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Westerbeke Diesel W 120 Parts Manual


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   TECHNICAL                      MANUAL WESTERBEKE        Marine Diesel Engines        MODEL FOUR230                      70hp        MODEL SIX346                     115hp   Marine Diesel Generators        MODEL WPDS30                        30kw        MODEL WPDS45                        45kw               Publication Number 13315              Issue Date         June 11975                         Edition 2jrv WESTERBEKE    J            MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK         150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319   TECHNICAL                      MANUAL  WESTERBEKE        Marine Diesel Engines        MODEL FOUR230                      70hp        MODEL SIX346                     115hp   Marine Diesel Generators        MODEL WPDS30                       30kw        MODEL WPDS45                       45kw              Pu bl i cat ion Number 13315              Issue Date         June 1 1975                         Edition 2rv WESTERBEKE    J          MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK        150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319                               INTRODUCTION                                           This manual describes the operation adjustment and maintenance of theWesterbeke Model SIX346 and FOUR230 Marine Diesel Engines and is designedto be a guide for those concerned with the operation and maintenance of thesediesel enginesThe diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine inasmuch as the mechanism is essentially the same Its cylinders are arranged above its closed crankcase its crankshaft is one of the same general type as that of a gasoline engineit has the same sort of valves camshaft pistons connecting rods and  diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine however in the method ofhandling and firing its fuel Carburetor and ignition systems are done away withand in their place is a single component  the Fuel Injection Pump  which performs the functions of bothTherefore it follows to a great extent that a diesel engine requires the samepreventive maintenance as that which any intelligent and careful operator wouldgive to a gasoline engine The most important factors are proper maintenance ofthe fuel lubricating and cooling systems Replacement of fuel and  elements at the time periods specified is a must and frequent checking  i e water sediment etc in the fuel system is also  important factor is the use of High Detergent diesel lubricating oildesigned specifically for diesel engines and continued use of the same brand o f     lubricating oil is  care and attention at the factory have resulted in an engine capable ofmany thousands of hours of service What the manufacturer cannot control however is the treatment the product will receive in service This part rests  service parts are ordered always give complete description and partnumbers with engine model and number The engine model and number is stampedon the nameplate affixed to the exhaust manifold     Example        SIX346 Marine Diesel Engine No 57PS 1641  20801                                or         FOUR230 Marine Diesel Engine No 38PS 164139101 2                     TABLE OF CONTENTSENGINE IDENTIFICATION                           45INSTALLA TION DRAWINGS                          6ENGINE DESCRIPTION                              78GENERAL DATA                                    912INSTALLA TION                                   1318OPERATION                                                                            2427COOLING SYSTEM                                  2932FUEL SYSTEM                                     334OBENGINE                                          4171HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS                         7392GENERATOR                                       94117VOLTAGE REGULATOR  POWER CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM   118MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT ROTARY SWITCH       119125                                                          3ENGINE  I N E   IDE NT I FICA T ION                            5                                                                            INSTALLATION DRAWINGSRATIO DIM A DIM 8 IOFFSET1501 16118 i 450               85                                                                         aNLU2041 cuB   1450S21 6150 525                               I 130                                 190                                                                                                              wJm         3CO1 6150   525             210                            125                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CONN                  1156                                                                                                                                                                 1   11 EtIJNE             1 0fc5f r             iI                                                                                                                                             rLEX                  RAPIUS            9I2RL                                                                 i               1                                                                                                 MfG CENTERS                                                                                                                                                             B9LTS OB                             lli                                             1                                                                                            i      FO                                L A512IRE                                                                                                                                                    LAGRE                                                                                                  T     RIV     I                                                                                                 DIPSTICK CAN BE                                                                                                 QJ EITHER SIDE                                                                                                        SIX346   RATIO    DIM A DIMS OFFSET   1501   5156       450         85   2041   5156       450        130   2521   5187       525        190   3001   5187       525        210            WATER         QVLLT       iJP FA                                                                                                                                          FLEX   MOUNTING CENTERS                                                                                                                                          EQR BOLTS OR LAG SCREwS                                           3062j                                     8                            1        4550RCTlReyV  I              AI                                                                                             T                                                                                                        FOUR230     6                                               ENGINE       DESCRIPTION                                         fitted to the front of the crankshaft     The   Westerbeke Six346 and        Six346 engine only to absorb crankFour230 Marine Diesel engines are       shaft vibrations A lip type oil sealdirect injection six cylinder four     mounted In a onepiece housing sealsstroke units and four cylinder four     the rear main bearingstroke units respectively     Right hand side or left hand     TIMING GEARS AND TIMING CASEside means the side of the engine as         A train of gears is utilized toseen from the flywheel end              drive the camshaft and the fuel injec                                         tion pump The camshaft drive gearCYLINDER BLOCK AND CRANKCASE             is mounted on the steel camshaft by    The cylinder block and crankcase     means of a separate hub and nut Anis a one piece casting employing        idler gear transmits the drive fromdetachable wet liners sealed at their   the gear on the crankshaft to both thelower end by synthetic rubber 0 rings   camshaft and the fuel injection pump                                         drive gearsCYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES                                         PISTONS AND PISTON PINS     The cylinder head carries thevalves valve rocker gear and injec          The pistons are attached to thetors it is completely water jacketed    connecting rods by fully floating pistonaround the ports and injector sleeves   pins and are equipped with threeThe air induction manifold and the       compression and one scraper ringexhaust manifold are mounted on          The top compression ring on eachopposite sides of the cylinder head     piston is chromium inserted to give                                         greater wear resistance rapid seatingThe valves are set vertically in the                                         and extended lifecylinder head and are operated throughthe medium of the rocker gear pushrods and tappets from the camshaft      LUBRICATING OIL SUMPThe inlet valves are larger in diame         The oil sump is fitted with ater than the exhaust valves and are      suction tube extension combined withshrouded to assist air swirl        on   the dipstick tube from which the oilinduction                               may be removed by a suction pumpCAMSHAFT                                 LUBRICATING SYSTEM     The camshaft is mounted in the           The rotortype oil pump gearcrankcase running directly in the       driven from the front of the crankcrankcase bores with the exception of    shaft is mounted on the front mainthe front which runs in a whitemetal   bearing cap and incorporates an oilbearing   Camshaft endfloat is con    pressure relief valve in the pumptrolled by a thrust plate between the    bodycamshaft shoulder and the camshaft                                              Oil is drawn from the sumptiming gear                             through a strainer to the oil pump                                         From the pump the oil is                                through an external oil filter via a    The crankshaft for the Six346       housing attache to the  is mounted on seven replace      From the outlet side of the filter oilable main bearings and the Four230     is fed under pressure through theengine is mounted on five replaceable    oil cooler to the main oil gallerymain bearings in the crankcase End      Drillings from the main gallery feedthrust of the crankshaft is taken by     oil to the crankshaft main bearingsthrust washers on the front main bear   and camshaft bearings and a drillinging A torsional vibration damper is     across the front of the crankcase                                                                             7ENGINE        oil to the idler gear shaft to             The atomisers fuel injectors arelubricate the idler gear bearings An       located on the right hand side of theoil jet screwed into this drilling lubri   cylinder head in an accessible positioncates the train of timing gears            They are retained in the head by     From the crankshaft main bear         flanges secured with nutsings oil is fed through the crankshaftto the bigend bearings Oil splash         INDUCTION MANIFOLDfrom the crankshaft lubricates the               The induction manifold is made ofgudgeon pins and cylinder walls            diecast aluminum on the right hand     An external pipe feeds oil from        side of the cylinder head and an airthe main gallery through drilling in        filter is fitted in this manifoldthe cylinder head and  brackets to the hollow centers       EXHAUST MANIFOLDof the rocker shafts Oil pressure in            A water cooled exhaust manifoldthe rocker shafts is controlled by a        is fitted to the left hand side of thepressure relief valve fitted on the         cylinder head The water is not infront intermediate rocker bracket          direct contact with the exhaust gasesThe rocker bearing surfaces are             but circulates in an outer jacket formlubricated by oil from the rocker           ing the coolant expansion tankshafts   and oil mist in the rockerchamber provides the necessary valve        COOLING SYSTEMguide lubrication                                                 Two methods of indirect fresh     Discharged oil from the valve          water cooling are available  and relief valve drains down        to customers requirements Freshthe pushrod tunnels and lubricates         water is circulated round the enginethe tappets and cams before returning       by a centrifugal type water pump andto the sump                                this water is in turn cooled by either a                                            heat exchanger or keel cooling pipesFUEL INJECTION SYSTEM     A distributor type fuel injection      ELECTRIC SYSTEMpump is flange mounted on the right               Twelve volt electrical equipmenthand side of the cylinder block and        is fitted to the enginedriven by a splined shaft                                                  The 12 volt 55 ampere alternator     An automatic device is incorpo        is mounted on the left hand side of therated in the fuel injection pump to         engine    and is belt driven from theadvance or retard the point of fuel         front end of the crankshaft Belt teninjection according to changes of           sion is adjusted by means of an adjustengine speed                               able link and pivot pin      The engine speed is controlled              The flange mounted starter motorby a mechanical type governor incor        is fitted on the right hand side of theporated in the fuel injection pump the     engine in accessible positionspeed control lever being located ontop of the fuel pump together with anengine fuel stop lever     A fuel lift pump of the diaphragmtype and equipped for hand priming isfitted on the cylinder block on the lefthand side of the engine The pump isoperated by an eccentric from thecamshaft 8                                                            GENERAL           DATA                                   GENERAL DATATypes                                     Six346 115 HP  2600 rpm                                         Four230 70 HP  2500 rpm   Bore                                   3 937 in 100 mm    Stroke                                 4 724 in 120 mm    Capacity               Six346                     345 3 cu in               Four230                    231 cu in   Compression ratio       Six346                            168 1        Four230                         168  1   Torque       Six346                            255 lb ft 35 26   kgm  1750 rpm        Four230                         174 lb ft 2406    kgm  1400 rpm   Cylinder liner bore diameter          37401 to 37409     in 9500 to 9502 mm   Thickness of liner shims            003 and 005 in    076 and 127 mm    Piston to bore clearance on thrust    face at bottom of skirt               0055 to 007 in 139 to 18 mm   Piston ring groove clearance           0095 to 011 in 24 to 28 mm       Remainder                           002 to 004 in 051 to 102 mm   Piston ring fitted gap                  014 to 020 in 36 to 51 mm       Remainder                           011 to 016 in 279 to 406 mm   Gudgeon pins        Fit in piston                     0005 in 013 mm interference to                                              00025 in 006 mm  clearance        Pin to smallend bush clearance      0005 in to 0013 in 013 to 033 mm   Connecting rods       Length between centres            8185 to 8187 in 20790 to 20795 mm       Permissible out of parallel of        big and smallends                0001 in per inch 0001 cm per cm                                              effective mandrel length                     Bigend bearing to crankpin           clearance                      0015 to 0030 in 04 to 08 mm          Connecting rod to crankshaft           sideclearance                008 to 012 in 2 to 3 mm          Littleend bush bimetal           wrapped type inner diameter    137525 to 137575 in 34931 to                                             34944 mm    Crankshaft and main bearings       Journal diameter                   32495 to 3250 in 8254 to 8255 mm       Crankpin diameter                  26245 to 26250 in 6666 to 6667 mm       Undersizes                         015 in 030 in 045 in                                            381 mm 762 mm 1143 mm       Bearing to crankshaft journal        clearance                          002 to 004 in 05 to 10 mm   Rear oil seal cover to oil return    thread clearance                       0070 to 0085 in 0178 to  216 mm                                              all round   End float controlled by thrust    ashers       Four230                           006 to 010 in 15 to 25 mm       Six346                             006 to 013 in 015 to 33 mm                                                                                    9GENERAL         DATACamshaft and bearings   Bearing to camshaft clearance        No 1 bush                          0015 to 0040 in 038 to 102 mm         Remainder                          00275 to 00475 in 0698 to 1206 mm   No 1 bush inner diameter     finished in position                  19995 to 20010 in                                                50787 to 50825 mm     Endfloat controlled by thrust plate    002 to 012 in 051 to 305 mm Cam lift                                      261 in 663 mm Timing gears    Backlash                                  004 to 006 in 102 to 152 mm    Number of teeth          Crankshaft gear                    25          Camshaft gear                      50          Fuel injection pump gear            50          Idler gear                          58    Idler gear bush inner diameter      finished in position                 1125 to 11255 in 28575 to 28 588 mm    Idler gear bush to shaft clearance       001 to 002 in 025 to 051 mm     Thickness of idler gear thrust washer 068 to 070 in 173 to 178 mm    Oil feed jet diameter                     062 in 159 mmCylinder head and valve mechanism    Valve timing Six346 with 021 in 53 mm  rocker clearance                      Four230 with 019 in 48 mm rocker clearance    Inlet valve Opens                       212 0 B T D C                   Closes                    4212 0 A B D C    Exhaust valve     Opens                  37120 B B D C                       Closes                 7120 A T D CValve seat angle cylinder head and valve 45 0Valve seat face width                         055 to 070 in 140 to 178 mm Valve stem to guide clearance                001 to 0025 in 025 to 064 mm Valve stem to rocker clearance  hot or cold                                 013 in 33 mmValve lift                                   430 in 1092 mmValve springs                                    Inner                      Outer    Free length                               18 in 45 72 mm   2 25 in 57015 mm    Fitted length                              1594 in 40487 mm 1 875 in                                                                        47625 mm      Load to compress to fitted length       valve open                          40 lb 18 14 kg      90 lb 4082 kgRocker to rocker shaft clearance              001 to 002 in 025 to 051 mmRocker spacer sizes   Six346                                   243 to 250 340 to 343 and                                                8055 to 8125 in                                                6017 to 635 864 to 871 and                                                2046 to 2064 mm       Four230 between each rocker                   and bracket              290 to 297 in737 to 753 mm                 between each pair of                   rockers                   8055 to 8125 in 2046 to 2064 mm       Tappet to gUide clearance              0005 to 0023 in 013 to 058 mm       Flywheel and starter ring          To fit starter ring to           flywheel heat to      Six346   275 0 C527 0 F                                  Four230   350 0 C 662 0 F 10                                                           GENERAL           DATAIniection pressure                        175 atmospheres 2570 ps    0      Add 5 atmospheres to the opening pressure when setting new injectors or      fitting new springs to allow for settling of the components Injector securing bolts                       144 lb in 1 7 kg mOil pump     Driving shaft to pump body clearance   0025 in 063 mm maximum     Endfloat of pump rotors           0020 to 0045 in 051 to 114 mm      Backlash between driving and driven       gears                             004 in 102 mm      Pump body to bearing cap shim       thicknesses                       002 and 003 in 051 and 076 mm     Number of teeth on driving and       dri ven gears                       46Main oil relief valve     Spring free length                     21764 in 57 6 mm     Spring fitted length              2 in 508 mm      Load to compress spring to fitted       length                              11 lb 12 oz 533 kg Rocker gear oil relief valve     Spring free length                     34 in 19 mm     Spring fitted length                  58 in 159 mm     Load to compress to fitted length      3 oz 85 gm      Diameter of ball                      236 in 6 mm Oil pressure engine hot     Idling speed                           10 to 15lbsqin 7 to 105 kgcm 2      Normal running speed                  35 to 60 lbsq in 246 to 422 kgcm 2 Oil capacity     Six346                                11 5 qts     Four230                                8 qtsCOOLING SYSTEMWater pump    Fan hub pump spindle fit                0015 to 0028 in 04 to 07 mm                                              interference    Impeller to pump spindle fit           0010 to 0023 in 03 to 06 mm                                               interference    Impeller vane to impeller housing      clearance                             010 to 021 in 25 to 53 mmThermostat    Opening temperature        Bellows type                       77 to 800 C 170 to 176 0 F     Fully open temperature        Bellows type                       94 0 C 201 0 FTORQUE WRENCH  head nuts                         I 200 lb in 13 8 kg m Cold                                            I 080 lb in              HotCrankshaft pulley nut Four230            3 000 lb in 34 56 kg mMain bearing bolts Four230               1200 lb in 13 8 kg mBig end bolts Four230                   720 lb in 8 3 kg mMain bearing studs                         600 lb in 70 kg m                                                                                   11GENERAL                   DATAMain bearing nuts     Slotted type                                                            1000 lb in 11 5 kg m      Nyloc type                                                          1200 lb in 138 kg mConnecting rod bolts                                                     700 lb in 8 1 kg mExhaust manifold nuts Six346                                             350 lb in 4 kg m                         Four230                                         600 lb in 6 91 kg mValve rocker bracket bolts     516 in diameter                                                       180 lb in 2 1 kg m     38 in diameter                                                        350 lb in 4 kg mFlywheel bolts                                                       I 200 lb in 13 8 kg mC A V starter motor pinion stop nut                                       40 to 50 lb ft 5 6 to 7 0 kg mC A V distributor injection pump     Cam advance screw                                                      400 lb in 4 6 kg m     Transfer pump rotor                                                     65 lb in  75 kg m                                         RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS       ENGINE            atit          tOIIdititHII  Above 32 C 90 F                              CaIftI                              Castrol                                                                                          Essoftect                                                            MoIIII                                                           Delvac                                                                          SIleO                                                                           Shell                                                                                          BP                                                                                       VaneDus                                                                                                                                                                                                             Filtrate      Panther                                                                                                                                 rw                                                                                                                                  F1eetol                              CIlI30        HDX30           1130        1l0teDa S     SAE30          Diesel          30          HDX30                                                                          Oil 30                        30  32 C 90 F down       Castrol       Essofteet      Delvac         Shell        Vanellus       Filtrate      Panther       Fleetol   to12 C 10 F         CIlI 20       HDX20           1120       Ilotella S     SAE20          Diesel          20          HDX20                                                                       Oil2O20W                        20  12 C 10 F           Castrol      Essoftect       Delvac          Shell       VaneDus        Filtrate      Panther       Fleetol   down toISO C             CIlIIO       HDX lOW          1110        1l0teUa S    SAE lOW         Diesel          10          HDXIO                                                                         Oil lOW                       lOW      BelowISC 0 F     Castrol      Esso Extra     Mobiloil    Shell Winter                   Filtrate      Sternol                             CIl 5W20     Motor Oil      5W20         Special                      5W20          WW                                             5W20                     Motor Oil                                  Multiarade       Q53O                                                                        or SheD                                    5WlD                                                                      Super Motor                                                                       Oil 5W30        In addition to the lubricants listed we approve the UIe of the appropriate multiJrade oil supplied by the above compuiel for the      particular condition prevailinl down to ISO C 0 F Below ISO C 0 F usc a 5W20 oil or the curreat practice of the COUDtry      concemed      TRANSMISSIONS AND VEE DRIVE                 Hydraulic Transmissions                            Automatic Transmission Fluid Type                                                            Vee Drive                                      Heavy Duty Motor Oil SAE30 12                                                               INSTALLATION                                                                      position but must keep the engineIt is not the purpos e of this section to                                            within one or two thousandths of anadvise boatyards and engine installers      inch of this position at all times Iton the generally well understood and        has to withstand the forward push ofwell developed procedures for instal       the propeller which is applied to thelation of engines However the follow     propeller shaft to the thrust bearinging outline of general procedure is         in the engine and finally to the engineincluded because it is valuable in          bolts and engine bedexplaining the functions of each com       In fiberglas hulls we recommend thatponent the reasons why the pre           similar wooden stringers as in woodencautions to be watched and the rela        hulls be formed and fitted thentionship of the installation to the         glassed to the hull securely      Thisoperation of the engine      There are     allows hanger bolts to be  of the installation which should    firmly in wood thus reducing noiseha ve a periodic check and of which the     and transmitted  should have a  to ensure good operating      The temptation to install the engine onconditions for the engine and correct       a pair of fiberglas angle ironsprocedure in servicing the engine          should be resisted Such construction                                            will allow engine vibrations to passINSPECTION OF SHIPMENT                      through to the hull Flexible mounts                                            require a firm foundation againstThe engine is shipped from the factory      which to react if they are to do theirmounted upon heavy skids and properly       Jobcrated    Accessory equipment isshipped in a separate small box            RIGGING AND LIFTINGusually packed with the engine  upon arrival the ship         The engine is fitted with two liftingment should be inspected for possible       rings designed so that the engine mayaccidental damage in transit and for        be lifted without damage       Rope orany possible shortage in parts and         chain slings should be attached to the                                            rings and the engine lifted by meansequipment     Before accepting anyshipment from the transportation            of a tackle attached to this short sling                                            The lifting rings have been  the crate should be opened                                            to carry the full weight of the engineand an inspection for concealed                                            therefore auxiliary slings are notdamage made If either visible or                                            required or  damage is noted requirethe delivering agent to sign Received     The general rule in moving engines isin damaged condition This is your         to see that all equipment used isprotection against loss    Claims for      amply strong and firmly fixed insuch damage must be made to the             place Move the engine a little at acarrier not to J H Westerbeke Corp      time and see that it is firmly sup                                            ported Eliminate possibility of acciFOUNDA TION FOR ENGINE                      dents by avoiding haste Do not liftA good engine bed contributes much          from the propeller coupling or prytowards the satisfactory operation of       against this with crowbar as you maythe engine The engine bed must be          distort the couplingof rigid construction and neither           In some cases it may be necessary todeflect nor twist when subjected to         lift the engine in other than the regularengine weight or the position the boat      horizontal position It may be that themay have to take under the effects of       engine must be lowered endwiserough seas   The bed must not only         through a small hatchway which cannotsupport the engine firmly in exact          be made larger If the opening is                                                                                 restricted it is possible to       the key be properly fitted both to thereduce to some extent the outside            shaft and the coupling The key  such as cooling piping           fit the side of the keyway very closewater tank filters mounting lugs          ly but should not touch the top of theetc This accessory equipment should         keyway ir the hub of the couplingbe removed by a competent mechanic           If it seems difficult to fit the couplingand special care should be taken to          over the shaft the coupling can beavoid damage to any exposed parts or         expanded by heating it in a pail ofthe entrance of dirt where openings          boiling water The face of the prohave been made The parts which              peller coupling must be exactly perhave been removed should be returnedto position as soon as the restricted        pendicular to the center line or axis                                             of the propeller shaftopening has been passedIn case it is necessary to hoist the          either front end upwards or           The type and size of propeller variesreverse gear end upwards the at             with gear ratio and must be  of slings must be done verycarefully to avoid the possibility of        to fit the application based upon boat                                             tests To utilize the full power of thedamage to the parts on which the             engine and to achieve ideal loadingweight may come      It is best ifspecial rigging work be done by              conditions it is desirable to use asomeone experienced and competent            propeller which will permit the engine                                             to reach its full rated speed on fullin the handling of heavy machinery          throttle This can be determined only                                             by actual trials of the pilot modelENGINE BOLTSIt is recommended that bronze hanger         ALIGNMENT OF ENGINEbolts of appropriate size be used            The engine must be properly andthrough the engine flexible mounts          exactly aligned with the propellerLag screws are less preferred because        shaft    No matter what material istheir hold on the wood is weakened           used to build a boat it will be found toevery time they are moved whereas           be flexible to some extent and the boatthe lag bolt stays in position and the       hull will change its shape to a greaternuts on top of the lag bolts are used to     extent than is usually realized when ittighten the engine down or are loosened      is launched and operated in the waterto permit the engine to be moved  The      It is therefore very important to checkbolt itself stays in position at all tlmes   the engine alignment at frequent interas a stud and the bond between the bolt      vals and to correct any errors whenand the wood is not weakened by its          they may appearremoval                                             Misalignment between the engine andPROPELLER COUPLING                           the propeller shaft is the cause of                                             troubles which are blamed often onEach Westerbeke Diesel engine is             other causes It will create  with a suitable coupling for con     bearing wear rapid shaft wear Bndnecting the propeller shaft to the           will in many cases reduce the hfeengine The coupling is very carefully       of the hull by loosening the hullmachined for accurate fit The for          fastenings    A bent propeller shaftward end of the propeller shaft has a        will have exactly the same effect andlong straight keyway and any burrs           it is therefore necessary that theshould be removed from this end            propeller shaft itself be perfectlyThe coupling should be a light drive         straightfit on the shaft and the shaft should nothave to be scraped down or filed in          One particularly annoying result oforder to get a fit It is important that     misalignment may be leakage of 14                                                                oil through the rear oil        service for one to three weeks and if seal While it is possible for this type    necessary the alignment remade Itof leakage to be caused by defective         will usually be found that the engine isparts one should always first check         no longer in alignment This is notthat alignment is within the limits          because the work was improperly doneprescribed                                  at first but because the boat has taken                                             some time to take its final shape andThe engine should be moved around on         the engine bed and engine stringersthe bed and supported on the screw          have probably absorbed some moisturejacks or shims until the two halves of       It may even be necessary to realignthe couplings can be brought together        at a further periodwithout using force and so that theflanges meet evenly all around It is        The coupling should always be openedbest not to drill the foundation for the     up and the bolts removed whenever thefoundation bolts until the approximate       boat is hauled out or moved from thealignment     has     been    accurately     land to the water The flexibility ofdetermined                                  the boat often puts a very severe                                             strain on the shaft or the coupling orN ever attempt a final alignment with        both when it is being moved In somethe boat on land The boat should be         cases the shaft has actually been bentin the water and have had an oppor         by these strainstunity to assume its final water formIt is best to do the alignment with the     WATER  and water tank about half full andall the usual equipment on board           Seacocks and strainers should be ofTake plenty of time in making this          the full flow type and of a size at leastalignment and do not be satisfied with      equal to the inlet pipe of the sea wateranything less than perfect results         pump see installation drawing TheThe alignment is correct when the           strainer should be of the type whichshaft can be slipped backwards and          may be withdrawn for cleaning whileforward into the counterbore very           the vessel is at seaeasily and when a feeler gauge indi        Water lines can be either copper tubingcates that the flanges come exactly         or reinforced rubber hose In any casetogether at all points The two halves      use a section of flexible hose hose thatof the propeller coupling should be         will not collapse under suction  within 0001 in if possible      the hull inlet and engine and outletHowever     the maximum allowable          before it enters the exhaust line so astolerance must not exceed 0001 in         to take up vibrations and permit theper inch of coupling O D                  engine to be moved Slightly when it isIn making the final check for align        being realigned All pipe and fittingsment the engine half coupling should       should be of bronze or brass Usebe held in one position and the align      sealing compound at all connections toment with the propeller coupling            prevent air leaks        The neoprenetested with the propeller coupling in       impeller in the sea raw water pumpeach of four positions rotated 90          should never be run drydegrees between each position Thistest will also check whether the pro       EXHAUST SYSTEMpeller half coupling is in exact align     Exhaust line installations vary conment on its shaft Then keeping the        siderably and each must be  coupling in one position the      for the particulCLr job The  should be checked rotating        requirements are to provide an outletthe engine half coupling to full position   line with a minimum of  90 degrees from the next one          and arranged so that sea water rainThe engine alignment should be re          water or condensation cannot get backchecked after the boat has been in          into the engine There should be a                                                                                  fall in the line between     mount the tank above the engine levelthe exhaust manifold flange and the       as the fuel lift pump provided willdischarge end This slope in the pipe     raise the fuel from the tank Themakes it difficult for water to be        amount of lift should be kept minimumdriven in very far by a wave and a       6 feet being maximum If a tank issteep drop followed by a long slope is    already installed above engine level itbetter than a straight gradual slope     can be utilized in this position GreatAvoid any depression or trough to the     care should be taken to ensure that theline which would fill with water and      fuel system is correctly installed soobstruct the flow of exhaust gas Also    that airlocks are eliminated and preavoid any sharp bends                    cautions taken against dirt and water                                          entering the fuelBrass or copper is not acceptable forwet exhaust systems as the combina      A primary fuel filter of the water coltion of salt water and diesel exhaust     lecting type should be installed betweengas will cause rapid deterioration       the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump ACast iron or wrought iron pipe is         recommended type is available  for the exhaust line         the list of optional extras The mainThe exhaust line must be at least as      fuel filter is fitted on the enginelarge as the engine exhaust manifold      between the fuel lift pump and theflange refer to Installation Drawing   injection pump and has a replaceable                                          elementTo insure vibration doesnt transmitto hull use a flexible section prefer    As the fuel lift pump has a capacity inably of stainless steel no less than     excess of that required by the injection12 in overall threaded at each end       pump the overflow is piped to the fueland installed as close to the engine as   tank and should be connected to the toppossible This flexible section should    of the tank or as near the top asbe installed with no bends and be          covered The exhaust pipeshould be properly supported by           ELECTRICAL  to eliminate any strain on       Starter batteries should be situated asthe manifold flange studs        Many    close to the engine as possible   use    flexible  rubber    avoid voltage drop through long leadsexhaust hose for the water cooled sec    It is a bad practice to use the startertion of the exhaust line because of the   batteries for other services in theease of installation and flexibility     boat unless these are light or veryProvide adequate support for the          intermittent     In cases where thererubber hose to prevent sagging           are substantial loads from lightsbending and formation for water          refrigerators radio depth                                   etc  it is essential to have a completeAlways arrange that water discharge       separate system and to provideinto the rubber hose section is behind    charging current to this from ana rlser or sufficiently below the       auxiliary generator driven from theexhaust flange so that water cannot       power take off at the front of thepossibly flow back into the engine       engine Starter batteries must be of a                                          type which permit a high rate ofFUEL TANK AND FILTERS                     discharge Diesel startingFuel tanks should preferably be of        Carefully follow the  steel or terne plate reinforced    wire size shown in tlle wiring diagramsglass fiber is also suitable Be cer    Fig 1 Plan the installation so thetain that the interior is gelcoated to   battery is close to the engine and useprevent fibers from contaminating the     battery cable sizes as indicatedfuel system It is not necessary to16                                                                                                                                                                          DErAIL                                                                                                                                                                                                     ro    START SWITCH                                                                                                                                                                                                            T82                                                                                                                                                                              A  ETR                                                                                                                                                                                                            55                                                                                                                     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                                                 SPARE                                                                   1                                                                                                                                                        8ATTERY                                                                                                                            111                                                                                                                                                                                                                              RETURN                                                                                                                                                I            MODEL  6346                                                                                                                                            I            TERINA 5TARTER INTEGRAL ENGAGE ENT 50LENOID 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                                                                                                             T822                                                                                                                                                                                                           CASE RETURN CONNECTION                                                                                       F5   r                                 CRllop   IQP IWT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       II                                            NI                            I I                           iII                         i                                                                                                                                                                   TO SENDERS                     DC NEATlVE RHJRN                                                                                                                                                                   OPGT823                       T825                                                        q                                                   1                                            SNQT 2                                                                                                                                                             1                                                                                                            I ll                                                                                                             1 I lJ I                                                                                                                                                                   WTG T824                                                                                                                                                                                        DETAIL      oB                                                                                                                                                                              AR VIEW PcAL IA C     ENGINE MODL 4107     WITH TWOTERMINAL     STARTER SEE DETAIL A                                                          ENGINE                                                                                                                                                                  NOTES     fOR OTHER ENCOINES                                                                                       NOTE       BATTERY fADS                                L THIS DRAWIN IS FOR USE ON CONTROL                                                                                                                                                                          PANELS USIN FARIA OIL IS WATER COAUGES                                                                                                                   1      FOR   OISTANa    UP TO    8 H                 USE 12889 FOR PANELS WITH VDO GAUGES                    DWG NO 17309                   NEGATIVE          GROUND                                      110   FOR   OISTANa    UP TO   10 H              2SENDRS 501 S02 ARE I WIRE 1I00Y RETURN TVPE                                                                                                                   10   FOR   DISTANCE   UP TO   13 FT                                                                                                                   JO    FOR   DlSTANa    UPTO    16 FT                3         SEE MOTOROLA INSTALLATIoN INSTRUCTIONS                                                              Fig 1           WIRING  AND OPTIONS                          position and controlled by a Bowdoin                                               wire or flexible sheathed cable to a1 PreWiring                                  pushpull knob at pilot station  includes the installation and       to starter button or key switch and thewiring of the following devices               throttle lever connected to a Morse                                               type lever at pilot station by a  regulator starting motor         ble sheathed cable Refer below tostarter solenoid instrument senders          transmission  terminal blocks pressureand temperature switches separate key          Transmission Control The controlswitch panel electric panel wiring            lever on the transmission housing hasharness and engine harness The two            three positions with detents  cables between engine         Forward     F   Neutral N      andkey switch panel and all electric panel        Reverse R This control lever maymeet or exceed ABYC Standards                 be connected to the pilot station by aChief advantages of prewiring are              flexible sheathed cable and  of wiring mistakes and             by Morse Type levers The singleminimum installation time                     Morse control lever gives clutch and                                               throttle control with full throttleALL ELECTRIC PANEL                             range in the neutral position The two                                               lever Morse control provides clutchMarine    instruments used include             control with one lever and  water temperature gauge               control with the otherand oil pressure gauge The instruments are back lighted vented and             Any bends in the control cables shouldnegative grounded   The instrument            be gradual and end sections at enginepanel should be mounted so that it is          and transmission must be  from direct contact with             mounted After the linkages are comsalt spray                                    pleted check the installation for full                                               travel making sure that when the2   Factory Installed Engine Alarm            transmission control lever at pilot     System Optional                         station is in forward neutral and                                               reverse the control lever on theThis alarm system to indicate the             transmission is on its  of high water temperature or         detent F against stop pin N detentlow oil pressure is designed and              and detent R against stop pin Checkinstalled on your Westerbeke diesel            throttle control lever and stoprunat the factory It consists of an audi        lever on fuel injection pump for fullble alarm to indicate either failure          travelthe alarm being part of the key switchpanel The high water temperatureand low oil pressure switches are setfor compatibility with the engine The            Throttle Control                                                    MaxIdlealarm system is energized by the keyswitch at the key switch panel and can                        be deenergized by the same keyswitch should the operator wish toturn off the  control and stoprun controlThe  fuelengine    supply       speed      to the engine             is controlled  by twoand      LJI Ir CIOJjIl                                      the                                     smalllevers on top of the fuel injection pumpwhich is mounted on the righthand                                       side of the engine refer to Fig 2                      The recommended practice is to havethe stoprun lever loaded to the run            Fig 2     FUEL INJECTION PUMP18                           OPERATION                                                                           FOR STARTING ENGINE AFTER INSTALLATION                       20BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM                                               20TO START ENGINE                                                 21WHEN ENGINE STARTS                                         21TO STOP ENGINE                                             22OPERATING PRECAUTIONS                                            22COLD WEATHER PRECAUTIONS                                      22                                                                               19OPERATION                                     for starting engine  The engine is shipped        BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEMdry that is with lubricating oil       One possible cause of the engine faildrained from the crankcase and             ing to start or erratic engine      The     following pro   eration is that air may have enteredcedure should be checked methodically      the system in which case bleedingbefore starting the engine for the first   of the system will be necessarytime                                      Before bleeding the system first1 Remove engine lubricating oil           insure that there is an adequate supplyfiller cap and fill oil sump with diesel   of fuel in the tank and that the  oil to the highest mark on     supply is turned onthe dipstick Select an approved grade     1 Slacken the bleeder screw securlisted in General Data and continue      ing the fuel injectors return pipe toto use it Do not overfill Replace        secondary fuel filterhead     Operatefiller cap                                the priming lever refer to note below2 Remove transmission breather cap        on the fuel lift pump when fuel oil34 in hex fitting Paragon transmis     issues from the bleeder screw free ofsion or filler plug Warner transmis     air bubbles tighten bleeder screwsion and fill housing with  fluid Type A to high        NOTE If the engine camshaft cammark on dipstick Do not overfill         driving the fuel lift pump is on maxi                                           mum lift it will not be possible to3 Remove expansion tank filler cap        obtain a full pumping stroke with theand fill tank with fresh clean water     priming lever and the engine shouldand or antifreeze refer to Cold         be turned with starter motor oneWeather Precaution to within one         complete revolutioninch of top of tank Replace fillercap Ensure cylinder block drain tap       2 Slacken the air bleed screw on theand heat exchanger petcocks are            side of the fuel injection pump situclosed                                    ated directly above the pump name4 Ensure storage battery water            plate Operate the lift pump priminglevel is at least 38 in above battery    lever and when fuel flows free of airplates and battery is fully charged so    bubbles tighten the bleed screwthat it is capable of the extra effort     3 Slacken the air bleed screw onthat may be required on the first          back of the fuel injection pump coverstart                                     behind the throttle lever Operate the5 Fill fuel tank with No 2 clean         lift pump priming lever and when fuelDiesel Fuel Oil No 1 is permissi        flows free of air bubbles tighten theble but No 2 is preferred because of      bleed screwits higher lubricant content              4 Slacken the union nuts at injector                                           end of each of the high pressure pipesNOTE If there is no filter in thefiller of the fuel tank the recom        5 IMPORTANT Position transmismended procedure is to pour the fuel       sion shift lever in neutral as enginethrough a funnel with a fine mesh         may start when corrpleting Step 8wire strainer                             6 Ensure fuel STOPRUN pushpull                                           control is in full run position6 Open valves in fuel line and bleedfuel system refer to Bleeding Fuel       7 Advance throttle to maximum openSystem                                   position for maximum fuel flow 20                                                                     OPERATIONB   Turn key switch to START posi        WHEN ENGINE STARTStion and in sequence when fuel oil        1 Check the Sea Water Flow Lookfree of air bubbles issues from each       for water at exhaust outlet Do thisinjector pipe union tighten each          without delay Heat Exchange Coolunion If engine should start during       ing System this procedure immediately movethrottle to idle speed                    2 Check Oil Pressure immediately                                           Normal oil pressure is  START ENGINE                            10 to 15 psi when idling 35 to 60 psi1 Position shift lever to neutral        at operating speeds2 Position fuel stoprun control to       3 Recheck Crankcase Oil After thefull run position                         engine has run for 3 or 4 minutes                                           subsequent to an oil change or new3 Advance throttle to maximum             installation stop the engine and checkto obtain maximum fuel for easier         the crankcase oil level           This isstarting                                 important as it may be necessary to4 Turn key switch to START posi          add oil to compensate for the oil that                                           is required to fill the engine I s internaltion and hold Release when engine         oil passages and oil filter Add oil asstarts See note below                  necessary Check oil level each day5 Immediately upon starting posi        of operationtion throttle to idle setting             4 Recheck Transmission Oil Level                                           This applies only subsequent to an oilNOTE Never operate the cranking           change or a new installation In suchmotor continuously for more than           a case stop the engine after running15 seconds If engine has not started     for several minutes at BOO rpm withstop cranking for 15 seconds The          one shift into forward and one intoengine should start within a few revo     reverse then add oil as  of the crankshaft if battery ischarged and the engine is receiving        5 Check temperature gauge Norfuel                                      mal operating temperature is belowThe cranking motor turning over fast       190 o Findicates the battery is charged If a     6 Recheck expansion tank waterbattery is charged and engine doesnt      level    This applies after coolingstart check fuel system as follows       system has been drained and refilled                                           Stop engine after engine has reached      a Ensure the fuel valve between     operating temperature of 170 to IBO o Ftank and engine is open                   add water and or antifreeze as re      b Ensure the stoprun         and   quired to within one inch of top ofthrottle control levers on the injection   tankpump are in their full run positions      c Check for leaks in fuel lines     WARNING The system is pressurized                                           when overheated and the pressure mustand at gaskets of fuel filters            be released gradually if the filler cap      d Determine if fuel is reaching     is to be removed It is advisable toinjectors refer to Bleeding Fuel          protect the hands against escapingSystem Steps 4 to B If fuel oil         stearn and turn the cap slowly counterdoesnt issue from union nuts at           clockwise until ihe resistance of theinjectors bleed complete system          safety stops is felt Leave the cap in                                                                                    position until all pressure is re      4 Do not run engine at high rpmleased    Press the cap downwards           without clutch engagedagainst the spring to clear the safetystops and continue turning until it can     5 Never Race a Cold Engine asbe lifted off                               internal damage can occur due to lack                                             of proper oil circulation7 WarmUp Instructions As soon             6 Keep the engine and accessoriesas possible engage the forward clutch        cleanand run the engine at reduced speed of       7 Keep the Fuel Clean Handle itBOO to 900 rpms until oil pressure          with extreme care because water andgauge indicates approximately 35 to          dirt in fuel cause more trouble and50 psi and water temperature gauge          service interruptions than any otherindicates 170 to IBOoF Warming up          factorwith clutch in neutral takes an unnecessarily long time                      B   Do not allow fuel to run lowB   Avoid prolonged idling                 because fuel intake may be uncovered                                             long enough to allow air to enter the9 Reverse       Operation    Always        fuel system      resulting in enginereduce engine to idle speed when shift      stoppageing gears However when the trans          9 Do not be alarmed if temperaturemis sion is engaged it will carry full      gauges show a high reading following aengine load                                 sudden stop after engine has been                                             operating under load This is causedTO STOP ENGINE                               by the release of residual heat from1 Move throttle lever to idle position     the heavy metal masses near the com                                             bustion chamber Prevention for this2 Position shift lever to neutral          is to run engine at idle for a short                                             period before stopping it High temNarE Idle engine for a few minutes to       perature reading after a stop does notdissipate heat gradually before shut        necessarily signal alarm against redown                                        starting   If there is no functional3 Position fuel pushpull stoprun        difficulty temperature will quicklycontrol to stop Control in stop posi       return to normal when engine istion functions by stopping fuel flow to      operatingthe injectors                                             COLD WEATHER  Key switch panel with STOPpushbutton switch depress push button      1 Precautions against damage by                                             freezing should be taken if the engineand hold until engine stops                 is to be left exposed to inclement                                             weather by adding an antifreeze of4        Turn key switch to OFF position   reputable make and incorporating a                                             suitable corrosion inhibitor As theseOPERATING PRECAUTIONS                        engines are equipped with high tem1 Never run engine for extended             perature thermostats a  when excessive overheating           type antifreeze with an Ethyleneoccurs as extensive internal damage          Glycol Base should be used Do notcan be caused                               use alcohol solutions2 DoNot Put Cold Water in an over          2 Draining Cooling System Removeheated engine It can crack cylinder         pressure cap from expansion tank andhead block or manifold                    open the drain tap turn counter                                             clockwise on righthand side of3 Keep intake silencer free from            cylinder block     next to flywheellint etc                                   housing     22                                          OPERATION         MAINTENANCE3 Filling Cooling System Determine capacity of cooling system           NOTE The strength of the  keel pipes if installed and   solution must be maintained by toppingfill cooling system with the correct      off with antifreeze if necessary useamount of antifreeze and water for the    tester when in doubtdegree of protection required towithin one inch from the top of the       4    Fuel filters must be checked moretank   Ensure drain tap is closed       often particularly the primary filterStart engine to circulate antifreeze      to remove all the moisture and condenand when temperature gauge indicates      sation separated from the fuel othernormal operating temperature stop        wise this may freeze and stop the fuelengine and add coolant as necessary      flow                                  MAINTENANCE                                                                             CHECKOVER                                                      24PERIODICAL ATTENTIONS                                                       24FILTER MAINTENANCE                                                          24PRESERVATION OF LAID UP ENGINE                                              26PREPARING THE ENGINE FOR RETURN TO SERVICE                                  27                                                                              23MAINTENANCE                                         CHECKOVER                          Every 100 HoursAfter a customer has taken delivery of                ReneN sump lubricating oil andhis engine it is advisable in his own          lubricating oil filter Refer to  that a general checkover of           Maintenance  Lubricating Oil Filter the engine be carried out after the                   Clean air intake filterfirst 25 to 50 hours in service                      Check alternator belt tensionThis checkover should comprise the                    Clean fuel filter water trap                                                      Clean battery terminals and applyfollowing points                                                 protective coating to terminal and con1 Renew sump lubricating oil and                 oil filter Refer to Filter              Check level of electrolyte  Oil Filter             battery2 If necessary adjust slow running                                                 Every 300 Hours or Once a Seasonspeed                                                      Renew final fuel filter3        Check external nuts for tightness                                                      Renew transmission lubricating4 Check cylinder head nuts are to               fluid Remove breather cap 34 inthe correct torque and check valve               hex fitting     Ins ert pump hose inclearances                                      breather fitting opening and pump fluid5 Check for fuel and lubricating oil            out of housing into a waste containerleaks and rectify if necessary                 Fill housing with Automatic Transmis                                                 sion fluid Type A to high mark on6 Check cooling system water level              dipstick Do not overfilland inspect system for leaks7    Check       alternator   belt   tension   NOTE Warner        Transmission     has                                                 filler plug8 Carry out test to check  of engine                           FILTER MAINTENANCE9 Check engine mounting bolts for               Air                                        The time period for cleaning the air10 Check all electrical connections             filter depends on operating conditionsand wiring for tightness and chafing            therefore under dirty conditions the                                                 time period of 100 hours recommended11 Check engine alignment to propeller shaft coupling                           for cleaning should be decreased The                                                 correct maintenance of the air  maintenance periods should            will greatly assist in reducing borebe in accordance with those given                wear thereby extending the life of theunder 11 Periodical Attentions 11               engine                                                 To clean the air filter proceed asPERIODICAL ATTENTIONS                                                 followsKEEP ENGINE CLEAN                                1 Unscrew the thumb screw securingDaily                                            the air filter to its manifold and re                                                 move filter      Check     sea water strainer      Check     cooling system water level      2 The element may be cleaned by      Check     oil level in sump               blowing compressed air from the in      Check     oil level in transmission       side to the outside Do not attempt to      Check     fuel level in fuel tank         clean the element by any other means     24                                                                         MAINTENANCEA strong light directed into the insideof the element and viewed from theoutside will reveal any damage to thepaper corrugations If the element isdamaged or shows a large deposit ofdirtl replace elementFuel Oil FiltersIt is essential to use clean diesel fueloil free from water or contamination                                           9r7Provided clean fuel oil is usedl notrouble should be experienced with thefuel system                                                                        91 The first filter should be a gauzetrap in the filler of the fuel tank thismust not be removed when fuel isbeing poured into the tank It should                                           10be taken out every 500 hours l cleaned lwashed in fuel o ill and  If there is no filter in the                                              111filler of the fuel tank the fuel shouldbe poured through a fine gauzestrainer or a piece of chamois                                                                         Fig   32 A primary fuel filter of the  or separating type should be                        Main fuel filter  between the fuel tank and the             I   Centre bolt                  7 Sealing ringfuel lift pump The filter should be                2   Washer                       8 0 ring                                                    3   Filter head                  9 Elementchecked and cleaned every 100 hours                4   Sealing plug                10 Sealing ringA recommended type is available from                5   Copper washer               11 Filter baseWesterbeke                                         6   Nonreturn valve3 The secondary fuel filter Fig 3is mounted to a bracket on the front         Lubricating Oil Filterright side of the engine It is an element type filter and must be replaced        The importance of clean lubricating oilevery 300 hours lJnless the condition       cannot be stressed too highly If theof the fuel warrants more regular            time period specified 100 hours forattention To remove filter element l        replacement of the spinontype filterproceed as follows                          element and the use of the same brand                                             of oil is used during oil changes l a     a Unscrew the center bolt on top       very long life can be obtained from theof the filter head and detach the base       engine   The spinontype filter isand filter element Discard element         secured to its filter head on the left     b Remove the sealing ring from         hand side of the cylinder block Tofilter base and the sealing ring and         replace filter l proceed as follows0 ring from filter head                   1 Run engine until oil is hot     c Wash base of filter in clean         2 Remove dipstickl and with the aidkerosene                                    of the hoses and flllmp suppUed l fit the     d Install new filter element l         38 in I D hose over the  rings and  a ring in reve rs e   tube and pump the oil from sump intoorder above      I                                             a waste container                                                                                                     25MAINTENANCE3 Place a drip pan under filter or a       Fill Sump      Fill sump with  bag completely over filter     detergent diesel lubricating oil to thecanister and turn spin on filter           high mark on dipstick Do not  to remove Discard        fill Refer to Recommended Lubrifilter                                     cants  and always use the same brand                                            of oil4 To replace filter coat the gasketon the filter with oil Place the filter    Sump Capacity       Six346 11 5 Qtsin position and hand tighten filter until                        Four230 80 Qtsthe gasket contacts the filter head        Fill Transmission Fill housing withthen advance onehalf turn                 Automatic Transmission Fluid Type5 Fill sump with the pproved             A to high mark on dipstick Do notLubricating Oil being used to high        overfillmark on dipstick Do not overfill          Drain Cooling System Remove presOil Capacity      Six346 11 5 Qts        sure cap from expansion tank and                  Four230 80 Qts         open drain tap turn                                             on right hand side of cylinder block6 Start engine run until normal           next to flywheel  temperature is  that filter joint is tight Shut   Filling Cooling System  down and add oil as required       the capacity of cooling system includ                                            ing keel pipes if inltalled and fill PRESERVATION OF LAID UP ENGINE             system with the correct amount of                                            antifreeze and water for the degree When a craft which is powered by a         of protection required to within onediesel engine is to be laid up for          inch from top of tank Ensure drain several months it is advisable that       tap is closedsome     measure of protection beafforded the engine to ensure that it       Remove the hex screw plug from sidesuffers no ill effects during storage      of heat exchanger and determine if                                            zinc rod in the plug needs replacingJust before hauling laying up top off     The zinc rod takes care of anyelecthe fuel tank completely so that no        trolysis in the salt water system andair space remains thereby preventing       should be checked every three monthswater formation or condensation            Replace plug with new rod if necessaryStart engine and run until normal operating temperature is reached shut          NOTE All threaded screw fittingsengine down                                must have sealing compound on threads                                            when replaced to prevent leakageRemove dipstick and with the aid ofthe hoses and pump supplied fit the        Start Engine Run engine until normal38 in 1 D hose over the dipstick        operating temperature is reached totube and pump the oil from the sump         ensure proper mixing of and circulainto a waste container                     tion of antifreeze During this proRemove breather cap 34 in fitting        cedure    exercise   transmission inInsert pump hose through breather           forward and reverse several cycles                                            below 800 rpm to ensure that the newfitting opening to bottom of housing        transmission fluid is properly circuand pump the oil out of the transmis       lated Also check new lube oil filtersion Warner gear has a filler plug      mating surface for leakageRemove and Replace Lubricating Oil          After shutdown check oil level in sumpFilter Place a drippan under filter       add lube oil if required to high mark onand turn filter  to        dipstick Check lubricating fluid inremove Hand tighten filter until the       transmission add fluid if required togasket contacts the adapter face then       high mark on dipstick Check level ofadvance filter onehalf turn 26                                                              solution in expansion tank     4 Connect batteries fully chargedadd antifreeze solution if required to     into circuitwithin one inch from top of expansiontank                                       5 Open valves in fuel lineTo ensure that any sea water left in the    6 Bleed fuel system refer tosea water cooling will not freeze an       Operation  Bleeding Fuel  solution should be runthrough the system and expelled at theexhaust pipe outlet as follows Closeinput throughhull fitting  hose from the seacock atits next connection Attach and securea separate length of hose to this connection the same I D as hose removedwith its other end in a container of50 percent antifreeze and  two gallons          Startengine Immediately check for flow ofantifreeze solution at exhaust outletBefore end of hose in container ofantifreeze is uncovered stop engineRemove hose from connection and reconnect and secure original hoseDrain exhaust pipe by removing drainplug if installed at the water cooledsection Replace drain plugRemove air filter Clean air intakefilter refer to Filter Maintenance Carefully seal air intake opening witha waterproof adhesive tape or someother suitable mediumSeal the exhaust outlet at transomChange and clean all fuel filtersClose all  batteries and store fullycharged in a cool location Beforestoring the battery the battery terminals and cable connectors should betreated to prevent corrosion  every 30 days when in storageIf winterization is performed by ownernotify yacht yard that engine is winterized and should not be runPREPARING THE ENGINE FORRETURN TO SERVICE1 Clean external parts of the engine2 Remove adhesive tape from airintake and install air filter3 Remove adhesive tape from exhaust outlet                                                                             27COOLING      SYSTEM                            COOLING SYSTEM                                             PageGENERAL                                     29HEAT EXCHANGER                               29KEEL PIPES                                  29DRAIN COOLING SYSTEM                         29FRESH   WATER PUMP                          29   To   Remove Pump                         29   To   Dismantle                          30   To   View and Overhaul                    30   To   Reassemble                           30   To   Install                              30THERMOSTAT                                   30     To Remove                           30     To View and Overhaul                    30     To Install                             30ALTERNATOR V BELT ADJUSTMENT                 31SEA WATER PUMP                               31    To Remove Pump                          31    To Dismantle                             32ELECTROLSIS CONTROL                          32COOLING SYSTEM TEST                         3228                                                         COOLING        SYSTEM                                 COOLING SYSTEM1   General                               3   Keel PipesThe Westerbeke Six346 and Four230        When keel pipes are used which is aMarine diesel engines are equipped         simplified version of the heat exwith a fresh water closed circuit        changer system described above thecooling system With this system a         fresh water closed system circuit isheat exchanger or keel pipes are uti      drawn from the keel pipes through thelized to cool the fresh water after it     dual oil cooler movement being assishas circulated round the water jackets    ted by a centrifugal type water pump                                           where it is circulated around the2   Heat Exchanger                        cylinder liners and cylinder head water                                           jacket to the combination expansion Transfer of heat from the fresh water closed system circuit to the sea        tank and exhaust manifold and finally                                           returns to the keel pipes that are water is accomplished by a heat ex changer similar to an automobile         cooled by the sea water outside theradiator it differs because salt raw    hullwater not air cools the enginesfresh water Heat rejected in combus      4   Drain Cooling Systemtion as well as heat developed by fric   To drain fresh water cooling systemtion is absorbed by the fresh water       remove expansion tank filler cap andwhich flows from the expansion tank        open drain tap turn  the heat exchanger where it is       on right hand side of cylinder blockcooled and discharged into the engine      next to flywheel housing and freshblock and cylinder head by means of a      water drain tap on heat  fresh water pump Open        Two drain taps are installed on bottomings in the water jacket around the        of the exchanger the forward tap forcylinder bores connect with corre        raw water and the center tap for freshsponding openings in the cylinder head                                           waterwhere the fresh water then passes outthrough the thermostat into the expan                                           5   Fresh Water Pumpsion tank and the circuit repeats                                           The water is circulated by a centrifu The engine is indirectly cooled by the                                           gal pump which is mounted on the  fastflowing stream of                                           of the cylinder block and driven by araw water which absorbs the heat from                                           V belt from the crankshaftthe fresh water via the heat exchangerThis raw water is picked up from the                                           To Re move Pumpsea by a powerful neoprene impellersea water pump and after passing          Loosen the set bolt securing the alterthrough the dual oil cooler engine and    nator to its mounting bracket  sion and through the heat        the alternator adjustment strap boltsexchanger is discharged overboard        and swing alternator toward the cylinThe dual oil cooler above conducts         der block to release tension of the beltheat away from the bearings and other      Remove the belt Remove the fourfrictional surfaces by the flow of         nuts securing the water pump body tolubricating oil which is circulated by     the impeller housin and withdraw theoil pressure pumps and cooled by the       water pump noting the pump body toflow of raw water through the tubes of     impeller housing gasketthe cooler                                                                                 29COOLING         the inlet and bypass hosesfrom the impeller housings Unscrewthe six bolts and remove the  and its joint washer from thecylinder blockTo Dismantlea Withdraw the pulley hub from thewater pump spindle using an extractorb Extract the bearing retaining clipthrough the hole in the top of the pumpbody and drive the spindle and bearing assembly rearwards out of thebodyc Withdraw the impeller from thespindle using an extractor and re                              Fig   4move the water seal                                                    Water pump assembly dimensionsTo view and overhaul                              731 to 738 in 1857 to 1874 mm                                                 B  3670 to 3700 in 9322 to 9400 mma Check the spindle and bearing as             c  010 to 021 in 25 to 53 mmsembly for wear and ensure that thebearing seals are in good conditionb Check that the interference of the      6  hub and the impeller on the       A thermostat is installed in thespindle                 has not been       thermostat housing mounted on thedestroyed                                 tront of the cylinder head above thec Inspect the water seal for damage       fresh water pump The thermostatand wear                                  impedes the circulation of the fresh                                           water into the expansion tank until itTo Reassemble                             has reached a predetermined tempera                                           ture in the cylinder block and so proReassembly is a reversal of the pro       vides a more rapid warming up of thecedure To Dismantle noting the                                                     Normal operating temperature isa Ensure that the hole in the bearing     170 to 190 0 F 77 to 870 Ccoincides with the lubricating hole inthe pump body                             To Removeb Assemble the pulley hub and the         a Drain the cooling systemimpeller to the dimensions given inFigure 4                                   b Disconnect the outlet hose from                                           the outlet pipeTo Install                                 c Release the two set bolts andReverse the procedure To Remove        remove the outlet pipe from thetensioning the drive belt so that it can   thermostat housingbe pressed in one in 254 mm at        d Lift out the thermostat from itsthe center of its vertical run            housing 30                                                           COOLING             SYSTEMTo View and Overhaula Test the thermostat by immersingit in water and heat up checking thetemperature       The thermostat val veshould start to open between 1 70 and176 0 F 77 and BOOC and be fully openat 201 0 F 94 0 C If the valve does notopen between the given temperaturesor it sticks in the fully open positionthe thermostat should be renewedNo attempt should be made to repairthe thermostatb Clean the joint face of the wateroutlet pipe and thermostat housingTo InstallThe installation of the thermostat is areversal    of the     procedure ToRemove     Fit a new joint gasketbetween the thermostat housing andthe water outlet pipe                                                              Fig   5 7 Alternator V Belt Adjustment                                                         Fan belt adjustmentThe purpose of the following adjustment is to maintain the performance          B   Sea Water Pumpof the alternator and fresh water pumpat their maximum and consists of            The sea water pump contains a neomoving the alternator in relation to         prene impeller and is mounted on thethe cylinder block to adjust the ten        timing gear case cover and is drivension of the belt Proceed as detailed        by the timing gear train The pump isbelow    Other specific performance          should be diagnosed by referringto FAULT DIAGNOSIS                        To Remove Pumpa Referring to Fig 5  slacken the         Remove set screw on underside ofalternator securing bolt A Support        pump and drainthe alternator with one hand and             Uncouple inlet and outlet hose conrelease the set bolt B and nut C        nectionsb Using a hard hand pressure press         Unscrew the four capscrews and lifton the alternator sufficiently to swing      pump away from timing gear caseit away from the side of the cylinder        coverblock thereby taking up any slacknessin the belt                                 Remove gasket between pump and gear                                             case coverc The belt should be adjusted so thatwhen securing bolts are finally locked       Replace pump by reversing the aboveup the long run of the belt can be          procedure Use new gasket betweenpressed in 1 inch 25 mm at the            pump and gear case cover Use sealcenter by normal thumb pressure             ing compound when replacing drain set                                             screwNOTE It is important that the fan beltis always run taut as any slackness          NOTE The sea water system must bewill cause slip and rapid wear of the        completely free of air leaks Refer tobelt                                        Cooling System Check                                                                                     31COOLING      SYSTEMTo Dismantle                              10 Cooling System TestRemove cover and cover gasket             The fresh and raw salt water systems                                           must be completely free of air leaksRemove impeller from pump shaft by         Air in the system will reduce pumpmeans of suitable pliers Drive key        lubrication and shorten the sea waterneed not be removed                       pump neoprene impeller lifeRemove the large retainer ring from        To check the raw water system fordri ve end of pump                        leaks disconnect the outlet water hoseA suitable press may be used to drive      from the pump and insert it in a bucketthe shaft seal and seat out the im      of water Run the engine and watch forpeller end of pump                        air bubbles in the discharge Any                                           bubbles indicate an air leak in the rawRemove the retainer ring and bearing       water cooling system which can damagefrom inside pump body                     the pump impeller rubber exhaust lineClean inspect and replace any parts       or a neoprene rubber muffler ifthat show damage or wear                   the procedure above coating       NOTE Do not run engine for moreimpeller with a thin coat of glycerine     than one minuteor a good grade of water pump greaseReplace cover with new gasketSecure pump to timing gear cover byreversing the procedure To Remove 9 Electrolysis ControlLocated on the left rearside of the heatexchanger is a zinc electrode whichdetects stray electrical currents oftenresulting from faulty ground connections and corroded terminals in otherparts of the electrical circuits Thiselectrode should be checked at leastonce a month and if it  all terminals and ground connections should be cleaned by scrapingor    sandpapering     and  life of the electrode in saltwater should be at least 3 months  32                                                                                    FUEL SYSTEM                               FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMThe principal components of the equipment for          Fuel Pumpdelivering the fuel oil to the engine cylinders                                                       The fuel pump is an instrument of precIsionare as follows                                                        Its working parts are made to extremely fine     Fuel Filters                                     limits and mishandling in any shape or form     Fuel lift Pump                                   or the entry of the smallest particle of dirt inta     Fuel Pump                                        its working parts may damage it and diminish     Injection nozzles                                its accuracy of operation Hence the importanceThe fuel lift pump lifts the fuel from the tank to   of making sure that the fuel is thoroughly filteredthe fuel pump which conveys it in measured            before the pump is  and at appropriate intervals to the       When requesting information regarding the fuelinjection nozzles                                     pump the type and number should be quoted                                                       This can be obtained from a plate fitted to theIn the fuel system the norma I course of the fuel      pump gallery above the inspection platefrom the tank to the engine is firstta the Primaryfuel oil filter then the Secondary fuel oil filterand finally the fuel injection pump and                                                Where service is required the matter should be                                                       referred to the fuel pump manufacturers agentsTwo conditions are         essential for  because the fuel oil ignites by heat of         Ini ection  it must be clean free from sus          Injection nozzles and holders are attached to thepended dirt sand and other foreign matter            cylinder head with a twobolt flange and two hex                                                       head nutsSecond that the fuel reaches the fuel pump in aperfectly clean state                                  The connection between the nozzle holder and                                                        cylinder head is made with a special copperFuel should be filtered before entering the tank       washer between the lower face of the nozzle cap                                                        nut and the recess in the cylinder headGiven these conditions ninety per cent at leastof potential engine troubles would be eliminated       When putting the nozzle holders in place in theAttention therefore should be earnestly direc        cylinder head care should be taken that only thisted towards the section of this handbook which          type of copper washer is used The recess inrefers to the care and upkeep of the filtering          the cylinder head the faces of the copper                                               and the corresponding face of the nozzle cap                                                        should be perfectly clean if a leakproof jOint                                                        is to resu ItThe Fuel Lift PumpThe lift pump is of the diaphragm type It is           It is always advisable to fit a new copper washerfitted to the tappet inspection cover on the off       when the nozzle holder is replaced after havingside of the engine and is driven by a cam on the        been removed for any reasonengine camshaftA hand primer is fitted for use if the supply of       Make sure the old washer has been removedfuel from the tank has at any time failed             from the cylinder head or nozzle holderTo use this primer pump by hand until pipeslift pump filters and fuel pump are full of fuel       The j oint washer should be an easy but notoil                                                    loose fit for the injection nozzle and it is because                                                        this is such an Important feature that only wash                                                                                                        33ers especially made for the puspose should be         Trouble in Serviceused and none other Under no conditions shouldan ordinary spark plug type washer be used           The first symptoms of injector nozzle trouble                                                      usually fall in one or more of the follOWingThe nozzle holders can now be fitted in place        headingsBefore tighten ing down it should be  the nozzle holder is correctly placed and          I Misfiringthat the fuel pipes can be fitted without bending      2 Knocking in one or more cylindersthem                                                       3   Engine overheating                                                       4 loss of powerFuel Pipes                                            5   Smoky exhaust blackNo two of the pressure pipes from the fuel             6   Increased fuel  to the injection nozzles are alike Keep         Often the particular nozzle or nozzles causingthis in mind when replacing                          trouble may be determined by releasing thePlace in position the pipe to the fuel pump and       pipe union nut on each nozzle in turn with theinjection nozzle unions to check that the pipe fits   engine running at approximately 1000 revminsquare at both ends Do notfitone end and then        This will prevent fuel being pumped through thebend the pipe to square it with the other union      nozzle to the engine cylinder thereby altering                                                      the engine revolutions If after slackening aWhen fitfing the pipe tighten the unions alter      pipe union nut the engine revolutions remainnatively a little at a time first one end and        constant this denotes a faulty nozzlethen the other                                                      The complete unit should then be withdrawnIf the pipe is square to the unions at each end       from the cylinder head and turned round nozzleas described above no force will be needed to        outwards on its pipe and the unions  a good joint No force should be used                                                      After slackening the unions of the other injectionWhen changing an injection nozzle always re         pipes to avoid the possibility of the enginemove the pipe entirely Never take off only one       starting the engine should be turned until theend leaving the other tight Never bend thepipe                                                 nozzle sprays into the air when it will be seen                                                      at once if the spray is in order If the spray is                                                      unduly wet or streaky or obviously to one                                                      side or the injection nozzle dribbles then theMaintenance                                                      complete unit should be replaced See Fig I 10Injection nozles should be taken out for exami      The faulty unit then being securely wrapped innation at regular intervals How long this inter     clean greaseproof paper or rag with the protecval should be is difficult to advise because of      tion cap on the nozzle for attention on the mainthe different conditions under which the engine       tenance bench              operates                                                      Great care should be taken to prevent the handWhen combustion conditions in the engine are          from getting into contact with the spray as thegood and the fuel tank and filtering system are       working pressure will cause the oil to  in first class order it is often suffi   the skin with easecient if the nozzles are tested twice yearly orevery 1000 hoursNozzles should not be removed for checkingunless a nozzle tester is available or sparenozzles are on hand for  the cooling system maintained in goodcondition and absolutely clean fuel are usedthe less attention the nozzles will need andso their effiCient life In this connection sincethere is no other item of the equipment uponwhich the performance of the engine dependsso much it pays the user to see that the enginenever runs with any of the nozzles out of order                    Fig 110Nozzle Spray Paltern  34                               FUEL SYSTEM                                      4                      sucking noise should be heard                                                                In a similar manner seal the delivery side of the pump                                                             marked OUT and press the rocker arm inwards to                                                             charge the pum ling chamber with air If the pump is in                                                             good condition the air in the pumping chamber should be                                                             held under compression for two or three seconds Finally                                                             repeat this test but immediately the pumping chamber                                                             is charged with air immerse the pump in a bath of clean                                                             paraffin and inspect the diaphragm clamping flanges for                                                             signs of air leakage                                                                Lubricate the rocker arm and the rocker arm pin with                                                             clean engine oil and after replacing the pump bleed the                                                             fuel system                                                             Section Da3                            Fig Dal                                DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING                Fuel lift pump components                                   THE FUEL LIFT PUMP I   Delivery valve            9   Pivot pin                Scribe a mark across the pump body joint flanges for 2   Filter gauze             10   Link                  guidance when reassembling 3   Sediment chamber          U   Punrod 4   Inlet valve              12   Hand priming lever       Remove the set bolt detach the dome cover and its S   Inlet port               13   Diaphragm spring      sealing ring and lift off the filter gauze 6   Rocker arm spring        14   Diaphragm 7   Rocker arm               IS   Outlet port              Unscrew the set screws and separate the two halves of 8   Camshaft eccentric                                    the pump body                                                                Remove the two screws and withdraw the retaining                                                             plate inlet and outlet valves and valve gasket from theSection DaI                                                 upper half of the pump body                                                                Press the diaphragm downwards and turn it clockwise    DESCRIPTION OF THE FUEL LIFT PUMP                        through an angle of 90 to release the diaphragm pullrod   The fuel lift pump is mounted on the crankcase and        from the connecting link Withdraw the diaphragm andis operated by an eccentric on the engine camshaft A        its return spring from the lower half of the pump bodyhand priming lever permits pumping a supply of fuel for         Remove the rocker arm pin retaining clips and withtesting purposes   When the lift pump output is greater than the fuel injection pump requirements the fuel in the pumping chamber holds the diaphragm against the pressure of thediaphragm spring and the connecting link allows anidling movement of the rocker arm A spring maintainsthe contact between the rocker arm and the eccentric  noiseSection Da2        REMOVING AND REPLACING THE                   FUEL LIFT PUMP    Disconnect the two fuel pipes from the body of thepump unscrew the two set bolts securing the pump to thecrankcase and withdraw the pump and its joint washer   Before replacing the pump which is a reversal of theforegoing procedure the pump should be tested In theabsence of special test equipment the pump may be testedas follows   Immerse the pump in a bath of clean paraffin and flush                            Fig Da2it through by operating the rocker arm six to eight times                  Diaphragm assembly diagramRemove and empty the pump seal the suction side of the                                                                      I  Pump mounting flangepump placing a finger firmly over the inlet union marked             Initial position of diaphragm locatingIN and operate the rocker arm several times Upon                      tab                                                                       3 Final position of diaphragm  of the finger from the inlet union a distinct                     tab                                                                                                                   35                              FUEL SYSTEM                                                             Section Da4                                                                DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN FUEL FILTER                                                                The main fuel filter is of the crossflow type employing                                                             a resin impregnated paper as the filtration medium                                                                The main parts of the unit are a diecast head and a                                                             lower plate assembly clamped between which is a metal                                                             canister containing the filter element                                                                An 0 ring located in an annular groove in the centre                                                             boss of the filter head seals the dirty side of the filter from                                                             its clean side                                                                The air bleed point which is on the clean side of the                                                             filter is connected to the fuel injector leakoff pipe and                                                             provides continuous airbleeding of the filter during oper                                                             ation                                                             Section Da5                                    11                      REMOVING AND REPLACING THE MAIN                                                                                 FUEL FILTER                                                               Disconnect the fuel pipe and leakoff connections from                 Main fuelilter   C01lfHJMllIS            the filter head       1 Centre bolt                    7 Sealing ring     Remove the two bolts and nuts securing the filter to its       2 Washer                         S 0 rinI       bracket and withdraw it from the engine       3 Filter head                    9 E1el1lCDt        The installation of the fuel filter is a reversal of the       4 Sealing plug                  10 SeaIiDa ring       S Copper washer                 II Filter base    removal procedure       6 Nonreturn valve                                    Bleed the fuel systemdraw the pin to rlease the rocker arm distance washersspring and connecting link                                 Section Da6  Detach the spring from the priming levr  Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure             DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING THEnoting the following                                                          MAIN FUEL FILTER  I Ensure that the diaphragm and pump mounting               Unscrew the bolt from the centre of the head casting      flanges are true They may be lapped to restore        and detach the bottom plate from the filter      their flatness                                           Remove the filter element using a twisting movement                                                             to release the element from the head casting Withdraw  2 Check that the wear on the rocker arm working                                                             the three sealing rings from their locations in the head and      surface does not exceed 010 in 25 mm            bottom plate  3 The rocker arm pin should be a tap fit in the pump        Thoroughly clean all components excepting the ele      body this may be restored by peening the holes in     ment in petrol and allow them to dry      the body                                                 Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure  4 Locate the diaphragm return spring in the dia         using a new element and sealing rings The element is      phragm lower protector washer and insert the dia      fitted with its strengthened rim uppermost      phragm into the pump body with its locating tab in    Section Da 7      the 11 oclock position see Fig Da 2 Press the      diaphragm downwards and turn it anticlockwise              DESCRIPTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS      through an angle of 90 to engage the diaphragm          The fuel injectors each comprise two main parts the      pullrod with the connecting link                     nozzle and the nozzle holder which are clamped together  5 When assembling the two halves of the pump body        axially by a nozzle nut The mating faces of both the      ensure that the marks scribed on the joint flanges     nozzle and the nozzle holder are lapped to ensure a high      before dismantling coincide Hold the diaphragm       pressure seal      by means of the rocker arm level with the joint          The nozzle is of the longstem type having four equally      flange apd secure the two halves of the pump body     spaced holes at an angle of 20 from the nozzle centre line      leaving the screws fingertight Push the rocker       and positioned to give a spray cone angle of 140 The      arm towards the pump body to position the dia         nozzle valve is accurately lapped into the nozzle body to      phragm at the bottom of its stroke and tighten the     give the closest possible fit within which it will operate      securing screws diagonally                            freely                                                                The nozzle holder contains a spindle and spring which  6 Test the pump as described in Section Da 2                                                             retains the nozzle valve on its seat The upper end of                                                             the spring is located in an adjustable cap nut by which 36                                                             the opening pressure of the nozzle is let                           FUEL SYSTEM                                                                    Mount the injector in dismantling fixture 18G 388 un                                                                 screw the injector cap nut and remove the copper joint                                                                 washer Cncrcw the spring cap nut and remove the                                                                 spring plate spring and spindle                                                                    Using spanner 18G 210 remove the nozzle nut and                                                                 nozzle taking care not to let the valve drop out of the                                                                 nozzle body                                                                    OTEEach nonle body and valve are a mated as                                                                 sembly and shOUld always be kept together                                                                    Thoroughly clean the injector components using clean                                                                 ing kit 18G 487 when dealing with the nozzles                                                                    Using the brass wire brush remOe all carbon from the                                                                 nozzle body and nozzle valve Examine the valve for                                                                 scoring and scratches and for blueing due to overheating                                                                    Clean out the internal feed passages the annular gal                                                                 lery and the valve seat using the brass scrapers and clear                                                                 the spray holes with an appropriate size cleaning wire                                                                 fitted to the probing tool                                                                    Assemble the nozzle body into adaptor 18G 109 E with                                                                 the nozzle tip towards the inlet connection Connect the                                                                 adaptor to testing machine 18GI09 A and reverseflush                                                                 the nozzle See Fig Da25 to clear all loose carbon from                        Fig Da18                               the internal passages                                                                     Where the carbon buildup is particularly hard it may                       FUll Injector                             be softened in the following manner I Cap Dat                    7   Nozzle holder                  Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda with an 2 SpriD cap DUt             S SpiDdle 3 SpriD plate               9 Nozzle DUt                   added detergent by dissolving 2 oz 56 gm of caustic 4 SpriDJ                    10 Needle valve                 soda in I pint 57 litre of water and add i oz 14 gm 5 Joint washer              II Nozzle body 6 Feedpipe UDioD                                             of an ordinary washing detergent Place the nozzle bod                                                                 ies in the liquid bring it to the boil and allow it to boil                                                                 for a minimum of I hour and not more than I hours  Lubrication is by back leakage of fuel past the nozzle                                                                 Take care not to allow the water to evaporate too muchvalve and a leakoff connection on the nozzle holder                                                                 because jf the percentage of caustic soda rises above ISreturns this fuel to the fuel tank                              per cent the surface of the nozzle bore and sealing face                                                                 may be roughened making it impossible for the  De8                                                    to be serviced correctly                                                                     Remove the nozzle bodies from the solution wash  REMOVING AND REPLACING AN INJECTOR                                                                 them in running water and then immerse them in a de   Disconnect the injector feed pipe union nut and all the       watering oil such as Shell Ensis 254 Remove the  leakoff unions                                        oil by draining or compressed air   Remove the two set bolts securing the injector to thecylinder head and withdraw the injector using tool18G491 A   If the injector is to be stored for any length of time sealits inlet union using sealing cap 18G 216   Thoroughly clean the copper sleeve in the cylinderhead ensuring that all carbon is removed from its bottomface   Place the injector in position in the cylinder head andtighten the securing bolts using torque wrench 18G 537set to the figure given in GENERAL DATA   Connect the fuel feed pipe and leakoff unionsSection Da9      DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING              THE INJECTORS  As in the case of injection pump dismantling  is essential when work is being carried out on                               Fig Da19the injectors                                                      Withdrawing an injector using tool l8G 491 A                                                                                                                         37                          FUEL SYSTEM                                                            and torque wrench 18G 372 set to the figure given in                                                            GENERAL DATA Do not overtighten the nozzle nut                                         Fig Da20            Reassemble the spindle spring and spring plate and                                                            fit the spring cap nUL and the injector cap nut with its                                      Clearing the feed     copper joint washer                                       channel bores           Test and set the injector as described in Section Da 10                                                            Section Da 10                                                                          TESTING AND ADJUSTING                                                                                 THE INJECTORS      Fig Da21                                               To Lest or adjust the injectors it is necessary to use                                                            testing machine 18G 109 A and an oil such as Shell Cleaning the car bon from the fuel                                          Calibration Fluid C which will not affect the skin of      galiery                                               the operator should be used in the machine                                                               WARNINGWben an injector is being tested the spray                                                            boles ill the nozzle should always be turned away from the                                                            operator                                                               Before removing an injector from the testing machine                                                            close the check valve to the pressure gauge in order to                                                            prevent damage which may result from a sudden drop in                                                            pressure                                        Fig Da22          Checking and adjusting the nozzle opening pressure                                                               Connect the injector to the testing machine open the                                    Decarbonizing the                                      dome cavity           check valve and operate the pump lever Note the read                                                            ing on the pflssure gauge at the instant the nozzle sprays                                                               If the pressure is incorrect see GENERAL DATA                                                            adjust the spring cap nut until the correct injection pres                                                            sure is obtained                                                              Check the tightness of the injector cap nut and make                                                            sure that the copper joint washer is in position                                                            Cbecking the nozzle spray    Fig Da23                                                Close the check valve to cut out the pressure gauge and C I e ani n g the                                          operate the pump lever at the rate of 60 strokes per min     valve seat                                             ute There should be four equal sprays from the nozzle                                                            evenly distributed and each spray should persist for                                                            about 6 in 15 cm without any visible core or jets of                                         Fig Da24                                      C 1ear i n g the                                        spray holes   The carbon may now be removed using cleaning kit18G 487 as already described   To reassemble the injector thoroughly wash all theinjector components in clean calibration fluid Immerse                                                             the nozzle body and valve in a bowl of clean calibration                                                     rtfluid and assemble them under the liquid The valveshould fit easily and without any tightness                                                                    Mount the nozzle holder in fixture 18G 388 make surethe mating faces of the nozzle holder and nozzle body are     Reverse lushing an injector nouJe using  clean and undamaged and place the nozzle           mochine 18G 109 A and adaptor 18G 109 Eassembly in position on the nozzle holder Fit the            Shown inset is II sectioned adaptor with 1M nonozzle nut and tighten carefully using spanner 18G 210                           In poation 38                           FUEL SYSTEM   After 30 seconds lapping time withdraw the nozzle            ing valve Oscillate the collet over the valve guide surfaceclean the lap and examine the conical lap tip There will       and after every IO to 15 seconds of lapping time cleanbe a mat surface where the lap has been in contact with          the valve and test it for correct fit in the nozzle body Athe nozzle seat and in the early stages of lapping this         correctly fitting nllve should just slide into the nozzlemat surface will probably be narrow or have a bright             body under its own weight when lubricated with fuel  ring in the middle These markings indi            After attention to the nozzle body valve seat or to thecate the extent of the wear on the nozzle seat                  valve seat face on the nozzle valve check the nozzle valve  The lap should be refaced as already described after         lift needle lift against the figure given in GENERALevery Ifr minutes of lapping time but in the case of a         DATA If the needle lift is excessive it may be restoredbadly worn nozzle seat it may be necessary to reduce this        by lapping the joint face of the nozzle body on a surfacetime                                                            lapping plate   Wip the lap stem clean and recoat it with tallow              Wben lapping tbe nozzle face extreme care should beRecharge the tip of the lap with lapping paste and conti        takeD to aloid tilting tbe nozzle as this face makes a highnue lapping until the seat is free from scorcs and grooves     pressure joint witb the nozzle holder and must thereforeWhen the scat appears satisfactory after a few seconds           be true and at rigbt angles to the nozzle axislapping with a freshly ground lap charge the lap with             Reassemble the injector as described in Section Dafine lapping paste and continue lapping until a smooth           9 and test and adjust it as described in Section Da 10mat surface is produced over the entire seat Throughoutthe lapping operation the lap should be cleaned andexamincd after every 30 seconds of lapping time   Thoroughly clean the nozzle by  asdescribed in Section Da 9  and dry out with compressed air Make a final inspection of the nozzle seat underthe microscope   Examine the conical valve face of the nozzle valveunder the microscope for scoring and pitting The mostcritical part of the valve face is the angle formed by theconical face and the parallel stem on which the conicalface is formed This angle shoul be sharp and clearlydefined with no rounding or wear breaking the knifeedge anywhere on its diameter The reason for this is toensure a high pressure fuel proof linecontact betweenthe nozzle valve and seat If wear is evident the conicalvalve face should be refaced on the nozzle grinding andlapping machine   Ensure that the grindingwheel is dressed correctly andthat the refacing angle is set for the nozzle valve seeGENERAL DATA   Mount the valve in the lathe of the machine and refacethe conical tip in the same way as already dcscribed forthe nozzle body lap   Remove only the absolute minimum of material sufficient to change the colour of the valve face is  the needle lift will be affected As a guidethere should be no sparks or audible hiss from  when carrying out this operation   The operation is best observed through a  the point of focus being the surface of the conicalface away from the grindingwheel  In the event of the noale valve being a tight fit in thenozzle body due to slight distortion or deposits on theguide surface of the valve it is possible to restore the fit  Mount the nozzle valve in the lapping chuck of themachine using a suitable adaptor chuck and apply avery small quantity of fine lapping paste to the guidesurface of the valve Start the machine and thread thelapping collet supplied with the machine over the rotat                                                                                                                           39                               FUEL SYSTEM                                                                     Select a suitable lap from those supplied with the grind                                                                  ing and lapping machine The bore diameter varies                                                                  slightly from one nozzle to another and it is necessary to                                                                  choose a lap which fits the nozzle body in the same man                                                                  ner as the nOlLle valve This will ensure concentricity of                                                                  the valve seat in the body with the body bore after lap                                                                  ping                                                                     Mount the lap in the lathe of th nozzle grinding and                                                                  lapping machine and grind the conical tip to the correct                                                                  nozzle body SCJt angle as given in GENERAL DATA                                                                  The lap should be passed slowly backwards and forwards                                                                  across the surface lf the grindingwheel feedingin the                                                                  lap very gradually until its conical surface is entirely                                                                  cleaned up Inspect the lap under the nozzle microscope                                                                  to ensure that its ground surface is smooth If the surface                                                                  appears rough the grindingwheel should be dressed                                                                     Fit the lap into the lapping chuck of the machine and                                                                  apply a coating of tallow to the guide surface of the lap                                                                  for lubrication purposes Apply a very small quantity of                                                                  lapping paste to the tip of the lap taking care that the                            Fig Da26                            paste does not extend to the top of the cone       Reassembling an injector using fixture 18G 388               NOTEIf any lapping paste is allowed to get between       and spanner 18G 210 with torque wrench 18G 372             the guide surfaces of the lap and the nozzle body the                                                                  clearance between the nozzle body and valve will be     unatomized fuel If the spray is not correct or if any      increased and the nozzle will probably be made UD     leaks or dribble occur wipe the nozzle dry and repeat the    seniceable     test to locate the cause                                       Start the machine and carefully slide the nozzle over                                                                  the rotating lap Oscillate the nozzle on the lap in very     Checking the pressure tightness of seatings                                                                  short strokes at a rate of 20 to 30 strokes per minute        Open the check valve wipe the nozzle dry and depress                                                                  engaging the nozzle seat with the lap at the end of each     the pump lever slowly until a pressure of 160 atmos                                                                  stroke The lap should not remain in contact with the     pheres is obtained Hold this pressure for 10 seconds and                                                                  nozzle seat for more than five seconds at a time and the     then check the nozzle tip for drynessslight dampness                                                                  pressure applied to the nozzle should be light Excessive     is permissible If in doubt maintain the 160 atmospheres                                                                  pressure will cause grooving of the nozzle seat     pressure for 60 seconds while holding a piece of blotting     paper below the nozzle tip The diameter of the wet spot     on the paper should not exceed tin 13 mm     Checking the backleakage        Depress the pump lever slowly until a pressure of 160     atmospheres is obtained then check the time taken for     the pressure to drop from 150 to 100 atmospheres For     a new nozzle the time taken should be 12 to 30 seconds                                                                                                                             A nozzle which has been in service will show a faster     pressure drop but as this does not seriously affect engine     performance a nozzle may be considered serviceable until     a time factor of less than 5 seconds is recorded     Section Da 11        RECLAIMING INJECTOR NOZZLES   If after dismantling cleaning and testing as described in Sections Da 9 and Da 10 an injector is found to be unsatisfactory it is usually possible to recondition the nozzle providing it has been found satisfactory when Checking the backleakage   To recondition a nozzle the use of a nozzle grinding and lapping machine is required A nozzle microscope is also                                Fig Da27 necessary for inspection of the nozzle body and valve              An injector assembled to machine J8G 109 A ready during the reclaiming process                                                     for spray testing40                                                              FUEL      SYSTEM                               D P A TEST DATAPump Type     3248880A  3248889AEngine        FOUR230BASIC PUMP  governor with Antistall deviceLight load advance deviceRotation looking on drive end   link length 525 mm  1 mm  control spring No 2 hole control arm and No 2 hole throttle lever linkRoller to roller dimension 50 37 mmPlunger diameter 6 5 mmTEST PROCEDUREFit autoadvance measuring device and set scale to zero before commencing testWhere marked thus use 30 seconds glass draining time and allow fuel to settle for15 seconds before taking  of Light Load Advance DeviceA 05 mm shim is fitted to the piston cap on assembly This must NOT beremoved No further shimming is necessary Throttle idle and maximum speedscrew fully retractedTest No    Description                R P M   Requirements    1       Priming                    100 max   Fuel delivery from all injectors    2       Transfer pump vacuum       100        Note time to reach 16 in                                                  406 mm Hg Max time                                                  allowed 60 secs    3       Transfer pressure          100        11 lbin 2 08 kg cm 2  min    4       Transfer pressure          1250       48 to 60 lbin 2 34 to 4 2                                                  kgcm 2NOTE on tests 5 and 6 To obtain the required degree of advance use the        metering valve adjuster on the end of the governor housing    5       Delivery setting           1250       Fit shutoff lever adjustment                                                  tool to pump Obtain average                                                  delivery 60 to 68 cc by shut                                                  off lever adjustment Note                                                  Advance indicator must show                                                  zero    6       Advance setting            1250       With shutoff lever as at 5 set                                                   to obtain                                                  1340 to 2140 advance    7       Delivery check             1250       With shutoff lever and external                                                  adjustment as at 5 and 6                                                  average delivery to be 60 to                                                  68 cc    8       Advance check              1250       With shutoff lever fully closed                                                  advance to be 3120 to 4120                                                                              40AFUEL       SYSTEM Test No    Description             RPM   Requirements       9   Back leakage              700      5 to 50 cc for 100 stroke time          Throttle lever fully               cycle           closed      lOMax fuel delivery           700      Set to 8 2  O 1 cc Spread                                              between lines not to exceed                                              08 cc Note  Advance indi                                              cator must show zero      11     Max fuel delivery      100      Average delivery to be not less             check                            than average at 10 minus 1 0 cc      12     Cutoff operation      200      Average delivery not to exceed             Shutoff lever closed            1 5 cc      13     Throttle operation     200      Screw back antistall device             Throttle lever closed            and lock to give delivery not                                              exceeding 08 cc      14     Fuel delivery check     1700     Record average delivery      15     Governor setting        1950     Set throttle by maximum speed                                              adjustment screw to give maxi                                              mum average delivery of 1 5 cc                                              No line to exceed 25 cc Lock                                              stop screw      16     Fuel delivery check     1700     With throttle set as at 15                                              average delivery to be not less                                              than average at 14 minus                                              04 cc      17     Timing                           Using outlet V 30 ats pressure                                              set indexing tool to 86 0 and                                              scribe line on housing flange408                                                          DIESEL ENGINE                                      ENGINE                                                               PageCamshaft  removing and replacing                               69Connecting rod and piston                                      61     Dismantling and reassembling                               62     Removing and replacing                                    61Crankshaft and main bearings  removing and replacing          70Cylinder head  removing and replacing                         56Cylinder liner  removing and replacing                                                                          60Diesel Engine FOUR 230                                        43     External components                                        44     Internal components                                        46Diesel Engine SIX346                                          49     External components                                       50     Internal components                                        52Engine sandwich plate  removing and replacing                 70Flywheel and starter ring  removing and replacing              70Injection pump drive                                             69    Dismantling and reassembling                               69    Removing and replacing                                     69Injector sleeves  removing and replacing                       61Oil pressure relief valve                                       55Oil pump and strainer                                         54     Dismantling and reassembling                             54     Removing and replacing                                   54Rocker shaft assembly                                           55     Dismantling and reassembling                              55     Removing and replacing                                    55Timing gear case  removing and replacing                      67Timing gear case cover  removing and replacing               64Timing gears                                                  64    Dismantling and reassembling                                66    Removing and replacin                                      65                                                                      41Valve grinding                         59Valve guides  removing and replacing    58Valve rocker clearance                   55Valve seat inserts                        60Valves                                    58Valve timing                             6742F 0 U R  23 0   LITRE DIESEL ENGINE                  Longitudinal Section                                           43              FOUR230 DIESEL ENGINE EXTERNAL COMPONENTS                                                                                     178                                                                                     179                                                               P 9189  109                                               V             r rO                                                              IS                                                      34          192                                                                            u                                                                                          190        III    113 r1I444                                                            FOUR230 DIESEL ENGINE EXTERNAL COMPONENTS     No             Description                  No              Description                  No                Description                 No                 Description       I   Cyllnder block                       5 I   Ioint for timing gear case             93     Boltdelivery pipe        to  block   143     Spring washer for nut       2   Main bearing cap front             52    Bolttiming case to cylinder                   long                               146     Thermostat       3   Main bearing cap intermediate             block                                   94    Tab washer for bolt                  147     Thermostat body       4   Main bearing cap centre and          53    Spring washer for bolt                  95    Bolt delivery pipe to pump           148     Ioint for thermostat body             rear                               54    Dowel for timing gear case cover        96    Tab washer for bolt                  141    Boltbody to cylinder head      5    Dowel for main bearing cap           55    Timing gear case cover                  97    Oil strainer                         150     Spring washer for bolt      6    Stud for main bearing cap short    56    Joint for timing gear case cover        98    Ioint for oil strainer               151     Plug for thermostat body      7    Stud for main bearing cap long     57    Crankshaft oil seal                     99    Oil sump                             152     Fibre washer for plug      8    Nut for stud                         58    Bolttiming case and cover to          100     Gasket for sump                      153     Water outlet pipe      9    Washer for nut                              block                                 101     Drain plug                           154     loint for water outlet pipe     10    Main bearings                        59    Boltdynamo bracket case and          1O    Washer for drain plug               155      Boltoutlet pipe to thermostat     II     Crankshaft thrust washers                   cover to block                        103     Blanking plug                                 body     12    Dowel for flywheel housing           60    Spring washer for bolt                104     Washer for blanking plug             156     Spring washer for bolt     13    Dowel for cylinder head              61    Bolttiming gear cover to case       105     Boltsump to block                   157      Rocker shaft bracket front and     14    Dowel for injection pump bracket     62    Nut for bolt                          106     Spring washer for bolt                        rcar     15    Dowel for rear half of timing case   63    Spring washer for nut                 107     Plain washer for bolt     16    Front camshaft bearing                                                                                                            158     Rocker shaft bracket centre                                                  64    Front lifting plate                   108     Oil level indicator                  151    Rocker      shaft   bracket   inter     17    Locating screw for bearing           65    Timing cover blanking plate           109     Guide tube for indicator     18    Seloc washer for screw                                                                                                                     mediate                                                  66    loint for blanking plate              110     Breather pipe                        160     Plug for intermediate bracket     19    Oil gallery plug front and rear    67    Screwblanking plate to cover     20    Washer for plug                                                                    II I    Clip for breather pipe               161     Waher for plug                                                  68    Spring washer for screw               112     Bolt for clip                        162     Rolt for bracket     21    Oil gallery plug brass             69    Oil feed jet for timing gears     22    Washer for plug                                                                    113     Nut for bolt                         163     Spring washer for bolt                                                  70    Boltlifting plate to cover and        114     Spring washer for nut                164     Plain washer for bolt     23    Oil gallery plug tapped                   case     24    Washer for plug                                                                    115     Cylinder head                        165     Bolt for intermediate bracket                                                  71    Spring washer for bolt                116     Gasket for cylinder head             166     Spring waher for bolt     25    Water gallery plug brass           72    Engine front support bracket     26    Washer for plug                                                                    117     Engine rear lifting plate            167     Plain waher for bolt                                                  73    Boltsupport bracket cover and        118     Joint for lifting plate              168     Relief valve body     27    Water gallery plug steel                  cae to block     28    Water gallery core plug                                                            119     Stud for lifting plate               169     Relief valve ball     29    Cylinder liner                       74    Boltsupport bracket to cover          I O   Nut for stud                         170     Relief valve spring     30    Cylinder liner sealing ring                 and case                              I I   Spring washer for nut                171     Scat for relief valve spring     31    Cylinder block water drain tap        75   Steady for breather pipe              1   Injector sleeve                      I n     Plug for relief valve body     32    Shim for drain tap                    76   Spring washer for bolt                I 3    Cylinder head stlld                  173     Plain waher for plug     33    Washer for drain tap                  77   Outrigger bearing for idler grar       124     Nut for stud                         174     Tab wahcr for pillg     34    Adaptor for drain tap                       shaft                                 125     Core plug steel                    175     Overnow pipe for relief val     35    Washer for adaptor                   78    Ioint for bearing                     126     Plug brass                         176     Waher for overnow pipe hillaI     36    Rear cover plate and oil seal        79    Screwbearing to IImmg covcr          127     Air inlet manifold                   177     Wahcr fo overnow pipe large     37    Bolt for plate                       80    Spring washer for screw               1211    loint washer for manifold            1711    Valve roder cover     38    Spring washer for bolt               81    Dynamo adjusting link                 129     BoltmanifolJ to head short        17    aiket for rocker covcr     39    Ioint for cover plate                82    Dynamo bracketfront                  130     Boltmanifold to head long         180     Stlld for rorker eOr     40    Screwcover plate to block           83    Bolt for steady                       IJ I    Spring washer for bolt               III I   Hand nut for stud     41    Spring washer for screw              84    Nut for bolt                          132     Plain washer for bolt                182     ribre washer for nut     42    Sandwich plate                       85    Spring washer for nut                 133     Throttle unit Venturi              183     Oil liller COl p     43    Ioint for sandwich plate             86    Dynamo bracketrear                   134     loint washer for throttle unit       187     Oil feed pipe to rockers lower     44    Boltplate to block                  87    Boltbracket to cylinder block        135     Stud for throttle unit               188     Oil fed pipe to rockers upper     45    Spring washer for bolt               88    Spring washer for bolt                136     Nut for stud                         18lJ    Pin for feed pipe banjo     46    Valve tappet cover                   89    Oil delivery pipe                     137     Spring washer for nut                IlJO    Washer for pin small     47    Joint for tappet cover               90    Jointdelivery pipe to block          139     Exhaust manifold                     111    Washer for pin large     48    Bolttappet cover to block           91    Iointdelivery pipe to pump           140     Joint washer for manifold            19    Tab waher for pin     49    Washer for bolt                      92    Boltdelivery pipe to          block   141     Stud for manifold                    IH     Jnion for oil gauge pipe      SO   Timing gear case                            short                               14     Nut for stUd                         tl4    Wahcr for IInionti                         FOUR230 DIESEL ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS                                                          21                     3Se       I                  II                                                                                                   2343e            I            2                                                                  7                                                                             4                   i                                                               W                                                               j  f i                      33                                                                                                     g           3                                  5    14fI1                                                                                                                               3                                                                          Sij I           35                                                                                                                                                          t                                                    15            24                        30                                                                                           11                                                                                                       j                                                           22    124                                                                        39           121                                                    FOUR230 DIESEL ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS     No              Description            No            Description           No            Description                No             Description       I   Compression ring taper sided    32 Spring washer for screw         64 Injection pump driving gear hUb      94   Spring washer for nut            chrome face                     33 Plain washer for screw          65 Injection pump driving gear          95   Coupling dog flange       2   Compression ring taper face    34 Valve rocker spacing washer     66 Locking nuthub to injection          96   Coupling insert       3   Scraper ring slotted               thick                               pump drive shaft                                                                                                                             97   Coupling pump flange       4   Piston                           35 Valve rocker spacing washer     67 Tab washer for nut                                                                                                                             9S   Oil pump driven gear                                                  thin                            68 Boltdriving gear to hub       5   Gudgeon pin clip                                                                                                99   Nutoil pump gear to oil pump                                              36 Valve rocker                    69 Injection pump drive housing               shaft       6   Gudgeon pin                                              37 Valve rocker adjusting screw    70 Injection pump drive shaft          100   Split pin for nut       7   Small end bush                                              38 Lock nut for screw              71 Keydriving flange to drive shaft   101 Oil pump rotor and shaft assembly       8   Connecting rod                   39 Push rod                        n Keyhub to drive shaft               I 02 Keyil pump gear to shaft       9   Hollow dowel                     40 Tappet                          73 Drive shaft bearing large         103 Oil pump body      10   Connecting rod bolt              41 Camshaft                        74 Cover plate for bearing             104 Adjusting shimil pump to      II   Tab washer for bolt                                                                                                  bearing cap                                              42 Keyhub to camshaft             75 Cover plate retaining screw      12   Bigend bearing                                                                                                105 Oil pump cover                                              43 Camshaft locating plate        76 Drive shaft bearing small      13   Crankshaft                                                                                                     107 lointrelief valve to pump                                              44 Boltlocating plate to block    77 Drive shaft oil seal      14   Inlet valve thimble                                                                                            10S Boltrelief valve body to oil                                              45 Spring washer for bolt          7S Drive housing end cover                   pump      15   Inlet valve oil seal             46 Camshaft gear hub               79 Screwnd       cover    to   drive   109 Washer for bolt      16   Inlet valve guide                47 Camshaft gear                       housing                                                                                                                            110 Oil relief valve body      17   Thimble locating dowel           48 Boltcamshaft gear to hub       SO Spring washer for screw                                                                                                                            III Oil relief valve seat      18   Inlet valve key                  49 Washer for bolt                 S loinldrive housing to timing                                                                                         cae                              112 Oil relief valve      19   Valve spring collar              50 Locking nuthub to camshaft                                              113 Oil relief valve spring                                                                                  8   Screwdrive housing to timing      20   Retainer for collar              51 Tab washer for nut                    case                              114 Oil relief valve plug      21   Spring clip for retainer         52 Idler gear shaft               83    Spring washer for screw           115 Tab washer for plug      22   Inlet valve                      53 Idler gear                     84    Driving flange                    116 Screwcover to oil pump bod y      23   Exhaust valve oil seal           54 Idler gear thrust washer       85    Screwdriving flange to dog              short      24   Retainer for exhaust valve oil    55 Keygear to crankshaft                flange                            117 Screwcover to oil pump body            seal                             56 Keypulley to crankshaft       S6    Spring waher for screw                 long      25   Exhaust valve guide              57 Oil pump driving gear          87    Plain washer for screw            118 Boltcover to oil pump body      26   Exhaust valve                                                        88    Dowel screwdriving flange to      119 Spring washer for bolt and screw                                              58 Crankshaft timing gear                dog flange      27   Inner valve spring               59 Oil thrower                                                              120 Flywheel                                                                                  89    Spring washer for screw      28   Outer valve spring               60 Distance piece                                                           121 Dowelflywheel 10 crankshaft                                                                                  90    Plain washer for screw      29   Valve rocker shaft               61 Crankshaft pulley              91    Driving flange clamping bolt      122 Bush for crankshaft      30   Plug for shaft                   62 lawstarting handle            92    Tab washer for bolt               123 Shims for starling jaw nut      31   Shaft locating screw             63 Tab washer for jaw             93    Nut for bolt                      124 Boltflywheel to crankshaftI48                                                                                 SIX346 DIESEL ENGINE     11111111            1111               I   II                              I I                       I          II                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                f                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                f                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ls                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   f                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              co          I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cll                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      i  1111        III                                                                                                                                                   111   1111111                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               49        11    411                                                                                                                        4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      lIlI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          lIZ                                                                                                                                         r  4                                                                                                                                    III                                                                                                                                           2                                                                                                                                                      I                                                                                                                                                      I                                                                                                                                                      f                                                                                                                                                      I                                                                                                                                                      I                                                                                                      Fig 4                                                                              SIX  346 Engineexternal components                      1  111       KEY TO FIG E4 ENGINEEXTERNAL COMPONENTS                       J Cylinder block assembly                          9 Support bracket driUed intermediate           156    Set boltfilter to cylinder block               2J4     Boll for dynamo brakel to timing chain                   2 Dowelinjection pump support braekel                 for rocker shaft                               157    Plain washer or set bolt                      215     Spring washer for holt                icover                   3 Dowelsandwich plate                             80 Set bollsupport brackets to cylinder head       158    Spring washer for set bolt                      2J6     Fuel pipeinjection pump to No I                   4 Doweltiminl caserear half                   5 Dowelylinder head                   6 Camshafl bearinl bush                   7 Localinl screw for bush                   8 Sprinll washer for screw                   9 Core disc for water IIery                                                                             A in                                                                        80a St bollsupPOrt brackets 10 cylinder head                                                                        81  in lin                                                                        81a Sprinl washer for set bolt II in                                                                        82 Valve tappel                                                                        83 Pushrod                                                                                                                             159                                                                                                                             160                                                                                                                             161                                                                                                                             162                                                                                                                             163                                                                                                                                     Oil pipeon cylinder head for rocker                                                                                                                                     luhricallon                                                                                                                                     Oil pipeoil gallery to pipe on ylinder                                                                                                                                     Iin for hano of pipes                                                                                                                                     Joint washer for pin                                                                                                                                     Joint washer for rin                                                                                                                                                                         head                                                                                                                                                                                      237                                                                                                                                                                                      218                                                                                                                                                                                      2J9                                                                                                                                                                                               cylinder                                                                                                                                                                                               Fuel pipeinjeclion pump to No 2                                                                                                                                                                                               cylinder                                                                                                                                                                                               Fuel pipeinjeclion pump to No 3                                                                                                                                                                                               cylinder                                                                                                                                                                                               Fuel pipeinjection pump 10 No 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I                  10 Plugbrassfor water lallery                     84 Cover for pushrods                             164    Tb wasber for pin                                       ylinder                                            i     i                  II Waher for plug                  12 Plugfor oir IIery I in gas circular head                  Il Core plugsteelfor waler gallery                  14 Plugfor oil gallery l in gas                  IS Joint for Pluf No 12                                                                        85 Joinlover 10 cylinder block                                                                        86 Sel boltcover 10 cylinder block short                                                                        87 Spring washer for scI bolt                                                                        88 Valve lIear emer                                                                        89 Oil filler cap                                                                                                                             165                                                                                                                             166                                                                                                                             167                                                                                                                             168                                                                                                                             169                                                                                                                                     Oil pipein liminll use for hain lubrice                                                                                                                                     Pin for banjo of pipe                                                                                                                                     Waher for pin                                                                                                                                     1 alo washer for pin                                                                                                                                     CIi for pipe                                                                                                                                                                            lion                                                                                                                                                                                      240                                                                                                                                                                                      241                                                                                                                                                                                      242                                                                                                                                                                                      243                                                                                                                                                                                               Fuel pipeinicetion pump 10 No                                                                                                                                                                                                cylinder                                                                                                                                                                                               Fuel pipeinjeclion pump to N O  6                                                                                                                                                                                                aamp for fuel pipes                                                                                                                                                                                               Bolt for clamp                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cylinder                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I            16 Union for oi  uge pipe                         90 Gasket for vahe gear cover                     170    Oil sump                                        244     Nut for bolt                                                     17 Washer for plug No 14 and union                91 Nut for alve ear ecr                        171    Blanking plug                                   245     Sprinll washer for bolt                                          18 Cylinder liner                  19 Sealing rinl rubber for liner                                                         No 16     92 Washer llibre for valve gear cove nu                                                                        93 Air manifold                                                                                                                             172                                                                                                                             171                                                                                                                                     Washer for plug                                                                                                                                     Ora in plUI for sump                                                                                                                                                                                      246                                                                                                                                                                                      247     Starler                                                                                                                                                                                               Distance pieceslarter 10 sandwich pIa Ie      I                  20 Drain lap for cylinder block                     94 Stud for air manifold                           174    JoiDl washer for plug                           249    Sludstarter 10 clUIb housinll     I                  21 Shin for drain tap                              95 Joinlair manifold 10 cylinder head             175    Joinlum to crankcase                        250     Nul for stud                  22 Washer for drain lap                             96 Sel ohohortair manifold 10 clinder          176    Sel hohshortsump 10 rankcase                 2S1     Spring washer for stud                                           23 Sandwich pia Ie                                       head                                           176a   SCi boltlongsump to rankcase                 252     A nchor pin for starter strap                                    24 Joint for  ndwieh plate                        97 Sel bollmediuRIair manifold 10                 P7     Plain washer for sel bolt                       251     Pinslrap 10 anchor pin                                          25 Sel boll for sandwich plale                           cylinder head                                  178    Spring washer for SCI bolt                      254     Pintappedfor trap                           i          i                  26 Spring wuher fur sandwich plate                  27 Cylinder head and valve guides assemhly                  28 Valve guideexhausl                  29 Vahe lIui  einlet                  30 Injlor sleee                                                                        98 Sel bolllon8air manifold 10 cylinder                                                                        99 Plain washer for bolt                                                                       100 Spring washer for bohs                                                                       101 Venluri control unil CAV                                                                       102 Jointvenluri hI air manifold                                                                                                                    had                                                                                                                             179                                                                                                                             180                                                                                                                             181                                                                                                                             IH2                                                                                                                             ISl                                                                                                                                     Oil rod for oil levol                                                                                                                                     fuel injection pump                                                                                                                                     I1rackel fr rel injeclion pump                                                                                                                                     Set holt for fuel injetion pump hrackel                                                                                                                                     Spring washer for sel bolt                                                                                                                                                                                      2S                                                                                                                                                                                      26                                                                                                                                                                                      257                                                                                                                                                                                      258                                                                                                                                                                                      259                                                                                                                                                                                               Screwpin No 254 to pin No 2901                                                                                                                                                                                               Strap for starter                                                                                                                                                                                               lIanjo pin for hanjo of pipe to pump                                                                                                                                                                                               Fihre washer for banjo pin                                                                                                                                                                                               Clip for pipe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              i                  31 Core plugsquare hea                         10J ocknulvenluri II air manifold               184    Set screwinJectinn pump to hrakel             261     Clip for pipeoillallery to cylinder head     j            32 Joinlcopperfor core plUI                  33 Inlel valve                  34 Exhaust vahe                                                                       104 Plain washervenluri 10 air manif                                                                       105 Spring washerventuri to air manifolJ                                                                       106 Hollow dowel for main bedfing cps                                                                                                                             1                                                                                                                             I S6                                                                                                                             187                                                                                                                                     Overflow pipe for injection pump                                                                                                                                     in for banjn of pipe                                                                                                                                     Waher for pin                                                                                                                                                                                      262                                                                                                                                                                                      263                                                                                                                                                                                      264                                                                                                                                                                                               Distance piece for clip                                                                                                                                                                                               Main leakofT pipe                                                                                                                                                                                               Banjo pin for pipeshort                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I                  15 Valve springinner                              107 StuIhrt for main bearing cas              188    eady fnr overflow pipe                        265     Washer for pin                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I                       36 Valve springouler                  37 Cullar for oaloe                  38 Relainers for collr                  39 Spring clip for relait                                                                       108 Slu  lonllfor maIO bearing caps                                                                       109 NUl for Iu                                                                       110 Split pin for nuls                                                                       III Vacuum pipehort                                                                                                                             189                                                                                                                             190                                                                                                                             191                                                                                                                             192                                                                                                                                     hrrulc flr ovrrow lipe                                                                                                                                     Driing coupling   injeclion pump                                                                                                                                     Ehauster                                                                                                                                     Rolt f exhausler                                                                                                                                                                                      266                                                                                                                                                                                      267                                                                                                                                                                                      268                                                                                                                                                                                      2611                                                                                                                                                                                               Fuel injector                                                                                                                                                                                               Se h1t for injeclor                                                                                                                                                                                               Sprinl washer for sct bolt                                                                                                                                                                                               Banju pinleakofT 10 fuel filler                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              t     t            40 Oil sc1 fnr valve                              112 Vacuum pipelong                                19J    Srring  h Ii holl                       270     Uanjo pinlongfor banjo of leakofT                                                                                                                                                                                               ppes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 41 Relainer fr oil eill                         Ill Exhaust manifuld                                194    1 iming chain gear                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I                  42 Thimle for inltl voloe                         114 Slud for exhausl manifold                       195    Hul fIn chain wheeL                             272     Adaplor for pipeauxiliary leakoff 10                            43 Localirgpeg for Ihimble                         115 Joinl for  haut manifold pipe              191   Se I It huh to chain wh l                271     Copper washer for adaptor        fuel filler                   44 Seal f inner valve springinlel               116 Nut for ehausl manifld                        191    01 fcd plpemp to exhauster                 274     SCI holtfucl filler support brakel to         1                  45 Decomr screw                             117  half                    19R    Rilnill pinpilf to rlthauhr                275     Spring washer for It      yrinder bck                  46 Siud rear coverplalt                         118 Jintasinglo cylinder block                19   lInjo pinpipe 10 sump                        276     Ilain washer for boll                  47 Sludexhausl manifM                           119 Sel holtasing to cylinder hlock              200      wahr for pins                           277     Adaptor fur fuel oil filter                  48 Sludalve rocker cover                         120 Dowelliming case to cnver                      Ol    nil fr nil f pie                        278     Copper waoher for adaplor                  49 Gaskel for cylinder hed                  50 Sludshortfor cylinder head                  51 Studlongfor cylindr head                                                                       121 Spring washer fur sct Nit                                                                       122 Guide hracket and ad for liminl chain                                                                       121 Pad for guide bracket                                                                                                                             202                                                                                                                             201                                                                                                                             204                                                                                                                                     SCI holt fr cli                                                                                                                                     Speing aher for holt                                                                                                                                     1uJehaulfr to timing chain casing                                                                                                                                                                                      279                                                                                                                                                                                      280                                                                                                                                                                                      281                                                                                                                                                                                               Rodyrelief valve                                                                                                                                                                                               Ballrelief valve                                                                                                                                                                                               Spring for ball                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I                  52 NUl for cylinder head studs                     124 Rivel for pad                                   20S    NUl fllr stud                                   282     Seal fr sprinll     t            51 Lifting and rear coverplate                    125 Set holtGuide hrackel to cylinder hlock        206    Sring  aher for tud                      283     Plug for ody                                       t                                                                 126 Set screwguide braCtlll qlinder block                                                                                                                          i     I                  54 Jninl for pia Ie                  55 Nut for plate                  56 Spring wher for plate                                                                       127 Spring waher for bolt an  screws                                                                       128 Tensioner for timing chain                                                                                                                             207                                                                                                                             208                                                                                                                             209                                                                                                                                     Front uport hradet                                                                                                                                     Set hol Iong  for hraet                                                                                                                                     Sel holt hfl fnr hradel                                                                                                                                                                                      2R4                                                                                                                                                                                      28S                                                                                                                                                                                      286                                                                                                                                                                                               Packing waoher for dy                                                                                                                                                                                               Tah washer for body                                                                                                                                                                                               Overflow pipe fm relief valve                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I     I            57 Thermolat                                      129 Chain whtel for ensioner                       210    Spring asher for IlUll                       287     Washersmall hoie for banjo                  I                 58 Rody for Ihermolat                             130 Stu for chain tensioner in cylindtr hlock   211    Fuel filler                                      288     Washerlarge holtfor banjo                                   59 Joint for Ihenooslat boy                      Ill Sel bolt for hain lensioner                    212    Iemenl for filter                             289     Jointexhauster to timing chain c3ing                         60 ScI holt fnr Ihermustal body                   1l2 NUl for stud                                    21 J   JIlin r cover                               290     Pinplainfor starter slrap                                     61 Plu for thermoslat dy                       IlJ Tab washer for stud and holt                    214    Sel bollfiller 10 bracket                      291     Spacing washer for valve rocker thin     I            62 Spring waher for sel bolt                      134 Timing chain                                    21    Plain wash fur set holt                      292     Orain lap lube                 63 CIA washer for plug                             U5 Uftinl plalefronl                               211i   Sring w3her for set hh                       293     Steady for drain lap tube                      I                 64 Waler oulet pipe                               l6 Cover for liminll casefronl half               217    Fuel pipcIift pump 10 filter                  294     Grommet for drain tap tuhe                 65 Joinl for waler oUllel pipe                     1l7 Jointover to casing                        218    Fuel piefiher 10 injection pump              295     Cylinder block blanking pia Ie                 t     t            66 Set bolt for water oullel pipe                  118 Sel bollover to caing                     2111   lekon pipeauiliary                                                                                                                                     9rackel fur fuel filter                                                                                                                                                                                      296                                                                                                                                                                                      297                                                                                                                                                                                               Joinl for blanking platc                                                                                                                                                                                               Bolt for hlankinll pia Ie                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      i                  67 Spring washer for sel holt                      139 SCI boltcover and casing to cylinder            220                  68 Valve rocker                                   140 Spring washer for set bohs            hlnck   221    Sleady plale for fuel filter                    298     Valve cover venl pipe                           i                  69 Spacing waher for valve rocker thick         141 Oil seal                                        222    Oynamn                                          300     Nut for cover vent pirt                                          70 Adjuslinll screw for valve rocker               145 Hlanking plale for fronl cover                  22J    ulle for dynamo                              101     Wafer drain plug                                                  71 Locknul for adjusting screw                     146 Joinlblanking plate 10 fronl cover            224    IIracket fr dynamorear                       302     Washer for plug                                                  72 Shaft for valve rockers                         147 Set screwblanking plale 10 fronl cover         225    Set holtrear dynamo brackel I cylinder        301     Set screw for oil pipe on cylin I ad           t            73 Plug for valve rocker shaft                     148 Spring washer for sct screw                     226    Spring washer for sel boh           block     304     Guide IUN assemhly for diprod                  i     I            74 Locating screw for rocker shaft                  7 Spring washer for localing screw                  76 Supporl bracketfronl and rear for                                                                       149 Distance piece for front cover                                                                       ISO ScI boll for diance piece                                                                       IS Sprinl washer for set   It                                                                                                                             227                                                                                                                             228                                                                                                                             229                                                                                                                                     Bollbrackets to dynamo                                                                                                                                     Nul for boh                                                                                                                                     Sring washer for boh                                                                                                                                                                                      105                                                                                                                                                                                      306                                                                                                                                                                                      107                                                                                                                                                                                               Spacing washers for luide                                                                                                                                                                                               Plughra                                                                                                                                                                                                Plug for intermediate rocker brad et                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I                 rocker ha                  77 Support braketenlrcfor rocleer shaft                                                                       152 Oil filler                                                                       153 Oil filter elemenl                                                                                                                             210                                                                                                                             21                                                                                                                                     Set screwdynamo nange to adjustinl                                                                                                                                     Plain washer for set screw            Iinlc                                                                                                                                                                                      108                                                                                                                                                                                      309                                                                                                                                                                                               Washer for plug                                                                                                                                                                                              W  It                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                iIn   juuuu rocker                       78 sUfcport brackel           154 Oil filter askel                               232    Adjustin link for dynamo                       310                                                                                                                                                                                               J                                                                                                                                     Bracket for dynamofronl                        311                                                                                                                                                               cn                                                                                                                      121 119                                                                                                    U                                                                                                     2                                                                                                       2        a                                                                                   Fig E5      L                         I                  componenu                                                    DIESEL ENGINE                       Fig Aa4          Checking the oil pump drive  Aa6                                                                                         B                                                                                         Fig Aa6       REMOVING AND REPLACING mE          OIL PUMP AND STRAINER                                  Check the oil pump rotor lobe clearance with the                                                                 rotors ill positions A alld B The dimensions given                                                                             are for the maximum clewance   Remove the sump                                            still in situ hy ullscrcwlIlg tht two set holts whidl secure   Unscrew the two set bolts securing the oil delivery         the oil uction pipe flange to the oil pumppipe to the cylinder block   Remove the nuts securing the oil pump to the frontmain bearing cap and withdraw the pump completewith delivery pipe oil strainer and pressure relief valvenoting the shims between the bearing cap and oil pump         Section Aa7   To replace the oil pump reverse the above procedure              DISMANTLING AND  fit a new gasket to the delivery pipe flange Tighten                    TBE OIL PUMPthe oil pump securing nuts to the figure given inGENERAL DATA using torque wrench 18G 372   Check that the backlash on the oil pump drive gearsis as given in GENERAL DATA and if necessary                  Disconnect the delivery pipe oil strainer and pressureadjust the backlash by means of the shims between the          relief valve from the oil pumpoil pump and main bearing cap                                    Remove the gear and key from the end of the pump   The oil strainer can be removed with the oil pump           shaft                                                                  Unscrew the set bolts separate the oil pump cover                                                               from the body and remove the pump shaft complete                                                               with inner and outer rotors                                                                  Thoroughly clean and inspect aU the dismantled com                                                               ponents                                                                  Check the rotor endfloat and driving shaft clear                                                               ance against the figures given in GENERAL DATA                                                               Excessive rotor endfloat can be remedied by lapping                                                               the pump body face                                                                  Measure the rotor lobe clearance as illustrated in                                                               Fig Aa6                                                                  Reassemble the oil pump by reversing the dismantling                                                               procedure noting that the chamfered end of the outer                                                               rotor should be fitted towards the bottom of the rotor                      Fig Aa5                                pocket During reassembly smear all working parts         Checking the oil pump rotor endfloat                 with new engine oil                                         DIESEL ENGINE                                                             bracket set bolts then reset the torque wrench see                                                             GENERAL DATA and tighten the i in diameter                                                             bolts                                                               Adjust the valve rocker clearance Section AaH                                                             and replace valve rocker cover                                                               Start the engine and inspect the rocker cover joint                                                             for oil leaks                                                             Section AalO                                       0                                       p           A4588A                                                                    DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING                                                                      THE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY                       Fig Aa7                                Unscrew the         set bolts from the centre rocker         Adjustillg the valve 10 rocker clearance            bracket and separate the          rocker shafts from the                                                             centre bracket                                                                Remove the rockers and distance collars and the                                                             remaining brackets from the rocker shafts and unscrew                                                             the blanking plug from the end of each shaft Section As8                                                                Release the tab washer from the oil relief valve drain          OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE                          pipe on the front intermediate bracket and unscrew                                                             the relief valve from the bracket     The pressure relief valve is mounted                       Remove the plug from the relief valve body and with on the outlet flange of the oil pump facing                 draw the spring spring seat and relief valve balltowards the front of the engine                                Clean all the dismantled components paying particu     Release the locking washer and re                      tar attention to the oilwaysmove the oil pressure relief pI ug lockingwasher and valve seat from cover                              Inspect the components and check them against their     Examine the valve seat and the                          specifications in GENERAL DATAplunger for wear or score marks and                            When reassembling which is a reversal of the discheck the spring against the specifica                      mantling procedure smear all moving parts with newtion in GENERAL DATA                                      engine oil renew the tab washer and copper gaskets     When reassembling which is a re                       on the oil pressure relief valve and fit the drain pipeversal of the dismantling procedure                         so that it is directed down the pushrod tunnel Alsorenewthe body plug locking washer and                       ensure that the rocker shaft distance collars are corthe mounting flange gasket                                  rectly pOSitioned see GENERAL DATA    Unscrew the set bolts from thecenter rocker bracket and separate therocker shafts from the center bracket                       Section Asll                                                                        VALVE ROCKER CLEARANCE                                                                The clearance between tile ends of the valve stems                                                             and the valve rockers is checked by means of a feelerSection As9                                                             gauge                FOUR230          REMOVING AND REPLACING                                Crank the engin until No g valve is fully open and        THE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY                            check the clearance of No 1 valve which will now be                                                             fully closed   Remove the valve rocker cover   Slacken the rocker adjusting screws until all pressure       To adjust the clearance hold the adjusting screw withis relieved from the valve springs                          a screwdriver and slacken the locknut Fig Aa7   Remove the set bolts securing the rocker brackets to      Rotate the adjusting screw until the clearance betweenthe cylinder head and lift off the rocker shaft assembly    the valve stem and rocker is as given in GENERAL   Refit the rocker shaft assembly to the cylinder head      DATA Hold the adjusting screw against rotation lockwith all rocker adjusting screws fully slackened Using      it in position with the locknut and then recheck thetorque wrench 18G 537 set to the figure given in              DATA tighten the r in diameter rocker               Check the remaining rocker clearances by reference                                                                                                                   55                                                     DIESEL ENGINE to the following table                                                                          Remove water hose between fresh   No1 valve ex with No8 valve fully open                     water pump and heat exchanger at pump            3                           in                                                       6                                                                        Remove water hose between heat        5      ex        4                                                                  exchanger and the dual oil cooler at     2  in   7                                                                                                              cooler            8                                       ex                                                                             I                                                                                                       Disconnect the water discharge                                                                    hose from side of heat exchanger        6      in        3     4                                                             Remove the two bolts securing the                        ex                                                     5                                                                 dual oil cooler to the engine lifting        7     in         2                                       bracket and move cooler away from                                   The valve rocker clearance should be checked                       at the intervals recommended                               Disconnect exhaust pipe from ex                                                                    pansion tank exhaust manifold                           SIX346                                       Remove the expansion tank exhaust                                                                    manifold from the cylinder head and   Crank the engine until No 12 valve is fully opeD and            lift away with heat exchanger attachedcheck the clearance of No 1 valve which wiD now be                    Release the T connection in thefully closed                                                       rocker feed pipe Seal ends to prevent   To adjust the clearance hold the adjusting screw with           entrance of dirta screwdriver and slacken the locknut Fig Aa7                       Remove the two bolts securing theRotate the adjustina screw until the clearance betweeD              wiring bracket to the cylinder headtho valve stem and rocker is u Jiven in GENERAL                         Disconnect the fuel pipe unions andDATA Hold the adjusting screw against rotation lock              leak off unions at fuel injectors Sealit in position with the locknut and then recheck the              off all pipes and injectors to                                                           the entry of dirt   Check the remaining rocker clearances by referenm                     Remove the six bolts securing theto the following table                                             intake manifold to cylinders head                                                                    Remove intake manifold  Check and adjust No I valve ex with No 12 valve fully open        Remove the injectors from the                 7                                          in                                                                                           6                cylinder head                                                        9       ex           4                                                                2       in          11                    NOTE The injectors should not be left                       5                      10                                                                 ex                               in                                               8                                               3                                                                    in position in the cylinder head as the                                                                    nozzle tips protrude below the bottom                                                      face of the head and are liable to sus                      12       ex           I                       6       in           7                                                                    tain damage                        4       ex           9                                                        II                       8                                                                  in                               ex                                             2                                               5                                                                         Working in the order shown in                                                                    Fig Aa8 A for the four230 or                               3                                            in                                                                                                                                10                                                                    Aa8B for the six346 slacken each    The valve rocker clearance should                               cylinder head nut a quarter of a turnbe checked periodically at the intervals                            only then unscrew each nut a                                                         amount in the same order until loose                                                                    Remove the cylinder head nuts and lift                                                                    off the cylinder head                                                                                                       Section h12                                                          On no account should a screwdriver or similar tool                                                                    be used as a wedge between the cylinder head and block                REMOVING AND REPLACING                              A suitable method of removing the cylinder head is                  THE CYLINDER BEAD                                 to place a sling round the exhaust manifold studs on     Drain cooling system                                          one side and round two hightensile iin UNF set     Remove hoses connected to thermo                             bolts screwed into the air inlet manifold bolt holes on                                                                    the other side When lifting the head a direct pullstat housing     Remove the four bolts securing                                 should be given to lift it evenly up the  housing and engine lifting                                 Unscrew the two locating dowels and remove thebracket from cylinder heads                                        cylinder head gaskeL  56   Check the cylinder head joint face for flatness uSlnga straightedge   If there is any doubt as to the condition of thecylinder head gasket it should be discarded and a newone fitted plain side downwards   Replace the remaining components by reversing theremoval procedure The cylinder head DUts should betightened in the order shown in Fig AaS   Adjust the valve rocker clearance as described inSection Aall   Bleed the fuel system of air  Start the engine and allow it to run at a fast idlingspeed until it is thoroughly warm  Stop the engine remove the valve rocker cover andretighten the cylinder head nuts in the order shown inFig AaSRecheck the valve rocker clearance asdescribed in Section Aa 11                                                  Fig Aa9                                                            Using spanner 18G 396 and torque wrench 18G 372                                                                     to tighten the cylinder head nuts         Fig Aa8A FOUR230     Cylinder head nut slackening and         tightening sequence                                              Fig Aa 8B SIX346                                       Cylinder head nut slackening and                                             tightening sequence                                                                                                              57                                         DIESEL ENGINE                                                             I                                                                   I A Ill                                                                       I                                                                                     Fig Aa11                     Fig AaJO                                  Engine valve components showing the locating fiat   Compressing the valve springs using tool18G 106              A on the inlet valve and the chamfered bore                                                                          B of the exhaust valve oil seal  Recheck the valve rocker clearance as described inSection Aall                                               original positions in the cylinder head Position the                                                             inlet valves 80 that the small flat Fig Aall on the                                                             top of the valve stem is in line with the valve guideSection Aa13                                                locating peg Insert the valve key into position in the                                                             inlet guide slot and replace the thimble complete with  REMOVING AND REPLACING THE VALVES                          oil seal Fit the inner and outer valve springs the   Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly Section           exhaust valve oil seal chamfer downwards andAa9                                                       retainer and the valve spring collar Compress the   Drain the cooling system                                  valve springs with tool 18G 106 and refit the spring   Remove the cylinder head Section Aal2                 collar retainers Release the compressing tool and   Detach the spring clips from the valve spring collar      replace the spring clips on the collar  Compress each set of valve springs using            Check that the valve head standdown below thetool18G 106 and remove both halves of the spring collar      cylinder head face is in accordance with the figures inretainer Release the compressing tool and remove            GENERAL DATA If the valve head standdownthe valve spring collar oil seal and retainer exhaust     is excessive fit new valves and in the event of thevalve only valve springs and the exhaust valve With     standdown being excessive with new valves fit newdraw the thimble from the inlet valve stem detach the       valves seat inserts as described in Section Aal6valve key from its slot in the inlet guide and removethe inlet valve Remove the inlet valve oil seal frominside the thimble   Clean the valves and guides The carbon can beremoved from the guides by dipping the valve stemin petrol or paraffin and moving it up and down inthe guide until it is free If excessive wear is disclosedthe valve guides should be renewed Section Aa15   Inspect the valve faces and seats and  as necessary Section Aal4   Check the valve springs against the specification inGENERAL DA TAt and ensure that the ends of thesprings are square with thp spring axis   A new oil seal should be fitted to each valve  to avoid the loss of oil tightness which willresult from refitting the old seals It will be foundthat the seals are more easily fitted if they are soaked                             Fig Aa12in engine oil before use                                        Fit the valves with their top faces standing down   lubricate the valve stems and guides with new engine          below the cylinder head joint face to the dimensionoil and replace the valves which are numbered in their                            shown inset  58                                        DIESEL ENGINE                                                             angle see GENERAL DATA on a valve grinding                                                             machine and the valve seats recut using tools 18G 27                                                             18G 28 18G 28 A 18G 28 B 18G 28 C 18G 174                                                             18G 174 A 18G 174 B 8G 174 C and 180230 Use                                                             the glazebreaker to prepare the seat surface and recut                                                             the seats removing only as little metal as is necessary                                                             to ensure a true seat Restore the seats to their correct                                                             width see GENERAL DATA by using the narrowing                                                             cutters Finally lap the valves onto their seats as                                                             already described                                                             Section AsIS                                                                       REMOVING AND REPLACING                                                                          THE VALVE GUIDES                      Fig Aa13                                                               Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly Section         Grindingin a valve using tool18G 29                                                             Aa9 Drain the cooling system         Remove                                                             the cylinder head Section Aa12 and the valvesSection As14                                                Section Aa13                                                               Drive the valve guides out of the cylinder head                 V ALVEGRINDING                                                             using tool 18G 228 inserted into the guide from the   If only slightlY pitted the valve faces and seas aD     port endbe reconditioned by grindingin with tine grmdmg                                                               New valve guides should be driven into position withcompound Smear the valve face lighly with griding                                                             tool 18G 228 until the shoulder on the guide is flushcompound and lap the valve on to Its sat usm a                                                             against the cylinder head When titting the inlet  motion with tool 18G 29 ThIs operatlon                                                             guides ensure that the locating peg slot in the valveis not complete until a dull even mat surface free from                                                             guide shoulder is in line with the locating peg in theblemish is produced on both the valve face and seat                                                             cylinder head before driving the guide into position   After cleaning away all traces of grinding compoundthe valve seating can be checked by applying a spot of          Finish ream new valve guides using tool 18G 229Amarking blue to the valve face and rotating the valve        then ensure that the valve seatings are concentric withabout one tum on its seat the marking should be             the valve guide bores recutting the seatings if necessary                                                             Section Aa14completely reproduced on the valve seat A tinallapping using oil only is recommended                       Replace the remaining components by reversing the   When the valve faces and seats cannot be correctedby lapping the valves should be refaced to the correct                     Fig Aa14Badly pitted valve seats should be reaced using                               Fig Aa1Stools 18G 27 18G 28 18G 28 A l8G 28 B 18G 28 C            Driving a valve guide into position using tooll8G 174 l8G 174 A 18G 174 B l8G 174 C and 18G 230                            18G 228                                                                                                                   59                                                           DIESEL ENGINE                                       Fig Aa16                                                                   Fig AaJ8          Reaming a valve guide using tool l8G 229A                                Cutting a thread in an injector sleeve using tool                                                                                   18G 213 A to enable the sleeve to be withdrawn byremoval procedure and adjust                           the valve rocker           tool 18G 213 Shown inset is the Alkathene plugclearance Section Aa11                                                         inserted ill the sleeve to prevent swart entering the                                                                                                       cylinder boreSection Aa16                                                                                 the insert which has an interference fit of 002 to 004 in                VALVE SEAT INSERTS                                               051 to 102 mm into the cylinder head Finally   If a valve seating cannot be restored with the normal                         grind or machine the new seat to the dimensions givencutting and refacing tools or if valve head standdown                          in Fig Aal7 ensuring that the throat of the new seatis excessive with a new valve a valve seat insert should                        blends into the throat in the cylinder headbe fitted                                                                          Check the area of contact between the new seat and   To fit an insert machine the seating in the cylinder                         its valve with marking blue and if necessary lap thehead to the dimensions given in Fig Aal7 and press                            valve onto its seat Section Aa14                                                                                 Section Aa17                                                                                                    DECARBONIZING                                                                                    Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly Section                                                                                 Aa9                                                                                    Drain the cooling system                                                                                    Remove th cylinder head Section Aa12 and the                                                                                 valves Section Aa13                                                                                    Plug the waterways in the cylinder head and the                                          Fig Aa17                             cylinder block with clean rag                               Valve seat machining dimensions                      If special equipment for decarbonizing is not available                             Inlet A                   Exhaust 8                                                                                 it will be necessary to remove the carbon deposit fromC Nominal diameter 1450 in                  L Nominal diameter 1290 in     the piston crown and cylinder head by scraping A   368 rnm                                   3275 rnm                  length of copper tubing with the end flattened and filedD 1775 to 1776 in 45076                  M 1625 to 1626 in 4127 to   to 45102 mm                                4130 mm                    up makes an ideal scraper which will not scratchE Maximum radius 015 in                     N  Maximum radius 015 in           The ridge of carbon in the top of each cylinder bore   38 rnm                                    38 mmF 325 to 328 in 825 to                   P 325 to 328 in 825 to                                                                                 should not be disturbed and a ring of carbon should   833 mm                                     833 rnm                    also be left round the periphery of each piston crownG 135 to 140 in 343 to                   Q 135 to 140 in 343 to      An old piston ring sprung into the bore and resting on   356 rnm                                    356 rnmH 070 to 080 in 178 to                   R 070 to 080 in 178 to                                                                                 the top of the piston will facilitate this operation   203 rnm                                    203 rnm                       Remove the carbon deposit from the valves valveJ 45                                         s 45                           ports valve guides and cylinder head ThoroughlyL Chamfer 020 to 030 in                      T Chamfer 020 to 030 in   508 to 762 rnm at 45                   508 to 762 rnm at 4S    clean the cylinder head and ensure that all traces of     60                                          DIESEL ENGINE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  JIgAal9 Withdralting an injector sleeve using too18G 213   D                         Fig Aa20                                                               Installing an injector sleeve using tool 18G 561carbon dust are removed from the head and cylinderbores                                                          Drain the cooling system  Replace the components reversing the removal                 Remove the cylinder headprocedure and adjust the valve rocker clearance                If No 1 connecting rod is to be removed detach theSection As I I                                           oil strainer and suction pipe from the oil pump                                                                Remove the cap and the bottom half of the bigend                                                             bearingSection Aa18                                                   Clean the carbon deposit from the top of the cylinder                                                             bore and withdraw the cunnecting rod and piston          REMOVING AND REPLACING                             upwards through the cylinder            THE INJEcroR SLEEVFS                               NOTEEach collDeCtiDa rod aad cap Is stamped  If it is found necessary to renew an injector sleeve       with the Dumber of the cyliader from which it wthe operation can be carried out without removing the        removed Fig ALll                                                                Lubricate the cylinder bore and piston with cleancylinder head                                                             engine oil space the compression ring gaps equally  Remove the injector                                                             round the circumference of the piston and compressInsert an Alkathene plug supplied with tool              the rings using too118G 55 A18G 213 A into the injector sleeve to prevent swarf            Insert the connecting rod and piston  the cylinder Using tool 18G 213 A cut a           through the cylinder bore so positioned that thethread on the inside of the sleeve Remove the tool          connecting rod cap will be towards the lefthand side ofbut leave the plug in position Screw tool 18G 213 0into the injector sleeve and withdraw the sleeve FigAa19   Remove the Alkathene plug from the injector sleeve  Crank the engine to position the piston in the cylinderbeing operated on at BDC  Coat the new injector sleeve with sealing compoundpart number AKF 1702 on those surfaces which contactthe cylinder head and drive it into position using toolISG 561Section Aa19                                                                                                       REMOVING AND REPLACING                                                                                                 A CONNECTING ROD AND PISTON                                                                                                F Drain and remove the sump                                                       Fig Aa21 Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly Section               Installing a piston and connecting rod assemblyAL9                                                                         using tool18G 55 A                                                                                                                                                61                                          DIESEL ENGINE 1 Connecting rod 2 Cap 3 Bearing 4 Bolts S Tab washer 6 Hollow dowel 7 Littleend bush                                                                                    Fig Aa23                                                                When checking the gap clearance of a new piston                                                                ring enmre that the ring is inserted illto an unworn                                                                             part of the cylinder bore                                5                                              III                                                              Section Aa20                                                                    DISMANnING AND REASSEMBLING                                                                     A CONNECTING ROD AND PISTON                                                                Remove the bearing halves from the connecting rod                                                              and cap If the bearing is to be re4lSed it should be                                                              marked to ensure reassembly in its original position                                                                Using tool 18G 1004 withdraw the two circlips from                       Fig Aa22                             the piston and press the gudgeon pin out Mark the  The arrows A indicate the bearing locating tags           piston and gudgeon pin to ensure correct reassembly  and grooves The arrows 8 indicate the cylinder              Remove the rings from the piston and place them in  number from which the connecting rod was                    the order in which they are removed to assist in                      removed                                 reassembling them in their original grooves                                                                Thoroughly clean all the dismantled components and                                                              inspect them for damage                                                                Check the cylinder bore for scoring and for wear see                                                              GENERAL DATA If the diameter of the bore is the engine The cavity in the piston crown should now        worn in any place by 010 in 254 mm or more a new be offset towards the righthand side of the engine   Ensure that the connecting rod and cap the bearingand the crankpin are absolutely clean Fit the twohalves of the bearing to the connecting rod and cap                                                              NOTE On the VD series of the four                                                              and six cylinder engiles there are two   Each half bearing has a tag which locates in a groove      grooves one above and one below thein the connecting rod and cap Fig Aa22 If the old        wrist pin for two scraper rings Forbearing is being used the two halves should be replaced       the VD series engines both of thesein their original positions Lubricate the bearing and        scraper rings are usedcrank pin with clean engine oil position the hollowdowels between the connecting rod and cap and fit the        For the 98 series engines both groovescap into positiQTI with the stamped numbers on rod and       are present but only the upper scrapercap adjacent to each other Fit new tab washers under         ring may be installed If a lowerthe bigend bolts and tighten the bolts to the figure given   ring is installed the piston will bein GENERAL DATA using torque wrench 18G 372               starved for  the bolts in position with the tab washers   Replace the remaining components reversing theremoval procedure and adjust the valve  Section Aall   62                                          DIESEL ENGINE                                                                 Reassemble the remaining components reversing the                                                              dismantling procedure noting that the cavity in the                                                              piston crown should be offset to the connecting rod on                                                              the opposite side to the bigend cap                                                              Section Aa21                                                                         REMOVING AND REPLACING                                                                            A CYLINDER LINER                                                                  Drain and remove the sump                                                                  Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly Section                                                               Aa9                                                                  Drain the cooling system                                                                  Remove the cylinder head Section Aa12                       Fig Aa25                                 Withdraw the connecting rods and pistons Section   Removing and replacing a connecting rod littleend          Aa19              bush using tool18G 616                              Using tool ISG 227 C withdraw the cylinder liner                                                               upwaros from the cylinder block Fig Aa26                                                                  Remove the cylinder liner sealing ring from its groove                                                               in the bottom of the cylinder block                                                                  NOTE1be aeaIiag riDg should be raaewed OD aD liner and piston should be fitted Section Aa21 In the    OCCllliODS of qUader liDer removaL event of a water leak at the bottom of the cylinder              Inspect the cylinder liner seating in the top of the liner the cylinder liner sealing ring should be renewed     cylinder block for signs of burrs carbon or rust Section Aa21                                             accumulation Thoroughly clean the seating being   Check the piston to cylinder bore clearance see           careful not to remove any metal otherwise a water leakGENERAL DATA                                              is liable to occur If the old liner is to be refitted clean   Insert each piston ring into the cylinder bore and         the locating flange at the top of the liner exercising the measure the piston ring gap Fig Aa23 against the         same care as for the liner seatingfigure in GENERAL DATA The ring should be                     Thoroughly clean the sealing ring groove in theplaced in an unworn part of the bore and the piston           cylinder blockused to position the ring square to the cylinder bore axis      Insert the cylinder liner into the cylinder block   Check the clearance of each ring in its own groove         without fitting the sealing ring and clamp the liner inFig Aa24 against the figure in GENERAL DATA            the fuIlyhome positionThe top ring is tapersided and to check its  the ring should be fitted to the piston andinserted into an unworn cylinder liner Push the pistoninto the liner until about threequarters of the pistonring width has entered the liner then check the ringgroove clearance  If it is decided to fit new piston rings in a usedcylinder the glaze should be removed from the cylinderbore  Check the fit of the gudgeon pin in the piston seeGENERAL DATA   Measure the gudgeon pin to smallend bush clearancesee GENERAL DATA and if necessary renew thebush Fig Aa2S using tool 18G 616 Before pressingin a new bush line up the oil hole in the bush with thehole in the top of the connecting rod   Check the connecting rod alignment against the figurein GENERAL DATA  Fit the rings into their respective grooves in thepiston ensuring that Nos 2 and 3 compression ringswhich are taperfaced are installed with the side marked                            Fig Aa26TOP uppermost                                                                Withdrawing a cylinder liner using tool18G 227 C                                                                                                                     63                                              DIESEL ENGINE                                                               the sealing ring is seating correctly It may be necessary                                                               to exchange the sealing ring to reduce the liner ovality                                                               to an acceptable limi                                                                  Replace the remaining components reversing the                                                               removal procedure and adjust the valve rocker clearance                                                               Section Aall                                                               Section Aa22                                                                             REMOVING AND RPLACING                                                                            THE TIMING GEAR CASE COVER                                                                  Tke the wight of the engwe at the iont prefelibly                                                               with a sling but do not lift directly under the sump                             Fig Aa27                                                                  Release the engine front support bracket from its        Insert shims at A to adiust the standing height of   mountings        the early cylinder liner Shown inset are the faces       Unlock and unscrew the nut from the front of the        of the cylinder block and the liner from which the     crankshaft using spanner 18G 97                    standing heirht is measured                  Withdraw the crankshaft pulley using tool 18G 231                                                               and adaptor 18G 231 A and extract the pulley key from   Check the standing height of the cylinder liner against     the end of the crankshaft The crankshaft oil seal maythe dimension in GENERAL DATA The top face of               be removed and replaced using tool 18G 1111the liner is stepped and the standing height should be            Remove the engine front support bracket from themeasured between the lower face of the step and the            timing gear casetop face of the cylinder block If necessary the stand          Unscrew the remaining bolts securing the timing gearing height of early liners can be increased by fitting         case cover to the timing gear case and detach theshims see GENERAL DATA for thickness under the             engine front lifting bracket and the  liner flange                                         support bracket   Remove the liner install a new sealing ring in the            Remove the set bolts securing the front of the sumpgroove in the bottom of the cylinder block and apply          to the timing case cover and slacken the remaining sumpa coating of Hylomar SQ32 jointing compound to the             bolts two complete turnsreduced diameter at the lower end of the liner Install           Pull the timing case cover complete with crankshaftthe liner using a semirotary motion to prevent the                                                               oil seal and distance piece off the two locating dowelssealing ring becoming twisted or dislodged Press the                                                               at the lower end of the timing gear case taking careliner fully home then check its bore for ovality in the                                                               not to damage the sump gasketarea adjacent to the sealing ring If the ovality exceeds                                                                  Cover the open end of the sump to prevent the ingress00175 in 04 mm withdraw the liner and check that                            i                                    j                             I j           jtlxiII I                                                                                                                                                        Fig Aa28                                                 Fig Aa29        Removing the starting handle jaw nut using tool            Withdrawing the crankshaft pulley using tools                            18G 97                                             18G 231 and 18G 231 A            64                                         DIESEL ENGINE                                                             Section Aa23                                                                      REMOVING AND REPLACING                                                                            THE TIMING GEARS                                                               Before removing the timing gears check the gear                                                             backlash against the figure in GENERAL DATA                                                                                   Four230                                                                Refit the crankshaft nut and rotate the crankshaft                                                             using spanner 18G 97 until Nos 1 and 4 pistons are                                                             at TDC with No4 piston commencing its induction                                                             stroke This will correctly position the timing marks                                                             on the crankshaft and camshaft gears for reassembly                                                                                     Six346                                                                kllI  Li1 rallkshai L oj                                                                                          L      Cla lC tile cr ansnall                                                                                                                                                              using spanner 18G 97 until Nos 1 and 6 pistons are                                                             at TDC with Nol piston commencing its induction                                                             stroke This will corrctly position the timing marks                                                             on the crankshaft and camshaft gears for reassembiy                   Fig Aa30                                                                Press back the jocking washers and umcrew the n1its  Withdrawing the camshaft gear using tools                 from the camshaft and the injection pump dnve shaft         18G 23118G 231 C and 18G 231 D                    Remove the thrust washer and withdraw the idlr lear                                                             from its shaft                                                                NOTEAfter the idler gear bas beea remond of foreign matter                                            the craaksbaft or camshaft should be rotated   Clean the joint faces of both timing case and cover       all the alft rocker adjasdDg serews are comand examine them for burrs Inspect the crankshaft           pletely slackeaed oil to allow all the alvea to remainoil seal and renew it if necessary Ensure that the         fully dOled If this conditioD is Dot obseed the  distance piece is free from burrs and             may foal the pistODS Dd cause serious  where it contacts the crankshaft oil seal            Remove the oil thrower from the end of the   When replacing the components which is a reversal        crankshaftof the foregoing procedure fit a new gear case cover           Withdraw the oil pump driving gear and  but do not use jointing compound The groove          gear using tool 18G 231 and adaptor 18G 231 Bbetween the sealing lips of the crankshaft oil seal should      Using tool 18G 231 and adaptor 18G 231 C withdrawbe filled with high melting point grease before assembly    the gears from the camshaft and the injection pump                                     o             o           o                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig Aa3JTiming gears showing                           A the 0 marks on the                       o                                                10drive gears and hubs and                                                                                     I                                                                                                             JB the timing nuuks on                                                                                                                                                                                I                                                                                                           Ithe idler and drive gears                      0                                                                                                                         65                                         DIESEL ENGINE                               ii                                                                                                     liiillll                                                                      Fig Aa32           RelllOlillg replacing and broaching to size the timing idler gear bush using tool 18G 683drive shaft Thrust pads 18G 2311 D and 18G 231 E            from their hubs without removing the hubs from theirshould be used for the camshaft gear and injection            shaftspump drive gear respectively                                     Position the crankshaft so that the   Thoroughly clean and inspect all the dismantled           Four230 No 4 piston or the                                                   No 6 piston is just commencing its in   Check the idler gear thrust washer thickness and the      duction stroke as described in Sectionidler gear bush to shaft clearance against the figures       Aa23given in GENERAL DATA If necessary renew thebush as described in Section Aa24                            Remove the thrust washer and idler gear from its   Refit the gears to the camshaft crankshaft and           shaft and the camshaft gear and injection pump driveinjection pump drive shaft and ensure that the timing         gear from their hubsmarks on the teeth of these gears are in the position           If the idler gear bush is to be removed press the oldshown in Fig Aa31 Slide the idler gear onto its shaft      bush out using tool 18G 683 with the larger bore ofand engage the teeth with those of the other gears so         the tool support uppermost Reverse the tool supportthat the timing marks line up as shown in Fig Aa31          so that its lipped end is uppermost when pressing in anoting that the double mark on the idler gear is lined        new bush This will ensure that the bush is correctlyup with the timing mark on the crankshaft gear               positioned with its ends equidistant from the sides of   Tighten the nuts on the camshaft and injection pump        the gear With the tool support still in this latterdrive shaft and secure them with the locking washers         position broach the bush after first lubricating the   Check the valve timing as described in Section Aa26      broach liberally with clean paraffin   Fit the idler gear thrust washer to the shaft with the       Reassemble the camshaft gear and the injection pumpoil groove towards the gear                                  drive gear to their hubs so that the timing mark on the   Refit the crankshaft oil thrower with the chamfered        inner face of each gear lines up with the timing markside towards the gear                                        on its hub as in Fig Aa31   Replace the remaining components in the reverseorder to that in which they were removed                        Refit the idler gear to its shaft so that the timing   Check the injection timing as described in Section         marks on all four timing gears are in the relationshipDa                                                           shown in Fig Aa31 noting that the double mark on                                                              the idler gear is lined up with the timing mark on the                                                              crankshaft gearSection Aa24                                                                Tighten and rewire the securing screws on the      OISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING                            injection pump drive gear but leave the securing screws            THE TIMING GEARS                                  on the camshaft gear fingertight                                                                   Adjust the valve timing as described in Section Aa26  Two of the timing gearsthose fitted to the camshaft          Refit the idler gear thrust washer with the oil grooveand the injection pump drive shaftcan be dismantled          towards the gear 66                                               DIESEL ENGINE                                                                    Section Aa26                                                                                      VALVE TIMING                                                                   Four 230 Engine                                                                            When timing pin AMK 9990 engages the fly                                                                            wheel No4 piston is at 25 0 BTDC and the                                                                            degree plate must be set at 25 0 before zero                                                                       With the timing marks on the gars correctly rlated                                                                   as in Fig Aa3I and the valve rocker clearance adjusted                                                                   as in Section AaII final adjustment of the valve timing                                                                   see GENERAL DATA and Fig Aa33 is made by                                                                   rotating the camshaft drive gear in relation to its hub                                                                   the securing bolt holes in the camshaft gear being                                                                   elongated for this purpose                                                                       Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction or                                                                   rotation until the 50 ATDC mark is at the top of the                                                                   flywheel in the vertical position with No 1 piston                                    G                              commencing its firing stroke and No 4 piston                          Fig Aa33                               commencing its induction stroke                     Valve riming diagram Four230                    Slacken the six set bolts securing the camshaft gear                                        Fuel injection timing 28                                                                   to its hub and rotate the camshaft in the normalA   Inlet valve opens        EB   Exhaust valve close             BTDC                   direction of rotation until the exhaust valve No8 ofC   Exhaust valve opens      F       Top dead centre           No4 cylinder is just closedD   Inlet valve closes       G       Bottom dead centre           A clock gauge mounted on the engine with its                                                                   indicator contacting the valve spring collar will                                                                   facilitate this operation Tighten the camsllaft gear                                                                   securing bolts recheck the valve timing and rewire the                                                                   gear securing bolts                                                                      An alternative method of setting the crankshaft atSection Aa25                                                      50 ATDC is to use a degree plate and pointer in             REMOVING AND REPLACING                                conjunction WIth timing pin AMK 9990 as follows               THE TIMING GEAR CASE                                   1 Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction of                                                                           rotation until the inlet valve No2 of No 1    Remove the timing gear case cover Section Aa22                     cylinder is just closed No 1 piston will now    Withdraw the idler gear and the camshaft gear as                       be commencing its compression stroke and No4 described in Section Aa23                                               piston will be on its exhaust stroke    Unscrew the idler gear shaft which has a lefthand                2 Insert timing pin AMK 9990 through the reamed thread and the timing gear oil fee4 jet complete with                    hole in the lower half of the engine sandwichcopper seal washer                                                        plate and while maintaining pressure on the pin    Remove the set screws securing the gear case to the                    rotate the crankshaft slowly until the pin engages crankcase and pull the gear case complete with                           the timing hole in the flywheel injection pump drive and the driving half of the                     3 Mount the degree plate on the front end of theinjection pump coupling off the three Icating dowels                     crankshaft attach the pointer in a suitableon the crankcase                                                          position to the engine and set the degree plate   If necessary remove and dismantle the injection                        at 28 0 25 0 on engines with a Simms Minimec pump drive as described in Sections Aa27 and Aa28                      injection pump before zero                                                                      1 Remove the timing pin and rotate the crankshaft   Thoroughly clean and inspect al the                                                                 to bring the 50 after zero mark on the degree   When replacing the components which is a reversal                      plate in line with the timing pointer The crankof the foregoing procedure fit a new gasket between                       shaft will now be at 50 ATOC with No 4                                                                           piston on its induction strokethe crankcase and timing gear case coating thecrankcase joint face with sealing compound   Ensure that the injection pump drive coupling isassembled correctly The coupling dowel bolt mustengage the hole in the pump drive flange   The idler gear shaft should only be  to retain it in position                                                                                                                           67                                    THE ENGINESix346 To facilitate retiming one tooth on each gear with      The valve timing may be checked using a degree plate the exception of the idler gear is marked with an      and pointer a dialgauge and timing pin AMK 9990 as 0 or drill dimple see Fig 28 The correspond      follows ing teeth on the idler gear which mesh with the           1 Set No6 cylinder inlet valve clearance to 021 in marked tooth on the camshaft drive gear and the                53 mm then crank the engine until No6 piston fuel injection pumpexhauster drive gear are                   is on its firing stroke identified with similar marks while the correspond       2 Insert timing pin AMK 9990 through the reamed ing teeth which mesh with the marked tooth on the              hole in the lower half of the engine sandwich plate crankshaft gear are marked with OC or twin                   Maintain pressure on the head of the pin and drill dimples Also the faces of the fuel injection           crank the engine until the pin engages the timing pump               drive hub the camshaft flan8C or drive hub and their drive gears are stamped with                                       F 0 marks to ensure correct timing relationship between these components Assemble the drive gear to the fuel injection pump             drive hub lining up the 0 mark on the face of the hub with the 0 mark on the face of the gear In a similar manner assemble the drive gear to the camshaft lining up the 0 marks on the faces of the gear and the camshaft flange or drive hub but do not lock the securing bolts at this stage as final adjustment of the valve timing has still to be carried out If necessary after first ensuring that the valve rocker adjusting screws are fully released rotatethe crankshaft to position No 6 piston at TDCon its induction stroke The tooth with the timingmark on the crankshaft gear will now be between 11 and 12 oclock see Fig 31                                                        G    Rotate the camshaft to position the gear toothwith the timing mark between eight and nineoclock and then tum the fuel injection pump                        Vahc timing diagramEngille fyl Six  34 6            drive gear so that its tooth with the tim    A  Inlet valve opens         E   Fuel injCtion timing fullying mark is between three and four oclock see           n Exhaust valve closes            retarded 14 BTDCFig 31                                                c Exhaust valve opens         Top dead centre                                                          1 nlet valve closes        G Bottom dead centre Fit the idler gear to its shaft with the marked teethon the drive gears engaging the corresponding                     hole in the flywheel No 6 piston is nowteeth on the idler gear as shown in Fig 31                       14 0 BTDC on its exhaust strokeFit the idler gear thrust washer with the oil groovein the washer next to the gear                            3 Mount the degree plate on the front end of the                                                               crankshaft and attach the pointer in a suitable                                                               position on the timing case Set the degree plate                                                               at 140 before zero then remove timing pin AMK                                                               9990                                                               4 Mount the dial gauge on the cylinder head with                                                                   its indicator resting on the collar of No      68                                         DIESEL ENGINE                                                            cover plate and when the countersunk screws are fully                                                              tightened lock them in position by peening                                                                Fit the drive gear key to the front of the shaft and                                                              insert the shaft into the housing from the rear end                                                              until the flange on the shaft is against the bearing                                                                 Pass the small ball bearing over the shaft and press                                                              the bearing into the housing until it contacts the                                                              shoulder in the housing                                                                 Fit the oil seal into the end cover so that its sealing                                                              lip fJcs towards the bearings                                                                 SmeJr the joint face of the end cover with sealing                                                              compound and relit the end cover to the drive housing                                                              being caeful not to damage the oil seal                                                                 Refit the coupling key and driving flange                                                                 Inject a liberal quantity of clean engine oil through                       Fig Aa34                             the hole in the top of the drive housing to provide initial             Checking the camshaft endfloat                  lubrication un til the oil in the engine is circulating     Section Aa27            REMOVING AND REPLACING            TIlE INJECTION PUMP DRIVE                         Section Aa29    Remove the injection pump Section Da    Remove the blanking plate from the timing gear case                 REMOVING AND REPLACING cover and unlock and unscrew the nut from the                             THE CAMSHAFT injection pump drive shaft    Remove the six set bolts securing the injection pump drive to the timing gear case and withdraw the injection pump drive using tool 18G loo8B                        to     Remove the timing gear case cover Section Aa22 separate the drive shaft from its drive gear                                                                 Withdraw the camshaft drive gear Section Aa23    When replacing the drive housing ensure that the             joint faces of the timing gear case and the drive housing      Remove the rocker cover and slacken fully the valve are clean Smear the joint face on the rear of the           rocker adjusting screws Withdraw the pushrods timing gear case with jointing compound and fit a new         Remove the fuel lift pump drive housing gasket                                          Disconnect the external oil pipe from the main oil    Replace the remaining components by reversing the         gallery and cylinder head removal procedure                                                                 Remove the tappet and pushrod cover and the oil   Bleed the fuel system as described in Section Da                                                              level indicator guide from the side of the cylinder blockSection Aa28                                                   Lift out the tappets                                                                Remove the camshaft thrust plate and withdraw the        DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING                          camshaft being careful to avoid damage to the bearing           THE INJECTION PUMP DRIVE                           surfaces as the camshaft is withdrawn   Slacken the clamp bolt nut on the coupling driving           Thoroughly clean and inspect all the  and withdraw the flange from the drive shaft          parts   Extract the coupling key from the drive shaft and            Check the camshaft bearing clearance against theremove the end cover complete with oil seal from the        dimensions in GENERAL DATAdrive housing                                                                Fit the thrust plate and the drive gear to the   Remove the cover plate from the front of the drive                                                              camshaft tighten the camshaft nut and check thehousing and press the shaft out of the housing in a                                                              camshaft endBoat as shown in Fig Aa34 against theforward direction The large bearing will be ejectedfrom the housing as the drive shaft is pressed out           dimension given in GENERAL DATA   Extract the drive gear key from the drive shaft              If necessary remove the locating bolt and withdraw   Press the small ball bearing out of the rear of the        the camshaft front bearing from the cylinder blockhousing and remove the oil seal from the end cover           Press a new bearing into position plain edge first   Clean and inspect all the dismantled components           aligning the rwo holes in the bearing with the two holes   Commence reassembly by pressing the large ball             in the bearing housing When the bearing is in  into the front of the housing Refit the front        the holes can be tapped into final alignment using a                                                                                                                     69                                          DIESEL ENGINE soft drift against the aligning notch in the bearing Fit    Section Aa31 the locating bolt and lineream the bearing to the                                                                        REMOVING AND REPLACING dimension given in GENERAL DATA                                                                       THE ENGINE SANDWICH PLATE    Replace the remaining components lubricating all the bearing surfaces with clean engine oil by reversing        Remove the Transmission Section                  and the removal procedure                                       the flywheel Section Aa30                                                                Remove the starter motor    Adjust the valve rocker clearance as described in                                                                 Unscrew the set bolts securing the sandwich plate to Section Aa11 and bleed the fuel system of air I                                                              the cylinder block and pull the sandwich plate off the                                                              three dowels which locate it on the cylinder block                                                              Remove the sandwich plate joint washer                                                                 Replacement is a reversal of the foregoing procedure Section Aa30                                                using a new joint washer between the sandwich plate                                                              and the cylinder block            REMOVING AND REPLACING       THE FLYWHEEL AND STARTER RING   Remove the Transmission                                    Section Aa32   Unlock and remove all but two of the bolts securing                REMOVING AND REPLACING the flywheel to the crankshaft flange Unscrew the two                                                                 THE CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS remaining bolts sufficiently to allow the flywheel to bedrawn off the crankshaft flange   Withdraw the flywheel by screwing two tin UNFbolts into the withdrawal holes in the flywheel andremove the two remaining flywheel bolts                                                                 Remove the sump         Remove the oil pump   Examine the flywheel face and the starter ring teeth                                                              Section Aa6 and the timing gear case cover Sectionfor wear against the figures given in GENERAL                                                              Aa22DATA                                                                 Remove the oil thrower from the front end of the   If necessary remove the starter ring by drilling a hole   crankshaft and withdraw the oil pump driving gear andin the ring and splitting it across the hole with a hammer    the crankshaft gear using tool 18G 231 and adaptorsand chisel                                                   18G 231 B Withdraw the two halves of the crankshaft                                                                                                                             Ensure that the bore of the new starter ring and its       thrust washer from the front main bearingmating surface on the flywheel are perfectly clean and           Remove the flywheel Section AL30 and the enginefree from burrs Heat the starter ring uniformly to the       sandwich plate Section  given in GENERAL DATA The stripof  paint on the starter ring willchange from greyblue to buff colour when thetemperature is correct   Place the heated starter ring bore chamfer foremost squarely on the flywheel The expansion should allowthe ring to be readily fitted by placing a piece ofhardwood across the ring and pressing or tapping ituntil the starter ring is hard against its register Whenthe ring is cold the shrink fit will be  and no further treatment is necessary   When replacing the flywheel check that the locatingdowels are not a loose fit in their holes and that theyare free from burrs The dowels are diagonally offsetto ensure correct positioning of the flywheel   Tighten the flywheel bolts in diagonal sequence tothe torque figure given in GENERAL DATA   Check the flywheel alignment with a clock gaugeagainst the figure given in GENERAL DATA                                       Fig Aa35   Lock the flywheel bolts and replace the rem a          Checking the crankshaft rear oil seal cover to oilcomponents by reversing the removal procedure                              return thread clearance   70Aa                                      DIESEL ENGINE                       Fig Aa36  The arrow indicates the gauge paper used whell                                              Fig Aa37  checking the diametrical clearance of a crankshaft                               Checking the crankshaft endfinat                   main bearing   Remove the connecting rod bearing caps and shells        Before attaching the connecting rods to the crankkeeping the shel1s with their respective caps for correct   shaft align the marks on the timing gears as  and separate the connecting rods from the      in Section Aa23crankshaft                                                   Replace the remaining components by reversing the   Unscrew the two bolts holding the two halves of the      removal procedure refill the sump with new engine oilcrankshaft rear oil seal cover together Remove the         and bked the fuel system of air as described in Sectionbolts securing the bottom half of the cover to the          Dacrankcase and remove the bottom half cover takingcare not to damage the gasket If the gasket is damaged     Section Aa33in any way the top half of the cover should be removed                                                                       MODIFIED INLET VALVE LOCATINGand a new gasket fitted                                                          DETAILS   Remove the main bearing caps complete with the              A new type inlet valve locating key and thimble andbottom halves of the main bearings The crankcase           a modified valve guide locating dowel have beenand caps are marked for correct assembly and the           introduced on later engines These parts whichbearings and caps should always be replaced in their        facilitate the assembly of the valves to their guides areoriginal positions                                          in sets with their equivalent parts                                                            referred to in Section Aal3   Lift the crankshaft out of the crankcase and removethe remaining halves of the bearings and the thrustwashers   Thoroughly clean and inspect all the  and examine all bearing surfaces for wearor scoring   Check the crankshaft endfioat and main bearing                                                                         clearance against the figures given in GENERAL                                                                  fDATA   New bearings are prefinished to size and do notrequire any scraping or fitting                                  r1   When replacing the crankshaft lubricate all the                                                                                                                                                        bearings with clean engine oil and ensure that the                                                                                                                                                                                                                         hollow locating dowels are in position over the mainbearing studs before fitting the bearing caps                                                                                                                                                                                                       1                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Refit the crankshaft rear oil seal cover and checkthat the clearance between the cover and the oil return                                                                                                                                                                                                          t                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                lthread on the crankshaft is in accordance with the figurein GENERAL DATA The ftat surface of the bottom                                          Fig Aa38half of the oil seal cover should be perfectly level with                    Modified inlet valve locating detailsthe crankcase surface to which the sump is mounted                        I Thimble        2 Key       3 Dowel                                                                                                                       71                                              TRANSMISSION                    HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS                                                                                          74   INTRODUCTION                            75   INSTALLA TION                                  75   OPERATION                               76   MAINTENANCE                                     77   TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART                  78   REDUCTION GEARS                       85WARNER HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS                   91                                                              73I SPECIFICATIONS     A Description Chart                         MODEL      P200                P300            P400          REDUCTION RATIO                        DIRECTION OF ROTA TION     P21R                P31R            P41R                   DIRECT                                        RIGHT     P21L                P31L            P41L                   DIRECT                                        LEFT     P22R                P32R            P42R                   1 51                                        RIGHT     P22L                P32L            P42L                   1 51                                        LEFT     P23R                P33R            P43R                   20 1                                        RIGHT     P23L                P33L            P43L                   201                                         LEFT     P24R                P34R            P44R                   251                                         RIGHT     P24L                P34L            P44L                   251                                         LEFT     P25R                P35R            P45R                   301                                         RIGHT     P25L                P35L            P45L                   301                                         LEFT     B Model and Serial Numbers        Each reverse gear has a model number and        a serial number These numbers are on        the name plate located on the housing        of the transmission                                         MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER CHART                                             DIRECT DRIVE MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS     P2    Gear Size          1  Direct Drive           R Right Hand Rotation Unit           5J 1234      Transmi asion Seriol No                                                           L  L ft H and Rotation Uni t                                           REDUCTION GEAR MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS                                                   L       5J5678     P 2   Gor Size                               I   Rdu ction                                    Gear                                                                                                          15 1 j                                                       20 1 cion                                                                                  R Right Hand Rotation Unit                                                                                  L  Left Hand Rotaion Unit                                                                                                                    5J5678     Trons                                                                                                                                 Sitn                              Si Ztt                                                       25 1  Roio                                                            No                                                       30 174                                                                         TRANSMISSIONII INTRODUCTION                                     ward drive is through a multiple disc clutch                                                     arrangement while the reverse drive utilizes  The Models P200 P300 and P400 hydraulic           a reverse clamp band and planetary gear  transmissions have been designed for smooth        train The transmission oil is circulated and  operation and dependability in marine use The     cooled through a separate external oil cooler  transmission is se1 contained having an oil     core which is in turn cooled by the engine  pressure system and oil supply completely          water Paragon transmissions are furnished  separated from engine lubricating oil systems     with either direct drive or reduction gears                                                     Gear reduction ratios and corresponding   Transqlission oil under pressure is used to      model identification numbers are listed in   engage a forward or reverse drive The for       Section I under  INSTALLATION                                       4 Install and tighten four bolts with lock                                                           washers through the transmiSSion  A The installation instructions below are for           housing flange into the engine adapter     use when the original transmi ssion has been          plate Remove the 312 studs Install     removed for servicing and must be re                 and tighten the two remaining bolts     installed or when the transmission unit              with lockwashers through the trans     is to be adapted as nonoriginal eqUip               mission housing flange     ment to a marine engine                                                     D The transmission and propeller shaft cou  B It is important that the engine and trans         pling must be carefully aligned before the     mission rotations are matched The direc          propeller shaft is connected to the trans     tion of rotation of an engine is defined in        mission in order to avoid vibration and     this manual as the direction of rotation          consequent damage to the transmission     of the engine crankshaft as viewed from the        engine and boat hull during operation     output end of the transmission A clock           To align the coupling move the propeller     wise rotation of the engine is a right hand        shaft with attached coupling flange toward     rotation and a  rotation of        the transmission so that the faces of the     the engine is a left hand rotation                propeller shaft coupling flange and trans                                                        miSSion shaft coupling flange are in con     A letter  R or L appearing on the             tact The coupling flange faces should be     transmission serial number plate illus            in contact throughout their entire circum     trated in Section It SPECIFICATIONS             ference The total runout or gap between     indicates whether the transmission is for          the faces should not exceed 002 at any     use with a right or left hand rotating            point If the runout exceeds 002 reposi     engine                                            tion the engine and attached transmission                                                        by loosening the engine support bolts and  C The hydraulic transmission is attached to          adding or removing shims to raise or lower     the engine in the following manner                either end of the engine If necessary                                                        move the engine sideways to adjust the     1 Insert two 312 studs in opposite             runout or to align the coupling flange         transmission mounting holes in the             faces laterally Tighten the engine support         engine adapter plate                          bolts and recheck the alignment of the                                                        coupling before bolting the coupling flanges     2 Place the transmission against the studs        together Connect the coupling flanges with        so that the studs go through two of the         bolts lockwashers and nuts        matching holes in the transmission                                                     E Connect the oil cooler lines to the trans        housing flange                                 mission     3 Slide the transmission along the studs       F Connect the shift control cable from the        toward the engine so that the spline on         cockpit control station to the transmission        the shaft at the front of the transmission      control valve lever shown in Figure on        enters the matching splined hole in the         page 5 Place the transmiSSion control        engine vibration dampener                      valve lever in the neutral position and                                                                                                 75       adjust the shaft control cable length until      or reverse position and should return       the cockpit control station hand lever is        exactly to the neutral position when the       in the neutral position Move the cockpit        hand lever is in the neutral position       control hand lever to forward and reverse       positions several times while observing the   G Remove the oil dipstick shown in Figure       transmission control valve lever motion         on page 5 and fill the transmission with       The transmission control valve lever should      Type A transmission fluid to the mark on       move fully into forward or reverse position      the dipstick Replace the dipstick in the       when the hand lever is moved into forward        transmission housingIV OPERATION                                        Starting Procedure                                                     1 Always start the engine with the trans     Principle of Operation                             mission in NEUTRAL to avoid moving the                                                        boat suddenly forward or back  The transmission forward and reved drives                                                     2 When the engine is first started allow it  are operated by transmission oil undar pres                                                        to idle for a few moments Stop the engine  sure An internal gear type oil pump C1elivers                                                        and check the transmission oil level Add  the transmission oil under pressure to the                                                        oil if necessary to bring the oil level up  external oil cooler The transmission oil is          to the mark on the transmission dipstick  returned still under pressure to the oil  distribution tube and relief valve The relief  valve maintains the oil pressure by remaining                        NOTE  closed until the oil pressure reaches 60 PSI       ON SUBSEQUENT START UPS THE  When the control lever is shifted to the            TRANSMISSION OIL LEVEL MAY BE  forward pOSition oil under pressure is de         CHECKED BEFORE RUNNING THE  livered to the multiple disc clutch piston         ENGINE WHEN ENGINE OIL IS  which moves to clamp the clutch discs and           CHECKED  planetary reverse gear case together The          3 Start the engine again with the transmission  discs and case then revolve as a solid cou           in NEUTRAL and allow the enginetowarm  pling in the direction of engine rotation The        up to operating temperature  reverse drive is engaged by shifting the  control lever to the reverse poSition so that     4 Shift the transmission into FORWARD or  oil under pressure is delivered to the reverse        REVERSE as desired If the engine should  piston The reverse piston moves to clamp             stall when the transmission is shifted to  the reverse band around the planetary gear            FORWARD or REVERSE place the trans  case preventing the planetary gear case              mission in NEUTRAL before restarting the  from moving but allowing the planetary gears          engine  to revolve to drive the 9utput or propeller           It is recommended that shifting be done at  shaft in a direction opposite to the rotation         speeds below 1000 RPM and preferably in  of the engine With the control levr in the          the 800 RPM or idle engine range to pro  neutral poSition pressurized oil is prevented        long the life of the engine transmission  from entering the clutch piston or reverse            and boat EMERG ENCY shifts may be at  band piston and the propeller shaft remains           higher engine speeds but this is not a  stationary                                           recommended practice76                                                                              TRANSMISSIONv   MAINTENANCE                                        are full If necessary refill to the mark                                                        on the dipstick to ensure proper operation     A Lubrication                                     of the transmission The transmission oil                                                        level should be checked each time the engine        The Models P200 P300 and P400 trans           oil level is checked before running the        missions are selfcontained units indepen     engine        dent of the engine lubricating systems        The units are lubricated by pressure and by     The oil in the transmission should be        splash from its own oil The type of oil        changed every 100 hours or each season        recommended is Transmission Fluid             under normal conditions However the        Type A commonly used for automatic            number of hours that can be run between        transmissions in automobiles                   oil changes varies with the operating condi                                                        tions Drain plugs are located at the        The quantity of oil depends upon the angle      bottom of the reverse gear housing and the        of installation as well as the reduction       reduction gear housing        model The level must be maintained at        the mark on the dipstick and should be        checked periodically to ensure satisfac      B Adjustments        tory operation                                                        No adjustment is necessary for the FOR       When filling for the first time or refilling     WARD drive multiple disc clutchesandthe       after an oil change check the level after       reverse band is self adjusting to compen       running for a few minutes to mnke certain        sate for lining wear so that no external       that the oil cooler and the various passages     reverse band adjustment is necessary                                                                              OIL TO COOLER         COUPLING         FLANGE                                       PARAGON TRANSMISSION                                                                                                  77C Trouble Shooting Chart     PROBLEM                           POSSIBLE CAUSES AND METHODS OF CORRECTIONGEAR INOPERATIVE Drive Shaft does not operate with selector valve in forward   1   Low Oil Pressure      a   Low oil supply Add oil refer to or reverse                                                       lubrication                                                              b   Faulty oil gauge Replace Sauge                                                                   Oil gauge slow to register air or                                                                   obstruction in oil gauge line Clean                                                                   and bleed oil gauge liLe                                                              c   Plugged oil lines or passages                                                                   Clean lines or passages                                                              d   Oil pressure relief valve scored                                                                   and sticking Remove relief valve                                                                   Clean valve and valve bore in                                                                   control val ve housing with crocus                                                                   cloth to free valve or replace                                                              e   Defective pistons and oil distributor                                                                   seal rings Replace seal rings                                                              f   Defective oil pump Check for wear                                                                   and replace if necessary                                  2   High Oil Temperature a     Low oil supply Add oil refer to                                                                   lubrication                                                              b   Low water level in cooling system                                                                   Add ater and check for leaks                                                              c   Plugged raw water inlet screen                                                                   Clean screen                                                              d   Collapsed or disintegrated water                                                                   inlet hose Replace hose                                                              e   Air leak in cooling water suction                                                                   line Replace suction line                                                              f   Raw water pump impeller worn or                                                                   damaged Replace impeller                                                              g   Clogged or dirty oil cooler element                                                                   Remove and clean                                  3   Reverse Band not                                       engaging Planetary     a   Reverse bo1d lining worn out                                       Gear Cage                  Replace lining                                                              b   Defective reverse piston 0 ring                                                                   Replace 0 ring                                  4   Failure of Planetary   Remove gear case assembly and check                                       Assembly              for defective or damaged parts Replace                                                              defective or damaged parts                                  5   Failure of Reduction   Remove reduction gear assembly and                                       Gear                  check for defective or dunaged parts                                                              Replace defective or damaged parts78                                                                                TRANSMISSION    PROBLEM                            POSSIBLE CAUSES AND lfiETHODS OF CORRECTIONGEAR DRAGGING Drive Shaft rotates either forward or reverse with                                      Forward clutch plates warped and Selector Valve in neutral        1   Defective forward      sticking Remove clutch plates and position                             Clutch Plates         replace                                  2   Defective forward     Forward clutch piston release spring                                       Clutch Piston Release broken or weak Replace spring                                       Spring                                  3   Binding in Planetary   a   Bearings and gears worn excessively                                       Assembly                   in gear case Replace necessary                                                                   parts                                                              b   Input shaft bearings worn excessively                                                                   causing misalignment of input shaft                                                                   Replace necessary partsGEAR SLIPPING OR SLOW TOENGAGE With Selector Valve in forward or reverse position             1   Low Oil Pressure      See Gear Inoperative 1                                  2   Worn forward Clutch    Remove forward clutch plates and check                                       Plates                for wear excessively replace clutch                                                              plates                                  3   Reverse Band not       See Gear Inoperative 3                                       engaging Gear CaseINTERNAL AND EXTERNALLEAKS                             1   Water in Lubricating   a   Hole in oil cooler element permitting                                       Oil                        water to seep into oil compartment                                                                   Replace oil cooler element                                                              b   Oil cooler gaskets Check gaskets                                                                   and replace                                  2   Excessive Oil in                                       Engine Crankcase or    Defective front end plate oil seal                                       Flywheel Housing      Replace on seal                                  3   Oil on Exterior of                                       Marine Gear           a   Oil seeping from breather Check                                                                   for too high oil level                                                              b   Defective rear end oil seal Replace                                                                   oil seal                                  4   Loss of on from                                       Transmission          a   Check for defective gaskets and                                                                   seal                                                                                                       79VI PARTS     Each part illustrated in the exploded views      ALWAYS GIVE THE PART NUMBER PART     has a key number and an arrow pointing from      NAME TRANSMISSION MODEL NUlBER     the key number to the part Refer to the key     AND TRANSMISSION SERIAL NUl1BER VHEN     number in the parts list to determine the part   ORDERING PARTS     number and name80                                    PARTS LIST                                                                                                                      KeyNo       Description                            No      Description  1   Gear Case  Needle Bearing                 67    Hod Down Spring  2   Gear Case                                  68    Socket Head Pipe Plug  3   Long Pinion                                69    Pipe Plug  4   Pinion Thrust Pad                          70    Control Lever Pin  5   Roller Bearing                              71   Capscrew  6   Long Pinion Bearing Spacer                  72   Lockwasher  7   Pinion Shaft                                73   Plain Washer  8   Engine Gear  Roller Bearing                74   Control Lever  9   Engine Gear                                 75   Control Lever Bushing 10   Short Pinion                                76   Control Lever Pawl 11   Roller Bearing                              77   Control Valve 0 Ring 12   Short Pinion Bearing Spacer                 78   Control Valve 13   Short Pinion Spacer                         79   Control Valve Retaining Ring 14   Pinion Shaft Locking Tab                    80   Cover 15   Case Clip                                   81   Reverse Piston 0 Ring 16   Capscrew                                    82   Reverse Piston and Shaft Assembly 17   Engine Gear Thrust Washer                   83   Piston Back Up Plate 18   Direct Drive Tailshaft                      84   Reverse Piston Shaft Pin 19   Propeller Gear                              85   Retaining Ring 20   Propeller Gear Thrust Washer                86   Reverse Band Roll Pin 21   Steel Clutch Plate                          87   Reverse Band Lever 22   Bronze Clutch Plate                         88   Reverse Band Roll 23   Screw Collar Spring                         89   Piston BackUp Plate 0 Ring 24   Screw Collar  Needle Bearing               90   ReliM Valve Plug 25   Screw Collar                                91   Relief Valve Spring 26   Forward Piston 0 Ring  Outer             92   Relief Valve Retaining Ring 27   Forward Piston 0 Ring  Inner             93   Relief Valve 0 Ring 28   Forward Piston                              94   Relief Valve Pin 29   Clip  Screw Collar                         95   Relief Valve Housing 30   Lockscrew                                   96   Front Plate Oil Seal 31   Oil Distributor Seal Rings                  97   Front Plate 32   Tailshaft Thrust Washer                     98   Front Plate Thrust Washer 33   Tailshaft Seal Washer                       99   Roller Bearing 34   Woodruff Key                               100   Pump Pert Plate 35   Spring Retainer                            101   Pump Housing Pin 36   Retaining Ring                             102   Inner Pump Gear 37   Cover Gasket                               103   Outer Pump Gear 38   Distributor Tube                           104   Pump Housing 39   Tailshaft Needle Thrust Race               105   Lockwasher 40   Tailshaft Needle Thrust Bearing            106   Capscrew 41   Retaining Ring                             107   Dipstick 42   Ball Bearing                               108   Flat Head Socket Capscrew 43   Reduction Pinion Tailshaft                 109   Breather 44   Reduction Adapter Plate                    110   Pump Key 45   Adapter Plate Seal                         111   Reverse Band 46   Capscrew                                   112   Pipe Plug 47   Gasket                                     113   Brass Washer 48   Crescent                                   114   Brake Band Support Screw 49   Plain Steel Washer                         115   External Socket Head Cap Screw 50   Lockwasher                                 116   Detent Seal Washer 51   Capscrew                                   117   Detent Ball 52   Locknut                                    118   Capscrew 53   Lockwasher                                 119   Detent Spring 54   Capscrew                                   120   Lockwasher 55   Lockwasher                                 121   Capscrew 56   Ball Bearing                               122   Reduction Gear Housing 57   Direct Drive Plate                         123   Pipe Plug 58   Oil Seal                                   124   Oil Seal 59   Gear Half Coupling                         125   Gear Half Coupling 60   Rear Gasket                                126   Lockwasher 61   Housing                                    127   Loelmut 62   Dipstick Tube                              128   Internal Gear 63   Front Gasket                               129   Bearing Assembly 64   Reverse Band Housing Pin                   130   Retaining Ring 65   Baffle                                     131   0 Ring 66   Flat Head Socket Capscrew                  132   Suction Tube                                                 133   Washer                                                                                           BJ                            GEAR CA SE ASSEMBLY                                                                   REVEJ       r                                                                 24                                                                                          31                                                               1                                                                                      J                                                               FRONT END PLATE AND PUM P ASSEMBLY                                                                                                                116                                                                                                                          117                                                                                                                                                                                   100                                                                                                    101        102                                                                              103                                                                                                                             119   E                                                                                                                                                                    118                                                                                                    104                                                                                         105                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            106                                                                      82                                                                                                                                                                        TRANSMISSION    SE GEAR HOUSING ASSEMBLY                                                                                                                   COVER ASSEMBLY                                                                                                                                                                        71                                                                                                                                                                        72                                                                                                                                                                        73                                                                                                                                                                        74   RELIEF VALVE                                                                                                                                                                      75                                                                                                                                                                      76                                                                                                                                                                              ASSEMBLY                                                                                                                           S       2                                                                                                                   I        I        I                                  70                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    77                                                                                                                                                                                      B                                                                                                                       i                                                                                                                                                                      78                                                                                                                                                                                         91                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           79               92                                                               jl                                                                                                                        93                                                                                                                                                                                    94                                                                                                                                                                                                   80                                                                                                                                                                                         95                                                                                                                                                                        SI    1                   109                                                                                                                                      81tr    Q                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82                                                                                                                             40 41                                 42                                                   ROUCTION                                                          DAlvE                  44   5 6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       83                                                                                                                                          89                                                                                                                                                                  I                                                                                                                                                                  I                                                                                                                                          yl                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             86                                                                                                                                             87                                                                                                                                                  88   87 MPLETE ASSEM BL Y                                                                                                                                                  REDUCTION GEAR ASSEMBLYe                                                                                                                                                            128             I       I                                      J                                                                                                                        0                                                                                                                                               113 4                                                                                                                                                                                127                                                                                                                                                                                         83                                  REDUCTION                                            Disassembly of Reduction UnitThe Westerbeke Paragon reductiongears consist of an internal ring gear     This manual is intended to serve as aand a drive gear that offers a variety     guide in servicing the reduction gearsof reduction ratios The reduction         since these units are similar in mostunits are used integrally with either      details except for sizemanual or hydraulic reverse gears                                               As in any servicing operation cleanModel and Serial Numbers                       liness is a must and all rules for good   and Part Numbers                                               workmanship apply Some of these rulesThe model and serial numbers are on            are as followsa plate affixed to the cover of thetransmis sion                                    1 Use only clean fluid in any cleanThe parts list accompanying the dia                 ing or washing of partsgrams are intended only to identify theparts in regards to disassembly and              2 Use only clean oil for                                            when pressing parts togetherTo order parts refer to Parts ListManual giving complete description               3 Neverpress a ball bearing so thatand part number  with Model and Serial              the force is carried through thenumbers of the transmission                                                                           4 Never use a hammer to drive ballThe reduction gears are lubricated                   bearings in jllacewith the same oil as used in the reversegears Refer to General Data                                                  5 Use only properly sized                                           in removing or securing nuts and                                                     capscrewsThere are no adjustments necessaryto maintain the reduction gears inproper rUJIling condition                       6 Replace gaskets with       DeW   ma                                                     terial       ALWAYS GIVE MODEL NUMBER AND SERIAL NUMBER OF TRANSMISSION                          WHEN ORDERING PARTS                                                                                        85      7 Work on a clean bench and protect      6 Remove retaining ring 4 from groove         gear teeth and oil seal surfaces          next to ball bearing 3 inside reduction         from nicks and scratches                 gear housing and press ball bearing 3                                                   from housing   Before removing the reduction unit from   the reverse gear drain all of the lu       7 If necessary to replace     remove oil   bricating oil from the transmission and         seal 5   the reduction unit                                                8 Remove Woodruffkey 13 from flanged                                                   shaft and remove seal washer 12 and   DISASSEMBLY NEED BE CARRIED                     spacer 11   OUT ONLY AS FAR AS NECESSARY   TO CORRECT THOSE DIFFICULTIES                9 Press ball bearing 10 from flanged   WHICH INTERFERE WITH PROPER                     shaft using two holes in flange   MARINE GEAR OPERATION                                               10 Remove caps crews 9 and lockwashers                                                   8 from rim of flanged shaft and re    DISASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION UNIT                  move ring gear 7 from flanged shaft                                                   61 Remove oil drain plug 1 from bottom   of reduction gear housing 2 and drain                    INSPECTION   oil from unit Make certain that all   lubricating oil is removed from reverse         All parts should be thoroughly cleaned   gear unit                                      before inspection Parts showing ex                                                   cessive wear should be replaced2 Remove capscrews 18 and lockwash   ers 17 from flange of reduction gear       1 Ball bearings should be examined for   housing and slide entire reduction unit         indications of corrosion and pitting on   straight back approximately 3 inches            balls and races   until reduction unit clears reduction   drive pinion                               2 All gear teeth should be examined for                                                   pitch line pitting uneven wear pat                                                                       I3 Bend tang of  from            tern or excessive wear   locknut 16 Remove locknut using                                               3 Examine oil seal for rough or charred   suitable wrench and lift lockwasher   from shaft                                     lips4 Remove gear half coupling 14 with                                               4 Hetaining rings should be checked for   gear type puller or by supporting en          burrs or deformities   tire assembly under flange of gear half   coupling and press against shaft to force   5 All gaskets should be replaced   coupling from assembly                                                ASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION UNITS Support reduction gear housing so that   flanged shaft assembly can drop free        1 Replace oil drain plugl Into reduction   approximately 2 inches and press                gear housing 2   flanged shaft assembly from reduction   gear housing                               2 Press ball bearing 3 into reduction    86                                                                     TRANSMISSION   gear housing 2 and install retaining       10 Support unit on inside of flanged shaft   ring 4 into groove next to ball bearing       with large end of unit down and press                                                    gear half coupling 14 onto shaft end3 If removed for replacement press new            and into ball bearing 3 until coupling   oil seal 5 into reduction gear housing        is seated against ball bearing Care                                                    must be taken to line up keyway in coup4 Place flanged shaft 6 over ring gear           ling and key in shaft before pressing to   7 and line up holes in flange with those       gether   in ring gear                                                11 Place lockwasher 15 over end of5 Place lockwasher 8 over caps crew              flanged shaft with tang on inside of lock   9 and insert capscrew into hole in             washer in slot on flanged shaft Place   flanged shaft and secure flanged shaft           locknut 16 onto shaft and secure using   to ring gear                                    suitable wrench6 Press ball bearing 10 onto flanged         12 Bend one tang of lockwasher into slot   shaft Place spacer 11 over shaft              on locknut   next to ball bearing and place seal   washer 12 over shaft next to spacer       13 Install two studs 3 12 inches long into                                                    two OPPOSite holes in reduction adapter7 Install Woodruff key 13 into keyway in         plate    flanged shaft8 Place reduction gear housing over small      14 Position reduction gear assembly over   end offlanged shaft and start ball bear         studs with oil drain plug at bottom of   ing 10 on flanged shaft into bore in           housing and Slide onto reduction drive   housing by tapping housing with a soft           gear It may be necessary to rotate                                                    reduction gear slightly to properly mesh   mallet                                                    gear teeth9 Turn unit over with small end of housing   down and press on center of flanged shaft    15  17 and capscrews   until spacer 11 is seated against ball         18 around flange of reduction gear   bearing 3 in reduction housing                housing and tighten uniformly                                                                                            87     REDUCTION ASSEMBLY DRAWING      8                     4    3   5                     I    I                                       NOTE SEE APPROPRIATE                                       SERVICE MANUAL FOR                                       OTHER REVERSE GEAR PARTS                II                          14          10         12           13   1688                                                                                                              TRANSMISSION                PARTS LIST AND EXPLODED VIEW      7                        6                             8                                        9                                                                                                          10                                                                                     II                                                                                                    12                                                                                                    i                                                                                                             4                                                                                                                          3                                                                                                                           i                                                                                                    IIto                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       13                                                                                                                                                                                                                  J          I                                                                   14                                                           I            rfJ                                                                         I                                                                                            16                                        Fig 2KEY                                                                     KEYNO       DESCRIPTION                                                   NO               DESCRIPTION1         Drain Plug                                                    10                Ball Bearing2         Reduction Gear Housing                                        11                Spacer3             Ball Bearing                                              12                Seal Washer4         Ball Bearing Retaining Ring                                   13                Woodruff Key5         Oil Seal                                                      14                Gear Half Coupling6         Flanged Shaft                                                 15                 Lockwasher7         Ring Gear                                                     16                 Locknut8             Lockwasher                                                17                 Lockwasher9         Caps crew                                                     18                Capscrew                                                                                                                                   89                                                               TRANSMISSION                      WARNER HYDRAULIC                                  be shifted to the point where it coversThe Westerbeke Six346 and Four230         the letter F on the case casting andEngines are also furnished with Warner      is located in its proper position by thehydraulic direct drive and reduction        poppet ball The Warranty is cancelledgear assemblies                            if the shift lever poppet spring and or                                            ball is permanently removed or if theThe direct drive transmission consists      control lever is changed in any mannerof a planetary gear set a forward          or repositioned or if linkage betweenclutch a reverse clutch an oil pump      remote control and transmission shiftand a pressure regulator and rotary         lever does not have sufficient travel incontrol valve All of these are con        both directions This does not apply totained in a cast iron housing along with    transmissions equipped with  shafts and connectors to         Gear electrical shift controlprovide forward reverse and  A direct drive ratio is used     LUBRICATIONfor all forward operation In reversethe speed of the output shaft is equal to   The properties of the oil used in theinput shaft speed but in the opposite      transmission are extremely  Helical gearing is used to       to the proper function of the  quieter operation than can be       system Therefore it is extremely                                            important that the recommended oilobtained with spur gearing                 automatic transmission fluid ATFOil pressure is provided by the cres       Type A be usedcent type pump the drive gear ofwhich is keyed to the drive shaft and       PROCEDURE FOR  at transmission input speed          TRANSMISSION WITH OILto provide screened oil to the pressure                                            When filling the transmission oilregulator                                  should be added until it reaches theFrom the regulator valve the oil is         full mark on the dipstick The quandirected through the proper circuits        tity of oil depends upon the angle ofto the bushings and antifriction bear     the installation The unit should beings requiring lubrication  A flow of     turned over at engine idle speed for alubricant is present at the required        short time in order to fill all circuitsparts whenever the front pump is turn      including the cooler and cooler pipinging and it should be noted that supplyis positive in forward neutral and         PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING OILreverse conditions                           LEVELThe unit has seals to prevent escape        The oil level should be checked imof oil                                     mediately after shutting off engine and                                            sufficient oil added to again bring theBoth the input and output shafts arecoaxial with the input shaft splined       transmission oil level to the full mark                                            on the dipstick assembly The dipstickfor the installation of a drive damper     assembly need not be threaded into theand the output shaft provided with a        case to determine the oil level Itflange for connecting to the propeller      need only be inserted into the caseshaft                                      until the cap or plug rests on the sur                                            face surrounding the oil filler holeCONTROL LEVER POSITION                       The transmission should be checkedThe position of the control lever on         periodically to assure proper oil  when in forward should          and oil should be added if necessary                                                                                  91CHANGING OILIt is recommended that the transmission oil be changed once each seasonAfter draining oil from the unit theremovable oil screen should bethoroughly cleaned before refillingthe transmission with the recommended oil ATF Type AREDUCTION GEAR BOXThe reduction gear box operates inconjunction with the direct drive unitThe reduction gear box consists of aplanetary gear set which reduces theinput revolutions to a fixed ratioIt is recommended that all installations using a reduction gear have asuitable locking device or brake toprevent rotation of the propeller shaftwhen the boat is not under direct propulsion If the marine gear is not inoperation and the forward motion ofthe boat causes the propeller shaft torotate lubricating oil will not be circulated through the gear because theoil pump is not in operation Overheating and damage to the marine gearmay result unless rotation of the propeller shaft is  in an emergency shift fromforward to reverse drive throughneutral at engine speeds below1000 rpm to prevent damage to theengine or marine gear 9293                                         TABLE OF                                                                       1GENERATOR SECTIO   General                                                                    4   Component Location                                                                  4   Visual Inspection                                                                 6   Question and Answer  Guide                                                           7      A No Output Voltage                                                                7      B Unstable Output Voltage                                                               8      C High or Low Output Voltage                                                                8      D Field Circuit Breaker Trips                                                             9      E Unbalanced Generator Terminal Voltages                                                          9   Flow Chart  Guides                                                            10      No Voltage Buildup                                                                 10      Voltage Builds Up But Circuit Breaker Trips                                                         11      Output Voltage Too High lr Too Low                                                            12      Voltage 150 or More Than Rattd                                                           13      Unstable Output Voltage                                                              14      Cycling Buildup                                                                 15      Unbalanced Terminal Voltages                                                             16   Procedures         B    Flashing the Field                                                         i         C    No AC Power to Exciter                                                         18         D    Testing Ll Reactor                                                          18         E    Testing Diodes                                                           18         F    Testing SCRs                                                           19         G    Testing Transistors                                                        20         H    Testing Generator Rotor                                                       21          J   Testing Generator Stator                                                       22         K    Testing Brushless Exciter Rotor                                                    22         L    Testing Brushless Exciter Stator                                                    23         M    Reconnection                                                           23         N    Voltage Reference Circuit                                                       24         P    Generator Disassembly                                                        25         Q    Voltage Adjustment                                                         2594                                                 LIST OF     1   Static Exciter Design                             2   RntClting Brush less Exciter Design                    3   Top View of  Chassis Assembly          4   Voltage Regulator Printed Circuit Board Location             J          7   Flashing the Field                                            17          8   Testing Diodes                                             18      911    Testing SCRs                                             19     1217    Testing Transistors                                           20        18    Testing Rotor for Grounds                                     21        19    Test ing Rotor for an Open Circuit                            21        20    Testing Stator Windings                                     22         21   Testing Exciter Armature                                22         22   Testing Exciter Field                              23         23   Connecting Lead From Terminal 63                            23         24   Reconnection Diagram                              23         25   VR21 Printed Circuit Board                             24         26   Generator Disassembly                                      24         27   Adjusting Voltage on VR21                                    2S                                                       LIST OF TABLESTable 1 Resistance Values for Rotors                                       21Table 2 Resistance Values for Stators                                      22                                                                              95                                            are two generator aeslgns usu un ln UK senes        1 U  giim access to generator remove gnue sectionThey are basically the same except for the method of          below control boxfield excitation                                               1  chassis assembly VR22 mounts                                                                   on the rear portion of the generator SCRs siliconThe Static Exciter brush type design uses a brush                controlled rectifiers and diodes are easily acrig and collector rings for field excitation This design          cessible for testing See Figures 13was used on some of the earlier models within the              2 On staticexcited generators brushes attach torange of 25 KW  90 KW                                            the brush rig inside of end bell housing inspect                                                                   through large access holes in the end belL SeeThe Brushless design uses a rotating rectifier exciter             Figure 1assembly i place of the brush rig for field excitation       3 On brushless models rotating exciter assemblyThe brushless design is standard on all models from                mounts directly behind  chassis25 KW 175 KW                                                     assembly with all diodes accessible for servicing                                                                   See Figure 2                                                               4  PC Board VR21 Printed Circuit                                                                   Board mounts inside the control box on the rearNOTE Unless otherwise specified the tests       In   this        panel left side turn 14 turn fasteners on frontsection apply to both designs                                     of control box to gain access See Figure 4           VR22     EXCITER REGULATOR     CHASSIS ASSEMBLV                         ENDBELL                                         AC                                                                        STATOR oII          4                                                                                                       208240                                                                                                          VOLTS                                                                                                           AC                                                                              RESIDUAL MAGNETISM                                                                                  IN ROTOR STARTS                                                                                      PROCESS                                                                                                  SOLID STATE                                                                                                      EXCITER                                                                                                  ND VOLTAGE                                                                                                    REGULATOR                                                                                                         C                                                                                                         I     REVOLVING FIELD              OVERSPEED SWITCH        GENERATOR END VIEW GRILLE REMOVED                                      EXCITATION SCHEMATIC                                         FIGURE I STATIC EXCITER DESIGN96                                                                              AL                                                                STATORCHASSIS ASSEMBL Y                                                                                              208240                                                                              VOLTS                                                                               AC                                                                                              EXCITER                                                                                             ARMATURE                                                                               VOL TAGEOVERSPEED SWITCH                                                              REGULATOR                                   WITH RECTIFIERS   SENERATOR END VIEW SRILLE REMOVED                                            EXCITATION SCHEMATIC                             FIGURE 2 ROTATING BRUSHLESS EXCITER DESIGN                                                                 CHECK THESE DOUBLE LEAD SCRS                                                                  ACCORDING TO PROCEDURE F                                           o                                                          LCHECK THESE SINGLE LEAD RECTIFIERS                                                              ACCORDING TO PROCEDURE E                       FIGURE 3 TOP VI EW OF  CHASSIS ASSEMBL Y               VR21      VOLTAGE REGULATOR     PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD                      FIGURE 4   VOLTAGE REGULATOR PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD LOCATION                        97VISUAL INSPECTION                                          nections dust dirt or moisture If dirty cleanBefore proceeding with the  on the          with a suitable solvent and compressed airfollowing pages a few simple checks can be made        3 Visually inspect the  chassiswhich could directly indicate the cause of trouble        assembly VR22 for burned components broken                                                           wires loose connections carbon tracks caused 1 Always be sure that connection of generator leads      by arcing between parts or between parts and    is correct Whenever leads are reconnected for a       ground    Also check for shorted paths between    different voltage check the output with an inde      terminals caused by dust dirt and moisture    pendent voltmeter Do not use the control panel     4 Large banks of SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier    meter since it could indicate that the voltage is      regulated loads can cause the generator voltage    correct even if connection is wrong                   to increase as load is applied If such loads exist 2 Visually inspect the voltage regulator printed         and the voltage increases more than 5 or 10    circuit board assembly VR21 in the control box       consult the factory an additional filter is available    for burned components broken wires loose con        for the regulator circuit to correct the situation                          THE QUESTION AND ANSWER                           GUIDE BEGINNING ON PAGE 7 GIVES A STEPBYSTEP                          PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING THE GENERATOR THE                          FLOWCHART  GUIDES ON PAGES                          10 TO 16 ARE GIVEN AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO RE                          SOLVE VARIOUS GENERATOR PROBLEMS ALL CHARTS                          REFER TO PROCEDURES SHOWN AT THE END OF THIS                          SECTION PAGES 17 TO 2598    QUESTION AND ANSWER  GUIDETo correct a particular problem answer the qJestion either yes or no then proceed to the next step given inwhichever column question wac answered                        A NO AC OUTPUT VOLTAGE  ENGINE RUNNING                                      YES    NO  1A Is the circuit breaker on the meter panel in the on position                                  3A    2A  2A Switch the circuit breaker to the on position Does the AC voltage build up                         3A      NOTE If voltage builds up but is high low or unstable or causes the circuit              breaker on the meter panelto trip refer to section B c or 0 of              the  guide  3A Is the AC voltage at terminals 1 and 2 on VR21 voltage regulator printed circuit board           SA    4A      and at terminals 9 and 10 on VR22  chassis assembly S to 10 volts   4A Check continuity of wires and connections between terminal 1 on VR21 printed circuit                 lOA       board and terminal 9 on VR22 chassis assembly and between terminal 2 on VR21       printed circuit boaed and terminal 10 on VR22 chassis assembly Is there continuity       between these connections   SA Check for broken wires and loose connections on VR22  chassis assembly              6A       Replace or repair any that are defective and clean all dust dirt and other foreign material       from the assembly Does the AC voltage now build up   6A Is the DC voltage at terminals 4 and S on VR22  chassis assembly S to         13A     7A       10 volts   7A Are diodes CR I CR2 and CR3 on VR22  chassis assembly OK                     8A             See Method E in Procedure section for checking diodes   8A Are SCRs Q4 and Q5 on VR 22  chassis assembly OK                             9A             See Method F in Procedure section for checking SCRs   9A The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on the voltage regulator                              printed circuit board REPLACE VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD See Figure 4  lOA With the circuit breaker on the meter panel in the off position is the AC voltage at        14A    llA       terminals 62 and 63 on terminal board TB21 on the left side of control box S to 10 volts  llA With the circuit breaker on the meter panel in the off position flash the exciter field    l2A    13A       See Method B in Procedure section for field flashing Is the AC voltage at terminals       62 and 63 now 5 to 10 volts  12A Turn the circuit breaker on the meter panel to the on position Does the AC output                 ISA       voltage build up       NOTE If voltage builds up but is high low or unstable or causes the circuit breaker               to trip refer to section B C or 0 of this  guide  13A Is the brushless exciter stator winding OK See Method L in Procedure section for             17A             checking exciter  l4A With a jumper wi re connected across the terminals of the circuit breaker on the meter               ISA       panel does the voltage build up       NOTE If the voltage does build up the circuit breaker CB21 is defective and MUST BE                REPLACED  1SA Is Ll commutating reactor mounted on the back side of VR22  chassis           16A             assembly OK See Method 0 in Procedure section for checking Ll reactor  16A Check continuity of wires and connections between TB21 terminal 62 on left side of                            control box and terminal 1 on VR21 printed circuit board Also check between TB21       terminal 63 on the left side of control box and terminal 2 on VR21 printed circuit board                                                                                                                   99                                                              A NO AC OUTPUT VOLTAGE  ENGINE RUNNING CONTINUED                                 YES   NO      17A Are the rotating diodes CRl CR2 CR3 CR4 CRs and CR6 on the brushless exciter          18A               rotor OK See Method E in Proedure section for checking diodes      18A Is the main generator field winding OK See Method H for checking generator field      19A          19A Is the brushless exciter rotor winding OK See Method K for checking exciter rotor           winding                                                                                                     20A          20A Are the generator stator windings OK See Method J for checking stator windings                      B AC OUTPUT VOLTAGE BUILDS UP BUT IS UNSTABLE  ENGINE RUNNING OK                          YES   NO       lB Are there any loose or broken wires or connections at VR2l printed circuit board               2B           terminals       2B Does adjustment of R26 damping control pot on VR2l printed circuit board result in           3B           stable generator voltage See Method Q       3B The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on VR21 voltage regulator                          printed circuit board REPLACE VR2l PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD See Figure 4  R26 is used on brushless generators only            C AC OUTPUT BUILDS UP BUT IS HIGH OR LOW  ENGINE RUNNING OK                           YES   NO      lC Does adjustment of R21 Voltage Adjust knob on the meter panel result in the correct           2C          voltage      2C Does adjustment of R18 potentiometer on VR21 printed circuit board result in the correct        3C          voltage See Method Q in Procedure section      3C Is the correct voltage reference transformer tap on TB21 being used See Method M          4C              for choosing correct tap      4C Are generator output leads properly connected See Method M for proper connection of       SC              output leads      SC The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on VR21 voltage regulator                          printed circuit board REPLACE VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD100             D GENERATOR VOLTAGE BUILDS UP BUT CAUSES THE CIRCUIT                                                                                                     YES     NO                BREAKER ON CONTROL PANEL TO TRIP  ENGINE RUNNING OK     10 Does the AC output voltage LoJild up to 150 or more of rated voltage before CB21 circuit    20      70         breaker trips    20 Are there any loose or broken terminals or connections at VR21 voltage regulator printed             3D        circuit board terminals    3D Is diode CR3 on center heat sink of VR22  chassis assembly OK               40               See Method E for checking diodes    40 Are the voltage regulator transformer T21 windings and connections OK                      50           50 Are stator leads connected properly See Method M for correct connections                  60            60 The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on VR21 voltage regulator                            printed circuit board REPLACE VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD See Figure 4     70 Does the AC output voltage build up to rated voltage or less before tripping CB21 circuit    80                breaker on the meter panel    80 Are the rotating diodes CR1 CR2 CR3 CR4 CR5 and CR6 on the brushless xciter               90               rotor OK See Method E for checking rotating diodes     90 Is the brushless exciter stator winding OK See Method L for checking exciter stator       100                winding    100 Is the main generator field winding OK See Method H for checking generator rotor        110           110 Is the brush less exciter rotor winding OK See Method K for checking exciter rotor                          winding                  E UNBALANCED GENERATOR TERMINAL VOLTAGES                                         YES     NO     IE Remove load from generator terminals Are generator terminal voltages still unbalanced      2E      4E     2E Are generator leads properly connected andor grounded                                      3E           3E Is continuity of thp generator stator windings OK See Method   J for checking stator                      windings     4E Is grounding procedure of generator and load correct                                        5E                                                                                                  5E Check for ground faults in load                                                                        NOTE Unbalanced voltages of up to 5 will occur if unbalanced loads are applied to the generator terminals                                                                                                                   101ot                                                                                  NO VOLTAGE                                                                                   BUILDUP                                                  I                  I                                  I                 I                  I            I                             CB21             NO AC                LOW              FAUL T IN      DEFECTIVE       DEFECTIVE               FAULTY      FAULT IN                           CIRCUIT            POWER             RESIDUAL           GENERATOR       COMPONENT       COMPONENT              ROTATING    BRUSHLESS                          BREAKER               TO              VOLTAGE              FIELD             ON               ON                 DIODE        EXCITER                          ON METER            EXCITER            FLASH             WINDING        REGULATOR        VOLTAGE                  ON       ROTOR OR                          PANEL IN                                FIELD                           PC BOARD        REGULATOR             BRUSH LESS     STATOR                            OFF                                                                    VR21          CHASSIS              EXCITER      WINDING                          POSITION                                                                                  ASSEMBLY                           RESET                                                                                    VR22                                                                                                                                                                           DEFECTIVE                           CIRCUIT                          BREAKER                         ON METER                                                                                                                                              PANEL                                                                 BUILDUP                 04 OR 05                                                                                                 RELAY KI                 OPEN                                                                                                  OPEN                                                                                                                              In                                                                                                CRa OR CR9                                                                                                     OPEN                                                                                                                          DEFECTIVE                                                                                                                         DIODE CRI                                                                                                                         CR2 OR CR3                                                                                                RI R2 OR R3                                                                                                                    OPEN                                                                                                                          OPEN LEAD                                                                                                OPEN LEAD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AT                                                                                                     AT                   TERMINAL                                                                                                REGULATOR                  I 2  5                                                                                                PC BOARD     I                                                                                                                             OR 9                                                                                                TERMINALS                                                                                                  I OR 2       NOTE Whenever a letter appears near the boxa separate procedure             corresponding to that letter is given at the end of this section         Check SCRs 04 and 05 on VR22 voltage regulator chassis assembly          and replace if defective before repairing or replacing VR21 voltage          regulator printed circuit board         Static excited generators only                           VOLTAGE BUILDS UP BUT                            CB21 CIRCUIT BREAKER                           ON METER PANEL TRIPS   DEFECTIVE                        FAULT IN                          FAULT INROTATING DIODE                    EXCITER ROTOR                      GENERATOR CR I CR2 CR3                    OR STATOR                        MAIN FIELDCR4 CRS OR CR6                      WINDING                          WINDING  ON EXCITER       ROTOR          E                                                                HNOTE Whenever a letter appears near the box a separate procedure correspond ing      to that letter is given at the end of th i s sect ion                                                                                     103                                                 OUTPUT VOLTAGE                                                  TOO HIGH OR                                                    TOO LOW             I     INCORRECT                                             I                                     INCORRECT                       DEFECTIVE                                                                                                         I                                                                                                  DEFECTIVE     REFERENCE                      SETTING OF                     COMPONENT ON                COMPONENT ON  TRANSFORMER TAP                 VOLTAGE ADJUST                     VOLTAGE                      VOLTAGE       ON Tli                      POT R21 ON                  REGULATOR CHASSIS             REGULATOR PC                                   METER PANEL                    ASSEMBL Y VR22              BOARD VR21                                                     INCORRECT               OPEN LEAD OR                       R2 R3 OR R4                                         SETTING OF               CONNECTION AT                         OPEN                                                                                      I                                   VOLTAGE ADJUST              TERMINALS 3 4                                                                POT RI8 ON                S 7 OR 8                                      VR21 PC BOARD                                                                                     t 1                                                                                                      CR8 OR CR9                                                                      OPEN IN                           OPEN                                                                     Q4 OR QS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   VOLTAGE           1           SHORT IN RI8                                                                                                     CAUSES HIGH                                                                                                       VOLTAGE                                                                    BREAKDOWN OF                                                                      Q4 OR Q5                                                                                                                                                           I                                                                                              1   MINIMUM VOLTAGE                                                                                                     SETTING ON RI8                                                                                                           NOTE Whenever a letter appears near the box a separate procedure corresponding          to that letter is given at the end of this section    Causes low voltage as load is applied    Wi II cause voltage to increase after warmup or voltage adjustment   Check SCRs 04 and OS on VR22 voltage regulator chassis assembly replace if     defective before repairing or replacing VR21 voltage regulator printed circuit board104                                                                     VOLTAGE 150                                                                          OR                                                                   MORE THAN RATED                                                                              1                     I                                                                             1                              I          OPEN TRANSFORMER                              OPEN WIRE OR                       DEFECTIVE COMPONENT        DEFECTIVE COMPONENT            T11 WINDING                              CONNECTION AT                           ON VOLTAGE                  ON VOLTAGE                                                    VOLTAGE REGULATOR                       REGULATOR CHASSIS          REGULATOR PRINTED                                                      CHASSIS ASSEMBLY                       ASSEMBLY VR12           CIRCUIT BOARD VR11                                                            VR12                                                     TERMINALS 4 5 OR 6                                                        OPEN WIRE OR                                                       CONNECTION AT                                                      PRINTED CIRCUIT                                                        BOARD VR11                                                     TERMINALS 5 6 9 10                                                           II OR 11                                                                                                                    H        CRIIOPEN                                                                                                                    H       CR4 CR5 CR61                                                                                                                             OR CR7 OPEN                                                                                                 VOLTAGE                                                                                               BREAKOOWN OF   t                                                                                                 Q4 OR Q5                                                                                                                    H        CR 15 SHORTED                                                                                                  ill                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        K                 It       NOTE Whenever a letter appears near the box a separate procedure corresponding               to that letter is given at the end of this section                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Malfunction occurs after warmup or voltage adjustmenton                                             UNSTABLE OUTPUT                                                 VOLTAGE               I  DEFECTIVE COMPONENT                         BROKEN WIRES OR                                                                                             1                                                                                      INCORRECT SETTING   ON VR21 VOLTAGE                         LOOSE CONNECTIONS                       OF R26 POT ON VR21   REGULATOR PRINTED                         AT VR21 VOLTAGE                         PRINTED CIRCUIT     CIRCUIT BOARD                           REGULATOR PRINTED                      BOARD BRUSHLESS ONLY                                               CIRCUIT BOARD                                                 TERMINALS                                                                                              I    C6 C7 RI4 OR          RIS OPEN         r  I                              C II C 12 R27 OR          R28 OPENNOTE Whenever a letter appears near the box a separate procedure correspondin      to that letter is given at the end of this section106                                                      CYCLING                                                     BUILDUP               I      OPEN LEAD AT                                OPEN IN R21                                                                                          1                                                                              DEFECTIVE COMPONENT  VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT                      VOLTAGE ADJUST POT                ON VR21 PRINTED     BOARD TERMINALS                            ON METER PANEL                   CIRCUIT BOARD       I 2 5 7 OR 8                                                    OPEN IN RI8                                                VOL TAGE ADJUST POT                                                 ON VR21 PRINTED           1     CRIO CRI2 CRI3                                                                                      OR CR 14 OPEN     I                                                  CIRCUIT BOARD                                                                            1    R4 R6 R 17 OR                                                                                       R21 OPEN         I                                                                            1    CI C2 OR CI3                                                                                          OPEN          I                                                                            H         QI SHORTED                                                                                                        J                                                                                                                                                                       Lf    Q2 OR Q3 OPEN                                                                                                        INOTE Whenever a letter appears near the box a separate procedure                                                                                                  corresponding to that letter is given at the end of this section Generator voltage builds uP then collapses builds uP etc                                                                                                            107                                                     UNBALANCED                                                  TERMINAL VOLTAGES                J                                                                   I  INCORRECT RECONNECTION                          INCORRECT GROUNDING        FAULTY GENERATOR    ANDIOR GROUNDING OF                            OF LOAD OR GROUND          STATOR WINDING      GENERATOR LEADS                                FAUL T IN LOAD                                                                                  fANOT E Whenever a letter appears near the box a separate procedure        corresponding to that letter is given at the end of this section108                                             PROCEDURES                                                              3 After starting the plant touch the positive FLASHING THE FIELD NO VOLTAGE                                  lead to TBs and the negative  lead to TB4If output voltage will not build up it may be necessary         hold on terminals just long enough until voltageto flash the field to restore residual magnetism                starts to build up or damage may occur to the 1 Remove end grille to obtain access to exciter                system     regulator chassis assembly 2 Use a six volt dry cell lantern battery with a ten    ohm resistor as shown in Figure 7 If a lantern    battery is not available a 12 volt automotive             I WARNING I      Be       cautious when    workin    on   a    battery can be used by increasing the lOohm                              enerator       that IS   runnin    resistor to 20ohms or a 24 volt automotive battery    can be used by increasing the resistor to 40ohms                                                                 VR22                                                                                                                      CHASSIS ASSEMBLY n0L0U1      HOLD ON TERMINALS     UNTIL VOLTAGE STARTS         TO BUILD UP                                                             LAD                                                                                     e   VOLT ORV CELL                                           FIGURE 7 FLASHING THE FIELD                                                                                                                      109                                                           Resistance between 13 23 14 or 24 should be                                                           infinity  Resistance from any terminal to reactor                                                           frame should be infinityNO AC POWER TO EXCITER                                                           If any of the above conditions are not met installNOT E Residual should be checked before the circuit      a new reactorbreaker the best place to check it is at the fhe leads61 through 65 coming directly out of the stator Thecombination of leads should be chosen by the  of the stator ie 120240 Delta 120208Parallel Wye 277430Series Wye         After  proceed to VR21 PC board and then checkthe circuit breaker CB21                                  TESTING DIODESIf residual voltage is present check AC voltage at        Diodes mount on the center heat sink of the  1 and 2 on VR21  voltage regulator printed      regulator chassis assembly They are labeled CR tcircuit board Voltage should be 510 volts The AC        CR2 and CR3 as shown in Figure 3 On  at terminals 9 and 10 on VR22     generators six diodes mount on the rotating exciterchassis assembly should be the same 5 to 10 volts       assembly as shown in Figure 2 These six diodes areIf not check continuity between these points       If    labeled CRt CR2 CR3 CR4 CRs and CR6 Testvoltage is low check Lt reactor                          diodes as follows                                                            1 Disconnect lead from only one diode at a time or                                                                remove diode from heat sink Test that diode and                                                               reconnect lead before proceeding to the next one                                                            2 Use an accurate ohmmeter to check the  L 1 REACTOR                                             of the diode Connect one lead to the top of theThe Lt reactor mounts on the rear of VR22 exciter             diode and the other lead to the heat sink  chassis assembly Terminals are marked 1             reading2 3 and 4                                                 3 Now reverse leads and again observe reading A                                                                good diode should have a higher reading in one                                                               direction than the other If both readings are high                     IlI11J2                                                               or if both readings are low diode is defective                                                               and must be replaced with a new identical part                     3nIT4                                                            tssnsn                     oncesOr                                                                                                dIITerminals 12 and 34 are wound on the same iron           heating and eentual failure   Keep these assembliescore Resistance between 12 and 34 should be equal      clean                         GOOD DIODE WILL HAVE HIGH RESISTANCE READING IN ONE DIRECTION                             AND LOW READING WHEN OHMMETER LEADS ARE REVERSED                                            FIGURE 8 TESTING DIODESno     OHMM ETER   4iia         OHMMETER                                                                 SHORT BETWEEN                                                                 GATE AND ANODE                                                                                              CATHODE  FIGURE 9   TESTING SCRs       FIGURE 10 TESTING SCRs                      FIGURE II TESTING SCRs                                                        REPLACING RECTIFIERS SCRS AND DIODES                                                         1 Unsolder leadwires from  SCRs                                            2 Use proper size wrenches to hold the body whileSCRs mount on the outer heat sinks of the exciter         removing the nutregulator chassis assembly They are labeled Q4 and      3 Push the rectifier free of its mounting hole inQ5 as shown in Figure 3                                    the heat sink 1 Remove the leads from both SCRs                    4 Insert new rectifier into its mounting hole in the 2 Determine polarity of ohmmeter leads Connect           heat sink Using nut and washer provided secure    the ohmmeter leads to the anode and cathode as          rectifier to heat sink    shown in Figure 9 Use the high scale on the         5 Torque the two large diodes on the center heat    ohmmeter    The resistance should be 1 megohm          sink of  chassis assembly to    or greater                                             2025 in lb    NOTE The cathod i the longer lead the gate    6 Torque the small diode on center heat sink of    is the shorter lead  The anode is the threaded          chassis assembly to 1215 in lb    stud                                                7 Torque SCRs on outer heat sinks to 2025 in lb 3 Reverse the leads as shown in Figure 10 The         8 On brushless generators torque diodes on rotating    resistance again should be 1 megohm or greater         exciter assembly ttl 15 in lb 4 With the leads connected as in Step 3 and using     9 Solder leadwires to new rectifiers    the low scale on the ohmmeter short the gate to    the anode as shown in Figure 11 The resistance    should drop to a low value                                                        r                                                                                                                  I Ut a 40 watt soldering ron and also                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    hold a needlenose pllCrs betwpn 5 Remove the short between the anode and the gate    rectifier and soldering point to pretnt destructip    The resistance should remain at the same low        heating                   Excessie hpJt on theool components will    value                                              destroy them                                                                                                                             111                                                          Checking Unijunctin Transistors shown on rculat or                                                          diagram as Q3                                                           1 With the negative lead on E the resistance from                                                               E to Bl or from E to B2 should exceed 1 megohmTESTING TRANSISTORS                                            See Figure 15In each of the following tests it will be necessaryto determine the polarity of the ohmmeter leads This              PICTORIAL                     TOPis not necessarily the same as when used with voltage                                                                      HI             Q3Checking NPN Transistors shown on regulator diagramas Ql and Q2 1 Place ohmmeter leads between E and C as shown    in Figure 12 The resistance should be high                                                                    8YE                                                                         82                                                                                                  0                                                                                                  62          PICTORIAL                   TOP                      IQ1 AND Q21                                                                     be                                       C                  E                                     E                                                                                                   OHM                                                                                                   METER                                                                                 FIGURE IS                                                                                        2 With the positive lead on E the resistance to                                                             either Bl or B2 should be between 500 and 10000                                                             ohms See Figure 16                      FIGURE 122 Leave ohmmeter connected as in Figure 12 but                                                    OHM                                                                                                   METER   short Band C as shown in Figure 13 The re   sistance should become less than it was in step 1                                                                                                                                                                           FIGURE 16                                                                     OHM                                                          3 Connect as shown in Figure 17 The resistance      8                                METER                 between Bl and B2 should be between 4000 and                                                             10000 ohms    Reversing the leads should not                                                             change this value                      FIGURE 13                                                                                              3 Leave ohmmeter connected as in Figure 12 but                                                                E                                       OHM  now short Band E as shown in Figure 14 The                                                          METER  resistance should be higher than in step 1                                                                                                             FIGURE 17                                       OHM                                       METER                      FIGURE 14112TESTING GENERATOR ROORFor these tests use an  For Grounds     remove Fl and F2 rotor leadsfrom heat sink assembly Check for grounds betweeneach field lead and rotor shaft Refer to Figure 18Testing for an Open Circuit disconnect and test be              CONTACT ONE PROD TO EACH OF THE FIELD                                                                  LEADS AND THE OTHER PROD TO THE ROTORtween Fl and F2 leads as shown in Figure 19                      SHAFTReplace the rotor if it is grounded or has an open                IF ROTOR IS GOOD THERE SHOULD BE NO                                                                  READING ON OHMMETERor short                                                                    FIGURE 18 TESTING ROTOR FOR GROUNDS                                                                                         OHMMETER     TABLE 1 RESISTANCE VALUES FOR ROTORSAll resistances should be  lOo of the values specified at2SC 77F    This includes readings between slip rings onstatic excited rotors and between field leads with  on brushless rotors     Use an ohmmeter fortesting                                                                 CONTACT ONE PROD TO ONE FIELD LEAD AND                                                                 THE SECOND PROD TO THE OTHER FIELD LEAD       i                                                                 RESISTANCE VALUES ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 1                                                                 FIGURE 19 TESTING ROTOR FOR AN OPEN CIRCUIT                                                                                                      113                                                          TABLE 2 RESISTANCE VALUES FOR STATORS                                                          All resistances should be 1W of value shown at 2SC 77F                                                          Use an accurate instrument for this test such as a KelvinTESTING GENERATOR STATOR                                  Bridge Test hetween the following coil leadsUsing an ohmmeter or 1500 volt hypot check each                  TIT4           T7Tl0          T3T6                                                                  T9T12         T2TS            TSTl1winding of thE stRtor for grounding to the laminationsof the frmeNOTE Some     entrators have ground connections totht frame   Check wiring diagramTest each stator winding for shorts to laminations       TESTING BRUSHLESS EXCITER ROTOR ARMATUREA reading less than infinity indicates a short           Use a Wheatstone Bridge for this test Disconnect                                                          main rotor field leads which connect to heat sinks F 1Test for continuity between coil leads shown in Figure    and F2 Unsolder leadwires from diodes CR1 CR220 all shculd have equal resistance Use an accurate     CR3 CR4 CRs and CR6 Test between exciter leadinstrument for this test such as a Kelvin Bridge The     pairs TlT2 T2T3 and TlT3 Resistance shouldproper resistance values are given in Table 2 according   be S2Sohms  10 at 77Fto KW ratings and voltage codes                                                                                   CR1 CR4If any windings are shorted open or grounded replacethe stator assembly Before replacing the assemblycheck the leads for broken wires or insulationNOTE Stator output leads T4 T7 T8 T9 and Tl0are interconnected within the stator to five stranded 10 aircraft control wires These wires are labeled4 7 8 9 and 10 respectively and terminate at TB21terminals 6165                                                 CRe                                                                                                    CR5                                                                  FIGURE 21 TESTING EXCITER ARMATURE TEST BETWEEN WIRE PAIRS T1T4    T7T10   T3T6 T9T12   T2T5   T8T11  VALUES ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 2                                            FROM                                            KELVIN                                            BRIOGE        FIGURE 20 TESTING STATOR WINDINGS114                                                                                  voltage be SUrf to also reconnect lead fron terminal                                                                                  63 inside control box to either H3 H4 Hs or Hti                                                                                  See Figures 23 and 24TESTING BRUSHLESS EXCITER STATORCheck between F 1 and F2 field leads with an ohmmeterThe resistance should be 202ohms  10 at 77 c F                                                                                                     H24                                                                                                               0i 1I2                                                                                                     H  1I3                                                                                                     144 1                                                                                                     115                                                                                                     116                                                                                                                        I                                                                                                                        116                                                                                                     61                                                                                                     6t                                                                                                                        61L1                                                                                                                        62                                                                                                     63                 tiJ CON NECT LOOSE WIRE                                                                                                     64                 4       FRO M TERMINAL 63       OHMMETER RESISTANCE BETWEEN                                                                   U                  6S TO E ITHER H3H4H5 OR           F1 AND F2 SHOULD BE                                                                       66                 66 H6 D EPENDING ON             202 OHMS I 10                                                                                                VOL TAGE SELECTED                                                                                                     67                67         FIGURE 22 TESTING EXCITER FIELD                                                            68                 68                                                                                                               g                                                                                                                        69                                                                                                     70                                                                                                     71                                                                                                                id                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       11                                                                                                                         24 shows reconnect ion possibilities for the UR                                                                                     FIGURE 23 CONNECTING LEAD FROM TERMINAL 63series generators When reconnecting for a different                                                        HII DIGI    PPlIn TO 12 LEAD GINIIOIS ONLY                                                                           I            INIIAT COMNICTION WING DAOI                                                                                     IWIT CUIIINT nANSf 111 w UIID                                                                           fI ft T 11 II TI          T      TS II        fli                                         I                                              I                        I                        no                                                                            so1                                               I                                                                                                     n                            712 TS                                                                              71   TlO     T6              Til U II          U                        120201      I                        1272 201    ji                        140                             nooi I       1   so   MJ                        111001        SOl                               i                                                                                         D 11 I    T                   n i l TS              n                                                         FIGURE 24 RECONNECTION DIAGRAM                                                                                                                                                      115                                                                                        OF SIDE OF                                                                                       VOLTAGE                                                                                       REGULATOR                                                                                       WHEN                                                                                       MOUNTED  UNSOLDER THIS WRE  FROM E1 AND CCNNECl  TO E2 FOR A NONFRE  QUENCY SENSITVE  VOLTAGE REFERENCE  CIRCUIT                                  FIGURE 25 VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD                                                     sensitive voltage dips with speed to nonfrequency                                                     sensitive voltage remains constant as frequency is                                                     reduced by unsoldering one lead and connecting it to                                                     another terminal See Figure 25 Following  REFERENCE CIRCUIT                            change readjust R18 rheostat on voltage regulatorUR series regulators can be changed from frequency   printed circuit board for correct voltage                                                                                 9               23                                                                                                                   2                  BRUSHLESS GENERATOR                                  FIGURE 26 GENERATOR DISASSEMBLY116                                                       4 Torque drive disctoflywheel capcrews to 45                                                             50 lb ft                                                          5 Torque generator throughstud nuts to 3035 lb ftGENERATOR DISASSEMBLY                                     6 Refer to parts catalog for replaceable parts andIf generator testing determines that generator needs         assemblies   Refer to wiring diagram for reasrepair remove and disassemble according to Figure26         semblyand the following instructions 1 Disconnect and remove load wires 2 Disconnect leadwires from the control box Check    wire markings for legibility to ease assembly    Arrange leads so they can be withdrawn easily    from the control box                                 VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT 3 Remove front grille 14 and sheet metal work        If VR21 voltage regulator printed circuit board has 4 Remove the four capscrews securing voltage reg       been replaced it may be necessary to center the    ulator chassis 23 to end bell 9 and remove        voltage adjust rheostat R21 on meter panel    chassis assembly                                      1 Center the voltage adjust knob so pointer is in 5 Remove the centrifugal switch 8 from end bell            a vertical position    and rotor shaft                                       2 Open meter panel doors Start unit 6 Block the rear of the engine in place by supporting    3 Using a screwdriver turn R18 potentiometer on    the flywheel housing Remove the narrow generator          printed circuit board VR21  to    band 10 Remove the large capscrews securing             increase the voltage or clockwise to decrease the    generator mounting pad 11 to the skid base              voltage Observe voltmeter on meter panel while    Remove the capscrews securing the stator as               making adjustment      Set voltage with no load    sembly 4 to the engine flywheel housing                 connected to generator Example For a 120240 7 Using an overhead hoist and sling slide the stator        volt connection set at noload voltage or ap    assembly off the rotor assembly                          proximately 246 volts 8 Remove end bell from stator assembly disconnect    and remove brush rig from end bell on static          If voltage is unstable or tends to hunt turn R26    excited generators On brush less models remove      potentiometer on VR21 in the direction shown on    exciter field 24 from end bell assembly if re      printed circuit board to increase voltage sensitivity    quired 9 Attach the hoist and sling to the rotor assembly    1 and apply a slight lift to support the rotor    Remove the capscrews securing the flexible drive    coupling 13 to the engine flywheel and remove    rotor from the engine10 Remove bearing capscrew 18 and washer 17    and remove bearing from shaft If required remove    blower 2 from the rotor11 Disconnect rotor field leads from heat sinks F 1    and F2 on the exciter armature Remove exciter    armature 25GENERATOR  assembly is the reverse of  1 Always replace bearing with a new one apply a    layer of grease on end bell bearing hole before    inserting bearing 2 Torque bearing capscrew to 6070 lb ft                   FIGURE 27 ADJUSTING VOLTAGE ON VR21 3 Torque drive disctorotor capscrews to 200240    lb ft                                                                                                           117                                                           EII                    r   JQQSR                                                                                                                           I         HI   XI                                                          TI             T4      TIl             T8             STATIONARY                                                                                                                 5 CHART                                                                                                                                       IELDI PHASE                                                                                                                                             3 MDlL           I                                                                                                                                                                   I                                                                                                                                                                        IIID                                                                                                                                                                          H I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      VRZI   VOLTAoE REo PCBOARD     Ii                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              STATIONARY                    EXTATION                                                                                                                                                                                                        I               COIL                                                                                                                                                                       H            I                                                                   on                                                                                                                                                                                                     I             U         10                                          EI00                                      llOS                                                                                                                        Ta                                  ro                                                  J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           w                                             TJ                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                o                                                                                                                                                                                      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                               0          375        ZO o         7S     120      I                                                                                                                                        J               u  d4 400                75      60      H4                              T6                      3045 KW      MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT ROTARY SWITCH              BATTERY 12VDC                                                                                          BATTERY RETURN                                                                          STARTER     MOTOR                                                    START SOL RELAY            r                                                                                                                                                        t G                          AMP                                                                                                                                  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                                                 wTS          I          I                     1          I          I          I                                                                                                           OPS          1          V                                                                                                                                                         HOUR METER                                                                       EXCITATION                                                                       DIODE                                                                                                   I             I                                                                                          rUEL OL I            OSR                                                                                                                    K2                                                                          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   SWITCH                                                            6          V                                            7                                                                                                       Drawing 15227                                                                                                                                           119                           MANUAl CONTROL  The Manual Control series of Westerbeke marine diesel generatorsis equipped with a bar handle rotary control switch on the engine paneland optionally at a remote panel The following instructions and methodsof correcting minor problems apply to the following manual control                     REFERENCE DIAGRAMSWPDS   100            Four107JC             15123    15687WPDS   125            Four107JC             15123    15687WPDS   150            Four107JC             15123    15687WPDS   200            Four154JC             15123    15687WPDS   300            Four230UR             15227    15555WPDS   450            Six346UR              15227    15555The five rotary switch positions on the panel and on the remote panel aremarked to indicate the functional state of the control circuit1 SAFETY The 12 volt DC power to control circuit is interrupted wheneither the panel or remote switch is in the SAFETY position Its purposeis to positively shut down the set from either station A running engine willstop and cannot be restarted when either switch is in SAFETY Turn panel switchto SAFETY when servicing engine to prevent an attempted startup at the remotestation2 OFF The normal stopping position is OFF When a remote panel is the usualstation from which the generator is operated the engine panel switch is leftin the OFF position which allows full control by the remote switch3 RUN The normal operating position When the set is running a red lightemitting diode LED is illuminated above the RUN position on the remote panelThis is a warning to operators not to engage the starter on a running engine4 OP CIRCUIT DEFEAT momemtary spring return When the set is not runningthe low oil pressure shutdown switch is open preventing the fuel solenoid fromoperating The DEFEAT position provides direct energization of the fuel solenoidat full battery voltage by bypassing the oil pressure switch In addition  the instrument panel independently of the oil pressure switch an oilpressure switch provides power to the panel when the engine is running Thetemperature gauge may be checked without starting the engine by use of this switchposition At the remote panel the LED is illuminated when either panel or remoteswitch is positioned to DEFEAT This checks the RUN light and more  that there is sufficient charge in the batteries to crank the engine5 START momentary spring return This position energizes the cranking motorthrough a solenoid relay The bypass and LED connections activated by the DEFEATposition are maintained in the START position When ignition occurs the startingmotor is disengaged by releasing the switch from the START position At the remotestation the LED is extinguished by the drop in system voltage as the crank motoris engaged Relighting of the LED signifies that ignition has  OPERATION1 STARTING AT THE ENGINE PANEL    Installations with remote stations must set   the remote switch to OFF   A Turn switch to DEFEAT and pause to allow the fuel solenoid to operate      Check panel lights and instruments for appropriate indications and the      hour meter blinking The ammeter shows a momentary large discharge      and a small sustained discharge depending on the use of preheaters      Preheat twenty seconds in the DEFEAT position on Model WPDS 20   B Turn the switch from DEFEAT to START and hold there while the engine      cranks When engine ignition occurs allow the switch to return to      DEFEAT and hold until the oil pressure indicator rises Then release      to the RUN position2 STARTING AT THE REMOTE PANEL    Check that the LED is not illuminated due   to the engine already running   A The engine mounted switch must be on OFF   B Turn the switch to DEFEAT and hold Verify that LED illuminates      Hold briefly for fuel solenoid engagement to occur On Model WPDS 20      which is preheated hold DEFEAT twenty seconds   C Turn the switch to START Observe that LED extinguishes momentarily      When LED again flares up brightly ignition has occurred Release to      DEFEAT holding there sufficiently long for the oil pressure to rise      Then release the switch to RUN3 SHUT OFF To shut the engine off simply turn the switch to OFF or   SAFETY When there is a remote panel shut off requires that both   switches be in the OFF position or either switch be placed in the   SAFETY positionAC GENERATORS Once the diesel generator sets have been placed in operationthere is little or no control adjustment required by the AC GeneratorWhen starting the generator it is always a good plan to switch off all ACloads especially large motors until the engine has come up to speed and incold climates starts to warm up These precautions will prevent damage  operation of AC machinery and prevent a cold engine from  CONTROLS ON WPDS 30 AND WPDS 45The engine panels on these generators have four additional fpatures1 OVERSPEED If the engine governor loses control and the engine speed ac   celerates a relay is actuated that deenergizes the fuel solenoid and stops   the engine A red light on the panel illuminates and remains lighted To   extinguish the light reset the overs peed relay switch to the OFF or SAFETY   condition When the reason for the overspeed shutdown is corrected the   engine is ready to be restarted                                                                                  121 2 FIELD BREAKER The generator automatically monitors its power output A    sustained overload or short circuit in the output lines causes the FIELD    BREAKER to open This removes the generator excitation and the output    ceases The engine will continue to run with no AC output After de    termining and correcting the cause of overload the FIELD BREAKER can be    reset with the engine still running 3 AC VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT This rheostat allows the output voltage to be    adjusted a few percent in relative value A second adjustment can be    made using a potentiometer mounted on the printed circuit voltage regu    lator in the cabinet 4 5A SLOW BLOW This fuses principle function is the protection of the    fuel solenoid which rapidly overheats if its ability to complete its    stroke and bottom is impeded A second function is general protection    of th 12 volt control wiring against inadvertant overload The set    shuts off and gives no indication of panel power in the DEFEAT and    START position when the fuse blows Replace only with slow blow    5 ampere fuses The slow blow feature allows the initial solenoid    surge currents to pass Permanent damage to the fuel solenoid can    result from overfusing122                     MANUAL CONTROL TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTSNature of trouble    Probable cause                Verification1 No panel          A Remote or engine switch 1 Visual check   indications or       on SAFETY   switch response                     B Engine panel fuse          1 Check replace 5 amp slow blow                                                   2 Repeated blowingcheck for short                                                      circuits and fuel solenoid                                                      bottoming                     C Battery                    1 Check connections and disconnect                                                      switch                                                   2 Jump B to start solenoid coil                                                      If cranks battery is OK                     D Continuity grounding      1 Check voltage point by pOint                        or shorted circuits           from battery through ammeter                                                      Tighten loose connections and                                                      locate any faults2 Doesnt crank    A Start solenoid             1 Bypass solenoid with heavy wire   panels and                                         If cranks OK start solenoid or   voltages are OK                                    coil input at fault                     B Crank by encine switch     1 Remote cable wire too small for                        but not hy remote panel      length of run Open circuit                     C Starter   jmmed           1 Voltage drops and starter motor                                                      heats Remove motor Check pinion                                                      ring gear and engagement mechan                                                      ism Replace as required                     D Starter engagement        1 Apply voltage to B and S on                        solenoid and switch           starter No response Check                                                      starter motor return lines R                                                      Both connected to battery3 No ignition       A Fuel solenoid              l Check 12V on terminals at DEFEAT   cranks  doesnt                                  position Check for free mechani   start fueled and                                  cal action Adjust spring and link   primed                                            ages Replace solenoid if weak                                                      overheating or dead                                                   2 No voltage Test with bypassed oil                                                      pressure switch then bypassed tem                                                      perature switch If no voltage                                                      check wiring                     B Overspeed relay            l Check solenoid return circuit                        30 and 45 KW                through relay Check relay move                                                      ment and contacts                                                   2 A faulty overspeed ci rcui t wi 11                                                      hold relay closed Reset with                                                      switch and isolate cause                                                                                      123                        C Faulty fueling system      1 See englne maintenance section                        D Preheat not working        1 Check preheat solenoid relay                           20 KW                       and glowp1ugs                                                      2 G10wp1ugs burned out Replace                                                         and check pressure switch shut                                                         off operation  4 Fai 1ure to shut   A Fuel solenoid return       1 Stop engine by freeing fuel pump     cOtn              spring                        lever That failing shut off                                                         fuel Check fuel solenoid linkage                                                         and repair for free movement                        B Control ci rcui t or       1 Stop engine by removing fuse                           switch failure                Locate malfunction by voltage                                                         test after removing wire from                                                         the start solenoid relay and                                                         replacing fuse                        C Fuel injection pump        1 Stop engine with fuel line shut                           failure                       off Repair or replace pump                        D Major engine fault         1 Stop engine with fuel line cutoff                                                        That failing plug air inlet with                                                        rags Put maximum load on genera                                                        tor to attempt to stall engine 5 Engine stops        A Low oi 1 pressure or       1 Check oil fresh water and sea      in RUN               overheated                   water cooling                        B Low oi 1 pressure switch 1 Check for satisfactory operation                           fails to close              with switch bypassed                        C High water temperature     l Same as above                           switch open at too low                           a temperature                        D Switch and wiring          l Inspect all wlrlng for loose con                                                         nections and short ci rcui ts 6 Not charging        A Alternator drive           1 Check drivebelt and its tension      battery                                            Be sure alternator turns freely                                                         Check for loose connections                        B Regulator unit and         1 With engine running momentarily                           alternator                    connect B to field A good alter                                                         nator will produce a high charge                                                         50 amps If no response replace                                                         alternator Check for shorting of                                                         alternator output connections to                                                         ground 7 Battery runs        A Oi 1 pressure   sli tch   1 Observe if gauges and panel light    down                                                 are on when engine is not running                                                         Test the normally open oil pressure                                                         switch by disconnecting one lead                                                         If lights go out replace oil pres124                                                      sure switchB High resistance leak   1 Check iring Insert sensitive   to ground                 025 amp meter in battery lines                             Do not start engine Remove con                             nections and replace until short is                             locatedC Low resistance leak    1 Check all wires for temperature   to ground                 rise to locate faultD Al ternator            1 Disconnect alternator at output                             after a good battery charging If                             leakage stops replace alternator                             protective diode plate That fail                             ing replace alternator                                                                125

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