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Stainless Steel Primer




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S TA I N L E S S
STEEL
PRIMER
Stainless
Steel
Value
Option
WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL GENERAL steel is an ironbased metal that has at least MECHANICAL chromium Other alloying
elements such as Hardness Tensile Strength Yield Strength molybdenum manganese can
be added as Rb 1000 Psi 02 1000 Psi in 2 in
well as additional amounts of chromium to achieve 304316 7883 8085 3042
corrosion resistance and physical properties 430 8085 7075 4050 3035
410 8082 7075 3545 2535
WHY DOESNT IT RUST
409 75 65 35 25
Stainless steel does not RUST red rust that one
normally sees on carbon steel is iron oxide because
it contains chromium and has a very low carbon STAINLESS TYPE 430 SIZES AND compared to mild
steel The chromium UNS S43000 with oxygen in the air to form a very 430 is a
straight chromium type stainless no nickel Stainless steel manufacturers produce many surface film that resists further oxidation No with 16
chromium It has less corrosion resistance sizes and shapes of stainless steel Flat products
iron is oxidized therefore no red rust than the 300 series Like the 300 series 430 cannot be called sheets are available in
thickness from under
hardened by heat treatment but it is magnetic 0375 inches down to about 0020 inches either as
THE MOST POPULAR KINDS
STAINLESS TYPE 410 cut sheets or as wrapped coils Material under 0020
OF STAINLESS STEEL
UNS S41000 inches is usually called foil and can be made down
There are over 100 different kinds of stainless steel
410 is a straight chromium grade with less chromium to 0001 inches Sheets are usually wider than 18
but only about 5 grades are the most popular For
than 430 about 115 Because it has less inches and can be made up to 60 inches wide information please refer to the SSINA
chromium it has somewhat less corrosion resistance under 18 inches are called strip and are Design Guidelines for the Selection and
than 430 but this grade can be hardened by heat available in the same thickness as sheet Flat products
Use of Stainless Steel
treatment It is also magnetic with thickness of 0375 inches and over are TYPE 304
plates They are available up to about 10 inches
STAINLESS TYPE 409
UNS S30400 thick and usually 96 or 120 inches
wide Long
UNS S40900
By far the most popular grade of stainless steel is products are round square
rectangular hexagon or
This grade contains the lowest level of chromium at
304 The 300 series designation tells one that the octagon from 01875 inches in
thickness and up
105 It is also is composed basically of 18 chromium and Wire products are
generally round in size from 0703
8 nickel It is nonmagnetic and cannot be hardened to 0003 inches Tubular products
from 01875 inches
by heat treatment Sometimes referred to as 188 pipes from 0125 inches and angled
products TYPE 316 150 inches are also S31600
The next most popular stainless for general corrosion CORROSION is 316 It also
consists of chromium 16 Generally resists corrosion in the atmosphere and in
and nickel 10 but also contains 2 molybdenum water environments most acids alkaline
solutions
The additional alloying increases the resistance to salt and some chlorine bearing
FIRE HEAT RESISTANCE
Resistant to major deformation at temperatures up to
1000 F
HYGIENE
Extremely easy to clean with biodegradable soap and
water Does not alter the taste of FINISHES AVAILABLE SUPERIOR STRENGTHTO
WEIGHT RATIO
SHEET STRIP
The strength of many stainless steels can be increased
No 1 is a rough dull finish that results from hot rolling by thereby providing higher strength
No 2D is a dull finish generally used where the surface appearance is of little concern at lower weight
No 2B is a bright finish with some reflectivity It is a general purpose finish used as is or it is
IMPACT as a basis for subsequent polished finishes
The 300 series provides high toughness from elevated
No 4 is a polished bright surface with reasonable reflectivity although it contains visible grit temperatures to far below which prevent mirror
6 is a dull satin finish with less reflectivity than a No 4 RECYCLABLE
Stainless steel is 100 recyclable Recycled material
No 7 is a highly reflective surface finish but still maintains some light grit lines is used in over 65 of all new stainless products
No 8 is the most reflective standard finish with a mirrorlike
GREEN Stainless steel is a Green
material as Rolled is a rough surface with the annealing scale left on Generally not recommended for by the evaluation of stainless steel
using the following
use in this condition critical environmental Rolled Annealed
Pickled or blast cleaned is the commonly preferred finish with the scale ENVIRONMENTAL from the hot rolled surface by acid etching or blasting
Developing an environmental policy is one of the most
important components of environment Rolled Annealed Pickled and Cold Rolled is a smoother finish with less Many of the
North American producers of steel have such a policy SSINA member
companies
are committed to operating their facilities in
compliance with applicable federal state and local
Hot Worked Only is a surface where the scale is left on after hot rolling environmental laws and Worked Rough Turned
is a surface where the scale has been removed by turning the ENVIRONMENTAL in a lathe or grinding machine
SYSTEMS
SSINA member companies have Rolled Pickled or blast cleaned Pickled is where the surface has been cleaned of scale
environmental affairs departments analogous to the
by acid etching or blasting
marketing and finance departments that Only is a surface where the scale is left on after hot rolling and annealing environmental
issues
MATERIALS ENERGY AND WATER Rough Turned is the same as hot worked and rough turned but the bar has been
annealed to make the structure more ductile The use of these vital resources is closely
monitored
The major raw material for the production of Pickled or blast cleaned Pickled is where the surface has been cleaned of scale steel is
recycled stainless steel scrap from within the
by acid etching or blasting after annealing plants themselves and from customers and Cold
Drawn or Cold Rolled is where the surface is smooth because it has been drawn after a long useful life in the marketplace a die or rolled
through polished rolls byproducts are collected and reclaimed Electric
furnaces that melt the stainless steel are Centerless Ground is where the surface has been ground to remove some
art with computer controls to ensure efficient use of
of the surface area similar to ground flat sheet surface
electric power Water which is mainly used as a
Annealed Polished is where the surface has been polished to bright finish cooling medium is recycled up to 100 times
prior
to POLLUTION Drawn is a smooth surface with the
residual drawing lubricant left on The air emissions from the electric melting and
Cold Drawn and Clean has a smooth surface free of residual drawing lubricants refining furnaces are collected via a series of
ducts
and hoods then routed to a high efficiency filter where
Diamond Drawn is a bright smooth surface produced with diamond drawing dies and wet
drawing Quality EPQ has a smooth surface for producing a bright finish after particles are collected and the metals recovered MACHINABILITY
FOR MORE air emissions from the cleaning operations are Stainless steels can be machined however the
You can contact us through our Web and routed to a fume scrubber to remove gummy nature of the material makes the standard
wwwssinacom and acid mist grades difficult Several specially developed stainless The
following free SSINA publications can be ordered
For further information please refer to the SSINA grades exist that have been altered to provide excellent or downloaded by visiting the
Publications Stainless Steel The Green Material machining Type 303 is the machining Whats New section of the ssinacom web site
equivalent of type 304
GENERAL INFORMATION Stainless Steel
SPECIAL FINISHES COLOR Stainless Steel for steel can be fabricated by methods
similar to In addition to the standard finishes there are several Stainless Steel Architectural Facts
those used for carbon steel and other common metals special finishes that are available for stainless steel Stainless Steel for Wall Ties
Stone changes may be necessary to the extent that Finishes can be rolledon embossed or etched in a Masonry Fastening Systems
they differ in yield strength and rate of work wide variety of patterns and designs Very different for Stainless All stainless
steels have a work hardening and remarkable finishes can be achieved by Stainless Steel higher than carbon steel the 300
series 304 mechanical treatments to the surface to provide Standard Practices for Stainless Steel
316 are characterized by large increases in strength interesting textures and patterns including Stainless Steel for Handrails
Railings
and hardness when cold worked For example if one perforations knitting weaving and cutting and Barrier cut or shear a piece
of carbon steel 040 inches in expanding the material Stainless can be colored by The Care and Cleaning of Stainless then the equipment used
to cut will only be coloring sputtering plating and by Stainless Steel in Water Handling Delivery Systems
able to shear a piece of stainless steel 020 inches in using resinbased paints Stainless Steel for Structural
Every time a piece of stainless steel is bent For further information please refer to the SSINA Stainless Steel for Superior Fire Heat
Resistance
or a saw blade passes over the surface the material publication Special Finishes for Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Rebar for
Construction increase in hardness and become stiffer Stainless Stainless Steel The
Green also tend to springback after being bent to a AVAILABILITY
Why Stainless Steel
much greater extent than mild steel It is therefore Stainless steel is produced in North America by several Environmental Brochure on
Stainless to over bend stainless to obtain the desired companies A list with Web sites is provided on the Special Finishes for Stainless
Steel
bend Care in the shop is extremely important when back page Directory of Stainless Steel
Products for stainless steel Care should be taken to Many Steel Service Centers stock and process the surface of the
material plastic film is stainless steel For a partial list refer to the Sponsors Design Guidelines for the on certain finishes and should be
left on listing on the back page For a complete listing of and Use of Stainless Steel
during processing Contact with carbon tools or steel service centers contact the Steel Service Center Stainless Steel for Residential
equipment should be prevented as the Institute at 7738671300 or ssciorg Standard Practices for Stainless Steel
steel can pickup carbon particles which will Flashing Copings
lodge in the surface and subsequently will rust If you PRICE red rust on the surface of stainless steel it is Pricing of stainless steel has
generally been below the
probably from some source of such as CPI index for other metals and while dependent on
the use of a steel brush steel wool or the surface of the price of the main alloying elements such as nickel
the stainless steel was dragged over a carbon steel and chromium has not significantly increased in the
support member past few years
For further information please refer to the SSINA Data provided by Stainless Steel
Price for Stainless Steel vs steel can be welded as easily as carbon steel 180
300
175 250
but the process is different Stainless steel electrodes
must be used and currents and cooling techniques are 165 200
not the same 160 150
For detailed information on welding stainless steel 155 100
SS Index
please contact the American Welding Society 145 50
140 0
J 96 J 98 J 01
SOME TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
Roofing
Flashings
Wall ties for masonry
This primer has been developed by the Specialty Steel Industry of North Doors windows
Entry ways
SSINA to help the novice or lay person understand some of the
Lobby walls ceilings
and uses of stainless steel It is intended to be a beginning
Food processing equipment
Wine tanks
in learning about stainless steel and is not particularly SSINA Fast food equipment
Hospital equipment
has other publications that go into further detail on stainless steel They are Oil Gas processing equipment
throughout this primer and a complete listing is provided at the end INDUSTRIAL
Farm equipment
Animal feeding equipment
of this publication Fertilizer
Aircraft parts
Pumps and shafts
Filters
Chemical Computer chip processing
RESIDENTIAL
Kitchen appliances
Sinks counter tops
Fireplace fronts liners
BBQ grills outdoor kitchens
Washer fronts and interior drums
Furniture
Cooking utensils
Tableware
MEDICAL
Implants
Hospital equipment
Orthodontic fixtures
Sutures
Tools
MARINE
Boat hardware
Propellers
Safety lines
Rigging
Dock hardware

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