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  SERVICE MANUAL
     55A FOUR
MARINE DIESEL ENGINE



        PUBLICATION #43377
      1st Edition / September 1998




        WESTCRBEKE CORPORATION· MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
       150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319 U.S.A.
                     CALIFORNIA
              PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
       Diesel engine exhaust and some
       of its constituents are known to
       the State of California to cause
       cancer, birth defects, and other
       reproductive harm.




                     A WARNING
Exhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide, an odorless and
colorless gas. Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can cause
unconsciousness and death. Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide
exposure can include:
-Dizziness                   - Throbbing in Temples
-Nausea                      - Muscular Twitching
-Headache                    - Vomiting
- Weakness and Sleepiness -Inability to Think Coherently

IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS,
GET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY. «symptoms persist,
seek medical attention. Shut down the unit and do not restart
until it has been inspected and repaired.
                                            SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

INTRODUCTION                                                         PREVENT BURNS - FIRE
Read these safety instructions carefully. Most accidents are
caused by failure to follow furuklmental rules and precau-
tions. Know when dangerous conditions exist and take the
                                                                      A WARNING: Fire can cause injury or death!
necessary precautions to protect yourself, your personne~
and your machinery.                                                  · Prevent flash fires. Do not smoke or permit flames or
                                                                        sparks to occur near the carburetor, fuel line, filter, fuel
The following safety instructions are in complWnce with                 pump, or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel
the American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) staruklrds.                  vapors. Use a suitable container to catch all fuel when
                                                                        removing the fuel line, carburetor, or fuel filters.
PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK                                               · Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved flame
                                                                        arrester removed. Backfire can cause severe injury or
                                                                        death.
 A WARNING: Do not touch AC electrical connections                   · Do not operate with the air cleaner/silencer removed.
 while engine is running, or when connected to shore
 power. Lethal voltage is present at these connections!                 Backfire can cause severe injury or death.
                                                                     · Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near the
· Do not operate this machinery without electrical                      fuel system. Keep the compartment and the engine/gener-
  enclosures and covers in place.                                       ator clean and free of debris to minimize the chances of
                                                                        fire. Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil.
· Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical
   equipment.                                                        · Be aware - diesel fuel will bum.
· Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical                  PREVENT BURNS - EXPLOSION
   equipment.
· Make sure your clothing and skin are dry, not damp
  (particularly shoes) when handling electrical equipment.            A WARNING: Explosions from fuel vapors can cause
                                                                      injury or death!
· Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
   electrical equipment.
                                                                     · Follow re-fueling safety instructions. Keep the vessel's
· Do not connect utility shore power to vessel's AC                     hatches closed when fueling. Open and ventilate cabin
  circuits, except through a ship-to-shore double throw                 after fueling. Check below for fumes/vapor before run-
   transfer switch. Damage to vessel's AC generator may                 ning the blower. Run the blower for four minutes before
   result if this procedure is not followed.                            starting your engine.
· Electrical shock results from handling a charged capacitor.
                                                                     · All fuel vapors are highly explosive. Use extreme care when
   Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together.                  handling and storing fuels. Store fuel in a well-ventilated
PREVENT BURNS - HOT ENGINE                                              area away from spark-producing equipment and out of
                                                                        the reach of children.
                                                                     · Do not fill the fuel tank(s) while the engine is running.
 A WARNING: Do not touch hot engine parts or                         · Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing
  exhaust system components. A running engine gets
                                                                        the fuel system. Take care in catching any fuel that might
  very hot!
                                                                        spill. DO NOT allow any smoking, open flames, or other
                                                                        sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servic-
· Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant                  ing. Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the
   recovery tank.                                                       fuel system.
                                                                     · Do not alter or modify the fuel system.
 A WARNING:         Steam can cause injury or death!                 · Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve.
                                                                     · Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and
· In case of an engine overheat, allow the engine to cool              free of leaks.
   before touching the engine or checking the coolant.               · Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is
                                                                       properly maintained. Be familiar with its proper use.
                                                                       Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate
                                                                       for all applications encountered in this environment.




                                                          Engines & Generators
                                                                 i
                                             SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

ACCIDENTAL STARTING                                                     TOXIC EXHAUST GASES

 A WARNING: Accidental starting can cause injury                         A WARNING:         CarbDn mDnDxide (CO) is a deadly gas!
 Dr death!
                                                                        · Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
· Disconnect the battery cables before servicing the engine/               discharged from the engine. Check the exhaust system
   generator. Remove the negative lead first and reconnect                 regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifolds
   it last.                                                                are securely attached and no warping exists. Pay close
                                                                           attention to the manifold, water injection elbow, and
· Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before                exhaust pipe nipple.
  starting.
                                                                        · Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated.
· Make certain all covers, guards, and hatches are re-
  installed before starting the engine.                                 · In addition to routine inspection of the exhaust system,
                                                                           install a carbon monoxide detector. Consult your boat
BAnERY EXPLOSION                                                           builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors.
                                                                        · For additional information refer to ABYC T-22 (educa-
 A WARNING: Battery explDsiDn can cause injury                             tional information on Carbon Monoxide).
 Dr death!


· Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
                                                                         A WARNING:       CarbDn mDnDxide (CO) is an invisible
                                                                         DdDrless gas. InhalatiDn prDduces flu-like symptDms,
  being serviced. Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen, a                   nausea Dr death!
  highly explosive gas, which can be ignited by electrical
  arcing or by lit tobacco products. Shut off all electrical
                                                                        · Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems. Diesel
  equipment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing dur-
                                                                          fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust sys-
  ing servicing.                                                          tems. Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of copper
· Never connect the negative (-) battery cable to the posi-               tubing resulting in exhaust/water leakage.
  tive (+) connection terminal of the starter solenoid. Do              · Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
   not test the battery condition by shorting the terminals                through portholes, vents, or air conditioners. If the engine
  together. Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapors.              exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline, water could
  Ventilate any compartment containing batteries to prevent                enter the exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
  accumulation of explosive gases. To avoid sparks, do not                 flow of exhaust. Avoid overloading the craft.
   disturb the battery charger connections while the battery
  is being charged.                                                     · Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as toxic as
                                                                           exhaust fumes from gasoline engines, carbon monoxide
· Avoid contacting the terminals with tools, etc., to prevent              gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes. Some of the symp-
   burns or sparks that could cause an explosion. Remove                   toms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or poison-
   wristwatch, rings, and any other jewelry before handling                ing are:
   the battery.
                                                                              Vomiting
· Always turn the battery charger off before disconnecting                    Dizziness
  the battery connections. Remove the negative lead first
   and reconnect it last when servicing the battery.                          Throbbing in temples
BAnERYACID                                                                     Muscular twitching
                                                                               Intense headache

 A WARNING: Sulphuric acid in batteries can cause                             Weakness and sleepiness
 severe injury Dr death!                                                AVOID MOVING PARTS
· When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
  level, wear rubber gloves, a rubber apron, and eye protec-             A WARNING: Rotating parts can cause injury
  tion. Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is destructive. If         Dr death!
  it comes in contact with your skin, wash it off at once
  with water. Acid may splash on the skin or into the eyes              · Do not service the engine while it is running. If a situation
  inadvertently when removing electrolyte caps.                           arises in which it is absolutely necessary to make operat-




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                   ii
                                            SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
   ing adjustments, use extreme care to avoid touching                ABYC, NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR
   moving parts and hot exhaust system components.
                                                                      INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES
· Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing                Read the following ABYC, NFPA and USCG publications
  equipment; avoid wearing loose jackets, shirts, sleeves,            for safety codes and standards. Follow their recommenda-
   rings, necklaces or bracelets that could be caught in              tions when installing your engine.
   moving parts.                                                      ABYC (American Boat and Yacht Council)
· Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened.             "Safety Standards for Small Craft"
  Keep protective shields and guards in their respective                Order From:
  places at all times.
                                                                        ABYC
· Do not check fluid levels or the drive belt's tension while           3069 Solomon's Island Rd.
  the engine is operating.                                              Edgewater, MD 21037
· Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling         NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
   when the engine is running; hair and clothing can easily           "Fire Protection Standard for Motor Craft"
   be caught in these rotating parts.
                                                                        Order From:
HAZARDOUS NOISE                                                         NFPA
                                                                        11 Tracy Drive
 A WARNING: High noise levels can cause hearing                         Avon Industrial Park
                                                                        Avon, MA 02322
 loss!
                                                                      USCG (United States Coast Guard)
                                                                      "USCG 33CFR183"
· Never operate an engine without its muffler installed.
                                                                        Order From:
· Do not run an engine with the air intake (silencer)
                                                                        U.S. Government Printing Office
  removed.
                                                                        Washington, D.C. 20404
· Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures
  open.


 A WARNING:       00 not work on machinery when you
 are mentally or physically incapacitated by fatigue!

OPERATORS MANUAL
Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
notes to highlight critical information. Read your manual
carefully, maintain your equipment, and follow all safety
procedures.

ENGINE INSTALLATIONS
Preparations to install an engine should begin with a thor-
ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht Council's
(ABYC) standards. These standards are a combination of
sources including the USCG and the NFPA.
Sections of the ABYC standards of particular interest are:
      H-2 Ventilation
      P-1 Exhaust systems
      P-4 Inboard engines
      E-9 DC Electrical systems
All installations must comply with the Federal Code of
Regulations (FCR).




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                iii
                             INSTALLATION
When installing WESTERBEKE engines and generators it is important that strict
attention be paid to the following infonnation:

CODES AND REGULATIONS
Strict federal regulations, ABYC guidelines, and safety codes must be complied with
when installing engines and generators in a marine environment.

SIPHON-BREAK
For installations where the exhaust manifold/water injected exhaust elbow is close to
or below the vessel's waterline, provisions must be made to install a siphon-break in
the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow. This hose must be looped a minimum
of 18" above the vessel's waterline. Failure to use a siphon-break when the exhaust
manifold injection port is at or below the load waterline will result in raw water
damage to the engine and possible flooding of the boat.

EXHAUST SYSTEM
The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use. The system must be designed to
prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any angle
of the vessels hull.


       A detailed 40 page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and
       diesel, engines and generators, is available from your WESTERBEKE
       dealer.




                                 Engines & Generators

                                        iv
                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    2
55A FOUR Specifications .............................                                           4
Parts Identification ..................................                                         5
Testing for Overhaul .................................                                          6
Engine Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             7
Engine Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..          11
Engine Inspection and Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..                 16
Engine Reassembly .............. :...................                                          26
Engine Adjustments .................................                                           42
Glow Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..    51
Lubrication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..          52
Remote Oil Filter (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..              57
Coolant Pump ......................................                                            58
Raw Water Pump ...................................                                             59
Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..        60
Intake/Exhaust Manifold .............................                                          61
Tachometer ........................................                                            62
Starter Motor ......................................                                           63
DC Electrical System/Alternator .......................                                        67
DC Electrical System - Wiring Diagram ................                                         70
DC Electrical System - Wiring Schematic .... . . . . . . . . . ..                              71
Transmissions ......................................                                           72
Service Standards ...................................                                          73
Metric Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..          77
55A FOUR Torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..             78
Standard Hardware Torques, General Screws, Sealants " . ..                                     79
Index................................. .............                                           80




                                       Engines & Generators

                                                1
                                                     INTRODUCTION
ENGINE OVERHAUL                                                        CUSTOMER IDENTIFICATION CARD
This service manual contains detailed information relating to
the overhaul of the 55A FOUR Diesel Engine. For the major
overhaul procedure, refer to the ENGINE DISASSEMBLY,
                                                                          1-WV-IWESIE'RBEKE
ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR, and ENGINE
REASSEMBLY sections. Additional service information for
                                                                                     I
                                                                       Customer Identification
specific components and systems may be found by referring
to the Table of Contents and the Index. Refer also to your             MR. ENGINE OWNER
WESTERBEKE Parts Catalog.                                              MAIN STREET
These service procedures are intended for the guidance of              HOMETOWN, USA
suitably equipped and staffed marine engine service and                Model 55A FOUR                     Ser. #UOOOO-D702
rebuilding facilities, and should only be undertaken by such-          Expires 4/4/98
facilities and their personnel.

PRODUCT SOFTWARE                                                       The WESTERBEKE engine serial number is an alphanu-
                                                                       meric number that can assist in determining the date of man-
Product software (tech data, parts lists, manuals, brochures
                                                                       ufacture of your WESTERBEKE engine. The manufacturer's
and catalogs) provided from sources other than WESTER-
                                                                       date code is placed at the end of the engine serial number and
BEKE are not within WESTERBEKE'S control.
                                                                       consists of a character followed by three numbers. The char-
WESTERBEKE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE                               acter indicates the decade (A=1960s, B=1970s, 0=1980s,
CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE, MAKES NO WAR-                                D=1990s), the first number represents the year in the decade,
RANTIES OR REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT                                and the second and third numbers represent the month of
THERETO, INCLUDING ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR                             manufacture.
COMPLETENESS THEREOF AND WILL IN NO EVENT
BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR INJURY                             ORDERING PARTS/SERIAL NUMBER LOCATION
INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT                             Whenever replacement parts are needed, always provide the
OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.                             engine model number and engine serial number as they
WESTERBEKE customers should also keep in mind the                      appear on the silver and black identification nameplate
time span between printings of WESTERBEKE product soft-                located on the side of the manifold. The engine serial number
ware and the unavoidable existence of earlier WESTER-                  can also be found stamped into the engine block just above
BEKE manuals. Product software provided with                           the injection pump.You must provide us with this informa-
WESTERBEKE products, whether from WESTERBEKE or                        tion so we may properly identify your engine. In addition,
other suppliers, must not and cannot be relied upon exclu-             include a complete part description and part number for each
sively as the definitive authority on the respective product. It       part needed (see the separately furnished Parts List). Also
not only makes good sense but is imperative that appropriate           insist upon WESTERBEKE packaged parts because will fit
representatives of WESTERBEKE or the supplier in question              or generic parts are frequently not made to the same specifi-
be consulted to determine the accuracy and currentness of the          cations as original equipment.
product software being consulted by the customer.                      NOTE: Component locations in this manual are referenced
NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS                                           from the front of the engine which is the pulley/drive belt end.
                                                                       Left and right sides are determined as follows: imagine
As this manual takes you through the service procedures and            straddling the engine, facing in the same direction as the
troubleshooting of your marine engine, critical information            front of the engine: the left side is at your left, the right side
will be highlighted by NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS.                  is at your right.
An explanation follows:
                                                                       Owners may find it convenient to fill in the engine identifica-
NOTE: An operating procedure essential to note.                        tion nameplate shown below to provide a quick reference
                                                                       when using this service manual
 A CAUTION: Procedures. which if not strictly
 observed. can result in the damage or destruction of
 your engine.


 A WARNING: Procedures, which if not properly fol-
 lowed. can result in personal injury or loss of life.




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                   2
                                 INTRODUCTION




                                  55A FOUR DIESEL ENGINE




     SPRING RETAINER



                                                                        INJECTION NOZZLE

 CYLINOER HEAD BOLT
                                                               , PRE-CHAMBER
LOWER SPRING SEAT


                       t:jJ..I...-r~~~~r===d~~~~~~;;;:~~--'--- COMBUSTION
                                                                  CHAMBER INSERT




                                     Engines & Generators

                                            3
                                              55A FOUR SPECIFICATIONS
                ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS                                                            COOLING SYSTEM
Engine Type                Diesel, four-cycle, four-cylinder, fresh-        General                 Freshwater-cooled block, thermostati-
                           water-cooled, vertical, in-line (55 hp at                                cally controlled with raw water
                           3600 rpm maximum)                                                        exchanger system
Governor                   Integral with the injection pump,                Operating Temperature 170 - 190°F (77 - 88°C)
                           mechanical centrifugal flyweight type            Coolant Pump            Centrifugal type, metal impeller, belt-
Valve Mechanism            Direct drive, OHC                                                        driven
Combustion Chamber         Swirl chamber type                               Raw Water Pump           Positive displacement, rubber impeller,
                                                                                                     belt driven
Bore and Stroke            3.38 x 3.70 inches (86.0 x 94.0 mm)
                                                                            Raw Water Flow,         16.0 gpm (60.5 Ipm) approximate
Piston Displacement        133.2 cubic inches (2.18 liters)                 at 3600 rpm
Firing Order               1-3-4-2                                          (measured before discharg-
Direction of Rotation      Clockwise, when viewed from the front            ing into exhaust elbow)
                           of the engine (pulley drive belt end)            Coolant System Capacity 9.5 U.S. qts (9.0 liters)
Maximum Torque             931b-ft (12.9 kg-m)
(at 1920 rpm)                                                                                  ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Compression Ratio          22.7:1                                           Starting Battery           12-volt DC, (-) negative ground
Compression Pressure       426 psi (30 kg/cm2) at 200 rpm                   BaHery Capacity            300 - 400 Cold cranking amps (CCA)
Valve Seat Angle           Intake 45°, Exhaust 45°                                                     (min.)
Valve Clearance            Intake .008 - 0.012 in. (0.20 - 0.30mm)          Starter Motor              12-volt, 1.6kw, SOlenoid, actuated shift
(engine cold)              Exhaust 0.012-0.016 in. (0.30-0.40 mm)                                      reduction gear
Dimensions                 Height: 26.78 inches (680.2 mm)                  Starting Aid               12 volt sheathed type glow plug
                           Width: 50.0 inches (546.1 mm)                    DC No-Load Current         100 amps at 11.5 volts (3000 rpm,
                           Length: 35.0 inches (889.0 mm)                                              min.)
InClination                Continuous 14°; Temporary 25°                    Cold Cranking Current      280 - 300 amps at 10 volts (250 rpm,
                           (not to exceed 30')                                                         min.)
Dry Weight                 470 Ibs (213.2 kgs)                              Alternator (standard)      12-volt, DC, 50 amps
Engine Speed               Idle speed: 750 -1000 rpm                        Regulator                  Internal regulator, built into alternator
                           Cruising speed: 2500 - 3000 rpm
Fuel Consumption           1.5 U.S. gph (5.6 Iph) running at 2500                                   TRANSMISSION
                           rpm (approximate) when the propeller
                           allows 3600 rpm at full open throttle            General                    (Hurth Standard Transmission) Case-
                           while underway in forward gear                                              hardened helical gears, with a servo-
                                                                                                       operated multiple disc clutch.
                                                                            Gear ratio (standard)      2.74: 1 (HBW250 - 3R)
                          FUEL SYSTEM                                       Propell er Shaft           Right handed - standard transmission
Fuel                       No.2 diesel oil                                  Direction of Rotation
                           (cetane rating of 45 or higher)                  Propeller                  20 D x 13 P- 2 blade or 200 x 11 P- 3
Injection Pump             Zexel mechanical governed                        Recommendations            blade propeller should allow the engine
Injection Timing           OOTDC                                            (using standard            to reach its full rated rpm (3600 + 000
                                                                            transmission               - 100) at full open throttle while under-
Injectors                  Throttle type                                    2.74:1 reduction)          way in forward gear.
Injection Pressure         1920 psi + 71 psi                                Lubricating Fluid          ATF- type A or Dextron -/I or 11/
                           (135 kg/cm2 + 5 kg/cm2)
                                                                            Transmission Sump          0.79 U.S. qts (0.75 liters) approximate
Lift Pump                  12 volt - plunger type
Fuel Filter (on engine)    Spin-on type (replaceable)
Fuel Supply and            .250 in (.635 mm) 1.0. minimum
  Return Piping            .375 in (.925 mm) 1.0. maximum                   Oil Pump               Crescent type directly driven by the.
Air Cleaner                Replaceable paper filter element                                        crankshaft.
Air Flow                                                                    Oil Filter             Full flow, paper element, spin-on type
(engine combustion)        140 cfm (3.9 cmm) at 3600 rpm                    Lube Oil Cooler        Fresh water cooled.
(engine cooling)           250 cfm (7.0 cmm)                                Lubricant Capacity     1.75 U.S. gal. (6.6. liters)
                                                                            Sump Capacity          5.0 U.S. qts (4.8 liters) not including filter
                      EXHAUST SYSTEM                                        Operating Oil Pressure 30 - 60 psi (2.1 - 4.2 kg/cm2) at maxi-
                                                                                                   mum engine rpm and at normal oper-
Exhaust Elbow              90° elbow, 45° elbow and exhaust riser                                  ating temperature
Exhaust Hose Size          2 inch 1.0. hose
                                                                            Oil Grade                  API Specification CF or CG-4,
Muffler Size (min.)        14 inch x 14 inch                                                           SAE 30, 10W-30, 15W-40




                                                                  Engines & Generators

                                                                        4
                                      PARTS IDENTIFICATION



                                                                                                   ANODE




WATER ' I ' M " " " , U I
SENDER




LUBE OIL DRAIN HOSE


                                                                                              BATTERY GROUND CONNECTION
                                    OIL PRESSURE SENDER         STARTER WITH SOLENOID
                            FRONT                     LEFT SIDE                         REAR



                                             UNIT I. D. PLATE    AIR CLEANER HOUSING    MANIFOLD PRESSURE CAP




                                                                                                         DOMESTIC
                                                                                                         WATER HEATER
                                                                                                         CONNECTION POINTS



                                                                                                            RAW WATER PUMP




TRANSMISSION
SHIFT LEVER
                                                                                                        LUBE OIL FILTER


                                                                                           OIL COOLER

                            REAR                     RIGHT SIDE
                                                      '"           A
                                                                                        FRONT


                                                   Engines & Generators

                                                            5
                                            TESTING FOR OVERHAUL

HOW TO DETERMINE WHEN                                                  NOTE: Do not guess the conditions of other cylinders from a
TO OVERHAUL THE ENGINE                                                 result of testing one cylinder. Be sure to measure the com-
                                                                       pression pressure for each cylinder. Look for cylinders with
                                                                       dramatically (at least 20%) lower compression than the aver-
Cause of Low Compression                                               age of the other cylinders. If the weak cylinder is flanked by
Generally, the time at which an engine should be overhauled            healthy cylinders, the problem is either valve- or head-gasket
is determined by various conditions such as lowered engine             related. Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder indi-
power output, decreased compression pressure, and increased            cates gasket failure. Abnormally high readings on all cylin-
fuel and oil consumption. The lowered engine power output,             ders indicate heavy carbon accumulations, a condition that
in the case of diesel engines, is not necessarily due to trouble       might be accompanied by high pressures and noise.
with the engine itself, but is sometimes caused by injector            NOTE: In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise,
nozzle wear or injection pump wear. It is most reasonable to           have the injectors overhauled by an authorizedJueI injection
judge by a decrease in compression pressure. The decrease in           service center. Poor fuel quality, contaminates, and loss of
compression pressure is caused by many factors. Itis, there-           positive fuel pressure to the injection pump will result in
fore, necessary to determine a cause or causes on the basis of         injector faults.
data produced by periodic inspection and maintenance. Oil
analysis on a seasonal basis is a good means of monitoring             OVERHAUL CONDITIONS
engine internal wear. When caused by worn cylinders or pis-
                                                                       Compression pressure tends to increase a little in a new
ton rings, the following symptoms will occur:
                                                                       engine until the piston rings and valve seats have been bro-
    · Low engine power output                                          ken in. Thereafter, it decreases gradually with the progressive
                                                                       wear of these parts. Engine compression should be 30 kg/cm2
    · Increased fuel consumption
                                                                       (at 200 rpm).
    · Increased oil consumption
                                                                       When the decrease of compression pressure reaches its limit
    · Hard engine starting                                             (see SERVICE STANDARDS), the engine must be over-
    · Noisy engine operation                                           hauled. The engine also requires an overhaul when oil con-
                                                                       sumption is high, when blowby is evident, and when
These symptoms often appear together. Increased fuel con-
                                                                       compression values are at minimum or below.
sumption and hard engine starting can result also from exces-
sive fuel injection, improper injection timing, and wear of            NOTE: Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS chart during an
plugs and nozzles. They are caused also by defective electri-          engine overhaul. It gives the measurements and values for
cal devices such as the battery, alternator, starter and glow          the repair or replacement of the engine components.
plugs. Therefore it is desirable to judge the optimum engine
overhaul time by the lowered compression pressure caused
by worn cylinders and pistons plus increased oil consump-
tion. In diesel engines, satisfactory combustion is obtained
only under sufficient compression pressure. If an engine
lacks compression pressure, incomplete combustion of fuel
will take place even if other parts of the engine are operating
properly. To determine the period of engine overhaul, it is
important to measure the engine compression pressure regu-
larly. At the same time, the engine speed at which the mea-
surement of compression pressure is made should be checked
because the compression pressure varies with engine rpm.
The engine rpm can be measured at the front end of the
crankshaft.

Measuring Compression Pressure
To check the compression pressure, see COMPRESSION
TEST under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS.




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                   6
                                         ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
The following troubleshooting table describes certain                 Note: The engine's electrical system is protected by a 20-
problems relating to engine service, the probable causes of           ampere manual reset circuit breaker. The preheat solenoid is
these problems, and the recommendations to overcome                   mounted on the same bracket.
these problems.




       PROBLEM                              PROBABLE CAUSE                                     VERIFICATION/REMEDY
 HARD STARTING              LOW CRANKING SPEED
                            1. Engine oil viscosity too high.                       1. Replace engine oil with less viscous oil.
                            2. Run-down battery.                                    2. Recharge battery.
                            3. Worn battery.                                        3. Replace battery.
                            4. Battery terminals loosely connected.                 4. Clean terminals and correct cables.
                            5. Defective starter.                                   5. Repair or replace starter.
                            6. Defective main drive section.                        6. Check clutch for disengagement.
                            DEFECTIVE INJECTION SYSTEM
                            1. Air trapped in fuel passage.                         1. Bleed air from fuel system.
                            2. Clogged fuel filter.                                 2. Clean or replace filter.
                            3. Low injection pressure.                              3. Adjust injection pressure.
                            4. Inadequate spray.                                    4. Clean or replace nozzle.
                            5. Injection pump delivering insufficient fuel.         5. Repair or replace injection pump.
                            6. Injection too early.                                 6. Adjust injection timing.
                            ENGINE TROUBLES
                            1. Low compression.
                                 a. Incorrect valve clearance.                          a. Adjust valve clearance.
                                 b. Inadequate contact of valve seat.                   b. Lap valve.
                                 c. Valve stem seized.                                  c. Replace valve and valve guide.
                                 d. Broken valve spring.                                d. Replace valve spring.
                                 e. Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket.     e. Replace gasket.
                                 I. Cracked or distorted cylinder head.                  I. Replace cylinder head.
                                 g. Piston ring seized.                                 g. Replace piston and piston ring.
                                 h. Worn piston ring and cylinder.                      h. Overhaul engine.
                                 i. Cracked or wom piston.                               i. Replace piston.
                            2. Burnt glow plug.                                     2. Replace glow plug.
                            3. Faulty glow plug operation.                          3. Check glow plugs and solenoid.
                            4. Incorrect governor lever pOSition.                   4. Set lever to starting position.
                            5. Governor spring out of position.                     5. Correct spring.
 POOR IDLING                1. Improper valve clearance.                            1. Adjust valve clearance.
                            2. Poor valve to valve seat contact.                    2. Repair or replace.
                            3. Failure of cylinder head gasket.                     3. Replace gasket.
                            4. Malfunction of fuel system.                          4. See LOW OUTPUT and ROUGH OPERATION.
 LDW OUTPUT                 LOW COMPRESSION                                         See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.
                            INJECTION SYSTEM OUT OF ADJUSTMENT
                            1. Incorrect injection timing.                          1. Adjust injection timing.
                            2. Insufficient injection.                              2. Repair or replace injection pump.
                            3. Low injection pressure.                              3. Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure.
                            INSUFFICIENT FUEL
                            1. Air trapped in fuel system.                          1. Check and retighten connector.
                            2. Clogged filter.                                      2. Clean or replace filter.
                            3. Contaminated fuel tank.                              3. Clean tank.
                            INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR
                            1. Clogged air cleaner.                                 1. Clean or replace air cleaner.


                                                                                                                            (continued)


                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                 7
                                   ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING

    PROBLEM                           PROBABLE CAUSE                                      VERIFICATION/REMEDY
LOW OUTPUT (cont.)    OVERHEATING
                      1. Low coolant level.                                  1.   Add coolant.
                      2. Loose V-belt.                                       2.   Adjust or replace V-belt.
                      3. Incorrect injection timing.                         3.   Adjust injection timing.
                      4. Low engine oil level.                               4.   Add engine oil.
EXCESSIVE OIL         OIL LEAKAGE
CONSUMPTION           1. Defective oil seals.                                1.   Replace oil seals.
                      2. Loose oil filter.                                   2.   Tighten.
                      3. Broken cylinder head cover gasket.                  3.   Replace gasket.
                      4. Damaged cylinder head cover.                        4.   Replace.
                      5. Damaged front housing gasket.                       5.   Replace.
                      6. Loose oil pipe connector.                           6.   Retighten oil connections.
                      7. Loose bolt(s) at oil pump body, cylinder head       7.   Tighten.
                         covers or oil pan.
                      8. Loose or damaged oil pressure switch.               8. Tighten or replace.
                      9. Defective seal at oil pan and cylinder block.       9. Repair.
                     10. Loose drain plug.                                  10. Retighten or replace.
                      OIL LEVEL RISING
                      1. Incorrectly positioned piston ring gaps.            1.   Correct ring gap positions.
                      2. Displaced or twisted connecting rod.                2.   Replace connecting rod.
                      3. Worn piston ring.                                   3.   Replace ring.
                      4. Worn piston or cylinder.                            4.   Replace piston and rebore cylinder.
                      OIL LEVEL FALLING
                      1. Defective stem seal.                                1.   Replace stem seal.
                      2. Worn valve and valve guide.                         2.   Replace valve and valve guide.
OIL PRESSURE DROP     1. Oil leak.                                           1.   See OIL LEAKAGE
                      2. Insufficient oil.                                   2.   Add oil.
                      3. Worn and/or damaged oil pump gear.                  3.   Replace.
                      4. Worn oil pump plunger or weak spring.               4.   Replace.
                      5. Clogged oil strainer.                               5.   Clean.
                      6. Excessive lubrication clearance between main        6.   See Crankshaft Assembly under
                         bearing and connecting rod bearing.                      ENGINE REASSEMBLY.
EXCESSIVE FUEL         ENGINE BODY TROUBLES
CONSUMPTION           1. Noisy knocking.                                     1. See KNOCKING.
                      2. Smoky exhaust.                                      2. See SMOKY EXHAUST.
                      3. Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn.     3. Repair or replace.
                      4. Poor compression.                                   4. See Low compression under HARD STARTING.
                      5. Improper valve timing.                              5. Adjust.
                      6. Improper valve clearance.                           6. Adjust.
                      INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR
                      1. Air intake obstructed.                              1. Clean and remove obstruction.
                      NOZZLE TROUBLES
                      1. Seized nozzle.                                      1. Replace.
                      2. Worn nozzle.                                        2. Replace.
                      IMPROPER FUEL                                          Replace with proper fuel.
                      FUEL LEAKS                                             Find fuel leaks.
SMOKY EXHAUST         WHITISH OR PURPLISH
                      1. Excessive engine oil.                               1. Correct oil level.
                      2. Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber.
                          a. Poor piston contact.                                  a. Check.
                          b. Seized piston ring.                                   b. Replace or clean.
                           c. Excessive piston-to-cylinder clearance.              c. Replace or correct.

                                                                                                                        (continued)

                                                     Engines & Generators

                                                             8
                                    ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING

    PROBLEM                           PROBABLE CAUSE                                     VERIFICATION/REMEDY
SMOKY EXHAUST (cont.)   WHITISH OR PURPLISH (cont.)
                             d. Worn valve stem and valve guide.                d. Replace.
                             e. Low engine oil viscosity.                       e. Replace.
                             f. Excessive oil pressure.                         f. Correct.
                        3. Injection timing is too late.                    3. Adjust.
                        4. Insufficient compression.                        4. See Low compression under HARD STARTING.
                        BLACKISH OR DARK GRAYISH
                        1. Engine body troubles.
                             a. Poor compression.                               a. See Low compression under HARD STARTING.
                             b. Improper valve clearance.                       b. Adjust.
                        2. Insufficient intake air (air cleaner clogged).   2. Clean air cleaner.
                        3. Improper fuel.                                   3. Replace with proper fuel.
ABNORMAL SOUND          CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARING
OR NOISE                1. Main bearing worn, heat-damaged or seized.       1. Replace bearing and grind crankshaft.
                        2. Excessive main bearing oil clearance.            2. Replace bearing.
                        3. Melted main bearing.                             3. Replace bearing and check lubrication system.
                        4. Badly worn crankshaft.                           4. Grind crankshaft.
                        5. Excessive crankshaft end play.                   5. Adjust end play.
                        CONNECTING ROD AND CONNECTING ROD BEARING
                        1. Connecting rod big end bearing worn,             1. Replace bearing.
                           heat-damaged or seized.
                        2. Worn crankpin.                                   2. Grind crankshaft.
                        3. Bent connecting rod.                             3. Correct bend or replace.
                        PISTON, PISTON PIN, AND PISTON RING
                        1. Worn cylinder.                                   1.   Rebore cylinder to oversize and replace piston.
                        2. Worn piston or piston pin.                       2.   Replace piston.
                        3. Piston seized.                                   3.   Replace piston and rebore cylinder.
                        4. Piston seized and rings worn or damaged.         4.   Replace piston and rings.
                        5. Bent connecting rod.                             5.   Replace connecting rod.
                        VALVE MECHANISM
                        1. Worn camshaft.                                   1.   Replace camshaft.
                        2. Excessive valve clearance.                       2.   Adjust valve clearance.
                        3. Broken valve spring.                             3.   Replace valve spring.
                        4. Worn timing gear.                                4.   Replace timing gear.
                        OTHER
                        1. Fresh water pump bearing malfunction.            1.   Replace bearing.
                        2. Incorrect drive belt tension.                    2.   Adjust.
                        3. Alternator bearing malfunction.                  3.   Replace bearing.
                        4. Exhaust gas leakage.                             4.   Repair.
                        5. Timing belt tensioner malfunction.               5.   Replace tensioner.
ROUGH OPERATION         INJECTION PUMP SYSTEM
(HUNTING)               1. Uneven injection.                                1.   Adjust injection or replace parts.
                        2. Control rack malfunctioning.                     2.   Disassemble, check and correct injection pump.
                        3. Worn delivery valve.                             3.   Replace delivery valve.
                        4. Inadequate injection nozzle spray.               4.   Replace injection nozzle.
                        GOVERNING SYSTEM
                        1. Governor lever malfunctioning.                   1. Check governor shaft and correct operation.
                        2. Fatigued governor spring.                        2. Replace spring.


                                                                                                                       (continued)




                                                   Engines & Generators

                                                           9
                             ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING

    PROBLEM                      PROBABLE CAUSE                                   VERIFICATIONJREMEDY
KNOCKING        ENGINE KNOCKS WITHOUT MUCH SMOKE
                1. Engine troubles.
                     8. Overheated cylinder.                              8. See OVERHEATING; LOW OUTPUT.
                     b. Carbon deposits in cylinder.                      b. Clean.
                2. Too early injection timing.                         2. Correct.
                3. Too high injection pressure.                        3. Correct.
                4. Improper fuel.                                      4. Replace with proper fuel.
                KNOCKING WITH DARK SMOKE
                1. Poor compression.                                   1. See Low compression under HARD STARTING.
                2. Injection pump malfunctioning.
                    8. Worn plunger.                                       8. Replace.
                     b. Pinion is not in mesh with control rack.           b. Correct.
                     c. Broken delivery valve spring.                      c. Replace.
                     d. Worn delivery valve seat.                          d. Replace.
                3. Improper nozzle.
                    8. Poor spray.                                         8. Clean or replace nozzle.
                     b. Poor chattering.                                   b. Repair or replace nozzle.
                     c. After-injection drip.                              c. Repair or replace nozzle.
                     d. Nozzle needle valve seized.                        d. Replace.
INTERMITTENT    1. Fuel filter clogged.                                1. Clean or replace.
EXHAUST SOUND   2. Fuel pipe sucks air.                                2. Retighten pipe joints or replace pipe.
                3. Water mixed in fuel                                 3. Replace fuel.
OVERHEATING     1. V-belt slackening or slippery with oil.             1. Adjust, replace or clean.
                2. Damaged water pump.                                 2. Replace.
                3. Lack of coolant.                                    3. Add.
                4. Low oil level or poor oil quality.                  4. Add or change.
                5. Knocking.                                           5. See KNOCKING.
                6. Moving parts seized or damaged.                     6. Replace.




                                                Engines & Generators

                                                       10
                                              ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
NOTE: Before disassembly and cleaning, carefully check               9. Remove the flywheel.
for defects which cannot be found after disassembly and              10. Remove the engine back plate.
cleaning.
                                                                     11. Unclamp the exhaust elbow, the two coolant hoses on the
GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURE                                            exhaust manifold, and the coolant recovery tank hose,
                                                                         then remove the intake/exhaust manifold in its entirety
·   All disassembled parts should be carefully arranged in               with its four gaskets.
    the order of reassembly. Mark or label the parts as
                                                                                                            COOLANT
    needed to insure proper mating and reassembly in the                                                    RECOVERY
    proper directions and positions.                                                                        TANK

·   If the disassembly procedure is complex requiring many
    parts to be disassembled, the parts should be disassem-
    bled in a way that will allow them to be efficiently
    reassembled without any change in the engine's external
    appearance or its performance.
·   Do not remove or disassemble parts that require no disas-
    sembly.
·   Carefully inspect each part after removal for damage,
    4eformation, and other problems.
·   Be careful not to damage the disassembled parts. Keep
    the parts clean.
·   Use the proper tools. Apply oil when necessary. Take                                                     . INTAKEJEXHAUST
    special care to keep the fuel system parts free from the                                                   MANIFOLD
    intrusion of dust and dirt.
·   Remove the transmission first, then disassemble the
    engine.
                                                                            EXHAUST
TRANSMISSION REMOVAL                                                        ELBOW

1. Unplug the instrument panel wiring harness.
                                                                     12. Remove the alternator.
2. Drain the transmission fluid and the transmissin oil
   cooler hoses                                                      13. Remove the raw water pump.
3. Detach the oil cooler hoses.                                      14. Remove the engine mounted fuel filter and the fuel line
                                                                         to the injection pump. (Note the arrangement of the seal- .
4. Unbolt the transmission from the engine.                              ing washers on the banjo bolts at the fuel filter and the
NOTE: For transmission service and maintenance, refer to                 injection pump). Remove the fuel lift pump.
your transmission owner~ manual. To rebuild a transmis-              15. Remove the thermostat housing, gasket, and the thermo-
sion, contact your WESTERBEKE dealer or a qualified                      stat. Leave the temperature sending unit in place.
marine transmission service facility.

ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
1. Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt
   and oil.
2. Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand for disas-
   sembly.
3. Drain the coolant from the engine and the heat
   exchanger. Drain the fuel and the engine oil.
4. Remove the engine wiring harness in its entirety. Label
   the terminal connections to insure proper reattachment.
5. Remove the engine heat exchanger and the engine oil
   cooler/oil filter assembly. If possible, leave one end of
   each hose connection attached to the part being removed.
6. Remove the starter motor.
7. Remove the engine bellhousing.
8. Remove the transmission damper plate.

                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                11
                                              ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
16. Remove the idler pulley bracket and idler pulley.                     3.   Remove the two timing belt covers.
17. Remove the seal plate.                                                b. Loosen the two injection pump hold-down nuts. Do
18. Remove the coolant pump.                                                 not remove them entirely. The hold-down nut on the
                                                                             engine side of the pump can be loosened by using a
19. Remove all the high pressure injector lines from the                     1/4" universal socket and extension with a ratchet.
    injection pump to the injectors. Leave the two upper line
    clamps in place.                                                      c. Remove the nut and lockwasher from the injection
                                                                             pump shaft.
    NOTE: Cap the ends of the lines, and the connections at
    the injection pump and at the injectors, to prevent entry             d. Place the keyway on the injection pump shaft in the 12
    offoreign material.                                                      o'clock position using the front crankshaft pulley bolt
                                                                             before attempting to remove the injection pump.
20. Remove the fuel return lines from the top of the injectors
    and from the fuel injection pump. (Note the washer arrange-           e. Using the puDey puDer (49 S120 215A), apply suffi-
    ment on the fuel return line banjo bolts. Cap all openings                 cient pressure to loosen the pump from the pulley. The
    on the fuel return line, injectors and injection pump.)                    loose hold down nuts will prevent the pump from
                                                                               falling from the engine.
21. Remove the fuel injectors, dust seals and sealing washers
    from the cylinder head.                                                    NOTE: If an extractor is not available, replace the nut
                                                                               loosely on the injection pump shaft, and with a nylon
22. Remove the glow plugs.                                                     drift and hammer, gently tap the injection pump shaft
23. Remove the cylinder head cover.                                            to dislodge it from the keyed pulley.
24. Fuel Injection Pump.
   NOTE: The fuel injection pump is a very important compo-                                                         INJECTION
                                                                                                                    PUMP PULLEY
   nent of the diesel engine, requiring the utmost care in
   handling. It has been thorol,tghly bench-tested, and the
   owner/operator is cautioned not to attempt to service it. If
   the fuel injection pump requires servicing, remove it and
   take it to an authorized fuel injection pump service
   facility. Do not attempt to disassemble and repair it. If                                      ;:r~~ffl~I---- PULLEY PULLER
                                                                                                                            .49 S120 215A
   the pump is defective, WESTERBEKE recommends that
   you replace the entire pump.
   The only adjustment the servicing mechanic should
   make to the fuel injection pump is the adjustment for
   engine idle speed (see IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT
   under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS).
                                                                          f. Once loosened, remove the hold down nuts and wash-
                                                                             ers and carefully withdraw the pump from the pulley
                                                                             and the engine.
                                                                       25. Remove the following components:
                                                                          3.   Oil pressure switch and oil level gauge.
                                                                          b. Dipstick tube.
                                                                          c. Cylinder head cover.
                                                                          d. Crankshaft pulley.
                                                                          e. Oil strainer and oil pan.
                                        Fua INJECTION PUMP                f. Oil pump assembly.
                                                                         g. Rear cover.
   Remove the injection pump as follows:                                  h. Connecting rod caps.
   NOTE: Scribe mating        I -:..:" ~                                 i     Pistons and connecting rods.
   marks on the pump body /              ~
   flange and the timing belt                                            j. Piston rings.
   cover before removal.                                                 k. Main bearing caps.
                                                                         L Main bearings.
                                                                          m.Oiljets.
                     MATING
                     MARKS                                               D.    Crankshaft.


                                                             Engines & Generators

                                                                  12
                                               ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
nming Belt
                                                                                                           TIMING MARK
NOTE: WESTERBEKE recommends replacing the timing
belt during an engine overhaul. Timing belt failure could
result in major damage to the engine.
NOTE: If the tming belt is to be reused, draw an arrow on
the belt pointing in the direction of the belt's rotation so it
will be replaced in the same direction.




DIRECTION ARROW ___''--01



                                                                                             CRANKSHAFT


                                                                         Injection Pump Pulley
      TIMING
      BELT                                                               1. Put two bolts (size M8 x 1.25 x 35 - 40 mm) through the
                                                                            arms of the injection pump pulley and insert them in the
                                                                            thread hole of the injection pump bracket.
                                                                            NOTE: This is to prevent the injection pump pulley from
1. Loosen the timing belt tensioner lock bolt, push the tim-                turning while loosening the injection pump pulley lock bolt.
   ing belt tensioner left as far as it will go, then temporarily        2. Loosen the injection pump pulley lock bolt.
   retighten the lock bolt.




                                                                         3. Using the pulley puller (49 S120 215A), separate the
2. Remove the timing belt.                                                  injection pump pulley from the injection pump shaft.
3. Remove the timing belt tensioner.
4. Tum the crankshaft clockwise about 45° from the timing                                                                INJECTION
   mark which is marked on the oil pump housing.                                                                         PUMPPULLE"t.

    NOTE: Turning the crankshaft prevents the pistons and
    valves from contacting one another.

                                                                                                     ~~n~~,-
                                                                                                     ~
                                                                                                                         __ 49
                                                                                                                            PULLEY PULLER
                                                                                                                               S120 215A




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                    13
                                           ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
Camshaft Pulley & Timing Belt Pulley                              Cylinder Head Bolts
1. Hold the camshaft with a wrench (29 mm, 1.1 in) and            1. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in the numbered sequence
   loosen the camshaft pulley lock bolt.                             shown in the ilustration. Loosen them a little at a time, in
                                                                     sequence.

                                                                                 1            3           5      4       2




    CAMSHAFT
    PULLEY                                                                                 CYLINDER HEAD BOLTS
    LOCK BOLT--4I.IZ


                                                                  Cylinder Head and Gasket
                                                                  1. Remove the cylinder head by tapping it with a plastic
     A   CAUTION: Do not damage the edge of the                      hammer.
     cylinder head with the wrench. If it is damaged,             2. Remove the cylinder head gasket.
     engine oil may leak.
                                                                  Camshaft
                                                                  1. Gradually loosen the camshaft cap nuts in the numbered
                                                                     sequence shown in the illustration.
     A    CAUTION: Before removing the camshaft pul-
                                                                  2. Remove the caps.
     ley, turn the crankshaft 45" clockwise to prevent
     damage to the valves.                                        3. Remove the camshaft and oil seals.
                                                                         3             7               10        6           2
2. Remove the camshaft pulley from the camshaft using the
   same procedure described under Injection Pump Pulley,
   above.


     A   CAUTION: Do not hit the camshaft pulley with
     a hammer.


     CAMSHAFT PULLEY                                                      4            8              9          5·          1
                                                                                     LOOSENING THE CAMSHAFT CAP NUTS


                                                                  Adjusting Discs and Tappets
                                                                  1. Remove the adjusting discs and tappets as a set.


                                                                       A   CAUTION: All adi~ing discs and tappets
                                                                       should be disassembled in a way that-COllect
                                                                       reassembly can be performed efficiently.

3. Remove the timing belt pulley.




                                                        Engines & Generators

                                                             14
                                                 ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
                                                                   Valve Seals
                                                                   1. Move the piston of the valve seal to be replaced to
                                                                      approximately top dead center.
                                                                   2. After removing the lower spring seats, remove the valve
                                                                      seals by using the valve seal remover (49 S120 170) to
                                                                      grasp and work them out.
                                                                      NOTE: The valve seal remover (49 S120 170) cannot
                                                                      grasp the valve seals unless the lower spring seats have
         0000000                                                      been removed.
                 ADJUSTING DISCS AND TAPPETS



Valves
1. Remove the springs.
2. Remove the valves, lower spring seats and spring retain-         VALVE SEAL
   ers from the cylinder head by using an appropriate valve         REMOVER
                                                                    49 S120 170
   spring compression tool.
                              VALVE SPRING LIFTER·
                              490636100A




                                                                   Combustion Chamber Inserts
                                                                   1. Remove the combustion chamber inserts from the bottom
                                                                      surface of the cylinder head by using a suitable mandrel.




                                          PIVOT
                                         ·49 S120 222

NOTE: The valve guides are to be removed only after mea-
suring the valve guide/valve stem (see Valve Guides under
ENGINE INSPECTION.




                                                        Engines & Generators

                                                              15
                                     ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR

GENERAL INSPECTION PROCEDURE                                          4. Measure the manifold contact surface distortion in the
                                                                         three directions shown in the illustration. If the distortion
1. Before inspection, clean each part taking care to remove              exceeds the limit, grind the surface, or replace the cylin-
   any gasket fragments, dirt, oil or grease, carbon, moisture           der head.
   residue, or other foreign materials.
                                                                          Distortion limit: 0.20 mm (0.008 in)
2. Be careful not to damage the joints or sliding parts of
   aluminum alloy components such as the cylinder head
   and the pistons.
3. Inspection and repair should be done in the order indi-
   cated.

ENGINE INSPECTION
                                                                                     MANIFDLD CONTACT SURFACE DISTORTION
Cylinder Head
1. Inspect for water leakage, fuel leakage, damage, and               5. Measure the oil clearance of the camshaft.
   cracks. If a problem is found, replace the part.                      a. Remove the tappets and adjusting discs from the cylin-
2. Measure the cylinder head for distortion in six directions               der head, and separate them by cylinder.
   using a thickness gauge, as shown in the illustrations.
    Distortion limit: 0.10 mm (0.004 in)




                                                                               000 00·0 0
                                                                                     TAPPETS AND ADJUSTING DISCS REMOVAL
                    CYUNDER HEAD DISTDRTIDN


                                      STRAIGHTEDGE                       b. Clean away oil and dirt from the camshaft and cylinder
                                                                            head journals.
                                                                         c. Set a plastigauge on the camshaft journal (in the axial
                                                                            direction of the journal).
                                                                         d. Set the camshaft caps, and tighten the nuts to the speci-
                                                                            fied torque.




                     CYUNDER HEAD DISTDRTIDN j



3. If cylinder head distortion exceeds the limit, replace the
   cylinder head.
                                                                                                       . . CAMSHAFT CAPS


     A     CAUTION: Do not attempt to repair the cylin-
     der head by milling or grinding. Handle the cylinder
     head carefully, taking special care not to damage                      Camshaft cap nut tightening torque:
     its lower surface.                                                       2.0 - 2.7 kg-m (15 - 20 ft-Ib)




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                 16
                                             ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR

     A     CAUTION: When installing the camshaft
     caps, note the correct sequence and the a"ow
     maries. When tightening the camshaft cap nuts,
     do so evenly and in the sequence shown in the
     illustration.

      10              6              2           : 3        7




                                                                                     MEASURING THE CAMSHAFT END PLAY!



                                                                      7. Measure the amount that the combustion chamber insert
        9             5          1                4         8            has receded.
                  -TIGHTENING THE CAMSHAFT CAP NUTS
                                         .                              a. Clean the lower side so that the surface of the combus-
                                                                           tion chamber insert won't be scarred.
  e. Remove'the camshaft caps and measure the oil clearance.            h. Measure using a dial gauge.
     Standard oil clearance:                                             limits:
     - O~025 - 0.066 mil! «()'~098 - 0-9260 in)                             Receded amount: 0.04 mm (0.0016 in)
     limit: 0.1 mm (0.0039 in)                                              Projection amount: 0.05 mm (0.0024 in)
   f. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace the               c. If either limit is exceeded, replace the combustion
      cylinder head or the camshaft.                                       chamber insert or the cylinder head.
                                             -----~




                                                                                              COMBUSTION
                                                                                              CHAMBER INSERT

                 · MEASURING THE DlL CLEARANCE


                                                                      Valve Seats
6. Measure the end play of the camshaft. If the end play              1. Use a thickness guage and a straightedge, as shown in the
   exceeds the limit, replace the camshaft or the cylinder               illustration, to measure the amount the valve has receded
   head.         .                                                       from the cylinder head surface.
   Standard camshaft end play:
     0.02 - 0.15 mm (0.00079 - 0.00591 in)
   limit: 0.2 mm (0.0079 in)




                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                 17
                                   ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR
   If the receded amount is 1.55 - 2.55 mm (0.061 - 0.100                Standard valve seat contact width:
   in), use an equivalent washer at the valve spring seat. If              1.7 - 2.3 mm (0.067 - 0.091 in)
   the receded amount is 2.55 mm (0.100 in) or more,
   replace the cylinder head
   Standard amount of valve recession
   Intake and exhaust (cold engine):
     0.75 -1.05 mm (0.030 - 0.041 in)




                                                                      3. To seat the valve, apply a thin coating of engine oil
             THICKNESS                                                   mixed with a small amount of compound to the seat sur-
             GAUGE                                                       face, then lightly tap while turning the valve.

2. Check the surface which contacts the valve face for
   roughness or damage. If necessary, use a valve seat cutter
   or valve seat grinder to repair to the specified shape.
                                                                           A   CAUTION: When seating the valve, be careful
                                                                           not to let compound ahere to the valve stem.
   NOTE: To check the contact width, apply a thin coating of               The valve contact position in relation to the valve
   red lead to the valve seat, and press the valve against the             seat must be at the center of the circumference,
   valve seat. Be sure not to turn the valve when doing so.
                                                                           and the contact width must be the standard value.
                                                                           Check to be sure that the amount of valve reces-
                                                                           sion is within the specification.
                                             RED LEAD.




                                      - VALVESEAT



   NOTE: When grinding the valve seat, use a 15~ 45° or 60°
   valve seat cutter.. or valve seat grinder to grind away the
   roughness and/or scars (to the minimum limit) of the seat
   surface, always checking the contact width and contact
   position while grinding.
                                                                      Valves
                                                                      1. Inspect each valve and replace any that show valve stem
                                                                         wear, damage, bending, or dents.




                                                         Engines & Generators

                                                                 18
                                  ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR
2. Inspect each valve for roughness or damage on its faces.        2. To replace the valve guide, tap it to the side opposite the
   If the problem is slight, repair the valve with a valve            combustion chamber using the valve guide remover (49
   refacer.                                                           0636165A).




   Standard valve stem diameter:
     Intake: 7.970 -7.985 mm (0.3138 - 0.3144 in)
     Exhaust: 7.965 - 7.980 mm (0.3136 - 0.3142 in)                   To install, fit the clip onto the valve guide. Use the valve
                                                                      guide installer (490552 165) to tap the valve guide in
                 EXHAUST                INTAKE                        from the side opposite the combustion chamber until the
                                                                      clip barely contacts the cylinder head.


                  ~D~~                                                                                         CLIP




                                                                                \ CYLINDER
                                                                                   HEAD




Valve Guides
1. Measure the difference between the inner diameter of
   each valve guide and the diameter of the corresponding
   stem. This difference is the stem-to-guide clearance.
   Replace the valve guide if this clearance exceeds the
   limit.
   Stem-to-guide clearance limit: 0.10 mm (0.004 in)
                                                                        A CAUTION: After the valve guide is replaced,
                                                                        recheck the gap between the valve and the valve
                                                                        guide.
                                                                        The valve seals should be installed after inspection
                                                                        and repair of the valve seats.
                                                                        Don't confuse the valve guides - intake and
                                                                        exhaust valve guides have different lengths:
                                                                            The intake valve guide is longer.
                                                                            The exhaust valve guide is shorter.




                                                       Engines & Generators

                                                              19
                                      ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR

            INTAKE
                                                                      Tappets and Adjusting Discs
                                    EXHAUST                           1. Measure the outer diameter of the tappet; replace it if the
                                                                         limit is exceeded.



                                              1
                                                                      2. Measure the diameter of the tappet hole in the cylinder
                                                                         head, and calculate the difference (clearance) between it
                     40.5mm
                                                                         and the outer diameter of the tappet; if this clearance is
                     (1.59 in)                  37.6mm                   the limit value or more, replace the tappet or the cylinder
                                                (1.48 in)                head.


                                    ~U
                                                                         Standard tappet outer diameter:
                                                                           34.96 - 34.98 mm (1.3763 - 1.3771 in)
                                                                         Standard tappet hole:
           LONGER·                  SHORTER                                34.99 - 35.02 mm (1.3776 - 1.3787 in)
                     VALVE GUIDES
                                                                         Standard clearance:
                                                                           0.02 - 0.06 mm (0.0008 - 0.0024 in)
Valve Springs
                                                                         Clearance limit: 0.10 mm (0.0040 in)
1. Inspect each valve spring for cracks or other damage.
   Replace if neces.sary.
2. Check each spring for free length and angle limit.
   Replace if necessary
   Free length limit: 44.8 mm (1.764 in)




                                                                                             DlAMmR
                                                                                             OF TAPPET

                                                                      Camshaft
                                                                      1. Check the camshaft for wear or damage. Replace if
                                                                         necessary.
                                                                          Standard cam height:
                                                                            Intake: 44.31 mm (1.744 in)
   Angle limit: 1.58 mm (0.062 in)                                          Exhaust: 45.30 mm (1.783 in)
                                                                          Cam height limit:
                                                                            Intake: 43.90 mm (1.728 in)
                                                                            Exhaust: 44.90 mm (1.768 in)
                                 ANGLE VARIATION
                                 FROM PERPENDICULAR




   . VALVE SPRING




                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                 20
                                    ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR
2. Measure the wear of each journal at the four locations          2. Measure the distortion (degree of flatness) of the top sur-
   shown in the illustration: directions A and B, Front and           face of the cylinder block in six directions using a feeler
   Rear. Replace the camshaft if necessary.                           gauge and a straightedge as shown in the illustrations.
   Journal eUipticallimit: 0.05 mm (0.002 in)                          Distortion limit: 0.10 mm (0.0040 in)
   Standard journal diameters:
     31.96 - 31.98 mm (1.258 -1.259 in)
   Journal diameter limit: 31.86 mm (1.254 in)




3. Check the camshaft deflection.
   Camshaft deflection limit:
     0.10 mm (0.0040 in)
   NOTE: Place the front and rear journals on V-blocks to
   make the measurement.




                                                                   3. If the distortion exceeds the limit, replace the cylinder
                                                                      block.


                                                                        A    CAUTION: Don't glind the surface of the cylin-
                                                                        del block. If ground, the va/res will hit the pistollS.

                                                                   4. Check the cylinder walls for scoring or signs of seizure.
                                                                      If a problem exists, reboring or replacement is necessary.
Cylinder Block                                                     5. If the upper part of the cylinder wall shows uneven wear,
                                                                      use a ridge reamer to repair.
1. Check each cylinder for dampness, damage and cracks.
   Replace if necessary.                                           6. Measure the cylinder diameter at the six locations shown
                                                                      in the illustration. Check the amount of wear. The amount
                                                                      of wear is the difference between the maximum and min-
                                                                      imum diameters. If the amount of wear exceeds the limit,
                                                                      the cylinder must be rebored.
                                                                       Standard cylinder bore: 86.00 mm (3.39 in)
                                                                       Cylinder bore wear limit: 86.17 mm (3.92 in)
                                                                       Difference.between cylinder bores:
                                                                         0.022 mm (0.00090 in)




                                                        Engines & Generators

                                                              21
                                   ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR
                                                                     3. Inspect the piston rings for damage, abnormal wear or
     A    CAUTION: The boring size should be based on                   breakage. Replace if necessary.
                                                                     4. Insert the piston rings into the cylinder by hand, and push
     the size of an oversize piston.
                                                                        them in by using the piston.
     Over-size pistions: 0.25 mm (0.010 in)
                           0.50 mm (O.020';n)                        5. Measure the ring opening clearance.
                                                                        Ring opening clearance limit: 1.0 mm (0.039 in)




                                                                                                                     RING OPENING
                                                                                                 CYLINDER BLOCK      CLEARANCE
Pistons and Piston Rings
1. Inspect the outer circumferences of all the pistons for
   seizure or scoring. Replace if necessary.                         6. Measure the clearance of the piston ring to the ring
                                                                        groove.
2. Measure the outside diameter of each piston, and be sure
   the clearance between the piston and cylinder is correct.            Clearance limit: 0.2 mm (0.008 in)
   Piston standard outside diameter:
    . 85.95 - 85.98 mm (3.384 - 3.385 in)
   Piston and cylinder clearance limit:
                                                                          A    CAUTION: Measure the clearance around the
                                                                          entire circumference of the ring groove.
     0.15 (0.006 in)


     A    CAUTION: Measure the piston outside diame-
     ter in the thrust direction, 19 mm (0.75 in) above
     the bottom of the piston. If the piston is replaced,
     replace the piston rings also.

   Oversize Piston Rings:
     0.25 mm (0.010 in), 0.50 mm (0.020 in)




                                                    (0.75 in)




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                22
                                   ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR
Connecting Rods                                                     2. To replace the connecting rod bushing, use a press and a
                                                                       suitable pipe (diameter = 27 - 27.5 mm (1.06 -1.88 in).
1. Check each connecting rod for bending or torsion.
    Connecting rod bending limit:
      0.16 mm (0.006 in) per 100 mm (3.94 in)                            A CAUTION: Before assembling, apply a coat-
                                                                         ing of clean engine oil to the connecting rod
                                                                         bushing and connecting rod. Align the oil hole of
                                                                         the connecting rod bushing with the connecting
                                                                         rod oil hole.

                                                                    3. After pressing the bushing in, correct the bushing's inner
                                                                       diameter by using a spiral expansion reamer, so that the
                                                                       clearance will come within the standard value.

                                       CHECKING
                                       CONNECTING ROO
                                       BENDING LIMIT




   Connecting rod torsion limit:
     0.16 mm (0.006 in) per 100 mm (3.94 in)




                                                                    Crankshaft
                                                                    1. Check around the journals and pins for damage and scor-
                                                                       ing, and the oil passages for obstructions.
                                                                    2. Check the crankshaft deflection and each diameter.
                                                                       Replace if necessary.
                                                                       Deflection limit: 0.05 mm (0.002 in)
Connecting Rod Bushings
1. Measure the clearance between the outside diameter of
   the piston pin and the inside diameter of the bushing. If
   the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the connecting
   rod bushing.
   Standard connecting rod bushing inner diameter:
     25.01 - 25.03 mm (0.9846 - 0.9854 in)
   Clearance limit: 0.05 mm (0.002 in)



     PISTON PIN




   o
                                                                                    CHECKING CRANKSHAFT DEFLECTION




                                                        Engines & Generators

                                                               23
                                        ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR
   Standard journal diameters:                                         Timing belt
   (1) Main journal diameter:
       59.94 - 59.96 mm (2.360 - 2.361 in)                             Replace the timing belt if it is contaminated with oil, grease
   (2) Crankshaft pin diameter:                                        or water, or if any of the following conditions exist:
       50.94 - 50.96 mm (2.006 - 2.007 in)                             1. Premature severance.
   (3) Rear housing oil seal sliding surface:                             a. Check for proper installation.
       89.95 - 90.00 mm (3.541 - 3.543 in)
                                                                          b. Check the timing belt cover gaskets for damage and
                         (2)                                                 installation.

                                                                                         PREMATURE SEVERANCE




                                                                                      ::);;;~
                                (1)                                    2. Check the teeth for damage, cracks, peeling and harden-
                                                                          ing, and check for any missing teeth.
                      JOURNAl DIAMETERS

                                                                                                                       CRACKED
                                                                               MISSING                                 TOOTH
    Journal wear limit: 0.05 mm (0.0020 in)                                  , TOOTH
    If the wear exceeds the limit, replace or grind the crank"
    shaft to agree with the undersize bearing.
    Journal grinding limit: 0.75 mm (0.0295 in)
    Undersize bearings: 0.25 mm (0.010 in),                                  ~?i_]!!!!!!~~--
      0.50 mm (0.020 in), 0.75 mm (0.0295 in)


 A    CAUTION: When grinding the journal or pin, pay
 attention to each Fillet R dimension.
 Fillet R dimension:
    2.6 - 3.0 mm (0.102 - 0.118 in)
                                                                             ~
                                                                            CRACKED
                                                                            TOOTH

Main Bearings ,and Connecting Rod Bearings.                            3. Check for noticeable wear or cracks on the belt face.
1. Check the main bearings and connecting rod bearings.
2. Check the bearing inside surfaces for streaking, flaking,
   pin holes, etc.; replace all bearings as a set if there is a
   problem.
                               UPPER SIDE
                                                                             -
       j m) OO( ~ ([l                                                  4. Check for wear or damage on only one side of the belt.



     JID        m(OO)                           ~      ([                   -
                               LOWER SIDE

                      MAIN BEARINGS AND
                      CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS
                                                                                                               WEAR OR DAMAGE




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                  24
                                      ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR

5. Check for noticeable wear on the belt teeth.                          TIming Belt, Camshaft and Injection Pump Pulleys
                                                                         1. Inspect the teeth on each pulley for wear, deformation or
                                                                            other damage. Replace if necessary.


                                                                              A CAUTION: Do not clean the pulleys. If they
                                                                              ale dirty, use a clean rag to wipe them clean.
       TOOTH WEAR


                                                                         TIming Belt Covers (left, right)
      A    CAUTION: Nevel fOlcefully twist the timing                    1. Inspect each timing belt cover for deformation or cracks.
      belt, tUln it inside out 01 bend it. Be caleful not to                Replace if necessary.
      allow Oil, glease, 01 moistule on the belt.                        2. Inspect the gasket for deformation, cracks, or hardening.
                                                                            Replace if necessary.


                          ~~,
        DO NOT BEND           DO NOT TWIST          DO NOT TURN
                                                    INSIDE OUT




          III
            ~         25mm(1.0in)
                                                 DO NOT BEND



TIming Belt Tensioner
1. Check the rotation of the timing belt tensioner pulley, and
   check for play or abnormal noise. Replace if necessary.


      A   CAUTION: Do not clean the tensionel with
      cleaning solvents. If it is dirty, use a clean rag to
      wipe it clean. Avoid scratching the surface the
      belt travels over.

                         TIMING BELT TENSIONER




                                                               Engines & Generators

                                                                    25
                                                ENGINE REASSEMBLY

GENERAL REASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
·   Clean or wash the parts to be reassembled. Apply lubri-
    cating oil when specified or as needed to the surfaces of
                                                                            A    CAUTION:     Be sure to use the special tool for
                                                                            the installation of the valve seals. If they are not
    moving parts during reassembly. Heavily oil sliding,
    turning, rotating and reciprocating parts; lightly oil head             installed correctly, oil might leak down into the
    bolts and other fasteners except those that penetrate into              cylindelS during operation.
    the water jacket. Make sure that moving parts, after
    assembly onto the engine, are not subject to binding or
    excessive tension.
·   Carefully check gaskets, packings and oil seals, even if
    checking is not specified. Use new gaskets, lockwashers
    and O-rings.
·   Be careful not to mix bolts and nuts. Both metric and
    S.A.E. bolts are used on various engine assemblies.
·   Replace plain bearings if they are peeling, burned or oth-
    erwise damaged.
·   Reassemble parts (e.g. pistons, piston rings, bearings,
    bearing caps) in their proper order, positions and direc-
    tions relative to the engine block. Note that the cylinder
    head gasket, head bolt washers and thermostat are assy-
    metrical. Any mating marks that were drawn or scribed
                                                                       Valves
    during disassembly should be positioned correctly for              Install the valves onto the cylinder head as follows:
    reassembly. Position gaskets carefully, especially the
    head gasket, so they will not be damaged during                    1. Install the lower spring seat.
    assembly.                                                          2. Insert the valve after applying molybdenum disulphide
                                                                          grease to the valve stem.
·   Inspect all critical clearances, end plays, oil clearances,
    and bends.                                                         3. Install the valve spring and upper spring seat.
·   Use liquid sealants when specified or needed on nuts,              4. Press the valve spring using the valve spring lifter (49
    bolts and gaskets. Use Permatex No.2 or equivalent.                   0636 100A) and pivot (49 S120 222). Then install the
    Don't use tape sealants.                                              spring retainer securely.
·   Tighten the bolts and nuts on the important parts of the                                                  VAlVE SPRING LlmR
                                                                                                              490636100A
    engine to the specified torques using a reliable torque
    wrench. Tighten fasteners in the specified. torque
    sequences, and in three steps: 1/2, 2/3, and 1/1 torque;
    an exception is torque-to-yield head bolts. Where a tight-
    ening torque is not specified, tighten evenly to an ordi-
    nary torque.
·   After completion of reassembly, recheck for any abnor-
    malities. Prepare for starting the engine, and idle the
    engine sufficiently for a test run.

ENGINE REASSEMBLY
Valve Seals
NOTE: Always replace the valve seals during an engine                  5. Move the No. 1 piston to top dead center, and then rotate
overhauL'                                                                 the crankshaft approximately 45°.
1. Apply a coat of engine oil to the valve guides and the
   inside surfaces of the valve seals.
2. Using the valve seal pusber (49 S120 160), install the
                                                                          -A   CAUTION: If this is not done, the valves may
   valve seals.                                                            be damaged by the pistons when tightening the
                                                                           camshaft cap nuts.




                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                  26
                                                ENGINE REASSEMBLY
                                                                                                                    90~
Tappets and Adjusting Discs                                                    TOP RING AND
                                                                               EXPANDER
1. Apply engine oil to the tappets, then install the tappets to
   the tappet holes.
2. Install the adjusting discs.




                                                                               A    CAUTION: Apply a liberal coat of engine oil
                                                                               during installation. The rings must be mounted so
                                                                               the "8" or "8N" marks face upward.

Pistons and Connecting Rods
                                                                                                                           "R" DR "RN"
1. Assemble the piston and connecting rod.                                          ~~jr--·'fnp            RING           ,MARKS FACE UP
 . 8.   Align the oil hole in the large end of the connecting
                                                                                                                             \
                                                                                                                          ~~
        rod with the "F" mark on the piston.                                                         SECDNDRING
   b. Apply a coat of engine oil to the small end of the con-
      necting rod and all over the piston.                                       r--'JI!..,.......,..... OIL RING         ~      PISTDN RING
   c. Insert a snap ring into one of the piston pin holes in the                                     EXPANDER
      piston.
   d. Connect the piston and connecting rod by the piston
      pin, then lock the snap ring so it won't come out.                 3. Install the piston and connecting rod.
      (When doing this, the piston should be heated to
      SO-7SoC.)                                                             a. Fit the connecting rod bearing to the connecting rod,
                                                                               then apply a coating of engine oil.
                                                                            b. After cleaning the inner surface of the cylinder, apply a
                                                                               coating of engine oil.
                                                                            c. Insert each piston and connecting rod into the cylinder
                                                                               block using a piston insertion tool (commercially
                                                                                available).



                                                                                 A    CAUTION: The pistons must be inserted so
                                                                                 that the "F" marks face the front of the cylinder
                                                                                 block. Apply a liberal coating of engine oil to the
                                                                                 cylinder walls, piston circumference, and rings.

2. Assembly of the piston rings.
   8.   Assemble each piston ring to the piston by using a pis-
        ton ring in§lerting tool (commercially available.). The
        order of assembly is: oil ring expander, oil ring, second
        ring, top ring.
   b. Align the piston ring end gaps as shown in the
      illustration.
                                                                                                                            ENGINE FRONT SIDE




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                    27
                                                 ENGINE REASSEMBLY
Crankshaft Assembly                                                    d. Remove the main bearing cap and measure the oil
                                                                          clearance.
1. Install the oil jets to the cylinder block.
   Oil jet tightening torque:                                             Standard oil clearance:
                                                                            0.031 - 0.049 mm (0.0012 - 0.0019 in)
      1.2 -1.8 kg-m (9 - 13 ft-Ib)
                                                                          Oil clearance limit: 0.08 mm (0.0031 in)
2. Install the main bearings.
                                                                       e. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, .replace the main
                                                                          bearings with new ones, and measure the oil clearance
                                                                          again.
     A     CAUTION:    No oil, dirt, etc. should be on the             f. In case the oil clearance exceeds the limit even when
      back surface of the bearings.                                       the main bearings are replaced, repair the crankshaft by
      The center main bearings cannot be interchanged                     grinding, and use undersize bearings.
      with the other main bearings because thttir widths
      are different.




                                                                                             MEASURING CRANKSHAfT AND
                                                                                             MAIN BEARINGS OIL CLEARANCE
                 MAIN BEARINGS INSTALLATION ,

3. Check the oil clearance of the crankshaft and main bear-
   ings with a plastigauge.                                              A    CAUTION: Position the plastigauge horizon-
   a. Remove any foreign material from the journal or                    tally on the crankshaft, away from the oil hole.
      bearing.                                                           Do not rotate the crankshaft when measuring the oil
   b. Position the plastigauge on top of the journal (in the             clearance.
      journal axial direction).                                          Install the main bearing cap according to the cylin-
   c. Set the main bearing caps in position, then tighten                der, number and the CJ mark.
      them to the specified torque, in the sequence shown in
      the illustration.
      Main bearing cap bolt tightening torque:
       8.4 - 9.0 kg-m (61- 65 ft-lb)

                                                                                        FRONT'



                                                                               CYLINDER NUMBER
                                                                                                                  MAIN BEARING




                           MAIN BEARING CAPS




                                                          Engines & Generators
                                                               28          .
                                               ENGINE REASSEMBLY
4. After checking and correcting the oil clearance, apply a          8. If the end play is not within the standard range, select
   coating of engine oil to the main bearing and main jour-             another thrust bearing.
   nal, and then install the crankshaft.                                Undersize thrust bearing width:
5. Apply a coat of engine oil to the thrust bearing, and                  2.18 - 2.23 mm (0.0858 - 0.0878 in)
   install it to the center part of the main journal.                   Standard thrust bearing width:
                                                                          2.00 - 2.05 mm (0.0787 - 0.0807 in)
     A CAUTION: Install the thrust bearing so that the
     inner surface of the oil groove faces toward the
     cylinder block side.
                                                                          A CAUTION: FilSt replace the rear thrust bear-
                                                                           ings; if the end play is still not within the limit,
                                                                           replace the front thrust bearings also.
                                               _.CRANKSHAFT SIDE
                                                                                                              THRUST BEARING
                                                                                                             ~IDTH




                                  LOWER SIDE




6. With the main bearing cap in the set condition, manually
   push the crankshaft toward the front, then, with it pulled        9. Use a suitable piece of pipe to tap the pilot bearing onto
   toward the rear, tighten the bolt to the specified torque.           the crankshaft.
   Main bearing cap bolt tightening torque:
    8.4 - 9.0 kg-m (61- 65 ft-Ib)
7. Measure the end play of the crankshaft, and confirm that               A CAUTION: Apply a coating of engine oil to the
   it is within the standard range. At this time, check to be              outer circumference of the pilot bearing and the
   sure that the crankshaft can be lightly turned.                         crankshaft. Set a piece of pipe against the outer
   Standard crankshaft end play:                                           race of the bearing, and tap evenly. After installa-
     0.04 - 0.28 mm (0.0016 - 0.0111 in)
                                                                           tion, apply grease to the bearing.
   End play limit: 0.3 mm (0.0118 in)




            MEASURING
            CRANKSHAFT
          . END PLAY                                                                                PIPE




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                29
                                                   ENGINE REASSEMBLY
10. Install each connecting rod bearing cap as follows:
   a. Measure and adjust the connecting rod bearing and
      crankshaft pin journal oil clearance by the same pro-
      cedure used to measure and adjust the crankshaft and
      main bearing oil clearance.




                                                                                                                           CONNECTING
                                                                                                                           ROD CAP

                                                                             c. Install the connecting rod bearing cap, and tighten to
                                 ~--'-J.._ PLASTiGAUGE
                                                                                the specified torque. Before installing, apply a coating
                                                                                of engine oil to the bolt threads, nuts and bearing
                                     L----         CONNECTING                   surfaces.
                                                   ROO
                                                                                 Connecting rod bearing cap tightening torque:
                                                                                   7.0 - 7.5 kg-m (51- 54 ft-Ib)


       Standard oil clearance:
                                                                                  "
                                                                                  A    CAUTION:     When installing the connecting
         0.03 - 0.06 mm (0.0012 - 0.0024 in)                                      rod cap, fim align the cap and connecting rod
                                                                                  matching marks.
       Oil clearance limit: 0.08 mm (0.0031 in)
                                                                                  Before installation, be absolutely SUfe to apply a
       Undersize connecting rod bearings:
         0.25 mm (0.010 in), 0.50 mm (0.020 in),                                  coating of engine oil to the bearing.
         0.75 mm (0.030 in)




                                                                                                                                    "MATCHING
                                                                                                                                     MARKS




                                                                                                     INSTAWNG CONNECTING
            MEASURING CONNECTING ROD BEARING AND                                                     ROD BEARING CAP
            CRANKSHAn PIN JOURNAL OIL CLEARANCE
                                                                          Rear Cover Assembly
   b ·. Check the end play of the connecting rod.
                                                                          1. Apply engine oil to the rear cover and the oil seal.
       S~~dard   connecting rod end play:
         0.11 - 0.26 mm (0.0043 - 0.0102 in)
      End play limit: 0.35 mm (0.014 in)                                       A CAUTION: Remember that when engine oil is
                                                                               applied to the cover and seal, it must also be
                                                                               applied to the oil seal lip.
        A   CAUTION: Measure the connecting rod end
        play before installing the connecting rod cap.




                                                                Engines & Generators

                                                                     30
                                              ENGINE REASSEMBLY
2. Press the oil seal into the rear cover.                            3. Install the oil pump assembly.
                                                                          Oil pump assembly tightening torque:
                                                                            M8 (smaller) bolts:
                                                                               1.6 - 2.3 kg-m (12 - 17 ft-lb)
                                                                            MI0 (bigger bolts):
                                                                               3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-lb)



      REAR
      COVER




3. Install the rear cover assembly over the gasket.
                                                                  M10
   Rear cover assembly tightening torque:                         BOLTS
     0.7 -1.0 kg-m (5 -7 ft·lb)

                                                                                                          OIL PUMP ASSEMBLY




                                                                            A CAUTION: Do not let sealant get into the
                                                                            oil hole.
                                                                            Apply engine oil to the oil seal lip.
                                                                            Before applying the sealant, use a rag to tholoughly
                                                                            clean away any dirt 01 glease from the contact SUI-
                                                                            faces of the cylinder block and oil pump assembly.
                                                                            Apply the sealant continuously without any inte"up·
                                                                            tion around the bead as shown in the illustration.
                                                                            Aftel installation, clean away any sealant which
Oil Pump Assembly                                                           oozes out.

NOTE: If it is necessary to service the oil pump, see OIL PUMP
under LUBRICATION SYSTEM.                                             Oil Strainer and Oil Pan
1. Install an O-ring applied with grease (lithium base, NLGI          NOTE: See OIL PAN under LUBRICATION SYSTEM for addi-
   No.2) onto the oil pump assembly.                                  tional information.
2. Apply sealant (1016 77 739) to the surface shown by the            1. Install the oil strainer on the oil pump body and cylinder
   shading in the illustration.                                           block, then tighten it to the specified torque.
                                                                          Oil strainer tightening torque:
                                                                             0.7 -1.0 kg-m (5 -7 ft·lb)
                                                                                                                     OIL STRAINER




                                                        Engines & Generators

                                                                 31
                                              ENGINE REASSEMBLY
2. Cut away that part of the gasket which projects out from            2. Install the flywheel assembly, using the ring gear brake
   the rear cover assembly to the oil pan ..                              (49 VIOl 060).
                                                                            Flywheel tightening torque:
      A    CAUTION: Do not scratch the rear cover                             18 - 19 kg-m (130 - 137 ft-Ib).
     ·assembly.

3. Follow this procedure to install the oil pan:
                                                                             A   CAUTION: Sealant (part No. 8530 77 743) must
                                                                             be applied to the lock bolt threads to prevent oil
    a. Apply sealant where the oil pan and cylinder block                    leakage from the lock bolts.
       meet. Put it on continuously (thickness 2 - 4 mm,
       0.08 - 0.16 in), rimming the surface inside the bolt                  After installation, do not remove the ring gear brake.
       holes; the end should overlap.




                                                                                                                        RING GEAR BRAKE
                                                                                                                        49 V101 060


                                                      REAR COVER
                                                      ASSEMBLY



                                                                       3. Install the damper plate onto the flyWheel.
     A    CAUTION: Before application, remove any dirt                      Damper plate tightening torque:
                                                                             2.2 - 3.3 kg-m (16-24 ft-Ib)
     or grease from the contact surfaces with II rag.
     Apply sealant only to the cylinder block or the oil
     pan, not to both. After the sealant is applied, the
     pan must be secured within 30 minutes.

    b. If a gasket is used, apply sealant to the areas shown by
       the shading in the illustration. Then install the gasket
       and the oil pan, tightening to the specified torque.
       Oil pan tightening torque:
         0.7 -1.0 kg-m (5 -7 ft-Ib)



                                                                       Timing Belt Pulley
                                                                       1.




Back Plate and Flywheel
1. Install the back plate.
   Back plate tightening torque:
     1.6 - 2.3 kg-m (12 - 17 ft-Ib).


                                                         Engines & Generators

                                                                  32
                                                ENGINE REASSEMBLY
2. Release the ring gear brake, tum the flywheel, move the
   No.1 piston to the top position, and then tum the crank-
   shaft clockwise approximately 45°.
                                                                        A   CAUTION: If the length of the bon below the
                                                                        head exceeds the limit, the bolt must be replaced.

     A CAUTION: This is to prevent damage to the                                                                     APPLY ENGINE OIL
     piston and valve when the cylinder head is
     installed.
                                                                        m1l        I
                                                                        ~~_ _ _...c::.:==~1!

                                                                                           CYLINDER HEAD BOLT LENGTH



                                                                   6. TIghten the cylinder head bolts in the sequence shown in
                                                                      the illustration.
                                                                      Cylinder head tightening torque:
                                                                        3.0 kg-m (21.7 ft-lb)
                                                                             8        4             1            5              9




Cylinder head
1. Thoroughly remove all dirt and grease from the top of
   the cylinder block with a rag.·
2. Place the cylinder head gasket in position.
                                                                               7       3            2            6            10
                                                                                   TIGHTENING THE CYUNDER HEAD BOLTS
     A CAUTION: Use a new cylinder head gasket.                    7. Make paint marks on the bolt heads, as shown in the
                                                                      illustration below.
                                                                   8. With the paint marks as reference points, tum the cylin-
                                                                      der head bolts another 90° (90° - 105) in the tightening
                                                                      direction, turning them in the sequence shown in the
                                                                      illustration above.
                                                                   9. Then tighten them once again 90° more (90° - 105) in
                                                                      the tightening sequence shown above.


                                       GASKET                           A CAUTION: Be absolutely sure to tighten all
                                                                        bolts in the sequence shown in the illustration.
3. Remove any dirt or grease from the bottom surface of the
   cylinder head.
4. Place the cylinder head in position.
5. Measure the length of the cylinder head bolt below the
   head. If the measured value is within the limit, apply a
   coating of engine oil to the threaded part and install.
   Cylinder head bolt length:
     Standard length:
       112.7 -113.3 mm (4.437 - 4.460 in)
     limit: 114.5 mm (4.508 in)




                                                        Engines & Generators

                                                              33
                                                  ENGINE REASSEMBLY
Camshaft                                                               10               6            2          3        7
1. Apply a coat of engine oil to the camshaft and the cylin-
   der head journals.
2. Insert the seal cap, and then apply sealant (1016 77 739)
   to the areas shown by the shading in the illustration.




                                                                        9               5        1              4        8
                                                                                    -                    '.
                                                                                   TIGHTENING THE CAMSHAFT CAP NUTS

                                                                     Glow Plugs
                APPLYING SEAlANT TO THE CYLINDER HEAD                NOTE: See GLOW PLUGS page for additional information.
                                                                     1. Install the glow plugs and glow plug connectors. Use
3. Set the camshaft and camshaft cap in position, then
                                                                        anti-seize compound on the threads.
   loosely tighten the camshaft cap nuts.
                                                                       . Glow plug tightening torque:
    NOTE: Set the camshaft so that the key groove faces
    directly upward.                                                       1.5 - 2.0 kg-m (11 - 15 ft-Ib)
4. Apply a coat of engine oil to the lip of the camshaft oil
   seal, and then insert the oil seal.




                                                                     Injection Nozzles
                                                                     Nm: For testing information, see TESTING FUEL INJEC-
5. Tighten the camshaft cap nuts to the specified torque. See        WRS under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS.
   Cylinder Head, 5., under ENGINE INSPECTION AND                    1. Install the heat shield washers, copper gaskets, injection
   REPAIR for measurement of the oil clearance.                         nozzles and fuel return lines as shown in the illustration.
    Camshaft cap nut tightening torque:
      2.0 - 2.7 kg-m (15 - 20 ft-lb)
                                                                            A   CAUTION: Be sure that the heat shield washer
                                                                            is positioned in the direction shown in the illustra-
     A    CAUTION: Tighten the camshaft cap nuts                            tion. The heat shield washer and copper gasket
     gradually and ev..en/y, and in the sequence shown in                   must be replaced each time the injection nozzle is
     the illustration.                                                      removed.
     The adjustment of the l(illve clearance should be
     made only after the camsliait pulley, injec;ion pump               Injection nozzle tightening torque:
                                                                           6.0 - 7.0 kg-m (43 - 51 ft-Ib)
     pulley and timing belt have been installed.




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                34
                                              ENGINE REASSEMBLY
                                                                      Fuel Injection Lines
                                                                      1. Install the high pressure fuel injection lines from the
                                                                         injection pump to the injectors.
                                                                          Fuel injection line tightening torque:
                                                                            1.8 - 2.3 kg-m (13 - 17 ft-Ib)


                                                                           A   CAUTION: Check to be sure that no dirt or
                                                                           other foreign material has adhered to the fuel line
                                                                           coupling.

                                                                      2. Tighten the clip channels.

Oil Pressure Switch and Oil Dipstick Tube
1. Install the oil pressure switch.
    Oil pressure switch tightening torque:
      1.2 -1.8 kg-m (9 -13 ft-Ib)
2. Install the oil dipstick tube.




                                                                                              Fua INJECTION UNES


                                                                      Coolant Pump
                                                                      NOTE: For additional information, see the COOLANT
                                                                      PUMP page.
                                                                      1. Install the coolant pump with its gasket and tighten it to
                                                                         the specified torque.
Injection Pump                                                           Coolant pump tightening torque:
                                                                           3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-Ib)
1. Install the injection pump with the fuel feed line and the
   injection pump bracket.
    NOTE: In case the fuel injection pump bracket and the fuel
    injection pump are separated, an injection timing adjust-
                                                                           A   CAUTION: Before installation, remove any dirt
                                                                           from the contact surface. lise a new gasket.
    ment will be necessaryafter installing the timing belt.
    Injection pump tightening torque:
      3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-Ib)




   FUEL INJECTION -"'f'\"""':R.st:;.:~
   PUMP


 FUEL INJECTION -::M1~
 PUMP BRACKET




                                                         Engines & Generators

                                                                 35
                                                ENGINE REASSEMBLY
Seal Plate                                                            4. Check the thermostat for proper operation by placing it in
1. Install the seal plate.                                               a pan of cold water and then raising the temperature of
                                                                         the water to a boil. The thermostat should open notice-
    Seal plate tightening torque:                                        ably (with approximate travel between 1/4" - 1/2') and
      0.8 -1.2 kg-m (6 - 9 ft-lb)                                        be fully opened when the water is boiling.


      A   CAUTION: Be sure that the seal plate sealing
      rubbers are installed in position.




Idler Pulley Bracket
1. Install the idler pulley bracket.
    Idler pulley bracket tightening torque:                           Camshaft Pulley
      3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-lb)
                                                                      1. Install the camshaft pulley onto the camshaft with the
    NOTE: There are two different lengths of idler pulley                semicircular (woodruff) key.
    bracket bolts.
                                                                      2. Hold the camshaft with a wrench (29 mm, 1.14 in), then
                                                                         tighten the camshaft pulley lock bolt to the specified
                                                                         torque.
        IDLER PULLEY                                                     Camshaft pulley bolt tightening torque:
        BRACKET
                                                                           5.6 - 6.6 kg-m (41- 48 ft-lb)


                                                                           A    CAUTION: Be sure that the mark on the
                                                                           camshaft pulley aligns with the mark on the seal
                                                                           plate. Don't damage the cylinder head edge with the
                                                                           wrench.




Thermostat Assembly
1. Install a new thermostat and a new gasket (the old ther-
    mostat can become a spare). Apply a thin coat of sealant
    to both sides of the gasket.
2. Inspect the thermostat housi,!g, then install it.
    Thennostat housing tightening torque:
      1.6 - 2.3 kg-m (12 - 17 ft-lb).                                       CAMSHAFT
                                                                            PULLEY
3. Install the temperature switch and sender, and reconnect
   their wires.


                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                 36
                                                 ENGINE REASSEMBLY
Injection Pump Pulley                                                                                          SPRING

1. Install the injection pump pulley with the semicircular
   (woodruff) key to the injection pump shaft.
2. Rotate the injection pump pulley until the timing mark on
   the injection pump pulley aligns with the timing mark on
   the seal plate.
3. Attach the injection pump pulley to the injection pump
   bracket using the two bolts (35 - 40 mm long), and
   tighten it to the specified torque.
    Injection pump pulley tightening torque:
       6.0 - 7.0 kg-m (43 - 52 ft-Ib)

                                                                      Timing Belt
                                                                      1. Return the crankshaft approximately 45° to the timing
                                                                         mark which is marked on the oil pump housing.


                                                                            A    CAUTION: Check to ensure that the timing
                                                                            maries on the camshaft pulley and the injection'
                                                                            pump pulley are aligned with the timing maries on
                                                                            the seal plate.


                            INJECTION PUMP
                            PULLEY

Timing Belt Tensioner
1. Check to ensure that the timing marks on the pulleys are
   aligned with the timing marks on the seal plate.




                    ~
                    7  N°·
                      ~\;J
                      .
                        --;
                                         TIMING MARKS




                                                  TIMING MARKS        2. Install the timing belt.


                                                                           A    CAUTION: " reinstalling the original belt, be
                                                                           sure the arrow that was drawn on the belt points in
                                                                           the direction of the engine's rotation.

2. Install the timing belt tensioner, locking bolt and spring.
3. Push the timing belt tensioner to the left toward the water
   pump as far as it will go and then tighten the locking bolt
   to temporarily hold the tensioner in place.




                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                 37
                                              ENGINE REASSEMBLY
3. Remove the two attaching bolts from the injection pump             9. Install the left timing belt cover with its rubber seal.
   pulley.                                                           10. Install the right timing belt cover with its rubber seal.
4. Loosen the tensioner lock bolt so that tension is applied             TIming belt cover bolts tightening torque:
   to the timing belt by the tensioner spring.                             0.7 -1.0 kg-m (5 -7 ft-Ib)
5. Tum the crankshaft twice in the direction of normal
   engine rotation (clockwise) to equalize tension on the
   timing belt.


     A   CAUTION: Do NOT rotate the crankshaft in the
     reverse of its nonnal rotation.

6. Tighten the timing belt tensioner lock bolt.
   TIming belt tensioner lock bolt tightening torque:
   3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-Ib)




                                                                     Crankshaft Pulley and Torsional Damper
                                                                     1. Install the crankshaft pulley and the torsional damper
                                                                        onto the timing belt drive gear with the semicircular
                                                                        (woodruff) key. Tighten the attachment.
                                                                         Crankshaft pulley bolt tightening torque:
                                                                           2.3 - 3.3 kg-m (17 - 24 ft-Ib)
                                                                         NOTE: When installing the torsional damper onto the tim-
                                                                         ing belt drive gear, align the mark on the damper with
                                                                         the knock pin on the gear.

7. Recheck the timing mark positions on the crankshaft,
   camshaft pulley and injection pump pulley with the tim-
   ing marks on the gear case.
8. Check the timing belt deflection at the position shown in
   the illustration.
   Standard timing belt deflection (engine is cold):
     10.8 -12.9 mm (0.43 - 0.51 in)/10kg (22 Ib)


     A    CAUTION: If the deflection isn't within the
                                                                                                    CRANKSHAFT PULLEY

     specification, repeat the procedure from Step 1.

                                                                     Intake/Exhaust Manifold Assembly
                                                                     NOTE: For additional information, see the
                                                                     INTAKE/EXHAUST MANIFOW page.
                                                                     1. Remove the air intake manifold, clean the two air filters,
                                                                        then reassemble.
                                                                     2. Place the intake/exhaust manifold gaskets in position.
                                                                     3. Install the intake/exhaust manifold in its entirety, and
                                                                        tighten it to the specified torque.
                                                                         Intake exhaust manifold tightening torque:
                                                                           2.2 - 2.7 kg-m (16 - 20 ft-Ib)



                                                        Engines & Generators
                                                               3S'
                                               ENGINE REASSEMBLY
4. Attach the exhaust elbow, the two exhaust manifold
   hoses, and the coolant recovery tank hose.
    For additional servicing information, see the
   INTAKE/EXHAUST MANIFOLD page.




                                                                   "COOLANT
                                                                   RECOVERY
                                                                   TANK HOSE




                                                                         5. Install the water hose with a new gasket.
                                                                               Water hose tightening torque:
Oil Cooler/Oil Filter Assembly                                                  Bracket: 1.9 - 2.6 kg-m (14 -19 ft-Ib)
                                                                                Flange: 0.8 - 1.1 kg-m (5.8 - 8.0 ft-Ib)
NOTE: For additional inJorrruztion, see OIL COOLER under
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.                                                      Alternator
1. Install three new O-rings into the oil cooler and apply a             NOTE: For additional inJorrruztion, see DC ELECTRICAL
   coating of engine oil to them.                                        SYSTEM/ALTERNATOR.
2. Install the oil cooler assembly, and tighten it to the speci-         1. Install the alternator bracket, and tighten it to the speci-
   fied torque.                                                             fied torque:
    Oil cooler tightening torque:                                              Alternator bracket tightening torque:
      M10 bolt (bigger): 3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft~lb)                          3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-Ib)
      M6 bolt (smaller): 0.7 -1.0 kg-m (5 -7 ft-Ib)
                                                                         2. Install the alternator and drive belt. Insure that the belt is
3. Before installing a new spin-on oil filter, wipe the filter              in proper alignment with the crankshaft pulley and the
   gasket's sealing surface on the oil cooler free of oil, and              idler pulley. Check the belt tension.
   apply a thin coat of clean engine oil to the rubber gasket
   on the new oil filter.                                                      Alternator drive belt deflection:
                                                                                 New: 11-12 mm (0.44 - 0.47 in)/10 kg (22Ib)
4. Screw the oil filter onto the threaded stub, and tighten                      Used: 12 -14 mm (0.47 - 0.55 in)/10kg (22Ib)
   firmly by hand.




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                   39
                                                     ENGINE REASSEMBLY
                                                                      4. Install the PCV hose.
                                                                      S. Remove the engine from the engine hanger
                                                                         (49 G030 005).

                                                                      Engine Mounts
                                                                      1. Install the engine mounts and tighten them to the speci-
                                                                         fied torque.
                                                                          Engine mount tightening torque:
                                                                            3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-Ib)


                                                                                           .J)
Valve Clearance Adjustment                                                                       ®
1. Measure the valve clearance and adjust it (see
   VAL VE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE
   ADJUSTMENTS).




                                                                      Fuel Filter
                                                                      Mount the fuel filter assembly, then connect the fuel supply
                                                                      line to the filter.

                                                                      Bellhousing/Heat Exchanger/Damper Plate
                                                                      1. Install the bellhousing.
                  VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT.
                                                                      2. Mount the heat exchanger on the bellhousing.
                                                                      3. Mount the transmission damper plate to the flywheel.
Cylinder Head Cover
                                                                      Cooling System
1. Apply sealant to the areas shown by the shading in the
   illustration.                                                      1. Install the raw water pump and its drive belt. Make sure
                                                                         the belt is in proper alignment with the crankshaft pulley.
2. Place the gasket in position.                                         Check the belt tension.
3. Install the cylinder head cover, and tighten it to the             2. Install new hose connections and clamps for the cooling
   specified torque.                                                     system.
    Cylinder head cover tightening torque:
      0.7 -1.0 kg:m (S -7 ft-Ib)                                      Electrical Equipment


                       ~
                                                GASKET                1. Install the oil and water senders and switches.
                                                                      2. Install the starter motor.
          - CYLINDER           ...       APPLY
          . 1£IIl~"'                 I   SWN(T                        3. Install the breaker panel and the preheat solenoid.
                                                                      4. Install the engine wiring harness.


                                                                           A     CAUTION: Check all AC and DC wiring connec-
                                                                            tions. Refer to Westerbeke's wiring schematics and
                                                                            diagrams.




                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                 40
                                                    ENGINE REASSEMBLY
Transmission                                                           Idle Speed Adjusbnent
Reinstall the HBW marine transmission and fill with ATF                Check the idle speed adjustment after the engine has had a
Dextron III.                                                           test run - see IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE
NOTE: Some transmissions such as the Borg Warner Velvet                ADJUSTMENTS.
Drive require oil coolers. Oil coolers should be cleaned,
pressure tested and repainted at engine overhauL. The trans-
mission oil cooler hoses should also be inspected (refer to
HEAT EXCHANGERS).




                             TYPICAL TRANSMISSION
                             OIL COOLERS



Fluids
I. Fill the engine cooling system with antifreeze mixture.
2. Fill the engine oil sump with lube oil.
    Lubrication system oil grade:
      API Specification CF or CG-4,
      SAE30, IOW-30, 15W-40.

Test Run
Test run the engine under load prior to reinstalling. Check for
oil leaks.




                                                         Engines & Generators

                                                                  41
                                                ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS

DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT                                                VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
                                                                     1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
 A CAUTION: Drive belts must be properly tensioned.                  2. Manually rotate the engine crankshaft and bring the #1
 Loose drive belts will not provide proper alternator                   piston up to the IDC of its compression stroke.
 charging and will eventually damage the alternator.                    NOTE: When this occurs, the intake and exhaust cam
                                                                        lobes will face upwards.
 Drive belts that are too tight will pull the alternator out
                                                                                                      IKTAKE CAM LOBE
 of alignment and/or cause the alternator to wear out
 prematurely.

To check the belt tension, apply moderate pressure (10 kg, 22
lb) midway between the pulleys. Check the deflection, and
adjust it if necessary.


,A CAUTION: Replace the drive belt if it has become
  worn, cracked, or frayed.

                           Belt Deflection
         New Belt                         Used Belt
       11-12mm                           12-14 mm                    3. Measure the valve clearance of the #1 cylinder by using a
     (0.44 - 0.47 in)                  (0.47 - 0.55 in)                 thickness gauge.
Belt tension adjustment is made by pivoting the alternator on           Standard valve clearances (engine is cold):
its base mounting bolt.                                                   Intake: 0.20 - 0.30mm (0.008 - 0.012 in)
                                                                          Exhaust: 0.30 - 0.40 mm (0.012 - 0.016 in)
1. Loosen the alternator adjusting strap bolt and the base
   mounting bolt.
2. Pivot the alternator on the base mounting bolt to the left
                                                                            VALVE
   or right as required.                                                    CLEARANCE
                                                                            MEASUREMENT
3. Tighten the base mounting bolt and the adjusting strap
   bolt.
4. Operate the engine for about 5 minutes at idle, then shut
   down and recheck the belt tension.


 A CAUTION: Use only genuine WESTERBEKE drive
 belts; poor quality belts will lead to premature wear
 and belt elongation resulting in alternator damage.

                                                                         If the valves clearance,s are not within the standard val-
                                                                         ues, use the following procedure to adjust the valves.
                                                                     4. Rotate the intake valve cam lobe so that it points
                                                                        straight up.
                                                                     S. Rotate the tappet so that one of the notches is facing the
                                                                        exhaust manifold. This allows for better access to the
                                                                        adjusting disc.
                                                                     6. Using the tappet holder WESTERBEKE #41978, press
                                                                        the tappet down to the position where the adjusting disc
                                                                        becomes accessible.
             1/2" DEflECTION
             APPROX,

                     BELT TENSION




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                42
                                            ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
7. Using a small screwdriver or magnet, remove the adjust-          TIMING BELT
   ing disc.
S. Select an appropriate disc thckness for the valve clear-
                                                                    NOTE: WESTERBEKE recommends replacing the timing belt
                                                                    during an engine overhaul. Tuning belt failure could result in
   ance measured. Install the disc and verify the correct
                                                                    major damage to the engine.
   clearance.
                                                                    Removal
                                                                    NOTE: In case the timing belt is to be reused, draw an arrow
                                                                    on the belt pointing in the direction of the belt's rotation, so it
                                                                    will be replaced in the same direction.




   EXAMPLE (Intake Valve): The thickness of the disc
   removed plus the clearance measured minus the standard
   clearance will give the thickness of the new adjusting
   disc.
      4.00 mm + (0.30 - 0.25 mm) =4.05 mm
      0.157 in + (0.012 - 0.010 in) = 0.159 in.                     1. Before removing the timing belt, rotate the engine crank-
                                                                       shaft by hand in the direction of the engine's normal rota-
                                                                       tion (clockwise) and align the three pairs of timing marks
                                                                       as shown in the illustration.




                                                                                                                         TIMING MARKS
   NOTE: The number marked on the disc indicates its thick-
   ness. Example: 3825 means 3.825 mm (0.1056 in).
   Adjusting discs are available in 25 different thicknesses
   between 3.40 and 4.60 mm (0.1339 - 0.1811 in) at varia-
   tions of 0.050 mm (0.002 in).
9. Measure anda~just, as needed, the valves in cylinders #3,
   #4 and #2 following the instructions above.
                                                                    2. Loosen the timing belt tensioner lock bolt, push the tim-
             CAM(INTAKE) "                                             ing belt tensioner left as far as it will go, then temporarily
                                                                       retighten the lockbolt.



                                          VALVE
                                          CLEARANCE



          ADJUSTlNGrt:         tJ
          DISC       '----"""l'--r--'f-


                                                         Engines & Generators

                                                               43
                                              ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
3. Remove the timing belt.                                            4. Check for wear or damage on only one side of the belt.

     A    CAUTION: After removal of the timing belt,
     DO NOT rotate the crankshaft pulley or the
     camshaft pulley; if they are rotated, the pistons
     will damage the opened lIallles.                                      -
Inspection
                                                                                                              WEAR OR DAMAGE
Replace the timing belt if it is contaminated with oil, grease
or water, or if any of the following conditions exist:
1. Premature severance.
   a. Check for proper installation.
                                                                      5. Check for noticeable wear on the belt teeth.
   h Check the timing belt cover gaskets for damage and
     installation.

                 PREMATURE SEVERANCE
                           \                          .


       ~~                                                                    TOOTH WEAR




2. Check the teeth for damage, cracks, peeling and harden-
   ing, and check for any missing teeth.                                   A    CAUTION: Neller forcefully twist the timing
                                                CRACKED                    belt, turn it inside out or bend it. Be careful not to
       MISSING                                  TOOTH
       TOOTH                                                               allow Oil, grease, or moisture on the belt.



       ~~_Y!!!!f!!~::::---


      ~
                                                                             00 NOT BEND           DO NOT TWIST          DO NOT TURN
                                                                                                                         INSIDE OUT



     CRACKED
     TOOTH


3. Check for noticeable wear or cracks on the belt face.
                                                                               .11\
                                                                                 ~         25MM(1.0IN)
                                                                                                                     DO NOT BEND




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                 44
                                               ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
Installation                                                           6. Recheck the timing mark positions between the three pul-
                                                                          leys and the seal plate. Check the timing belt deflection
1. Check to ensure that the timing marks on the pulleys are               with a pushing force of 10 kg (221b) at the point on the
    aligned with the timing marks on the seal plate.                      belt shown in the illustration.
2. Install the timing belt.                                                Standard deflection (engine is cold):
    NOTE: If reinstalling the original belt, be sure to install            10.8 - 12.9 mm (0.43 - 0.51 in)
    with the arrow in the correct direction of belt rotation.




                                                                       7. Install the left timing belt cover with its rubber seal.
3. Loosen the timing belt tensioner lock bolt to allow the             8. Install the right timing belt cover with its rubber seal.
   timing belt tensioner to bring pressure on the timing belt.             Bolt torque for the timing belt cover bolts:
                                                                           0.7 -1.0 kg-m (5 -7 ft-Ib)




                                                                                                                           LEFT TIMING
                                                                                                                           8ELTCOVER




4. Tum the crankshaft twice in the direction of normal
   engine rotation (clockwise) to equalize tension on the
   timing belt.
                                                                       9. Install the crankshaft pulley and the torsional damper
    NOTE: Do not turn the engine in the reverse of its normal             onto the timing belt drive gear with the semicircular
    rotation.                                                             (woodruff) key. Tighten the attachment.
5. Tighten the timing belt tensioner lock bolt.                           Crankshaft pulley bolt torque:
    Lock bolt torque: 3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 -34 ft-Ib)                       2.3 - 3.3 kg-m (17 - 24 ft-Ib)
                                                                           NOTE: When installing the torsional damper onto the tim-
                                                                           ing belt drive pulley, align the mark on the damper with
                                                                           the knock pin on the pulley.




                                                                                                       CRANKSHAFT PULLEY

                                                                                             TORSIONAL DAMPER
                         8 MM ALLEN HEAD SOCKET


                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                  45
                                             ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS

COMPRESSION TEST                                                      NOTE: In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise, have
                                                                      the injectors overhauled by an authorized fuel injection facil-
NOTE: When performing the compression test, shut off the              ity. Poor fuel quality, contaminates, and loss ofpositive fuel
raw water supply to the engine-mounted raw water pump.                pressure to the injection pump will result in injector faults.
This is to prevent raw water from filling the exhaust system
                                                                      If the glow plugs were removed, use anti-seize compound
while testing.
                                                                      when reinstalling them.
1. Warm the engine up to operating temperature.
2. Stop the engine.                                                   TESTING THE OIL PRESSURE
3. Remove all four fuel injectors or all four glow plugs.             NOTE: Insure that the oil meets the following standards: API
4. Disconnect the DC power connection to the fuel shutoff             Specification CF or CG-4, SAE 30, 10W-30, 15W-40.
   solenoid on the fuel injection pump.                               1. Remove the oil pressure sender and then install a
S. Install the compression gauge adapter (49 1456 010) in                mechanical oil pressure gauge in its place.
   the injector hole or glow plug opening of #1 cylinder.             2. Start the engine and let it thoroughly warm up.
   Connect the compression tester to the adapter.
                                                                      3. Check for oil leaks at the filter and pump assembly.
6. Crank the engine with the starter and allow the gauge to
                                                                      4. Maintain the engine rpm at 3,000 and note the gauge
   reach its maximum reading.
                                                                         reading.
7. Record the reading and proceed to the next cylinder.
   Repeat this process for each cylinder.                                 Oil Pressure:
                                                                              4.1 - 4.9 kg/cmz (S8 - 70 Ih/inZ)
8. Compare the readings to the table below. Take corrective
                                                                      S. If the pressure does not come up to the specified pres-
   action as needed.
                                                                         sure, check the lubrication system and repair if necessary
                                     kg/em2(lb/in2)-rpm                  (see ENGINE TROUBLESHOarING).
    Compression pressure
                                                                      A gradual loss of oil pressure usually indicates a specific
         Standard                     30 (426) - 200
                                                                      bearing failure. For additional information on low oil pres-
           Limit                      27 (384) - 200                  sure readings, see "OIL PRESSURE DROP" under "ENGINE
                                                                      TROUBLESHOOTING."
                            _ _ COMPRESSION
                                TESTER




NOTE: Do not guess the conditions of other cylinders from a
result of testing one cylinder. Be sure to measure the com-
pression pressure for each cylinder. Look for cylinders with
dramatically (at least 20%) lower compression than the aver-
age of the other cylinders. If the weak cylinder is flanked by
healthy cylinders, the problem is either valve or head-gasket
related. Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder indi-
cates gasket failure. Abnormally high readings on all cylin-
ders indicate heavy carbon accumulations, a condition that
might be accompanied by high pressures and noise.




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                 46
                                               ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS

TESTING FUEL INJECTORS
Using a nozzle tester, check the injection starting pressure of
the nozzle, and if it exceeds the limit, adjust or replace the                     : INJECTION
nozzle.                                                                            ! PRESSURE
                                                                                   : TEST
NOTE: The fuel injectors must be serviced in a clean room
erwironment.
Removing the Fuel Injectors
1. Disconnect the high pressure lines from the injectors,
   then loosen the lines at their attachment to the injection
   pump and move them out of the way of the injectors.
   Avoid bending the lines.
2. Remove the fuel return line in its entirety from the top of
                                                                          7. If the injection starting pressure of the nozzle is not
    the injectors. Take care not to lose the two sealing wash-
                                                                             within the limit, loosen the cap nut on the nozzle holder,
    ers and banjo bolt that attaches the fuel return line to
                                                                             insert a flat screwdriver through the bolt hole of the cap
    each injector.
                                                                             nut, then tum the pressure adjusting screw to set the
3. Unscrew the injector from the cylinder head, using a 27                   injection starting pressure to 200 kglcm2 (2.844 Ib/in2).
    mm clamp socket.                                                         Then, gradually decrease the pressure until the injection
   NOTE: Clean the area around the base of the injector                      starting pressure is 135 kglcm2 (1920 Ib/in2).
   prior to lifting it out of the cylinder head to help prevent               After the injection starting pressure has been adjusted,
   any rust or debris from falling down into the injector                     hold the pressure adjusting screw with a flat screwdriver,
   hole. If the injector will not lift out easily and is held in              then tighten the cap nut. Then check the injection starting
   by carbon build-up or the like, work the injector side-to-                 pressure again if it does not change.
   side with the aid of the socket wrench to free i~ and then
   lift it out.
                                                                                                  CAPNUT---....
4. The injector seats in the cylinder head on a copper seal-
    ing washer. This washer should be removed with the
    injector and replaced with a new washer when the injec-                                      PRESSURE
                                                                                                 ADJUSTING
    tor is reinstalled.                                                                          SCREEN
Injection Testing
1. Set the nozzle tester in a clean place where there is no                                                   . "'''''1\   ..",.,..':--,-,,;,:='1
                                                                                                              ':'.'''2'1 .~I
    dust or dirt.
                                                                          Inspecting the Spray Pattern.
2. Mount the nozzle and nozzle holder on the nozzle tester.
3. Use new fuel that has an approximate temperature of                    1. Operate the hand lever of the nozzle tester at intervals of
   20°C (68"F).                                                               one stroke per second to check if the fuel is injected cor-
                                                                              rectly in its axial direction. A nozzle is defective if it
4. Operate the hand lever of the nozzle tester several times                  injects fuel in an oblique direction or in several separate
    to bleed the air in the nozzle line, then move the hand                   streams. Also, a spray in the form of particles indicates a
    lever at intervals of one stroke per second while reading                 defect. These defects may sometimes be caused by clog-
    the injection starting pressure.                                          ging with dust, therefore all parts should be carefully
5. If the diesel fuel of the nozzle tester is stained, replace                cleaned before reassembly. (Care should be taken not to
    the fuel. At the same time, clean or replace the fuel filter.             expose one's skin to this spray as it may penetrate the
                                                                              skin and cause infection.)

     A CAUTION: The spray injected from the nozzle
      is of such velocity that it may penetrate deeply
      into the skin of the fingers and hands, destroying
      tissue. If it enters the bloodstream, it may cause
      blood poisoning.

6. Check the spray pattern and injection starting pressure of
    the nozzle and, if the injection starting pressure exceeds
    the limit, adjust or replace the nozzle.
                                                                                    NORMAl             FAULTY ANGLE                  FAUlTY DIRECTION
    Injection starting pressure:
       135 -140 kg/cmz (1920:"1990 Ih/inZ)



                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                    ·47
                                                ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
2. Apply a pressure of 115 kglcm2(16351b/in2) to the noz-               3. Check that there are no flaws or other damage on mating
   zle by operating the hand lever, and check the drips from               surfaces and the sliding surfaces of the nozzle body and
   the nozzle tip. If it drips or has a large accumulation of              needle valve; if any are present, replace the nozzle
   fuel on the bottom, it is considered defective and should               assembly.
   be replaced. A very small amount of fuel may sometimes
   remain on the tip of the nozzle, however, this does not
   indicate a defect.
                                                                                              1---.
                                                                                              ~BODY
                                                                                                               NUT




                                                                                                ~SHIM


                                                                                                ~---SPRING




             CORRECT
                          AFTER DRIP TEST
                                                     ·
                                                INCORRECT                                       '=""--'- PIN

                                                                                                               NOZZLE
                                                                                                               SPRING
Injector Disassembly                                                                                           SEAT

1. Clamp the nozzle holder in a vise, then remove the cap

                                                                                             ~.
                                                                                                               INJECTION

   nut.                                                                                                        NOZZLE

2. Remove the pressure adjusting screw, then pull out the
   upper seat, the spring and the push rod.                                                                .   NOZZLE
                                                                                                               NUT
3. With the nozzle holder in the vise, remove the nozzle nut,
   then pull the nozzle out.                                                                  ~. COPPER
                                                                                              ~ WASHERS


                                                                                           FUEL INJECTOR
                                            \
                                            NOZZLE                      Injector Reassembly
                                            TESTER
                                                                        To reassemble, reverse the order of disassembly, and include
                                                                        the following:
                                                                        1. To assemble· the nozzle and nozzle holder, first assemble
                   VISE
                                                                           the pressure adjusting nut side, and temporarily tighten
                                                                           the nut. Mount the nozzle and set the needle valve to its
                                                                           proper position, then mount the nozzle nut.
   NOTE: The greatest pos~ible care should be taken when
   handling the nozzles, as they are very precisely machined.              Nozzle nut tightening torque:
   The nozzle and the needle valve are matched pairs -do                     8 -10 kg-m (58 - 72 ft-lb)
   not mix their original combinations.                                     Cap nut tightening torque:
                                                                              4 - 5 kg-m (29 - 36 ft-lb)
Injector Inspection
                                                                        2. After the nozzle and nozzle holder have been assembled,
1. Disassemble and clean each nozzle assembly separately.                  check the injection starting pressure and spray condition.
   Clean the disassembled parts with clean diesel fuel, then
                                                                        Injector Installation
   remove the carbon adhering to the nozzle with a piece of
   hard wood. Do not use a metal tool to remove the carbon.             1. Use new copper washers when installing the injectors.
  . NOTE: It is advisable not to clean the surrounding area of          2. TIghten the injectors to the specified torque.
    the nozzle orifice, to avoid possible damage to the orifice.            Injectors tightening torque:
   Iron dust on the magnetic filter top must be completely                    1.6 - 2.4 m-kg (11.6 - 17.4 ft-lb)
   removed.
2. After cleaning, set the nozzle body in an upright position,
   insert the needle valve, then check to make sure the nee-
   dle valve comes down into the valve seat by its own
   weight. If it does not, replace the entire nozzle assembly.


                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                   48
                                               ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS

IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT
Checking the Idle Speed
1. Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature.
   Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a
   clean cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape
   on the pulley to facilitate use of a photoelectric type
   tachometer.
2. Start and idle the engine.
3. Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape to
   confirm the engine speed.
4. Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within the
   specified value.
    Normal Idle Speed: 750 - 1000 rpm

Adjusting the Idle Speed
1. Loosen the locknut on the idle adjustment bolt on the
   fuel injection pump.
2. Tum the idle adjustment bolt until the idling speed is
   within the standard range.
3. Tighten the locknut.
4. Race the engine several times to ensure the idle speed
   remains as set.
    NOTE: Should engine rpm be in question, verify the
    tachometer readings as shown at the instrument panel
    with a mechanical or strobe-type tachometer at the
    engine crankshaft.
                                 IDLE ADJUSTMENT
                                 BOLT LOCKNUT
                                                   IDLE ADJUSTMENT BOLT




                   ADJUSTING IDLE SPEED




                                                              Engines & Generators

                                                                      49
                                            ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS

INJECTION PUMP TIMING ADJUSTMENT                                        feeler needle of the measuring device is in contact with
                                                                        the plunger inside the pump. Zero the measuring device
Disassembly                                                             scale.
                                                                     4. Tum the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation
1. Remove the air intake silencer assembly.                             until the No. 1 piston is at IDe by referencing the indi-
2. Remove the four high pressure injector lines that connect            cator on the valve stem.
   the injection pump with the injectors.                               The measuring device indicator needle should move 1.00
3. Remove the bolt and gasket installed on the distributor              mm from the zero setting.
   head of the injection pump.                                           Beginning of Static Injection
4. Remove the valve rocker cover.                                          Cam lift 1.00 mm (0.0394 in)
5. Rotate the crankshaft in its normal direction of rotation            NOTE: If the measuring device shows movement at the
   (use the front crankshaft pulley nut) and place the No.1             plunger to be more or less than specified above, the
   piston at IDe of its compression stroke.                             injection pump must be adjusted to correct the movement.
   NOTE: To verify, the rocker arms of No.4 cylinder should          Timing Adjustment
   be rocking (one opening, the other closing).
6. Remove the snap ring circlip from the end of the rocker           1. Disconnect the fuel supply and return line connections'
   shaft at cylinder No. 1 along with the retaining washer.             from the injection pump.
7. Loosen the rocker arm adjusting bolt to allow the arm to          2. Disconnect the support bracket at the back of the injec-
   be removed from the push rod, and slide it off the rocker            tion pump where it attaches to the lube oil filter adapter.
   shaft.                                                            3. Loosen the two injection pump hold-down nuts that
8. Press down on the valve and spring assembly and note                 secure the injection pump to the engine.
   that the valve is hitting the top of No. 1 piston. Then           4. Rotate the injection pump either toward the engine or
   remove the cap, keepers and valve springs from the No.1              away from the engine to adjust the measuring device
   valve.                                                               indicator to show 1.0 mm of movement.
   NOTE: Insure the valve moves freely in its guide. Take            5. Secure the pump by tightening the two hold-down nuts.
   care not to drop the keepers down the push rod hole.
                                                                     6. Remove the measuring device, replace the bolt and gas-
Inspection                                                              ket, and reattach all fuel lines using a new sealing washer.

1. Position a dial indicator gauge on the valve stem, and            Reassembly
   using tne front crankshaft pulley nut, rock the crankshaft
                                                                     To reassemble, reverse the order of disassembly, and include
   counterclockwise and clockwise to locate exact IDe of
                                                                     the following:
   the compression stroke for the No. 1 piston, and then
   zero the dial indicator gauge to the valve stem. (The             1. TIghten the lock nut of the injection pump drive gear to
   gauge should be able to measure up to .300 inch of valve             the specified torque.
   movement.)                                                            Injection pump tightening torque:
                                                                            4.0 - 7.4 kg-m (29 - 51 ft-Ib)
                                                                     2. After the injection pump has been installed, loosen
                                                                        the overflow valve, and bleed the air by operating the
                                                                        priming pump.




2. Tum the crankshaft until the indicator shows the valve
   drop to be at .264 inch. This is 30° BIDe.
3. Install the measuring device (Diesel Kit #57828 - 3520)
   in the bolt hole of the injection pump distributor head,
   (refer back to step 3. under Disassembly) Insure that the
                                                                                                            INJECTION PUMP



                                                        Engines & Generators

                                                                50
                                                     GLOW PLUGS
DESCRIPTOIN                                                          Reinstall the plugs in the engine and test them again. The
                                                                     plugs should get very hot (at the terminal end) within 20 to
The glow plugs are wired through the preheat solenoid.               25 seconds. If the plugs don't heat up quickly, check for a
When PREHEAT is pressed at the control panel this solenoid           short circuit. When reinstalling the glow plugs, use anti-seize
should "click" on and the glow plugs should begin to get hot.        compound on the threads.

INSPECTION
To inspect the plug, remove the electrical terminal connec-
tions, then unscrew or unclamp each plug from the cylinder
                                                                      A WARNING: Do not keep a glow plug on for more
                                                                      than 30 seconds.
head. Thoroughly clean each plug's tip and threads with a
soft brush and cleaning solution to remove all the carbon and
oil deposits. While cleaning, examine the tip for wear and
bum erosion; if it has eroded too much, replace the plug.                                           TERMINAL END
TESTING
An accurate way to test glow plugs is with an ohmmeter.
Touch on~ prod to the glow plug's wire connection, and the
other to the body of the glow plug, as shown in the illustra-
tion. A good glow plug will have a 1.0 - 1.5 ohm resistance.
This method can be used with the plug in or out of the                                  Tightening torque:
engine. You can also use an ammeter to test the power drain
(8 to 9 amps per plug).                                                                 (1.0 - 105m-kg (7 - 11 ft-Ib)



 A WARNING: These glow plugs will become very
 hot to the touch. Be careful not to burn your fingers                                                                         TIP
 when testing the plugs.

                                                                                                        GLOW PLUG
                                                                                                        OHMMETER TEST




                                                         Engines & Generators

                                                                51
                                              LUBRICATION SYSTEM

GENERAL DESCRIPTION                                                  Reassembly
The oil pump is the crescent type, directly driven by the            1. After cleaning the surfaces where the oil pan and the
crankshaft. The oil cooler is water-cooled. Oil jets are pro-           cylinder block meet, apply PERMATEX sealant (or
vided to cool the pistons.                                              equivalent) to the oil pan, as shown in the illustration, and
                                                                        then install the oil pan.
OIL PAN
                                                                        NOTE: Tighten the oil pan bolts within 30 minutes after
Disassembly                                                             application of the sealant.
1. Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand.
2. Drain the engine oil.
3. To remove the oil pan and it's gasket, remove the oil pan
   mounting bolts, then insert a flat-tipped scraper between
   the oil pan and the cylinder block to separate them.




                                                                     2. If a gasket is used, apply PERMATEX sealant (or equiva-
                                                                        lent) to the areas indicated by the arrows in the illustra-
                                                                        tion after first cleaning the surface where the oil pan
                                                                        meets the cylinder block.



       Oil PAN

Inspection
Check for the following conditions, and repair or replace the
oil pan if necessary.
1. Cracks, deformation, damage (at bolt locations).
2. Damaged drain plug threads.
                                                                                              SEALANT AREAS




         DRAIN
         PLUG




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                52
                                                    LUBRICATION SYSTEM

OIL PUMP                                                                        2. Loosen the screws by an impact driver or similar tool so
                                                                                   that the oil pump body is not damaged.
Removal
1. Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand.
2. After draining the engine oil, remove the parts in the
   numbered sequence as shown in the illustration.
   NOTE: The installation sequence of these parts is the
   reverse of the removal sequence.
                                  1. mi'llNG BELT PULLEY
                                     CAMSHAFT PULLEY (NOT SHOWN)                             LOOSENING
                                                                                             THE SCREWS
               ~ =.ruMPPWIYIIIlITS/IIIW',



                                                                                Inspection
                                                                                1. Check for the following conditions, and repair or replace
                                                                                   the oil pump if necessary.
                                                                                   a. Distortion or damage to the pump body or cover.
                                                                                   h Worn or damaged plunger.
                                                                                   c. Weak or broken plunger spring.
                                                                                2. Measure. the gear clearances:
                                                                                   Outer gear tooth tip to crescent clearance limit:
                                                                                     0.35 mm (0.013 in)
                                                                                   Inner gear tooth tip to crescent clearance limit:
                                            3. OIL STRAINER ,                        0.35 mm (0.013 in)

                                               2. OILPAN



                                    OIL PUMP REMOVAL SEQUENCE
                     .'   .



Disassembly
1. Disassemble the oil pump in the numbered sequence
   shown in the illustration.

                                                                                                                          INNER GEAR TO
                                                                                                                          CRESCENT. CLEARANCE


                                                                                3. Measure the side clearance.
                                                                                   Side clearance limit:
                                                                                     0.15 mm (0.006 in)


                                                                                     -e
                                                           3. OUTER GEAR




                              OIL PUMP DISASSEMBLY SEQUENCE
                                                                                               MEASURING THE SIDE CLEARANCE


                                                                   Engines & Generators

                                                                           53
                                              LUBRICATION SYSTEM
4. Measure the body clearance.                                       4. Coat the oil seal lip with engine oil, then install the seal,
   Outer gear to pump body clearance limit:                             taking care not to damage the lip.
    0.20 mm (0.008 in)


              MEASURING THE                                                                                                  APPLY
                                                                                                                  ";-;'---SEALANT
              BODY CLEARANCE .




                                                                     Installation
5. Oil Seal Replacement                                              The installation sequence is the reverse of the removal
   a.   Remove the oil seal by using a screwdriver or similar        sequence
        tool to pry it out.
                                                                     OIL COOLER
   b. Press in the new oil seal by using a pipe or round rod
      with an outer diameter of 45 ~m    q.?7  ~nL ._ ....           Disassembly
                                                                     With the coolant drained, remove each part in the num,bered
         A CAUTION: Press the oil seal in until the front            sequence shown in the illustration.
         end is aligned with the front end of the pump body.


                                                                                                              1. OIL FILTER




             OIL SEAL
             REPLACEMENT



                                                                                                                        _     2. OIL COOLER




Reassembly
The reassembly sequence is the reverse of the disassembly
sequence, and should include the following:
1. Install the outer gear with the mark indicated by the
   punch holes facing toward the oil pump cover.
2. Apply a thin coating of grease to the O-ring, and position
   it at the location shown in the illustration ..
3. Apply a coat of PERMATEX sealant (or equivalent)
   to the oil pump surface shown by the shading in the
   illustration.                                                     Inspection
   NOTE: Be careful not to let the sealant get into the              Replace all O-rings. Apply engine oil to the new O-rings.
   oil hole.




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                54
                                                       LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Reassembly                                                               OIL PRESSURE SWITCH & OIL PRESSURE SENDER
The reassembly sequence is the reverse of the disassembly                1. The engine has a two-prong oil pressure/water tempera-
sequence.                                                                   ture switch. The oil pressure switch is normally open; it
When installing the oil cooler, align the oil cooler holes with             closes when the oil pressure rises to 5 -10 psi.
the projections on the oil filter body.

      PROJECTIOt-jS                                    HOLES
                                                                                  +


                                                                                                         OIL PRESSURE SWITCH


                                                                                            OIL
                                                                                         PRESSURE

                                                                            When the oil pressure drops to 5 -10 psi (too low), this
                                                                            switch interrupts the circuit for the fuel run solenoid by
                                                                            opening, thereby shutting down the engine. This switch
                                                                            also activates an alarm that emits a pulsating signal when
                                                                            the oil pressure drops to 5 -10 psi.
                                                                            NOTE: This alarm will also emit a pulsating signal when
Removal                                                                     the engine starts up, as the oil has not yet reached its
Remove each part in the following sequence:                                 normal pressure (a good check o/the alarm).

1. Remove the oil pan (see the OIL PAN section).                             When performing an engine overhaul, replace the oil
                                                                             pressure switch and the oil pressure sender. When
2. Remove the oil jet valves.                                                installing the new parts, apply a teflon sealant to the
3. Remove the oil jets.                                                      threaded ends, being careful not to close off the oil hole
                                                                             in the sender.
                                                                             Oil pressure switch and sender torque:
           PISTOt-j
                                                                               1.2 -1.8 kg-m (9 -13 ft-lb)
           ASSEMBLY

                                                                              A   CAUTION: Oil pressure switch - 00 not use
                                                                              lock pliers. vise grips or pipe wrenches on the oil
                                                                              pressure switch. Use the correct socket which is
                                                                              available from Snap-On. Proto. New Britain and
                                         ------""'-' SEALING
                      BANJO BOiT - - - I i i         WASHERS
                                                                              others. Damage to the switch will cause oil leaks
                                                                              and/or switch failure.
Inspection
1. Make sure that the oil passage is not clogged.
2. Check and ensure that the spring inside the oil jet valve is
   not stuck or damaged ..


                                                   SEALING
                                                   WASHERS




                BANJO BOLT   ~             :



Installation                        I-
The installation sequence is the reverse of the
removal sequence.
                                                               Engines & Generators

                                                                    55
                                               LUBRICATION SYSTEM

TESTING THE OIL PRESSURE
NOTE: Insure that the oil meets the following standards: API
Specification CF or CG-4, SAE 30, lOW-30, l5W-40.
1. Remove the oil pressure sender and then install a
    mechanical oil pressure gauge in its place.




                    TESTING THE OIL PRESSURE

2. Start the engine and let it thoroughly warm up.
3. Check for oil leaks at the filter and pump assembly.
4. Maintain the "engine rpm at 3,000 and note the gauge
   reading.
S. If the pressure does not come up to the specified pres-
   sure, check the lubrication system and repair if necessary
   (see ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING).
    Oil pressure:
      4.1 - 4.9 kglcmz (S8 - 70 Ih/inZ)
A gradual loss of oil pressure usually indicates a specific
bearing failure. For additional information on low oil pres-
sure readings, see OIL PRESSURE DROP under ENGINE
TROUBLESHOOTING.




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                56
                                       REMOTE OIL FILTER (Optional)

INSTALLATION                                                            To install, simply remove the engine oil filter and thread on
                                                                        WESTERBEKE's remote oil filter kit as shown. Always
This popular accessory is used to relocate the engine's oil fil-        install this kit with the oil filter facing down as illustrated.
ter from the engine to a more convenient location such as an
engine room bulkhead.                                                   Contact your WESTERBEKE dealer for more information.

NOTE: Refer to ENGINE OIL CHANGE in this manual for                     NOTE: Westerbeke is not responsible for engine failure due to
instructions on removing the oil filter.                                im;orrect installation of the Remote Oil Filter.

                                                                                                        FASTEN SECURELY TO A BULKHEAD
                                                                                                        (SCREWS ARE OWNER-SUPPLIED)




         APPLY A THIN COAT OF CLEAN OIL TO THE O-RING
         WHEN INSTALLING THIS ADAPTER. THREAD THE
         ADAPTER ON, THEN HAND-TIGHTEN AN ADDI-
        ,TIONAL 3/4 TURN AFTER THE O-RING CONTACTS
         THE BASE.




                                                                                                    APPLY A THIN COAT OF CLEAN OIL TO
                                                                                                    THE FILTER GASKET WHEN INSTALLING.
                                                                                                    AFTER THE FILTER CONTACTS THE BASE,
                                                                                                    TIGHTEN IT AN ADDITIONAL 3/4 TURN.




                                                           Engines & Generators

                                                                   57
                                                  COOLANT PUMP
REMOVAL                                                            REASSEMBLY
1. Tum the crankshaft so that the No. 1 cylinder is at IDC         Reassemble the pump cover with;its:new gasket.
   (top dead center) of compression.
2. Drain the engine coolant into a suitable container.
                                                                   INSTALLATION
3. Remove the following components in the order listed:            The installation sequence of the coolant pump and the other
                                                                   components that were removed is the reverse of the removal
      a. Alternator drive belt.
                                                                   sequence.
      h Alternator.
                                                                      Coolant pump tightening torque:
      c. Coolant Hose.                                                    3.2 - 4.7 kg-m (23 - 34 ft-Ib)
      d. Crankshaft pulley.                                        After installing the coolant pump, fill the cooling system with
      e. Upper and lower timing belt covers.                       coolant and operate the engine to check for leaks.
      £ TIming belt tensioner and spring.
      g. TIming belt.
      h. Coolant pump and alternator strap.

DISASSEMBLY
Remove the pump cover and the gasket.



 A CAUTION: I!o not disassemble the coolant pump
 body. Replace it as an assembly if necessary.


INSPECTION
Replace the 'cover gasket.




                                                         Engines & Generators

                                                              58
                                                 RAW WATER PUMP
 PUMP OVERHAUL                                                      6. Inspect all parts and replace those showing wear
                                                                       or erosion.
Disassembly                                                         7. Use the illustration below to assist in reassembling the raw
The pump, as removed from the engine, will have hose                   water pump.
attachment nipples threaded into its inlet and outlet port.            a. apply a small amount of petroleum jelly to the seal's
They may be left in place or removed if they interfere with               inner race and to the impeller shaft at reassembly.
the pump disassembly. Note the port location and positioning
                                                                       b. When positioning the cam in the housing use a small
if removed.
                                                                          amount of Permatex #1 on the inner cam surface and
1. Loosen the set screw with an allen wrench and remove the               cam screw threads, remove any excess from the
    water pump pulley from the shaft                                      impeller housing.
 2. Remove the 4 cover plate screws, cover plate,                      c. Apply a light film of silicone or petroleum jelly to the
    and cover gasket                                                       inner surface of the housing for the impeller.
 NOTE: Replacement of the cover plate gasket is                     S. When the pump is assembled reposition and tighten the
 recommended; however, if you are going to reuse it, keep the          hose nipples. Assemble the pump to the engine and attach
 gasket well lubricated until the pump is reassembled. If it's         the hoses and belt.
 allowed to dry, the gasket will shrink and not be reusable.
                                                                                                                         COVER PLATE
 3. Pull out the impeller with long nose pliers or pry out with                                  COVER
    a pair of screwdrivers.                                                                      GASKET

 4. Remove the two screws that hold the bearing assembly,
    this will release the shaft, bearing and seal assembly.
    Removing the retaining rings will allow the bearings and
    seals to be disassembled for inspection.
 NOTE: It may be necessary to use a drift and arbor press to
 press the bearing and seal assembly from the shaft.
                                                                                                                           IMPELLER




                                                                                                          RAW WATER PUMP


LUBRICATE AT ASSEMBLY

                                                            SEAL ASSEMBLY




                     RETIUNI.IG RINGS




SHAFT




                                                           Engines & Generators.

                                                                  59
                                                HEAT EXCHANGER
The heat exchanger should be inspected and serviced during          REASSEMBLY
an engine overhaul.
                                                                    1. When reassembling, install new gaskets and O-rings.
DISASSEMBLY                                                            Apply some lubricant to the new gaskets and to the pet-
                                                                       cock and fittings as you install them.
1. Disconnect the hoses and remove the hose fittings, drain
   plugs and zinc anodes. Also remove the end fittings and          2. Install a new zinc anode.
   gaskets.                                                         NOTE: All of the above service can be accomplished by send-
                                                                    ing the heat exchanger to a heat exchanger service shop.
INSPECTION                                                          They will also service transmissions and engine oil coolers.
1. Inspect the tube (casing) for wear and dents. Replace the        3. Repaint the assembled heat exchanger with WESTER-
   heat exchanger if there is any doubt about its perfor-              BEKE heat resistant spray enamel.
   mance.                                                           4. To ensure that the above heat exchanger service is satis-
2. Oear out any zinc debris, and pressure test the coolant             factory, follow this procedure:
   and raw water passages.                                             a. Reconnect all hoses, replacing them as needed; use
                                                                          new hose clamps.
                                                                       h Refill the system with coolant.
                                                                       c. Pressure test the system and check for leaks.




               COOLANT             HEAT
               DRAIN               EXCHANGER




                                                                                         . END CAP




                                                       Engines & Generators

                                                               60
                                         INTAKE/EXHAUST MANIFOLD
DISASSEMBLY                                                             S. Clean the passage that connects to the coolant recovery
                                                                           tank tubing.
1. Unclamp the exhaust elbow, the two coolant hoses on the
                                                                        6. Flush out the coolant recovery tank and it's tubing.
   exhaust manifold, and the coolant recovery tank hose. Be
   sure to note the positions of these components to ensure             7. Examine all other parts for defects, corrosion and wear,
   that they will be properly aligned during reassembly.                   and replace as needed.
2. Remove the single hex bolt that attaches the air intake to           REASSEMBLY
   the exhaust manifold, then remove the air intake and the
   dual air filters.                                                    1. Install the manifold drain plug.
3. Remove the exhaust manifold and it's gaskets from the                2. Install the manifold pressure cap.
   cylinder head.                                                       3. Place the manifold gaskets in position, using new gas-
4. Remove the manifold pressure cap.                                       kets. Do not use any gasket sealant.
S. Remove the manifold drain plug.                                      4. Loosely attach the exhaust manifold to the cylinder head.

INSPECTION                                                              S. Gradually tighten, making sure all parts are properly
                                                                           aligned; do this in three steps. Tighten to the specified
1. Use a liquid cleaner to flush out the exhaust manifold and              torque.
   to clean the intake manifold, then rinse both manifolds                  Intake/exhaust manifold tightening torque:
   thoroughly with fresh water.                                                2.2 - 2.7 m-kg (16 - 20 fI:-lb)
2. Clean and inspect the dual air filters; replace if necessary.        6. Install the air intake and the dual air filters. When
3. Clean and inspect the exhaust elbow for cracks and                      reassembling, make certain the filters are positioned
   defects; replace if necessary.     .                                    properly, and do not overtighten when refastening the
                                                                           bolt.
4. Check the manifold pressure cap. Open the valve by
   pulling it, and make sure it closes when released. Make              7. Attach the exhaust elbow, the two exhaust manifold
   certain the upper and lower seals are in good condition. If             hoses, and the coolant recovery tank hose.
   in any doubt, replace the cap.                                       S. Repaint the reassembled intake/exhaust manifold with
                                                                           WESTERBEKE heat resistant spray enamel.
     PRESSURE
     CAP




                                   AIR FILTER _ _ _--.:
                                   ELEMENT




                                                                                             PLATE
                  PLUG




                EXHAUST
                ELBOW




                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                   61
                                                      TACHOMETER
TACHOMETER/HOURMETER                                                    Tachometer Inaccurate
The tachometerlhourmeter used in propulsion engine instru-              1. With a hand-held tach on the front of the crankshaft pul-
ment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a               ley retaining nut or with a strobe-type tach, read the front
common ground. One circuit operates the hourmeter and the                  crankshaft pulley rpm. Set the engine with a hand or
other the tachometer. The hourmeter circuit operates on 12                 strobe tach at 1500-1800 rpm.
volts alternator charging voltage supplied to the (+) terminal          2. Adjust the tachometer with a sI:llall Phillips type screw-
on the back of the instrument.                                             driver through the calibration acess hole in the rear of the
The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6-8 volts, fed               tachometer. Zero the tach and bring it to the rpm set by
from one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to the               the strobe or hand tach. (Verify the rpm at idle and at
tachometer input terminal while the engine is running, and                 high speed 2500-3000 rpm). (Adjust the tach as needed.)
the alternator producing battery charging voltage 13.0-14.8
volts DC.
Use the following procedures when troubleshooting a fault in
either of the two circuits in a tachometerlhourmeter.
                                                                   .- COARSE
Hourmeter Inoperative                                                 AOJUSTMENT

Check for the proper DC voltage between (+) and (-)
terminals.                                                                                                                (-) TERMINAL

1. Voltage present - meter is defective - repair or replace.
                                                                                                              ,r,<   ""-
                            INSPECT FOR                                                   ADJUSTING
                            WEAR & CHIPPING
                                                                                          SHIMS
          STARTER
           MOTOR




                                                                                                            \,
                                                                                                                 ""-.   --,
                                                                                                                        __   .-
                                                                                                          NOTE: lnspect, clean and replace
                                                                                                          if necessary brush, commuter;
                                                                                                          solenoid, armature, etc. See the
                                                                                                          following pages.




PINION
                                                          Engines & Generators

                                                                   64
STARTER INSPECTION
Solenoid
Inspect the solenoid for continuity between terminals S and
M and between terminals S and body. No continuity should
be found between S and M. Continuity should be found
between S and the body and M and the body.




                                                                        Brush and Brush Holder Inspection
                                                                        1. Check the brushes. If worn out beyond the service limit,
                                                                           replace the brushes.
                                                                       Brush Height
                                                                       Standard 17 mm (0.669 in)
                                                                       Limit 6 mm (0.236 in)
          CONTINUITY CHECK

                                                                                 BRUSHES
Inspecting The Armature                                                                                NEW            USED
1. Check the annature with a growler tester. If it's short
   circuited, replace the annature. Also check for insulation           2. Check the brush spring tension. A weak or defective
   between the communicator and its shaft. If poorly                       spring will cause excessive brush wear; replace the springs
   insulated, replace the annature.                                        if suspect.                                                .


                                           ARMATURE                                 BRUSH HOLDER
                                             CHECK                                  ASSEMBLY"",    ~,~_"",
                                                                                                              ~~r




     ARMATURE--H~


                                                                        3. Check for insulation between the positive brush holder
2. Measure the commutator O.D. and the depth of undercut.                  and holder base. If poorly insulated, replace the holder
   Repair or replace it if the service limit is exceeded. Also             assembly. Also check the brush holders for proper staking.
   check the commutator outside surface for dirtiness and
   roughness. If rough, polish the commutator with fine
   crocus cloth.




                                       Commutar O.D. Standard
                                          Standard: 38.7 mm (1.523 in)
                          "'-"'--,.... Service limit: -1.0 mm (-0.039 in)
COMMUTATOR 0.0.




                                                            Engines & Generators

                                                                   65
                                                   STARTER MOTOR'
 Field Coil Inspection                                                  2. Greasing. Whenever the starter has been overhauled,
 1. Check for insulation between one end (brush) of the                    apply grease to the following parts:
    coil and yoke.                                                         a. Armature shaft gear and reduction gear.
 2. Check for continuity between both ends (brushes)                       b. All bearings.
    of the coil                                                            c. Bearing shaft washers and snap rings.
 3. Check the poles and coil for tightness.                                d. Bearing sleeves.
                                                                           e. Pinion.
                                                                           f. Sliding portion of lever.
                                            MULTIMETER


                                                                         A   CAUTION: Never smear the starter fitting surface,
                                                                         tenninalsl brushes, or commutator with grease.

                                                                        3. After reassembly, check by conducting a no-load test
                                                                           again.




FIELD COIL TEST




 STARTER ADJUSTMENT AND REASSEMBLY                                        SNAP RING


   A CAUTION: Before insfalling thoroughly clean the
                                   l
                                                                               --~I~-D.5         mm MAX
   starter flange and mounting surfacesl remove al/ oill
   old paint, and rust. Starter perfonnance largely
   depends on the quality of the wiring. Use wire of suffi-                               PINION SHAFT END PLAY
   cient size and grade between the battery and starter
   and fully tighten to the tenninal.

  Reassemble the starter assembly in the reverse order of
. disassembly, making sure of the following:
  1. Pinion shaft end play adjustment. Set the end play (thrust
     gap) to between 0.5 to 2 mm by inserting an adjusting
     washer between the center bracket and the reduction gear.
     a. Fit the pinion shaft, reduction gear washer and snap
        ring to the center bracket.
     b. Measure end play by moving the pinion shaft in the
        axial direction. If the end play exceeds 0.5 mm,
        increase the number of adjusting washers inserted.




                                                          Engines & Generators
                                                                  -66
                                DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM/ALTERNATOR
 DESCRIPTION                                                               1. Start the Engine
 The charging system consists of an 'alternator with a voltage             2. After a few minutes of running measure the starting bat-
 regulator, an engine DC wiring harness, a mounted DC cir-                    tery voltage at the battery terminals using a multi-meter
 cuit breaker, and a battery with connecting cables. Because                  set on DC volts.
 of the use of integrated circuits (IC's) the electronic voltage              The voltage should be increasing toward 14 volts. If it is,
 regulator is very compact and is mounted internally or on the                 your alternator is working.
 back of the alternator.             .--_-_ _~
                                                                           3. Tum to step 5 on the next page. ~

                   .14 BROWH=~=~_ __
                                                                               ,                    MULTIMffiR
                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                  COM



         .14 PURPLE====;#::,~==;@:::::~



        51 AMP DC
         ALTERNATOR
, (GENERATOR CONNECTIONS)



                                                                              TESTING THE STARTING
                                                                              BATTERY-ALTERNATOR
 TROUBLESHOOTING                                                                (ENGINE RUNNING)
                                                                                                                  GROUND

   AWARN~"Q;j A failed altemator can become very                           4. If the starting battery voltage remains around 12 volts
   hot. Do not touch until the alternator has cooled down.                    after the engine is started and run for a few 'minutes, a
                                                                              problem exists with the alternator or the charging circuit.
 This troubleshooting section is to determine if a problems                   A. Thm otT the engine. Inspect all wiring and connec-
  exists with the charging circuit or with the alternator. If iUs                tions. Insure that the battery terminals and the engine
  determined that the alternator or voltage regulator is bad, it is              ground connections are tight and clean.
  best to have a qualified technician check it out.
  The alternator charging circuit charges the starting battery and
  the service battery. An isolator with a diode, a solenoid, or a               A~ CAUTION:        To avoid damage to the battery
  battery selector switch is usually mounted in the circuit to iso-             chaTging circuii~- never shut off the engine battery
, late the batteries, so the starting battery is not discharged                 switch when the engi~ is running!
  along with the service battery. If the alternator is charging the
  starting battery 'but not the service battery, the problem is in
  the service battery charging circuit and not with the alternator.           B. If a battery selector switch is in the charging circuit,
                                                                                 insure that it is on the correct setting.
 Testing the Alternator                                                       C. Thm on the ignition switch, but do not start the
                                                                                 engine.
                                                                              D. Check the battery voltage. If your battery is in good
    A WARNING: Before starting the engine malee cer-                             condition the reading should be 12 to 13 volts.
  , tain that everyone is clear of moving paris! Keep away
                                                                                                          um
    from sheaves and belts during -test procedures.
                                                                                                         '0       MULTIMffiR

 NOTE: Multimeters and DC Circuits                                                                       COM

 DC andAC circuits are often mixed together in marine appli-
 cations. Always disconnect shore power cords, isolate DC
                                                                             TESTING THE ALTERNATOR
 andAC converters and shutdown generators before perform-                            VOLTAGE
 ing DC testing. No A C tests should be made without proper                 (IGNITION ON - ENGINE OFF)
 knowLedge ofAC circuits.




                                                                                                                               STARTING BATTERY


                                                            Engines & Generators                         GROUND

                                                                      67
                                DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM/ALTERNATOR
E. Now check the voltage between the alternator output                     Alternator is Working
   terminal (B+) and ground. If the circuit is good, the
                                                                         5. Check the voltage of the service battery. This battery
   voltage at the alternator should be the same as the bat-
                                                                            should have a voltage between 13 and 14 voltswhen the
   tery, or if an isolator is in the circuit the alternator volt-
   age will be zero. If not, a problem exists in the circuit                engine is running. If not, there is a problem in the service
                                                                            battery charging circuit. Trouble-shoot the service battery
   between the alternator and the battery. Check all con-
                                                                            charging circuit by checking the wiring and connections,
   nections - look for an opening in the charging circuit.
                                                                            the solenoid, isolator, battery switch and the battery itself.

                                                                                             (gQ)
                                                                                MUlTIMETER

                                                                                             o
                                                                                             COM




TESTING THE STARTING
BATTERY-ALTERNATOR
  (ENGINE RUNNING)                                           ENGINE
                                             -C::::::>O--'   GROUND
                                                                                                               SERVICE
F. Start the engine again. Check the voltage between the                                                       BAITERY
   alternator output and ground.
                                                                                                             TESTING THE SERVICE
   The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator                                                   BATTERY (ENGINE RUNNING)
   should be between 13.5 and 14.5 volts. If your alterna-
   tor is over- or undercharging, have it repaired at a reli-
   able service shop.
NOTE: Before removing the alternator for repair, use your                   A CAUTION: When pedorming tests on the alterna-
voltmeter to ensure that 12 volts DC excitation is present                  tor charging circuit do not use a high voltage tester fie
at the £XC terminal if the previous test showed only bat-
                                                                            Megger). You can damage the altemator diodes.
tery voltage at the B output terminaL
If 12 volts is not present at the £XC terminal trace the
wiring, look for breaks and poor connections.                              ALTERNATOR INSPECTION
                                                                           When rebuilding the engine, the alternator should be cleaned
                                                                           and inspected, the housing can be wiped off with a solvent
                                                                           and the alternator terminals cleaned with a wire brush, make certain
                                                                           the electrical studs are tight. Also clean the wiring
                                                                           connections that connect to the wiring harness. Tum the
                                                                           rotor pulley by hand, it should tum smoothly. Depending
                                                                           on when the alternator was last serviced, the brushes may
                                                                           need replacing. If the alternator is at all suspect, send it to
                                                                           a service shop for testing and overhaul.




                                                                Engines & Generators

                                                                      68
(This page has been intentionally left blank.)




              Engines & Generators

                    69
                                           DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
                                               WIRING DIAGRAM #39144


                                                                     10         110 R {>




                                                                                                                  114 'Ilk




                                                                                                                            r~11
                                                                                                                        _JC~E    MODELS)


       NOTE:
AN ON-OFF SWITCH   NOTE 2: '~'         I
SHOULD BE IN-              1       J
STALLED BETWEEN                1

THE BATTERY AND                1
STARTER TO DIS-                '
CONNECTTHE BAT-
TERY IN AN EMER-
                       +
                         ~-
                            =12 VDC

GENCY AND WHEN             lWliB.l
LEAVING THE BOAT
A SWITCH WITH A
CONTINUOUS                                          "
RATING OF 175

                                                                             "~
AMPS AT 12 VDC
WILL. SERVE THIS
FUNCTION. THIS                                                                ·
SWITCH SHOULD                                                                              +   ALARM         ADMIRAL
NOT BE USED TO
                                                                                           C   BUZZER
                                                                                                             PANEL
MAKE OR BREAK
THE CIRCUIT.
                                                                                                        -,




                                           1
                                           1
                                           ------------------------------

                                                                                                             CAPTAIN
                                                                                                             PANEL




                        r--                                                                                                       "T


                                                   0                      ....
                                                                          "'T.
                                                   " "
                                                        ,.,.-
                                                        ..",.



                                                                          ....
                                                                           ""
                                                                            .



                                           ~




                                                        ." elle
                                                        "I elK
                        1
                        I·                              "'DLK
                        l ___________                   t., au                                                      -   -   -   __I




                                                   Engines & Generators

                                                                70
                                            DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
                                                      WIRING SCHEMATIC #39144
+ 12 YOC     START
              SOL ·                                       STAlTER
.-._ _ _ _.!.r
             ...- ..,
                                                            M}-------+




                                                                                                                     r----i------I



                             ~-I--l---I-------

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