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Westerbeke Diesel W 30 Parts Manual


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   WESTERBEKE                            30

  Marine Diesel Eng ine

       (F 0 r mer I y Fo u r - 91)

              PUBLICATION #11874
                  Edition Five
                September 1980

        150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319

   WESTERBEKE                            30

  Marine Diesel Eng ine

       (F 0 r mer I y Fo u r - 91)

              PUBLICATION #11874
                  Edition Five
                September 1980

        150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319

  Introduction   Operation
  Installation   Maintenance


  Marine Engine Electrical System
  Cooling System (External)




                               PRODUCT    SOFT~IARE   NOTICE

Product software of all kinds, such as          product software. Such software may be
brochures, drawings, technical data,            outdated and no longer accurate. Routine
operator's and workshop manuals, parts          changes made by Hesterbeke's suppliers,
lists and parts price lists, and other          of which ~~esterbeke rarely has notice
information, instructions and specifi-          in advance, are frequently not reflected
cations provided from sources other             in the supplier's software until after
than Westerbeke, is not within Wester-          such changes take place.
beke's control and, accordingly, is
provided to Westerbeke customers only           I~esterbeke customers should also keep in
as a courtesy and service. WESTERBEKE           mind the time span between printings of
CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONTENT           Westerbeke product software, and the
OF SUCH SOFn-/ARE, MAKES NO WARRANTI ES         unavoidable existence of earlier, non-
OR REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT THERETO,        current Westerbeke software editions in
INCLUDING THE ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR           the field. Additionally, most Wester-
COMPLETENESS THEREOF, AND WILL IN NO            beke products include customer-requested
EVENT BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES         special features that frequently do not
OR INJURY INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH,          include complete documentation.
USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.                           In sum, product software provided with
                                                Westerbeke products, whether from Wester-
For example, components and sub-assemb-         beke or other suppliers, must not and
lies incorporated in ~Jesterbeke's              cannot be relied upon exclusively as the
products and supplied by others (such           definitive authority on the respective
as engine blocks, fuel systems and com-         product. It not only makes good sense,
ponents, transmissions, electrical com-         but is imperative that appropriate
ponents, pumps, and other products)             representatives of I~esterbeke or the
are generally supported by their manu-          supplier in question be consulted to
facturers with their own software, and          determine the accuracy and currency of
Westerbeke must depend on such software         the product software being consulted
for the des i gn of ~les terbeke ·sown          by the cus tomer.

           ~AD IT

    The diesel engine closely resembles the      Whenever replacement parts are needed,
gasoline engine inasmuch as the mechanism     always include the complete part descrip-
is essentially the same. Its cylinders        tion and part number (see separate Parts
are arranged above its closed crankcase;      List furnished, if not part of this pub-
its crankshaft is of the same general type    lication). Be sure to include the
as that of a gasoline engine; it has the      engine's model and serial number. Also
same sort of valves, camshaft, pistons,       be sure to insist upon Westerbeke factory
connecting rods, lubricating system and       packaged parts, because "will fit" parts
reverse and reduction gear.                   are frequently not made to the same
    Therefore, it follows to a great extent   specifications as original equipment.
that a diesel engine requires the same
preventative maintenance as that which any    GENERATOR SETS
intelligent operator would give to a gas-        Westerbeke diesels are used for both
oline engine. The most important factors      the propulsion of boats and for generating
are proper maintenance of the fuel, lub-      electrical power. For generator set app-
ricating and cooling systems. Replacement     lications, all details of this Manual
of fuel and lubricating filter elements at    apply, except in regard to certain por-
the time periods specified is a must, and     tions of the Installation, Operation and
frequent checking for contamination (i.e.     Maintenance sections. Additional infor-
water, sediment etc.) in the fuel system      mation is provided in the section titled
is also essential. Another important          Generator Sets, Section T.
factor is the use of the same brand of
"high detergent" diesel lubricating oil
designed specifically for diesel engines.
   The diesel engine does differ from the
gasoline engine, however, in the method of
handling and firing its fuel. The carbu-
retor and ignition systems are done away
with and in their place is a single com-
ponent - the Fuel Injection Pump - which
performs the function of both.
   Unremitting care and attention at the
factory have resulted in a Westerbeke
engine capable of many thousands of hours
of dependable service. What the manufact-
urer cannot control, however, is the
treatment it receives in service. This
part rests with you!

                                                                                   7 .
          Since the boats in which these engines are used are many and varied,
       details of engine installation are equally so. It is not the purpose of
       this section to advise boatyards and engine installers on the generally
       well understood and well developed procedures for installation of en-
       gines. However, the following outline of general procedure is included
       because it is valuable in explaining the functions of each component,
       the reasons why, the precautions to be watched and the relationship of
       the installation to the operation of the engine. There are details of
       the installation which should have a periodic check and of which the
       operator should have a thorough understanding to insure good operating
       conditions for the engine and correct procedure for its servicing.

INSPECTION OF EQUIPMENT                      pry against this with crowbar, as you may
   The engine is shipped from the factory    distort the coupling.
mounted securely and properly crated. Ac-        In some cases it may be necessary to
cessory equipment is shipped in a separate   lift the engine in other than the regular
small box, usually packed with the engine    horizontal position. It may be that the
crate.                                       engine must be lowered endwise through a
   Before accepting shipment from the        small hatchway which cannot be made larger.
transportation company, the crate should     If the opening is extremely restricted it
be opened and an inspection made for con-    is possible to reduce, to some extent, the
cealed damage. If either visible or con-     outside clearances such as generator,
cealed damage is noted, you should require   cooling piping, water tank, filters,
the delivering agent to sign "Received in    mounting lugs, etc. This accessory equip-
damaged condition". Also check contents      ment should be removed by a competent
of the shipment against the packing list     mechanic and special care should be taken
and make sure note is made of any discrep-   to avoid damage to any exposed parts and
ancies. This is your protection against      to avoid dirt entering openings. The parts
loss or damage. Claims for loss or damage    which have been removed should be returned
must be made to the carrier, not to J. H.    to position as soon as the restriction has
Westerbeke Corporation.                      been passed.
                                                 In case it is necessary to hoist the
RIGGING AND LIFTING                          engine either front end upwards or reverse
    The engine is fitted with lifting rings. gear end upwards, the attachment of slings
    Rope or chain slings should be at-       must be done very carefully to avoid the
tached to the rings and the engine lifted    possibility of damage to the parts on
by means o~ tackle attached to this sling. which the weight may bear. It is best if
The lifting rings have been designed to      special rigging work be done by someone
carry the full weight of the engine,         experienced and competent in the handling
therefore auxiliary slings are not re-       of heavy machinery.
quired or desired.
CAUTION: Slings must not be so short as      ENGINE BOLTS
to place the engine lifting eyes in sig-         It is recommended that bronze hanger
nificant sheer stress. Strain on the         bolts of appropriate size be used through
engine lifting eyes must not be in excess    the engine flexible mounts. Lag screws
of 100 from the vertical. A spacer bar       are less preferred because their hold on
must be placed between the two lifting       the wood is weakened every time they are
eyes, if supported by valve cover studs.     moved, whereas the lag bolt stays in pos-
   The general rule in moving engines is     ition and the nut on top is used to tight-
to see that all equipment used is amply      en the engine down or is removed to permit
strong and firmly fixed in place. Move the the engine to be lifted. The bolt itself
engine a little at a time and see that it    stays in position at all times, as a stud,
is firmly supported. Eliminate possibil-     and  the bond between the bolt and the wood
ity of accidents by avoiding haste. Do       is  not weakened by its removal.
not lift from the propeller coupling, or
   A good engine bed contributes much            Each Westerbeke Diesel engine is regu-
toward the satisfactory operation of the     larly fitted with a suitable coupling for
engine. The engine bed must be of rigid      connecting the propeller shaft to the
construction and neither deflect nor twist   engine.
when subjected to the engine weight or the      The coupling must not only transmit the
position the boat may have to take under     power of the engine to turn the shaft, but
the effects of rough seas. The bed must      must also transmit the thrust either ahead
keep the engine within one or two thous-     or astern from the shaft to the thrust
andths of an inch of this position at all    bearing which is built into the reduction
times. It has to withstand the forward       gear housing of the engine. This coupling
push of the propeller which is applied to    is very carefully machined for accurate
the propeller shaft, to the thrust washer    fit.
bearing in the engine and finally to the        For all engine models, a propeller half-
engine bolts and engine bed.                 coupling, bored to shaft size for the
   In fiberglas hulls, we recommend that     specific order, is supplied. The coupling
similar wooden stringers as in wooden        either has a keyway with set screws or is
hulls be formed and fitted, then glassed     of the clamping type.
to the hull securely. This allows hanger        The forward end of the propeller shaft
bolts to be installed firmly in wood, thus   has a long straight keyway. Any burrs
reducing noise and transmitted vibration.    should be removed from the shaft end. The
   The temptation to install the engine on   coupling should be a light drive fit on
a pair of fiberglas "angle irons" should     the shaft and the shaft should not have to
be resisted. Such construction will allow    be scraped down or filed in order to get a
engine vibrations to pass through to the     fit. It is important that the key be
hull. Flexible mounts require a firm         properly fitted both to the shaft and the
foundation against which to react if they    coupling. The key should fit the side of
are to do their job. When possible, follow   the keyway very closely, but should not
bed design "A" and avoid bed design "B".     touch the top of the keyway in the hub of
                                             the coupling.
                                                If it seems difficult to drive the
                                             coupling over the shaft, the coupling can
                                             be expanded by heating in a pail of boil-
                                             ing water. The face of the propeller
                                             coupling must be exactly perpendicular to
                                             the centerline or axis of the propeller

                                                The type and size of propeller varies
                                             with the gear ratio and must be selected
                                             to fit the application based upon boat
                                             tests. To utilize the full power of the
                                             engine, and to achieve ideal loading con-
                                             ditions, it is desirable to use a propel-
                                             ler which will permit the engine to reach
                                             its full rated speed at full throttle
                                             under normal load.

                                             ALIGNMENT OF ENGINE
                                                The engine must be properly and exactly
                                             aligned with the propeller shaft. No
                                             matter what material is used to build a
                                             boat it will be found to be flexible to
                                             some extent and the boat hull will change
                                             its shape to a greater extent than is
                                             usually realized when it is launched and
                                             operated in the water. It is therefore
                                             very important to check the engine align-
 ment at frequent intervals and to correct          In making the final check for alignment,
 any errors when they may appear.               the engine half coupling should be held in
     Misalignment between the engine and the    one position and the alignment with the
 propeller shaft is the cause of troubles       propeller coupling tested with the propeller
 which are blamed often on other causes.        coupling in each of four positions, rotated
 It will create excessive bearing wear,         90 0 between each position. This test will
 rapid shaft wear and will, in many cases,      also check whether the propeller half coup-
 reduce the life of the hull by loosening       ling is in exact alignment on its shaft.
 the hull fastenings. A bent propeller          Then, keeping the propeller coupling in one
 shaft will have exactly the same effect        position the alignment should be checked
 and it is therefore necessary that the         rot"ating the engine half coupling to full
 propeller shaft itself be perfectly            position each 90 0 from the next one.
 straight.                                          The engine alignment should be rechecked
     One particularly annoying result of mis-   after the boat has been in service for one
 alignment may be leakage of tra.nsmission      to three weeks and, if necessary, the
 oil through the rear oil seal. Check to        alignment remade. It will usually be
make sure that alignment is within the          found that the engine is no longer in
 limits prescribed.                             alignment. This in not because the work
     The engine should be moved around on       was improperly done at first, but because
 the bed and supported on the screw-jacks       the boat has taken some time to take its
or shims until the two halves of the coup-      final shape and the engine bed and engine
 lings can be brought together without using    stringers have probably absorbed some
 force and so that the flanges meet evenly      moisture. It may even be necessary to re-
all around. It is best not to drill the         align at a further period.
foundation for the foundation bolts until           The coupling should always be opened up
 the approximate alignment has been accu-       and the bolts removed whenever the boat is
rately determined.                              hauled out or·moved from the land to the
    Never attempt a final alignment with        water, and during storage in a cradle.
the boat on land. The boat should be in         The flexibility of the boat often puts a
the water and have had an opportunity to        very severe strain on the shaft or the
assume its final water form. It is best         coupling or both when it is being moved.
to do the alignment with the fuel and           In some cases the shaft has actually been
water tank about half full and all the          bent by these strains. This does not apply
usual equipment on board and after the          to small boats that are hauled out of the
main mast has been stepped and final rig-       water when not in use, unless they are
ging has been accomplished.                     dry for a considerable time.
    Take plenty of time in making this
alignment and do not be satisfied with          EXHAUST SYSTEM
anything less than perfect results.                 Exhaust line installations vary consid-
    The alignment is correct when the shaft     erably and each must be designed for the
can be slipped backwards and forward into       particular job. The general requirements
the counterbore very easily and when a          are to provide an outlet line with a mini-
feeler gauge indicates that the flanges         mum of restrictions and arranged so that
come exactly together at all points. The        sea water, rain water, or condensation
two halves of the propeller coupling            cannot get back into the engine. There
should be parallel within 0.002 inches (A).     should be a considerable fall in the line
                                                between the exhaust manifold flange and
                                                the discharge end. This slope in the pipe
                                                makes it difficult for water to be driven
                                                in very far by a wave; and a steep drop
                                                followed by a long slope is better than a
                                                straight gradual slope. Avoid any depres-
      I                                         sion or trough to the line which would
      \                       )                 fill with water and obstruct the flow of
                                                exhaust gas. Also avoid any sharp bends.
                                                    Brass or copper is not acceptable for
                                                wet exhaust systems, as the combination of
                                                salt water and diesel exhaust gas will
cause rapid deterioration. Galvanized                              support for the rubber hose to prevent
iron fittings and galvanized iron pipe is                          sagging, bending, and formation of water
recommended for the exhaust line. The ex-                          pockets.
haust line must be at least as large as                               Always arrange that water discharge
the engine exhaust manifold flange and be                          into the rubber hose section is behind a
increased in size if there is an especial-                         riser or sufficiently below the exhaust
ly long run and/or many elbows. It should                          flange so that water cannot possibly flow
be increased by 1/2" in LD. for every 10                           back into the engine. Also make sure that
feet beyond the first 10 feet.                                     entering sea water cannot spray directly
                                                                   against the inside of the exhaust piping.
                                                                   Otherwise excessive erosion will occur.

                                                                   MEASURING EXHAUST GAS BACK PRESSURE
                                                                      Back pressure must be measured on a
                                                                   straight section of the exhaust line and
                                                                   as near as possible to the engine exhaust
                                                                   manifold. The engine should be run at
                                                                   maximum load during the measurement period.
                                                                   Set~up should be as shown below.
                                                                   1. For normally asperated engines:
                                                                     Pressure Test Mercury Test Water Column
                                                                     1-1/2" Max PSI 3" Mercury      = 39"
                                                                   2. For turbo-charged engines:
EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH WATER JACKETED                                   Pressure Test Mercury Test Water Column
            STANDPIPE                                                0.75 Max PSI   1-1/2" Mercury = 19-1/2"
   To insure vibration doesn't transmit to
hull, use a flexible section preferably of
stainless steel, no less than 12" overall,
threaded at each end and installed as
close to the engine as possible. This
flexible section should be installed with
no bends and covered with insulating mater-
ial. The exhaust pipe should be properly
supported by brackets to eliminate any
strain on the manifold flange studs. Many
installations use flexible rubber exhaust
hose for the water cooled section of the
exhaust line because of the ease of instal-
lation and flexibility. Provide adequate                           Checking The Back Pressure
                                                                   1. Exhaust pipe flange
                                                                   2. Exhaust line
                                                                   3. Transparent plastic hose, partly filled
                                                                      with.water. Measurement "A" may not
                                                                      exceed 39" for normally asperated
                           \IfAT [III lIFT [1t"4AU5T   i't'S'Tn.
                                                                      engines and 19.5" for turbo-charged
                           WITH ~·.!!..U~ MUF'F'I.£~

                                                                   WATER CONNECTIONS
                                                                      Seacocks and strainers should be of the
         1-)/10" 0,0.
                                                                   full flow type at least one size greater
                                                                   than the inlet thread of the sea water
                                                                   pump. The strainer should be of the type
                                                                   which may be withdrawn for cleaning while
                                                                   the vessel is at sea.
  WATER LIFT EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH                                      Water lines can be copper tubing or
      "HYDRO-HUSH" MUFFLER                                         wire-wound, reinforced rubber hose. In
any case, use a section of flexible hose       the use of unnecessary fittings and con-
that will not collapse under suction, be-      nectors. The shut off valve in the line
tween the hull inlet and engine and between    between the fuel tank and engine should be
the outlet and the exhaust system. This        of the fuel oil type, and it is important
takes up vibration and permits the engine      that all joints be free of pressure leaks.
to be moved slightly when it's being re-          Keep fuel lines as far as possible from
aligned. Do not use street elbows in           exhaust pipe for minimum temperature, to
suction piping. All pipe and fittings          eliminate "vapor locks".
should be of bronze. Use sealing compound         The fuel piping leading from the tank
at all connections to prevent air leaks.       to the engine compartment should always be
The neoprene impeller in the sea (raw)         securely anchored to prevent chafing.
water pump should never be run dry.            Usually the copper tubing is secured by
                                               means of copper straps.
 FUEL TANK AND FILTERS                            The final connection to the engine
    Fuel tanks may be of fiberglass, monel,    should be through flexible rubber hoses.
 aluminum, plain steel or terne plate. If
made of fiberglass, be certain that the
 interior is gel coated to prevent fibers      ELECTRIC PANEL
 from contaminating the fuel system.
Copper or galvanized fuel tanks should not     The Westerbeke all-electric panel
be used. It is not necessary to mount the      utilizes an electronic tachometer
tank above the engine level as the fuel lift   with a built-in hour meter. Tacho-
pump provided will raise the fuel from the     meter cables are no longer required,
tank. The amount of lift should be kept        except for the Skipper mechanical
minimum (6 feet being maximum). If a tank      panel. Mounted on the panel are
is already installed above engine level it     a voltmeter, water temperature
can be utilized in t.his position. Great       gauge and oil pressure gauge. Each
care should be taken to ensure that the fuel   instrument is lighted. The all-
system is correctly installed so that air-     electric panel is isolated from
locks are eliminated and precautions taken     ground and may be mounted where
against dirt and water entering the fuel.      visible. It is normally pre-wired.
    A primary fuel filter of the water col-
lecting type should be installed between
the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. A        ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
recommended type is available from the            Most Westerbeke engines are supplied
list of accessories. The secondary fuel        pre-wired and with plug-in connectors.
filter is fitted on the engine between the     Never make or break connections while the
fuel lift pump and the injection pump and      engine is running. Carefully follow all
has a replaceable element.                     instructions on the wiring diagram sup-
    As the fuel lift pump has a capacity in    plied, especially those relating to fuse/
excess of that required by the injection       cicuit breaker requirements.
pump, the overflow is piped to the fuel           Starter batteries should be located as
tank and should be connected to the top of     close to the engine as possible to avoid
the tank or as near the top as possible.       voltage drop through long leads. It is
    To insure satisfactory operation, a        bad practice to use the starter batteries
diesel engine must have a dependable sup-      for other services unless they require low
ply of clean diesel fuel. For this reason,     amperage or are intermittent'. In cases
cleanliness and care are especially im-        where there are substantial loads (from
portant at the time when the fuel tank is      lights, refrigerators, radios, depth
installed, because dirt left anywhere in       sounders, etc.) it is essential to have a
the fuel lines or tank will certainly          complete, separate system and to provide
cause fouling of the injector nozzles when     charging current for this by means of a
the engine is started for the first time.      second alternator or "alternator output
FUEL PIPING                                       Starter batteries must be of a type
   We recommended copper tubing together       which permits a high rate of discharge
with suitable fittings, both for the supply     (Diesel starting).
line and the return line. Run the tubing
in the longest pieces obtainable to avoid

   Carefully follow the recommended wire
sizes shown in the wiring diagrams. Plan
installation so the battery is close to
engine and use the following cable sizes:

     #1 -   for distances up to 8   feet
     #1/0   - for distances up to   10 feet
     #2/0   - for distances up to   13 feet
     #3/0   - for distances up to   16 feet

   The recommended practice is to have the
stop-run lever loaded to the run position
and controlled by a sheathed cable to a
push-pull knob at the pilot station. The
throttle lever should be connected to a
Morse type lever at the pilot station by
a sheathed cable.
   The transmission control lever may be
connected to the pilot station by a flex-
ible, sheathed cable and controlled by a
Morse type lever. The single-lever type
gives clutch and throttle control with
full throttle range in neutral position.
The two-lever type provides clutch control
with one lever and throttle control with
the other.
   Any bends in the control cables should
be gradual. End sections at engine and
transmission must be securely mounted.
After linkages are completed, check the
installation for full travel, making sure
that, when the transmission control lever
at the pilot station is in forward,
neutral and reverse, the control lever on
the transmission is on the respective
detent. Check the throttle control lever
and the stop-run lever on the fuel injec-
tion pump for full travel.
   Some models do not require a stop
cable because they have either a fuel
solenoid or an electric fuel pump.
Examples of such models are the W58,
W13, W27 and W33.

PREPARATION FOR FIRST START                 5. Fill fuel tank with clean Diesel
                                            fuel oil; No.2 diesel fuel oil is
The engine is· shipped IIdry" ... with      recommended. The use of No. 1 is
lubricating oil drained from the            permissible but No. 2 is preferred
crankcase and transmission. There-          because of its higher lubricant
fore, be sure to follow these recom-        content.
mended procedures carefully before
starting the engine for the first time.     NOTE: If there is no filter in the
                                            filler of the fuel tank, the recom-
1. Remove oil filler cap and fill oil       mended procedure is to pour the fuel
sump with heavy duty, diesel lubricat-      through a funnel of 200 mesh wire
ing oil to the highest mark on the dip-     screen.
stick. See table under Maintenance for
an approved lubricating oil. Do not         6. Fill grease cup on the sea water
overfill. Select an approved grade          pump, if present, with a good grade
from the listing and continue to use it.    of water pump grease.
2. Fill the reverse gear to the high-
est mark on the dipstick with TYPE A        FUEL SYSTEM
transmission fluid. Do not overfill.
Oil level for the Short Profile Sail-       lhefuel injection system of a com-
ing Gear is measured before threading       pression ignition engine depends
the dipstick into the housing.              upon very high fuel pressure during
Engine oil is not recommended because       the injection stroke to function
it can foam and it can contain addi-        correctly. Relatively tiny move-
tives harmful to some transmissions.        ments of the pumping plungers pro-
                                            duce this pressure and if any air
If the engine is equipped with a V drive,   is present inside the high pressure
fill to the full mark on the dipstick       line, then this air acts as a cushion
with the recommended lubricant specified    and prevents the correct pressure,
on the data tag on the V drive housing.     and therefore fuel injection, from
                                            being achieved.
3. Fill fresh water cooling system with
a 50-50 anti-freeze solution only after     In consequence it is essential that
opening all petcocks and plugs until all    all air is bled from the system
entrapped air is expelled.                  whenever any part of the system has
                                            been opened for repair or servicing.
Fill surge tank to within one inch
of the top. Check this level after
engine has run for a few minutes.
If trapped air is released, the water       BLEEDING PROCEDURES BY MODEL
level may have dropped. If so, re-
fill tank to within one inch of top         1.   Initial Engine Start-up
and replace filler cap.                          (Engine stoppage due to lack
                                                  of fuel)
4. Ensure battery water level ;s
at least 3/8" above the battery                  a. Insure that the fuel tank(s)
plates and battery is fully charged                 is filled with the proper
so that it is capable of the extra                  grade of diesel fuel.
effort that may be required on the               b. Fill any large primary filter/
first start.                                        water separator with clean
                                                    diesel fuel that is installed
                                                    between the fuel tank and en-
                                                    gine. To attempt to fill any
                                                    large primary filter using the
                                                    manual priming lever on the en-
         gine mounted fuel lift pump may     2. On the fuel injection pump body is a
         prove futile or require a con-         5/16 bleed screw (Bleed Point B).
         siderable amount of priming.           This may be mounted on a manifold
      c. Turn the fuel selector valve to        with a pressure switch. Open this
         liOn. Systems with more than one
                                                one to two turns (do not remove it)
         tank insure that fuel returning        and with the priming lever bleed
         is going to the tanks being used.      until fuel free of air bubbles
                                                flows. Stop priming and tighten
      The above procedures are basic for        the bleed screw.
      all initial engine start-ups or for
      restarting engines stopping due to     3.   On the control cover of the injec-
      lack of fuel.                               tion pump (Bleed Point C) is a
                                                  5/16 bleed screw. Open this screw
WESTERBEKE W7 AND WPD4 GENERATOR (3600            one to two turns and proceed as in
R.P.M.l (Figyre 1)                                Step 2. (Note: B~pass this bleed
                                                  point on the W-30 lnjection pump.)
1. With the use of a 5/16 box wrench
   or common screw driver, open the          4.   W50 in'ection um onl Open the
   bleed screw one to two turns on the              16 bleed screw Bleed Point D)
   outgoing side of the engine mounted            on the injector line banjo bolt
   secondary fuel filter (Bleed                   one to two turns and with the
   point A). With firm strokes on the             throttle full open and the engine
   lift pump priming lever, bleed until           stop lever in the run position.
   fuel free of air bubbles flows from            crank the engine over with the
   this point. Stop priming and gently            starter until clear fuel free
   tighten the bleed screw.                       of air flows from this point.
                                                  Stop cranking and tighten this
2. With a 5/8 open end wrench loosen              bleed screw.
   one to two turns the nut securing
   the injector line to the injector         5. With a 5/8 wrench loosen one to two
   (Bleed Point B).                             turns the injector line attaching
                                                nuts at the base of each injector
   Decompress the engine with the lever         and with the throttle full open and
   on the top of the cylinder head.             the engine stop control in the run
   Crank the engine over with the               position, crank the engine over with
   starter (W7 ensure that the engine           the starter until fuel spurts by the
   stop lever is in the run position            nuts and injector line at each injec-
   and the throttle is full open).              tor. Stop cranking and tighten the
   (4KW use the defeat position while           nut and proceed with normal starting
   cranking). Crank the engine until            procedures.
   fuel spurts by the nut and line.
   Stop cranking and tighten the 5/8
   nut and proceed with normal starting                               Fi ure 6
   procedures.                                                          II   II

                                                                        II   II

WESTERBEKE W30. (Fjgyre 2)            .                                 II   II

            W40 & klPO 10. 12~. 15. (Flgure 3)
            W50 & wao 15. (Fjgure 4)           These units are self-bleeding.
            W80 &BR 30,(Figure 5)
            W120 &BR45. (Figure 5)             1. Turn the ignition to the ON position
                                                   and wait 15-20 seconds.
1. Open the banjo bolt on top of t~e
    engine mounted secondary fuel fll-         2. Start the engine following normal
    ter 1-2 turns (Bleed Point A).                 starting procedures.
    With firm stroke on the fuel lift
    pump priming lever bleed until fuel
    free of air bubbles flows from this
    point. Stop priming and tighten
    the bolt.
WESTERBEKE W58 &WTO 20 - (Figure 7)
1. Open the bleed screw on the top
   inboard side of the engine-mounted
   secondary fuel filter one to two
   turns using a 10mm box wrench
   (Bleed Point A). This fuel filter
   is equipped with a hand-operated
   priming pump. With the palm of
   your hand, pump this primer until
   fuel free of air flows from this
   point. Stop pumping and tighten
   the bleed screw.
2. With bleed screw A tightened, pump
   the hand primer several more times.
   This primes the injection pump which
   is self-bleeding. The injection pump   Fi gure 1
   incorporates a feed pump which keeps
   the fuel system primed when the en-
   gine is running, thus no external
   lift pump is required.
3. Loosen the four injector line at-
   taching nuts at the base of each
   injector (Bleed Point B) one to two
   turns with a 16mm open-end wrench.
   Place the throttle in the full open
   position and crank the engine over
   with the starter until fuel spurts
   by the nut and injector lines. Stop
   cranking and tighten each of the
   four nuts and proceed with normal
   starting procedure.

                                          Figure 2

                                          Figure 3

     Figure 4                Fi gure 7

     Figure 5   Typical Mechanical Fuel Lift Pump

     Figure 6
PREPARATION FOR STARTING                  6.   As soon as the engine starts, re-
                                               lease the start switch and the
1. Check water level in expansion              preheat button and return the
   tank. It should be l~ to 2 in.              throttle to the "idle" position
   below the top of the tank when              immediately.
                                          CAUTION: Do not crank the engine more
2.   Check the engine sump oil level.     than 20 seconds when trying to start.
                                          Allow a rest period of at least twice
3.   Check the transmission oil level.    the cranking period between the start
                                          cycles. Starter damage may occur by
4.   See that there is fuel in the tank   overworking the starter motor and the
     and the fuel shut-off is open.       backfilling of the exhaust system is
5.   Check to see that the starting
     battery is fully charged, all
     electrical connections are proper-   STARTING THE ENGINE (WARM)
     ly made, all circuits in order and
     turn on the power at the battery     If the engine is warm and    has only been
     disconnect.                          stopped for a short time,    place the
                                          throttle in the partialiy    open position
6.   Check the seacock and ensure that    and engage the starter as    above, elimin-
     it is open.                          ating the preheat step.
STARTING THE ENGINE (COLD)                NOTE: Always be sure that the starter
                                          pinion has stopped revolving before
Most Westerbeke marine diesel engines     again re-engaging the starter, other-
are equipped with a cold starting aid     wise the flywheel ring gear or starter
to ease in the starting of your engine    pinion may be damaged.
when cold.
                                          Ensure that the electrical connection to
1. Check to see that the "stop" lever     the cold starting aid is correct.
   (if installed) is in the "run"
   position.                              Extended use of the cold starting aid
                                          beyond the time periods stated should
2.   Place the throttle in the fully      be avoided to prevent damage to the aid.
     open position.
                                          NEVER under any circumstances use or
3.   Press the "Preheat" button in and    allow anyone to use ether to start your
     hold for 15 to 20 seconds.           engine. If your engine will not start,
                                          then have a qualified Westerbeke marine
4.   While holding the "Preheat" button   mechanic check your engine.
     in, turn the keyswitch to the "ON"
     or "Run" position. This activates
     the panel gauges, lights and fuel
     solenoid or electric fuel pump if    WHEN ENGINE STARTS
     so equipped. Continue to turn the
     keyswitch to the "Start" position    1. Check for normal oil pressure
     and hold for no more than 20 sec-       immediately upon engine starting.
     onds. Some units may be equipped        Do not continue to run engine if
     with a pushbutton to start rather       oil pressure is not present within
     than the keyswitch and in these         15 seconds of starting the engine.
     cases the electrical system is
     activated by fuel pressure.          2.   Check Sea Water Flow. Look for
                                               water at exhaust outlet. Do this
5.   If the engine fails to start in           without delay.
     20 seconds, release start switch
     and preheat for an additional        3.   Recheck Crankcase Oil. After the
     15-20 seconds, then repeat step 4.        engine has run for 3 or 4 minutes,
          subsequent to an oil change or new      NOTE: The SAO transmission requires that
          installation, stop the engine and       when backing down, the shift lever must
          check the crankcase oil level. This     be held in the reverse position, since
          is important as it may be necessary     it has no positive overcenter locking
          to add oil to compensate for the        mechanism.
          oil that is required to fill the
          engine's internal oil passages and
          oil filter. Add oil as necessary.       STOPPING THE ENGINE
          Check oil level each day of opera-
          tion.                                   1.   Position shift lever in neutral.
4.        Recheck Transmission Oil Level.         2.   Idle the engine for 2 to 4 minutes
          (This applies only subsequent to an          to avoid boiling and to dissipate
          oil change or new installation.) In          some of the heat.
          such a case, stop the engine after
          running for several minutes at 800      3.   If equipped with a stop lever, pull
          RPM with one shift into forward and          the knob and hold in this position
          one into reverse, then add oil as            until the engine stops. This stops
          necessary. Check oil level each              the flow of fuel at the injection
          day of operation.                            pump. After the engine stops, re-
                                                       turn the control to the run position
5.        Recheck Expansion Tank Water Level,          to avoid difficulty when restarting
          if engine is fresh water cooled.             the engine.
          (This applies after cooling system
          has been drained or filled for the      4.   Turn off the keyswitch. Some models
          first time.) Stop engine after it            do not use the stop lever as they
          has reached operating temperature            are equipped with a fuel solenoid
          of 17S oF and add water to within            or electric fuel pump which shuts
          one inch of top of tank.                     off the fuel supply when the key-
                                                       switch is turned to the off position.
WARNING: The system is pressurized when           5.   Close the seacock.
overheated and the pressure must be
released gradually if the filler cap is           6.   Disconnect power to system with
to be removed. It is advisable to pro-                 battery switch.
tect the hands against escaping steam
and turn the cap slowly counter-clock-
wise until the resistance of the safety           OPERATING PRECAUTIONS
stops is felt. Leave the cap in this
position until all pressure is released.          1.   Never run engine for extended
Press the cap downward against the                     periods when excessive overheat-
spring to clear the safety stops, and                  ing occurs, as extensive internal
continue turning until it can be lifted                damage can be caused.
                                                  2.   DO NOT put cold water in an over-
6.        Warm-up Instructions. As soon as             heated engine. It can crack the
          possible, get the boat underway,             cylinder head, block, or manifold.
          but at reduced speed, until water
          temp. gauge indicates 130-1S00F.        3.   Keep intake silencer free from
          If necessary, engine can be warmed           lint, etc.
          up with the transmission in neutral
          at 1000 RPM. Warming up with the        4.   Do not run engine at high RPM with-
          transmission in neutral takes longer         out clutch engaged.
          and tends to overheat the transmission,
                                                  5.   Never Race a Cold Engine as internal
7.        Reverse Operation. Always reduce             damage can occur due to inadequate
          engine to idle speed when shifting           oil circulation.
          gears. However, when the transmission
          is engaged, it will carry full engine   6.   Keep the engine and accessories
          load.                                        clean.
7.   Keep the fuel clean. Handle it with
     extreme care because water and dirt
     in fuel cause more trouble and ser-
     vice life of the injection system is
8.   Do not allow fuel to run low, because
     fuel intake may be uncovered long
     enough to allow air to enter the
     injection system, resulting in engine
     stoppage requiring system bleeding.
9.   Do not be alarmed if temperature
     gauges show a high reading following
     a sudden stop after engine has been
     operating at full load. This is
     caused by the release of residual heat
     from the heavy metal masses near the
     combustion chamber. Prevention for
     this is to run engine at idle for a
     short period before stopping it. High
     temperature reading after a stop does
     not necessarily signal alarm against
     restarting. If there is no functional
     difficulty, temperatures will quickly
     return to normal when engine is operat-

                       TEN MUST RULES

     IMPORTANT                 IMPORTANT                    IMPORTANT
     .·. for your safety and your engine's dependability.

     ALWAYS -
       1. Keep this Manual handy and read it whenever in doubt.
       2. Use only filtered fuel oil and check lube oil level daily.
       3. Check cooling water temperature frequently to make sure it is 1900
          or less.
       4. Close all drain cocks and refill with water before starting out.
       5. Investigate any oil leaks immediately.
     NEVER -
       6.Race the engine in neutral.
       7.Run the engine unless the gauge shows proper oil pressure.
       8.Break the fuel pump seals.
       9.Use cotton waste or fluffy cloth for cleaning or store fuel in a
         galvanized container.
     10. Subject the engine to prolonged overloading or continue to run it
         if black smoke comes from the exhaust.
    After you have taken delivery of your
engine, it is important that you make the
following checks right after the first
fifty hours of its operation:
Do the following:
  1. Retorque the cylinder head bolts.
  2. Retorque the rocker bracket nuts and
     adjust valve rocker clearance.
  3. Check and adjust, if necessary, the
     forward drum assembly and the reverse
     band on manual SAO and SA-l trans-
  4. Change engine lubricating oil and oil
  5. Check for fuel and lubricating oil
     leaks. Correct if necessary.
  6. Check cooling system for leaks and in-
     spect water level.
  7. Check for loose fittings, clamps,
     connections, nuts, bolts, vee belt
     tensions etc. Pay particular atten-
     tion to loose engine mount fittings.
     These could cause mis-alignment.
Do the following:
  1. Check sea water strainer, if one has
     been installed.
  2. Check water level in cooling system.
  3. Check lubricating oil level in sump.
     Fill to highest mark on dipstick.
  4. Turn down grease cup on water pump,
     if used, one full turn.
  5. Check lubricating oil level in trans-
     mission. Fill to highest mark on
     dipstick.                                 FIGURE 1
Do the following:
  1. Check generator or alternator "V"
     belt for tension.
  2. Check water level in battery.
  3. Change oil in sump. Oil may be
     sucked out of sump by attaching a
     suction hose (3/8" ID) over the out-
     side of the oil sump pipe, located
     aft of the dipstick. Figure 1.
     See Note, next page.
  4. Replace lubricating oil filt~r. Fig. 2.
     See Note, next page.
  5. Fill sump with approximately 4.5 US
     quarts of diesel lubricating oil to
     high mark on dipstick. Do not over
     fill. See Note next page-.--------        FIGURE 2
 CAUTION: The use of different brands of      3. Fill fresh water cooling system with
  lubricating oils during oil changes has         antifreeze of a reputable make. (Refer
  been known to cause extensive oil sludg-        to Cold Weather Precautions.)
  ing and may in many instances cause com-    4. Start engine. When temperature gauge
  plete oil starvation.                           indicates l75 0 F, shut engine down and
  6. Start engine and run for 3 or 4              drain lubricating oil. Remove and re-
     minutes. Stop engine and check oil           place filter. Fill sump with High De-
     filter gasket for leaks. Check oil            tergent Lubricating Oil.
     sump level. This is important as it      5. Remove air filter. Carefully seal air
     may be necessary to add oil to com-          intake opening with waterproofed adhes-
     pensate for the oil that is required         ive tape or some other suitable medium.
     to fill the engine's internal oil        6. Seal the exhaust outlet at the most ac-
     passages and oil filter. Add oil as          cessible location as close to the en-
     necessary. Change oil in transmission.       gine as possible.
     Use SAE 30, High Detergent Lubricating    7. Remove injectors and spray oil into
     Oil, Service DG, DM, or DS. Do not 
     overfill. See note below.                8. Replace injectors with new sealing
                                                  washer under each injector. Turn engine
IMPORTANT NOTE:                                   slowly over compression.
   IT IS MANDATORY THAT THE CHECKS 3, 4, 5    9.  Top  off fuel tank completely so that no
AND 6 BE ATTENDED TO WHEN TOTAL OPERATING         air  space remains, thereby preventing
TIME REACHES 150 HOURS. IN SOME INSTANCES,        water  formation by condensation.
THIS TOTAL IS REACHED BEFORE END OF SEASON.  10.  Leave  fuel system full of fuel.
                                             11. Change fuel filters before putting the
  7. Clean Air Filter. The time period for        engine back in service.
     replacing the air filter depends on     12. Wipe engine with a coat of oil or
     operating conditions, therefore, under       grease.
     extremely dirty conditions, the season- 13. Change oil in transmission.
     al frequency should be increased. The 14. Disconnect battery and 'store in fully
     correct time periods for replacing the        charged condition. Before storing the
     filter will greatly assist in reducing        battery, the battery terminals and
     bore wear, thereby extending the life         cable connectors should be treated to
     of the engine.                                prevent corrosion. Recharge battery
  8. Check engine for loose bolts, nuts,           every 30 days.
     etc.                                     15. Check alignment.
  9. Check sea water pump for leaks.
 10. Wash primary filter bowl and screen.
     If filter bowl contains water or sedi-
     ment, filter bowl and secondary oil
     fuel filter need to be cleaned more
 11. Replace secondary fuel filter element.
 12. Replace air filter.

1. Drain fresh water cooling system by re-
   moving the surge tank pressure cap and
   opening all water system petcocks.
2. Remove zinc rod (usually located in
   heat exchanger) and see if it needs
   replacing. The zinc rod will take
   care of any electrolysis that may occur
   between dissimilar metals. Insert new
   zinc if necessary.
                                 LUBRICATING OILS

   Lubricating oils are available for Westerbeke Diesel engines which offer an improved
standard of performance to meet the requirements of modern operating conditions such as
sustained high speeds and temperatures.

   These oils meet the requirements of the U. S. Ordnance Specification MIL-L-2l04B
(API Service CC). Any other oils which also conform to these specifications, but are
not listed here are, of course, also suitable.

                                                               S.A.E. DESIGNATION
        COMPANY                        BRAND
                                                        00/45 0F     45 0 /80 0 F OVER 80 0F

American Oil Co.         American Supermil Motor Oil      lOW         20W/20         30

BP Canada Limited        BP Vanellus                     lOW          20W/20        30
                         BP Vanellus                   10W/30         10W/30     10W/30

Chevron Oil Co.          RPM DELO Multi-Service Oil       lOW         20W/20         30

Cities Service Oil Co.   CITGO Extra Range                lOW         20W/20         30

Continental Oil Co.      CONOCO TRACON OIL                lOW         20W/20         30

Gulf Oil Corporation     Gulflube Motor Oil X.H.D.        lOW         20W/20         30

Mobile Oil Company       Delvac 1200 Series              1210          1220         1230

Shell Oil Company        Shell Rotella Tail               lOW         20W/20         30

Sun Oil Company          Subfleet MIL-B                   lOW         20W/20         30

Texaco, Inc.             Ursa Oil Extra Duty              lOW         20W/20         30

                          ENGINE OVERHAUL

 Number of cylinders                                 ..    4.
 Bore                                                ..    2·8745 to 2·8760 in. (73·012 to 73·05 mm.).
 Maximum oversize bore: l.1nlinered cylinder ..      ·.    o()40 in. (1·02 mm.).
                        Linered cylinder             ·.    .020 in. ('51 mm.).
 Stroke                                              ..    3·5 in. (88'9 mm.).
 Capacity ..                                         ..    90·88 cu. in. (1489 c.c.).
 Compression ratio                                   ..    23: 1.
 Firing order                                        ·.    1, 3, 4, 2.
 Torque                                              ·.    64 lb. ft. (8'85 kg. m.) at 1,900 r.p.m.
 Idling speed                                              300 rpm
 Max. continuous speed                                     2500 rpm
 Angle of installation                                     12 0 max.
 Cylinder head
   Valve seat angle                                  ..    45".
   Valve seat face width ..                          ..    ·089 in. (2·29 mm.).

   Position ..                                       ..    Overhead, push-rod-operated.
   Lift                                              .,    ·317 in. (8·03 mm.).
   Diameter: Head: Iolet                                   1·370 to 1'375 in. (34·8 to 34'9 mm.).
                      Exhaust                        ·.    1·151 to 1-156 in. (29·2 to 29·4 mm.).
              Stem: Inlet                            ·.    ·3422 to ·3427 in. (8'69 to 8·70 mm.).
                      Exhaust                        ..    ·34175 to ·34225 in. (8'68 to 8·69 mm.).
   Stem guide clearance: Inlet ..                          ·00\ 5 to -0025 in. (·04 to ·06 mm.).
                          Exhaust                    ..    ·002 to ·003 in. (·05 to .08 mm.).
   Valve rocker clearance: Running                         ·015 in. ('38 mm.) cold.
                           Timing                          ·021 in. (,53 mm.).
   Seat face angle ..                                      44;°.
   Seat face width                                   ..    ·090±·OIO in (2·29±·25 mm.).

 Valve guides
   Length: Inlet ..                                        2·203 in. (56 mm.).
   Fitted height above head                          .. ·563:.m in. (14'29~:~ mm.).
   Diameter: Outside                                       ·5635 to ·5640 in. (14·31 to 14·33 mOl.).
              Inside                                 ..    ·34425 to ·34475 in. (8·74 to 8·76 mm.).
   Oversizes (outer diameter)                               j ·010 in. (·25 mm.).

 Valve springs
   Free length: Inner                                ·.    1·875 in. (47'63 mm.).
                Outer                                ..    2·2343 in. (56'75 mm.).
   Fitted length: Inner .,                           ..    1·4375 in. (36·51 mm.).
                  Outer ..                           ·.    1·5625 in. (39'69 mm.).
   Pressure: Valve closed: Inner                     ..    20±llb. (9·07±·454 kg.).
                            Outer                    ..    50'5±2 lb. (22·907±·907 kg.).
   Working coils: Inner ..                           .. 61-.
                   Outer ..                           .. 5;.
   Wire diameter: Inner ..                           ..    ·104   in. (2'64 mm.).
                    Outer ..                         ..    ·144   in. (3·66 mm.).
   Core diameter: Inner ..                                 ·715   to ·730 in. (18'16 to 18·54 mm.).
                    Outer ..                               ·993   to 1·007 in. (25·22 to 25'58 mm.).

   Type                                               ..   Flat base, barrel type.
   Diameter                                                ·81125 to ·81175 in. (20'60 to 20·62 mm.).
   Oversizes                                          ..   +.010 in., +.020 in. (+·25 mm., +'51 mm.).

                                          SPECIFICATIONS             -continued
      Bushes: Inside diameter (reamed in position)              ..   ·6255 to ·626 in. (15'89 to 15·90 mm.).
       Bore of arm                                              ·.   ·7485 to ·7495 in. (19·01 to 19·03 mm.).
       Rocker ratio                                             ..   1,4:1.

       Material and type                                        ..   Aluminium, solid skirt.
       Clearance at bottom of skirt ..                          ..   ·0036 to 0()()43 in. (·091 to ·109 mm.).
       Width of ring groove: Compression: No.1                  ..   00816 to ·0826 in. (2'07 to 2·10 mm.).
                                          Nos. 2 and 3          ·.   ·0806 to ·0816 in. (2'05 to 2·07 mm.).
                             Oil control                        ..   ·1578 to ·1588 in. (4·01 to 4·03 mm.).
       Oversizes                                                ..   +·010 in.·, +·020 in., +·030 in., +·040 in.
                                                                       (+·25 mm., +'51 mm., +·76mm., +1·02mm.).
     Piston rings
       Number                                                   ..   3 compression (I chrome-plated, 2 tapered), 2 oil
       Width: Compression ..                                    ..   ·0771 to ·0781 in. (1'96 to 1·98 mm.).
               Oil control                                      ..   ·1552 to ·1562 in. (3'94 to 3·97 mm.).
       Fitted gap: No. 1 compression                            ..   ·012 to ·020 in. (·30 to ·51 mm.).
                   Nos. 2 and 3 compression and oil control     ..   ·008 to ·013 in. (·20 to ·33 mm.).
       Clearance in groove: No.1 compression ..                 ..   ·0035 to ·0055 in. ('09 to ·14 mm.).
                            Nos. 2 and 3 compression            ..   ·0025 to ·0045 in. (·06 to ·11 mm.).
                            Oil control                         ·.   ·002 to 0()()4 in. (·05 to '10 mm.).
       Oversizes                                                ..   +'010 in., + ·020 in., + ·030 in., + ·040 in.
                                                                        (+·25 mm., +·51 mm., +·76 mm., +1002 mm.).

     Gnclgeon pins
       Type                                                     ..   Floating, located in piston by circlips.
       Fit: In piston                                           ..   ·00035 in. (·009 mm.) clearance to ·00005 in. ('001
                                                                        mm.) interference.
           In connecting rod ..                                 ·.   ·0002 to ·0009 in. ('005 to ·023 mm.).
       Diameter                                                 ·.   '9998 to 1·000 in. (25'39 to 25·4 mm.).
       Length ..                                                ·.   2·360 to 2·375 in. (59·94 to 60·32 mm.).

       Journal diameter                                         ..   2·0005 to 2·001 in. (50·813 to 50·825 mm.).
       Crankpin diameter                                        ..   2·0005 to 2·001 in. (50·813 to 50·825 nun.).
       Undersizes (journals and crankpins)                      ..   -·010 in., -·020 in. (-·25 mm., -'51 mm.).
       End-fioat (taken on thrust washer at centre main bearing)..   ·002 to ·003 in. (·05 to ·08 mm.).

     Main bearings
      Number and type                                           ..   3, shell type. .
      Material                                                  ..   Steel-backed copper-lead.
      Length ..                                                 ..   1·213 to 1·223 in. (30·81 to 31·06 mm.).
      Inner diameter ..                                         ..   2·0025 to 2·0032 in. (50·863 to 50·881 mm.).
      Running clearance                                         ..   ·0010 to ·0027 in. (·025 to '068 mm.).
      Undersizes for reground journals                          ..   ·010 in., ·020 in. (·25 mm., ·51 mm.).

     Connecting rods
       Length (centres)                                         "    6·498 to 6·502 in. (165'05 to 165·15 mm.).
       Side-clearance ..                                        ..   ·008 to ·012 in. (·20 to ·30 mm.).
       Small-end bush (inner diameter, reamed in position)      ·.   1·0002 to 1·0007 in. (25'40 to 25·42 mm.).

     Big-end bearings
       Material                                                      Steel-backed copper-lead.
       Length ..                                                ..   '963 to ·973 in. (24'46 to 24·71 mm.).
       Diameter: Inner                                          ..   2·0025 to 2·0032 in. (50'863 to 50·881 mm.).
       Running clearance                                        ·.   ·001 to '0027 in. (·025 to ·068 mm.).
       Undersizes for reground crankpins ..                     o.   ·010 in., ·020 in. (·25 mm., ·51 mm.).

                                        SPECIFICATIONS - con tin u e d
   Journal diameter: Front                                          1·78875 to 1·78925 in. (45-434 to 45·447 mm.).
                       Centre                                       1·72875 to 1·72925 in. (43-910 to 43·922 mm.).
                       Rear                                         1-62275 to 1-62325 in. (41·218 to 41·231 mm.).
   End-fioat (taken on thrust plate at front end)                   -003 to ·007 in. (·08 to ·18 mm.).

 Camshaft beariDp
   Number                                                           3.
  Type                                                       ·.     Steel-backed white metal.
   Inner diameter (reamed in position): Front                ·.     1·79025 to 1·79075 in. (45-472 to 45·485 mm.).
                                         Centre                     1·73025 to 1·73075 in. (43'948 to 43·961 mm.).
                                         Rear ..                    1·62425 to 1·62475 in. (41'256 to 41·269 mm.).
   Running clearance                                         ·.     -001 to ·002 in. (,025 to -051 mm.).

 Valye timine
   Chain pitch                                                   ·375 in. (9'525 mm.).
   Number of pitches                                         ..  54.
  Chain type                                                 ..  Duplex roller.
   Valve to rocker clearance: Running                            -015 in. ('38 mm.).
                              Timing check                   · . ·021 in. ('53 mm.).
  Inlet valve: Opens                                             5° B.T.D.C. ]
               Closes                                            45° A.B. D.C. With ·021 in. ('53 mm.) valve
  Exhaust valve: Opens ..                                        45° B.B.D.C. rocker clearance.
                  Closes ..                                      5° A.T.O.C.
  Timing markings                                                Dimples on timing wheels, timing disc on crankshaft
                                                                   pulley, and pointer on crankcase front cover.
   Tensioner type ..                                         · . Renold spring-loaded slipper type with oil feed.

  Diameter                                                   ..    11'375 in. (289 mm.).

  System ..                                                      Pressure.
  Pump type                                                      Eccentric rotor.
  External filter ..                                         · . Tecalemit, full-flow.
  Oil pressure: Idling                                           15 Ib./sq. ill. (1·05 kg./cm. l )
                 Normal running                                  SO Ib./sq. in. (3·52 kg./cm. I ).
  Release valve spring: Free length                              2·859 in. (72'64 mm.).
                        Fitted lensth                            2'156 in. (54'77 mm.) at 13; lb. (6·12 kg.) load.
 Kecommended lubrication oil                                     See Page B.I
 SAO Westerbeke/Paragon                                            Direct Drive
                                                                   2:1 RG
 SAOV (Vee drive)                                                  Direct Drive
                                                                   1.67: 1 and 2: 1 RG
 RB Freewheeling sailing gear                                      1.9:1RG
 Hydraulic·Paragon or Warner Gear                                  All ratios
 Propeller rotation - All left hand except Warner 1. 91: 1
  All Models                                                      Flexible Adjustable
  Type                                                            Centrifugal Pump, Thermostat
  Thermostat Setting                                              176Fto 183F
  Water Capacity (Fresh)                                          7 Qualts

                                                                                                                                                 ,/   ,"

                                                    SPECIFICATIONS                 - con tin u e d
      Lift pump ·.                                                                 A.C. mechanical.
        Type                                                                       U.
        Static pressure (no delivery) ..                                           S Ib./sq. in. (·3S kg./cm.W).
      Injection pump                                                               C.A.V.
        1st type ..                                                                DPA.3246496.
        2nd type ..                                                                DPA.3246776 or DPA.3246776B.
        3rd type ..                                                                DPA.3246847.
      Injectors ..                                                                 C.A.V. PiDtaux
         Nozzle type: Early engines                                                BDN.O.SPC.6209.
                       Later engines                                               BDN.O.SPC.6389.
         Nozzle holder type: Early engines           ·.                            DKB.3S.SD.S091.
                              Later engines                                        DKB.3S.SD.SIU.
        Opening pressure                                                           135 atmospheres.-
      Main filter                                                                  C.A.V. bowl-less.
        Type                                                                 . . FS583602O.
      Static injection timing ..                                                   22° B.T.D.C. (fully retarded).

      Sump (including filter)       ..                                             4.5 Quarts
       Cylinder head nuts                                                          71 lb. ft. (9·8 kg. m.).
       Main bearing nuts                                                           75 lb. n. (10·37 kg. m.).
       Big-end bolts                                                               3S lb. n. (4·85 kg. m.).
       Flywheel nuts                                                         ..    37 lb. ft. (5007 kg. m.).
       Injector securing nuts                                                      12 lb. ft. (1'7 kg. m.).
       Injector nozzle nut                                                   ·.    SO lb. n. (70() kg. m.).
       Rocker bracket nuts                                                   ·.    25 lb. It. (304 kg. m.).
       Manifold nuts                                                         ·.    IS lb. ft. (2·1 kg. m.).
       Engine rear distance piece bolts: " in.                               ..    20 lb. ft. (2·8 kg. m.).
                                              tin ...                              30 lb. ft. (4·1 kg. m.).
       Water pump bolts                                                            17 lb. ft. (2·3 kg. m.).
       Fuel injection pump:
           Governor housing securing screws                                  · . 40 lb. in. (046 kg. m.).
           Distributor rotor screw                                               28 lb. in. (·32 kg. m.).
           Cam advance screw                                                     400 lb. in. (4'6 kg. m.).
            Drive plate screw:
              Direct                                                               160 Ib. in. (1'85 kg. m.).
                Ring spanner and torque adaptor centres at 2·6               in.
                   (66 mm.)                                                   ..   140 lb. in. ()·61 kg. m.).
                Ring spanner and torque adaptor cenlres at 5                 in.
                   (127 mm.)                                                       115 lb. in. (1·32 kg. m.).
            Transfer pump rotor                                                    65 lb. in. (,75 kg. m.).
            End plate set bolt ..                                            ..    45 lb. in. (,52 kg. m.).
            Hydraulic head locating fitting                                  ·.    35() lb. in. (4'05 kg. m.).
            Advance unit housing cap nut                                     ..    110 lb. in. (1·251.g. m.).
            Advance unit housing stu(1                                       ..    60 lb. in. ('~9 kg. m.).
            Advance unit hOllsing ~pring cap and end plu;; ..                ..    250 lb. in. (2·9 kg. m.).
            Hydraulic head lockil::~ screw                                   ..· 96kg.m.).
            High-pressure outlet unions and banjo pipe bolts                 ..    270 I~. in. (3-l kg. m.).
            Control and 'shut-otT· lever bolt or nut ..                      ..    30 lb. in. (,34 kg. m.).
            Fuel inlet connection                                            ..    360 lb. in. (4'15 kg. m.).

        · Add 5 atmospheres to the opening pressure when letting new injectOR or after fittin. DeW sprinp to allow Cor settIiDa or tho UUec.or
                                                   SECTION A
                                                   THE ENGINE
         Big-end bearings-removing and replacing                                                  A.13
              Liners-removing and replacing                                                       A.3S
              Removing and replacing                                                              A.34
         Crankcase front cover-removing and replacing                                             A.30
         Crankshaft and main bearings-removing and replacing                                      A.39
         Cylinder head-removing and replacing ..                                                  A.18
         Cylinder liners-fitting                                                                  A.41
         Decarbonizing                                                                            A.2S
         Description ..                                                                           A.I
         Engine front plate-removing and replacing                                                A.37
         Flywheel-removing and replacing                                                          A.36
         Flywheel starter ring-removing and replacing                                             A.40
         Fuel injection pump
              Driving gear lubricator and lubricator filter gauze-removing and repladng            A.6
              Driving spindle-removing and replacing ..                                            A.33
         Gearbox distance piece-removing and replacing                                             A.3S
         Inlet and exhaust manifolds-removing and replacing ..                                     A.17
         Lubrication system                                                                        A.3
         Oil filter-external ..                                                                    A.S
         Oil pressure ..                                                                           A.S
         Oil pressure release valve                                                                A.7
         Oil pump
              Dismantling and reassembling                                                         A.12
              Removing and replacing                                                               A.ll
         Oil strainer-removing and replacing                                                       A.tO
         Piston and connecting rod
              Dismantling and reassembling                                                         A.20
              Removing and replacing                                                               A.19
         Piston rings-removing and replacing                                                       A.21
         Piston sizes and cylinder bores                                                           A.22

          Service tools ..                                                                End of Section
               Draining                                                                            A.4
               Removing and replacing                                                              A.9
          Tappets-removing and replacing                                                           A.27
          Timing chain
               Removing and replacing                                                              A.32
              Tensioner-removing and replacing ..                                                  A.31
               Grinding                                                                            A.24
               Guides-removing and replacing                                                       A.26
               Removing and replacing                                                              A.23
               Timing check ..                                                                     A.29
          Valve rocker clearances-adjusting                                                        A.2S
          Valve rocker shaft
               Bushes-removing and replacing                                                       A.16
               Dismantling and reassembling                                                        A.IS
               Removing and replacing                                                              A.l4
          Valve seat inserts-fitting ..                                                            A.r·
J'S-Iitre Diesel--Second Edition. Issue I. 60740                                                           ".1
                                    11,.111111 .. 111              I' . . . . . . . . . .   I     I   I    . . . . . .. . - -. .'.'....1
                                                                                                                                       ..'_11_'. . ._ _ _ _ _ _ __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                I   . . . . . . . . . . . 11111111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 . . ·

                                                                                                            THE ENGINE
                                                                                                 (Longitudinal Section)


       "'111'"   ··· 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.111111111111   . . . . . . . . . . . I'   1   ···· 1111111         1111.11          I   '1'"        ········

"'.2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ':;"'-:'41'
r·····...···· ...........................-...-._..__.._
                                                      ..........--_...............-.............__..................... _.-.--.........-...............
                                                                                      THE ENGINE
                                                                                    (Transverse Section)




    , ····· , · · · · · · · · · · · · · · , · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ' ·· ,1111111111".1.1'11,1'11111.1.1.",1'111.1111'1"1111   ·· " , , , ·· 11 ······· ,1111111, ··· 11111111111111111, . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

                  22        -26

             ~J                                                                                                        i

I              r · _   27

                                                                                    39   ./"·
                                                                                                  '                    l
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                                                                                                           ~           I

. . . . ., """. . "
                  . . "". .""". .""".". . . "
                                            "."."""., """""""""""".""."". ."."
                                                                             . ._
                                                                                . .____. ._
                                                                                          . . . ."
                                                                                                 .. _
                                                                                                    . .___. . ."
                                                                                                               . ."
                                                                                                                                                                   ~ ......   ···· 1.1.1 ·· 11111111111 ··· 11111111 ···· 1111 . . . . . . . . . . . 1111111 ···· 1 II 11111111'

                                                                                                                                KEY TO THE ENGINE EXTERNAL COMPONENTS

                                              No.                                      Description                                  No.              Description                                                              No.                               Description           i
                                                    I.      Gearbox distance piece.                                                  45.   Sump.                                                                              88.
      i                                             2.
                                                            Joint washer for distance piece.
                                                            Screw for distance piece.
                                                                                                                                           Drain plug for sump.
                                                                                                                                           Washer for drain plug.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Thermal transmitter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              90.        Valve rocker cover.
                                                  4.        Locking washer for screw.                                                48.   Joint washer for sump.                                                             91.        Joint washer for valve rocker cover.
                                                  5.        Locking washer for screw.                                                49.   Screw assembly for sump.                                                           92.        Rubber bush for valve rocker cover.
                                                            Locking washer for screw.
                                                            Screw for distance piece.
                                                                                                                                           Cylinder head.
                                                                                                                                           Plug for water jet boss and air vent.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cup washer for valve rocker cover.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cap nut for valve rocker cover.              t
      I                                           8.
                                                            Locking washer for screw.
                                                            Locking washer for screw.
                                                                                                                                           Plug for oil hole.
                                                                                                                                           Plug for core support hole.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Washer for cap nut.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Exhaust manifold.
                                                 10.        Crankcase front cover.                                                   54.   Plug for core support hole.                                                        97.        Air inlet manifold.
                                                            Joint washer for front cover.
                                                            Screw for front cover to front plate.
                                                            Washer plate for screw.
                                                                                                                                           Welch plug.
                                                                                                                                           Combustion chamber inscrt.
                                                                                                                                           Ball for insert.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Joint washer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Hub for fuellDJcction pump.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Joint washer for injection pump hub.
      f                                          14.        Spring washer for screw.                                                 58.   Joint washer for cylinder head.                                                   101.        Screw for injection pump hub.                i
                                                 15.        Screw for front cover and plate to crankcase.                            59.   Washer for cylinder head stud.                                                    102.        Joint washer for fuel injection pump.        i
      t                                          16.
                                                            Washer plate for screw.
                                                            Spring washer for screw.
                                                                                                                                           Nut for cylinder head stud.
                                                                                                                                           Heater plug.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Timing indicator.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Screw for indicator.
      I                                         18.
                                                            Screw for front cover to bearing cap.
                                                            Washer plate for screw.
                                                                                                                                           Connection for heater plug.
                                                                                                                                           Fuel injector assembly.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Plain washer for screw.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Spring washer for screw.

                                                            Spring washer for screw.
                                                            Crankshaft oil seal.
                                                            Cylinder side cover with elbow-rear.
                                                            Cylinder side cover-front.
                                                            Joint washer for side cover.
                                                                                                                                           Joint washer for injector nozzle holder.
                                                                                                                                           Hcat shield for injector nozzle.
                                                                                                                                           Washer for heat shield.
                                                                                                                                           Seal washer for injector atomizer.
                                                                                                                                           Stud for injector nozzle holder.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cylinder and crankcase assembly.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Welch plug.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Main bearing stud.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Camshaft front bearing liner.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Screwed plug for oil gallery.
      I                                         25.
                                                            Screw for side cover.
                                                            Washer for screw.
                                                                                                                                           Plain washer for stud.
                                                                                                                                           Spring washer (or stud.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Washer for plug.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Plug for oil gallery.                         i
      :                                         27.
                                                            Crankcase vent pipe.
                                                            Screw for vent pipe clip.
                                                                                                                                           Nut for stud.
                                                                                                                                           Banjo bolt for injector leak-off pipe.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cap for front main bearing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cap for centre main bearing.
                                                29.         Plain washer for screw.                                                  74.   Washer for banjo bolt.                                                            116.        Cap for rear main bearing.
                                                30.         Dynamo rear bracket.                                                     75.   Fuel leak-off pipe for injectors.                                                 ll7.        Joint for front and rear main bearing cap.   f
                                                31.         Screw for dynamo bracket.                                                76.   Short stud for rocker bracket.                                                    ll8.        Spring washer for main bearing cap stud.     i
                                                            Spring washer for screw.
                                                            Pillar for dynamo adjusting link.
                                                                                                                                           Long stud for rocker bracket. .
                                                                                                                                           Stud for water outlet elbow.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Nut for main bearing cap stud.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Engine front mounting plate.                 t
                                                            Spring washer for pillar.
                                                            Nut for piUar.
                                                                                                                                           Stud for exhaust manifold.
                                                                                                                                           Stud for air and exhaust manifold.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Joint washer for mounting plate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Screw for front mounting plate.              i
                                                            Nut for link to pillar.
                                                            Plain washer for nut.
                                                            Spring washer for nut.
                                                                                                                                           Clamp wdsher for air and exhaust manifold.
                                                                                                                                           Plain washer for air and exhaust manifold.
                                                                                                                                           Nut for air and exhaust manifold.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Spring washer for screw.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Long stud for cylinder head.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Short stud for cylinder head.
                                                39.         Dynamo adjusting link.                                                   84.   Water outlet elbow.                                                               126.        Stud for fuel injection pump.
                                                41.         Oil gause union.                                                         85.   Joint washer for water outlet elbow.                                              127.        Water drain tap.
                                                42.         Washer for union.                                                        86.   Plain washer for stud.                                                            128.        Washer for drain tap.
                                                43.         Oil level indicator.                                                     87.   Nut (or stud.                                                                     129.        Dust cap for oil level indicator.
                                                44.         Guide tube for oil level indicator.

t..   J·· I I I I I "   ··· ' . . . . . . I I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I . I I I I I . . . . _   ......... IIIII ... .                                11 ····· 1 ·· 11'.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · - ··· 111.11 ·······                ~
     ' . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 . . . . . . . . . . 1 ··· 11..        11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . 1 1 . . . . . . . . . .        .,111 ·· 1111.1.1.11 . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . 1111.                      .............                 · . . . . . 1 . . 1111111 . . . .        I       II'         11 ·· 11 . . . . . . . . . . . 1111111.            1111 ·· 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

                                                                                                                                             THE .ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS

                                                                                                                   . 1:-1"1
                                                                                                                                                                               'i' .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9                              _
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ..,.___ '1
     1                                                                                                                                                                                    ~~~.~.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                         --~j ~- ...-=---.. "

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     I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                                                                                    . .t .... .·
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -'                                                                    ---~

     11 ······ 1.111.'.' """"1""                             .11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 ········ 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ ··· _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                    KEY TO THE ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS

    No.               Description                        No.                Description                 No.               Description
     I.    Valve rocker shaft.                            33.   Spring washer.                            70. Piston ring-Nos. 4 and 5-oil control
     2.    Rocker spacing spring.                         34.   Set screw-long.                           71. Camshaft.
     3.    Rocker bracket-tapped.                         35.   Spring washer.                            72. Camshaft locating plate.
     4.   Rocker bracket-plain.                           36.   Oil strainer.                             73. Screw for locating plate.
     5.   Spring washer-double-coil.                      37.   Set screw.                                74. Shakeproof washer for screw.
     6.   Rocker shaft washer.                            38.   Spring washer.                           75. Camshaft gear.
     7.   Split cotter pin.                               39.   Joint washer for oil strainer.           76. Key for camshaft gear.
     8.   Valve rocker.                                   46.   Oil pump driving spindle.                77. Nut for camshaft gear.
     9.   Valve rocker bush.                              47.   Fuel injection pump driving spindle.     78. Lock washer for nut.
    10.   Tappet adjusting screw.                         48.   Connecting rod assembly-Nos. I and 3.    79. Timing chain tensioner slipper head.
    II.   Adjusting screw locknut.                        49.   Connecting rod and cap-Nos. 2 and 4.     80. Cylinder for chain tensioner.
    12.   Rocker shaft locating screw.                    SO.   Connecting rod bearing.                  81. Spring for chain tensioner.
    13.   Locking plate for locating screw.               S!.   Bolt for connecting rod cap.             82. Body for chain tensioner.
    14.   Plain washer for rocker bracket stud.          52.    Lock washer for bolt.                    83. Tensioner back-plate.
    15.   Spring washer for rocker bracket stud.         53.    Bush for connecting rod little-end.      84. Joint washer for tensioner body.
          Nut for rocker bracket stud.
                                                                Crankshaft main bearing.
                                                                Crankshaft thrust washer-upper.
                                                                                                         85. Plug for tensioner body.
                                                                                                         86. Lock washer for plug.
                                                                                                         87. Bolt for tensioner.
          Screwed plug for rocker shaft.
          Plain plug for rocker shaft.
          Crankshaft pulley and vibration damper.
                                                                Crankshaft thrust washer-lower.
                                                                Bolt for flywheel.
                                                                Nut for flywheel bolt.
                                                                                                         88. Lock washer for bolt.
                                                                                                         89. Timing chain.
                                                                                                         90. Inlet valve.
          Timing disc.
          Screw for timing disc.
                                                                Lock washer for nut.
                                                                Crankshaft gear.
                                                                                                         91. Exhaust valve.
                                                                                                         92. Outer valve spring.
    24.   Starting nut.                                  62.    Crankshaft gear and pulley key.          93. Inner valve spring.
    25.   Lock washer for starting nut.                  63.    Crankshaft gear packing washer.          94. Valve spring bottom collar.
    26.   Flywheel assembly.                             64.    Crankshaft oil thrower-front.            95. Valve guide shroud.
    27.   Starter ring.                                  65.    Piston.                                  96. Valve packing ring.
    28.   Oil pump body.                                 66.    Gudgeon pin.                             97. Valve cotter.
    29.   Dowel.                                         67.    Circlip for gudgeon pin.                 98. Orclip for valve cotter.
    30.   Oil pump rotor assembly.                       68.    Piston ring-No. l-compression.           99. Valve spring cap.
    31.   Oil pump cover.                                69.    Piston ring-Nos. 2 and 3-compression.   100. Valve guide.
    32.   Set screw-short.

~                                                                                                                                                        ~
 A                                                    THE ENGINE

                                                                timing chain is of the double-roller type, and a slipper-
Section A.I                                                     type, oil-fed timing chain tensioner is fitted.
                                                                   The forged-steel, counterbalanced crankshaft is sup-
                                                               ported by three main bearings of generous dimensions to
                                                               give adequate bearing surfaces in order to withstand the
    The Westerbeke 25 HP diesel engine is of the indirect      considerable loads experienced in diesel engines. The
injection type, with four cylinders, having a nominal          bearings are of the steel shell type lined with lead-copper.
bore of 2·875 in. (73 mm.) and a stroke of 3·5 in.                Crankshaft thrust washers of steel-backed white metal
(88·9 mm.), with a compression ratio of 23 : 1.                are fitted on each side of the centre main bearing.
   The cylinder block and crankcase is a one-piece casting     .The connecting rods are of'H'-section forged steel with
In \igh-quality cast iron, ensuring maximum rigidity and       renewable big- and sma11-end bearings. Like the main
stre{lgth. Full-length water jackets are provided so that      bearings, the big-end bearings are of the steel shell type
even cylinder temperatures alld high wear resistance are       lined with lead-copper.
assured.                                                          The big-ends are diagonally split to permit the pistons
   The cylinder head carries the valve operating gear,         and connecting rods to be withdrawn upwards through
inlet and exhaust valves, fuel injectors, and heater plugs.    the cylinder bores.
Large circulation passages are cast in the head, ensuring         Oil jet holes are drilled in the upper halves of the
adequate cooling. The combustion chambers are the              big-ends and these supply the cylinder walls with adequate
Ricardo Comet V type. The combustion intake, exhaust           lubrication. The small-ends are fitted with Clevite bushes.
manifold, and expansion tank is a one piece aluminum              Aluminium pistons of the solid skirt type are fitted
casting mounted to the left-hand side of the cylinder head.    and a specially shaped crown is incorporated to suit the
                                                               characteristics of the combustion chamber.
   A quickly detachable rocker cover, embodying an oil            Three compression and two oil control rings are fitted,
filler, encloses the overhead valve gear, which is push-rod-   and the floating-type gudgeon pin is secured in position
operated.                                                      by means of circlips. The top compression ring is chrome-
    The forged-steel camshaft is mounted in the left-hand      plated, while the peripheries of the other two are tapered.
side of the cylinder block and is supported by three white-       Inlet valves of large head diameter are used to promote
metal bearings. The cam profiles are designed to prevent       good charging and oil seals are fitted to the stems of all
surge and to givl: quiet operation of the valve gear. The      valves.

A~"'    ____"'''''+'''"'''''II'''+'''''_'''''''I'''I'II'' ...........   '111111"   11111' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11111 ······· ,   III . . . . . . . . . . .




                     ~                                     r~J
                     ~                                4\r
                                                           ! 'I

..   11111   111111111111111111111111111111'1111111       .1I.1t 111 .. 111111111111111 . . . . 111111111111 . . . . . . 1111111 .. II . . . . . 11" . . . . . "'"'"1111111111111111                                                                   11'111 . . . . . 1111111

                                                    THE ENGINE                                                         A
    The oil pump is of the eccentric rotor, non-draining        and crankshaft to the main, big-end, and camshaft
type and is driven from the camshaft.                           bearings and the fuel injection pump drive coupling.
    A full-flow oil filter is mounted on the side of the        From the camshaft rear bearing oil at reduced pressure
 crankcase                                                      is fed through drilled passages in the crankcase, cylinder
    The fuel injection pump is of the C.A.V. distributor        head, rocker shaft rear bracket, and rocker shaft to the
  type incorporating an automatic advance device and a          valve rockers and adjusting screws. Surplus oil from the
 governor, both of which are hydraulically operated. The        valve rockers returns to the sump via the push-rod
 pump is flange-mounted on the right-hand side of the           tunnels to lubricate the tappets. From the front camshaft
 engine and is driven 'by the camshaft through a shaft and      bearing oil is supplied at reduced pressure to the timing
 gear mounted transversely in the crankcase.                    chain tensioner, through a drilled passage in the front of
    The fuel lift pump is of the A.C. mechanical type and       the cylinder block, to lubricate the timing chain. Surplus
 is driven by the engine camshaft. Fuel oil is delivered to     oil from the timing chain returns to the sump through.
 the injection pump via an external filter of the C.A.V.        two holes in the front main bearing cap. Lubrication of
 bowl-less type, having a renewable paper element.              the cylinder bores is effected by jet holes drilled in the
    C.A. V. Pintaux-type fuel injection nozzles are used.       connecting rod big-end bearings.
 and a leak-off pipe returns any back-leakage of fuel from
 the injector nozzles to the supply side of the fuel system.    Section A.4
 The leak-off pipe is connected to the main fuel filter to
 provide continuous air-venting of the filter and to prevent                 DRAINING THE SUMP
 the build-up of excessive pressure inside the filter.
                                                                   The sump is pumped out by attaching a 3/8
   A centrifugal fresh water pump mounted on the front of       I.D. hose over the dip stick tube. This opera-
the cylinder block and the raw water pump mounted below         tion should be performed immediately after a
the combmatlon manIfolds and expansion tank, along with         run while oil is hot. Refill at once with new oil
the alternator are belt driven from the crankshaft pully.       of the same brand and grade.
The cooling system is controlled by a thermostat in the         Section A.S
cylinder head.
                                                                                EXTERNAL OIL FILTER
                                                                   The external filter is of the full-Bow type, thus ensuring
                                                                that all oil in the lubrication ~ircuit passes through the
                                                                filter before reaching the bearings.
                                                                   Oil is passed through the filter from the pump at a
                                                                pressure controlled at 50 lb./sq. in. (3'5 kg./em.') by
                                                                the engine oil pressure release valve.
Section A.3                                                        Should the filter become completely choked due to
                                                                neglect, a balance valve is provided to ensure that oil
                LUBRICATION SYSTEM                              will still reach the bearings.
  The oil supply is carried in the sump below the                   The filter element is removed by unscrewing
cylinder block and the filler cap is fitted on the valve        the case from its base. A small amount of spill-
rocker cover. The oil level indicator rod is on the right-       age will occur when this is done and a small
hand side of the engine and is marked to indicate both           waste container should be held underneath as
the maximum and minimum le~els.                                 the element is unscrewed.
  An eccentric-rotor, non-draining-type oil pump,
located in the left-hand side of the crankcase, is driven
from the camshaft. Oil is drawn through a gauze strainer
mounted inside the sump, and is delivered through drilled
passages in the crankcase to the fuel injection pump drive
gear lubricator and the oil pump driving spindle via a
pencil-type filter gauze, and to a non-adjustable, plunger-
type release valve, all of which are located at the rear of
the crankcase on the left-hand side. From the release valve
oil is fed through a drilling across the rear of the crank-
case and a horizontal feed gallery in the right-hand side
of the crankcase to the external full-flow-type oil filter.
From the cle3l1 side of the filter oil passes through the oil
cooler into main oil gallery and then through drillings in
 the crankcase
A                                                   THE ENGINE

                                                                 When reassembling, ensure that the copper joint
                                                              washers are in good condition and wiII make an oil-tight

                                                              Section A.7
                                                                       OIL PRESSURE RELEASE VALVE
                                                                 The non-adjustable oil pressure release valve is situated
                                                              at the rear, on the left-hand side of the crankcase, and
                                                              is held in position by a large hexagon nut sealed by a
                                                              fibre washer. The release valve spring maintains a valve
                                                              cup against a seating machined in the cylinder block.
                                                                 During major overhauls or in the event of low oil
                                                              pressure, when it is known that all other components of
                                                              the engine are in good condition, the release valve should
                                                              be removed, using tool 18G69, and examined to ensure
                                                              that the cup is seating correctly and that the spring has
                                                              not lost its tension. If the valve cup is scored or shows
                                                              signs of wear it should be renewed.
                                                                 The release valve spring should be checked by measur-
                                                              ing its free length; it should be renewed if it is below
                                                              the specification given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section.
                                                                 The valve seating can be checked by applying engineer's
                                                              blue to the conical face of the valve and testing for
                                                              continuous marking. Should the seating be damaged,
                                                              the valve cup mu~t be lapped in, using' valve grinding-in
                                                              tool 18G69.

Section A.6
   The fuel injection pump driviog gear is pressure-
lubricated through a lubricator and lubricator filter

gauze, both of which are screwed into tappings in the
main feed passage from the oil pump on the left-hand
side of the engine.                                                                                      'J!   A474ttAW

   At every alternate engine oil change tht' lubricator and
the filter gauze should be withdrawn and cleaned in                                    Fig. A.2
petrol. A stiff brush should be used to remove the              Location of the fuel injection pump driving ?ear
particles of 'sludge' from the filter gauze, and the lubri-     lubricator and the lubricator filter on the left-. md
cator should be blown clean with compressed air.                                side of the crankcase
                                                     THE ENGINE                                                      A

                                                                 Pump out sump. (Refer to Section A.4).
                                                                 Remove dipstick.
                                                                 Remove dipstick tube bracket.
                                                                 Disconnect dipstick tube ferrule nut and remove tube.
                                                                  Unscrew the 19 securing bolts with washers and detach
                                                               the sump from the crankcase.
                                                                  Clean the sump thoroughly with paraffin, allow to
                                                               dry, and blowout any residue with compressed air.
                                                                  Before refitting the sump to the crankcase inspect the
                                                               front and rear main bearing cap cork seals and the sump
                                                               to crankcase joint washer. If the seals and joint washer
                         Fig. A.3                              are found to be in good condition and have not been
  Removing lire oil pressure release I'ail'e cup with tool     damaged during removal of the sump they may be used
                          18G69                                again, but it is always advisable to renew the sump joint
Section A.8                                                       When fitting a new sump to crankcase joint washer
                                                               clean the joint faces on the sump and crankcase, ensuring
                                                               that all traces of the old joint washer are removed. Smear
                      OIL PRESSURE
                                                               the crankcase joint face with grease and place the new
   Provided the oil filter element is clean and in good        joint washer in position. Lift the sump into position and
condition. the oil pressure during normal running and          install the securing screws, tightening them in a diagonal
when the engine is idling should be in accordance with         sequence, commencing at the centre and working out-
the figures given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section. As            wards to the ends of the sump.
the filter element becomes choked the pressure will
become progressively less, and on an engine known to
be in good condition a drop of between 10 to 15Ib./sq. in.
(,7 to 1·0 kg,fcm.') below the normal pressure is an
indication that the filter element has become choked and       Section A.IO
is being by-passed. This can be remedied by renewing
the oil filter element.                                                   REMOVING AND REPLACING
   Should there be a noticeable drop in oil pressure,                           THE OIL STRAINER
when it is known that the oil filter element is in a good         Remove the sump as described in Section A.9.
and clean condition. the following points should be              The oil strainer is mounted direct onto the base of
checked:                                                       the oil pump and is removed by unscrewing the three
   (I) Ensure that there is a good supply of the correct       set screws and spring washers which secure it to the oil
       grade of oil in the engine sump.                        pump cover.
   (2) Check the oil pressure release valve (Section A.7).        Clean the strainer in kerosene using a stiff bru~h to
   (3) Check the operation of the oil pressure gauge by        dislodge the 'sludge' particles from the strainer gauze.
       substitution.                                              Replacement is a reversal of the procedure to remove,
   (4) Ensure that the oil strainer in the engine sump is      renewing the strainer to oil pump joint washer.
       clean and not choked with foreign matter.
   (5) Check the oil pump for correct operation and wear
       (Section A.12), ensuring that there is no air leakage
       between the pump cover and body.                        Section A.II
   (6) Check that the working clearance of aU bearings to
       which oil is supplied under pressure is not excessive           REMOVING AND REPLACING THE
       (see 'GENERAL DATA').                                          OIL PUMP AND DRIVING SPINDLE
                                                                 Remove the sump and oJl strainer as described in
                                                               Sections A.9 and A.tO.
Section A.9                                                      Unscrew and remove the three nuts with plain and
                                                               spring washers securing the pump to the crankcase and
    REMOVING AND REPLACING THE SUMP                            withdraw the pump.
  Remove the drain plug, which is located on the left-           Remove the pump to crankcase joint washer.
hand side of the sump and drain the contents into a              Before the oil pump driving spindle can be withe' :wn
suitable container.                                            the fuel injection pump and the fuel injection pump
A                                                 THE ENGINE

                                                               (1) Lubricate all parts with clean engine oil.
                                                               (2) Ensure that the outer rotor is installed in the
                                                                   pump body with its chamfered end at the driving
                                                                   end of the rotor pocket in the pump body.
                                                               (3) After reassembling check the pump for freedom
                                                                   of action.

                                                             Section A.13
                                                                        REMOVING AND REPLACING
                                                                           THE BIG-END BEARINGS
                                                                Remove the sump, oil strainer, and oil pump (Sections
                        Fig. A.4                             A.9, A.lO, and A.Il).
                                                                Unlock and remove the big-end bearing cap bolts;
  The lobe clea/'a1lce should not exceed ·006 in.            withdraw the bearing caps; detach the connecting rods
  (·152 mm.) when the oil pump rotors are in the posi-       from the crankshaft and extract the bearing liners.
                    tions illustrated
                                                                As the bearings are of the shimless type, it is essential
                                                             that no attempt be made to adjust them. Worn bearings
driving spindle must be removed as described in Sections     should always be renewed.
D.l2 and A.33.                                                  The bearing liners are located in their housings by a
  Replacement is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,      small tag on one side of each liner engaging a correspond-
using a new oil pump to crankcase joint washer.              ing groove in the connecting rod and bearing cap. It
                                                             should be noted that the bearings are fitted so that the
                                                             tags are on the same joint edge of the bearing housing,
Section A.12                                                 although on opposite corners.
                                                                Connecting rods and bearing caps are mated pairs, and
       DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING                          a bearing cap must only be refitted to the connecting rod
               THE OIL PUMP                                  from which it was originally taken. To assist when
                                                             reassembling, both the connecting rod and cap are
  Unscrew the two securing screws and carefully with·        stamped with the cylinder number to which it is fitted,
draw the cover, which is located on the base of the oil      as shown in Fig. A.6. Bearing liners have no such mark-
pump body by two dowels.                                     ings, and when used liners are to be refitted they should
  Withdraw the outer rotor, and the inner rotor complete     be suitably marked with the position in the connecting
with oil pump shaft, from the pump body.                     rod-that is, rod half or cap half-and the connecting
  Thoroughly clean all parts inkeFosine and inspect them     rod number.
for wear. The rotor end-float and lobe clearances should        A punch should not be used to mark the liners.
be checked as follows:                                          Replacement is a reversal of the foregoing procedure.
  (1) Install the rotors in the pump body, place a           lubricating the crankpins and bearing liners liberally with
      straight-edge across the joint face of the pump        clean engine oil and fitting new bearing cap bolt lock
      body, and measure the clearance between the top        washers. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to the torque
      face of the rotors and the under side of the
      straight-edge. The clearance should not exceed
      ·005 in. (·127 mm.). In cases where the clearance
      is excessive this may be remedied by removing
      the two cover locating dowels and carefully
      lapping the joint face of the pump body.
  (2) Check the diametrical clearance between the outer
      rotor and the rotor pocket in the pump body. If
      this exceeds ·010 in. (·254 mm.) and cannot be
      remedied by the renewal of either the pump body
      or the rotors, then the pump assembly should be
  (3) With the rotors installed in the pump body
      measure the clearance between the rotor lobes
      when they are in the positions shown in Fig. A.4.
      If the clearance is in excess of ·006 in. (·152 mm.)
      the rotors must be renewed.                                                   Fig. A.5
  Reassembly is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,       Checking the oil pump rotor end-JIoat, which sir ::!d
noting the following points:                                             not exceed ·005 in. (·127 mm.)
                                                    THE ENGINE                                                        A
                                                              Section A.IS
                                                                  DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING THE
                                                                     VALVE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY
                                                                 Unscrew and remove the rocker shaft locating screw
                                                              from the rocker shaft rear mounting bracket.
                                                                 Withdraw the split pin and plain and spring washers
                                                   c          from each end of the valve rocker shaft and slide off
                                                              the rockers, brackets, and spacing springs, noting their
                                                              positions on the rocker shaft. Unscrew the plug from the
                                                              front end of the rocker shaft; the plug in the rear end of
                                                              the rocker shaft is a drive fit and should not normally be
                                                                 Thoroughly clean all components with kerosene dry.
                                                              and then clear the oil ways in the rear rocker bracket.
                                                              rocker shaft, and valve rockers with compressed air.
                         Fig. A.6                                When reassembling, commence with the rear bracket
                                                              and secure the rocker shaft in position, ensuring that the
  The connecting rod big-end bearing locating tags (A)
                                                              dowel end of the locating screw properly engages the
  and grool'es (B). The figures (c) indicate the cylinder
                                                              locating hole in the rocker shaft. The valve rockers and
       from which the rod and cap were remol'ed
                                                              remaining rocker brackets are interchangeable, but used
                                                              parts should be replaced on the rocker shaft in their
                                                              original position~.
figure given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section, using
torque wrench ISG372.

                                                              Section A.16
Section A.14                                                  REMOVING AND REPLACI!\G ROCKER BUSHES
                                                                 Remove and dismantle the rocker shaft (Sections A.14
       REMOVING AND REPLACING THE                             and A.15).
       VALVE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY                               To remove and replace worn rocker bushes the use of
   Unscrew the two nuts securing the valve rocker cover,      Service tool lSG226 is recommended; the bushes and the
withdraw the plain washers, cup washers, and sealing          rockers can be very easily damaged by using improvised
bushes, and lift off the valve cover, taking care not to      drifts. Place the rocker on the anvil and drive out the
damage the cork gasket.                                       worn bush (Fig. A.7).
                                                                 Place a new bush on the driver and position the bush
   Slacken the 14 cylinder head nuts a turn at a time, in
                                                              with the butt joint at the top of the rocker bore and the
the order shown in Fig. A.9, until the load has been
                                                              oil groove in the bush at the bottom of the rocker bore,
released. Spanner ISG694 should be used to slacken the
                                                              as shown in Fig. A.S.
three nuts located below the valve rocker shaft. This wiII
avoid distortion of the cylinder head, as four of the valve
rocker shaft bracket retaining nuts also serve to retain
the cylinder head. Completely unscrew these four nuts
and remove the remaining four nuts retaining the rocker
shaft brackets, noting the rocker shaft locating screw lock
plate, positioned under the right-hand nut, securing the
rocker shaft rear bracket. Remove the valve rocker shaft
complete with rockers and brackets.
   Replacement is a reversal of the above procedure,
tightening the cylinder head retaining nuts to the torque
figure given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section in the
order shown in Fig. A.9. The nuts should be tightened
half a turn at a time with torque wrench ISG372, using
spanner lSG694 to tighten the three nuts located below
the rocker shaft.
   Before replacing the valve rocker cover check and
adjust the valve rocker clearances as described in Section                             Fig. A.7
A.2S.                                                           Fitting a mire bliSh, /Ising SeTl'ice toollSG226
   A                                                       THE ENGINE

                                                                      The exhaust manifold and manifold gasket can be
                                                                    withdrawn after the two remaining nuts with plain
                                                                    washers securing it to the cylinder head have been
                                                                      When reassembling, which is a reversal of the above
                                                                    procedure, remove all traces of the old gasket from the
                                                                    cylinder head and manifold joint faces and fit a new
                                                                    gasket. Do not forget to fit the foremost manifold clamp
                                                                    washer at the same time as the exhaust manifold is fitted.
                                                                      Bleed the fuel system (Section 0.10).

                           Fig. A.8
      Showing the correct position for a mh'e rocker bush
      A.   Oilways.   n. Joint in rockcr bush.   c. Oil groovc.

       It will be necessary to drill the oil holes in the bush
   to coincide with the oilways in the rocker. The oil hole        Section A.IS
   to the adjuster end can be drilled before the bush is
   fitted, extra care being taken to keep the holes of the                   REMOVING AND REPLACING
   bush and rocker in line during the pressing-in operation.                   THE CYLINDER HEAD
     If the holes are drilled after fitting, the following          Drain the water from the cooling system.
   procedure should be adopted. Remove the adjuster screw              Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds (Section A.17)
   and use a ·093 in. (2'36 mm.) drill to drill out the end plug     and the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section A.14).
   and to continue the oi!\\'ay through the bush. Replug the         Withdraw the eight push-rods, storing them carefully so
   end after this operation with a rivet (Part No. 5C2436)          that they may be replaced in their original pmitions.
   and weld the plug into position. The oil hole in the top          One way of doing this is to punch eight small holes in a
   of the rocker barrel should be continul!d through the            piece of cardboard, number the holes, and insert each
   bush with a No. 47 drill, ·0785 in. (1·98 mm.).                  push-rod into its corresponding hole in the card.
      Finally, burnish-ream the bush to the dimensions                 Disconnect the fuel feed pipes from the injectors and
   .given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section.                            the injection pump and remove the pipes complete with
                                                                    clamps and damper bushes. Seal off the fuel injection
                                                                    pump and the injector unions with sealing caps 180216
                                                                    to prevent the ingress of foreign matter.
                                                                       Remove the remaining 10 cylinder head retaining nuts
                                                                    and washers and lift the cylinder head with a direct pull
                                                                    to withdraw it evenly up the studs.
                                                                       NOTE.-The cylinder head joint face is machined with
   Section A.I7                                                     the combustion chamber inserts installed. As the inserts
                                                                    are a loose fit in the cylinder head, they should be removed
            REMOVING AND REPLACING THE                              and suitably labelled with their cylinder number so that
           INLET AND EXHAUST MANIFOLDS                              they may be replaced in their original positions.
                                                                       When reassembling, which is a reversal of the above
                                                                    procedure, ensure that the surface of both the cylinder
    Close inlet and outlet raw water sea-cocks. Open drain                                                                    12
tap on right side of cylinder block. Open drain taps on
bottom of heat exchanger. Disconnect hose from integral
manifolds. Disconnect hoses from heat exchanger. Loosen
alternator adjustment bracket and remove belt.
    Remove the two hoses from raw water pump. Discon-
nect exhaust pipe from integral manifold. Remove air
filter. Remove bolt securing each end of manifold to
cylinder head, then remove the remaining four nuts.
Lift off manifold with heat exchanger and water pump
                                                                                             Fig. A.9
                                                                      Cylillder head nut slackening and tightening seque, e
                                                      THE ENGINE                                                         A
                                                                 clear of the cylinder bore. Withdraw the connecting rod
                                                                 and piston from the top of the cylinder block and refit
                                                                 the bearing cap.
                                                                   The big-end bearings are offset in the connecting
                                                                 rods; the bearings of Nos. 1 and 3 conner.ting rods are
                                                                 offset towards the rear and those for Nos. 2 and 4 towards
                                                                 the front.
                                                                    When used parts are to be refitted it is essential that
                                                                 they are installed in their original positions. To facilitate
                                                                 this, each connecting rod and cap is stamped with the
                                                                 cylinder number (see Fig. A.6) to which it was fitted.
                                                                  Before fitting, new parts should be marked in a similar
                                                                    Before replacing the piston and connecting rod, which
                                                                 is a reversal of the above procedure, set the piston ring
                                                                 gaps at 180 0 to each other.
                        Fig. A.I0
                                                                   It is essential that the pistons and connecting rods are
 Spanner I8G 694 and torque wrench 18G 372 are lIsed
                                                                 installed in their own cylinder bores and the same way
 to tighten the three cylinder head /1//(S Ivcated below
                                                                 round, i.e. the combustion cavity ill the piston crown
                     the rocker shaft
                                                                 and the oil jet hole ill the big-end bearing must be on
                                                                 the side of the engine opposite to the camshaft.
                                                                   Use piston ring compressor 18G 55 A (see Fig. A.lI)
head and cylinder hlock arc cle'll1. Coat both sides of          to facilitate the installation of the piston in the bore and
the copper asbestos type g:lskct with Hylomar SQ32               to avoid the breaking of the piston rings.
jointing compound. The later, compound type gasket                 Fit new lock washers and tighten the big-end bearing
must be fitted dry. One side of the gasket is marked             cap bolts to the figurc given in the 'GENERAL DATA'
'FRONT' and 'TOP' f,)r correct rerlacement.                      section, using torquc wrench 18G 372.
   Replace the push-rods, ensuring that each one is
installed into the position from which it was originally
taken, and refit the valve rocker shaft assembly. Tighten
the cylinder head nuts a quarter of a turn at a time in the      Section A.20
order shown in Fig. A.9 with torque wrench 18G 372 set
to break at the torque figure given in the 'GENERAL                    DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
DATA' section. Spanner I8G 694 should be used to                       A PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
tighten the three nuts located below the rocker shaft.              Remove the two circlips securing the gudgeon pin in
   Check and adjust the valve rocker clearances as               its position, using circlip pliers I8G 1004, and press the
described in Section A.28.                                       gudgeon pin out. Suitably mark the pistons and gudgeon
   Bleed the fuel system of air as described in Section
D.lO, start the engine, and allow it to run at a fast
idling speed until it is thoroughly warm. Stop the engine,
remove the valve rocker cover, retightcn the cylinder
head nuts as described above, and check and adjust the
valve rocker clearances if necessary.

Section A.19
           REMOVIl\G A~D REPLACIJ\'G
   The pistons and connecting rods can be withdrawn
only from the top of the cylinder block.
   Remove the Sllmp as described in Section A.9, the
oil strainer (Section A.I 0), tl;e inlet and exhaust manifolds
(Section A.I7), and the cylinder head (Section A.18).
   Unlock and remove the big-end bearing cap bolts;
withdraw the bearing cap; release the connecting rod                                     Fig. A.lI
from the crank pin journal and push the connecting rod             Refitting a pis/on and connecting rod, using Se. 'ice
and piston assembly upwards until the piston rings are                  too/18G 55 A to compress the piston rings
A                                                 THE ENGINE

                                                             smoothly ground hacksaw blade or a disused -020 in.
                                                             ('50 mm.) feeler gauge may be used for this operation.
                                                                Raise one end of the ring out of its groove and insert
                                                             the blade between the ring and the piston. Rotate the
                                                             blade around the piston, applying slight upward pressure
                                                             to the raised portion of the ring, until it rests on the land
                                                             above the ring groove. The ring can then be eased off the
                                                                Before refitting the rings clean the grooves in the
                                                             piston and remove any carbon deposit. Care must be
                                                             taken not to remove any metal, or excessive side-play
                                                             between the ring and the groove will result, with conse-
                                                             quent increased oil consumption and loss of gas-tightness.
                                                                The periphery of No.1 compression ring is chromium-
                                                             plated, while the peripheries of Nos. 2 and 3 compression
                                                             rings arc tapered. To assist correct reassembly the upper
                                                             faces of the tapered rings are stamped with the word
                                                                New rings must be tested in an unworn part of the
                                                             cylinder bore to ensure that the entis do not butt together.
                                                             Insert the piston into the cylinder bore, push the new
                                                             ring onto the top of the piston to ensure that the ring is
                                                             square with the cylinder bore, and measure the gap with
                                                             a feeler gauge. The correct ring gaps are given in the
                                                             'GENERAL DATA' section.
                        Fig. A.I2
  Removing a gudgeon pin eire/ip, !Ising eirclip pliers
                     18G 1004                                Section A.22
pins to facilitate reassemhly to their original connecting       PISTONS SIZES AND CYLINDER BORES
rods.                                                          When fitting new pistons selective assembly is neces-
   Check the gudgeon pin and connecting rod little-end       sary, and to facilitate this the pistons are stamped with
bush for wear against the dimensions given in the            identification figures on their crowns. Oversize pistons
'GENERAL DATA' section. If the little-end bush is
worn it should be removed and a new bllSh instalied,
using a light press.
   When fitting a new little-end bush ensure that the butt
joint of the bush is on the camshaft side of the connect-
ing rod, that the oil grooves in the bush are at the top
of the little-end bore, and that the oil holes in the bush
and connecting rod are aligned with each other.
   After installing, new little-end bushes must be finish-
reamed to the dimemion given in the 'GENERAL
DATA' section.
   New gudgeon pins should be fItted by selective
assembly. The gudgeon pin should be a hard hand-push
fit at a room temperature of 20° C. (68 0 F.).
   When reassembling the piston to the connecting rod
ensure that the combustion cavity in the piston erown
is on the same side of the connecting rod as the oil jet
hole in the big-end bearing.
   Secure each gudgeon pin in position with the two
circlips, ensuring that they fit well into their grooves.

Section A.21                                                                          Fig. A.13
                                                               Sho1l'ing the correct position for a connecting rod
           REMOVL,\G AND REPLACING                                                little-end bush
                PISTON RINGS
                                                                 A.   Oilway.           c. Bush joint on camshaft side
In the absence of a special piston ring expander a               B.   Oil groove.          of connecting rod.
                                                    TIlE ENGINE                                                        A
                                                               Section A.23
                                                                          REMOVING AND REPLACING
                                                                                THE VALVES
                                                                  Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds (Section A.17)
                                                               and the cylinder head (Section A.l8).
                                                                  Detach the circJips from the valve spring cap retainers,
                                                               compress each pair of valve springs, using valve spring
                                                               compressor 18G45, and detach the two valve cap re-
                                                               tainers from the stem of the valve. Release and remove
                                                               the valve spring compressor, and remove the valve spring
                                                               cap, valve guide shroud, valve oil seal, inner and outer
                                                               valve springs, and valve spring lower collar.
                                                                  Withdraw the valves from their guides, keeping them
                                                               in their relative positions when removed from the ~ngine
                                                               to ensure replacement in their original valve guides. The
                                                               valves are numbered on their heads I to 8, commencing
                                                               from the front of the engine. If new valves are fitted they
                                                               should be identified in a similar manner.
                                                                  To replace, fit each valve mto its guide and install the
                                                               lower collar, inner and outer valve springs, valve guide
                          Fig. A.14
                                                               shroud, and valve spring cap.
  Remove the eire/ip and compress the valve springs with          Compress the valve springs and fit a new oil seal to the
                   Service tool 18G45                          valve stem in the bottom of-the spring cap retainer groove.
                                                               Do not refit the old seals or oil-tightness may be lost, with
                                                               consequent increased oil consumption. It will be food that
                                                               the new seals are more easily fitted if they are soaked iD
are marked with the actual oversize dimensions. A piston
                                                               engine oil for a short time before use.
stamped ·020 is only suitable for a bore ·020 in. (·508
                                                                  Refit the valve spring retainers, remove the valve spring
mm.) larger than the standard bore; similarly, pistons
                                                               compressor, and replace the retainer circlip.
with other markings are only suitable for the oversize
                                                                  Owing to the limited clearance between the crowns of
bore indicated.
                                                               the pistons and the cylinder head joint face when the
   After reboring an engine, or whenever fitting pistons       pistons are in the T.D.C. position it is imperative that the
differing in size from those removed from the engine,          top faces of the valve heads 'stand down' ·018 to ·038 in.
ensure that the size of the piston fitted is stamped clearly   (·46 to ·96 mm.) below the joint face of the cylinder head.
on the top face of the cylinder block alongside the            The dimension is checked by placing a straight-edge
appropriate cylinder bore. Pistons are available in the        across the cylinder head joint face and measuring the
sizes indicated in the following table.                        clearance between the under side of the straight-edge and
                                                               the top faces of the valves. Valves having a stand-down
                                                               clearance greater than the above limit may adversely
                                                               affect the engine compression and should be renewed.

                            Suitable bore      Metric
     Piston marking              size        equh'alent

 STANDARD                    2·R757 to      73·043 to
                             2·8760 in.     73·050 mm.

 +'010 in. (·254 mm.)        2·8857 to      7'3'297 to
                             2·8860 in.     73·304 mm.
  +020 in. ('508 mm.)        2-8957 to      73·551 to
                             2·8960 in.     73'558 mm.
  +·030 in. ('762 mm.)       2·9057 to      73-805 to                                     i~
                             2·9060 in.     73·812 mm.
                             2·9157 to                                                  Fig. A.15
  +·040 in. (1'016 mm.)                     74·059 to
                             2·9160 in.     74·066 mm.           Checking the valve 'stand-down' in relation t.       ~he
                                                                              cylinder head joint face
 A                                                    THE ENGINE

                                                                 should be ground to its seat with a semi-rotary motion
                                                                 and occasionally allowed to rise by the pressure of the
                                                                 light coil spring. This assists in spreading the paste
                                                                 evenly over the valve face and seat. It is necessary to
                                                                 carry out the grinding operation until a dull, even, mat
                                                                 surface, free from blemish, is produced on the valve seat
                                                                 and valve face.
                                                                    On completion, the valve seat and ports should be
                                                               . cleaned thoroughly with a rag soaked in paraffin, dried,
                                                                 and then thoroughly cleaned by compressed air. The
                                                                 vah'es should be washed in paraffin and all traces of
                                                                 grinding paste removed.

                                                       A4839    Section A.25
                          Fig. A.16
   Grinding ill a l'(!/re, using Service .tool 18G29.
   Occasionlllly [{Ii the l'alve off its seat to spread the           Remo\'e the inlet and the exhaust manifold (Section
   grinding paste cl'£'"ly over the seat and l'Q!J'e face       A.17).
                                                                  Remove the cylinder head and gasket (Section A.l8)
If, when fitting new valves, the stand-down is found to        and withdraw the valves as de~cribed in Section A.23 and
be less than the above limit, adjustment should be carried     the fuel injectors as described in Section D.16.
out hy refacing or grinding the valves (Section A.24).            Plug the waterways in the cylinder head and cylinder
                                                               block with dean rag.
                                                                  If special equipment for decarbonizing is not available
Section A.24                                                   it will be necessary to scrape thc carbon deposit from the
                                                               piston crown and the cylinder head, using a blunt scraper.
                   vAINE-GRINDING                              An odd length of copper tubing with the end flattened
    Operational efficiency of the compression-ignition         and filed up makes an ideal scraping tool which will not
 engine depends largely on the maintenance of good             scratch.
 compression; therefore contact between the valve faces           A ring of carbon should be left round the periphery
 and their seatings should be perfect.                         of the piston crown and the rim of carbon round the top ,
    Remove the valves as described in Section A.23 and         of each cylinder bore should not be removed. An old
 clean them thoroughly. Examine the face of each valve
 for signs of pitting, any badly pitted valves being either
 renewed or refaced with a suitable grinder. For details
 of the valve scat angle see the 'GENERAL DATA'
    If the valve seats in the cylinder head show signs of
 pitting or unevenness they should be refaced by the use
 of the valve seat cutting tools illustrated at the end of
 Section A. When using these tools, which save lengthy
 and wasteful grinding in, care must be exercised to remove
 only as little metal as is necessary to ensure a true seat.
 Worn seats u5ually have a glass-hard surface and the
 glaze breaker should be used to prepare the seat surface
for any recutting that may be necessary. Narrowing
cutters should be used to maintain the valve seats at
their correct width as given in the 'GENERAL DATA'             10:)
                                                                      ~ Q.:,    ~
                                                                ~ ~                 6:,)

   When grinding a valve onto its seating the valve face
should be smeared lightly with a fine or medium-grade
carborundum paste and then lapped to its seat, using
grinding-in too118G29. Avoid the usc of excessive quanti-                                  Fig. A.17
ties of grinding paste and see that it remains in the region     Badly pitted vall'e seats should be refaced, using
of the valve seating only.                                       Senice tools 18G25, 18G25A, 18G25B, 18G25C,
   A light coil spring placed under the valve head will          18G27, 18G167, 18G167A, 18G167B, 18G167C
assist considerably in the process of grinding. The valve                           and 18G174D
                                                     THE ENGINE                                                        A
                                                                outwards until they protrude ·562 : ~~ in. (14·23 !.;:mm.)
                                                                above the machined face of the valve spring seat (see
                                                                Fig. A.18).
                                                                  Valve guides with an outer diameter ·010 in. ('254 mm.)
                                                                oversize are available for fitment where the normal fit bas
                                                                been impaired during the removal of an old guide.

                                                                Section A.27
                                                                           REMOVING AND REPLACING
                                                                                THE TAPPETS
                                                                   Remove the valve rocker shan assembly (Section A.l4)
                                                                and withdraw the push-rods, taking care to store them as
                                                                described in Section A.18 so that they may be replaced
                                                                in their original positions.
                      Fig. A.lS                                    Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds as described
  Showing the correct location of the valve guides.             in Section A.17.
      Dimension (A) '562!:m ill. (I4'23"::"~ mm.)

piston ring sprung into the bore and resting on the top            Remove the two securing bolts and washers and
of the piston will facilitate this operation.                   withdraw the two side covers and joint washers.
  The cylinder head is next given attention. Remove the            Lift out the tappets from their guides in the cylinder
carbon deposit from the valves, valve ports, and cylinder       block, keeping them in their respective positions so that
head. Cleaning of the spherical combustion chamber in           they may be replaced in their own guides.
the cylinder head is not necessary as the heat generated           New tappets must be fitted by selective assembly so that
during combustion is such as to prevent the build-up of         they just fall into their guides under their own weight
carbon on the walls of the chamber. Any accumulation            when lubricated with engine oil.
of carbon in the valve guides should be removed by
                                                                   Worn tappet bores mlly be cleaned up by 'fine finish'
dipping the valve stem in        kerosene     and oscillating
                                                                machining, and tappets ·010 in. and ·020 in. (·254 mm.
the valve in its guide until it is free.
                                                                and ·508 mm.) oversize are available.
  Remove all traces of carbon dust with compressed air,
                                                                   Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,
or by the vigorous use of a tire pump, and then clean
                                                                ensuring that the side cover joint washers will make an
thoroughly with kerosene and dry off.
                                                                oil-tight joint and adjusting the valve to rocker clearances
                                                                as described in Section A.28.
                                                                   Bleed the fuel system (Section 0.10).

Section A.26
              THE VALVE GUIDES
   Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds (Section A. I 7).
   Remove the cylinder head (Section A.IS) and the
appropriate valve and spring as described in Section
  Support the cylinder head with wooden blocks and
drive the valve guide outwards from the exhaust or inlet
port with a suitable drift. The drift should take the form
of a hardened-steel punch ·5 in. (12'7 mm.) in diameter
and not less than 5 in. (12'7 em.) in length with a locating
spigot ·312 in. (7'9 mm.) in diameter machined on one
end for a length of I in. (2'54 cm.) to engage the bore of
the guide.
  New valve guides must be fitted in the same direction-                                 Fig. A.I9
that is, through the inlet or exhaust port-and driven              Cbecking and adjusting the vahe rocker clearances
A                                                      THE ENGINE

                                                              Section A.29
                                                                               VALVE-TIMING CHECK
                                                                 The pointer secured to the under side of the crankcase
                                                              front cover and the timing disc mounted behind the
                                                              crankshaft pulley are used to check the valve timing.
                                                              The timing disc has two sets of graduations from 0 to 35°
                                                              marked at 5° intervals, and it is the set of graduations
                                                              with the zero mark identified 1.4 which is used for the
                                                              valve-timing check. A pulley with timing marks on the
                                                              periphery of the vibration damper is installed on later
                                                              engines. The latest engine has a timing mark scribed on
                                                              the pulley and a degree plate 011 the timing cover.
                                                                 Set the valve rocker clearance of No.1 cylinder inlet
                                                              valve to -021 in. ('53 mm.).
                                                                 Crank the engine and determine the exact point at
                                                              which No. 1 cylinder inlet valve is about to open. A
                                                              clock gauge mounted on the cylinder head, with its
                                                              indicator in contact with the valve spring cap, will
                          Fig. A.20                           facilitate this operation. If the valve timing is correct and
                                                              in accordance with the valve-timing diagram (sec Fig.
   The timing mark and timing plate. Sholl'n inset is the     A.21), No. 1 piston will be at 5° B.T.D.C.· as indicated
   timing disc and timing poill1er fitted to early engilles   by the alignment of the scribed line on the pointer with
                                                              the 5° mark on the timing disc.
Section A.28                                                     Do not omit to reset the inlet valve clearance to ·015 in.
                                                              (,381 IDOl.) when the timing check bas been completed.
                    CLEARANCES                                Section A.30
    If the engine is to give its best performance and the
 valves arc to retain their maximum useful life it is                   REMOVING AND REPLACING
 essential to maintain the correct valve rocker clearance.           THE CRANKCASE FRONT COVER
    The correct clearance for both inlet and exhaust valves     Drain the cooling system.
 is -015 in. (·381 mm.) when the engine is cold, and as the
engine has been designed to operate with this clearance,
no departure from it is permissible.
    Provision for adjusting the valve clearance is made ill
the rocker arm by an adjustable screw and locknut.
    The rocker adjusting screw is released by slackening
the hexagon locknut with a spanner while holding the
screw against rotation with a screwdriver. The valve
clearance can then be set by carefully rotating the rocker
screw while checking the clearance at the other end of the
rocker with a feeler gauge. This screw is then relocked
by tightening the hexagon locknut while again holding
the screw against rotation.
   It is important to note that, when setting the valve
clearance, the tappet of the valve being operated upon
must be on the back of its cam-that is, opposite the
peak. As the position of the tappet on its cam cannot be
observed, and to avoid cranking the engine more than is
necessary, rocker adjustment is more easily carried out in
the following order:
   Adjust No.1 rocker with No.8 valve fully open.
       "  "3,,            ""6,,  "                 "
       It"5,,             "4,,                     "                                       SDC                 ASiOI
       "  "2,,            ""7,,  "                 "
                                                                                       Fig. A.21
       " .,8"             ""1,,  "                 "
       "  ,,6 "           "   3" "                 "           Valve-timing diagram with valve rocker clearance set
       "  "4,,            ""5,,  "                 "           at ·021 in. (·53 mm.).lnlet valve opens at (A) and closes
       ",,7                 .,2""                              at (D). Exhaust valve opens at (c) and closes at (8)
                                                    THE ENGINE                                                      A
                                                              and adaptor 18Gl34BD (see Fig. A.24). Pack the inner
                                                              groove of the oil seal with grease to provide initial
                                                                 To reassemble, replace the oil thrower on the crank-
                                                              shaft y,ith its concave side facing away from the engine.
                                                              Fit a new joint washer and install the crankcase front
                                                              cover, tightening the securing screws finger-tight.
                                                              Centralize the crankcase front cover with thr: crankshaft,
                                                              using tool 18G3 for early engines and tool HSGI046 for
                                                              later engines, then tighten the set screws to secure the
                                                              front cover in this position. Remove the centralizing
                                                              tool and refit the crankshaft pulley.

                                                              Section A.31
                                                               REMOVING, DISMANTLING, AND REPLACING
                                                                   THE TIMING CHAIN TENSIONER

   Press back the starting-handle dog locking washer
                                                                 Remove the crankcase front cover (Section A.30).
and, using spanner 18G98 (see Fig. A.22), unscrew the
starting-handle dog from the crankshaft. Withdraw the            Press back the locking washer and unscrew the plug
crankshaft pulley, u!'ing tool 18G2 (see Fig. A.23).          from the base of the chain tensioner body. Insert a .. in.
   Unscrew the nine set screws with plain and spring          (3·18 mm.) Allen key to engage the tensioner cylinder,
washers securing the crankcas~ front cover to the engine,     and turn the key in a clockwise direction to retract
noting the positions from which they are removed in           the tensioner slipper into the unloaded position (see
order to facilitate reassembly. Withdraw the crankcase        Fig. A.26). Between a half and one fuU tum is aU that
front cover and joint washer.                                 is necessary. Unlock and remove the two set bolts and
   For safe keeping remove the oil thrower from the end       withdraw the tensioner assembly, tensioner back plate,
of the crankshaft.                                            and joint washer from the engine.
   Remove the oil seal from the crankcase front cover and        Withdraw the plunger and slipper assembly from the
remove all traces or the joint washer from the joint faces    tensioner body and engage the lower end of the cylinder
of the front co\'er and the engine front mounting plate.      with the Allen key. Turn the key clockwise, holding the
  Insert a new oil seal into the cran~ca,e front cover        key and plunger securely until the cylinder and spring
with the lip of the 5eal facing inwards, using tool 18G 134   are released from inside the plunger.

                      Fig. A.23                                                      Fig. A.24
  Withdrawing the crankshaft pulley, using Sen'ice tool         Replacing the oil seal in the crankcase front co ,
                        18G2                                    using Service tool 18G134 and adaptor 18G134DD
 A                                                     THE ENGINE

                                                                  joint washer and the back plate and secure the assembly
                                                                  to the cylinder block.
                                                                     After refitting the tensioner check the slipper head for
                                                                  freedom of movement and ensure that it does not bind
                                                                  on the back plate when it is moved in the body.
                                                                     Release the tensioner, by inserting and turning the
                                                                  Allen key in a clockwise direction, until the slipper head
                                                                  moves forward under spring pressure against the timing
                                                                     Do not attempt to turn the key anti-dockwise or force
                                                                  the sUpper head into the chain by external pressure.
                                                                     Secure the bolts with the locking plate, replace the
                                                                  bottom plug, and lock with the tab washer.

                                                                  Section A.32
                                                                             REMOVING AND REPLACING
                                                                                THE TIMING CHAIN

                                                                     Remove thc crankcase front ,over (Section A.30) and
                          Fig. A.25
                                                                  crank the engine until the timing marks on the chain
   Install the securing screws finger tight and centralize        wheels are opposite one another as shown in Fig. A.26.
   the crankcase front cover with the crankshaft, using           This will permit reassembly without the necessity to
   Service tool 18G3/or early engines and tool 18GI046            rotate either the crankshaft or the camshaft.
                     for later engines                               It should be Doted that the valves and pistons will foul
                                                                  and possibly damage each other if the crankshaft and, under
                                                                  certain conditions, the camshaft are rotated when the
    Check the bore in the tensioner body for ovality. If          timing chain has been removed.
  ovality is greater than ·003 in. (·0762 mm.) when measured         If, owing to further dismantling of the engine, rotation
  on diameters near the mouth of the bore, then the com-          of the crankshaft or camshaft is found necessary, the
 plete chain tensioner should be renewed.                         valve rocker shaft assembly should be removed as
    Inspect the slipper head for wear. If it is badly worn a      described in Section A.14.
 new slipper head and cylinder assembly should be fitted             Press back the locking tab and remove the plug from
 to the existing body, provided the bore of the body is           the base of the chain tensioner body. Insert a i in. Allen
 within the limit given above.                                    key to engage the tensioner cylinder and tum the key
    The components should be cleaned thoroughly in clean          in a clockwise direction to retract the tensioner slipper
 petrol, and the ·125 in. (3·18 mm.) diameter inlet oil hole      into the unloaded position.
 in the spigot and the ·040 in. (I ·02 mm.) outlet oil hole
 in the slipper should be cleaned with compressed air
 before reassembling.
    When the tensioner is in operation and the engine
 is running, oil from the lubrication system enters the
spigot on the back face under pressure and lubricates
the bearing surface through a hole in the slipper pad.
The pad is held against the chain by the CI)i1 spring.
    Should the chain stretch with use, the slipper plunger
rises and the limiting peg, bearing on the top of the
helical slot, rotates the cylinder until the next recess in the
lower edge of the slot comes into line with the limiting peg
and prevents the plunger returning to its original position
and allowing the timing chain to become slack again.
   When reassembling, insert the spring in the plunger
and place the cylinder on the other end of the spring.
   Compress the spring until the cylinder enters the
plunger bore, engaging the helical slot with the peg in                                   Fig. A.26
the plunger. Hold the assembly compressed in this                  Crank the engine until the timing dimples (1) and (2)
position and engage the Allen key. Turn the cylinder               are opposite each other before removing the timing
clockwise until the end of the cylinder is below the peg           chain and chain wheels. The c/rain tensioner is retracted
and the spring is held compressed. Withdraw the key and            into the unloaded position by turning the Allen key (3'
insert the plunger assembly in the body. Replace the                              in a clockwise direction
                                                     THE ENGINE                                                      A
                                                               lock washer, using spanner 18G98 to tighten the nut.
                                                               Release the chain tensioner as described in Section A.31
                                                               and reassemble the remaining components as detailed in
                                                               Sections A.30 and CC.l.

                                                               Section A.33
                                                                    REMOVING AND REPLACING THE FUEL
                                                                      INJECTION PUMP DRIVING SPINDLE
                                                                  Remove the fuel injection pump as described in Section
                                                               0.12. Unscrew the countersunk securing screw and
                                                               withdraw the fuel injection pump hub and joint washer
                                                               from the crankcase.
                                                                  Withdraw the fuel injection pump driving spindle from
                      Fig. A.27                                the crankcase, turning the spindle in a clockwise direction
  Unscrew the camshaft chain .....heel sl!Cllr;ng nut with     to disengage it from the skew gear on the camshaft.
                   spanner l8G98                                  When refitting the driving spindle No. 1 piston must
                                                               be at 22° B.T.D.C. on its compression stroke. The engine
                                                               is set in this position by means of the timing disc on the
                                                               crankshaft pulley and the pointer secured to the under
   Knock back the lock washer and, using spanner l8G98,
                                                               side of the crankcase front cover (see Fig. A.20). It
unscrew the camshaft chain wheel securing nut. Remove
                                                               should be noted that the timing disc has two sets of
the nut lock washer, noting that its locating tag fits into
                                                               timing marks, graduated from 0° to 35° in S° divisions,
the camshaft chain wheel keyway.
                                                               and it is the set with the zero mark identified 1.4 which
   The camshaft and crankshaft chain wheels, complete
                                                               is used for this operation. Crank the engine until the
with timing chain, may now be withdrawn by easing each
                                                               inlet valve of No. 1 cylinder is just closed; No. 1 piston
chain wheel forward a fraction at a time with suitable
                                                               will now be commencing its compression stroke. Con-
small levers. As the crankshaft chain wheel is withdrawn.
                                                               tinue to crank the engine slowly until No. 1 piston is at
note the packing washers located on the crankshaft
                                                               22° B.T.D.C. as indicated by the timing disc and pointer.
immediately behind the chain wheel. To remove these
                                                               Insert the fuel injection pump driving spindle into the
washers the two half-moon keys must first be withdrawn
                                                               crankcase with the master spline of the spindle in the
from the end of the crankshaft. The washers need only be
                                                               7 o'clock position. As the driving spindle engages the
removed when new crankshaft or camshaft components
are to be fitted, in which case realignment of the chain
wheels will be necessary_ To determine the thickness of
packing washers "required assemble and secure the chain
wheels to their respective shafts, using the starting-handle
dOl and a suitable distance piece to secure the crankshaft
chain wheel. Press both shafts towards the rear of the
engine to take up all end-float. Place a straight-edge
across the sides of the camshaft chain wheel teeth and
measure with a feeler gauge the gap between the straight-
edge and the sides of the teeth on the crankshaft chain
wheel (see Fig. A.28). Subtract ·005 in. (.)3 mm.) from
the feeler gauge reading and add the resultant thickness
of crankshaft gear packing washers.
   When replacing the timing chain and wheels ensure
that the keys in the crankshaft and camshaft are in the
12 o'clock and 1 o'clock positions respectively, as seen
from the front. Assemble the wheels into the timing chain
with the two dimples on the chain wheels opposite one
another and in line with the chain wheel centres, as in
Fig. A.26. Keeping the wheels in this position, push
them onto the shafts as far as they will go. It may be
necessary to rotate the camshaft slightly to align the                                 Fig. A.28
camshaft key with the keyway ill the camshaft chain              Checking the chain wheel alignment with a str···::;ht-
wheel. Secure the camshaft chain wheel with its nut and                        edge and feeler gauge
A                                                  THE ENGINE

                                                                Reassem bJy is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,
                                                              noting the following:
                                                                (I) Lubricate the camshaft journals liberally with
                                                                    clean engine oil.
                                                                (2) Refit the timing chain and gears. realigning the
                                                                    gears if necessary, as described in Section A.32.
                                                                (3) Centralize the crankcase front cover as described
                                                                    in Section A.30.
                                                                (4) Install the fuel injection pump and the injection
                                                                    pump driving spindle as described in.Sections A.33
                                                                    and D.12.
--           --         .-                                      (5) Bleed the fuel system as described in Section D.10.
~;'.~'.~~~~.~~~~               .

:-.--.-.-.:.....~:.:-,-, . .
             -"-"         ..

                          Fig. A.29                           Section A.35
     Set No. I piston at 22° B.T.D.C. on its compression
                                                                       REMOVI~G A~D REPLACING
     stroke and refit the injection pump driving spindle
                                                                     THE CAMSHAFT BEARING LINERS
       with the master spline in the 5 o'clock position
                                                                If the camshaft bearing clearances are excessive new
                                                              bearing liners must be fitted. Thinwall white-metal liners
skew gear on the camshaft it will turn in an anti-clockwise
                                                              are used, and removing and refitting are facilitated by the
direction until the master spline is in the 5 o'clock
                                                              use of tool 18GI24A and adaptors 18G124B, 18G124C,
                                                              UsG 124F, and lSG 124H. New liners should be line-ream-
   Refit the fuel injection pump hub, using a new joint
                                                              ed to give the correct running clearance (see 'GENERAL
washer, and replace the fuel injection pump as detailcd in
                                                              DATA'), using tool 18Gl23A with cutters 18G123B,
Section D.12.
                                                              18G123E, and 18G123F. and pilots 18G123L, 18G123T,
   Bleed the fuel system (Section D.I 0).
                                                              I8GI23AB. 18G!23AC. and 18Gl23AD.

                                                              Removing the front and rear liners
                                                                Insert the small end of the adaptor 18GI24F into the
Section A.34                                                  camshaft front liner from the inside of the cylinder
                                                              block. thread the body of the tool onto the centre screw,
                      REMOVING AND REPLACING                  and pass the screw through the adaptor from the front
                          THE CAMSHAFT                        of the block. Place the slotted washer on the flat at the
                                                              rear of the centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into
                                                              the centre screw behind the slotted washer.
                                                                Tighten up the wing nut to withdraw the worn liner.
                                                                The rear liner is withdrawn by the same method, using
   Remove the fuel injection pump and driving spindle         the adaptor 18G 1248 and withdrawing the liner from
(Sections D.l2 and A.33).                                     the rear of the block.
   Remove the sump, oil pump, and oil pump driving
spindle (Sections A.9 and A.II).                              Removing the centre liner
   Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly, push-rods,           Insert the stepped pilot adaptor 18G 124H into the
and tappets (Sections A.14 and A.27).                         camshaft front liner bore from the inside of the block
   Remove the fuel lift pump (Section D.3). Remove the        and the adaptor 18GI24C into the centre liner from the
crankcase front cover, timing chain, and chain wheels         rear. small end first.
(Sections A.30 and A.32).                                       With the body of the tool positioned on the centre
   Unscrew the three securing screws with shakeproof          screw, pass the screw through the pilot adaptor and the
washers to release the camshaft retaining plate and carc-     adaptor in the centre liner.
fully withdraw the camshaft from the front of the crank-         PI~ce the slotted washer on the flat at the rear of the
case.                                                         centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into the screw
   Before reassembly, assemble the camshaft retaining         behind the slotted washer.
plate and the chain wheel to the camshaft and check the         Tighten up the wing nut to withdraw the liner.
camshaft end-float against the dimensions given in the
'GENERAL DATA' section by measuring the clearance             Replacing the front and rear liners
between the retaining plate and the thrust face of the          Place the new liner on the smallest diameter of the
camshaft front journal.                                       adaptor ) 8G 124F and insert the adaptor into the car'-
  If the end-fioat is excessive the retaining plate should    shaft front liner bore from the inside of the block, largest
be renewed.                                                   diameter first.
                                                                THE ENGINE                                                           A
                                                                              Replacing the ccntre liner
                                                                                 Insert the stepped pilot adaptor into the camshaft
                                                                              front liner from the inside of the block.
                                                                                 Place a new centre liner on the small end of the
                                                                              adaptor l8G124C and position the adaptor in the centre
                                                                              liner bore from the rear, largest diameter first. It should
                                                                              be noted that two types of centre liner are available.
                                                                              These liners are interchangeable, but the liner having a
                                                                              clinch-type jOint. chamfered edges, and ~i'I;;': ,ow stamped
                                                                              on its outer surface must be fitted with the arrow pointing
         9                                                                    towards the front of the engine. Ensure that the oil holes
                                                                              in the liner and the cylinder block are lined up and remain
                                                                              so during the whole operation.
                                Fig. A.30                                        With the body of the tool positivr1:d on the centre
  Replacing the camshaft celllre bearing liner, using                         screw insert the screw through the PI;.)t adaptor and
  Service tool 18G124A with adaptors 18G124Jl (md                             the adaptor in the centre liner bore.
                      18G124C                                                    Position the larger of the two 'D' washers on the
                                                                              centre screw with the cut-away portion turned away
    I.       Wing nut.                      6.   Bearing liner.
    2.       Body.                          7.   Large '0' washer.
                                                                              from the butt joint of the liner; this joint mast be
    3.       Adaptor 18GI2"H.               8.   Slotted washer.              covered by the washer.
    4.       Centre screw.                  9.   Tommy-bar.                      Place the slotted washer on the flat at the rear of t~e
    S.       Adaptor 18G124C.                                                 centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into the centre
                                                                              screw. Tighten up the wing nut to pull the liner into
   Line up the oil holes in the liner and the cylinder
block and make certain they remain correctly positioned                       Reaming the front and rear Iblers
during the whole operation.                                                      Insert the taper pilots 18G123AB and 18G123AC into
   Thread the body of the tool onto the centre screw                          the centre and rear liners respectively.
and pass the screw through the adaptor, located in the                           Place the plain pilot 18G123L on the arbor, followed
front liner, from the front of the block.                                     by the cutter l8G123E.
   Position the larger of the two 'D' washers on the                            Pass the arbor through the front liner and the pilot
centre screw with the cut-away portion turned away                            located in the centre liner.
from the butt joint of the liner; this joint must be covered                    Place the cutter 18G123B on the arbor and push the
by the washer.                                                                arbor through the taper pilot in the rear liner.
   Place the slotted washer on the flat at the rear of the                      Secure the cutters in their respective positions shown
centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into the screw                          in Fig. A.31, ensuring that the cutter locating pins are
behind the slotted washer.                                                    engaged in the correct numbered hole provided in the
   Tighten the wing nut to pull the liner squarely into                       arbor.
position.                                                                       The cutter for the front liner will cut first with the
  The rear liner is replaced by the same method, using                        arbor piloting in the centre and rear liners. Clear away
the adaptor 18G124B and pulling the liner into position                       the swarf frequently during the operation. The cutter
from the rear of the block.                                                   for the rear liner will follow with the arbor piloting in

                                                          Fig. A.Jl
  Cutters and pilots positioned for reaming the can/shaft front and rear bearing liners. Shown inset are the pilots and
                                       cutter positioned for reaming the centre liner
                        A.   Polition No.6.                     D.   Position No. 10.               c. Position No.9.
 A                                                   THE ENGINE

 the front and centrc liners. Clear away all the swarf         the top of the flywheel. Tighten the flywheel securing
 before the plain pilot is allowed to enter the front liner.   nuts to the figure in the 'GENERAL DATA' section,
   When the cut in the rear liner is finished, free the        using torque wrench 180372.
 cutters and withdraw the arbor.                                 Install the fuel injection p~mp as described in Section
                                                               0.12, and bleed the fuel system as described in Section
 Reaming the ceutre liner                                      0.10.
    Set up for the second part of the operation by inserting
 the pilots 18GI23T and 18GI23AD in the front and
 rear liners.           .
    Pass the arbor through the pilot in the front liner and    Section A.37
 place the cutter 18G123F on the arbor. Push the arbor
 through the centre liner and the pilot located in the rear
                                                                          REMOVING AND REPLACING
                                                                          THE ENGINE FRONT PLATE
    Secure the cutter in the position shown inset in Fig.
 A.31, ensuring that the locating pin of the cutter engages
 thc correct numbered hole in the arbor.
    Ream the centre liner, release the cutter, and withdraw
 the arbor.                                                    Remove the nuts securing the engine front mounting
    IMPORTANT.-It is essential that the cutter Bntes           brackets to their flexible mounts.
 are kept dear of swarf at aU times during the cutting             Remove the crankcase front cover, timiDg chain, and
 operation, preferably witb air-blast equipment. The            timing chain tensioner (Sections A.30, A.31, and A.32).
 eatter sbould be withdrawn from the liner half-way                Attach the engine by means of a sling to an overhead
 through the cut and the &Warf removed from the cutter          lifting appliance and raise the engine to relieve the load
 and the liner.                                                 on the engine front mountings.
    Feed the reamer very slowly and keep tbe cutters dry.          Unscrew the three securing screws with shakeproof
    The arbor should be lightly lubricated before assembling   washers and remove the camshaft retaining plate. Remove
 the cutters and pilots.                                       the three set screws with spring washers and withdraw the
                                                               front plate and joint washer·

 Section A.36
                THE FLYWHEEL

Remove transmission (Section   ).
Disconnect and label wires from starter motor and its
Remove starter motor with solenoid.
Remove wiring bracket from top of bellhousing.
Remove nuts securing the rear mounting' brackets to
flexible mount.
Take the weight off the rear of the engine preferably with a
sling attached to the rear lifting bracket. Do not jack up
under sump.
Remove capscrews and lockwashers securing bell housing to
back plate.
Remove damper plate.
Remove the 6 nuts and tab washers securing flywheel to the
crankshaft and remove flywheel.
   When reassembling, crank the engine until the 1.4 zero
mark on the timing disc mounted on the crankshaft pulley
is in line witb the scribed line on the pointer located on
the under side of the crankcase front cover. Nos. 1 and                               Fig. A.32
4 pistons are now at T.D.C., and the flywbeel should be           WithdraWing the front main bearing cap, usin~
installed with the T.D.C. 1.4 mark OD its periphery at                Service tool 18G42A and at/4plor 180418
                                                      THE ENGINE                                                        A
   Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,             Remove the bearing liners from the bearing caps and
following the instructions given in Sections A.30, A.31,         the housings in the crankcase, marking the bearing
and A.32 when installing the timing gears and the crank-         liners so that they ma.y be replaced in their original
case front cover.                                                positions. A punch ~hould not be used for this purpose.
                                                                    The bearing liners are located in their housings by a
                                                                 small tag on one side of tile liner engaging a corresponding
Section A.38                                                     groove in the bearing housing and cap.
                                                                    In the case of a run bearing, the oilways in the crank-
                                                                 shaft and cylinder block should be cleaned thoroughly
      REMOVING AND REPLACING THE                                 ",ith petrol or paraffin and then blown clean with com-
     FLYWHEEL HOUSING BACK PLATE                                 pressed air. The oil pump and oil strainer should also
  Remove the transmission, the starter, the fly-                 be dismantled and cleaned (Sections A.IO, A.I1. and
wheel housing, and the flywheel. The back                        A. 12), and the fuel injection pump driving gear lubri-
plate is now exposed and the capscreWi\ and                      cator filter gauze should be removt.: 1 and cleaned
locks may be removed. Tap the back plate to                      (Section A.6). It is also advisable to re:1ew the external
loosen it from the dowels and gasket. Before                     oil filter element (Section A.5) to ensure that all bearing
replacing, clean gask~t surface carefully and                    metal is removed from the Iubricating system.
use a new gasket.                                                   Thoroughly clean the thrust faces of the crankshaft
                                                                 centre main journal, the bearings, and the thrust washers
   It may be noticed that the back plate has a                   and install them in the crankcase. Mount a dial gauge on
slight warp when removed from the engine.                        the front end of the crankcase with its indicator resting
This is of no concern as it will straighten when                 on the front face of the crankshaft front main journal.
the affixing screws are tightened to the block                   Prcss the crankshaft as far as possible to the rear, and,
and to the flywheel housing.                                     holding it in this po~ition, zero the dial gauge. Now press
  ·When assembling be sure all d<)wels are in                    the crankshaft forw1rd as far as possible and note the
                                                                 reading on the dial gauge, the difference from zero being
place to assure alignment of parts.
                                                                 the amount of crankshaft end-float.
                                                                    If necessary, renew tIle thrust washers, fitting them by
                                                                 selective assembly and ensuring that the oil grooves face
                                                                 outwards towards the crankshaft webs. Thrust washers
                                                                 ·003 in. ('076 mm.) oversize are available.
                                                                    When installing new bearings no scraping is required
Section A.39                                                     as the bearings are machined to give the correct diametri-
                                                                 cal clearance.
         REMOVING AND REPI,ACI!'OG                                  Reassembly is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,
    THE CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS                             noting the following points:
   Remove the crankcase front cover, timing chain, and              (I) If any of the crankshaft components are renewed,
timing chain wheels (Sections A.30 and A.32).                            do not jurget to aligl) the crankshaft chain wheel
   Remove the starter motor, the flywheel, and the gear-                 with th(:; camshaft chain wheel as detailed in
box distance piece (Sections N.3, A.33, and A.38).                       Section A.32.
   Remove the sump, oil pump, and oil strainer (Sections            (2) Coat the rear main bearing cap to cylinder block
A.9, A.lO, and A.ll). Slacken the nuts securing the fuel                 horizontal joint surface with Hylomar SQ32
injectors sufficiently to relieve the engine compression and             jointing compound.
so facilitate rotation of the crankshaft.                           (3) Tighten the main bearing cap nuts to the figure
   Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section A. 14)                given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section, using
to prevent the pistons and valves fouling each other when                torque wrench 18G372.
the crankshaft is rotated. The push-rods should be                  (4) Remove the fuel injection pump, and check, and
removed for safe keeping as detailed in Section A.I8.                    adjust if necessary, the injection pump drive timing
   Disconnect the connecting rods from the crankshaft as                 as detailed in Section 0.12.
described in Section A.13, pushing each rod and piston
to the top of its cylinder bore as ~oon as it is disconnected.
   Unscrew and remove the six self-locking nuts and
spring washers from the main bearing cap studs. With-            Section A.40
draw the main bearing caps, using tool 18G42A with
adaptor 18G42B, noting the lower halves of the crankshaft                   REMOVING AND REPLACL"IG
thrust washers located on each side of the centre main                    THE FLYWHEEL STARTER RING
bearing cap. The centre main bearing cap is stamped with           To remove the old starter ring from the flywheel drill
the word 'FRONT' to assist reassembly.                           holes through the flange of the gear and then split the
  Lift the crankshaft out of the crankcase and remove            gear, using a hammer and chisel and taking care JJor to
the upper halves of the crankshaft thrust washers.               damage the flywheel.
A                                                               THE ENGINE

                                                ~   ::
                                                I f---G - - -
                                                l'          F - _ .._.·.

                                                                                                    Fig. A.34
                        Fig. A.33                                                        Va/re seat machining dimensions
  Cylinder liner pilots should be made 10 the above                                    Inlet (A).                      E.~haust   (D).
  dimensions from case hardening steel and case                              c. 1·4965 to 1·4975 in.         I..  1·2775 to 1'2785 in.
  hardened. The pilot extension should be made from                              (38'011 to 38·036 111m.).        (3:!·448 to 32·47-' ml11.).
  55·ton hardening and tempering steel, hardened in oil,                     D. 1·375 to 1·380 in.           M. 1·156 to 1-161 in.
                                                                                 (34'93 to 35·05 mm.).            (:!9'36 to 29'49 mm.).
  and then tempered at a temperature of 550' C.                              E. 1·250 in. (31·75 !TIm.).     :-I. 1·031 in. (26'19 mm.).
                              (1,020- F.)                                    F. ·085 to ·090 in.             p. ·OS5 to '090 in.
                                                                                 (2'161l) 2·29 mm.).              (2'16 to 2'29 mm.).
                         Pressing-out pilot
                                                                             G. ·273 to ·276 in.             Q. ·273 to ·276 in.
              A. 2 U :~ in. (75'8::~ mm.).                                       (6'93 10 7·01 mm.).              (6'93 to 7·01 mm.).
              o. 2'862::~ in. (72'69::m mm.).                                I:. Maximum radius ·015 in.     R. Maximum radius ·015 in.
              c. 1i in. (44'45 mm.).                                             ('38 mm.).                       ('38 mm.).
              D. i in. (19'05 mm.).                                          J. 75'.                         s. 45'.
              E. i in. B.S.W. thread.                                        K. 45'.

                            Pressing-in pilot
              F.   3   * in. (87'31 mm.).                                     This operation should be followed by natural cooling,
              o. 3i in. (77·39 mm.).                                        when the 'shrink fit' will be permanently established and
              H.   2'850::~ in. (72:39::m mm.).
              J.   Ii in. (31·75 mm.).
                                                                            no further treatment required.
              K.   i in. (19'05 mm.).
              L.   '015 in. ('38 mm.).
                          Pilot extension                                   Section A.41
              M. 14l in. (36·83 em.).
              N. tin. (22'22 mm.).
              p. i in. (15'87 mm.).
                                                                                        FITTING CYLINDER LINERS
              Q. i in. (15'87 mm.).
                                                                               Should the condition of the cylinder bores be such that
              R. I in. (25'4 mm.) flats.
              s. ! in. B.S.W. thread.                                       they cannot be cleaned up to accept the recommended
              T. Ii in. (31'75 mm.).                                        oversize pistons, dry cylinder liners can be fitted. This
                                                                            operation may be carried out by the use of specialized
   Make certain that the bore of the new ring and its                       proprietary equipment or with a power press, using pitot
mating surface on the flywheel are free from burrs and                      adaptors to the dimensions shown in Fig. A.33. The press
are perfectly clean.                                                        must be capable of 3 tons (3048 kg.) pressure to fit new
   To fit the new ring it must be heated to a temperature                   liners and 5 to 8 tons (5080 to 8128 kg.) to remove old
of 200 to 2300 C. (392 to 446 0 F.). Do not exceed this                     liners. If liners have not previously been fitted the bores.
temperature, otherwise the temper of the teeth will be                      must be machined and honed to the dimensions given in
adversely affected. The use of a thermostatically con-                      the table below.
trolled furnace is recommended. Place the heated ring on
the flywheel with the lead on the ring teeth uppermost.
   The expansion will allow the ring to be fitted without                   To remove worn liners
force by pressing or tapping it lightly until the ring is                      Dismantle the engine and remove the cylinder head
hard against its register.                                                  studs.

         Machine bores of
       cylillder block to this                                                  Interferellce jit of               Machine liner bore
         dimension before                            Outside diameter            liner ill cylinder                to this dimensioll
             jilling liner                               of liner                   block bore                        after fitting

      3·0165 to 3·017 in.                    3·0185 to 3·01925 in.             ·0015 to ·00275 ill.           2·8745 to 2·876 in.

    (76·619 to 76·631 mm.)                  (76'669 to 76·688 mm.)             ('038 to ·069 mm.)            (73'01 to 73·04 mm.)
                                                    TIlE ENGINE                                                       A
   Place the cylinder block face downwards on suitable         Section A.42
wooden supports on the beef ofthe press, making sure that
there is sufficient space between the block and the bed of
                                                                         FI'ITING VALVE SEAT INSERTS
the press to allow the worn liner to pass down. Insert
the pilot complete with extension into the bottom of the          Should the valve seatings become so badly worn or
liner and carefully press the liner from the bore.             pitted that the normal workshop cutting and refacing
                                                               tools cannot restore them to their original standard of
To press in De,,' liners                                       efficiency, special valve seat inserts can be fitted. To fit
  Thoroughly clean the inside of the bores and the outside     the inserts machine the seating in the cylindl!r head to the
of the liners. Stand the cylinder block upright on the bed     dimensions given in Fig. A.34 and press in the inserts,
of the press insert the pilot guide in the top of the liner,   which have an interference fit of '0025 to '0045 in. ('063
and position the liner with its chamfered end in the top       to ·114 mm.). Finally, grind or machine the seatings to
of the bore. Make certain that the liner is square with        the dimensions given in Fig. A.34. The throat of each
the top of the block and that the ram of the press is over     valve seat must blend into the throat in the cylinder
the centre of the pilot. Press the liner into the bore.        head. Normal valve grinding may be ;:!cessary to ensure
   Finally, bore the cylinder liners to the dimensions         efficient seating, and before reassembly the valve ·stand·
given in the table at the bottom of page A.30.                 down' should be checked as detailed in Section A.23.

 D                                               THE FUEL SYSTEM

 Section D.l
    The fuel is drawn from the supply tank by a mechanical
 diaphragm-type lift pump, which is operated by the
 engine camshaft. It is imperative that the fuel is absolutely
 free from foreign matter, and in addition to the gauze-
 type filters in the fuel lift and injection pumps a filter of
 the renewable paper element type is installed in the feed
 line from the lift pump to the injectjon pump.
    The injection pump, which is of the C.A.V. distributor
 type, meters and forces fuel under high pressure via
 Pintaux injection nozzles into the combustion chambers.
The Pintaux nozzle, which is of the pintle type em-
 bodying an auxiliary hole to facilitate starting, has been
designed expressly for use with the Ricardo Comet V                                              Fig. D.l
type combustion chamber which is employed in this
engine. The use of these designs ensures easy starting
                                                                                Section through the fuel lift pump
under arctic conditions, especially when used in con-                1.    Filter gauze.               11.   Pivot pin.
junction with the heater plugs which are fitted.                     2.    Sealing ring.               12.   Link.
                                                                     3.    Outlet port.                13.   Priming cam.
    The accelerator is connected to the control lever on             4.    Delivery valve.             14.   Pull-rod.
the injection pump, which embodies a governor and                    S.    Diaphragm.                  15.   Hand priming lever.
.automatic advance unit, both of which are hydraulically             6..   Diaphragm spring.           16.   Pumping chamber.
                                                                     7.    Rocker arm spring.          17.   Sediment chamber.
                                                                     8.    Engine camshaft.            18.   Inlet valve.
                                                                     9.    Camshaft eccentric.         19.   Inlet port.
                                                                    10.    Rocker arm.

                                                                 Section D.3
Section D.2
                                                                             REMOVING AND REPLACING
     DESCRIPTION OF THE FUEL LIFT PUMP                                          THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
    The fuel lift pump is mounted on the left-hand side             Unscrew the banjo-type union bolts to release the two
 of the crankcase and is operated by an eccentric on the         fuel pipes from the lift pump. The fuel feed pipe from the
 engine camshaft. A hand priming lever permits pumping           supply tank should be plugged to prevent the loss of fuel.
 a supply of fuel through the main fuel filter to the               Remove the two nuts and spring washers which secure
 injection pump for bleeding the system of air whenever          the pump to the crankcase and withdraw the pump
any component has been dismantled or disconnected.               complete with its gasket.
    As the engine camshaft revolves, the eccentric lifts           Before replacing the pump, which is a reversal of· the
the pump rocker arm, which moves the pull-rod together           procedure to remove, lubricate the rocker arm and the
with the diaphragm downwards against the spring'                 rocker arm pin with clean engine oil.
 pressure, thus creating a partial vacuum in the pumping           Renew the gasket between the pump and the cylinder
chamber.                                                         block, and to facilitate the fitting of the pump crank the
    Fuel drawn from the tank enters the sediment cham-           engine to bring the eccentric on the camshaft into the
ber and then passes through the filter gauze and the             extreme released position so that its small side will
suction valve into the pumping chamber. On the return            contact the rocker arm.
stroke the spring pressure pushes the diaphragm up-                After installation bleed the fuel system of air as
wards, forcing the fuel from the pumping chamber                 described in Section 0.10. Start the engine and check
through the delivery valve and port to the main fuel filter.     the pump and its fuel line connections for leaks. After
   When the main fuel filter is full a pressure is created       correcting any leaks the fuel system should be re-bled.
in the pump chamber. This pressure will hold the dia-
phragm downwards against the spring pressure, and it
will remain in this position until the main fuel filter          Section D.4
requires further fuel. The rocker arm operates the con-
necting link, which allows an idling movement of the                   DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBUNG
rocker arm when there is no movement of the fuel pump                          THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
diaphragm.                                                         Before dismantling, thoroughly clean the exterior of
   A spring keeps the rocker arm in constant contact             the pump and scribe a mark across the upper to IJwer
with the eccentric, thus eliminating noise.                      half body joint flanges for guidance when reassembling.
                                                   THE FUEL SYSTEM                                                    D
                                                               of the rocker arm which engages the camshaft is permis-
                                                               sible. but if it exceeds 0010 in. (·254 mm.) the rocker arm
                                                               should be renewed.
                                                                   The diaphragm spring seldom requires renewing, but
                                                               should it be necessary, ensure that the new spring bean
                                                               the same identif.~tion colour as the original spring.
                                                                   Reassembly is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,
                                                               noting the following.
                                                                   To install the valves, first place a new gasket in
                                                               position and then insert the outlet valve, spring end
                                                               foremost, into its port. The inlet valve cannot be installed
                                                               incorrectly owing to a restriction in the port.
                                                                  The rocker arm should be a tap fit in the body, and
                                                               if, due to wear, it is freer than this the holes in the body
                                                               may be closed by peening to restore the fit.
                                                                  When installing the diaphragm and pull-rod assembly
                                                              ensure that the upper end of the diaphragm return spring
                                                               is centred properly in the diaphragm lower protector
                                                              washer and place the diaphragm in the pump body with
                                                              its locating tab in the 11 o'clock position (see Fig. 0.2).
                        Fig. D.2                              Press the diaphragm downwards and turn it anti-clock-
               Diaphragm assembly diagram                     wise through an angle of 90°. to engage the slots in the
                                                              pull-rod with the link fork. This will place the pull-rod
         I. Pump mounting flange.
         2. Initial position of diaphragm locating tab.       in the correct working position and at the same time
         3. f'inal position of diaphragm locating tab.        align the holes in the diaphragm with those in the pump
                                                              body flange.
    Remove the set bolt and fibre washer securing the             To assemble the two pump body sub-assemblies. push
 domed cover to the lift pump body; detach the domed          the rocker arm towards the pump body until the dia-
 cover and its sealing ring and lift off the filter gauze.    phragm is level with the body joint flange. Place the
    Unscrew the set screws and separate the two halves        upper half of the pump in position, ensuring that the
 of the pump body.                                            marks scribed on the joint flanges during dismantling
    Release the valve retaining plate from the upper half     coincide, and install the body securing screws finger
 of the pump body by removing the two securing screws         tight. Press the rocker arm towards tbe pump body to
 and lift out the inlet and outlet valves. Carefully remove   position the diaphragm at the bottom of its stroke. With
 the valve gasket.                                            the diaphragm held ID this position tighten the body
    Lightly press the centre of the diaphragm downwards       securing screws in diagonal sequence.
 to take the weight of the return ~pring; turn the dia-
 phragm assembly clockwise through an angle of 90° to
 release the diaphragm pull-rod from the operating link
fork and withdraw the diaphragm assembly and its              Section D.S
return spring.
    Remove the retaining clips from the ends of the                      TESTING THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
rocker arm pin and press the pin out of the body to              Before installing an overhauled pump it should be
release the rocker arm, rocker arm distance washers,          tested for performance and air leaks. In the absence af
rocker arm spring, and link.                                  special test equipment the pump may be tested in the
   Detach the spring from the priming lever and body          following simple but effective manner.
assembly.                                                        Immerse the pump in a bath of clean paraffin and
   Further dismantling of the body is not advisable as        flush it through by operating the rocker arm six to eight
the priming lever is secured to its spindle by riveting.      times. Remove and empty the pump; seal the suction
   Before reassembling, thoroughly clean all components       side of the pump by placing a finger firmly over the inlet
in paraffin and blow clean the cavities in the pump body      union (marked 'in') and operate the rocker arm several
with compressed air.                                          times. Upon removal of the finger from the inlet union
   Check the body castings for cracks and, using a            a distinct sucking noise should be heard, denoting that
straight-edge. ensure that the diaphragm and engine           the pump has developed a reasonable degree of suction.
mounting flanges are true. If they are found to be dis-          In a similar manner, seal the delivery side of the pump
torted they may be lapped to restore their flatness.          and press the rocker arm inwards to charge the pumping
   Examine the two valve assemblies for signs of wear         chamber with air. If the pump is in good condition the
and renew them if they are not in perfect condition.          air in the pumping chamber should be held under ('~m
   Very little wear should be tolerated on the rocker arm     pression for two or three seconds. Repeat this t~[, but
pin and rocker linkage. Slight wear on the working facc       immediately the pumping chamber is charged with air
D                                                   THE FUEL SYSTEM

                                                                  nection is not required and is fitted with a sealing plug,
                                                                  while the second inlet connection allows fuel oil surplus
                                                                  to the injection pump requirements to return to the dirty
                                                                  side of the filter. This connection is fitted with a non-
                                                                  return valve to ensure that unfiltered fuel cannot find its
                                                                  way into the injection pump body.
                                                                     Passages in the filter head connect the filter inlet
                                                                  connections to the centre tube of the filter clement.
                                                                  As the upper end of the centre tube is sealed, fuel at
                                                                  lift pump pressure passes down the centre tube into
                                                                  the base casting and then upwards through the filter
                                                                  element to the outlet connection in the filter head.
                                                                     An auxiliary pipe connects the vent connection on the
                                                                  top of the tilter head to the injector leak-off pipe, pro-
                                                                  viding continuous air-venting of the fiI: _~r during opera-
                                                                     The paper element is not intended to be washed or
                                                                  cleaned in any way and should be renewed at the recom-
                                                                  mended intervals.

                                                                  Section D.7
                                                                             REMOVING AND REPLACING
                             Fig. D.3
                                                                                    THE FUEL FILTER
                 Main fuel filter components
                                                                    Thoroughly clean the outside of the filter.
      1.   Retaining bolt.              6.   '0' ring.              Disconnect the fuel inlet and outlet pipes and the
      2.   Washer.                      7.   Element.             fuel leak-off pipe from the filter head, taking care not
      3.   Head casting.                8.   Sealing ring.
      S.   Sealing washer.              9.   Base caS!ing.        to lose the sealing washer positioned on each side of the
                                                                  banjo-type unions.
                                                                    Unscrew the two bolts alld nuts securing the filter to
immerse the pump in a bath of clean paraffin and                  the mounting bracket on the exhaust manifold and with-
inspect the diaphragm clamping flanges for signs of air           draw the filter from the engine.
leakage.                                                            When replacing the filter, which is a reversal of the
  Finally, flush the pump through with clean fuel oil             above procedure, ensure that the washers positioned on
to remove all traces of paraffin.                                 each side of the banjo-type unions are in good condition
                                                                  and will make fuel-tight joints. Upon completion the fuel
                                                                  system must be bled to remove all air, as described in
                                                                  Section 0.10.
Section D.6
   The main fuel filter, which is- mounted at the front of        Section D.S
the exhaust manifold, is a C.A.V. bowl-less-type-that is,
the paper element, which is contained in a thin metal                    DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
canister, is clamped between the filter head and base                                THE FUEL FILTER
castings.                                                           Unscrew the retaining bolt and sealing washer from
   The filter components are held together by a split             the centre of the head casting and detach the base
bolt arrangement, comprising a centre stud mounted in             casting from the filter.
the filter base and a threaded bolt, which passes through           Remove the filter clement, using a twisting movement
the filter head to screw into the centre stud.                    to release the element from the head casting. Withdraw
   Synthetic rubber rings located in the filter head and          the three sealing rings from their locations in the head
base castings effect a seal between the outer rims of the         and bltSe castings.
element and the :head and base castings. An' '0' ring               Unscrew and &:tJ1l0VC! Ute blanking flQg with _'Sher.
located in an annular groove in the centre. boss of the           and the DOn-nmtt'A,~al'\le:·fr'()IlfJftll bead castiD."
filter head, and over which thj:: centre tube of the element         W.ash Cbe.:1Ut~ ~4 castings;, the- blankias
fits, seals the dirty side of the filter from. its cle;\D side.   plug, andthenon..r~lIrl\! ftlvefiR IlCtrot and :allow .cbm
   The head casting is provided with two inlet, two               to dty. Do not' user oottoowa&k -or .etotb wiperi' ;;e 'Cby
outlet. and a single vent connection. One :c~et·. con..           them. :Easure that.llD residuens· left ia the passaPS'ia
                                                  THE FUEL SYSTEM                                                       D
                                                                (1) Slacken the union nut at the filter end of the
                                                                    injection pump feed pipe. Operate the lift pump.
                                                                    and when the fuel passing the union is free from
                                                                    air bubbles tighten the union nut.
                                                                (2) Unscrew the blanking plug in the unused outlet
                                                                    connection on the filter head sufficiently to allow
                                                                    fuel at lift pump pressure to pass the thread on the
                                                                    plug. Operate the lift pump, and when the fuel
                                                                    issuing from around the plug thread is free from
                                                                    air bubbles tighten the plug.
                                                                (3) Slacken the two air bleed valves on the fuel injection
                                                                    pump. One bleed valve is located on the governor
                                                                    housing, while the other is incorporated on one of
                                                                    the hydraulic head locking screws. Operate the lift
                                                                    pump, and when the fuel flowing from both bleed
                                                                    valves is free from air bubbles tighten the valves.
                         Fig. D.4
             Main ftlel filter air bleed points                 (4) Slacken the union nut at the injector end of any
                                                                    two high-pressure pipes. Ensure that the stop
the head casting by blowing them clear with compressed              control is in the 'run' position, and set the accelera-
air.                                                                tor in the fully open position. Crank the engine
   Discard the filter element and sealing rings, which              until the fuel flowing from both pipes is free from
should be renewed as normal routine procedure.                      air bubbles, then tighten the pipe union nuts.
   Check the operation of the non-return valve.                 (S) Start the engine and allow it to run until it is firing
   Assemble the sealing plug and washer to (outlet) con-            on all cylinders.
nection No. 3 and the non-return valve to (inlet) con-
nection No. 4 in the head casting.                               After renewing the main fuel filter element, providing
   Fit new sealing rings to the head casting, ensuring that   the engine is not cranked during this operation, it is only
they are properly located in their grooves. Assemble a        necessary to bleed the fuel filter as described in opera-
new element, strengthened rim uppermost, to the head          tions (1) and (2) before starting the engine.
casting, using a twisting movement to seat it on the seals.      WARNING.-Lubrication of tbe injection pump mech-
   Place the base casting in position, using a new sealing    aDbim is effected by fuel oil UDder pressure, tberefore no
ring to make the joint between the element and the            attempt should be made to bleed tbe fuel system by towing
casting, and secure the assembly with the retaining bolt      the vehicle in gear as tbis may result in serious damage to
and washer.                                                   tbe iDjection pump.

Section D.9
   Thoroughly clean the outside of the filter.
    Support the filter base casting and unscrew the retain-
ing bolt with copper seal washer located in the centre of
the filter head casting. Detach the base casting and, using
a twisting movement, separate the element from the head
casting. Remove the three sealing rings from their
 locations in the head and base castings.
    Wash the base casting in gasoline, and when dry
remove any residue.
    Reassemble, using a new element and sealing rings,
fitting the element with its strengthened rim uppermost.
   After reassembly bleed the fuel filter and the fuel
 injection pump as described in Section 0.10.

Section 0.10
 AIR-VENTING (BLEEDING) THE FUEL SYSTEM                                                 Fig. D.S
  The following procedure should be used to air-vent the        Fuel injection pump air bleed points. The location of
fuel system after first ensuring that there is an adequate      the air bleed point on the later-type goven.       is

supply of fuel in the fuel tank.                                                    shown inset
D                                                    THE FUEL SYSTEM

                                                                Fig. D.6
                                                 Section through the juel injection pump
   I.   End plate aDd regulating valve.             S. Drive shaft.                         9. Cam ring.
   2.   Transfer pump.                              6. Pumping plunger.                    10. Automatic advance device.
   3.   Metcring;valve and hydraulic governor.      7. Pumping and distributing rotor.     I I . Head locating fitting and non-return
   4.   Back-leakage connection.                    S. Hydraulic head.                           valve.

Section D.II                                                            the pressure of the fuel from the transfer pump, also
                                                                        provides a means of by-passing the transfer pump when
DFSCRIPrION OF THE FUEL INJECl10N PUMP                                  hand-priming the injection pump. Referring to Fig. D.7,
   The jnjection pump js a single-cylinder, opposed-                    it will be seen that the valve is cylindrical and contains
plunger, inlet-metering, distributor-type pump fitted with              a small 'free' piston, the travel of which is limited by two
a governor and an automatic advance mechanism, both                     light springs. When priming the injection pump, fuel at
                                                                        lift pump pressure enters the central port in the regulating
of which are hydraulically operated.
                                                                        valve sleeve and moves the 'free' piston against the pres-
   The pump, the main features of which are shown in
Fig. D.6, is ftange-mounted on the engihe and is driven                 sure of the piston retaining spring to uncover the priming
by a splined shaft, having a master spline at each end to               port in the lower end of the valve sleeve. The priming
                                                                        port is connected by a passage in the end plate to the
ensure correct location.
                                                                        delivery side of the transfer pump, thus enabling the fuel
   A central rotating member forms the pumping and
                                                                        to by-pass the stationary transfer pump and prime the
distributor rotor; this is driven by splines from the drive
                                                                        injection pump.
shaft, and in turn drives a sliding-vane-type transfer
pump, which is mounted on the outer end of the rotor.                     When the injection pump is in operation fuel at transfer
   The transfer pump raises the fuel pressure to an inter-              pressure enters the lower end of the valve sleeve, forcing
mediate level, and as its capacity is many times the                    the 'free' piston upwards against the regulating spring.
maximum requirements of the injection pump, a regulat-                  As the engine speed increases, the transfer pressure rises,
ing valve housed in the pump end plate allows the excess                moving the piston against the pressure of the regulating
fuel to be by-passed back to the suction side of the                    spring to progressively uncover the regulating port ::1
transfer pump.                                                          the valve sleeve and allow a metered flow of fuel to by-
  The pressure regulating valve, in addition to regulating              pass back to the inlet side of the transfer pump.
                                                       THE FUEL SYSTEM                                                            D
                                                                      rollers on the cam lobes, is prevented by the fuel in the
                                                  B                   cylinder being trapped by a non-return ball valve in
                                                                      the locating holt. When the engine stops the adv"nce
                                                                      mechanism is allowed to return to the retarded position
                                                                      under the influence of the piston springs, by normal
                                                                      leakage of fuel bct\l,een the piston and the cylinder.
                                                                         Machined on each lobe of the cam ring, immediately
                                                                      after the peak of the cam. is a retraction curve. Under
                                                                      running conditions, when thc injection cycle is completed
                                                                      the distributor port in the rotor and the outlet port in
                                                                      the hydraulic head are still in partial alignment with
                                                                      each other. As the plunger rollers move off the peaks of
                                                                      the cams the retraction curves allow the plungers to
                                                                      move slightly outwards. This movement of the plungers
                                                                      effects a sudden reduction of pressure in the injection
                                                                      line, so preventing secondary injection and allowing the
                                                                      injedion nozzle needle valve to snap onto its seating to
                                                                      terminate the spray of fuel into the combustion chamber
                                                                      without 'dribble'.
                                                                         The distributor part of the rotor has a central axial
                                Fig. D.7                              passage which connects the pumping space between the
       Sectioll throllg17 tfle end-plate alld reguhllillg \'ah'e      plungers with the four inlet ports and single distributing
  A.    Priming.                     7.   Regulating riSk,n.
                                                                      port drilled radially in the rotor. The radial hole at the
  n.    Regulating.                  8.   Piston retaining spring.    outer end of the rotor is the distributing port, and as
  I.    Jnlet conned inn.            9.   Fud passage hl transfer     the rotor turns, this port is aligned successively with
  2.    Sleeve retaining spring.          pump inlet.                 the outlet ports in the hydraulic head, from which the
  3.    Nylon filter.               10.   Regulating port.            injectors are fed via external high-pressure pipes. The inlet
  4.    Sleeve guide plug.          11.   Fuel passag\: to transfer
  5.    Regulating spring.                pump nutlet.
                                                                      or charging ports are equally spaced around the rotor at
  6.    Regulating slee\'e.                                           an intermediate position, and as the rotor turns these
                                                                      are aligned successively with the inlet or metering port
  The transfer pressure, therefore, is controlled by a
balance between the regulating spring pressure and the
requirements of the injection pump at any moment.
  The pumping and distributing rotor revolves, and is a
close fit, in the stationary hydraulic head. Thc pumping
section of the rotor has a transverse bore containing                  4
twin opposed pumping plungers. These plungers are
operated by means of a cam ring, carried in the pump
housing, through rollers and shoes which slide in the
rotor. The cam ring has four internal lobes operating
in diagonally opposite pairs. The opposed plungers have
no return springs but are moved outwards by fuel under
pressure from the transfer pump, the flow of fuel and
outward displacement of the plungers being determined
by the setting of the metering valve and the speed at
which the pump is rotating. As a result the rollers, which             5
operate the plungers, do not follow the contour of the
internal cam ring entirely, but will contact the cam lobes
at points which will vary according to the amount of
plunger displacement.
  An automatic advance control mechani5lTI is fitted
which operates by rotating the cam ring within the pump
body. A ball-ended lever, screwed into the cam ring. is
operated by a piston sliding in a cylinder. One side of the                                      Fig. D.8
piston is spring-loaded, while the other side is subject
                                                                                      Alllomaric Q(h'ance mechanism
to fuel at transfer pressure, which is admitted to the
cylinder through a port and the hollo\\ locating bolt to              1.   Pump housing.              5.   Pumping plunger.
                                                                      2.   Cam ring.                  6.   Automatic advance piston.
progressively move the cam ring into the fully advanced
                                                                      3.   Pumping and distributing   7.   Cam advance screw.
position. Any tendency for the cam ring to return to                       rotor.                     8.   Piston springs.
the retarded position, due to the impact of the plunger               4.   Roller.                    9.   Automatic advance housing.
D                                                 THE FUEL SYSTEM

                                                             area of the port being that part which is uncovered by
                                                             the inner edge of the annulus.·
                                                                When the control lever is moved to give increased
                                                             speed the metering valve is pushed to the fully open
                                                             position by the governor spring. As the engine speed
                                                             increases, transfer pressure increases also, and this
                                                             pressure will move the metering valve back against the
                                                             governor spring pressure, until a balance is reached, to
                                                             reduce the effective area of the metering port.
                                                                Should the engine speed drop, the consequent reduc-
                                                             tion in transfer pressure will allow the governor spring
                                                             to reassert itself and move the metering valve towards
                                                             the fully open position to stabilize the engine speed.
                                                                Movement of the control lever towards the idling stop
                                                             reduces the compression of the governor spring, and
                                                             equilibrium is reached when the force exerted on the
                                                             metering valve by the fuel at transfer pressure is balanced
                                                             by compression of the governor spring. The governor
                                                             spring compression becomes progressively less as the
                                                             control lever is moved towards tht idling stop, and this
                           Fig. D.9                          enables the reduced transfer"pressure, at low speeds, to
              Enlarged 'View of a cam ring lobe              operate the metering valve and perform the governing
                                                             function throughout the idling range.
       I.   Cam peak.             2. Retraction curve.
                                                                Operation of the shut-off lever rotates a spindle, the
                                                             inner end of which is machined to form a 'cam'. This
in the hydraulic head. This port admits fuel to the rotor    cam engages the under side of the shut-off washer,
under control of the metering valve, which is hydrauli-      secured to the top of the metering valve by a self-locking
cally governed.                                              nut, and lifts the valve to a position where the metering
  The hydraulic governor is housed in the casting which      port in the hydraulic head is blanked off and so stops the
carries the pump control and shut-off levers. The control    engine.
lever is mounted on a pinion shaft which meshes with a          In operation fuel at lift pump pressure enters the pump
rack which is free to move on the metering valve stem.       through the connection on the pump end plate and passes
  The metering valve slides in a transverse bore in the      through a fine nylon gauze filter to the inlet side of the
hydraulic head, into which bore the diagonally driUed        transfer pump.
metering port opens. A damping valve is carried on the          From the transfer pump the fuel passes through a
metering valve stem against a shoulder, and the governor     passage in the hydraulic head to an annular groove
spring is held between the damping valve and the rack.
The damping valve slides in a cylindrical bore in the
pump body which is filled with the fuel and acts as a
dashpot to damp out any violent movement of the
metering valve. A flat machined on the pinion shaft and
an adjustable stop screw mounted on the governor
housing limits the rotation of the pinion shaft to control
the maximum speed of the engine.
   Idling speed is controlled by the spring-loaded screw
on the governor housing, which limits the movement of
the rack on the metering valve stem towards the stop
position. At idling speed the upper end of the metering
valve bears against a spring-loaded plunger, incorporated
in the hydraulic governor housing air vent valve, which
damps out any oscillations of the metering valve to
maintain the idling speed.
   The governor is operated by fuel at transfer pressure
which is fed from the annular groove surrounding the
pump rotor. The fuel passes through the hollow metering                              Fig. D.1O
valve into an annular space around the valve via holes                 Section through the hydraulic go 'Vernor
drilled transversely in the valve.
   Endwise movement of the metering valve varies the               1. Shut-off lever.           S.   Metering port.
                                                                   2. Rack.                     6.   Metering valve.
area of the metering port in the hydraulic head which              3. Governor spring.          7.   Pinion shaft.
registers with the annulus around the valve, the effective         4. Damping valve.            8.   Idling stop screw.
                                                   TIlE FUEL SYSTEM                                                        D
                                                                 plungers. The roller shoes, which slide in slots in the
                                                                 rotor, have specially shaped projecting 'ears' which
                                                                 engage eccentric slots in the top and bottom adjusting
                                                                 plates. Two lugs on the top adjusting plate engage slots
                                                                 in the bottom adjusting plate to locate the plates one to
 A                                                               the other.
                                                                    The top adjusting plate is clamped to the rotor by
                                                                 the drive plate, the adjusting plate being cut away in
                                                                 the areas of the drive plate securing screws to permit
                                                                 adjustment of the plates by rotation. The maximum out-
                                                                 ward travel of the pump plungers is limited by the 'ears'
                                                                 of the roller shoes coming into contact with the curved
                                                                 slot sides in the adjusting plates. As the slots are eccentric,
                                                                 rotation of the adjusting plates relative to the rotor
                                                                 provides a means of adjusting the maximum plunger
B                                                                stroke.

                                                                 Section D.12
                             Fig. D.ll                                       REMOVING AND REPLACING
                                                                             THE FUEL INJECDON PUMP
                         The injection cycle
  A. Inlet stroke.                 2. Pumping and distributing
                                                                    Thoroughly clean the exterior of the fuel injection
  B. Injection stroke.                  rotor.                   pump, unstrap the wiring harness from the high-pressure
  1. Fuel inlet.                   3. Pumping plungers.          pipes, and disconnect the pipes from the injection pump
                         4. Fuel to injector.                    and the fuel injectors. Withdraw the pipes complete with
                                                                 clamp and damper bushes, and seal the injection pump
surrounding the rotor, and thence to the governor                outlet unions and the fuel injector inlet unions with
metering valve. The position of the metering valve               sealing caps 18G216.
depends upon the setting of the control lever, which                Remove the external oil filter by unscrewing the two
varies the governor spring pressure on the valve. Any            bolts which secure it to the crankcase.
 variation in pump speed is accompanied by an increase              Disconnect the accelerai.or and stop controls from the
 or decrease in transfer pressure, which will move the           levers on the pump and unscrew the two nuts to release
metering valve to increase or decrease the effective area        the stop control abutment bracket from the end of the
of the metering port, and so regulate the flow of fuel at        fuel injection pump.
metering pressure into the pumping section of the rotor.
The volume of fuel passing into the pumping element is
thus controlled by the transfer pressure, the position of
the metering valve, and the time during which an inlet
port in the rotor is aligned with the metering port in the
hydraulic head.
   When one of the rotor inlet ports is aligned with the
metering port in the hydraulic head fuel at metering
pressure flows into the rotor and forces the pumping
plungers apart, the amount of plunger displacement
being governed by the quantity of fuel which can flow
into the rotor while the ports are aligned. As the rotor
turns, the inlet port is cut off and the pump plungers
begin to be forced inwards by their rollers bearing on a
pair of cam lobes. This causes an immediate rise in
pressure, and as the single distributor port in the rotor        5
comes into register with an outlet port in the hydraulic
head the plungers force the fuel up the central bore of
the .rotor and out to the respective injector.
   The maximum amount of fuel delivered at one charge                                        Fig. D.l2
is controlled by limiting the maximum outward move-                               Maximum fuel adjustment
ment of the plungers. In Fig. D.12 is shown an end-on
                                                                   1. Top adjusting plate.         4. Pumping end of r·,t')r.
view of the rotor, and it will be seen that the cam rollers        2. RoUer shoe ear.              S. Pumping plunger.
are carried in shoes which bear against the ends of the            3. Roller;
D                                              THE FUEL SYSTEM

                                                              direction to take up any backlash in the injection pump
                                                              drive. Hold the gauge in this position and chrn: n,';: ti,e
                                                              timing pointer on the injection pump drive h!lb is in line
                                                              with the mark on the edge of the gauge. if n\:U;,i,;~ry.
                                                              slacken the two set screws and move the poiM:::' t') Ene
                                                              it up with the mark on the gauge. Tighten I.he :;eI SI ~',~W,S
                                                              to secure the pointer in the correct position and i ,,:,~(we
                                                              the timing gauge.
                                                                 NOTE.-After every occasion of injcclioll l"M,P re-
                                                              moval, or attention to the crankshaft, camshaft, or liming
                                                              gear, the position of the timing pointer on th(; injection
                                                              pump drive bub should be checked, and adjusttG, if nel:es-
                                                              sary, as described abol·e.
                                                                 Rotate the injection pump drive shaft and pr'<;;t!(,n the
                                                              master spline on the drive shaft at 7 o'clock, 'when
                        Fig. D.13                             looking on the drive end of the pump, with jh~ hydraulic
                                                              governor housing uppermost. This will facilitau: the entry
  Checkillg the position of the injection pump timing         of the drive shaft into the drive coupling on the engine.
          pointer, usillg timing gauge 18G629                    Place a new joint washer in position on the pump
                                                              mounting studs and offer up the injection pump to the
                                                              engine, engaging the pump drive shaft with the drive
   Disconnect the fuel feed and return pipes from their       coupling on the engine and fitting the lower securing
 union:;..og the fuel injection pump and plug these unions    nut and washer finger tight as the pump i$ pushed onto
 to prevent the ingress of foreign matter.                    the mounting studs. Fit the remaining two securing nuts
   Unscrew the three securing nuts with plain washers         and washers finger tight, and then rotate the body of the
and withdraw the pump from the engine.                        injection pump about its axis to line tip the timing mark
   When replacing the fuel injection pump on the engine       on the pump mounting flange with the timing }">ointer.
it is necessary to set the static injection timing so that    Tighten the three nuts to secure the injection pump in
the commencement of injection occurs when the pistons         this position.
are at 22° B.T.D.C. on their compression strokes.                Reassemble the remaining components, reversing the
   To ensure correct timing relationship between the          order of dismantling and ensuring that both the accelera-
injection pump and the engine the injection pump drive        tor and the stop control levers on the injection pump have
shaft and the drive coupling on the engine are provided       a full range of muvement when their rcspectt'!c controls
with master splines; also, a timing mark is scribed on the    are operated.
mounting flange of the fuel injection pump and a timing          Bleed the fuel system, as described ill SecLiGn D. IO,
pointer is secured to the injection pump hub in the           and start the engine.
   Before fitting the injection pump the position of the
timing pointer on the injection pump drive hub should be
checked, and adjusted if necessary, with injection timing
gauge 18G629. Crank the engine in the normal direction
of rotation until the master spline in the injection pump
drive coupling is in the 4 o'clock position;- No. 1. piston
will now be on its compression stroke. Continue to
crank the engine slowly until No. 1 piston is at 2r
B.T.D.C. on its compression stroke, as indicated by the
timing disc or timing mark on the crankshaft pulley, or
on later engines the timing plate (see Fig. A.20). Note
that the timing disc has two sets of graduations, and it is
the set, the zero mark of which is identified 1.4, which is
used for this operation. Check the position of the master
spline in the injection pump drive coupling, which should
DOW be at 5 o'clock (see Fig. A.29).
  Insert timing gauge 18G629 into the injection pump
drive hub, engaging the splined end of the gauge with
the internal splines of the drive coupling. The master
spline in the drive coupling will allow the gauge to                                  Fig. D.14
engage the coupling in one position only. Turn the gauge        Align the timing mark on the injection pllmp mOllntil
by hand (undue force is not necessary) in a clockwise              flange with the timing pointer 011 the drive hllb
                                                 TIlE FUEL SYSTEM                                                    D
Muimum ad idliDg speed adjustments                             Section D.IS
  Before making these adjustments it is imperative that
the air cleaner is correctly serviced and fitted, and the          DFSCRJPTION OF THE FUEL INJECl'ORS
engine run until it has attained its nonnal running
                                                                 The fuel injectors are of the Pintaux type, developed for
                                                               use with the Ricardo Comet V combustion chamber to
Maximllm speed                                                  assist starting under cold conditions. The Pintaus. nozzle
  (1) Slacken the locknut and unscrew the idling damper,        is a pintle-type nozzle having an auxiliary spny bole
      located 011 the top of the governor housing, two          which directs a spray of fuel into the hottest zone of the
      complete turns. Tighten the locknut to secure the        combustion chamber.
      damper in this position. This will prevent the idling        The nozzle consists of two parts, the nozzle valve and
      damper interfering with the operation of the             the nozzle body. The nozzle valve takes the form of a
      metering valve during the setting of the maximum         plunger aceurately lapped into the nozzle body to the
      speed.                                                   closest possible fit, within which it will work freely.
  (2) Using a tachometer to check the engine speed,            The inner end of the valve is reduced in diameter to
      adjust the maximum speed stop screw to give an           produce a stem upon which a valve face is formed, the
      engine maximum light running speed of 2500               stem being extended to form a pin or pintle which fits
      r.p.m. Fit the rubber plug, plug retaining plate, and    into a comparatively la.rpodiameter hole in the nozzle
      set screw (early pumps), or locking sleeve (later        body. The auxiliary spray bole is drilled in the nozzle
      pumps), and seal the screw with wire and lead seal,      body at an angle to the pintle hole, entering the nozzle
      using sealing pliers 180 541. Check and adjust the       seating below the line of contact between tbe valve and
      idling speed.                                            seat. Fuel is fed to the mouth of the nozzle through-
                                                               vertical drillings in the nozzle body which terminate in
Idling speed
                                                               an annular gallery just above the valve seating.
   (1) With the engine stopped, unscrew the idling
                                                                  The nozzles are beld in position in the cylinder . , .
       damper until it is known to be out of contact with
                                                               by suitably designed holders, a nozzle nut ~ the
       the metering valve. Tighten the locknut to secure
       the damper in this position.
   (2) Start the engine and adjust the idling stop screw to
       give an engine idling speed of 800 rpm.
   (3) Screw in the idling damper until the idling speed is
       increased slightly, then unscrew the damper one-
       third of a turn, and tighten the locknut to secure it
       in position.
   (4) Run the engine at about 2500 r.p.m. and release
       the throttle to test for stalling and slow de-
       (a) If the engine stalls, screw in the idling damper
            slightly and carry out a further test.
       (b) If deceleration is slow, the idling damper
            should be unscrewed slightly and a further
            test carried out.
   (5) Check the operation of the shut-otT control.
   NOTE.-After every adjustment of the idliDg damper
always ensure that the engine is not idling directly on the
idling damper.

 D                                                 THE FUEL SYSTEM

                                                                   pressure is higher and the valve is withdrawn from the
                                                                   pintle hole, allowing the bulk of the 'fuel to be discharged
                                                                   through it. A small proportion of fuel continues to be
                                                                   discharged through the auxiliary hole, which does not
                                                                   affect the engine performance, and prevents the formation
12                                     1-_---2                     of carbon in the hole.

                                                                   Section D.16

 IO---+~_                                                                      REMOVING AND REPLACING
                                                "'=:--- 5
                                                                                 THE 'FUEL INJECTORS
                                                                      Disconnect the high-pressure feed pipes from the
                                                                    unions on the nozzle holder bodies.
                                                               6      Unscrew the bolts, noting the copper sealing washers
                                                                   positioned on each side of the banjo-type unions, to
                                                                   release the fuel leak-off pipe from the injector nozzle
 8----                                                             holder cap nuts and the union on the main fuel filter
                                                  --------7        head.
                                                      _ .793
                                                                      Unscrew and remove the cap nut from each injector
                          Fig. D.27                                nozzle holder.
                Section through a fuel injector                       Remove the eight nuts and spring washers securing
                                                                   the nozzle holders to the cylinder head and withdraw
     I. Injector cap nut.             8. Nozl.le valve.            each injector in turn, using tool 18G491A. Assemble the
     2. Joint washer.                 9. Spindle.
     3. Locknut.                     10. Inlet union.              tool, using the appropriate centre screw adaptor and
     4. Joint washer.                11. Spring.                   the unthreaded legs. Place the leg locating sleeves over
     S. Nozzle holder.               12. Washer.                   the nozzle holder studs and position the tool with the
     6. Nozzle nut.                  13. Spring cap nut.           legs in the sleeves. Screw the centre screw adaptor onto
     7. Nozzle body.                                               the spring cap nut. Insert the tommy-bar into the small
                                                                   hole in the adaptor, ensuring that its free end bears
two components together, the faces of which are lapped             against one of the legs to prevent the adaptor turning,
to form a high-pressure seal.                                      and tighten the centre screw nut to withdraw the injector
   Each holder contains a spindle and spring which serve           nozzle assembly.
to retain the nozzle valve on its seating. The upper end of           If the injectors are to be removed for any considerable
the spring is located in an adjustable cap nut, enabling           length of time, seal off the f -,d t'~ed unions, using sealing
the pressure at which the valve is forced off its seating to       caps 18G216, and then wr:\t' each injector assembly in
be regulated. A fuel inlet connection is provided to accept        grease proof paper.
tile high-pressure piping from the injection pump and
the body of the holder is drilled to allow passage of the
fuel to the gallery in the nozzle body. A leak-off pipe is
connected to the small tapped hole in the top of the cap
nut to return the accumulation of fuel which leaks past
the nozzle valve to the Jow-pressure side of the fuel
system. This slight leakage of fuel also serves to lubricate
the nozzle valve.
   In operation, the pressure in the annular gallery in
the nozzle body is built up by the delivery of fuel from
the injection pump. When the pressure in the gallery
reaches injection pressure, determined by the spindle and
spring in the nozzle holder, the valve is raised from its
seating in the nozzle body and fuel is forced through the
pintle and auxiliary holes in the form of a finely atomized
spray. As the pressure in the gallery drops, injection into
the combustion chamber is terminated by the snap
Feturn of the nozzle valve onto its seating.
   At engine starting speed, when the injection pressure
is low, the valve is not lifted sufficiently to clear the                               Fig. D.28
pintle hole and the bulk of the fuel is discharged through           Withdrawing an injector nozzle, using Service ,-.,,,/
the auxiliary hole. At normal running speed the injection                                18G491A
                                              THE FUEL SYSTEM   D

                       Fig. D.29
  Section through the cylinder head, showing an injector
       nozzle heat shield and atomizer seal washer

   Remove the atomizer seal washers from inside the
injector nozzle heat shields and the nozzle holder sealing
washers from the cylinder head. If necessary, withdraw
the injector nozzle heat shields and sealing washers
from the injector bores in the cylinder head. Should
difficulty be experienced in removing the heat shields, it
may be found necessary to remove the cylinder head and
withdraw the combustion chamber inserts, as detailed in
Section A.IS, when the heat shields can be driven out
from the inside of the combustion chambers.
   Plug the injector bores in the cylinder head to prevent
the ingress of foreign matter into the combustion cham-
bers and cylinders.
   When replacing, thoroughly clean the injector bores
in the cylinder head and ensure that the copper sealing
washers are in good condition and will make a gas-tight
joint. Renew the atomizer seal washers, fitting them
with their two edges pointing downwards as shown in
Fig. D.29.
  Place the injector assemblies in position and tighten
the securing nuts evenly to the figure given in the
'GENERAL DATA' section, using torque wrench
  Reconnect the high-pressure feed pipes to the unions
on the nozzle holder bodies and refit the fuel leak-oft'
pipe, ensuring that the copper sealing washers are
positioned on each side of the banjo-type unions.


                OTHER OVERHAUL

        CONTENTS                                                           SECTION   PAGE
MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SySTEM.............                                  Q
    Activation by Keyswitch (1980 onwards) ................... Q.2
    Activation by Fuel Pressure .............................. Q.4
    Activation by Lube Oil Pressure .......................... Q.6

COOL! NG SYSTEM (EXTERNAL)...................                                  R

TRANSMISSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..       S
    Type SAO Manual.......................................... S. 9
    SAl and SAO Clutch Adjustments ........................... S.21
    SAl and SAO Reduction Units .............................. S.23
    Paragon P-21 Series, Hydraulic ........................... S.29
    Warner Hydraulic ......................................... S.35
    Short Profile Sailing Gear ............................... S.41

                  ACTIVATION BY KEY SWITCH
            This system is supplied on most Wester-
            beke engi nes begi nni ng r~ay. 1980. Essen-
            tially activation of the circuit is
            accomplished by the ignition position of
            the key switch. No oil pressure switch
            is required. The engine is preheated
            by depressing the preheat push button.
            The engine is cranked by turning the
            key switch to the right-most momentary
            Voltage is maintained to the instruments,
            fuel solenoid or fuel lift pump if sup-
            plied, and to other electrical devices via
            the ignition position of the key switch.
            Models which have a fuel solenoid or elec-
            tric fuel pump may be turned off via the
            key switch. Models with mechanical fuel
            lift pumps or no fuel solenoid are stopped
            by pulling a stop cable.
            The circuit is protected by a circuit
            breaker located near the starter. Any
            time excessive current flows, the circuit
            breaker will trip. This is a manually
            resettable breaker, and must be reset
            before the engine will operate electrically
            CAUTION - the builder/owner must ensure
            that the instrument panel, wiring and
            engine are installed so that electrical
            devices cannot come in contact with sea-
            The latest information regarding your
            engine1s electrical system is included
            on the wiring diagram shipped with the
            engine. Be sure to study this wiring
            diagram and all the notes thereon.
                                                                       ACTIVATION BY KEYSWITCH                                                    SECTION Q

                                                                                                                                      SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM.

                                                                                                                             IZYDC BofCI'TlEtlf

                                                                                                                                                     ~T.MTP   ®


                                        WIRING DIAGRAM.

                                                            NOT USED    BL"
                                              ®"U NOTE- 8               B 0
                                            W.T.SENDER         ON
       wA1'e;R TEMPT.
       ~rTCH             01 L ~ESSU"e
                                                               ON             @
           @             @SWITCIt                                             ALTERNATOR
           ~               ~
        i '¥----I:;j;f il
       'li I   @       ....
           ~OPTIONAL                -
           \..zJ   ALARM

                        f'UEL SOL. (w~a ONLY)


               L.- __

                                                                                           PRE-HEAT SOL.
      O.P.SENOER                        i   PRE-HEATER

                                                                                                               !tEE NOTE-A
NOT USED                                        ON                                              ~~l-l-IoII.IIIlIi....,r_+

                                                                                                                              ·   0


       (Push Button Start)
              This system is supplied on all four and
           six cylinder Westerbeke engines beginning
           January 1975. Basically, the system is
           very simple and eliminates the need for a
           separate switch position to activate the
           engine alarm system, when supplied.
              Starting is.accomp1ished by operation
           of the start push button which causes the
           starting motor to crank.
              Once the engine is running, fuel pres-
           sure developed in the low pressure side of
           the fuel injection pump operates a fuel
           pressure switch. Voltage is then applied
           to the alarm system (if supplied) and to
           the alternator for excitation and for all
              When the engine is stopped, fuel pres-
           sure drops and the fuel pressure switch
           removes voltage from these devices.
              When an engine is supplied with a pre-
           heating device, the device is energized by
           a separate push button.
           NOTE: It is important that your engine
           installation includes fuses or circuit
           breakers, as described under "Ownership
           Responsibility" on the wiring diagram
           supplied with your engine.
                                                                    ACTIVATION BY FUEL PRESSURE
                                                                        (PUSH BUTTON STARn

                      IN~T'AIJ"'t"'T    PANEL. AS5EM&LY                     'fIIl.1It VIC_'

                                                                                     @                           :
                                                                                          I TAC.H-HOUR           I        I
                                                                                          I "ETER        (i, I                                   :OrR!. .1w-,,~~ ~~~~,
                                                                                                                 I        I                        1~T1..T   5W           ~.IMl."f $lit     I
                                                                                                                 I        1                      1-                                         1
                                                                                                                 I        1
                                                                                                                 1        I                        1                                           I
                                                                                                                                                   L                                       J®
                                                                                                            _lI           I

                                                           . .-. .-. ."
                                                                                           .- ~


                                                                                                                              AL,;"H ...


                                                                                                                          :..,.                               ,. .
                                                                                                                          I                                               ~

. . . . .\6                                                                                                                                                      ..

                                                                                                                                                                              jt-M                                          I
                                 e                                                                                                    ,---.,
                                                                                                                                      '0 .....                                                                              I
                                                                                                                                                                               .1                                           I
                                                                                                                                      L. __ ...J
                                                                                                                                                                                 I                                          I
                                                                    ~[O    ·. ,.                                                                                                     I                                      I
                                                                                                                                                                      L-~~'---~~~--',,~4~/6r,--~I~~~~ --+
                                                                            · (!. -,,.                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                        &                                                                                                                   I
                                                            @                                                                                                                                                               I
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                                                                                                                                                                                                          ®                 I !
                                                                                                  u·p   ~!NO(~                                                                                         ~TARl         (FI    I ~
                                   :.IIIN   ",f,                                                                                                                                                       t t~.1   i'          I ·
                                                                                                        (!!l '
                                   .. feN -I'.

                                                                                         CHART FOR                    !;TARTER MOTORS .. rJ~                                  HEATERS

                  ,.. .I        ;'1.0: .. L·... "~
                                                             >  FRESH WATER
                                                ..... - - . - ENGINE OIL
                                                     I' - '------ IUSED ON HYD~
                                    HYDRAULIC~/':n"~ Cl RAULIC, GEAR
                                     QU. COOLER        'If            ONLY
                SECTION S



                            TYPE SAO MANUAL

The Westerbeke Paragon manually operated reverse gear units consist of a
multiple disc clutch and a planetary reverse gear train. The units are self con-
tained and are independent of the engine lubrication system.

On the forward drive, the reverse gear case and multiple disc clutch are locked
together as a solid coupling. The multiple disc clutch is locked or clamped by the
pressure produced when the shift lever is moved to the forward position. Thus the
propeller shaft turns in the same direction as the engine.
The reverse drive is obtained by clamping the reverse band around the reverse
gear case which contains the planetary reverse gear train. The reverse band is
clamped when the shift lever is moved and held in the reverse position. The
reverse motion is then obtained by driving through the gears thus turning the pro-
peller shaft opposite to the engine rotation.
With the shift lever in the neutral position the multiple disc clutch and the reverse
band are unclamped and the planet gears run idle and the propeller shaft remains
It is desirable to start the engine with the transmission in neutral, thus avoiding
moving the boat in either direction.
It is recommended that the shifting be done at speeds below 1000 RPM and prefer-
ably in the 800 RPM range or lower to prolong the life of the engine. transmission
and of the boat.
The trouble shooting charts below and on the next page should be studied and the
suggestions carried out prior to any disassembly to determine as well as possible
what the trouble may be. Also, the exploded views and the accompanying discus-
sions should be carefully read and understood so that any or all of the service work
as indi.cated from the trouble shooting charts may be carried out properly.

As in any servicing operation, cleanliness is a . . must and all rules for good work-
manship apply. Some of these rules are as follows:
    1. Use only clean fluid in any cleaning or washing of parts.
    2. Use only clean oil for lubrication when pressing parts together.
    3. Never use a hammer to drive ball bearings in place.
    4. Never press a ball bearing so that the force is carried through the balls.
    5. Use only properly sized wrenches in removing or securing nuts and cap-
    6. Replace gaskets and "0" rings with new material.
    7. Work on a clean bench and protect gear teeth and oil seal surfaces from
        nicks and scratches.

 NOTE: Remove the reverse and reduction gear as a complete unit before removing the
 oil to avoid fouling the bilges.
                                            TROUBLE SHOOTING CHARTS

  Ch art   1
                                                  GEAR DRAGGING
                                 DRIVE SHAFT ROTATES EITHER FORWARD OR REVERSE
                                           WITH SHIFT LEVER IN NEUTRAL

                                                   l    Check For


                                                                                   4. OVER ADJUSTMENT ON
  I 2. REVERSE BAND ENGAGING GEAR CASE I                                              FORwARD AND REVERSE


\. Forll.ard clutch r1ate 9.'arred and          stickin~.           b. I':n,:ine~ear hearin,:s lI.·orn excessively.
   Remove and rerlace clutch rlates.                                   causin~  misali,l!nment of en~ine shaft. Re·
                                                                       rlace necessary rarts. Check misaJi~nment
2. Imrruper reveue hand adjustment. Adjust
                                                                       of en~ine ,l!ear.
   reverse band as outlined under adjustment .
.~. Check the    fol109.'in~   items:                           4. Over·adjustment of t-ither forward and reverse
   a. /learin,l!s and ,l!ears worn excessively in ,l!ear           or hoth v.ill result in loss of neutral. Check
      case. Repl'lce necessary rarts.                              and readjust as outlined under adjustment.

  Chart 2
                                                 GEAR SLIPPING OR
                                                  SLOW TO ENGAGE
                                        WITH SHIFT LEVER IN FORWARD OR REVERSE

                                                   I   Check For


  I            1. wORN CLUTCH PLATES
                                                       I          I                3. WORN REVERSE BAND
                                                       J           I     4. REVERSE BAND NOT ENGAGING
I. Hemove forward clutch pldtes and check (or                   .\. Rern(lVe reverse hand and check for wedr. He·
   \\l'iIr. I{erlace if lI.orn excessively.                         place Iinin~ if \lorn helo9.' rivets.

2. Improper forward clutch adjustment. Adjust dS                .'1. Imrroper reverse band adjustment. Adjust as
   outl ined under ad justment.                                    outl ine.! under ad ju stment.
                                                     TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART

        Chart     a
                                                       GEAR INOPERATIVE
                                                 DRIVE SHAFT roES to()T ROtATE WITH
                                                SHIFT LEVER IN FORWARD OR REVERSE

                                                         I   Chord. For

                                         r                                                             I
                                                             I                      4. REVERSE BAND NOT
                                                                                       ENGAGING GEAR CASE
        I      2. FAILURE OF REDUCTION GEAR                  I                                         1
                                                                                    S. BROKEN OUTPUT SHAFT
        I      3·. FORWARD CLUTCH NOT ENGAGING               J
                                                                 REMEDY - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
  1. Hemo\'e r.e"ar c,,~e a!O~emhly and check for                         b. }-orward clutch plateli lI.orn. Heplace clutch
     defective or damn~l'd parcs. Replace clefective                         plate.-
     or ,Iamu,:ed parts.                                                4. Ched: the       followin~   items:
  2. Rl'm""e reduction J!l'ar assemhly and check for                       a. Improper reverse hand adjustmem~ ...\d;u~t
     defective or dama~ed parts. Replace defective                            reverse band as outlined under a
             ZINC #11885           REPLACE                         CLEAN/REPLACE

                                J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                AIION INDIJSTRIAL PARK, A liON , MASS. 02322· (617) 588-7700
                                            CA8LE: WESTCORP, AIION· TELEX: 92 -4444

PIN: 33577
                   SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:       December 5, 1984                                             BULLETIN NUMBER:        139
MODEL:      A11 Propul sion and Generator Model s
SUBJECT:       Hydro-Hush Muffl er Install ations
       The illustrations shown with this text should be used as a guide when making
       an installation of a Hydro-Hush Muffler.
       When used in conjunction with propulsion engine, the Hydro-Hush Muffler should
       be mounted close to the fore-aft center line of the boat. When used with a
       generator unit, the muffler should be as close as possible to the generator.
       All installations should be such that the entry of water into the engine exhaust
       manifold and cylinders is prevented while under sail and at various angles of
       heel, from following seas, when backing down, or any other condition.      .
       Units installed with the exhaust manifold/water injected exhaust elbow at or
       below the water line of the vessel must install a vent or syphon break in the
       sea water supply line to the water injected exhaust elbow. The seawater supply
       line must be looped above the water line a minimum of six (6) inches with the
       vent or syphon break installed at the top of this loop.
       The vented loop, when used, can be a mechanical syphon break as shown in the
       illustration or a simple tee arrangement with a small hose or tube (3/16-1/4
       inch 1.0.) routed to the transom exhaust discharge or to a separate thru-hull
       fitting located above the water line. This hose or tube must be routed in such
       a way that it will drain of water when the engine is shut down and allow air
       into the sea water supply hose and injection elbow.
       The syphon break or vent is installed to break the vacuum in the sea water
       cooling circuit and thereby discourage syphoning of sea water through this
       circuit, and subsequently filling of the exhaust and engine cylinders with
       sea water. When used, syphon breaks should be checked periodically for proper
       operation and should be installed in a location where, should they leak sea
       water, it would not leak onto the engine or its accessories.
       The syphon break or vent must be located above the vessel IS water line high
       enough so as to remain above the water 1i ne at ill angl es of vessel heel and
       The Hydro-Hush Muffler remains approximately 30% full of water after engine
       shut-down when there is a maximum of 48 inches of lift on the discharge side.
       The installation information given in this text is to be used as a guide only.
       Westerbeke cannot be responsible in any way for muffler installations. Wester-
       beke presumes the installer to have a basic knowledge of marine installation

                                       J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                       AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322·1617/ 588-7700
                                                  CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444


  Hydro-Hush Muffler Installations                                     Page 2

  Use as few right angle fittings as possible. The use of wire reinforced
  hose is recommended and the hose should be routed to produce the bends
  The use of 90 0 and 45 0 fittings contribute to the rise of engine exhaust
  back pressure. (Refer to the Unit Technical Manual for back pressure
  The exhaust hose diameters shown are minimums. Exhaust hose diameter for
  the discharge hose will have to be 'increased if the length of run from
  the Hydro-Hush Muffler to the thru-hull discharge is excessive (25 1 to 30 1
  depending on the number of bends).

                                                                        Page 3

                                          ENGINE INSTALLATIONS



                                                                                             Page 4
                                   GENERATOR INSTALLATIONS

                                                      Syphon Break _ _ _n
                                                                         r~ ....7l.----,--


                                                                                                      Raw Water

                                           Raw Water
       Generator Installations with       Intake - Thru
       exhaust manifold/water injected     Hull Fitting

       elbow at or below vessel water
                                            Generator Below Water Line
       1i ne.

                                                                                                        Raw Water

                                                    Raw Water
   Generator Installations with                    Intake - Thru
                                                    Hull Fitting
   exhaust manifold/water injected
   elbow minimum of 6 inches above          Generator Above Water Line
   vessel water line.
                     SERVICE BULLETIN
                                                                              BULLETIN NUMBER: 148
       The tachometer/hourmeter used in propulsion engine instrument panels contains
       two separate electrical circuits with a common ground. One circuit operates
       the hourmeter, and the other the tachometer. The hourmeter circuit operates
       on 12 volts/alternator charging voltage supplied to the (+) terminal on the
       back of the instrument.
       The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6-8 volts, fed from one of the
       diodes in the alternator and supplied to the "tach inp." terminal while the
       engine is running, and the alternator producing battery charging voltage
       13.0-14.8 volts D.C.
       The following are procedures to follow when troubleshooting a fault in
       either of the two circuits in the tachometer/hourmeter.
       FAULT                                               CHECK
       1. Inoperative             1.     Check for proper DC voltage between (+) and (-)
                                         A. Voltage present - meter defective - repair
                                             or replace.
                                         B. Voltage not present - trace (+) and (-)
                                             electrical connections for fault. (Jump
                                             12 Volts DC to meter (+) terminal to
                                             verify operation.)
       FAULT                                               CHECK
       1. Inoperative            1.    Check for proper AC voltage between "Tach Inp."
                                       terminal and (-) terminal with engine running.
                                       A. Voltage present - attempt adjusting meter
                                           through calibration access hole. No results,
                                           repair or replace meter.
                                       B. AC voltage not present - check for proper
                                           alternator D.C. output voltage.
                                       C. Check for A.C. voltage at tach terminal
                                           on alternator to ground.
                                       D. Check electrical connections from "tach
                                           Inp." terminal to alternator connection.

                                          J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                          AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617} 588-7700
                                                     CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444

PIN:    34791


   2.   Sticking     1. Check for proper A.C. voltage between IItach inp.1I
                        terminal and (-) terminal.
                     2. Check for good ground connection between meter
                        (-) Terminal and alternator.
                     3.   Check alternator is well grounded to engine
                          block at alternator pivot bolt.
   3.   Inaccurate   1.   With hand-held tach on front crankshaft pulley
                          retaining nut or strobe type tach read front
                          crank shaft pulley R.P.M. Set engine R.P.M.
                          with hand or strobe tach at 1500-1800 R.P.M.
                     2. Adjust tachometer with small Phillips type
                        screwdriver through calibration access hole
                        in rear of tachometer covered with translticent
                        plug. Zero tach and bring to R.P.M. set by
                        strobe or hand tach. (Verify R.P.M. at idle
                        and at high speed 2500-3000 R.P.M.) (Adjust
                        tach as needed.)

                                                    Tachometer Input
                                                      (AC Voltag~)

                         ( + ) Terminal
                     (Battery Voltage-DC)

Page 3                                          SERVICE BULLETIN #148

                     LATE MODEL TACHOMETER

         Replaces Earlier Model as Shown on Page 2 of this Bulletin

                                                      Access Hole for
                                                   Tachometer Calibration

                                                        ( - ) Ground Terminal

                                                           Tachometer Input
                                                             (AC Voltage)

                           ( + ) Terminal
                       (Battery Voltage-DC)

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