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Introduction Safety Precautions Engine Identification 3 4 5 6 9 10 12 12 13 15 16 17 26 28 30 31
HANDBOOK FOR 200 SERIES DIESEL ENGINES
Engine Views Engine Data Operating Instructions Lubricating Oil Recommendations Fuel Recommendations Engine Coolant
Publication 201TPD11871171 © A l l rights reserved October 1987 P e r k i n s Engines L t d . , Peterborough, England
Preventive Maintenance Post-Delivery Service Instructions for Maintenance Protection of an Engine not in Service Fault Diagnosis POWERPART Consumable Products Latest Information
Australia Perkins Engines Australia Pty. Ltd., Suite 2, 364 Maine Street, Momington 3931, Victoria, Australia. Telephone: 59 751877. Telex: AA30816. France Moteurs Perkins S.A., 9-11 Avenue Michelet, 93583 Saint Ouen, Cedex, France. Telephone: (1)42-23-20-00. Telex: 642924F. Cables: 'Perkoil' Paris. Germany Perkins Motoren G.m.b.H., 8752 Kleinostheim, Postfach 1180, West Germany. Telephone: 06027 5010. Telex: 04188869A PER D. Italy Motori Perkins S.p.A., ViaGorizia 15, P.O. Box 12, 22070 Portichetto/Luisago (Como), Italy. Telephone: (031) 927364. Telex: 380658 Perkit I. Cables: 'Perkoil' Portichetto. Japan Massey Ferguson Perkins Engines K.K., Reinanzaka Building, 6th Floor, 14-2 Akasaka, 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107, Japan. Telephone: (03) 586 7377. Telex: Perkoil J2424823. Cables: 'Perkoil'Tokyo. Fax. (03) 582-1596. Singapore Perkins Engines Asia Pacific, 130 Hillview Avenue, Singapore 2366. Telephone: 7605722. Telex: RS 37729. United Kingdom Perkins Engines Limited, Frank Perkins Way, Eastfield, Peterborough PE1 5NA, England. Telephone: (0733) 67474. Telex: 32501 Perken G. Cables: 'Perkoil' Peterborough. Perkins Engines (Shrewsbury) Ltd., Sentinel Works, Shrewsbury SY1 4DP, England. Telephone: (0743) 52262. Telex: 35171/2 PESL G. USA Perkins Engines Inc., 1700 Bellemeade Court, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30245, USA. Telephone: 404 822 3000. Telex: 544141 Perken Law. Fax: 404 822 3006. Perkins Engines Latin America Inc., 1700 Bellemeade Court, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30245, USA. Telephone: 404 822 3000. Telex: 544141 Perken Law. Fax: 404 822 3006.
In addition to the above, there are Perkins distributors in most countries. Perkins Engines Ltd., Peterborough or one of the above companies can give details.
This handbook has been written to give you assistance in the correct maintenance and operation of your engine. To get the best performance and longest life from your engine, have the maintenance operations done at the periods shown in 'Preventive Maintenance'. If the engine operates in very dusty or other adverse conditions, some maintenance periods will have to be reduced. Keep your engine clean inside by regular filter element and lubricating oil changes. Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are done by personnel who have had the correct training. Perkins Distributors have these personnel available. You can also get parts and other service from your Perkins Distributor. If you do not know the location of your nearest distributor, check with one of the Perkins companies given on Page 2. The left and right hand side of the engine are as seen from the rear. Read and remember the Safety Precautions. These are given for your protection and must be used at all times.
This publication is written in Perkins Approved Clear English
THESE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE IMPORTANT. Reference must also be made to the local regulations in the country of operation. Do not use these engines in marine applications. Do not change the specification of the engine. Do not smoke when you put fuel in the tank. Clean away any fuel which has fallen and move material which has fuel contamination to a safe place. Do not put fuel in the tank during engine operation (unless really necessary). Never clean, lubricate or adjust the engine during operation (unless you have had the correct training when extreme caution must be used to prevent injury). Do not make any adjustments you do not understand. Ensure the engine is not in a position to cause a concentration of toxic emissions. Persons in the area must be kept clear during engine and equipment or vehicle operation. Do not permit loose clothing or long hair near parts that move. Keep away from parts which turn during operation. Note that fans can not be seen clearly while the engine runs. 4 Do not run the engine with any safety guards removed. Do not remove the radiator cap while the engine is hot and the coolant is under pressure as dangerous hot coolant can be discharged. Do not use salt water in the cooling system or any other coolant which can cause corrosion. Keep sparks or fire away from batteries (especially while during charge) or combustion can occur. The battery fluid can burn and is also dangerous to the skin and especially the eyes. Disconnect the battery terminals before you make a repair to the electrical system. Only one person must be in control of the engine. Ensure the engine is only operated from the control panel or operators position. If your skin comes into contact with high pressure fuel, seek medical assistance immediately. Diesel fuel can cause skin damage to some persons. Use protection on the hands (gloves or special skin protection solutions). Do not move equipment unless the brakes are in good condition. Ensure that the transmission drive control is in 'out of drive' position before the engine is started. Fit only genuine Perkins Parts.
There are three engine types in the 200 Series. These are the 4.135, 4.154 and 4.182 engines. The first two letters of the engine number give an indication of the engine type as shown below: GA -- 4.154engine GB --4.135 engine GC --4.182 engine The engine number is stamped on a machined pad on the left side of the cylinder block above the fuel injection pump (see Fig. 1). A typical engine number is GBA12345J. If you need any parts, service or information for your engine, you must give the complete engine number.
Fig. 1 Engine Number Position.
Front/Left Side of 4.135 Engine
Rear/Right Side of 4.135 Engine
Front/Left Side of 4.154 Engine
Rear/Right Side of 4.154 Engine
Front/Left Side of 4.182 Engine
Rear/Right Side of 4.182 Engine
No. of Cylinders Cycle Combustion System Nominal Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Cubic Capacity Firing Order Valve Tip Clearance (Cold) Lubricating Oil S u m p Capacity Lubricating Oil Pressure: Direction of Rotation: 0 , 3 0 m m (0.012in) 5,0 litres (8.8 Imp. pints) 5,3 U.S. quarts 0,30mm (0.012in) 6,0 litres (10.6 Imp. pints) 6,3 U.S. quarts 0,30mm (0.012in) 6,0 litres (10.6 Imp. pints) 6,3 U.S. quarts
Four Stroke Indirect Injection 8 8 , 9 m m (3.5in) 101,6mm (4.0in)
4.182 4 Four Stroke Indirect Injection 9 5 , 0 m m (3.74in) 105,0mm (4.13in) 21:1 2,977 litres (181.7in 3 ) 1,3,4,2
Four Stroke Indirect Injection 8 8 , 9 m m (3.5in) 8 8 , 9 m m (3.5in) 21:1 2,209 litres (134.8in 3 )
2,523 litres (153.9in 3 ) 1,3,4,2
207 k N / m 2 (30 lbf/in 2 ) 2,1 k g f / c m 2 m i n i m u m at m a x i m u m engine speed and normal engine temperature. Clockwise from the front.
To Start the Engine When the engine is c o l d : 1. Where a separate stop control is used, ensure that this is in the ' r u n ' position. 2. Turn the start key to the 'heat' position (see Fig. 2) and hold it there for 15 seconds. 3. Adjust the engine speed control to the maxi m u m speed position. 4. Turn the start key to the 'heat/start' position to engage the starter motor. As the engine starts, release the start key to the ' r u n ' position and adjust the speed control to give a smooth idle speed. If the engine does not start in 15 seconds, return the start key to the 'heat' position for 10 seconds and then engage the starter motor again. When the engine is w a r m : Fig. 2 Heat/Start Switch. 1. Off Position. 2. Run Position. 3. Heat Position. 4. Heat and Start Position. 1. Where a separate stop control is used, ensure that this is in the ' r u n ' position. 2. Adjust the speed control position. to the idle speed
3. Turn the start key directly to the 'heat/start' position (see Fig. 2) to engage the starter motor.
4. As soon as the engine starts, release the start key to the ' r u n ' position. If the engine does not start in 15 seconds, release the start key to the ' r u n ' position. Do not engage the starter m o t o r again until 5 to 10 seconds have passed.
Running- ln Procedure
To get m a x i m u m performance and life f r o m y o u r new engine, operate the engine as s h o w n below for the first 800 km (500 miles) or 25 hours of operation. Where possible, operate the engine at different speeds. If y o u r machine has a geared drive, use a lower gear w h e n m o r e p o w e r is needed.
T o S t o p t h e Engine Either t u r n the engine start key to the ' o f f position (see Fig. 2) or operate the separate stop control. Where a separate stop contol is used, ensure that the control is returned to the ' r u n ' position after the engine has stopped and the engine start key is turned to the 'off' position.
Do not run the engine at high no load speeds. Do not apply an overload to the engine.
Engine S p e e d A d j u s t m e n t The idle or m a x i m u m speed settings must not be changed by the engine operator as this can d a m age the engine or transmission. If the seals on the fuel injection p u m p are broken during the warranty period by a person w h o is not approved by Perkins Engines Ltd., it can have an effect on the warranty. If the engine is to operate at an altitude higher than 1500m (5,000ft), the fuel delivery can be changed to reduce exhaust smoke and fuel c o n s u m p t i o n . Perkins Engine Ltd., can give the percentage of fuel reduction needed if details of engine application and ambient conditions are given. Any change to the fuel injection p u m p settings must be made by a Perkins distributor or an approved fuel p u m p distributor. 11
LUBRICATING OIL RECOMMENDATIONS
The engine lubricating oil must be equal to the U.S. Ordnance Specification MIL-L-46152 (AP1 Service CC/SE) or, if available, the later specification MIL-L-46152B(AP1 Service CC/SF). Lubricating oils for use in Perkins diesel engines must have a minimum Viscosity Index of 80. Always ensure that the correct viscosity grade of oil is used for the temperature range in which the engine will operate as shown below: Temperature Range -18oC(0°F)to0°C(32oF) 0°C (32°F) to 27°C (80°F) Above 27°C (80°F) Viscosity Grade 10W 20W/20 30
When adjusted to factory standards, these engines will operate correctly on diesel fuel with a specific gravity of more than 0.82 (40 cetane number or higher).
The quality of the coolant which is used can have a great effect on the efficiency and life of the cooling system. The recommendations indicated below can be of assistance in the maintenance of a good cooling system with protection against frost and/or corrosion. If the correct procedures are not used, Perkins Engines Ltd. can not be held responsible for frost or corrosion damage. 1. If it is possible, use clean soft water in the coolant mixture. 2. If an antifreeze mixture, other than Perkins POWERPART, is used to prevent frost damage, it must have an ethanediol (ethylene glycol) base with a corrosion inhibitor. It is recommended that the corrosion inhibitor is of the sodium nitrite/benzoate type. The antifreeze mixture must provide cooling/corrosion protection at least as good as the requirements of the standards below: United Kingdom: BS6580: 1985: 'Specification for corrosion inhibiting, engine coolant concentrate (antifreeze)'. United States of America: ASTM D3306-74: 'Ethylene Glycol Base Engine Coolant'. Australia: AS 2108-1977: 'Antifreeze Compounds and Corrosion Inhibitors for Engine Cooling Systems'. Perkins POWERPART antifreeze exceeds the requirements of the above standards. The quality of the antifreeze coolant must be checked at least once a year, for example, at the beginning of the cold period. The antifreeze mixture must consist of equal quantities of antifreeze and water. Concentrations of more than 50% of antifreeze must not be used as this can effect adversely the performance of the coolant. 3 When frost protection is not necessary, it is still an advantage to use an approved antifreeze mixture because this gives a protection against corrosion and also raises the boiling point of the coolant. If an antifreeze is not used, add a correct mixture of corrosion inhibitor to the water. Change the mixture of water and corrosion inhibitor every six months or check according to the inhibitor manufacturer's recommendations. Attention: Certain corrosion inhibitor mixtures contain soluble oil which can have an adverse effect on certain types of water hose. 13
T o Drain t h e C o o l i n g S y s t e m 1. Ensure that the vehicle or machine is on level ground. 2. Remove the radiator filler cap. 3. Remove the drain plug f r o m the side of the cylinder block (see Fig. 3) to drain the engine. Ensure that the drain hole does not have any restriction. 4. Open the tap or remove the drain plug at the b o t t o m of the radiator to drain the radiator. If a tap or plug is not fitted to the radiator, disconnect the bottom radiator hose. 5. Where necessary, flush the system with clean water. 6. Fit the drain plugs and radiator cap. Where necessary, close the radiator tap or connect the radiator hose.
Fig. 3 Coolant Drain Positions.
These preventive maintenance periods are general in application. Check the periods given by the manufacturer of the equipment in which the engine is installed and, where necessary, use the shorter periods. These periods and procedures must also be adapted to ensure correct operation for any local vehicle or machine regulations. On stop/start short distance operation the hours run are more importantthan the distance. It is good maintenance to check for leakage and loose fasteners at each service interval. These maintenance periods are only for engines that are operated with fuel and lubricating oil to the specifications given in this handbook. Every 15000km (9000 Miles) or 450 Hours (Use Interval That Comes First) Adjust valve tip clearances. Check atomisers Every 5000 km (3000 Miles), 150 Hours or 1 Month (Use Interval That Comes First) Change lubricating oil. Change lubricating oil filter canister. Inspect drive belt. Clean dust bowl of air filter (where fitted). Check for water in fuef pre-filter (where fitted).
Daily or Every 8 Hours (Use Interval that comes First) Check amount of coolant. Check amount of lubricating oil in sump. Check lubricating oil pressure (where gauge installed). In extreme dust conditions, clean dust bowl of air filter (where fitted).
Every 20000km (12000 Miles) or 600 Hours (Use Interval That Comes First) Tighten induction and exhaust manifold nuts. Change fuel filter canister. Check ignition timing. Clean or renew air filter element (if not indicated earlier).
Every 100000km (60000 Miles) or 3000 Hours (Use Interval That Comes First) Have the accessory equipment (starter motor, alternator, exhauster etc.) checked. 15
The service procedures given must be carried out at the first 1000km (600 miles) or 30 hours of operation. 1. Run the engine until it is warm. Stop the engine and drain the lubricating oil from the sump. Fill the sump to the 'full' mark on the dipstick with clean new oil to an approved grade. 2. Renew the canister of the lubricating oil filter. 3. Tighten the cylinder head setscrews (see Page 17). 4. Adjust the valve tip clearances to 0,30mm (0.012in) with the engine cold. 5. Check that the induction and exhaust manifold nuts are tight. 6. Check the tension of the fan belt. 7. Check the atomisers. 8. Check that all fasteners are tight. 9. Run the engine and check for fuel, coolant and lubricating oil leakage. 10. Adjust the idle speed, if necessary.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAINTENANCE
To Check the Cylinder Head Setscrew Tension Run the engine until the coolant outlet temperature is higher than 77°C(170°F). Stop the engine and remove the rocker cover. Check the tension of the cylinder head setscrews in the sequence given in Fig. 4. The correct torque tension is given below: 4.135 115Nm (85lbfft) 11,7kgfm 4.154115Nm (85lbfft) 11,7kgfm 4.182 122Nm OOlbfft) 12,4 kgfm If a setscrew turns when checked, tighten it to the correct tension. If a setscrew does not turn when checked, loosen it by 30° to 60° and then tighten it to the correct torque tension. After all the setscrews have been checked, check the first 10 positions again to ensure that they are still to the correct tension. During this last check, do not loosen the setscrews. Check the valve tip clearances, see Page 21 and adjust as necessary. Install the rocker cover.
Fig. 4 Sequence To Tighten Cylinder Head Setscrews. 17
Some air filters have automatic dust valves through which dust is discharged from the filter. The rubber dust valve must be kept clean and checked to ensure that the sides of the valves close together, but will come apart freely. Where a restriction indicator is installed, it will be a positive indication that the air filter element needs service. This will prevent the early removal of the filter element which causes extra cost or late element removal which can cause loss of engine power. The filter element must be cleaned or renewed according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
Fig. 5 Restriction Indicator. 1. Clear Panel (No Restriction). 2. Red Panel (Element Needs Service). 3. Press To Reset Red Panel.
Restriction Indicator The restriction indicator for these engines must be the type that operates at a pressure difference of 460mm (18in) water gauge. It is installed on the air filter outlet or between the air filter and the induction manifold. When the red warning indicator is seen through the clear panel after the engine has stopped (see Fig. 5), the air filter element must be removed for service. After a clean element has been fitted, press the rubber bottom of the restriction indicator to reset the red warning indicator.
Environment conditions have an important effect on the frequency at which the air filter will need service. Some air filters have a separate dust bowl that has to be cleaned at intervals. The amount of dust in the bowl will show if it has been removed at the correct time for the conditions of operation. Do not let the bowl get full of dust as this will reduce the life of the filter element. 18
To Renew the Lubricating Oil Filter Canister
1. Put a tray under the filter to hold any oil drops. 2. Remove the filter canister (see Fig. 6) with a strap wrench or similar tool and discard the canister. 3. Clean the filter head. 4. Add clean engine lubricating oil to the new canister. Give the oil time to fill the canister through the filter element. 5. Lubricate the top of the canister seal with clean engine lubricating oil. 6. Install the new canister and tighten it by hand only. Do not use a strap wrench. 7. After lubricating oil has been added to the sump, run the engine and check for leakage from the filter.
Fig. 6 Lubricating Oil Filter Removal and Installation.
To Check the Fan Belt Renew the belt if it is worn or damaged. With thumb pressure of approximately lOkgf (22 Ibf), press the fan belt down at a position halfway between the alternator and water pump pulleys and check the deflection (see Fig. 7). The belt deflection must be 10mm (%in) for 4.135 engines and 13mm (Viin) for 4.154 and 4.182 engines. To adjust the belt tension: 1. Loosen the alternator mounting bolt(s) and the adjustment lever bolts. Fig. 7 Fan Belt Tension Check. 2. Change the alternator position to give the correct tension and tighten the alternator and adjustment lever bolts. 3. Check the belt tension again to ensure that it is still correct. If a new belt is fitted, the belt tension must be checked again after the first 1,000 km (600 miles) or 30 hours of operation.
To Check Valve Tip Clearances These are checked between the top of the valve stem (or the valve stem cap, if used) and the rocker lever (see Fig. 8). The correct clearance for both the inlet and exhaust valves is 0,30mm (0.012in) with the engine cold. 1. Turn the crankshaft, in the normal direction of rotation, until the inlet valve of No. 4 cylinder has just opened and the exhaust valve of the same cylinder has not fully closed. Check the clearances of No. 1 cylinder valves and adjust, if necessary. 2. With No. 2 cylinder valves set as shown above for No. 4 cylinder, check/adjust clearances of No. 3 cylinder valves. 3. With No. 1 cylinder valves set, check/adjust clearances of No. 4 cylinder valves. 4. With No. 3 cylinder valves set, check/adjust clearances of No. 2 cylinder valves.
Fig. 8 Valve Tip Clearance Adjustment.
To Renew Fuel Filter Canister 1. Clean the surface of the filter. 2. Remove the filter canister (see Fig. 9) with a strap wrench or similar tool. Discard the canister. 3. Lubricate the seal of the new canister with clean fuel. 4. Fit the new canister to the filter head and tighten it by hand only. Do not use a strap wrench. 5. Loosen the vent screw at the top of the filter (see Fig. 10). Operate the priming pump on the top of the filter until fuel, free from air, comes from the vent point. Tighten the vent screw.
Fig. 9 Fuel Filter Removal and Installation.
To Remove Air from the Fuel System If air gets into the fuel system, it must be removed before the engine can be started. Air can get into the system if: · · · The fuel tank is drained during engine operation. The low pressure fuel pipes are disconnected. Any part of the low pressure fuel system leaks during engine operation. Remove air from the fuel system as follows: 1. Loosen the vent screw on the top of the fuel filter (see Fig. 10). 2. Operate the priming pump on the top of the fuel filter until fuel, free from air, comes from the filter vent point. 3. With the priming pump held down, tighten the filter vent screw. 4. Loosen the return connection of the fuel injection pump (see Fig. 11). 5. Operate the priming pump until fuel, free from air, comes from the injection pump vent point. 6. With the priming pump held down, tighten the return connection of the injection pump.
Fig. 10 Removal Of Air From Fuel Filter. 1. Filter Vent Screw. 2. Priming Pump Handle. 23
7. Loosen the high pressure fuel pipe connections at the atomisers. 8. Ensure that the stop control (if fitted) is in the 'run' position. Operate the starter motor until fuel, free from air, comes from the pipe connections. 9. Tighten the high pressure fuel pipe connections. The engine is now ready to start. If the engine runs correctly for a short time and then stops or runs roughly, check for air in the fuel system. If there is air in the system, there is probably leakage in the low pressure system.
Fig. 11 Fuel Injection Pump Vent Point. Atomiser Fault An atomiser fault can be shown by an engine misfire. To find which atomiser is at fault, run the engine at a fast idle speed and loosen and tighten the high pressure fuel pipe union at each atomiser. When the union nut of the atomiser at fault is loosened, it will have little or no effect on the engine speed. Do not let the fuel spray on to your skin. 24
To Renew an Atomiser
4.135 and 4.182 Engines 1. Remove the high pressure pipe union nuts from the atomisers and the fuel injection pump and release the pipes. 2. Remove the leak off pipe lock nuts and washers and remove the leak off pipe. 3. Turn the atomiser counterclockwise to release it from the cylinder head and remove the atomiser and seat washer. Ensure that the spanner engages on the bottom body of the atomiser. 4. Fit a new atomiser in the cylinder head, complete with a new seat washer. Tighten the atomiser to 68 Nm (50 lbfft) 7 kgfm. 5. Fit the fuel leak off pipe and high pressure pipes. 6. Run the engine and check for fuel and air leakage. 4.154 Engines 1. Remove the fuel leak off pipe. 2. Remove the high pressure pipe union nuts from the atomiser and fuel injection pipe and release the pipe. 3. Remove the atomiser flange nuts and remove the atomiser and seat washer. 25 4. Put the new atomiser in position with a new seat washer. Ensure that the atomiser is not tilted and tighten the flange nuts evenly by small amounts to 23 Nm (17 Ibf ft) 2,4 kgfm. 5. Fit the high pressure fuel pipe and leak off pipe. 6. Run the engine and check for fuel and air leakage.
PROTECTION OF AN ENGINE NOT IN SERVICE
The recommendations given below are to ensure that damage is prevented when an engine is removed from service for an extended period. Use these procedures immediately the engine is removed from service. The instructions for the use of POWERPART products are given on the outside of each container. 1. Thoroughly clean the outside of the engine. 2. Where a preservative fuel is to be used, drain the fuel system and fill with the preservative fuel. POWERPART Lay-Up 1 can be added to the normal fuel to change it to a preservative fuel. If preservative fuel is not used, the system can be kept charged with normal fuel but this will have to be drained and discarded at the end of the storage period together with the fuel filter. 3. Run the engine until it is warm. Correct any fuel, lubricating oil or air leakage. Stop the engine and drain the lubricating oil sump. 4. Renew the lubricating oil filter canister. 5. Fill the sump to the full mark on the dipstick with clean new lubricating oil or with a correct preservative fluid. POWERPART Lay-Up 2 can be added to the lubricating oil to give protec26 tion against corrosion during the period in storage. If a preservative fluid is used, this must be drained and normal lubricating oil used when the engine is returned to service. 6. Drain the cooling system, see Page 14. To give protection against corrosion, it is better to fill the cooling system with a coolant that has a corrosion inhibitor, see 'Engine Coolant' on Page 12. If frost protection is needed, use an antifreeze mixture. If no frost protection is needed, use water with an approved corrosion inhibitor mixture. 7. Run the engine for a short period to send the lubricating oil and coolant around the engine. 8. Clean out the engine breather pipe and seal the end of the pipe. 9. Remove the atomisers and spray POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into each cylinder bore. If this is not available, clean engine lubricating oil will give a degree of protection. Spray into the cylinder bores 140 ml (1/4 pint) of lubricating oil divided evenly between the four cylinders. 10. Slowly turn the crankshaft one revolution and then install the atomisers complete with new seat washers.
11. Remove the air filter and any pipe installed between the air filter and induction manifold. Spray POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into the induct i o n m a n i f o l d . Seal the manifold w i t h waterproof tape. 12. Remove the exhaust pipe. Spray POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into the exhaust m a n i f o l d . Seal the m a n i f o l d w i t h waterproof tape. 13. Remove the lubricating oil filler cap. Spray POWERPART Lay-Up 2 around the rocker shaft assembly. Fit the filler cap. 14. Disconnect the battery and put it into safe storage in a fully charged condition. Before the battery is put into storage, give the battery terminals a protection against corrosion. POWERPART Lay-Up 3 can be used on the terminals. 15. Seal the vent pipe of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap w i t h waterproof tape. 16. Remove the fan belt and put it into storage. 17. To prevent corrosion, spray the engine with POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray inside the alternator cooling fan area. NOTE: Before the engine is started after a period in storage, operate the starter motor with the engine stop control in the ' o f f position until oil pressure shows on the oil pressure
gauge or the oil w a r n i n g light goes out. If a solenoid stop control is used, this will have to be disconnected f o r t h i s operation. If the engine protection is done correctly according to the above recommendations, no corrosion damage will normally occur. Perkins Engines Ltd. are not responsible for any damage that occurs in relation to a service storage period.
FAULT DIAGNOSIS CHART
Problem Starter m o t o r turns engine too s lowly Will not start Difficult to start Not enough power Misfire High fuel c o n s u m p t i o n Black exhaust B l u e / w h i t e exhaust Low lubricating oil pressure Knocking noise Runs erratically Vibration High lubricating oil pressure Engine t e m p e r a t u r e t o o high Crankcase pressure Bad c o m p r e s s i o n Starts and stops
Possible Causes 1,2,3,4 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 30, 3 1 , 32 5,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,17,18,19,20,21,23,28,30,31,32 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 17,18, 19, 20, 2 1 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 3 1 , 32 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17,18, 19, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31 10,12, 13, 15, 17,18, 19, 2 1 , 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 3 1 , 32 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 2 1 , 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 3 1 , 32 4, 15, 17,18, 19, 24, 26, 30, 32, 33, 34, 44, 55 4, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41,42, 43, 57 13,15, 17, 18, 2 1 , 25, 27, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 44, 45, 58 7, 8, 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 , 13,15, 19, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 44, 58 12,13, 19, 22, 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 44, 46, 47, 48 4, 37, 40 10, 12, 13, 15, 17,18, 23, 24, 44, 49, 50, 5 1 , 52, 53, 56 24, 30, 32, 33, 44, 54, 59 10,18, 24, 27, 28,30, 3 1 , 32, 33,45, 58 9,10,11
CODE LIST OF POSSIBLE CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Battery capacity low. Bad electrical connections. Fault in starter m o t o r . W r o n g grade of lubricating oil. Low engine speed f r o m starter m o t o r . Fuel tank e m p t y . Stop control fault. Restriction in fuel pipe. Dirty fuel filter element. Restriction in air filter or induction s y s t e m . Air in fuel s y s t e m . Fault in fuel injection p u m p . Fault in a t o m i s e r s or not correct t y p e . Cold start e q u i p m e n t not used correctly. Fault in cold start e q u i p m e n t . Broken fuel injection p u m p drive. Fuel injection p u m p t i m i n g not correct. Valve t i m i n g not correct. Bad c o m p r e s s i o n . Restriction in f u e l tank vent. Type or grade of fuel not correct. Restriction of engine speed control m o v e m e n t Restriction in exhaust pipe. Cylinder head gasket leaks. Engine t e m p e r a t u r e too h i g h . Engine t e m p e r a t u r e too low. Valve t i p clearances not correct. Valves not free. W r o n g high pressure pipes. W o r n cylinder bores.
3 1 . Valves a n d seats do not seal correctly. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. Piston rings not free or are w o r n or broken. Valve stems a n d / o r guides w o r n . Wet type air filter t o o full or w r o n g t y p e of oil used. Crankshaft bearings w o r n or d a m a g e d . Not e n o u g h lubricating oil in the s u m p . Gauge not correct. Lubricating oil p u m p w o r n . Relief valve not free to close. Relief valve not free to o p e n . Relief valve spring broken. Fault in suction pipe of lubricating oil p u m p . Dirty lubricating oil filter element. Piston d a m a g e d . Piston height not correct. Fan d a m a g e d . Fault in engine m o u n t i n g (housing). Flywheel housing or f l y w h e e l not aligned correctly. Fault in t h e r m o s t a t or w r o n g type. Restriction in coolant passages. Water p u m p drive belt loose. Restriction in radiator. Fault in water p u m p . Restriction in breather pipe. Damaged valve stem oil seals (where used). Not e n o u g h coolant in system. Restriction in s u m p strainer. Valve spring broken. Fault in exhauster or v a c u u m pipe leakage.
POWERPART Consumable Products
To give assistance in the correct operation, service and maintenance of yourengine and machine, Perkins Engines Ltd. have made available the products shown below. The instructions for the use of each product are given on the outside of each container. These products are available from your Perkins distributor. POWERPART Antifreeze Gives corrosion protection and also a more efficient coolant in hot conditions. See Page 13. POWERPART Lay-Up 1 A diesel fuel additive for protection against corrosion. See Page 26. POWERPART Lay-Up 2 Gives inside protection to the engine and other closed systems. See Page 26. POWERPART Lay-Up 3 Gives outside protection to any metal parts. See Page 27. POWERPART De-icer To remove frost. 30 POWERPART Hylosil Silicone rubber sealant to prevent leakage. POWERPART Impact Adhesive To keep joints in position during installation and other general attachment purposes. POWERPART Solvent To thoroughly clean metal faces before assembly. POWERPART Locking Agent Used to securely install fasteners, sleeves, etc. POWERPART Silent Spray Silicone lubrication to lubricate and prevent noise from hinges, slide doors, etc. POWERPART Damp Displacer To make damp electrical equipment dry and to give future protection. POWERPART Hylomar Universal sealing compound to seal joints.
Introduction The purpose of this page is to enable important information to be added to this handbook after publication.