKER ARM
ROCKER ARM SHAFT
VALVE
CAMSHAFT
GOVERNOR
SHAFT
IDLER GEAR
PISTON
OIL PUMP
OIL FILTER LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
LUBRICATION SYSTEM PUMP OIL FILTER
The oil pump is a trochoid type pump Inside the pump Impurities in engine oil can cause wear and components to
body the lOlobe inner rotor is eccentrically engaged with seize as well as impairing the physical and chemical proper
the lllobe outer rotor The inner rotor is driven by the ties of the oil itself Impurities contained in forcefed which in turn rotates the
outer rotor oil are absorbed as they pass through the filter element
When the inner rotor rotates the outer rotor also rotates in FILTER ELEMENT
the same direction Since the two rotors have different cen
ters and different numbers of lobes spaces are the lobes as shown in the position A there is little space between lobes in the
inlet port As the rotor rotates towards position B the space
between the lobes becomes larger creating a negative pres
sure which draws in oil
Outside the inlet port as shown in position B the space
between the lobes becomes gradually smaller and oil pres
sure increases At position C oil is discharged from the
outlet port
OUTER When the filter element is clogged and the oil pressure in
ROTOR
the inlet line builds up by 14 psi 10 kgfcm2 98 kPa more
than the outlet line the bypass valve opens and the oil flows
from the inlet to the outlet bypassing the filter element
FILTER ELEMENT BYPASS VALVE
A B
Oil PUMP c
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
RELIEF VALVE The oil pressure switch is mounted on the cylinder block
to warn the operator that the lubricating oil pressure is low
The relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system If the oil pressure falls below 7 psi 05 kgfcm 2 49 kPa
due to high oil pressure This relief valve is a balltype
the oil warning light will go on alerting the operator If this hap
direct acting relief valve and is best suited for low pres
pens stop the engine immediately and check the cause of the oil
sures When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit the ball is
pressure drop
pushed back by the oil pressure and the oil escapes
SPRING
I TEEL BALL OIL PRESSURE
SWITCH
VALVE SEAT
OIL PRESSURE
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
RELIEF VALVE
LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE
OIL PRESSURE Oil Pressure Switch
The engines oil pressure during operation is indicated by Oil Pressure Sender oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel During
When performing an engine overhaul replace the oil pres
normal operation the oil pressure will range between 40 sure switch and the oil pressure sender if used
and 60 psi 28 and 42 kgcm2 When installing the new parts apply teflon sealant to the
NOTE A newly started cold engine can have an oil pres threaded ends being careful not to close off the oil hole in
sure reading up to 60 psi 42 kgcm 2 A warmed engine the sender
can have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi 25 Oil pressure switch torque
kgcm 2 These readings will vary depending upon the 108 145 ftIb 15 20 of the engine and the rpms
Low Oil Pressure
The specified safe minimum oil pressure is 5 10 psi A
A CAUTION Oil Pressure Switch Do not use lock
pliers vise grips or pipe wrenches on the oil loss of oil pressure usually indicates worn bearings switch Use the correct socket which is
available from
For additional information on low oil pressure readings SnapOn Proto New Britain and others Damage to
see ENGINE the switch will cause oil leaks andor switch failure
Oil PRESSURE
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
Oil PRESSURE the Oil Pressure
1 Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical
oil pressure gauge in its place
2 Start the engine After warming up to operating tem
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH SENDER
perature measure the oil pressure at both idling and
rated speeds
3 If the oil pressure is less than the specified limit check OIL PUMP
the following Rotor Lobe Clearance
a Engine oil insufficient 1 Measure the clearance between the lobes of the inner
b Oil pump defective rotor and the outer rotor with a feeler gauge
c Oil strainer clogged 2 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the
oil pump rotor assembly
d Oil filter
e Oil gallery clogged
f Excessive oil clearance of bearing
g Foreign matter in the relief valve
When After checking the engine oil pressure tighten the
engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque
Oil pressure at idle speed
15 psi 105 kglcm2 1034 kPa
Oil pressure at rated speed
40 60 psi 28 42 kglcm2 276 414 kPa
Oil pressure switch torque
108 145 ftlb 15 20 kgm
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
LUBRICATION SYSTEM Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body
1 Measure the clearance between the outer rotor and the
pump body with a feeler gauge
2 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the
oil pump rotor Between Rotor and Cover
1 Put a strip of plastigauge onto the rotor face with grease
2 Install the cover and tighten the screws
3 Remove the cover carefully measure the amount of the
flattening with the scale and get the clearance
4 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the
oil pump rotor 51
COOLING SYSTEM engine is cooled by a closed fresh water coolant cir
cuit The coolant is circulated by a beltdriven The coolant temperature is
WATER
Raw water is pumped by geardriven impeller pump TEMPERATURE tI THERMOSTAT
SENDER an heat exchanger to cool the coolant The raw water then enters the waterinject
WATER
ed exhaust elbow where it mixes with and cools the exhaust TEMPERATURE
This mixture then discharges PUMP
The coolant pump is a metal impeller
pump mounted on the front of the engine It is driven from
the crankshaft by a Vbelt
MECHANICAL SEAL
WATER
BODY FLANGE
IMPELLER
COOLANT PUMP
RAW WATER The raw water pump is a gear driven positive displace
A thermostat located near the manifold at the front of the ment selfpriming rotary pump with a nonferrous controls the coolant temperature
as it continuously and a neoprene impeller The impeller has flexible vanes
flows through the closed cooling circuit which wipe against a curved cam plate within the impeller
housing producing the pumping action On no account
The thermostat is a wax pellet type thermostat Wax is should this pump be run dry as water acts as a lubricant for
enclosed in the pellet The wax is solid at low tempera the impeller There should always be a spare impeller and
tures but turns liquid at high temperatures expands and impeller cover gasket aboard an impeller kit Raw water
opens the valve pump impeller failures occur when lubricant raw water is
When the engine is first started the closed thermostat pre not present during engine operation Such failures are not
vents coolant from flowing some coolant is bypassed warrantable and operators are cautioned to make sure raw
through a hole in the thermostat to prevent the exhaust water flow is present at from overheating As the engine warms up gradually
opens The thermostat is can be checked cleaned or replaced easily
WATER TEMPERATURE SWITCH
The water temperature switch is located on the see This switch is normally open
When activated it will close and sound an alarm
WATER TEMPERATURE SENDER Optional HOUSING
The water temperature sender if supplied is located on housing see It is a variable resis
tor affected by heat Voltage from the water temperature is grounded through the
sender to the on the resistance through the sender affected by
coolant heat the gauge will indicate a temperature reading
RAW WATER PUMP
IMPELLER
HOUSING
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
COOLING SYSTEM RECOVERY TANK ZINC ANODE
A coolant recovery tank allows for engine coolant expan A zinc anode or pencil is located in the raw water cool
sion and contraction during engine operation without any ing circuit within the heat exchanger The purpose of loss of coolant and
without introducing air into zinc anode is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking
the cooling system This tank is best located at or above place in the raw water cooling circuit thereby reducing the
the engine manifold level and should be easily accessible effects of electrolysis on other components of the system
The condition of the zinc anode should be checked month
ly and the anode cleaned or replaced as required Spare
anodes should be carried onboard The area in the
exchanger where the anode is located should periodically
be cleaned of anode debris
MANIFOLD
PRESSURE CAP
MANIFOLD NEW REPLACE REPLACE ClEAN AND
REUSE
ZINC ANODES
HEAT EXCHANGER
The heat exchanger is a copper tube which encloses a num
ber of small copper tubes Raw water is pumped through
the small copper tubes and the freshwater coolant from the
engine is circulated around the copper tubes The raw
water removes heat from the freshwater coolant To keep
the heat exchanger operating efficiently it should be
removed from the engine every 1000 hours to be thorough
ly cleaned and pressure HEAT EXCHANGER
ORING
COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE
THERMOSTAT Checking the Thermostat Valve Opening Temperature
1 Remove the thermostat housing mounting screws then 1 Push down the thermostat valve and insert a string
remove the thermostat housing between the valve and the valve seat
2 Remove the thermostat 2 Place the thermostat and a thermometer in a container
with water and gradually heat the water
3 Hold the string to suspend the thermostat in the water
When the water temperature rises the thermostat valve
will open allowing it to fall down from the string
Read the temperature at this moment on the
WATER
TEMPERATURE THERMOSTAT
thermometer
SENDER HOUSING
OPTIONAL 4 Continue heating the water and read the temperature
AIR BLEED
when the valve has completely opened about 0236 in
WATER
TEMPERATURE PETCOCK 6 mm
SWITCH
5 If these temperatures are not within the standard values
as shown in the chart below replace the thermostat
STANDARD VALUE
Thermostats valve 1571 1625 0 F
opening temperature 695 725 0 C
Temperature at which 185 0 F
thermostat completely 85 0 C
opens
WATER
FLANGE
3 Visually check the thermostat for damage Then put it
in water and raise the water temperature to test its valve
opening temperature as described below Replace if
defective When
Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
A CAUTION The wax pellettype thermostat only at the thermostat cover side of the gasket
remains closed if its heatsensing part is defec CHANGING THE RAW WATER IMPELLER
tive Leaving this uncorrected would cause the
engine to overheat 1 Close the raw water intake
2 Remove the inlet and outlet port hoses from the pump
noting the port location and positioning
SEAT 3 Remove the pump assembly and its gasket from the
engine
4 Remove the three hex head screws that hold the
VALVE LEAK HOLE housing to the cover
5 Tap the housingcover assembly on its side to loosen
SPRING and separate the cover from its housing
6 Remove the cover and its Oring and remove the
impeller gasket and plate
L WAX
7 Remove the retaining ring circlip and pry out the
UQUID impeller Take care not to lose the key off the shafts
CLOSED OPEN keyway
THERMOSTAT
Model M40B shown
UnlvQrsal
rr 54
COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE
COOLANT PUMP
A CAUTION If any of the vanes have broken off 1 Loosen the alternator mounting bolts and remove the
the impeller they must be found to prevent bckage in drive belt
the cooling circuit They often can be found In the
2 Remove the coolant pump pulley
heat exchanger
3 Remove the coolant pump assembly from the gear case
cover
8 Replace the gasket impeller and Oring
4 Remove the flange
9 Apply a film of petroleum jelly or silicon to the inner
surface of the impeller housing 5 Press out the shaft with the impeller on it
NOTE Just coat the suiface do not over apply 6 Remove the impeller from the shaft
10 Install the cover housing over the impeller 7 Remove the mechanical seal Install the three hex screws and tighten
8 Check every part for cracks damage and water leaks
Replace any parts that are Mount the pump to the engine taking care that the end
seal and gasket are in place Do not tighten the pump NOTE No rebuilding kits are available for the antifreeze
mounting screws just finger tight circulating pump however individual parts are avail
able to allow the pump to be rebuilt
13 Reassemble the hose connections and open the raw
water intake 9 Check the impeller and shaft for rotating condition If
they make a noise or rotate irregularly replace as an
14 Start the engine in idle this will allow the pump to assembly
align itself with its drive shaft
When Stop the engine and tighten the pump assembly
mounting screws 1 Apply a liquid gasket three Bond 1215 or equivalent
to both sides of the gasket
16 Start and run the engine check for leaks and check for
a normal operating temperature 2 Repl he meehruica efWith a nCCL
W SEAL
COOLANT PUMP
HOUSING
RAW WATER PUMP
IMPELLER
HOUSING
FUEL SYSTEM fuel lift pump draws fuel from the fuel fuel injectors is returned from the nozzle holders through
tank through an ownersuppled fuel filterwater separator to fuel lines to the fuel injection pump and the fuel tank
remove impurities such as dirt and water The lift pump NOTE Fuel supplied to the fuel lift pump must be filtered
then pumps the fuel through the engines primary fuel filter to 10 25 microns or smaller by the the fuel injection pump The fuel is
pressurized by the filterwater injection pump to the opening pressure of the 1991 2133 psi 140 150 kgfcm2 1373
1471 MPa and injected into the combustion chamber
Some of the fuel that is fed to the injection nozzles lubri
cates the plungers inside the nozzles Excess fuel from the
FUEL
LIFT FUEL RETURN
PUMP LINE FROM
FUEL INJECTORS
TO INJECTION PUMP
FROM FUEL TANK TO FUEL TANK FUEL RETURN
LINE FROM t FUEL
INJECTION
FUEL INJECTORS PUMP
TO FUEL TANK
FUEL SYSTEM FUEL
PUMP Pump Element
The fuel injection pump is a Bosch MD type mini pump The pump element consists of the plunger and the cylinder
It is small lightweight and easy to handle The sliding surfaces are machined to main
tain injection pressures at low engine speeds The plunger
The plunger with a lefthand lead reciprocates via the tap
is machined to have a slot and a control groove Since the
pet roller by means of the fuel camshaft causing the fuel to
driving face on the plunger fits in the control sleeve the
be delivered into the injection nozzle
plunger is rotated by the movement of the control rack to
increase or decrease the fuel delivery
OUMPING
VALVE
DELIVERY VALVE
HOLDER
DELIVERY
VALVE
SLOT
CYLINDE PUMP
ELEMENT
CONTROL PLUNGER
GROOVE
ORIVING FACE
PUMP ELEMENT
TAPPET ROLLER
INJECTION PUMP
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Delivery Valve DELIVERY CHAMBER
The delivery valve consists of the valve and valve seat
The delivery valve performs the following functions FEED HDLE
1 Reverse Flow Preventing Function
If the fuel flow should reverse from the injection nozzle
side when the plunger lowers the time lag between the
next delivery start and the nozzle injection start would
increase This is avoided by the delivery valve which pre
vents the fuel flow from the delivery chamber to the injec
tion line from reversing This keeps the nozzle and the fuel
line filled with fuel to maintain the prime
2 DrawBack Function
After completing the fuel delivery the delivery valve low FEED HDLE
ers and the relief plunger end contacts the delivery valve
seat The valve further lowers until it seats firmly in the
delivery valve seat During this time the amount of fuel
corresponding to A is drawn back from inside the injec
tion line and the pressure inside the pipe is reduced thus CDNTROL RACK
leading to an improved injection shutoff and preventing
afterleakage dribbling
INJECTION VALVE
SEAT
INJECTION NOZZLE
SURFACE
This nozzle is a The needle valve is
A pushed against the nozzle body by the nozzle spring via the
push rod Fuel pressurized by the injection pump pushes
the needle valve up and then is injected into the precom
bustion chamber
Excessive fuel flow passes from the nozzle holder center
1 2 through the eye joint and the fuel overflow line to the fuel
DELIVERY VALVE tank
The injection pressure is 1991 2133 psi 1373 1471
Injection Control MPa 140 150 kgfcm2 and is adjusted with adjusting
washers
1 No Fuel Delivery BAR FILTER
At the engine stop position of the control rack the length
wise slot on the plunger aligns with the feed hole The NOZZLE HOLDER
BODY
delivery chamber is led to the feed hole during the entire
stroke of the plunger
The pressure in the delivery chamber does not build up and
no fuel can be forced to the injection nozzle
ADJUSTING
2 Fuel Delivery WASHER
The plunger is rotated see illustration by the control rack
NOZZLE SPRING
When the plunger is pushed up the feed hole is closed
The pressure in the delivery chamber builds up and force
PUSH ROD
feeds the fuel to the injection nozzle until the control groove
meets the feed hole
The amount of the fuel corresponds to the distance A
RETAINING NUT
NOZZLE BODY
GASKET
NEEDLE VALVE
HEAT SEAL INJECTION NOZZLE
FUEL SYSTEM FILTER This engine uses a mechanical governor that controls the
fuel injection rate at all speed ranges from idling to
The fuel filter prevents dirty fuel from reaching the injec maximum speed by utilizing the balance between the fly
tion pump and the injection nozzles Each moving part of
weights centrifugal force and spring tension
the injection pump and nozzle is extremely and the clearances of their sliding parts are A governor shaft for monitoring engine speed is
small Fuel itself serves as lubricating oil For ent of the injection pump shaft and rotates at twice the
this reason it is extremely important to completely remove speed of conventional types providing better response to
any water and dirt contained in the fuel load fluctuation and delivering greater engine output
The fuel filter cartridge will require occasional replacement GOVERNOR
GOVERNOR YSPRING 1
to maintain an adequate flow of fuel to the injection pump SPRING 2
START SPRING
The frequency of this service will vary according to of the available fuel and the care used in its
storage The fuel filter eliminates any foreign matter com
ing from the fuel tank and protects the injection pump and
injection nozzles When fuel enters the filter it passes
from the filter elements circumference toward the center
for AIR VENT
PLUG
FLYWEIGHT
GOVERNOR
SLEEVE
At Because no centrifugal force is applied to the flyweight
the low tension of the start spring permits the control rack to
move to the starting position supplying the amount of fuel
required to start the engine
FUEL FILTER At Idling
Setting the speed control lever to the idling position dur
FUEL LIFT PUMP ing engine rotation permits the low tension of governor
The onengine fuel system is virtually self priming Under spring 2 the start spring and the idle limit spring to circumstances the engines
electric fuel lift pump the centrifugal force of the flyweight without activating high
which is energized by the key button will tension governor spring 1 In this way the fuel a continuous flow of fuel from the tank This
fuel is rate can be controlled to ensure stable idling
drawn through the fuel filterwater separator to the engine
At High Speed Running With Overload
lift pump the primary spinon fuel filter and the Governor springs 1 and 2 control the
fuel injection
rate To maintain the required engine speed fuel is according to the speed control lever
setting and load by bal
This mechanism maintains engine speed at a constant rate ancing the tension of governor springs 1 and 2 with the
even under fluctuating loads provides stable idling and reg centrifugal force of the maximum engine speed by controlling the fuel injec
In addition the idle limit spring provides stable engine
tion rate 58
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
During LowSpeed Travel
Because the centrifugal force applied to the flyweight is
small spring force presses the flyweight inward permitting
the driving bolt to come in contact with the flyweight at the
position shown in the START SPRING
SPEED CONTROL
SPRING 1
FORK LEVER 1
FORK LEVER SHAFT
GOVERNOR SHAFT
FLYWEIGHT
During Medium to High Speed Travel
GOVERNOR
As the engine speed increases the centrifugal force applied
During Overload to the flyweight increases expanding it around the hub bolt
At load increases the engine speed decreases reducing in the direction of the arrow thereby rotating the position
the flyweights centrifugal force Governor springs 1 and where the driving bolt is in contact with the flyweight
2 therefore pull fork levers 1 and 2 increasing the fuel through angle 0 as shown in the injection rate and maintaining engine speed
Therefore since the fuel camshaft rotates from the injection
If engine speed decreases due to a further increase in load pump gear in the rotational direction through angle 0 injec
fork lever 2 will come in contact with the fuel limit bolt tion timing is advanced
stopping a further increase in the fuel injection rate
The torque spring incorporated in fork lever 1 moves the
lever in the direction of a fuel injection rate increase there
by boosting torque and providing greater engine output
FUEL LIMIT
ADJUSTING BOLT
FORK
LEVER 1
FORK LEVER 2
FUEL SYSTEM DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
INJECTION NOZZLE
A WARNING 00 not allow smoking or open flames Nozzle Holder
near the fuel system when servicing Also provide
1 Secure the nozzle retaining nut in a vise
proper ventilation
2 Remove the nozzle holder and take out the parts inside
the nozzle PUMP When replacing the pump element the amount of fuel injection
1 Assemble the nozzle in clean fuel oil
should be bench tested and adjusted
2 Install the push rod noting its direction
3 After assembling the nozzle be sure to adjust the fuel
injection pressure
DELIVERY VALVE HOLDER DELIVERY VALVE
SPRING
ADJUSTING
DELIVERY WASHER
VALVE
NOZZLE
SPRING
PUSH ROD
DISTANCE
PIECE
NOZZLE
HOLOER NOZZLE
PIECE
TAPPET ROLLER
INJECTION NOZZLE
INJECTION PUMP
FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
INJECTION PUMP Shim up to Engine Serial Number 489290
Injection Timing 1 Shims are available in thicknesses of 00059 in 015
rom and 00118 in 030 rom Combine these shims
1 Remove the injection lines for adjustments
2 Remove the injection pump side cover push in the con
2 The addition or reduction of a shim 00059 in 015
trol rack of the injection pump by 02 in 5 mm and mm delays or advances the injection timing by approx
hold it at that position 15 0 0026 rad
3 After adjusting the injection timing apply a liquidtype
gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent to both sides of
the injection pump shim before Shim Engine Serial Number
489291 on up
1 The sealant is applied to both sides of the soft metal
CONTROL gasket shim The liquid gasket is not required for
RACK
o assembling
2 Shims are available in thicknesses of 00079 in 020
rom 00098 in 025 mm and 00118 in 030 mm
Combine these shims for adjustments
3 The addition or reduction of a shim 00020 in 005
3 Tum the flywheel until fuel flows mm delays or advances the injection timing by approx
from the delivery valve holder 05 0 00087 rad
4 Continue to tum the flywheel slowly and stop it as soon 4 In disassembling and replacing be sure to use the same
as the fuel level at the tip of the delivery valve holder number of new gasket shims with the same thicknesses
begins to increase
S Check to see if the FI mark or the timing angle lines Fuel Tightness of Pump Element
on the flywheel is aligned with the punch mark 1 Remove the fuel injection lines and glow plugs
2 Install the injection pump pressure tester to the injection
pump
3 Set the speed control lever to the maximum speed
position
4 Tum the flywheel ten times or more to increase the
PUNCH pressure
MARK
S If the pressure cannot reach the limit the pump element
or injection pump assembly
NOTE Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equiva
lent to both sides of the solenoid cover gasket
6 If the timing is out of adjustment readjust the timing Fuel Tightness of Delivery Valve
with shims 1 Remove the fuel injection lines and glow plugs
2 Set a pressure tester onto the fuel injection pump
o 3 Tum the flywheel and raise the pressure to approx
2133 psi 150 kgfcm2 147 MPa
SHIM 4 Now tum the flywheel back about half a tum to keep
the plunger free Maintain the flywheel at this position
and measure the time taken for the pressure to drop
from 2133 to 1990 psi 150 to 140 kgfcm2 147 to
o
O loo 137 MPa
If the measurement is less than the limit replace the
0 i H
delivery valve
NOTE Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equiva
A B c lent to both sides of the solenoid cover gasket
Shim A TWO holes 00079 In 020 mm
Shim B One hole 00098 in 025 mm
Shim C Wilhou a hole 00118 in 030 mm
FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
FUEL INJECTORS Nozzle Spraying Condition
1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester and check the
nozzle spraying condition
A CAUTION The spray nozzle velocity is such that
2 If the spraying condition is defective replace the nozzle
it may penetrate deeply into the skin of the fingers
piece
and hands destroying tissue If it enters the blood
stream it may cause blood Injection Pressure
1 Install the injection nozzle to the nozzle tester
2 Slowly move the tester handle to measure the pressure at
which fuel begins jetting out from the nozzle
GDDD BAD
Valve Seat Tightness
1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester
2 Raise the fuel pressure and keep it at 1849 psi 1275
MPa 130 kgcm2 for 10 seconds
3 If any fuel leak is found replace the nozzle piece
3 If the measurement is not within the standard value
disassemble the injection nozzle and change the adjusting
washer until the proper injection pressure is obtained
The pressure variation with a 0001 in 0025 mm
difference in adjusting washer thickness is 85 psi 6 kgcm2 59 kPa
Fuel Injectors Service
In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise have the
injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized fuel
injection service center Poor fuel quality contaminants and
loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection pump can result
ADJUSTING
in injector faults Since fuel injectors must be serviced in a
WASHER clean room environment it is best to carry at least one extra
injector as a spare should a problem occur
Before removing the old injector clean the area around the
base of the injector to help prevent any rust or debris from
falling down into the injector hole If the injector will not lift
out easily and is held in by carbon buildup or the like work
the injector sidetoside with the aid of the socket wrench to
free it and then lift it out
The injector seats in the cylinder head on a copper sealing
washer Remove this washer with the injector and replace
it with a new washer when the new injector is installed
Injector to cylinder head tightening torque
362 506 ftIb 50 70 mkg 490 686 Nm
ADMIRAL CONTROL offers two optional panels Refer to the When the engine is shut down with the Key Switch page that applies to the
panel you purchased off the water temperature gauge will continue to register the
last temperature reading indicated by the gauge before elec
ADMIRAL PANEL trical power was turned off The oil pressure gauge will fall
to zero when the Key Switch is turned off The control panel is equipped with a Key gauge will once again register the engines true and
RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME meter when electrical power is restored to the gauge
which measures the engines running time in hours and in
110 hours The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERA A separate alarm buzzer with harness is supplied with every
TURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees Admiral Panel The installer is responsible for an OIL PRESSURE gauge which
measures the connecting the buzzer to the fourpin connection on the
engines oil pressure in pounds per square inch and a DC engines electrical harness The installer is also circuit VOLTAGE gauge which
measures the sys for installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and
tems voltage All gauges are illuminated when the key where it will be audible to the operator should it sound while
switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine the engine is running The buzzer will sound when the igni
is in operation The panel also contains two rubberbooted tion key is turned on and should silence when the engine one for PREHEAT and one
for START started and the ennes oil pressure rises above 15 psi
Note Refer to the WIRING DIAGRAM in this manual for the
installation of two engine sendors
OIL PRESSURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS GRADU
ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH PSI AND IS
WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS
GRADUATED IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT AND IS TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING
ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 3060 PSI
TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING
TEMPERATURE IS 170190 F GAUGE REGIS
TERS MINUTE OF THE
ENGINE AND CAN FOR
ACCURACY FROM THE
REAR OF THE ELAPSED KEY SWITCH AND SHOULD BE
POWER ONLY TO THE
USED AS A GUIDE FOR INSTRUMENT PANEL
THE MAINTENANCE
DC VOLTMETER
INDICATES THE AMOUNT THE
BATTERY IS BEING CHARGED
SHOULD SHOW 13V TO 14V
PREHEAT BUnON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES REGULATOR THE FUEL LIFT PUMP AND AUTOMATIC ALARM SYSTEM
THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES THE HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM AN ALARM BUZZER HAS BEEN
ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDI SUPPLIED WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL IF THE ENGINES FRESH
TION THIS BUnON ENERGIZES THE START BUnON WATER COOLANT REACHES 210 F 98C THIS SWITCH WILL CLOSE
SOUNDING THE ALARM WHICH WILL EMIT A
START BUTIONWHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES CONTINUOUS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE
THIS SUnON WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM A LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH
UNLESS THE PREHEAT BUnON IS PRESSED AND HELD IS LOCATED OFF THE ENGINES OIL GALLERY THIS SWITCH MONITORS
AT THE SAME TIME THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE SHOULD THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE
FALL TO 5 10 PSI THE SWITCH WILL OPEN SOUNDING THE ALARM
IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL
UnivQrsal
w 63
CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL
CAPTAIN PANEL and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE It
also includes an alarm buzzer for low OIL PRESSURE or
This control panel is equipped with a Key high WATER TEMPERATURE The RPM gauge is an RPM gauge PREHEAT and START buttons an
nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains TEST button and three indicator lamps one nated while the engine is in
ALTERNATOR DISCHARGE one for low OIL ALARM THE ALARM WILL SOUND IFTHE ENGINES
OIL PRESSURE FALLS
BELOW 5 10 PSI IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING
SIGNAL THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOUND IF THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN
THE FRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 210F IN THIS EVENT THE
RPM GAUGE ALARM WILL EMIT A REVOLUTIONS PER
NOTE THE ALARM WILL SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON
MINUTE OF THE ENGINE AND CAN BE THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAL ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE FOR ACCURACY FROM
OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI THE ALARM WILL SILENCE
THE REAR OF THE PANEL
TEST BUTTON WHEN
PRESSED TESTS THE
ALTERNATOR THE OIL
PRESSURE AND THE
WATER TEMPERATURE
CONTROL CIRCUITS
WHEN PRESSED THE
ALTERNATOR THE OIL
PRESSURE AND THE
WATER TEMPERATURE
INDICATOR LIGHTS
ILLUMINATE IN ADDI
TION TO SOUNDING
THE ALARM BUZZER
KEY SWITCH
PROVIDES POWER TO
THE INSTRUMENT
PANEL CLUSTER AND
THE DC ALTERNATOR
REGULATOR TERMINAL
WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM
LIGHT
START BunON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE
STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE THIS PREHEAT BunON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE FUEL
BUTTON WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE LIFT PUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES
PREHEAT BUTTON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDITION
TIME THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES THE START BUTTON
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
CONTROL PANEL NOTE Current model tachometers use a coarse used in propulsion engine instru
dial to set the tachometer to the crankshaft pulley rpms The
ment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a calibrating screw is then used for fine ground One circuit operates the
hourmeter and
the other the tachometer The hourmeter circuit operates on
12 volts alternator charging voltage supplied to the ter
minal on the back of the instrument
CURRENT
TACHOMETER W
The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6 8 volts
fed from one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to
the tachometer input terminal while the engine is running
and the alternator producing battery charging voltage
130 148 volts DC TERMINAL
The following are procedures to follow when a fault in either of the two circuits in a Inoperative
for the proper DC voltage between and IDLE
SPEED ADJUSTMENT
1 Voltage present meter is defective repair or replace
TACHOMETER CHECK New Voltage not present trace and electrical con
nections for fault Jump 12 volts DC to meter Checking the idle speed
terminal to verify the operation NOTE In a new installation having new instrument panels
the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to Inoperative engine s rpm This calibration
should be checked in all new
Check for the proper AC voltage between tachometer input and terminal with the engine running 1 Warm up the engine to
normal operating Voltage present attempt adjusting meter through calibra Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a clean
tion access hole No results repair or replace meter cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape on the
2 AC voltage not present check for proper alternator DC pulley to facilitate use of a photoelectric type tachometer
output voltage 2 Start and idle the engine
3 Check for AC voltage at tach terminal on alternator to 3 Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape to
ground confIrm the engine speed Check the instrument panel
4 Check electrical connections from tachometer input ter tachometer reading Adjust the tachometer in the panel by
minal to alternator connection using the instrument coarse adjustment to calibrate the
instrument reading to the closest RPM that the photo Sticking is showing Then use the fIne
calibration adjustment to
1 Check for proper AC voltage between tach inp termi bring the instrument to the exact reading as the photo tach
nal and terminal The fine calibration adjustment is made using a 564 Allen
2 Check for good ground connection between meter ter head wrench
minal and alternator 4 Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within the
3 Check that alternator is well grounded to engine block at specified value
alternator pivot bolt
Normal idle Inaccurate M25XPB 1000 1200 rpm
a With a handheld tach on the front of the crankshaft M35B 800 1000 rpm
pulley retaining nut or with a strobetype tach read the M40B 800 1000 rpm
front crankshaft pulley rpm at idle
b Adjust the tachometer with a small Phillips type screw
driver through the calibration access hole in the rear of
the tachometer Zero the tach and bring it to the rpm
indicated by the strobe or hand tach Verify the rpm at
idle and at high speed Adjust the tach as needed
CONTROL PANEL MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT TOGGLE SWITCHES
NOTE The engine control system is protected by a 20 amp manual reset circuit breaker
located on the engine as close as possible to the power source
Problem Probable Cause PREHEAT depressed no panel indications 1 Oil Pressure
switch 1 Check switches andor battery connections
fuel solenoid electric fuel pump and
preheat solenoid not energized 2 20 amp circuit breaker tripped 2 Reset breaker If opens again check preheat solenoid circuit
and run circuit for shorts to ground
START SWITCH DEPRESSED no starter 1 Connection to solenoid faulty 1 Check connection
engagement
2 Fau Ity switch 2 Check switch with ohmmeter
3 Faulty solenoid 3 Check that 12 volts are present at the solenoid connection
4 Loose battery connections 4 Check battery connections
5 Low battery 5 Check battery charge state
NO IGNITION cranks does not start 1 Faulty fueling system 1 Check for fuel
2 Check for air in the fuel system 2 Allow system to bleed
3 Faulty fuel lift pump 3 Replace fuel lift pump
NOT CHARGING BATTERY 1 Faulty alternator drive 1 Check the drive belt and its tension Be sure the alternator
turns freely Check for loose connections Check the
output with a voltmeter Ensure 12V are present at the
regulator terminal
BATTERY RUNS DOWN 1 Oil pressure switch 1 Observe if the gauges and panel lights are activated when the
engine is not running Test the oil pressure switch
2 High resistance leak to ground 2 Check the wiring Insert sensitive 025 amp meter in battery
lines Do NOT start engine Remove connections and replace
after short is located
3 Low resistance leak to ground 3 Check all wires for temperature rise to locate the fault
4 Faulty alternator 4 After a good battery charging disconnect alternator at output
If leakage stops Remove alternator and bench test Repair or
replace
WATER TEMPERATURE AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGES
If the gauge reading is other than what is normally indicated If both of the above gauge tests are positive the gauge is
by the gauge when the instrument panel is energized the first undoubtedly OK and the problem lies either with the conduc
step is to check for 12 volts DC between the ignition B tor from the sender to the gauge or with the sender
and the Negative B terminals of the gauge
If either of the above gauge tests are negative the gauge is
Assuming that there is 12 volts as required leave the instru probably defective and should be panel energized key switch on and
perform the
following steps Assuming the gauge is OK check the conductor from the
sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the
gauge reads zero which is the normal reading for this situa Check that the engine block is connected to the ground
tion Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the bat
tery is connected to the starter both plus and minus termi
2 Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and nals the ground side will not necessarily be connected to the
see if the gauge reads full scale which is the normal reading block
for this Univarsal
a 66
GLOW PLUG SERVICE
GLOW PLUGS
The glow plugs are wired through the preheat PREHEAT is pressed at the control panel this sole
noid should click on and the glow plug should begin to
get inspect the plug remove the electrical terminal then unscrew or unclamp each plug from the Thoroughly clean each plugs tip and threads with a
soft brush and cleaning solution to remove all the carbon
and oil deposits While cleaning examine the tip for wear
and bum erosion if it has eroded too much replace accurate way to test glow plugs is with an ohmmeter TESTING A GLOW PLUG
This method can be used with the plug in or out of the WITH AN You can also use an ammeter to test the power
drain 8 9 amps per plug
A WARNING These glow plugs will become vary
hot to the touch Be careful not to burn your fingers
when testing the plugs
1 Disconnect the leads from the glow plugs
2 Measure the resistance with the ohmmeter across the
glow plug terminal and the body of the glow plug see
If 0 ohm is indicated the screw at the tip of the glow
plug and the body of the glow plug are If the standard value is not indicated the glow plug is
faulty replace the glow plug
NOTE Refer to the TORQUE page for the glow plug
tightening torque
GLOW PLUG RESISTANCE
STANDARD VALUE Approx 09 to 12 ohm
Reinstall the plugs in the engine and test them again The
plugs should get very hot at the terminal end within 7 to
15 seconds If the plugs dont heat up quickly check for a
short circuit When reinstalling the glow plugs use anti
seize compound on the threads
A WARNING 00 not keep a glow plug on for more
than 30 seconds
UnlVGrsal
S 67
STARTER SERVICE
CONTACT HOLDING
CONTACT BOLT PLATE COIL
STARTER magnetswitch type starter
PULLIN
is composed of two main sections
CDiL
The first section converts battery FIELD CDiL r77 into mechanical rotation
CORE
to turn the engine crankshaft It BRUSH DRIVE LEVER
is composed of the field coil brush commutator
DRIVE overrunning clutch etc
The second section allows the SET BOLT
pinion and flywheel to and current to flow
through the motor section It is
composed of the pullin coil
holding coil plunger drive plate etc
STARTER
YOKE ARMATURE OVERRUNNING DRIVE SIDE BEARING
CLUTCH TESTING Magnet Switch Test Pullin Holding COils
Motor Test 1 Remove the motor from the starter housing
2 Prepare a 6 volt battery for the test
A CAUTION Secure the starter in a vise to 3 Connect jumper leads from the battery negative termi
prevent it from moving while testing the motor nal to the housing and the starter terminal C
4 If the plunger is attracted and the pinion gear pops out
1 Disconnect the ground cable clamp from the battery when a jumper lead is connected from the battery posi
negative terminal post tive terminal to the S terminal the pullin coil is good
if not it is defective
2 Disconnect the battery positive cable and the leads
from the starter S Disconnect the jumper lead to the starter terminal C
Then the pinion gear should remain popped out
3 Remove the starter motor from the engine
NOTE Testing time must be 3 to 5 seconds
4 Disconnect the connecting lead from the starter
terminal C
S Connect a jumper lead from the connecting lead to the
battery positive terminal post
6 Connect a jumper lead momentarily between the starter
motor housing and the battery negative terminal post
7 If the motor does not run check the motor
TO NEGATIVE TERMINAL
TO POSITIVE TERMINAL
CONNECTING
LEAD
STARTER DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY STARTER SERVICE
Motor Commutator and Mica
1 Disconnect the connecting lead from the magnet switch 1 Check the contact face of the commutator for wear and
2 Remove the and then separate the end grind the commutator with emery paper if it is slightly
frame yoke and armature worn
3 Remove the two screws and then take out the brush
holder from the end frame
When grease to the spline teeth of the armature
SPLINE TEETH
J ARMATURE
YOKE
2 Measure the commutator OD with an outside micro
FRAME meter at several points
3 If the minimum OD is less than the limit replace the
SCREW
armature
CONNECTING
LEAD
J 4 If the difference of the ODs exceeds the limit correct
THROUGH
SCREWS
the commutator on a lathe to the standard Switch
1 Remove the drive end frame mounting screws
2 Remove the overrunning clutch ball spring gear
rollers and grease to the gear teeth of the gear and ball
RETAINER
ROLLER
5 Measure the mica undercut
GEAR 0 II
6 If the undercut is less than the limit correct it with a
saw blade and chamfer the segment edges
BALL
DRIVE END
FRAME SEGMENT DEPTH OF MICA
OVERRUNNING
CLUTCH
SPRING
GOOD
Plunger
1 Remove the end cover
2 Remove the plunger
STARTER SERVICE
Brush Wear 3 Check the continuity across the segments of the com
mutator with an ohmmeter
1 If the contact face of the brush is dirty or dusty clean it
with emery paper 4 If it does not conduct replace the armature
2 Measure the brush length with vernier calipers
3 If the length is less than the limit replace the yoke
assembly and brush holder
BRUSH
LENGTH
Field Coil
1 Check the continuity across the lead and brush with an
Holder
2 If it does not conduct replace the yoke assembly
1 Check the continuity across the brush holder and the
holder support with an ohmmeter
2 If it conducts replace the brush holder
3 Check the continuity across the brush and yoke with an
ohmmeter
4 If it conducts replace the yoke Coil
1 Check the continuity across the commutator and arma
ture coil core with an ohmmeter
2 If it conducts replace the
YOKE
STARTER Bearing
1 Check the bearing for smooth rotation
2 If it does not rotate smoothly replace Clutch
1 Inspect the pinion for wear or damage
2 If there is any defect replace the overrunning clutch
assembly
3 Check that the pinion turns freely and smoothly in the
overrunning direction and does not slip in the cranking
direction
4 If the pinion slips or does not turn in both directions
replace the overrunning clutch Switch
1 Check the continuity across terminal C and terminal B
with an ohmmeter while pushing the plunger
2 If it does not conduct check the 71
MANDO ALTERNATOR FOR TESTING ALTERNATOR TORQUE
TORQUE Fastener Ibft Ibin
Location Nm Nm
Alternator front 25 35 Ibin
housing screws 28 40 Nm
Alternator end 35 65 Ibin
frame screws 40 73 Nm
Alternator 35 50 Ibft
pulley nut 47 68 Nm
Regulator 25 45 Ibin
mounting screws 28 51 Nm
PREPARING TO CHECK ALTERNATOR
Before starting the alternator tests check these items
MANDD ALTERNATOR
1 If the problem is an undercharged battery check to
ensure that the undercharged condition has not been
caused by an excessive accessory current draw or by
A WARNING Be sure that the engine compartment accessories which have accidentally been left on Also
is well ventilated and that there is no gasoline vapor check that the undercharged condition has not been
present This is to prevent the possibility of an explo caused by running the engine at too low a speed for
sion andor fire should a spark occur extended periods of time
2 Check the physical condition and the state of charge of
the battery The battery must be fully charged to obtain
A WARNING Keep fingers and clothing away from valid results in the following tests If not charge the
battery before testing the system
the alternator belt and pulley severe bodily harm can
occur 3 Inspect the entire alternator system wiring for defects
Check all connections for tightness and cleanliness par
ticularly the battery cable clamps and battery terminals
A CAUTION
1 00 not attempt to polarize the alternator
2 00 not short across or ground any of the terminals
on the alternator except as specifically instructed
in the tests
3 Never disconnect the lead or
battery cables when the alternator is being driven
by the engine
4 Never disconnect the regulator lead from the
terminal when the alternator
is being driven by the engine
5 Always remove the negative battery cable from
the battery before working on the alternator
system
6 When installing the battery be sure to connect ALTERNATOR WIRING
the negative grounded battery cable to the CONNECTIONS
negative battery terminal and the positive
battery cable to the positive battery terminal 4 Check the alternator drive belt for excessive wear
7 If a charger or booster battery is to be used be cracks fraying and glazed surfaces and replace it if
sure to connect it in parallel with the existing necessary Also check the drive belt tension and adjust
battery positive to positive negative to negative it if necessary see DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT under
ENGINE 72
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
TEST OUTPUT CIRCUIT 2 Tum the ignition switch to the on position and note the
voltmeter reading The reading should be 13 to 25
1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the alternator volts see output terminal and the negative lead to the ground ter
minal on the alternator see 3 If the reading is between 75 and 11 volts the rotor
field circuit probably is shorted or grounded Disas
2 Wiggle the engine wiring harness while observing the semble the alternator and test the rotor as described
voltmeter The meter should indicate the approximate under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPO
battery voltage and should not vary If no reading is NENTS in this section
obtained or if the reading varies check the alternator
output circuit for loose or dirty connections or damaged 4 If the reading is between 60 and 70 volts the rotor
wiring field circuit probably is open Remove the regulator
and inspect it for worn brushes or dirty slip rings
Replace the brushes if they are less than 114 in 6 mm
long If the brushes and slip rings are in good condi
tion disassemble the alternator and test the rotor as
outlined under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR
COMPONENTS in this section
5 If no reading is obtained an open exists in the alterna
lead or in the excitation circuit of the
regulator Disconnect the lead from the regulator
Connect the positive voltmeter lead to this lead and the
negative voltmeter lead to ground If the voltmeter now
indicates an approximate battery voltage the voltage
regulator is defective and must be replaced If no
voltage is indicated check the excitation circuit for
loose or dirty connections or damaged wiring see
EXCITATION
WIRE TESTING ALTERNATOR IUTPUT CIRCUIT
TEST EXCITATION CIRCUIT
1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the excitation
terminal on the alternator and the negative lead to
the ground terminal on the TESTING EXCITER LEAD
TESTING EXCITER CIRCUIT
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
TEST ALTERNATOR CURRENT OUTPUT 7 If the reading is now within the the
diode trio is faulty Disassemble the alternator and
Perform this test to check if the alternator is capable of replace the diode trio as explained in this the rated current output using a 0
55 amp DC
ammeter S If the reading is still low with the jumper lead connect
ed perform the Voltage Regulator Test to determine if
1 Disconnect the negative battery cable from the the fault is in the regulator or the alternator
battery
2 Disconnect the output lead from the terminal and connect the ammeter in series between the
lead and the output terminal Connect the positive
side of the ammeter toward the output terminal
3 Reconnect the negative battery cable
4 Diesel Operate the engine stop lever Perform this so
the engine can be cranked with the starter motor and not
start Tum on all accessories and crank the engine over
with the starter motor for 15 20 seconds
5 Tum off the accessories Return the stop lever to the
run position Start the engine and adjust the engine
speed to 1500 2000 rpm Quickly observe the
ammeter The reading should be at least 30 amps see
AMMETER MODE
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 2
TEST VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Perform this test to determine if the voltage regulator is
operating correctly using a 0 20 volt DC voltmeter
NOTE The battery must be fully charged 1265 or above
specific gravity to obtain a proper voltage reading in this
test 1f necessary charge the battery with a battery charger
or allow the engine to run a sufficient length of time to fully
charge the battery before taking a reading
1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the positive
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 1 battery terminal and the negative voltmeter lead to
the negative terminal see If the reading is low stop the engine and connect a
jumper lead between the terminal and
the indicator light terminal Repeat Steps 4 and 5 see
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
c Remove the nut from the output terminal and the
nut from the sensing terminal and remove Jumper
d Remove another nut from the sensing terminal and
the nut from the excitation terminal
e Remove the regulator cover
f Temporarily install Jumper A and all associated
nuts Leave Jumper B installed
g Remove the plastic plug from the side of the
NEGATIVE POSITIVE
regulator
LEAD v LEAD J
h Connect a jumper between the top brush lead from
the brush and ground see
BATTERY
SYSTEM VOLTAGE CHECK
2 Start the engine and run it at fast idle until the engine JUMPER
SENSING
reaches its normal operating temperature Adjust the TERMINAL
engine speed to 1500 2000 rpm and observe the volt
meter for the highest reading The reading should be
between 137 and 147 volts
3 If the reading is high check for a loose or dirty regula
tor ground lead connection If the connection is good
the voltage regulator is faulty and must be replaced Be
sure to disconnect the battery cables before attempting
to remove the regulator
PLASTIC PLUG If the reading is low
END VIEW OF REGULATOR WITH COVER REMOVED
a Stop the engine
b i Repeat steps 1 and 2
NOTE Do not let the voltage exceed 16 volts
j If a voltmeter reading of 145 volts or above is
now obtained the voltage regulator is faulty and
must be replaced If the voltmeter reading is below
145 volts inspect the brushes and slip rings for
wear dirt or damage If the brushes and slip rings
are good the alternator is faulty internally Disassem
ble the alternator and test the components as out
lined in this section
REMOVE ALTERNATOR
1 Disconnect the negative battery ground cable
PHILLIPS 2 Disconnect the wiring leads
COVER
SCREW 3 Loosen the screws Holding the alternator rotate it
toward the engine and lift the belt off the pulley
4 Remove the screws and washers and remove the alternator
REGULATOR COVER REMOVAL
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
10 Place an oversized Vbelt around the pulley and fasten
the pulley in a vise
11 Use a 78 in box wrench to loosen and remove the
pulley nut
ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR
1 Remove the terminal nuts to remove the jumper see
Remove the remaining terminal nuts
3 Remove the capacitor
4 Remove the Phillips screw from the regulator cover
PULLEY REMOVAL
S Remove the cover
6 Remove the nut from the terminal 12 Remove the pulley nut lockwasher pulley fan and
7 Remove the jumper spacer see
FAN
S Remove the terminal Remove the two Phillips screws and remove the
assembly
JUMPER
PULLEY AND FAN A CAUTION 00 NOT insert screwdriver blades
more than 116 in 16 mmJ Damage to the stator
winding could result from deeper NOTE Score the stator and the front and rear housings
the unit may be reassembled correctly
13 Remove the four throughbolts and carefully pry the
front housing away from the rear housing using two
TERMINAL
NUTINSULATOR screwdrivers see ALTERNATOR Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
16 Remove the rectifier assembly by removing the Phillips
screw and lifting out the HOUSING AND STATOR REMOVAL
14 Carefully push the rotor assembly out of the front
housing and rear housing see RECTIFIER REMOVAL
CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS
1 Inspect and test the assembly The
brush set may be reused if the brushes are 114 in
6 mm or longer The brushes must not be oil soaked
ROTOR REMOVAL cracked or grooved
Test for continuity between 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 using
NOTE If the bearing is removed from the housing a new a test lamp or an ohmmeter These checks will must be installed
a good assembly replace the complete
15 After removing the three bearing locking screws care assembly if necessary see fully press the front bearing out of the housing
Press
against the inner race of the bearing see TEST BRUSHI
REGULATOR
ASSEMBLY
BEARING
LOCKING
SCREWS
TESTING ASSEMBLY
2 Inspect and test the diodetrio assembly
a Using a commercial diode tester a 12volt DC test
lamp or an ohmmeter check the resistance between
each of the three diode terminals and the indicator
light stud see INDICATOR
LIGHT STUD
DIODETRIO ASSEMBLY
FRONT FRONT
BEARING HOUSING
FRONT HOUSING BEARING REMOVAL
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
h Reverse the tester leads and repeat the resistance NOTE If the rear rotor bearing needs replacement
checks replace the entire rotor
c A very low resistance should be indicated in one 6 Inspect the belt pulley for rough or badly worn belt
direction and a very high resistance should be indi grooves or keyway and for cracks or breaks Remove
cated in the other direction if the diodes are normal minor burrs and correct minor surface damage replace
d If any diode appears to be defective replace the a badly worn or damaged pulley
complete assembly Do not attempt to replace an
individual diode
3 Test the bridge as follows
a Using a commercial diode tester check for continu
ity from each of three terminals to the output termi
nal see GROUND RECTIFIER
TERMINAL DIODES
BRIDGE
h Reverse the tester leads and repeat Step a
c Continuity should exist in only one direction and all
diodes should check alike
d Perform the same continuity checks between the
three terminals and strap ground terminal This
should show continuity in only one direction
through the diodes and all diodes should check
alike
e If any diode appears to be defective replace the
ALTERNATOR BEARINGS
rectifier assembly
4 Clean and inspect the front and rear housings 7 Test the stator windings as follows
a Inspect the rear housing for cracks or breaks in the a Using an ohmmeter or test lamp check for continu
casting stripped threads or a damaged bearing bore ity between all three leads 1 2 and 3 A low ohm
Replace the housing if any of these conditions exist reading or lit test lamp should be observed see
h Inspect the front housing for cracks stripped or
LEADS
damaged threads in the adjusting ear or an outof
round bore in the mounting foot If possible
correct slightly damaged threads using a tap
Replace the housing if necessary
c If the housings are to be reused clean them in
solvent and dry with compressed air
5 Clean and inspect the rotor shaft bearings
NOTE Do not use a solvent on the rear rotor bearing
since it is serviced as a unit with the rotor
a The bearings should be wiped clean with a lintfree
cloth containing a moderate amount of commercial
solvent Do not immerse a bearing in solvent or STATOR WINDINGS
LAMINATIONS
use pressurized solvent or air
h Check the bearings for obvious damage looseness h Check the resistance from each lead 1 2 and 3 to
or rough rotation Replace a bearing if any doubt the laminations 4 There should be no continuity
exists as to its condition if the insulation is good
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
c Inspect the stator windings for signs of e If the windings are defective or physical damage
A discolored winding should be replaced cannot be corrected replace the rotor assembly
d If a winding shows a high resistance or an open cir 9 Use a commercial capacitor checker to test the capaci
cuit between any two of the three winding terminals tor for capacity shorts leakage and series resistance
or indicates poor insulation between the windings
and the laminations the stator must be replaced
8 Check the rotor assembly as follows
NOTE If slip rings need to be replaced you must CAPACITOR
replace the entire rotor
ASSEMBLE ALTERNATOR
a Visually inspect for physical defects such as dam
aged shaft threads worn or damaged bearing areas 1 Carefully press the front bearing into the front housing
burned or pitted slip rings or scuffed pole fingers pushing against the bearings outer race using a bearing
see driver Lock the bearing iIi place with screws see
b Measure the winding resistance across the slip rings
A Place the ohmmeter leads on the edges of the
slip rings not on the brush contact surfaces The
correct winding resistance at 70 80 F 21
27 C is 41 to 47 ohms see c Minor burning or pitting of the slip ring surfaces
can be removed using a crocus cloth Thoroughly
wipe the slip rings clean after polishing removing
all grit and dust
d Check for a grounded slip ring or rotor winding by
measuring the resistance from each slip ring to the
rotor body or pole finger B An open circuit should
be indicated in both cases for a good rotor see illus
tration
FRONT BEARING INSTALLING BEARING RETAINERS
2 Place the rotor pulley end up on the bed of an arbor
press on two steel blocks
3 Press the front housing and bearing assembly down
onto the rotor shaft Press against the bearings inner
TESTING ROTOR race only using a sleeve driver Take care to insure that
the rotor leads clear the steel blocks see 79
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
STATOR
WINDING
SLEEVE DRIVER
INSTALLING FRONT HOUSING ON ROTOR ASSEMBLY
4 Install the rectifier assembly into the rear housing
5 Insert the Phillips screw and tighten it see ASSEMBLING
HOUSINGS
7 Install the spacer and the fan Then push the pulley
lockwasher and nut onto the shaft Turn the nut a few
turns FAN
INSTALLING RECTIFIER ASSEMBLY
6 Assemble the front and rear housings as follows
a Put the stator winding in the front housing with the
stator leads away from the front housing and the
notches in the stator laminations aligned with the
four throughbolt holes in the housing
b Align the scribe marks you made In the stator and PULLEY AND FAN COMPONENTS
front and rear housings during disassembly
c Slip the rear housing into place over the rotor shaft
Align the mounting holes and put the stator leads
through the holes at the top of the rear housing
d Install the four bolts and tighten them see
NOTE ltheront housing is new the throughbolt
will not be tapped
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
8 Place an oversized Vbelt around the pulley and fasten INSTALL ALTERNATOR
the pulley in a vise see 1 Install the alternator screws and washers
2 Connect the wiring leads
3 Put the belt on the alternator crankshaft and coolant
pump pulleys
4 Adjust the alternator belts tension see DRIVE BELT
ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE JUMPER
INSTALLING PULLEY AND FAN NUT
9 Use a torque wrench to tighten the nut
10 Carefully install the assembly on the
rear housing with the two mounting screws
11 Install the small terminal Install the large terminal Install the jumper
14 Install the nut on the terminal
TERMINAL
15 Install the assembly cover Install the Phillips screw for the ALTERNATOR
ASSEMBLY
assembly cover
17 Install the Install the terminal nuts MANDO ALTERNATOR Install the jumper
Battery Voltage 12 volt
20 Install the last terminal nut
Maximum Speed 13500 rpm
Cut In Speed Max 2000 rpm at Exc
Max 1500 rpm at L2
Reg Set Voltage 141 volts
Ambient Temperature 20C to 100C
Ground Negative
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR DC VOLTMETER 020 volt scale
The charging system consists of an alternator with a mount HYDROMETER Any commercial type having a
ed voltage regulator an engine DC wiring harness a mount temperature correction scale
ed DC circuit breaker and a battery and connection of the use of integrated circuits ICs the electronic
Storage regulator is very compact and is mounted internally The starting battery circuit supplies a continuous although
or on the back of the alternator variable electrical load to the alternator If the circuit
positive or negative is opened or broken while the alterna
It is desirable to test the charging system alternator and
tor is charging the loss of the battery will result in the
voltage regulator in the boat using the wiring harness and
charging voltage rising to unsafe loads that are a permanent part of the system In
boat testing will then provide the technician with an opera Battery test of the charging system as well as the major com
The following table illustrates typical ranges of of the electrical system
gravity for a cell in various states of charge The CHECKS AND TESTS must be at least 75 offull charge for
effective alternator
starting the actual alternator and voltage procedures the charging system batteries and wiring
1260 SPECIFIC 1280 SPECIFIC CHARGE
should be checked to eliminate possible problem areas The GRAVITY BATTERY GRAVITY BATTERY checks are recommended
1260 Specific Gravity 1280 Specific Gravity 100 Charged
1230 Specific Gravity 1250 Specific Gravity 75 Charged
A WARNING A failed alternator can become 1200 Specific Gravity 1220 Specific Gravity 50 Charged
very hot Do not touch until the alternator has cooled 1170 Specific Gravity 1190 Specific Gravity 25 Charged
down 1140 Specific Gravity 1160 Specific Gravity Very Low Capacity
111 0 Specific Gravity 1130 Specific Gravity Discharged
1 Make certain your alternator is securely mounted
2 Check the drive belt for proper tension Replace the After completing these preliminary checks and tests pro
belt if it is worn or glazed ceed with the tests as outlined in the
GUIDE
3 Check that all terminals connectors and plugs are clean
and tight Loose or corroded connections cause high Checking for Proper Voltage
resistance and this could cause overcharging under
If you suspect the alternator has failed perform the follow
charging or damage to the charging system Badly cor
ing tests with the engine off
roded battery cables could prevent the battery from
reaching a fully charged condition 1 Using a voltmeter connect the voltmeter red wire clip
to the output terminal B
4 Check the condition of the battery and change if neces
sary A low or discharged battery may cause false or 2 Connect the voltmeter negative wire to any ground
misleading readings on the invessel tests on the engine
NOTE An isolator with a diode a solenoid or a bat 3 Check the battery voltage It should read 12 to 13 volts
tery selector switch is usually mounted in the circuit to 4 Check the voltage between the alternator positive
isolate the batteries so the starting battery is not dis terminal B and any engine ground If the circuit is
charged along with the house batteries If the isolator good the voltage at the alternator should be the same
is charging the starting battery but not the house bat as the battery unless theres an isolator in the circuit
tery the alternator is OK and the problem is in the then the reading would be zero
battery charging circuit
A WARNING Shut off the engine battery switch Dr
A CAUTION To avoid damage to the battery charg
ing circuit never shut off the engine battery switch
disconnect from the battery when working on the when the engine is running
engine electrical system
Test Equipment alternator and regulator tests described in this section
A WARNING Before starting the engine make cer
tain that everyone is clear of moving parts Keep
require electrical test equipment to measure voltage only away from sheaves and belts during test most commercial test equipment
testing devices in a single unit The following will be necessary 5 Start the engine
UnlVQrsal
22 82
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
6 The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator
should be between 135 and 145 volts If your alterna 14 GRAY tor is over or have it repaired at a reli
able service shop
NOTE Before removing the alternator for repair use your ljgIffi 14 to ensure that 12 volts DC excitation is
present at 14 PINKBLUE
the R terminal if the previous test showed only battery volt
age at the B output stator is connected to a threephase fullwave package which contains six diodes The bridge
the AC generated in the stator to a DC output for charging and accessories
such as radio heater lights 51 depth sounder etc See the illustrations below
to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator is provided by the
field diode or diode trio pack 14 BROWN contained in the alternator t
10 RED
14 RED
The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 output is achieved at approximately 6000 at an ambient temperature of 75F 238C The alter
nator is designed to operate in an ambient temperature range
of 40 to 212F 40 to 100C To ensure proper cooling
of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alterna
tor it must be used with the proper cooling fan
D B
14 PINKBLUE
EXCITE
tO 14 PINKBLUE
REGULATOR
ICI GROUND W 14 BROWN
AC TAP
TACH
ALTERNATOR SENSE INTEGRAL REG OPTIONAL
72 AMP
ALTERNATOR
D B CONNECTIONS
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
SENSE EXCITE
The integral voltage regulator is an electronic switching
device which senses the system voltage level and switches
the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain a proper
system voltage
REGULATOR The regulator design utilizes allsilicon semi conductors and
ICI GROUND thickfilm assembly techniques After the voltage has been
adjusted to the proper regulating value the entire circuit is
encapsulated to protect the circuit and the components from
AC TAP possible damage due to handling or vibration and moisture
TACH encountered in a vessel
BATTERY SENSE INTEGRAL REG
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to TESTING a slightly higher voltage at low temperatures
and a
lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide for the AC TAP BACK
TACH requirements of the battery under these conditions
0 INDICATOR
LIGHT TERM
INTEGRAL
REGULATOR GROUND
INTEGRAL ALTERNATOR
12 VOLT 51 AMP REGULATOR SENSE
ffi 80
a W
l ACTAP BACK
TACH COVER
5 60
3
W 12
a i a
a 40
ir 20 1
1000
V 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
GROUND SENSE
TO BATT
INTEGRAL
ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM REGULATOR
REMOTE
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVE BATTERY
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 75 0 F EXCITE SENSE
238 0 C SAE TEST METHOD
ALTERNATOR TERMINAL GUIDE
PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION
A Battery undercharged 1 Defective cables dirty battery 1 Check clean repair or replace
Ammeter if used indicates posts corroded terminals etc as needed
constant discharge 2 Loose or broken belt 2 Check belt
Indicator lamp remains on 3 Worn or broken brushes 3 Replace brush assembly
4 Defective alternator system 4 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
section
B Battery undercharged 1 Indicator lamp burned out or 1 Check bulb and harness
Indicator lamp off with key defective wire harness
on and engine stopped 2 Broken brush 2 Replace brush assembly
Normal condition is lamp on 3 Defective alternator system 3 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
section
c Battery overcharges 1 Defective wire harness 1 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
Excessive use of water 2 Defective alternator system 2 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
Ammeter if used shows constant 3 Poor ground 3 Check ground
excessive charge 4 Broken sense lead remote battery 4 Check clean repair or replace as
Voltmeter indicates greater than sense only needed
145 volts connected across battery
with no load with engine idling
D Battery charges at idle but discharges 1 Slipping belt 1 Check belt and adjust tension or
under load conditions 2 Alternator defective replace as necessary
2 Disassemble check diodes
E Indicator lamp glows slightly under 1 Defective diodetrio 1 Remove and replace
moderate load battery appears
charged
PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR THE PROBLEM Test No2Open Regulator Test
NOTE The engine must be idling for all tests unless other NOTE This test requires the removal of the back
cover of
wise specified the alternator To remove disconnect the wires from
terminals extending through the back cover Remove the
A BATTERY UNDERCHARGED back cover two screws and reconnect all wires
1 Remove battery sense only With the ignition on and the engine not running and the
a Perform the Harness Voltage Test Test No3 jumper not attached check for battery voltage at terminal A
2 Indicator lamp on and terminal B The indicator light will be off Add
jumper JUI between the field and ground If 15 to 30
a Perform the Open DiodeTrio Test Test No1 volts is present at terminal B and the indicator light is on
3 Indicator lamp off ignition on and engine stopped an open defective regulator is indicated If the lamp is
still not on an open field circuit brushes sliprings etc is
a Perform Regulator Test Test No2
indicated and alternator repair is required
b If the regulator is OK the cause is probably an
IGN IND AC TAP TACH
open field circuit and the alternator must be SW UGHT
removed for repair
4 Further investigation requires alternator removal and
repair diodes
B BATTERY OVERCHARGED
1 Regulator shorted replace regulator
INTEGRAL
Tests
Test No IOpen DiodeTrio Test Ivous I EXCITE
TO IGN SW OR
With the ignition on and the engine not running and the BlK
DlL PRESS SW
jumper not attached no electrical load check for battery
RED STEP TEST PDlN at terminal A and for 15 to 30 volts at terminal B
J 1
Add jumper JUI between terminals A and B Start the r A 8 BATIERY VOlJAGE
it Z B REG BATIERY VOUAGE WITH
engine and run at idle If the indicator lamp now goes off IND LIGHT OFF
and charging voltage is present at terminal A the diodetrio
ft JUMPER ATIACHED 15 TO
REMOTE BATI
is probably open defective and the alternator should be 3 B 0 30 VOUS IND LIGHT ON
SENSE ONLY
removed for repair JUMPER NOT ATIACHED
IGN IND REGULATOR TEST BACK COVER REMOVED
SW LIGHT
AC TAP TACH
Test No3Harness Voltage Test remove battery sense
only
Remove the harness sense lead from the sense terminal and
POS
connect the voltmeter leads as shown in the 6 The
voltmeter should indicate the battery voltage approx
126 volts for a fully charged battery with the ignition key
off If the voltage is zero the hardness sense lead is
I I
vous
EXCITE
TO IGN SW OR
OIL PRESS SW
SENSE TO
BATI
open and should be repaired or replaced
SENSE TO
RED INDICATION
BATI
J INTEGRAL
r BATIERY VOlJAGE
REGULATOR
F 15 TO 30 VOlJS WITH
IND LIGHT ON BATIERY
1 3 A B
135 TO 150 VDlJS IND
LIGHT OFF JUMPER
ATIACHED ENGINE IDLING
REMOTE BATI
SENSE ONLY
I I
vous
EXCITE
TO IGN SN OR
Dll PRESS SW
JUMPER NOT ATIACHED BLK
OPEN DIODETRIO TEST REO
REMOTE BATIERY SENSE ONLY BATIERY
CABLE HARNESS VOLTAGE TEST
UnlvQrsal
33 85
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
Test Output Test
NO LOW NOISY
After the voltmeter is connected as shown in the illustra AlTERNAIDR ALTERNAIDR ALTERNATOR
OUTPUT OUTPUT
tion start and run the engine at a fast idle of t
t t
1500 rpm Check for a nominal system output voltage of DEFECTIVE DEFECTIVE LOOSE DRIVE
REGULAIDR 138148 volts for a properly operating charging Voltages may vary a few tenths of a volt higher
t t t
CRACKED OR
or lower due to ambient temperature variations DEFECTIVE WORN
DAMAGED
BRUSHES BRUSHES
HOUSING
If the alternator output voltage does not fall within the t t
proper range the alternator should be disassembled for fur OPEN GROUNDEDI
WORN
FIELD SHORTED
ther inspection and tests DIODE ROTOR WINDINGS BEARINGS
IGN IND
t t t
OPEN GROUNDEDI SHORTED
SW LIGHT RECTIFIER
AC TAP TACH ROTOR SHORTED
STATOR WINDINGS DIODE
t t
SHORTEDOPEN SHORTED OR
RECTIFIER DIODE GROUNDED STAIDR
WINDINGS
SENSE TO
BAIT
ALTERNATOR DIAGRAM
INTEGRAL
REGULATOR
I I
VDUS
ALTERNATOR DISASSEMBLY TESTING
BlK 1 Detach the back cover
RED PDS OUTPUT Remove the nuts from the terminals Remove the two
138 TO 14BV screws that secure the back cover to the rear housing
BAITERY
REMOTE BAITERY SENSE ONLY
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST
ALTERNATOR REPAIR PROCEDURE
The following instructions provide a general overall proce
dure for the complete disassembly of an alternator
However it should be pointed out that following the com
plete procedure whenever a repair is necessary will seldom
if ever be required In cases where the causes of the mal
function are known it will only be necessary to follow that BACK COVER
MOUNTING SCREWS 2
portion of the procedure directly related to resolving the
problem Similarly when the reasons for the malfunction REMOVING BACK COVER
are uncertain it will be necessary to follow the procedure
in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem
The following diagram should help identify
some of the more common problems encountered during
the 86
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
2 Remove the brush holder 4 Remove the integral voltage regulator
Remove the two locknuts securing the brush holder Remove the two screws securing the integral voltage
Pull out the brush holder see regulator to the rear housing
BRUSH OLDER
MOUNTING REGULATOR
LOCKNUTS 2 MOUNTING
SCREWS 2
REMOVING BRUSH HOLDER REMOVING VOLTAGE REGULATOR
5 Remove the diodetrio field diode and rectifier
3 Inspect and test the brush assembly diode bridge
The illustration below shows the terminals brush The diodetrio and rectifier diode bridge are detached
arrangement and testing procedure The original brush as an assembly Remove the cone lockout from the
set may be reused if the brushes are 316 in 5 mm or positive output B terminal Straighten the B strap
longer and if the brushes are not oil soaked cracked or Remove the three terminal screws and the four diode
show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes trio mounting screws Detach the assembly from the
caused by vibration rear housing and separate the diodetrio assembly from
the rectifier bridge see RECTIFIER
BRIDGE
TEST
CONTINUITY CONE
FROM A TO B
FROM C TO D LOCKNUT
TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC AND B
TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER NO CIRCUIT STRAP
FROM A OR B
TO C OR D
BRUSH TEST
REMOVING DIODETRIO AND
RECTIFIER DIODE BRIDGE
t AUnlVQrsal
S 87
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
6 Test the diodetrio assembly 8 Separate the statorrear housing assembly from the
Using a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test front housing
lamp check for continuity from each terminal separate Remove the four thrubolts see ly to the D stud continuity should be observed in
one Carefully insert two screwdriver blades in opposite
direction polarity only and all diodes should check openings between the stator and the front housing as
alike If any diode is defective replace the entire diode shown in the illustration Pry the units apart
trio assembly See COMMERCIAL
DIODE TESTER
A CAUTION Do not insert the screwdriver
blades deeper than 116 in 15 mm to avoid
damaging the stator winding
THROUGH
BOLTS 4
0 STUD
IND LIGHT TERMINAL
TESTING Test the diode rectifier bridge assembly
Using a commercial diode tester check for continuity
Check between point A and each of the three terminals
C for negative diodes Continuity should be observed THRUBOLT REMOVAL
in one direction polarity only and all diodes should
check alike Then check between point B B strap
and each of three terminals C for positive diodes SCREWDRIVER Continuity should be observed in one direction only
AT OPPOSITE OPENINGS
and all diodes should check alike see If any diode is defective replace the entire diode rectifi
er bridge I
I CAUTION DO NOT
I INSERT BLADE OF
e e I
SCREWDRIVER MORE
9 g I
THAN 116 15 mm
STATORREAR HOUSING SEPARATION
JI 9 Inspect the rear housing
Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken
casting stripped threads or evidence of severe wear
in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing
TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE If the casting is to be reused clean it in solvent dry with
compressed air and install a new rear bearing retainer if
the retainer is damaged
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
10 Test the stator 12 Separate the rotor from the front housing
The stator assembly consists of three individual wind Position the front housing on support blocks placed on
ings terminated in the delta type connections Using an arbor press Push the rotor assembly from the
an ohmmeter or a test lamp check for winding continu housing see ity between terminals A Band C There should be no
continuity from any terminal to point D Also stators showing any signs of winding should be discarded see
C
SEPARATING ROTOR
STATOR WINDING TESTS FROM FRONT HOUSING
11 Remove the pulley fan and spacer 13 Remove the front bearing from the housing
The pulley is a slipfit on the rotor shaft positioned with Remove the three bearing retainer screws Position the
a woodruff key Remove the nut and lockwasher from housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press
the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool Using a tool that contacts the inner race of the bearing
After the nut and lockwasher are removed the alternator press out the front bearing see can be separated from the pulley
BEARING RETAINER
The fan will slide over the key The key may be remove SCREWS 3
ed with diagonal pliers or with a screwdriver
Inspect the fan for cracked or broken fins and note the
condition of the mounting hole If it is worn from run FRONT
HOUSING
ning loose replace the fan to insure balance
Inspect the pulley for possible faults as shown in the
REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS
PULLEY REMOVAL
FRONT
CHECK FOR WORN HOUSING
DRIVE SURFACES HUB
NOTE CONDITION OF
KEY GROOVE
CHECK BORE
FOR WEAR BEARING INNER RACE
PULLEY INSPECTION POINTS PRESSING OUT BEARING
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
14 Inspect the front housing D Rotor shaft and pole pieces
Check the housing for cracks Check the condition of 1 Stripped threads on shaft
the threads in the adjusting ear Check the bore in the 2 Worn key slot
mounting foot Discard the housing if the bore shows
signs of elongation oval or 3 Worn bearing surface
15 Rotor inspection electrical testing 4 Scuffed pole fingers
Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical 5 Worn or dry rear bearing
properties see Replace the rotor assembly if any of the above faults
A Current draw or resistance of the winding are noted with the exception of item D 5
NOTE New rotors include a new rear bearing and new
slip rings as part of the assembly If the rear bearing
A CAUTION Turn off the DC power source requires replacement follow the instructions for this
before removing the test leads to avoid ave dam operation
age to the slip ring surfaces 16 Remove the slip rings from the rotor assembly
Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals
1 Current Draw in amperes at 7080F Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil leads from
2127C the slip ring terminals as shown in the 12 Volt Models Correct Current
Draw
Rated At 15DV REMOVE ALL RESIDUE
FROM BETWEEN
51 Amperes 3236 Amperes SLIP RINGS
2 Resistance of winding in Ohms at 7080F
2127C UNSOLDER 12 Volt Models Correct Winding
CAUTION DO NOT
Rated At Resistance
OVERHEAT
51 Amperes 4147 Ohm UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS
POLE FINGERS
BEARING
Straighten the rotor leads Insert a No 10 xl cap
screw into the opening at the center of the slip ring
I AREA
KEY SLOT
assembly Position the bearing puller as shown in the
illustration and pull the slip ring assembly off the rotor
shaft
A CAUTION When holding the rear end of the
TEST CURRENT
DRAW OR RESISTANCE
BEWEEN RINGS
SHAFT THREADS
NOTE PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES
rotor shaft in a vise be sure not to grip the bear
ing area of the rotor shaft
OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING
ARCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES
STRAIGHTEN NO 10 X 1
ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING CAP SCREW
ROTOR LEADS
B Grounded slip ring or winding
Use a 12 volt DC test lamp ohmmeter or 110V AC
test lamp Place one test lead to the rotor body and
the other on either slip ring An open circuit from
either slip ring to the rotor body is a correct
condition
C Condition of the slip rings
1 Clean the brush contacting surfaces with a fine
crocus cloth wipe the dust and residue away
2 If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration REMOVING SUP RING ASSY
replace the entire rotor assembly
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
17 Remove the rear bearing from the rotor 2 Install the slip ring assembly
Dress the rotor leads away from the bearing puller con Guide the rotor leads through one of the oval passages
tact area Adjust the puller to contact the inner bearing in the slip ring assembly Be sure the oval passage is
race then carefully remove the bearing from the shaft in line with the groove in the rotor shaft Place the
see rotor on a press as shown in the illustration Choose a
This completes the disassembly of the alternator driver sleeve having a diameter that clears the leads
Press the slip ring assembly onto the shaft Solder the
rotor leads to the leads on the slip ring Trim excess
slip ring leads extending above the solder
PRESS
SLIP RING
ASSEMBLY
REMOVING REAR reassembly sequence generally is the reverse of the
order of disassembly therefore only information pertaining
to special reassembly requirements will be covered in Install the rear bearing
iNSTALLING SUP RING ASSEMBLY
Place the rotor on a press as shown in the Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure on the inner 3 Install the front bearing
race only and press the bearing onto the rotor shaft
Place the front bearing and housing in an arbor press as
until it contacts the shoulder New replacement bear
shown in the illustration Select a drive tool to contact
ings should be used whenever the bearing is removed
the outer race only and press the bearing into the
during repair procedures or when the bearing is rough
housing bore Bearing replacement is recommended
dry or noisy
whenever a bearing is removed during alternator repair
procedures or when the bearing is rough dry or noisy
REAR Install three bearing retainer screws Torque to 2530
BEARING ftlbs 339407 Nm
ROTOR
DRIVER TOOL
CONTACTS
OUTER BEARING
RACE ONLY
FRONT
BEARING
FRONT
HOUSING
INSTALLING REAR BEARING
INSTALLING FRONT BEARING
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
4 Assemble the rotor and front housing compound to the back of the diode rectifier bridge and
Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press using two to the mating area on the rear housing
steel blocks for support as shown in the illustration Install the assembly to the rear housing four screws
Place the front housing over the shaft Using a driver Place the strap AC tap in position and connect the
sleeve that contacts the inner bearing race only press stator leads three screws
the front housing down until the inner bearing race Install the capacitor where applicable
contacts the shoulder on the shaft
8 Install the integral regulator
Install the brush mounting screws two though the
A CAUTION Be sure the rotor leads clear the openings in the regulator body Secure the regulator to
blocks the rear housing two screws
9 Install the brush assembly
PRESS Insert the brush holder into the grooves in the hub of
the rear housing Place the D strap or male terminal
where applicable on the stud and secure the brush
holder with locknuts two places Secure the other
FRONT end of the D strap
HOUSING
10 Install the rear cover
Be sure the felt gasket is in place see Position the rear cover on the rear
housing and secure
it with two screws
ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO ROTOR
5 Assemble the spacer fan and pulley
FELT
Place the pulley spacer over the shaft Install the GASKET
woodruff key Install the fan Install the pulley lock
washer and nut Mount the pulley as shown in the illus
tration and tighten to 3550 ftlbs 475678 Nm
Spin the rotor by hand to test the freedom of the
bearing INSTALLING REAR COVER
6 Assemble the front and rear housings
Place the stator into the front housing with the stator ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS
leads at the top and the notches in the laminations
aligned with the bolt holes Position the rear housing The following tests will determine the current producing
over the slip rings with the housing bolt holes aligned capability of the repaired alternator Mount the alternator
and the stator leads extending through the openings at in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator rpm
the top of the rear housing Select the required battery voltage and circuit polarity
Install the throughbolts and tighten them evenly to Turn the drive motor on and adjust to obtain 5000 alterna
5060 inlbs 5768 Nm Spin the rotor by hand to tor rpm Slowly reduce the field rheostat resistance the
test the freedom of the bearings alternator should develop a charge Continue to reduce
resistance until the alternator reaches its rated current out
NOTE New front housings contain throughbolt holes put in amperes CAUTION Limit the output voltage to
that are not tapped Therefore a socket wrench rather 15V maximum DO NOT operate the alternator for more
that a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient than a few minutes in this manner due to the lack of volt
torque to drive the thread forming age control If the alternator will deliver its rated output
7 Install the diode rectifier bridge and diode trio end the test
Insert the B strap through the slot in the diode trio Connect the fixture leads and instruments to the alternator
body Bend the strap over the B terminal and secure terminals as shown in the following it with a cone locknut Apply a thin film of heat
sink TOR PERFORMANCE TEST diagram
PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
The carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must AC TAP TACH
be capable of handling the alternators rated output at rated
A CAUTION Make sure the connections are well
INTEGRAL
secured and tight to avoid possible damage to the
REGULAmR
instruments alternator or wiring due to short circuits
EXCITE
TOIGN SW OR
Starting with the carbon pile off slowly increase the load OIL PRESS SW
while observing the ammeter and maintaining 5000 rpm
Increase the load until a minimum output voltage 137 volts is obtained Record the at this point and refer to the chart for minimum RED
POS ratings
REMOTE BAn
MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT SENSE ONLY
VALUES AT 70 80F 21 27 C
RATING OUTPUT TYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TEST
51 AMP 46AMP
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING DIAGRAM 39144
19 110
These diagrams illustrate the 12 volt negative ground
electrical circuit The two optional instrument panels
the CAPTAIN PANEL and the ADMIRAL PANEL are
BlU diagramed below
14 T BlU
When an ADMIRAL PANEL is installed two additional
instrument senders are assembled to the engine to
provide data for the panel gauges refer to the illustra
tions 1 1
BATTERY
ALAR ADMIRAL
aUZZER
PANEL
REMOVE THE PLUG AND INSTALL
I THE OIL PRESSURE SENDER
10 REO
CAPTAIN
PANEL
1 i
0 ALT
LA 1
NOTE An onoff switch
should be installed in this
1 I circuit to disconnect
I TEST SWITCtt 1
1
starter from the battery in
an emergency and when
START
SWITCH
leaving the boat Twelve
LAMP 1
volt diesel engine starters
1 1 typically draw 200 to
1 1 amps when cranking A
1 1
1 1 switch with a
continuous
1 KEYSWlTCH 1 rating of 175 amps at
1 1
I VDC will normally
serve
ISlIlI 1 this function but a switch
I 1 must never be used to
1 1
1
118 Bll
make the starter circuit
118 BLII 1
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
START
WIRING SCHEMATIC 39144
STARTER
L i
ALTERNATOR I
L IrT PUMP iU2 J
I CP2M
FUEL WilEN
I J I
206 D
ap L I
SENDER
KEY TACHOMETER
I 0 ORN
START
o ALARM
14 PUR
14 GRA
ADMIRAL
PANEL
MITSUBISHI
50 AMP AlT
NOTE An onoff switch
NOTE
should be installed in this
WIRE FOR BATTERY
ATTACHMENT WilL
circuit to disconnect the
NEED TO BE UPGRADEO
TO N 8 GAUGE FROio
10 from the battery in
CTAP
fl BRN
an emergency and when
leaving the boat Twelve
volt diesel engine draw 200 to 300 when cranking A
90 AMP All
switch with a of 175 amps at 12
1114 l T BLU
VDC will normally serve CAPTAIN
this function but a switch PANEL
must never be used to
make the starter circuit
II J 0 RED
51 liMP lIL TERNAIOB
STANDARD AL HRNATOR ON THE
63a Ill 63e Ill 71a IT a2B IT
1086 2J IOBC n o PRESTOL I TE 72 AMP All
14 BRN
I 4 GRA
I 4 PINK
t I 4 L T BL
o UN I VERSAL
PROPULS ION
PRESTOLIH 51 AMP ALT
Unlvanal
MARINE POWER
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING DIAGRAM 200360 CATALINA YACHTS
10 RED 51A
PREHEAT
SOLENOID
LIFT PUMPS
OIL PRESS
s1llK
SWITCH
LBATTERY CIRCUIT
BREAKER
4 9
Z Z
An onoff switch should be installed between the battery and
the starter to disconnect the battery in an emergency and
when leaving the boat A switch with a continuous rating of
175 amps at 12 volts will serve the function This switch
14 GRA
should not be used to make or break this circuit I
V
i
tl4 LT BLU n
n Xl Xl n co
t 14 BRN
tl4 GRA
I a z E
NOT USED a a a
114 PINK a i
W
0
0 w
I 0 RED
I W
I
114 BRN
II 0 RED
E Q U 0
I
I 0
pRESTOL I TE 12 AMP AI T
l
l AL TERNA TOR
SlA MANDO
E E
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING SCHEMATIC 200360 CATALINA YACHTS
STARTER
12 VDC SOLENOID
rl STARTER
I I
I I
I I
PREHEAT
SOLENOID
rl GLOWPLUGS
I I
si l
L J
RES I STOR
IK IIZW
AL TERNATOR
OUTPUT
Crh Ju
aI i
a1i I
C I I
f r
LIFT PUMP
WATER TEMP
WATER TEMP
SWITCH
rj THE B TO THE TO THE S TO THE I TO THE TO THE P TO THES TO THES TO THE c TO THE TAeH
TERM OF START TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN Of TERN OF TERN OF GROUNO L
KEYSWITCH SWITCH KEYSITCH KEYSTCH THE lARN THE AlARN THE TACH WT GUAGE THE ALARH
BUZZER BUZZER BUZZER
j Univarsal
2 fjta tiW3i
HURTH HBW NOTE When installing the transmission make certain that
The infonnation below is specific to the HBW shifting is not impeded by restricted movability of the the TRANSMISSION
or rod linkage by unsuitably positioned guide sheaves too
SECTION applies to all models small a bending radius or other restrictions In order to
mount a support for shift control cable connections use the
two threaded holes located above the cable bracket mounted
HURTH HBW 150 on the gear housing Refer to the UNIVERSAL parts list
SHIFT LEVER
The transmission is suitable for single lever remote control
Upon loosening the retaining screw the actuating lever can
be moved to any position required for the control elements
cable or rod linkage Make certain that the shift lever does
not contact the actuating lever cover plate the minimum
distance between lever and cover should be O5mm
The control cable or rod should be arranged at right angle to
the actuating shift lever when in the neutral position The
neutral position of the operating lever on the control console
should coincide with the neutral position of this lever
The shifting travel as measured at the pivot point of the actu
ating lever between the neutral position and end positions A
and B should be at least 35mm for the outer and 30mm for
the inner pivot point
A greater amount of shift lever travel is in no way
detrimental and is recommended However if the lever
travel is shorter proper clutch engagement might be impeded
which in turn would mean premature wear excessive heat
generation and clutch plate failure This would be indicated
by slow clutch engagement or no engagement at all
NOTE Check for proper lever travel at least each season
NEUTRAL
A CAUTION The position of the mechanism behind
the actuating lever is to ensure equal
shift lever travel from neutral position A and B If
this mechanism is in any way tampered with the
transmission warranty will be void
SHAFT recommends a flexible connection between
the transmission and the propeller shaft if the engine is flexi
bly mounted in order to compensate for angular installation of a special propeller thrust bearing is not
required since the propeller thrust will be absorbed by bearing provided the value specified is not exceeded However the output
shaft should be protected from additional loads Special care
should be taken to prevent torsional vibration When using a
universal joint shaft make certain to observe SHIFT
Even with the engine solidly mounted the use of flexible or DRIVESAVER will reduce stress in the gear
box bearings caused by hull distortions especially in wooden
COVER
boats or where the distance between transmission output
flange and stem gland is less than about is a product of Globe MA
OSmm
MINIMUM DISTANCE
HURTH HBW OPERATION LOCKING THE PROPELLER
All HBW marine transmissions are testrun on a test stand Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not
with the engine at the factory prior to delivery For safety required use the gear shift lever position opposite your the fluid is drained
before shipment tion of travel for this purpose Never put the gear shift in the
Fill the gearbox with Automatic Transmission Fluid position corresponding to the direction of travel of the III The fluid level
should be up to the index WHEN UNDER SAIL OR BEING TOWED
mark on the dipstick To check the fluid level just insert the
dipstick do not screw it in Screw the dipstick into the case Rotation of the propeller without load such as when the boat
after the fluid level is checked and tighten Do not forget the is being sailed being towed or anchored in a river as well as
sealing ring under the hexhead of the dipstick Check for operation of the engine with the propeller stopped for
leaks and make a visual inspection of the coupling oil cooler charging the battery will have no detrimental effects on
and hoses and shift cables the DAILY
OPERATION
DIPSTICK
D Check the transmission fluid
D Visually check the gear shift linkage and D Start the engine in
neutral allowing a few minutes at
CHECKING TRANSMISSION idle to warm the fluid
FLUID OPERATING D Shift into gear
NOTE Too Iowan idle speed will produce a chattering noise
from the transmission gear and damper plate In such cases
the idle speed should be increased
For additional information refer to the following text in this
FLUID LEVEL Transmission Section SHAFT COUPLINGS MAINTE
NANCE AND TRANSMISSION HBW TRANSMISSIONS
General Hurth Standard Transmission Case
FLUID CHANGE hardened helical gears with a servo
Change the fluid for the fIrst time after about 25 hours of operated multiple disc then every 250 operating
hours or at least once a Gear ratio forward HBWSO 20S1
year or when you change engine oil standard transmission HBW100 1791
HBW1S0 the fluid LUbricating Fluid ATF type A or Dextran I or 11
Push a suction pump hose down through the dipstick hole to
the bottom of the housing and suck out the fluid If space Transmission Sump HBWSO 037 qt 035 liter
Capacity HBW100 037 qt use the transmission drain Remove the drain plug HBW1S0 0S8 qt the
bottom of the transmission and allow the fluid to
drain into a container then reinstall the plug with its sealing Propeller ShaH Right hand standard Wipe down the transmission and
properly dispose of Direction of Rotation
the used fluid After running the engine shut down and
recheck the fluid level
DRAIN PLUG TORQUE 20 25 fUlbs
NOTE When changing the fluid take care not to lose the
drain plug sealing washer The drain plug will leak without
this sealing washer
A WARNING Never pull out the dipstick while the
engine is running Hot fluid will splash from the
dipstick hole This could cause severe bums
HURTH HBW OPERATING TEMPERATURE MAINTENANCE
Transmission maintenance is minimal Keep the exterior
A WARNING If the transmission fluid temperature housing clean check the fluid level as part of your regular
routine and change the fluid every 300 operating hours
is too high stop the engine immediately and check the
Periodically inspect the transmission and the cooler for leaks
transmission fluid and corrosion Lubricate the cable connections
Normal operating temperature of the transmission fluid should be in the range of 122 50C to 212F l00C A
Storage requires special care Follow these procedures
maximum temperature of 266F 130C may be only
reached for a short time D Drain water from the transmission oil cooler and replace
with a proper mixture of antifreeze coolant
Make certain there is enough space around the transmission
to provide good ventilation and cooling NOTE This operation will normally occur when the
engine raw water cooling system is properly winterized
TRANSMISSION COOLER
D Clean up the transmission and touch up unpainted areas
Coolers are standard equipment for the HBW 100 125 150
use heat resistant paint
150A 150V and the 250 no cooler is necessary for the
HBW 35 and 50 D Fill the transmission with Dextron III ATF fluid to pre
vent internal corrosion extended storage only twelve
The cooler is a separate part of the transmission which
months or more
prevents any possibility of coolant diluting the transmission
fluid However the continued flow of coolant thru the cooler D Loosen attaching hardware from the transmission output
will in time erode the inside of the cooler causing external flange and propeller shaft coupling flange before remov
leaks ing the boat from the water Separate the flanges and
spray with lubricant
A transmission cooler may last ten years or more but in
some depending on operating hours tropical D Inspect the gear shift cable linkage and attachments
waters maintenance etc it might only last half that time Look for corrosion of the end fittings cracks or cuts in
the conduit and bending of the actuator rods Lubricate
UNIVERSAL recommends having a spare cooler aboard
all moving parts
NOTE If the transmission is to be storedfor a long time
twelve months or more it should be topped off with
fluid to prevent internal corrosion Reduce the fluid level
before putting the engine back into service
For additional information contact
HURTH MARINE COOLER ZF Industries
Marine US Headquarters
3131 SW 42nd Street
PERIODICALLY INSPECT FOR
EROSION AND LEAKAGE Fort Lauderdale FL 33312
Tel 954 5814040
Fax 954 5814077
TRANSMISSION CABLES A new cable and perhaps a new linkage mechanism may be
needed While the cable is loose shift the transmission in and
The majority of transmission difficulties arise as a result of
out of gear using the lever on the side of the transmission to
improper clutch adjustments manual or
make sure theres no binding inside the with control cables hydraulic than from problems with the transmission itself
If the transmission passes these tests crank the engine and
have a helper put it in forward and reverse while you observe
HURTH clutches in particular are very sensitive to improper
the propeller shaft if the shaft isnt turning the adjustments
needs professional attention If it does turn but theres no
If you experience operating problems with the transmission thrust check to see you still have a propeller on the end of
shut the engine down First check the transmission fluid the shaft or if you have a folding or feathering propeller that
level then have a helper move the cockpit shift lever through it isnt stuck in the no pitch position
the full range from neutral to full forward back to
neutral into full reverse and back to neutral while you
NOTE lfyou suspect a major problem in your immediately contact
your UNIVERSAL dealer or an
observe the actuating lever on the transmission If the remote
authorized marine transmission facility
is stiff to operate break the cable loose at the try again If it is still stiff check the cable for kinks tight bends and check any linkage for
binding
Problem Probable Cause Transmission gears cannot be shifted
1 Shifting lever is loose 1 Tighten damping bolt on shifting lever
Fails to move into gear
2 Shifting cable is broken bent or 2 Check the cable reattach or replace
unattached Cable radius is to severe
3 Shift lever is binding against cover plate 3 Detach the shift cable and operate the lever by hand
Clearance should be 002 in 05mm
Transmission shifts into gear but 1 Output coupling is not turning 1 Transmission needs professional attention
fails to propel the boat
2 Propeller shaft is not turning 2 The coupling bolts are sheared or the coupling is slipping
Output coupling is turning on the propeller shaft Tighten or replace set screws keys
pins and coupling bolts as necessary
3 Output coupling and 3 Inspect the propeller it may be missing or damaged
propeller shaft are both turning A folding propeller may be jammed A variable pitch propeller
may be in no pitch position
Delay of gear engagement or engages 1 Lever travel N to B not equal to Nto A 1 Adjust cover plate until the lever is exact mid
position
only after an increase in speed Refer to diagram Refer to SHIFT LEVER TEXT AND DIAGRAM
2 Shift lever travel is insufficient 2 Check shift lever cable length Refer to SHIFT LEVER DIAGRAM
3 Shift lever is binding against cover plate 3 Check clearance adjust if necessary
Chattering transmission noise 1 The engine or propeller generates torsional 1 Mount a flexible coupling with another stiffness
factor
mainly at low engine speed vibrations in the drive unit which produces between the transmission coupling and the
driveshaft
a chattering noise in the transmission A higher stiffness factor might be sufficient
2 Inspect the damper plate between the engine and the
transmission Replace if necessary
Transmission noise becomes louder 1 Damage starting on flexible coupling due 1 Check alignment inspect flexible coupling If noise
persists
to wear or fatigue possibly due to misalign inspect the damper plate between the transmission and the
ment between engine and the drive shaft engine Replace if necessary
2 Beginning damage of bearings in trans 2 Transmission needs professional attention
mission due to torsional vibrations running
without fluid overload wrong alignment of
transmission or excessive engine output
Boat fails to attain specified max speed 1 Operating temperatu re is high 1 Wrong type of fluid use ATE Check fluid level
2 Operating without cooling 2 Check cooler Inspect coolant hoses and coolant flow
Oil Leakage 1 Corrosion at radial sealing ring and shaft 1 Transmission needs profeSSional attention
Damaged sealing ring
2 Misalignment of output flanges 2 Check alignment Must be within 0003 in lfyou suspect a major problem in your contact your
UNIVERSAL dealer or an
authorized marine transmission facility
4 Unlvarsal
S M1WU eW3
SPECIAL TOOLS
The special tools shown in this section are not provided Use Bushing Replacing Tool
the following plans and for field fabrication
Application Use to press out and to press fit the Guide Replacing Tool
FOR SMALL END BUSHING FOR IDLER GEAR Use to press out and to press fit the valve
guide A 61811 in 157 mm 77165 in 196 mm
B 09449 in 24 mm 10236 in 26 mm
A 079 in dia 20 mm dia C 47244 in 120 mm 59055 in 150 mm
B 0460 0468 in dia 117 119 mm dia 0 08583 08622 in 10157 10197 in
C 0256 0259 in dia 65 66 mm dia 218 219 mm 258 259 mm
0 886 in 225 mm E 09764 09803 in dia 10157 10197 in dia
248 249 mm dia 288 289 mm dia
E 276 in 70 mm
F 07874 in 20 mm 07874 in 20 mm
F 177 in 45 mm
a 250 liin 63 lim 250 liin 63 lim
G 098 in 25 mm
b 250 liin 63 lim 250 liin 63 lim
H 0197 in 5 mm
I 0263 0275 in dia 67 70 mm dia
J 0787 in dia 20 mm dia
K 0492 0504 in dia 125 128 mm dia
L 0350 0358 in 89 91 mm
C1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mm
C2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mm o E F
CO3 Chamfer 0012 in 03 mm
E C2
F a b
tr61 C
Flywheel Stopper
Application Use to loosen and tighten the flywheel screw
A 787 in 200 mm
G J B 118 in 30 mm
n I I I
K C 079 in 20 mm
I 0 059 in 15 mm
E 059 in 15 mm
WJ W
H J F 031 in 8 mm
G 039 in 10 mm
L I i I
FII A 1
SPECIAL Bearing No1 Replacing Tool Governor Gear Holder Bushing Replacing Use to press out and to press fit the crank
Application Use to press out and to press fit the bearing No1 gear holder bushing
PRESS OUT PRESS FIT A 74 in 188 mm
A 531 in 135 mm 512 in 130 mm B 07 in 18 mm
B 283 in 72 mm 283 in 72 mm C 59 in 150 mm
C 157 rad 40 157 rad 40 0 C1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mm
0 039 in 10 mm 035 in 9 mm E 2909 2913 in dia 739 740 mm dia
E 079 in 20 mm 095 in 24 mm F 2748 2751 in dia 698 699 mm dia
F 079 in 20 mm 079 in dia 20 mm dia G 1181 in dia 30 mm dia
G 22362 22402 in dia 268 in dia H C2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mm
560 569 mm dia 68 mm dia
H 20393 20433 in dia 1865 1869 in dia D D
518 519 mm dia 4738 4748 mm dia
E F
1 I
rn A
Unlvarsal
TORQUES
NOTE Screws bolts and nuts must be tightened to the specified torque using a
torque wrench Some screws bolts and nuts such as those used on the cylin
der head must be tightened in a certain sequence and at the proper Torques for Specific Engine marked screws bolts and nuts in the table apply
engine oil to their threads and seats before tightening
COMPONENT SIZE x PITCH ftIb kgm Nm
Cylinder head cover cap nuts M7 x 10 51 65 07 09 69 88
Cylinder head bolts Ml0 x 125 470 506 65 70 637 686
Main bearing case bolts 1 M8 x 125 217 253 30 35 294 343
Main bearing case bolts 2 M9 x 125 362 398 50 55 490 539
Flywheel bolts Ml0 x 125 398 434 55 60 539 588
Connecting rod bolts M8 x 10 304 340 42 47 412 461
Rocker arm bracket nuts M7 x 10 159 195 22 27 216 265
Idler gear shaft bolts M6 x 10 72 83 100 115 98 113
Crankshaft end bolt M14 xl5 1736 1808 240 250 2354 2452
Bearing case cover screws M6 x 10 72 83 100 115 98 113
Glow plugs M8 x 10 58 108 08 15 78 147
Nozzle holder assembly M20 x 15 362 506 50 70 490 686
Oil switch taper screw PT 18 108 145 15 20 147 196
Injection line retaining nuts M12 x 15 181253 25 35 245 343
Overflow line assembly retaining nuts M12 x 15 145 181 20 25 196 245
Starters terminal B mounting nut M8 65 87 09 12 88 118
Apply engine oil to threads and seats before Torques for General
Use Screws Bolts and Nuts
When the tightening torques are not specified tighten the
screws bolts and nuts according to the following table
STANDARD SCREW AND BOLT SPECIAL SCREW AND BOLT
NOMINAL
DIAMETER GRADE GRADE j
ftIb kgm Nm ftIb kgm Nm
M6 58 69 08 095 79 93 723 832 10 115 98 113
M8 130 152 18 21 177 206 174 203 24 28 235 275
Ml0 289 333 40 46 392 451 354 412 49 57 481 559
M12 463 535 64 74 628 726 571 665 79 92 775 902
Screw and bolt material grades are shown by on the screw and bolt heads Prior to sure to check the numbers as shown below
Punched Number Screw and Bolt Material Grade
None or 4 Standard screw and bolt SS41 S20C
7 Special screw and bolt S43C S48C Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
STANDARD HARDWARE
BOLT HEAD MARKINGS
Bolt strength classes are embossed on the head of each bolt Metric bolt class numbers identify bolts by their strength with
109 the
1 Use the torque values listed below when specific torque values are flot available
2 These torques are based on clean dry threads Reduce torque by 10 when engine oil is used
3 Reduce torques by 30 or more when threading capscrews into aluminum
NUT TORQUE METRIC BOLE NUT tORQUE

SAE Grade 5 SAE Grade 67 SAE Grade 8
Capsrew Body Size Torque Torque Torque Boll Grade 46 Grade 48 Grade 88
98 Grade 109
Inches Thread Alb Nm FILb Nm Alb Nm Dia Wrench Size FIlb Nm FILb Nm FtLb Nm FILb Nm
14 20 8 11 10 14 12 16
28 10 14 14 19 M3 55mm 03 05 05 07 1 13 15 2
M4 7mm 08 11 1 15 2 3 3 45
51618 17 23 19 26 24 33 M5 8mm 15 25 2 3 45 6 65 9
24 19 26 27 37
38 16 31 42 34 46 44 60 M8 10mm 3 4 4 55 75 10 11 15
24 35 47 49 66 M9 13mm 7 95 10 13 18 25 35 26
716 14 49 66 55 75 70 95 Ml0 16mm 14 19 18 25 37 50 55 75
20 55 75 78 106
112 13 75 102 85 115 105142 M12 18mm 26 35 33 45 63 85 97 130
20 85 115 120163 M14 21 mm 37 50 55 75 103 140 151 205
M16 24 mm 59 80 85 115 159 215 232 315
911612 110 149 120 163 155 210
18 120163 170 231
M18 27mm 81 110 118160 225 305 321 435
5811 150 203 167 226 210 285 M20 30mm 118 160 166 225 321 435 457 620
18 170 231 240 325 M22 33mm 159 215 225 305 435 590 620 840
34 10 270 366 280 380 375 508
16 295 400 426569 M24 36mm 203 275 288 390 553 750 789 1070
M27 41 mm 295 400 417 565 811 1100 1154 1565
78 9 395 536 440 597 605 820 M30 46mm 402 545 568 770 1103 1495 1571 2130
14 435 590 675 915
1 8 590 800 660 895 910 1234 M33 51 mm 546 740 774 1050 1500 2035 2139 2900
14 660 895 990 1342 M36 55 mm 700 950 992 1345 1925 2610 12744 3720
SEALANTS Use LIQUID TEFLON for sealing pipe plugs and fillings that connect
coolant
passages Do not use tape sealants
Oil based PERMATEX 2 and its HIGH TACK equivalent are excellent all
purpose sealers They are effective in just about any joint in contact with
BOLTS raw water oil or fuel
Lightly oil head bolts and other fasteners as you assemble them Bolts and
A light coating of OIL or LIQUID TEFLON can be used on rubber gaskets
plugs that penetrate the water jacket should be sealed with PERMATEX 2 or
and Orings HIGH TACK
LOCTITE hydraulic red sealant should be used on oil adapter hoses and the oil
When assembling the flywheel coat the bolt threads with LOCTITE blue
filter assembly
Antiseize compounds and thread locking adhesives such as LOCTITE protect
Coat both surfaces of the oil pan gasket with high temp RED SILICONE sealer
threaded components yet allows them to came apart when installing gaskets that seal around water coolant passages coat both LOCTITE offers
levels of locking according to the job
sides with WHITE SILICONE grease
LITHIUM based grease is waterproof ideal for water pump bearings and ADHESIVE SPRAYS are useful for holding gaskets in position dur ing
boxes
ing assembly
Heavily oil all sliding and reciprocating components when assembng gasket sealers such as HYLOMAR work well in applications requir use
clean engine oil
ing nonhardening properties HYLOMAR is particlarly effective on
copper cylinderhead gaskets as it resists fuel oil and water
Univarsal
METRIC CONVERSIONS
INCHES TO MILLIMETERS MILLIMETERS TO INCHES
Inches mm Inches mm mm Inches mm Inches
1 2540 15 38100 1 00394 15 05906
2 5080 20 50800 2 00787 20 07874
3 7620 25 63500 3 01181 25 09843
4 10160 30 76200 4 01575 30 11811
5 12700 35 88900 5 01969 35 13780
10 25400 40 101600 10 03937 40 15748
10 MILLIMETERS 1 CENTIMETER 100 CENTIMETERS 1 METER 3937 INCHES 33 FEET
INCHES TO METERS METERS TO INCHES
Inches Meters Inches Meters Meters Inches Meters Inches
1 00254 7 01778 01 3937 07 27559
2 00508 8 02032 02 7874 08 31496
3 00762 9 02286 03 11811 09 35433
4 01016 10 02540 04 15748 10 39370
5 01270 11 02794 05 19685 11 43307
6 01524 12 03048 06 23622 12 47244
TO CONVERT METERS TO CENTIMETERS MOVE DECIMAL POINT TWO PLACES TO THE RIGHT
YARDS TO METERS METERS TO YARDS
Yards Meters Yards Meters Meters Yards Meters Yards
1 091440 6 548640 1 109361 6 656168
2 182880 7 640080 2 218723 7 765529
3 274320 8 731520 3 328084 8 874891
4 365760 9 822960 4 437445 9 984252
5 457200 10 914400 5 546807 10 1093614
MOVE DECIMAL POINT FOR HIGHER VALUES eg 6000 METERS 656168 YARDS
POUNDS TO KILOGRAMS KILOGRAMS TO POUNDS
Ib kg Ib kg kg Ib kg Ib
1 0454 6 2722 1 2205 6 13228
2 0907 7 3175 2 4409 7 15432
3 1361 8 3629 3 6614 8 17637
4 1814 9 4082 4 8818 9 19842
5 2268 10 4536 5 11023 10 22046
GALLONS TO LITERS LITERS TO Liters Gallons Liters Liters Gallons Liters
Gallons
1 379 10 3786 1 026 60 1566
2 757 20 7571 2 053 90 2377
3 1136 30 11357 5 132 120 3132
4 1514 40 15142 10 264 150 3962
5 1893 50 18928 20 528 180 4754
PINTS TO LITERS LITERS TO PINTS
Pints Liters Pints Liters Liters Pints Liters Pints
1 047 6 284 1 211 6 1268
2 095 7 331 2 423 7 1479
3 142 8 379 3 634 8 1691
4 189 9 426 4 845 9 1902
5 237 10 473 5 1057 10 2113
TEMPERATURE
32 40 50 60 70 75 85 95 105 140 175 212 OF
I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 60 80 100 C
22 106
STANDARD AND METRIC CONVERSION Inches in x 254 Millimeters mm x 0394 Inches
Feet ft x 305 Meters m x 3281 Feet
Miles x 1609 Kilometers km x 0621 Cubic Inches inl x 16387 Cubic Centimters x 061 inl
Imperial Pints IMP pt x 568 Liters L x 176 IMP pt
Imperial Quarts IMP qt x 1137 Liters L x88 IMP qt
Imperial Gallons IMP gal x 4546 Liters L x 22 IMP gal
Imperial Quarts IMP qt x 1201 US Quarts US qt x 833 IMP qt
Imperial Gallons IMP gal x 1201 US Gallons US gal x 833 IMP gal
Fluid Ounces x 29573 Milliliters x 034 Ounces
US Pints US pt x 473 LitersL x 2113 Pints
US Quarts US qt x 946 Liters L x 1057 Quarts
US Gallons US gal x 3785 Liters L x 264 Ounces oz x 2835 Grams g x 035 Ounces
Pounds I b x 454 Kilograms kg x 2205 Pounds Per Sq In psi x 6895 Kilopascals kPa x 145 psi
Inches of Mercury Hg x 4912 psi x 2036 Hg
Inches of Mercury Hg x 3377 Kilopascals kPa x 2961 Hg
Inches otWater H20 x 07355 Inches of Mercury x 13783 H20
Inches of Water H20 x 03613 psi x 27684 H20
Inches of Water H20 x 248 Kilopascals kPa x 4026 H20
TORQUE
PoundsForce Inches inIb x 113 Newton Meters Nm x 885 inIb
PoundsForce Feet ftIb x 1356 Newton Meters Nm x 738 Miles Per Hour MPH x 1609 Kilometers Per Hour KPH x 621 MPH
POWER
Horsepower Hp x 745 Kilowatts Kw x 134 MPH
FUEL CONSUMPTION
Miles Per Hour IMP MPG x 354 Kilometers Per Liter KmL
Kilometers Per Liter KmL x 2352 IMP MPG
Miles Per Gallons US MPG x 425 Kilometers Per Liter KmL
Kilometers Per Liter KmL x 2352 US Degree Fahrenheit OF OC X 18 32
Degree Celsius 0C OF 32 x 56
INDEX
Admiral Control PaneL 63 94 Exhaust Manifold 2247
Air Intake 23 Flywheel 20 22 23 Fuel Camshaft 1926
Mando 72 Fuel System
Presto lite 82 Description 56
Alternator Bracket 23 60
Anode Zinc 53 56 58
Back Plate 22 Injection Nozzle 57 60 62
Bearing Case 30 Injection Pump 56 60 22 Injectors 23 24 56 62
Belt Adjustment 45 Lift Pump 56 58
Camshaft 1935 60
Camshaft 28 Return Lines 2356
Captain Control PaneL 64 94 Service Test 6 44 Gear Case 25
Connecting Rod 19 28 29 36 37 Gears 28
Control Panel AdmiraL 63 94 Glow Plug 67
Control Panel Captain 64 94 58
Control Panel 65 66 Fork 27
Coolant Pump 25 52 55 Shaft 27
Coolant Recovery Tank 53 Heat 22 53
Cooling System 63
Description 52 Hurth HBW Transmissions 98
Service 54 Idler Gear Bushing 36
Crankcase Breather Hose 23 Idler Gear No1 28 18 30 38 Idle Speed Adjustment 46 65
Crankshaft Bearing No 1 40 Injection Pump 26 4142 Intake Manifold 23
Cylinder Block 18 Key Switch 63 64
Cylinder Head 18 23 24 32 Lubrication Head Bolts 43 Description 48
Cylinder Head 24 Service 50
Damper Plate 22 Main Bearing Case 31
DC Electrical System 94 Mando Alternator Service 72
DC 63 Metric Conversions 106 lO7
Drive Belt Adjustment 45 Nozzle Holder
Oil
Adjustments 43 49
Description 18 Pan 28
2122 Pan 28
Overhaul 2 Pressure 44 50
Parts 3 Pressure Alarm 63
2122 Pressure Gauge 63 66
Service 32 Pressure 50 94
4 Pressure Switch 49 50
7 Pump 49 50
continued
INDEX
Oil Clearance Testing for Overhaul 6
Camshaft Journal 36 Thermostat 23525494
Crankpin Crankpin Bearing 38 Timing Gears 35
Crankshaft Journal Crankshaft Bearing No 1 39 Top Clearance 43
Crankshaft Journal Torques
Crankshaft Bearings No2 No3 40 Standard Hardware 105
Idler Gear Shaft Idler Gear Bushing 36 Universal Engine 104
Piston Pin Connecting Rod Small End Bushing 36 Transmission Hurth 2198
Rocker Arm Shaft Bearing 34 Damper Plate 22
Tappet Tappet Guide Bore 35 Oil Coolers 100
Parts 3 Removal 22
Piston and Piston Rings 18 28 29 36 37 99
Preheat Button 63 64 Alternator Service 82
Control Panel 67
Coolant 25 52 55 Engine 7
Fuel Lift 56 58 Transmission 101
Injection 56 60 61 Valves 2325
Oil 50 Clearance Adjustment 43
Raw 52 54 Guide 34
Push Rod 24 34 Lapping 33
Raw Water Pump 52 54 Recession 32
Relief Valve 49 Seating 33
Rocker Arm and Shaft 19 24 34 Spring 34
RPM Gauge 6364 Stem to Valve Guide Clearance 32
Sealants and Lubricants 105 Water Standards 15 Alarm 63
Special Tools 102 Gauge 63 4 52 94
Speed Control Pate 25 Switch 52
Standard Hardware 105 Wiring Button 63 64 Wiring Diagram 39144 94
Starter 22 30 68 Wiring Schematic 39144 95
Starter Service 68 Wiring Diagram 200360 Catalina yachts 96
Stop Solenoid 25 Wiring Schematic 200360 Catalina yachts 46 63 64 65 Zinc Anode 53
Tappets 24 35
Test Button 64
22 109

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Disclaimer:
The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.