This is the new page for displaying documents. It allows documents to display on devices without pdf viewers specifically mobile devices, a new Google requirement. Note also that some documents have blank pages. Just click on "Next Page" if that happens.
Marine Diesel Engines
MODEL FOUR-230 70hp
MODEL SIX-346 115hp
Marine Diesel Generators
MODEL WPDS30 30kw
MODEL WPDS45 45kw
Publication Number 13315
Issue Date June 1.1975
· MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
Marine Diesel Engines
MODEL FOUR-230 70hp
MODEL SIX-346 115hp
Marine Diesel Generators
MODEL WPDS30 30kw
MODEL WPDS45 45kw
Pu bl i cat ion Number 13315
Issue Date June 1, 1975
· MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
This manual describes the operation. adjustment and maintenance of the
Westerbeke Model SIX-346 and FOUR-230 Marine Diesel Engines. and is designed
to be a guide for those concerned with the operation and maintenance of these
The diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine inasmuch as the mecha-
nism is essentially the same. Its cylinders are arranged above its closed crank-
case. its crankshaft is one of the same general type as that of a gasoline engine;
it has the same sort of valves. camshaft. pistons. connecting rods and lubricating
The diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine. however. in the method of
handling and firing its fuel. Carburetor and ignition systems are done away with
and in their place is a single component - the Fuel Injection Pump - which per-
forms the functions of both.
Therefore. it follows to a great extent that a diesel engine requires the same
preventive maintenance as that which any intelligent and careful operator would
give to a gasoline engine. The most important factors are proper maintenance of
the fuel. lubricating and cooling systems. Replacement of fuel and lubriCatiilg
filter elements at the time periods specified is a must and frequent checking for
contamination (i. e.. water. sediment. etc.) in the fuel system is also essential.
Another important factor is the use of "High Detergent" diesel lubricating oil
designed specifically for diesel engines and continued use of the same brand o f ' , - - "
lubricating oil is rec0mmended.
Unremitting care and attention at the factory have resulted in an engine capable of
many thousands of hours of service. What the manufacturer cannot control how-
ever. is the treatment the product will receive in service. This part rests with
Whenever service parts are ordered. always give complete description and part
numbers with engine model and number. The engine model and number is stamped
on the nameplate affixed to the exhaust manifold.
SIX-346 Marine Diesel Engine No. 57PS/ 1641 / 20801
FOUR-230 Marine Diesel Engine No. 38PS/ 1641/39101
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ENGINE IDENTIFICATION 4-5
INSTALLA TION DRAWINGS 6
ENGINE DESCRIPTION 7-8
GENERAL DATA 9-12
INSTALLA TION 13-18
COOLING SYSTEM 29-32
FUEL SYSTEM 33-4OB
HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS 73-92
VOLTAGE REGULATOR & POWER CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM 118
MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (ROTARY SWITCH) 119-125
ENG I N E IDE NT I FICA T ION
RATIO :DIM °A" DIM ·8" IOFFSET
150'1 161.18 i 4.50 .85 ~.a,NL.U\
2.04:1 cuB 14.50
?S2:1 '61.50 '525
3.CO:1 61.50 5,25 : 2.10 __ --------~1.25
1--- 11: E,t,I~JNE
1 '"0fc'5f r
,- ~- ______
i .1___ MfG CENTERS
B9LTS --OB ,._-
1___ i FO~ ~.
T R=--IV- - - - - I
DIPSTICK CAN BE
Q'J EITHER SIDE.
RATIO DIM. "A" DIM."S" OFFSET
1.50:1 51.56 4.50 .85
2.04:1 51.56 4.50 1.30
2.52:1 51.87 5.25 1.90
3.00:1 51.87 5.25 2.10
~_ .WAT,ER QV:LL_~T
FLEX MOUNTING CENTERS
.EQR..~ BOLTS OR LAG SCREwS
1---_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.45.50-"'-''''R'''C'''T.....!l'''R'eyV-''-_ _ _----I
fitted to the front of the crankshaft
The Westerbeke Six-346 and (Six-346 engine only) to absorb crank-
Four-230 Marine Diesel engines are shaft vibrations. A lip type oil seal
direct injection. six cylinder. four mounted In a one-piece housing seals
stroke units and four cylinder. four the rear main bearing.
stroke units respectively.
"Right hand side" or "left hand TIMING GEARS AND TIMING CASE
side" means the side of the engine as A train of gears is utilized to
seen from the flywheel end. drive the camshaft and the fuel injec-
tion pump. The camshaft drive gear
CYLINDER BLOCK AND CRANKCASE is mounted on the steel camshaft by
The cylinder block and crankcase means of a separate hub and nut. An
is a one piece casting. employing idler gear transmits the drive from
detachable wet liners. sealed at their the gear on the crankshaft to both the
lower end by synthetic rubber 0 rings. camshaft and the fuel injection pump
CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
PISTONS AND PISTON PINS
The cylinder head carries the
valves. valve rocker gear and injec- The pistons are attached to the
tors; it is completely water jacketed connecting rods by fully floating piston
around the ports and injector sleeves. pins. and are equipped with three
The air induction manifold and the compression and one scraper ring.
exhaust manifold are mounted on The top compression ring on each
opposite sides of the cylinder head. piston is chromium inserted to give
greater wear resistance. rapid seating.
The valves are set vertically in the
and extended life.
cylinder head and are operated through
the medium of the rocker gear, push-
rods and tappets from the camshaft. LUBRICATING OIL SUMP
The inlet valves are larger in diame- The oil sump is fitted with a
ter than the exhaust valves and are suction tube extension (combined with
shrouded to assist air swirl on the dipstick tube) from which the oil
induction. may be removed by a suction pump.
CAMSHAFT LUBRICATING SYSTEM
The camshaft is mounted in the The rotor-type oil pump. gear-
crankcase, running directly in the driven from the front of the crank-
crankcase bores with the exception of shaft. is mounted on the front main
the front. which runs in a white-metal bearing cap and incorporates an oil
bearing. Camshaft end-float is con- pressure relief valve in the pump
trolled by a thrust plate between the body.
camshaft shoulder and the camshaft
Oil is drawn from the sump.
timing gear. through a strainer. to the oil pump.
From the pump the oil is passed
CRANKSHAFT through an external oil filter via a
The crankshaft for the Six-346 housing attache.:! to the crankcase.
engine is mounted on seven replace- From the outlet side of the filter. oil
able main bearings. and the Four-230 is fed under pressure through the
engine is mounted on five replaceable oil cooler to the main oil gallery.
main bearings in the crankcase. End Drillings from the main gallery feed
thrust of the crankshaft is taken by oil to the crankshaft main bearings
thrust washers on the front main bear- and camshaft bearings. and a drilling
ing. A torsional vibration damper is across the front of the crankcase
feeds oil to the idler gear shaft to The atomisers (fuel injectors) are
lubricate the idler gear bearings. An located on the right hand side of the
oil jet screwed into this drilling lubri- cylinder head in an accessible position.
cates the train of timing gears. They are retained in the head by
From the crankshaft main bear- flanges secured with nuts.
ings oil is fed through the crankshaft
to the big-end bearings. Oil splash INDUCTION MANIFOLD
from the crankshaft lubricates the The induction manifold is made of
gudgeon pins and cylinder walls. die-cast aluminum~ on the right hand
An external pipe feeds oil from side of the cylinder head~ and an air
the main gallery through drilling in filter is fitted in this manifold.
the cylinder head and intermediate
rocker brackets to the hollow centers EXHAUST MANIFOLD
of the rocker shafts. Oil pressure in A water cooled exhaust manifold
the rocker shafts is controlled by a is fitted to the left hand side of the
pressure relief valve fitted on the cylinder head. The water is not in
front intermediate rocker bracket. direct contact with the exhaust gases
The rocker bearing surfaces are but circulates in an outer jacket form-
lubricated by oil from the rocker ing the coolant expansion tank.
shafts~ and oil mist in the rocker
chamber provides the necessary valve COOLING SYSTEM
Two methods of indirect fresh
Discharged oil from the valve water cooling are available according
rockers and relief valve drains down to customers requirements. Fresh
the push-rod tunnels and lubricates water is circulated round the engine
the tappets and cams before returning by a centrifugal type water pump and
to the sump. this water is in turn cooled by either a
heat exchanger or keel cooling pipes.
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
A distributor type fuel injection ELECTRIC SYSTEM
pump is flange mounted on the right Twelve volt electrical equipment
hand side of the cylinder block~ and is fitted to the engine.
driven by a splined shaft.
The 12 volt~ 55 ampere alternator
An automatic device is incorpo- is mounted on the left hand side of the
rated in the fuel injection pump to engine~ and is belt driven from the
advance or retard the point of fuel front end of the crankshaft. Belt ten-
injection according to changes of sion is adjusted by means of an adjust-
engine speed. able link and pivot pin.
The engine speed is controlled The flange mounted starter motor
by a mechanical type governor incor- is fitted on the right hand side of the
porated in the fuel injection pump~ the engine in accessible position.
speed control lever being located on
top of the fuel pump together with an
engine fuel stop lever.
A fuel lift pump of the diaphragm
type and equipped for hand priming is
fitted on the cylinder block on the left
hand side of the engine. The pump is
operated by an eccentric from the
Types . Six-346 (115 HP @ 2600 rpm)
" . Four-230 (70 HP @ 2500 rpm)
Bore 3. 937 in. (100 mm. ).
Stroke 4. 724 in. (120 mm. ).
Six-346 345. 3 cu. in.
Four-230 231 cu. in.
Six-346 16.8: 1
Four-230 . 16.8 : 1
Six-346 255 lb. ft (35~ 26 kgm) @ 1750 rpm.
Four-230 . 174 lb. ft (24.06 kgm) @ 1400 rpm.
Cylinder liner bore diameter. 3.7401 to 3.7409 in. (95.00 to 95·02 mm.).
Thickness of liner shims . · . ·003 and ·005 in. (·076 and .127 mm. ).
Piston to bore clearance (on thrust
face at bottom of skirt) .0055 to ·007 in. ('139 to .18 mm.).
Piston ring groove clearance . .0095 to .011 in. (.24 to ·28 mm.).
Remainder ·002 to .004 in. (.051 to .102 mm.).
Piston ring fitted gap ·014 to ·020 in. (·36 to ·51 mm.).
Remainder ·011 to ·016 in. (.279 to .406 mm.).
Fit in piston . ·0005 in. (·013 mm.) interference to
·00025 in. (.006 mm. ) clearance .
Pin to small-end bush clearance . 0005 in. to .0013 in. (.013 to ·033 mm.).
Length between centres . 8·185 to 8·187 in. (207·90 to 207·95 mm.).
Permissible out of parallel of
big- and small-ends '0001 in. per inch (.0001 cm. per cm. )
effective mandrel length. "
Big-end bearing to crankpin
clearance . ·0015 to ·0030 in. (.04 to ·08 mm.).
Connecting rod to crankshaft
side-clearance . . .008 to .012 in. (.2 to .3 mm.).
Little-end bush (bi-metal
wrapped type) inner diameter 1·37525 to 1·37575 in. (34·931 to
34.944 mm. ).
Crankshaft and main bearings:
Journal diameter 3·2495 to 3·250 in. (82·54 to 82·55 mm.).
Crankpin diameter 2·6245 to 2.6250 in. (66.66 to 66.67 mm).
Undersizes -·015 in. -·030 in., -.045 in.
(-.381 mm., -·762 mm., -1-143 mm.).
Bearing to crankshaft journal
clearance ·002 to .004 in. (·05 to ·10 mm.).
Rear oil seal cover to oil return
thread clearance ·0070 to ·0085 in. (0178 to . 216 mm. ).
End float (controlled by thrust
Four-230 . ·006 to ·010 in. (.15 to .25 mm.).
Six-346 .006 to .013 in. (015 to .33 mm.).
Camshaft and bearings:
Bearing to camshaft clearance:
No. 1 (bush) .0015 to ·0040 in. (.038 to .102 mm.) ·
Remainder . . · · . 00275 to ·00475 in. (.0698 to ·1206 mm.).
No. 1 (bush) inner diameter
(finished in position) · 1.9995 to 2.0010 in.
(50.787 to 50·825 mm. ).
End-float (controlled by thrust plate) ·002 to ·012 in. (.051 to .305 mm.) ·
Cam lift: · 261 in. (6.63 mm. ).
Backlash .004 to ·006 in. (.102 to .152 mm.).
Number of teeth:
Crankshaft gear. 25.
Camshaft gear . 50.
Fuel injection pump gear 50.
Idler gear 58.
Idler gear bush inner diameter
(finished in position) . 1·125 to 1·1255 in. (28.575 to 28· 588 mm.)
Idler gear bush to shaft clearance · ·001 to .002 in. (·025 to .051 mm. ).
Thickness of idler gear thrust washer ·068 to ·070 in. (1·73 to 1·78 mm.).
Oil feed jet diameter ·062 in. (1.59 mm.).
Cylinder head and valve mechanism
Valve timing: Six-346, with '021 in. (.53 mm. ) rocker clearance
Four-230, with ·019 in. ('48 mm.) rocker clearance
Inlet valve: Opens . 2-1/2 0 B. T. D. C.
Closes . 42-1/2 0 A. B. D. C.
Exhaust valve: Opens 37-1/20 B. B. D. C.
Closes 7-1/20 A. T. D. C.
Valve seat angle (cylinder head and valve) 45 0
Valve seat face width ·055 to ·070 in. (1.40 to 1·78 mm. ).
Valve stem to guide clearance . ·001 to ·0025 in. (·025 to ·064 mm. ).
Valve stem to rocker clearance -
hot or cold. .013 in. (.33 mm.).
Valve lift: .430 in. (10·92 mm.).
Valve springs: Inner Outer
Free length. 1·8 in. (45. 72 mm. ) 2· 25 in. (57015 mm.)
Fitted length 1.594 in. (40.487 mm.) 1· 875 in.
Load to compress to fitted length
(valve open) . 40 lb. (18· 14 kg. ) 90 lb. (40·82 kg.)
Rocker to rocker shaft clearance · . 001 to ·002 in. (·025 to ·051 mm.).
Rocker spacer sizes:
Six-346 · ·243 to ·250, .340 to ·343, and
.8055 to .8125 in.
(6017 to 6.35, 8·64 to 8.71, and
20·46 to 20·64 mm. ).
Four-230, between each rocker
and bracket . . ·290 to .297 in.(7.37 to 7·53 mm.)
between" each pair of
rockers. ·8055 to ·8125 in. (20·46 to 20.64 mm. )
Tappet to gUide clearance . .0005 to ·0023 in. (.013 to ·058 mm. ).
Flywheel and starter ring:
To fit starter ring to
flywheel heat to (Six-346). 275 0 C.(527 0 F. )
(Four-230) 350 0 C. (662 0 F.)
In.iection pressure . 175 atmospheres. (2570 ps 0
Add 5 atmospheres to the opening pressure when setting new injectors or
fitting new springs~ to allow for settling of the components.
Injector securing bolts . 144 lb. in. (1. 7 kg. m.)
Driving shaft to pump body clearance ·0025 in. (·063 mm.) maximum
End-float of pump rotors . . . . ·0020 to ·0045 in. (·051 to .114 mm. ).
Backlash between driving and driven
gears . . . .004 in. (.102 mm. ).
Pump body to bearing cap shim
thicknesses . . . ·002 and ·003 in. (.051 and ·076 mm.).
Number of teeth on driving and
dri ven gears . 46.
Main oil relief valve:
Spring free length 2-17/64 in. (57. 6 mm.).
Spring fitted length . . . . . 2 in. (50·8 mm. ).
Load to compress spring to fitted
length . 11 lb. 12 oz. (5·33 kg. ).
Rocker gear oil relief valve:
Spring free length 3/4 in. (19 mm.).
Spring fitted length . 5/8 in. (15·9 mm.).
Load to compress to fitted length 3 oz. (85 gm. ).
Diameter of ball . ·236 in. (6 mm. ).
Oil pressure (engine hot):
Idling speed 10 to 15lb./sq.in. (·7 to 1·05 kg./cm. 2 )
Normal running speed . 35 to 60 lb./sq. in. (2·46 to 4.22 kg./cm 2 )
Six-346 . 11. 5 qts.
Four-230 8 qts.
Fan hub pump spindle fit ·0015 to ·0028 in. (·04 to ·07 mm.)
Impeller to pump spindle fit . ·0010 to ·0023 in. (·03 to ·06 mm. )
Impeller vane to impeller housing
clearance ·010 to ·021 in. (·25 to ·53 mm.).
Bellows type . 77 to 800 C. (170 to 176 0 F. ).
Fully open temperature:
Bellows type · 94 0 C. (201 0 F.).
TORQUE WRENCH SETTINGS
Cylinder head nuts . I, 200 lb. in. (13· 8 kg. m.). Cold
I, 080 lb. in. ( ). Hot
Crankshaft pulley nut (Four-230) 3~ 000 lb. in. (34. 56 kg. m.).
Main bearing bolts (Four-230) 1,200 lb. in. (13· 8 kg. m.).
Big end bolts (Four-230) . 720 lb. in. (8· 3 kg. m.).
Main bearing studs. 600 lb. in. (7·0 kg. m.).
Main bearing nuts:
Slotted type 1,000 lb. in. (11' 5 kg. m.).
'Nyloc' type · 1,200 lb. in. (13'8 kg. m.).
Connecting rod bolts · · · · 700 lb. in. (8. 1 kg. m.).
Exhaust manifold nuts (Six-346) · 350 lb. in. (4 kg. m.).
(Four-230) . 600 lb. in. (6· 91 kg. m.).
Valve rocker bracket bolts:
5/16 in. diameter 180 lb. in. (2· 1 kg. m.).
3/8 in. diameter 350 lb. in. (4 kg. m.).
Flywheel bolts · . . . . . . . I, 200 lb. in. (13· 8 kg. m.).
C. A. V. starter motor pinion stop nut 40 to 50 lb. ft. (5· 6 to 7· 0 kg. m.).
C. A. V. 'distributor' injection pump:
Cam advance screw · 400 lb. in. (4· 6 kg. m.).
Transfer pump rotor 65 lb. in. (. 75 kg. m.).
-Above 32° C. (90° F.)
CIlI30 HDX30 1130 1l0teDa S. SAE30 Diesel 30 HDX30
Oil 30 30
-32° C. (90" F.) down Castrol Essofteet Delvac Shell Vanellus Filtrate Panther Fleetol
to-12° C. (10° F.) CIlI 20 HDX20 1120 Ilotella S. SAE20 Diesel 20 HDX20
--12° C. (10° F.) Castrol Essoftect Delvac Shell VaneDus Filtrate Panther Fleetol
down to-ISO C. CIlIIO HDX lOW 1110 1l0teUa S. SAE lOW Diesel 10 HDXIO
Oil lOW lOW
Below-IS·C. (0° F.) Castrol Esso Extra Mobiloil Shell Winter Filtrate Sternol
CIl 5W/20 Motor Oil 5W/20 Special 5W/20 WW
5W/20 Motor Oil Multiarade Q5-3O
or SheD 5W(lD
-In addition to the lubricants listed we approve the UIe of the appropriate multiJrade oil, supplied by the above compuiel, for the
particular condition prevailinl down to -ISO C. (0° F.). Below -ISO C. (0° F.) usc a 5W/20 oil or the curreat practice of the COUDtry
TRANSMISSIONS AND VEE DRIVE
Hydraulic Transmissions - Automatic Transmission Fluid Type '~"
Vee Drive Heavy Duty Motor Oil SAE-30
FOREWORD position but must keep the engine
It is not the purpos e of this section to
within one or two thousandths of an
advise boatyards and engine installers inch of this position at all times. It
on the generally well understood and has to withstand the forward push of
well developed procedures for instal- the propeller which is applied to the
lation of engines. However, the follow- propeller shaft, to the thrust bearing
ing outline of general procedure is in the engine and finally to the engine
included because it is valuable in bolts and engine bed.
explaining the functions of each com- In fiberglas hulls, we recommend that
ponent, the reasons why, the pre- similar wooden stringers as in wooden
cautions to be watched and the rela- hulls be formed and fitted, then
tionship of the installation to the glassed to the hull securely. This
operation of the engine. There are allows hanger bolts to be installed
details of the installation which should firmly in wood, thus reducing noise
ha ve a periodic check and of which the and transmitted vibration.
operator should have a thorough
understanding to ensure good operating The temptation to install the engine on
conditions for the engine and correct a pair of fiberglas "angle irons"
procedure in servicing the engine. should be resisted. Such construction
will allow engine vibrations to pass
INSPECTION OF SHIPMENT through to the hull. Flexible mounts
require a firm foundation against
The engine is shipped from the factory which to react if they are to do their
mounted upon heavy skids and properly Job.
crated. Accessory equipment is
shipped in a separate small box, RIGGING AND LIFTING
usually packed with the engine crate.
Immediately upon arrival, the ship- The engine is fitted with two lifting
ment should be inspected for possible rings, designed so that the engine may
accidental damage in transit and for be lifted without damage. Rope or
any possible shortage· in parts and chain slings should be attached to the
rings and the engine lifted by means
equipment. Before accepting any
shipment from the transportation of a tackle attached to this short sling.
The lifting rings have been designed
company, the crate should be opened
to carry the full weight of the engine,
and an inspection for concealed
therefore auxiliary slings are not
damage made. If either visible or
required or desired.
concealed damage is noted, require
the delivering agent to sign ''Received The general rule in moving engines is
in damaged condition." This is your to see that all equipment used is
protection against loss. Claims for amply strong and firmly fixed in
such damage must be made to the place. Move the engine a little at a
carrier, not to J. H. Westerbeke Corp. time and see that it is firmly sup-
ported. Eliminate possibility of acci-
FOUNDA TION FOR ENGINE dents by avoiding haste. Do not lift
A good engine bed contributes much from the propeller coupling, or pry
towards the satisfactory operation of against this with crowbar, as you may
the engine. The engine bed must be distort the coupling.
of rigid construction and neither In some cases it may be necessary to
deflect nor twist when subjected to lift the engine in other than the regular
engine weight or the position the boat horizontal position. It may be that the
may have to take under the effects of engine must be lowered endwise
rough seas. The bed must not only through a small hatchway which cannot
support the engine firmly in exact be made larger. If the opening is
extremely restricted it is possible to the key be properly fitted both to the
reduce to some extent the outside shaft and the coupling. The key should
clearances such as cooling piping, fit the side of the keyway, very close-
water tank, filters, mounting lugs, ly, but should not touch the top of the
etc. This accessory equipment should keyway ir. the hub of the coupling.
be removed by a competent mechanic If it seems difficult to fit the coupling
and special care should be taken to over the shaft, the coupling can be
avoid damage to any exposed parts or expanded by heating it in a pail of
the entrance of dirt where openings boiling water. The face of the pro-
have been made. The parts which peller coupling must be exactly per-
have been removed should be returned
to position as soon as the restricted pendicular to the center line or axis
of the propeller shaft.
opening has been passed.
In case it is necessary to hoist the PROPELLER
engine either front end upwards or The type and size of propeller varies
reverse gear end upwards the at- with gear ratio and must be selected
tachment of slings must be done very
carefully to avoid the possibility of to fit the application based upon boat
tests. To utilize the full power of the
damage to the parts on which the engine, and to achieve ideal loading
weight may come. It is best if
special rigging work be done by conditions, it is desirable to use a
someone experienced and competent propeller which will permit the engine
to reach its full rated speed on full
in the handling of heavy machinery. throttle. This can be determined only
by actual trials of the pilot model.
It is recommended that bronze hanger ALIGNMENT OF ENGINE
bolts of appropriate size be used The engine must be properly and
through the engine flexible mounts. exactly aligned with the propeller
Lag screws are less preferred because shaft. No matter what material is
their hold on the wood is weakened used to build a boat it will be found to
every time they are moved, whereas be flexible to some extent and the boat
the lag bolt stays in position and the hull will change its shape to a greater
nuts on top of the lag bolts are used to extent than is usually realized when it
tighten the engine down or are loosened is launched and operated in the water.
to permit the engine to be moved .. The It is therefore very important to check
bolt itself stays in position at all tlmes the engine alignment at frequent inter-
as a stud and the bond between the bolt vals and to correct any errors when
and the wood is not weakened by its they may appear.
Misalignment between the engine and
PROPELLER COUPLING the propeller shaft is the cause of
troubles which are blamed often on
Each Westerbeke Diesel engine is other causes. It will create' excessive
fitted with a suitable coupling for con- bearing wear, rapid shaft wear B:nd
necting the propeller shaft to the will, in many cases, reduce the hfe
engine. The coupling is very carefully of the hull by loosening the hull
machined for accurate fit. The for- fastenings. A bent propeller shaft
ward end of the propeller shaft has a will have exactly the same effect and
long straight keyway and any burrs it is therefore necessary that the
shou'ld be removed from this end. propeller shaft itself be perfectly
The coupling should be a light drive straight.
fit on the shaft and the shaft should not
have to be scraped down or filed in One particularly annoying result of
order to get a fit. It is important that misalignment ma.y be leakage of
transmission oil through the rear oil service for one to three weeks and if
seal. While it is possible for this type necessary the alignment remade. It
of leakage to be caused by defective will usually be found that the engine is
parts, one should always first check no longer in alignment. This is not
that alignment is within the limits because the work was improperly done
prescribed. at first, but because the boat has taken
some time to take its final shape and
The engine should be moved around on the engine bed and engine stringers
the bed and supported on the screw- have probably absorbed some moisture
jacks or shims until the two halves of It may even be necessary to re-align
the couplings can be brought together at a further period.
without using force and so that the
flanges meet evenly all around. It is The coupling should always be opened
best not to drill the foundation for the up and the bolts removed whenever the
foundation bolts until the approximate boat is hauled out or moved from the
alignment has been accurately land to the water. The flexibility of
determined. the boat often -puts a very severe
strain on the shaft or the coupling or
N ever attempt a final alignment with both when it is being moved. In some
the boat on land. The boat should be cases the shaft has actually been bent
in the water and have had an oppor- _by these strains.
tunity to assume its final water form.
It is best to do the alignment with the WATER CONNECTIONS
fuel and water tank about half full and
all the usual equipment on board. Seacocks and strainers should be of
Take plenty of time in making this the full flow type and of a size at least
alignment and do not be satisfied with equal to the inlet pipe of the sea water
anything less than perfect results. pump (see installation drawing). The
The alignment is correct when the strainer should be of the type which
shaft can be slipped backwards and may be withdrawn for cleaning while
forward into the counterbore very the vessel is at sea.
easily and when a feeler gauge indi- Water lines can be either copper tubing
cates that the flanges come exactly or reinforced rubber hose. In any case
together at all points. The two halves use a section of flexible hose (hose that
of the propeller coupling should be will not collapse under suction) between
parallel within 0.001 in. if possible. the hull inlet and engine and outlet
However, the maximum allowable before it enters the exhaust line so as
tolerance must not exceed 0.001 in. to take up vibrations and permit the
per inch of coupling O. D. engine to be moved Slightly when it is
In making the final check for align- being realigned. All pipe and fittings
ment, the engine half coupling should should be of bronze or brass. Use
be held in one position and the align- sealing compound at all connections to
ment with the propeller coupling prevent air leaks. The neoprene
tested with the propeller coupling in impeller in the sea (raw) water pump
each of four positions, rotated 90 should never be run dry.
degrees between each position. This
test will also check whether the pro- EXHAUST SYSTEM
peller half coupling is in exact align- Exhaust line installations vary con-
ment on its shaft. Then, keeping the siderably and each must be designed
propeller coupling in one position the for the particulCLr job. The general
alignment should be checked rotating requirements are to provide an outlet
the engine half coupling to full position line with a minimum of restrictions
each 90 degrees from the next one. and arranged so that sea water. rain
The engine alignment should be re- water. or condensation cannot get back
checked after the boat has been in into the engine. There should be a
considerable fall in the line between mount the tank above the engine level
the exhaust manifold flange and the as the fuel lift pump provided will
discharge end. This slope in the pipe raise the fuel from the tank. The
makes it difficult for water to be amount of lift should be kept minimum
driven in very far by a wave; and a (6 feet being maximum). If a tank is
steep drop followed by a long slope is already installed above engine level it
better than a straight gradual slope. can be utilized in this position. Great
Avoid any depression or trough to the care should be taken to ensure that the
line which would fill with water and fuel system is correctly installed so
obstruct the flow of exhaust gas. Also that airlocks are eliminated and pre-
avoid any sharp bends. cautions taken against dirt and water
entering the fuel.
Brass or copper is not acceptable for
wet exhaust systems, as the combina- A primary fuel filter of the water col-
tion of salt water and diesel exhaust lecting type should be installed between
gas will cause rapid deterioration. the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. A
Cast iron or wrought iron pipe is recommended type is available from
recommended for the exhaust line. the list of optional extras. The main
The exhaust line must be at least as fuel filter is fitted on the engine
large as the engine exhaust manifold between the fuel lift pump and the
flange (refer to Installation Drawing). injection pump and has a replaceable
To insure vibration doesn't transmit
to hull use a flexible section prefer- As the fuel lift pump has a capacity in
ably of stainless steel, no less than excess of that required by the injection
12 in. overall threaded at each end pump, the overflow is piped to the fuel
and installed as close to the engine as tank and should be connected to the top
possible. This flexible section should of the tank or as near the top as
be installed with no bends and be possible.
asbestos covered. The exhaust pipe
should be properly supported by ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
brackets to eliminate any strain on Starter batteries should be situated as
the manifold flange studs. Many close to the engine as possible, to
installations use flexible rubber avoid voltage drop through long leads.
exhaust hose for the water cooled sec- It is a bad practice to use the starter
tion of the exhaust line because of the batteries for other services in the
ease of installation and flexibility. boat unless these are light or very
Provide adequate support for the intermittent. In cases where there
rubber hose to prevent sagging, are substantial loads from lights,
bending, and formation for water refrigerators, radio, depth sounders,
pockets. etc. , it is essential to have a complete
Always arrange that water discharge separate system, and to provide
into the rubber hose section is behind charging current to this from an-
a --rlser or sufficiently below the auxiliary generator driven from the
exhaust flange so that water cannot power take off at the front of the
possibly flow back into the engine. engine. Starter batteries must be of a
type which permit a high rate of
FUEL TANK AND FILTERS discharge (Diesel starting).
Fuel tanks should preferably be of Carefully follow the recommended
plain steel or terne plate; reinforced wire size shown in tlle wiring diagrams.
glass -fiber is also suitable. Be cer- (Fig. 1). Plan the installation so the
tain that the interior is gel-coated to battery is close to the engine and use
prevent fibers from contaminating the battery cable sizes as indicated.
fuel system. It is not necessary to
ro START SWITCH.
A .... ET!R
+12VDC --. ..... ,I @
I MODEL 4-236.4-91,4-231,4-154,4-2.106. 6-346
.,., I TER"INA~ 5TARTER (INTEGRAL ENGAGE ..ENT 50LENOID)
'8 l"9 -10
CASE RETURN CONNECTION
CRllo,p, @IQP, IW,T,
,~:'N:®I I ~I i:I.~,I~ i
TO SENDERS -DC NE<;ATlVE RH'JRN
~, , ~
1 I l_J I
!!£AR VIEW -,!!P~c;AL !~I:''''A _~,~C;!,
ENGINE MOD£L 4-107
STARTER, SEE DETAIL "A"
fOR OTHER ENCOINES, NOTE: BATTERY !fADS L THIS DRAWIN," IS FOR USE ON CONTROL
PANELS USIN<; FARIA OIL IS. WATER COAUGES,
'1 FOR OISTANa UP TO 8 H. USE 12889 FOR PANELS WITH V.D.O, GAUGES,
DWG NO. .17309 NEGATIVE GROUND '1/10 FOR OISTANa UP TO 10 H. 2,SEND£RS (501, S02) ARE I WIRE 1I00Y RETURN TVPE.
''1/0 FOR DISTANCE UP TO 13 FT.
'J/O FOR DlSTANa UPTO 16 FT. 3 @ SEE MOTOROLA INSTALLATIoN INSTRUCTIONS.
Fig. 1 WIRING DIAGRAM
PREWIRING AND OPTIONS position, and controlled by a Bowdoin
wire or flexible sheathed cable to a
1. Pre-Wiring push-pull knob at pilot station adjacent
Pre-wiring includes the installation and to starter button or key switch and the
wiring of the following devices: throttle lever connected to a Morse
type lever at pilot station by a flexi-
alternator, regulator, starting motor, ble sheathed cable. Refer below to
starter solenoid, instrument senders, transmission control.
connecting terminal blocks, pressure
and temperature switches separate key Transmission Control: The control
switch panel, electric panel wiring lever on the transmission housing has
harness and engine harness. The two three positions with detents for
interconnecting cables between engine, Forward (F), Neutral (N), and
key switch panel and all electric panel Reverse (R). This control lever may
meet or exceed ABYC Standards. be connected to the pilot station by a
Chief advantages of prewiring are flexible sheathed cable and controlled
elimination of wiring mistakes and by Morse Type lever(s). The single
minimum installation time. Morse control lever gives clutch and
throttle control, with full throttle
ALL ELECTRIC PANEL range in the neutral position. The two
lever Morse control provides clutch
Marine instruments used include control with one lever and throttle
ammeter, water temperature gauge control with the other.
and oil pressure gauge. The instru-
ments are back lighted, vented and Any bends in the control cables should
negative grounded. The instrument be gradual and end sections at engine
panel should be mounted so that it is and transmission must be securely
protected from direct contact with mounted. After the linkages are com-
salt spray. pleted, check the installation for full
travel, making sure that when the
2. Factory Installed Engine Alarm transmission control lever at pilot
System (Optional) station is in forward, neutral, and
reverse, the control lever on the
This alarm system, to indicate the transmission is on its respective
existence of high water temperature or detent (F) against stop pin, (N) detent,
low oil pressure, is designed and and detent (R) against stop pin. Check
installed on your Westerbeke diesel throttle control lever and stop-run
at the factory. It consists of an audi- lever on fuel injection pump for full
ble alarm to indicate either failure, travel.
the alarm being part of the key switch
panel. The high water temperature
and low oil pressure switches are set
for compatibility with the engine. The Throttle Control
alarm system is energized by the key
switch at the key switch panel and can --"
be de-energized by the same key
switch, should the operator wish to
turn off the alarm.
Throttle control and stop-run control:
speed to the engine
is controlled by twoand ~LJI_~,~ ~Ir,=? CI.OJ'j,,!.:.,,·I·'~l
levers on top of the fuel injection pump
which is mounted on the right-hand _. ~ ,
side of the engine (refer to Fig. 2). ~ <:::::>
The recommended practice is to have
the stop-run lever loaded to the run Fig. 2 FUEL INJECTION PUMP
PREPARATION FOR STARTING ENGINE AFTER INSTALLATION · 20
BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM . . . 20
TO START ENGINE. · · . . . . . . . 21
WHEN ENGINE STARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
TO STOP ENGINE . . . ... .. ... . . . . 22
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . 22
COLD WEATHER PRECAUTIONS · . · . . . . . . . .. 22
Preparation for starting engine after
installation. The engine is shipped BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM
"dry". that is. with lubricating oil One possible cause of the engine fail-
drained from the crankcase and ing to start. or erratic engine accel-
transmission. The following pro- eration is that air may have entered
cedure should be checked methodically the system. in which case "bleeding"
before starting the engine for the first of the system will be necessary.
time. Before bleeding the system. first
1. Remove engine lubricating oil insure that there is an adequate supply
filler cap and fill oil sump with diesel of fuel in the tank and that the fuel
lubricating oil to the highest mark on supply is turned on.
the dipstick. Select an approved grade 1. Slacken the bleeder screw secur-
listed in "General Data" and continue ing the fuel injectors return pipe to
to use it. Do not overfill. Replace secondary fuel filterhead. Operate
filler cap. the priming lever (refer to note below)
2. Remove transmission breather cap on the fuel lift pump. when fuel oil
3/4 in. hex fitting (Paragon transmis- issues from the bleeder screw. free of
sion) or filler plug (Warner transmis- air bubbles. tighten bleeder screw.
sion). and fill housing with Automatic
transmission fluid Type "A" to high NOTE: If the engine camshaft cam
mark on dipstick. Do not overfill. driving the fuel lift p'ump is on maxi-
mum lift. it will not be possible to
3. Remove expansion tank filler cap obtain a full pumping stroke with the
and fill tank. with fresh. clean water priming lever. and the engine should
and/ or antifreeze (refer to "Cold be turned with starter motor one
Weather Precaution") to within one complete revolution.
inch of top of tank. Replace filler
cap. Ensure cylinder block drain tap 2. Slacken the air bleed screw on the
and heat exchanger petcocks are side of the fuel injection pump. situ-
closed. ated directly above the pump name-
4. Ensure storage battery water plate. Operate the lift pump priming
level is at least 3/8 in. above battery lever. and when fuel flows free of air
plates. and battery is fully charged so bubbles. tighten the bleed screw.
that it is capable of the extra effort 3. Slacken the air bleed screw on
that may be required on the first back of the fuel injection pump cover.
start. behind the throttle lever. Operate the
5. Fill fuel tank with No. 2 clean lift pump priming lever. and when fuel
Diesel Fuel Oil. No. 1 is permissi- flows free of air bubbles tighten the
ble but No. 2 is preferred because of bleed screw.
its higher lubricant content. 4. Slacken the union nuts at injector
end of each of the high pressure pipes.
NOTE: If there is no filter in the
filler of the fuel tank. the recom- 5. IMPORTANT: Position transmis-
mended procedure is to pour the fuel sion shift lever in neutral as engine
through a funnel. with a fine mesh may start when corr..pleting Step 8.
wire strainer. 6. Ensure fuel STOP/RUN push-pull
control is in full run position.
6. Open valves in fuel line and bleed
fuel system. refer to "Bleeding Fuel 7. Advance throttle to maximum open
System. " position (for maximum fuel flow).
B. Turn key switch to START posi- WHEN ENGINE STARTS
tion. and in sequence when fuel oil 1. Check the Sea Water Flow. Look
free of air bubbles issues from each for water at exhaust outlet. Do this
injector pipe union. tighten each without delay. (Heat Exchange!' Cool-
union. If engine should start during ing System. )
this procedure immediately move
throttle to idle speed. 2. Check Oil Pressure immediately
Normal oil pressure is approximately
TO START ENGINE 10 to 15 psi. when idling. 35 to 60 psi.
1. Position shift lever to neutral. at operating speeds.
2. Position fuel stop-run control to 3. Recheck Crankcase Oil. After the
full run position. engine has run for 3 or 4 minutes.
subsequent to an oil change or new
3. Advance throttle to maximum installation. stop the engine and check
(to obtain maximum fuel for easier the crankcase oil level. This is
starting). important as it may be necessary to
4. Turn key switch to START posi- add oil to compensate for the oil that
is required to fill the engine I s internal
tion and hold. Release when engine oil passages and oil filter. Add oil as
starts. (See note below. ) necessary. Check oil level each day
5. Immediately upon starting. posi- of operation.
tion throttle to idle setting. 4. Recheck Transmission Oil Level.
(This applies only subsequent to an oil
NOTE: Never operate the cranking change or a new installation.) In such
motor continuously for more than a case. stop the engine after running
15 seconds. If engine has not started. for several minutes at BOO rpm with
stop cranking for 15 seconds. The one shift into forward and one into
engine should start within a few revo- reverse. then add oil as necessary.
lutions of the crankshaft if battery is
charged and the engine is receiving 5. Check temperature gauge. Nor-
fuel. mal operating temperature is below
The cranking motor turning over fast 190 o F.
indicates the battery is charged. If a 6. Recheck expansion tank water
battery is charged and engine doesn't level. (This applies after cooling
start. check fuel system as follows: system has been drained and refilled.)
Stop engine after engine has reached
a. Ensure the fuel valve between operating temperature of 170 to IBO o F.
tank and engine is open. add water and/ or antifreeze as re-
b. Ensure the stop-run and quired to within one inch of top of
throttle control levers on the injection tank.
pump are in their full run positions.
c. Check for leaks in fuel lines WARNING: The system is pressurized
when overheated and the pressure must
and at gaskets of fuel filters. be released gradually if the filler cap
d. Determine if fuel is reaching is to be removed. It is advisable to
injectors refer to "Bleeding Fuel protect the hands against escaping
System". Steps 4 to B. If fuel oil stearn and turn the cap slowly counter-
doesn't issue from union nuts at clockwise until i.he resistance of the
injectors. bleed complete system. safety stops is felt. Leave the cap in
this position until all pressure is re- 4. Do not run engine at high rpm
leased. Press the cap downwards without clutch engaged.
against the spring to clear the. safety
stops. and continue turning until it can 5. Never Race a Cold Engine as
be lifted off. internal d.amage can occur due to lack
of proper oil circulation.
7. Warm-Up Instructions. As soon 6. Keep the engine and accessories
as possible engage the forward clutch clean.
and run the engine at reduced speed of 7. Keep the Fuel Clean. Handle it
BOO to 900 rpms. until oil pressure with extreme care because water and
gauge indicates approximately 35 to dirt in fuel cause more trouble and
50 psi. and water temperature gauge service interruptions than any other
indicates 170 to IBOoF. (Warming up factor.
with clutch in neutral takes an un-
necessarily long time). B. Do not allow fuel to run low.
B. Avoid prolonged idling. because fuel intake may be uncovered
long enough to allow air to enter the
9. Reverse Operation. Always fuel system. resulting in engine
reduce engine to idle speed when shift- stoppage.
ing gears. However. when the trans- 9. Do not be alarmed if temperature
mis sion is engaged. it will carry full gauges show a high reading following a
engine load. sudden stop after engine has been
operating under load. This is caused
TO STOP ENGINE by the release of residual heat from
1. Move throttle lever to idle position. the heavy metal masses near the com-
bustion chamber. Prevention for this
2. Position shift lever to neutral. is to run engine at idle for a short
period before stopping it. High tem-
NarE: Idle engine for a few minutes to perature reading after a stop does not
dissipate heat gradually before shut- necessarily signal alarm against re-
down. starting. If there is no functional
3. Position fuel push-pull (stop-run) difficulty. temperature will quickly
control to stop. Control in stop posi- return to normal when engine is
tion functions by stopping fuel flow to operating.
COLD WEATHER PRECAUTIONS
NOTE: Key switch panel .with STOP
push-button switch. depress push button 1. Precautions against damage by
freezing should be taken if the engine
and hold until engine stops. is to be left exposed to inclement
weather by adding an anti-freeze of
4. Turn key switch to OFF position. reputable make and incorporating a
suitable corrosion inhibitor. As these
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS engines are equipped with high tem-
1. Never run engine for extended perature thermostats. a permanent
periods when excessive overheating type anti-freeze with an Ethylene
occurs as extensive internal damage Glycol Base should be used. Do not
can be caused. use alcohol solutions.
2. DoNot Put Cold Water in an over- 2. Draining Cooling System. Remove
heated engine. It can crack cylinder pressure cap from expansion tank and
head. block. or manifold. open the drain tap (turn counter-
clockwise) on right-hand side of
3. Keep intake silencer free from cylinder block. next to flywheel
lint. etc. housing.
OPERATION - MAINTENANCE
3. Filling Cooling System. Deter-
mine capacity of cooling system NOTE: The strength of the anti-freeze
(including keel pipes if installed) and solution must be maintained by topping
fill cooling system with the correct off with anti-freeze if necessary (use
amount of antifreeze and water for the tester when in doubt).
degree of protection required. to
within one inch from the top of the 4. Fuel filters must be checked more
tank. Ensure drain tap is closed. often, particularly the primary filter
Start engine to circulate antifreeze to remove all the moisture and conden-
and when temperature gauge indicates sation separated from the fuel, other-
normal operating temperature, stop wise this may freeze and stop the fuel
engine and add coolant as necessary. flow.
POST-DELIVERY CHECKOVER 24
PERIODICAL ATTENTIONS . 24
FILTER MAINTENANCE . 24
PRESERVATION OF LAID- UP ENGINE 26
PREPARING THE ENGINE FOR RETURN TO SERVICE 27
POST-DELIVERY CHECKOVER Every 100 Hours
After a customer has taken delivery of ReneN sump lubricating oil and
his engine. it is advisable. in his own lubricating oil filter. (Refer to "Filter
interests. that a general checkover of Maintenance - Lubricating Oil Filter. ")
the engine be carried out after the Clean air intake filter.
first 25 to 50 hours in service. Check alternator belt tension.
This checkover should comprise the Clean fuel filter water trap.
Clean battery terminals and apply
protective coating to terminal and con-
1. Renew sump lubricating oil and nectors.
lubricating oil filter. Refer to "Filter Check level of electrolyte in
Maintenance-Lubricating Oil Filter". battery.
2. If necessary. adjust slow running
Every 300 Hours or Once a Season
Renew final fuel filter.
3. Check external nuts for tightness.
Renew transmission lubricating
4. Check cylinder head nuts are to fluid. Remove breather cap 3/4 in.
the correct torque and check valve hex fitting. Ins ert pump hose in
clearances. breather fitting opening and pump fluid
5. Check for fuel and lubricating oil out of housing into a waste container.
leaks. and rectify if necessary. Fill housing with Automatic Transmis-
sion fluid Type "A" to high mark on
6. Check cooling system water level dipstick. Do not overfill.
and inspect system for leaks.
7. Check alternator belt tension. NOTE: Warner Transmission has
8. Carry out test to check general
performance of engine. FILTER MAINTENANCE
9. Check engine mounting bolts for Air Filter
tightness. The time period for cleaning the air
10. Check all electrical connections filter depends on operating conditions.
and wiring for tightness and chafing. therefore. under dirty conditions, the
time period of 100 hours recommended
11. Check engine alignment to pro-
peller shaft coupling. for cleaning should be decreased. The
correct maintenance of the air filter
Thereafter maintenance periods should will greatly assist in reducing bore
be in accordance with those given wear thereby extending the life of the
under 11 Periodical Attentions 11 · engine.
To clean the air filter proceed as
KEEP ENGINE CLEAN 1. Unscrew the thumb screw securing
Daily the air filter to its manifold and re-
Check sea water strainer.
Check cooling system water level. 2. The element may be cleaned by
Check oil level in sump. blowing compressed air from the in-
Check oil level in transmission. side to the outside. Do not attempt to
Check fuel level in fuel tank. clean the element by any other means.
A strong light directed into the inside
of the element and viewed from the
outside will reveal any damage to the
paper corrugations. If the element is
damaged or shows a large deposit of
dirtl replace element.
Fuel Oil Filters
It is essential to use clean diesel fuel
oil free from water or contamination. '9r---7
Provided clean fuel oil is usedl no
trouble should be experienced with the
fuel system. ~ ...- - - 9
1. The first filter should be a gauze
trap in the filler of the fuel tank; this
must not be removed when fuel is
being poured into the tank. It should -"""'---10
be taken out every 500 hours l cleaned l
washed in fuel o ill and immediately
replaced. If there is no filter in the 1----11
filler of the fuel tank the fuel should
be poured through a fine gauze
strainer or a piece of chamois.
2. A primary fuel filter of the water
collecting or separating type should be Main fuel filter components
installed between the fuel tank and the I. Centre bolt. 7. Sealing ring.
fuel lift pump. The filter should be 2. Washer. 8. '0' ring.
3. Filter head. 9. Element.
checked and cleaned every 100 hours. 4. Sealing plug. 10. Sealing ring.
A recommended type is available from 5. Copper washer. 11. Filter base.
Westerbeke. 6. Non-return valve.
3. The secondary fuel filter (Fig. 3)
is mounted to a bracket on the front Lubricating Oil Filter
right side of the engine. It is an ele-
ment type filter and must be replaced The importance of clean lubricating oil
every 300 hours lJ.nless the condition cannot be stressed too highly. If the
of the fuel warrants more regular time period specified (100 hours) for
attention. To remove filter element l replacement of the spin-on-type filter
proceed as follows: element and the use of the same brand
of oil is used during oil changes l a
a. Unscrew the center bolt on top very long life can be obtained from the
of the filter head and detach the base engine. The spin-on-type filter is
and filter element. Discard element. secured to its filter head on the left
b. Remove the sealing ring from hand side of the cylinder block. To
filter base and the sealing ring and replace filter l proceed as follows:
"0" ring from filter head. 1. Run engine until oil is hot.
c. Wash base of filter in clean 2. Remove dipstickl and with the aid
kerosene. of the hoses and flllmp suppUed l fit the
d. Install new filter element l 3/8 in. I. D. hose over the dipstick
sealing rings and ·· a·· ring in reve rs e tube and pump the oil from sump into
a waste container.
3. Place a drip pan under filter or a Fill Sump: Fill sump with high-
polyethylene bag completely over filter detergent diesel lubricating oil to the
canister, and turn spin on filter high mark on dipstick. Do not over-
counter-clockwise to remove. Discard fill. Refer to "Recommended Lubri-
filter. cants, " and always use the same brand
4. To replace filter, coat the gasket
on the filter with oil. Place the filter Sump Capacity Six-346 11. 5 Qts.
in position and hand tighten filter until Four-230 8.0 Qts.
the gasket contacts the filter head; Fill Transmission: Fill housing with
then advance one-half turn. Automatic Transmission Fluid Type
5. Fill sump with the '~pproved "A", to high mark on dipstick. Do not
Lubricating Oil" being used, to high overfill.
mark on dipstick. Do not overfill. Drain Cooling System. Remove pres-
Oil Capacity Six-346 11. 5 Qts. sure cap from expansion tank and
Four-230 8.0 Qts. open drain tap (turn counter-clockwise)
on right hand side of cylinder block,
6. Start engine, run until normal next to flywheel housing.
operating temperature is reached,
checking that filter joint is tight. Shut Filling Cooling System. Determine
engine down, and add oil as required. the capacity of cooling system (includ-
ing keel pipes if inl?talled) and fill
PRESERVATION OF LAID UP ENGINE system with the correct amount of
anti-freeze and water for the degree
When a craft which is powered by a of protection required, to within one
diesel engine is to be laid up for inch from top of tank. Ensure drain
several months, it is advisable that tap is closed.
some measure of protection be
afforded the engine to ensure that it Remove the hex screw plug from side
suffers no ill effects during storage. of heat exchanger and determine if
zinc rod in the plug needs replacing.
Just before hauling (laying up) top off The zinc rod takes care of anyelec-
the fuel tank completely, so that no trolysis in the salt water system and
air space remains, thereby preventing should be checked every three months.
water formation or condensation. Replace plug with new rod if necessary.
Start engine and run until normal oper-
ating temperature is reached, shut NOTE: All threaded screw fittings
engine down. must have sealing compound on threads
when replaced to prevent leakage.
Remove dipstick, and with the aid of
the hoses and pump supplied, fit the Start Engine. Run engine until normal
3/8 in. 1. D. hose over the dipstick operating temperature is reached, to
tube and pump the oil from the sump ensure proper mixing of, and circula-
into a waste container. tion of anti-freeze. During this pro-
Remove breather cap 3/4 in. fitting. cedure exercise transmission in
Insert pump hose through breather forward and reverse several ,cycles
below 800 rpm to ensure that the new
fitting opening to bottom of housing transmission fluid is properly circu-
and pump the oil out of the transmis- lated. Also check new lube oil filter
sion. (Warner gear has a filler plug. ) mating surface for leakage.
Remove and Replace Lubricating Oil After shutdown check oil level in sump,
Filter: Place a drip-pan under filter add lube oil if required to high mark on
and turn filter counter-clockwise to dipstick. Check lubricating fluid in
remove. Hand tighten filter until the transmission, add fluid if required to
gasket contacts the adapter face then high mark on dipstick. Check level of
advance filter one-half turn.
anti-freeze solution in expansion tank. 4. Connect batteries. fully charged.
add anti-freeze solution if required to into circuit.
within· one inch from top of expansion
tank. 5. Open valves in fuel line.
To ensure that any sea water left in the 6. Bleed fuel system. refer to
sea water cooling will not freeze. an "Operation - Bleeding Fuel System".
anti-freeze solution should be run
through the system and expelled at the
exhaust pipe outlet as follows: Close
input through-hull fitting seacock.
Disconnect hose from the seacock at
its next connection. Attach and secure
a separate length of hose to this con-
nection (the same I. D. as hose removed)
with its other end in a container of
50 percent anti-freeze and water.
approximately two gallons. Start
engine. Immediately check for flow of
anti-freeze solution at exhaust outlet.
Before end of hose in container of
anti-freeze is uncovered. stop engine.
Remove hose from connection and re-
connect and secure original hose.
Drain exhaust pipe by removing drain
plug (if installed) at the water cooled
section. Replace drain plug.
Remove air filter. Clean air intake
filter. refer to "Filter Maintenance. "
Carefully seal air intake opening with
a waterproof adhesive tape or some
other suitable medium.
Seal the exhaust outlet at transom.
Change and clean all fuel filters.
Close all seacocks.
Disconnect batteries and store fully
charged in a cool location. Before
storing the battery. the battery termi-
nals and cable connectors should be
treated to prevent corrosion. Recharge
battery every 30 days when in storage.
If winterization is performed by owner.
notify yacht yard that engine is winter-
ized and should not be run.
PREPARING THE ENGINE FOR
RETURN TO SERVICE
1. Clean external parts of the engine.
2. Remove adhesive tape from air
intake and install air filter.
3. Remove adhesive tape from ex-
HEAT EXCHANGER 29
KEEL PIPES . 29
DRAIN COOLING SYSTEM 29
FRESH WATER PUMP. 29
To Remove Pump · 29
To Dismantle · · 30
To View and Overhaul 30
To Reassemble 30
To Install 30
To Remove . . '. 30
To View and Overhaul 30
To Install. 30
ALTERNATOR V BELT ADJUSTMENT 31
SEA WATER PUMP 31
To Remove Pump . 31
To Dismantle 32
ELECTROLSIS CONTROL 32
COOLING SYSTEM TEST . 32
1. General 3. Keel Pipes
The Westerbeke Six-346 and Four-230 When keel pipes are used, which is a
Marine diesel engines are equipped simplified version of the heat ex-
with a fresh water (closed circuit) changer system described above, the
cooling system. With this system a fresh water (closed system) circuit is
heat exchanger or keel pipes are uti- drawn from the keel pipes through the
lized to cool the fresh water after it dual oil cooler, movement being assis-
has circulated round the water jackets. ted by a centrifugal type water pump,
where it is circulated around the
2. Heat Exchanger cylinder liners and cylinder head water
jacket, to the combination expansion
Transfer of heat from the fresh water
(closed system) circuit to the sea tank and exhaust manifold, and finally
returns to the keel pipes that are
water is accomplished by a heat ex-
changer, similar to an automobile cooled by the sea water outside the
radiator; it differs because salt (raw) hull.
water, not air, cools the engine's
fresh water. Heat rejected in combus- 4. Drain Cooling System
tion, as well as heat developed by fric- To drain fresh water cooling system,
tion is absorbed by the fresh water, remove expansion tank filler cap and
which flows from the expansion tank open drain tap (turn counter-clockwise)
into the heat exchanger, where it is on right hand side of cylinder block
cooled and discharged into the engine next to flywheel housing and fresh
block and cylinder head by means of a water drain tap on heat exchanger.
centrifugal fresh water pump. Open- Two drain taps are installed on bottom
ings in the water jacket around the of the exchanger, the forward tap for
cylinder bores' connect with corre- raw water and the center tap for fresh
sponding openings in the cylinder head,
where the fresh water then passes out
through the thermostat into the expan-
5. Fresh Water Pump
sion tank and the circuit repeats.
The water is circulated by a centrifu-
The engine is indirectly cooled by the
gal pump which is mounted on the front
unrestricted fast-flowing stream of
of the cylinder block and driven by a
raw water which absorbs the heat from
"V" -belt from the crankshaft.
the fresh water via the heat exchanger.
This raw water is picked up from the
To Re move Pump:
sea by a powerful neoprene impeller
sea water pump, and after passing Loosen the set bolt securing the alter-
through the dual oil cooler (engine and nator to its mounting bracket. Slacken
transmis sion) and through the heat the alternator adjustment strap bolts
exchanger, is discharged overboard. and swing alternator toward the cylin-
The dual oil cooler above conducts der block to release tension of the belt.
heat away from the bearings and other Remove the belt. Remove the four
frictional surfaces by the flow of nuts securing the water pump body to
lubricating oil which is circulated by the impeller housin~, and withdraw the
oil pressure pumps and cooled by the water pump, noting the pump body to
flow of raw water through the tubes of impeller housing gasket.
Disconnect the inlet and by-pass 'hoses
from the impeller housings. Unscrew
the six bolts and remove the impeller
housing and its joint washer from the
a. Withdraw the pulley hub from the
water pump spindle, using an extrac-
b. Extract the bearing retaining clip
through the hole in the top of the pump
body, and drive the spindle and bear-
ing assembly rearwards out of the
c. Withdraw the impeller from the
spindle, using an extractor, and re- Fig. 4
move the water seal.
Water pump assembly dimensions
To view and overhaul: " .. ·731 to ·738 in. (18·57 to 18·74 mm.).
B .. 3-670 to 3-700 in. (93-22 to 94-00 mm.).
a. Check the spindle and bearing as- c' .. ·010 to ·021 in. (·25 to ·53 mm.).
sembly for wear and ensure that the
bearing seals are in good condition.
b. Check that the interference of the 6. Thermostat
pulley hub, and the impeller, on the A thermostat is installed in the
spindle has not been thermostat housing mounted on the
destroyed. tront of the cylinder head above the
c. Inspect the water seal for damage fresh water pump. The thermostat
and wear. impedes the circulation of the fresh
water into the expansion tank until it
To Reassemble: has reached a predetermined tempera-
ture in the cylinder block and so pro-
Reassembly is a reversal of the pro- vides a more rapid warming up of the
cedure "To Dismantle", noting the engine.
Normal operating temperature is
a. Ensure that the hole in the bearing 170 to 190 0 F (77 to 870 C).
coincides with the lubricating hole in
the pump body. To Remove:
b. Assemble the pulley hub and the a. Drain the cooling system.
impeller to the dimensions given in
Figure 4 b. Disconnect the outlet hose from
the outlet pipe.
To Install c. Release the two set bolts and
Reverse the procedure ''To Remove", remove the outlet pipe from the
tensioning the drive belt so that it can thermostat housing.
be pressed in one in. (25.4 mm.) at d. Lift out the thermostat from its
the center of its vertical run. housing.
To View and Overhaul:
a. Test the thermostat by immersing
it in water and heat up~ checking the
temperature. The thermostat val ve
should start to open between 1 70 and
176 0 F (77 and BOOC), and be fully open
at 201 0 F (94 0 C). If the valve does not
open between the given temperatures,
or it sticks in the fully open position~
the thermostat should be renewed.
No attempt should be made to repair
b. Clean the joint face of the water
outlet pipe and thermostat housing.
The installation of the thermostat is a
reversal of the procedure "To
Remove" . Fit a new joint gasket
between the thermostat housing and
the water outlet pipe.
7. Alternator V Belt Adjustment
Fan belt adjustment
The purpose of the· following adjust-
ment is to maintain the performance B. ·Sea Water Pump
of the alternator and fresh water pump
at their maximum, and consists of The sea water pump contains a neo-
moving the alternator in relation to prene impeller and is mounted on the
the cylinder block to adjust the ten- timing gear case cover and is driven
sion of the belt. Proceed as detailed by the timing gear train. The pump is
below. Other specific performance self-priming.
faults should be diagnosed by referring
to "FAULT DIAGNOSIS. " To Remove Pump:
a. Referring to Fig. 5 , slacken the Remove set screw on underside of
alternator securing bolt (A). Support pump and drain.
the alternator with one hand and Uncouple inlet and outlet hose con-
release the set bolt (B) and nut (C). nections.
b. Using a hard hand pressure, press Unscrew the four capscrews, and lift
on the alternator sufficiently to swing pump away from timing gear case
it away from the side of the cylinder cover.
block, thereby taking up any slackness
in the belt. Remove gasket between pump and gear
c. The belt should be adjusted so that
when securing bolts are finally locked Replace pump by reversing the above
up, the long run of the belt can be procedure. Use new gasket between
pressed in 1 inch (25 mm.) at the pump and gear case cover. Use seal-
center by normal thumb pressure. ing compound when replacing drain set
NOTE: It is important that the fan belt
is always run taut as any slackness NOTE: The sea water system must be
will cause slip and rapid wear of the completely free of air leaks. Refer to
belt. "Cooling System Check. "
To Dismantle: 10. Cooling System Test
Remove cover and cover gasket. The fresh and raw (salt) water systems
must be completely free of air leaks.
Remove impeller from pump shaft by Air in the system will reduce pump
means of suitable pliers. Drive key lubrication and shorten the sea water
need not be removed. pump neoprene impeller life.
Remove the large retainer ring from To check the raw water system for
dri ve end of pump. leaks, disconnect the outlet water hose
A suitable press may be used to drive from the pump and insert it in a bucket
the shaft, seal, and seat out the im- of water.· Run the engine and watch for
peller end of pump. air bubbles in the discharge. Any
bubbles indicate an air leak in the raw
Remove the retainer ring and bearing water cooling system which can damage
from inside pump body. the pump impeller, rubber exhaust line
Clean, inspect and replace any parts or a neoprene rubber muffler if
that show damage or wear. installed.
Reverse the procedure above, coating NOTE: Do not run engine for more
impeller with a thin coat of glycerine than one minute.
or a good grade of water pump grease.
Replace cover with new gasket.
Secure pump to timing gear cover by
reversing the procedure 'To Remove. "
9. Electrolysis Control
Located on the left rearside of the heat
exchanger is a zinc electrode, which
detects stray electrical currents often
resulting from faulty ground connec-
tions and corroded terminals in other
parts of the electrical circuits. This
electrode should be checked at least
once a month and if it disintegrates
rapidly, all terminals and ground con-
nections should be cleaned by scraping
or sandpapering and tightened.
Normal life of the electrode in salt
water should be at least 3 months.
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
The principal components of the equipment for Fuel Pump.
delivering the fuel oil to the engine cylinders
The fuel pump is an instrument of precIsion.
are as follows:
Its working parts are made to extremely fine
Fuel Filters. limits, and mishandling in any shape or form,
Fuel lift Pump. or the entry of the smallest particle of dirt inta
Fuel Pump. its working parts may damage it and diminish
Injection nozzles. its accuracy of operation. Hence the importance
The fuel lift pump "lifts" the fuel from the tank to of making sure that the fuel is thoroughly filtered
the fuel pump, which conveys it in measured before the pump is reached.
quantities, and at appropriate intervals, to the When requesting information regarding the fuel
injection nozzles. pump, the type and number should be quoted.
This can be obtained from a plate fitted to. the
In the fuel system the norma I course of the fuel pump gallery above the inspection plate.
from the tank to the engine is firstta the Primary
fuel oil filter; then the Secondary fuel oil filter;
and finally the fuel injection pump and injection
nozzles. Where service is required, the matter should be
referred to the fuel pump manufacturer's agents.
Two conditions are essential for efficient
First, because the fuel oil ignites by heat of Ini ection Nozzles.
compression, it must be clean, free from sus- Injection nozzles and holders are attached to the
pended dirt, sand and other foreign matter. cylinder head with a two-bolt flange and two hex
Second, that the fuel reaches the fuel pump in a
perfectly clean state. The connection between the nozzle holder and
cylinder head is made with a special copper
Fuel should be filtered before entering the tank. washer between the lower face of the nozzle cap
nut and the recess in the cylinder head.
Given these conditions, ninety per cent at least
of potential engine troubles would be eliminated. When putting the nozzle holders in place in the
Attention, therefore, should be earnestly direc- cylinder head, care should be taken that only this
ted towards the section of this handbook which type of copper washer is used. The recess in
refers to the care and upkeep of the filtering the cylinder head, the faces of the copper washer
apparatus. and the corresponding face of the nozzle cap
should be perfectly clean if a leak-proof jOint
is to resu It.
The Fuel Lift Pump.
The lift pump is of the diaphragm type. It is It is always advisable to fit a new copper washer
fitted to the tappet inspection cover on the off- when the nozzle holder is replaced, after having
side of the engine and is driven by a cam on the been removed for any reason.
A hand primer is fitted for use if the supply of Make sure the old washer has been removed
fuel from the tank has at any time failed. from the cylinder head or nozzle holder.
To use this primer, pump by hand until pipes,
lift pump, filters and fuel pump are full of fuel The j oint washer should be an easy, but not
oil. loose fit for the injection nozzle, and it is because
this is such an Important feature that only wash-
ers especially made for the puspose should be Trouble. in Service.
used and none other. Under no conditions should
an ordinary spark plug type washer be used. The first symptoms of injector nozzle trouble
usually fall in one or more of the follOWing
The nozzle holders can now be fitted in place. headings:
Before tighten ing down it should be ascertained
that the nozzle holder is correctly placed and I. Misfiring.
that the fuel pipes can be fitted without bending 2. Knocking in one (or more cylinders).
3. Engine overheating.
4. loss of power.
Fuel Pipes. 5. Smoky exhaust (black).
No two of the pressure pipes from the fuel 6. Increased fuel consumption.
pump to the injection nozzles are alike. Keep Often the particular nozzle or nozzles causing
this in mind when replacing. trouble may be determined by releasing the
Place in position the pipe to the fuel pump and pipe union nut on each nozzle in turn, with the
injection nozzle unions to check that the pipe fits engine running at approximately 1,000 rev/min.
square at both ends. Do notfitone end and then This will prevent fuel being pumped through the
bend the pipe to square it with the other union. nozzle to the engine cylinder, thereby altering
the engine revolutions. If after slackening a
When fitfing the pipe, tighten the unions alter- pipe union nut. the engine revolutions remain
natively a little at a time. first one end and constant, this denotes a faulty nozzle.
then the other.
The complete unit should then be withdrawn
If the pipe is square to the unions at each end from the cylinder head and turned round, nozzle
as described above. no force will be needed to outwards, on its pipe, and the unions retightened.
make a good joint. No force should be used.
After slackening the unions of the other injection
When changing an injection nozzle. always re- pipes (to avoid the possibility of the engine
move the pipe entirely. Never take off only one starting). the engine should be turned until the
end, leaving the other tight. Never bend the
pipe. nozzle sprays into the air, when it will be seen
at once if the spray is in order. If the spray is
unduly "wet" or "streaky" or obviously to one
side, or the injection nozzle "dribbles" then the
complete unit should be replaced (See Fig. I 10).
Injection no!zles should be taken out for exami- The faulty unit then being securely wrapped in
nation at regular intervals. How long this inter- clean greaseproof paper or rag with the protec-
val should be is difficult to advise. because of tion cap on the nozzle for attention on the main-
the different conditions under which the engine tenance bench. .
Great care should be taken to prevent the hand
When combustion conditions in the engine are from getting into contact with the spray, as the
good and the fuel tank and filtering system are working pressure will cause the oil to penetrate
maintained in first class order. it is often suffi- the skin with ease.
cient if the nozzles are tested twice yearly or
every 1000 hours.
Nozzles should not be removed for checking
unless a nozzle tester is available or spare
nozzles are on hand for replacement.
With the cooling system maintained in good
condition and absolutely clean fuel are used,
the less attention the nozzles will need, and
so their effiCient life. In this connection, since
there is no other item of the equipment upon
which the performance of the engine depends
so much, it pays the user to see that the engine
never runs with any of the nozzles out of order. Fig. 110-Nozzle Spray Paltern
4 sucking noise should be heard.
In a similar manner seal the delivery side of the pump
(marked 'OUT') and press the rocker arm inwards to
charge the pum ling chamber with air. If the pump is in
good condition the air in the pumping chamber should be
held under compression for two or three seconds. Finally
repeat this test, but immediately the pumping chamber
is charged with air immerse the pump in a bath of clean
paraffin and inspect the diaphragm clamping flanges for
signs of air leakage.
Lubricate the rocker arm and the rocker arm pin with
clean engine oil and after replacing the pump bleed the
Fig. Da.l DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
Fuel lift pump components THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
I. Delivery valve. 9. Pivot pin. Scribe a mark across the pump body joint flanges for
2. Filter gauze. 10. Link. guidance when reassembling.
3. Sediment chamber. U. Pun-rod.
4. Inlet valve. 12. Hand priming lever. Remove the set bolt, detach the dome cover and its
S. Inlet port. 13. Diaphragm spring. sealing ring, and lift off the filter gauze.
6. Rocker arm spring. 14. Diaphragm.
7. Rocker arm. IS. Outlet port. Unscrew the set screws and separate the two halves of
8. Camshaft eccentric. the pump body.
Remove the two screws and withdraw the retaining
plate, inlet and outlet valves, and valve gasket from the
Section Da.I upper half of the pump body.
Press the diaphragm downwards and turn it clockwise
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUEL LIFT PUMP through an angle of 90° to release the diaphragm pull-rod
The fuel lift pump is mounted on the crankcase and from the connecting link. Withdraw the diaphragm and
is operated by an eccentric on the engine camshaft. A its return spring from the lower half of the pump body.
hand priming lever permits pumping a supply of fuel for Remove the rocker arm pin retaining clips and with-
When the lift pump output is greater than the fuel in-
jection pump requirements the fuel in the pumping cham-
ber holds the diaphragm against the pressure of the
diaphragm spring, and the connecting link allows an
idling movement of the rocker arm. A spring maintains
the contact between the rocker arm and the eccentric thus
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE
FUEL LIFT PUMP
Disconnect the two fuel pipes from the body of the
pump, unscrew the two set bolts securing the pump to the
crankcase and withdraw the pump and its joint washer.
Before replacing the pump. which is a reversal of the
foregoing procedure, the pump should be tested. In the
absence of special test equipment the pump may be tested
Immerse the pump in a bath of clean paraffin and flush Fig. Da.2
it through by operating the rocker arm six to eight times. Diaphragm assembly diagram
Remove and empty the pump; seal the suction side of the
I. Pump mounting flange.
pump, placing a finger firmly over the inlet union (marked :!. Initial position of diaphragm locating
'IN') and operate the rocker arm several times. Upon tab.
3. Final position of diaphragm locating
removal of the finger from the inlet union a distinct tab.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN FUEL FILTER
The main fuel filter is of the cross-flow type employing
a resin impregnated paper as the filtration medium.
The main parts of the unit are a die-cast head and a
lower plate assembly; clamped between which is a metal
canister containing the filter element.
An '0' ring located in an annular groove in the centre
boss of the filter head seals the dirty side of the filter from
its clean side.
The air bleed point, which is on the clean side of the
filter, is connected to the fuel injector leak-off pipe and
provides continuous air-bleeding of the filter during oper-
).---11 REMOVING AND REPLACING THE MAIN
Disconnect the fuel pipe and leak-off connections from
Main fuel/ilter C01'lf/HJMllIS the filter head.
1. Centre bolt. 7. Sealing ring. Remove the two bolts and nuts securing the filter to its
2. Washer. S. '0' rinI. bracket and withdraw it from the engine~
3. Filter head. 9. E1el1lCDt. The installation of the fuel filter is a reversal of the
4. Sealing plug. 10. SeaIiDa ring.
S. Copper washer. II. Filter base. removal' procedure.
6. Non-return valve. Bleed the fuel system
draw the pin to r~lease the rocker arm. distance washers,
spring, and connecting link. Section Da.6
Detach the spring from the priming lev~r.
Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING THE
noting the following. MAIN FUEL FILTER
(I) Ensure that the diaphragm and pump mounting Unscrew the bolt from the centre of the head casting
flanges are true. They may be lapped to restore and detach the bottom plate from the filter.
their flatness. Remove the filter element, using a twisting movement
to release the element from the head casting. Withdraw
(2) Check that the wear on the rocker arm working
the three sealing rings from their locations in the head and
surface does not exceed '010 in. (·25 mm.). bottom plate.
(3) The rocker arm pin should be a tap fit in the pump Thoroughly clean all components, excepting the ele-
body; this may be restored by peening the holes in ment, in petrol and allow them to dry.
the body. Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,
(4) Locate the diaphragm return spring in the dia- using a new element and sealing rings. The element is
phragm lower protector washer and insert the dia- fitted with its strengthened rim uppermost.
phragm into the pump body with its. locating tab in Section Da. 7
the 11 o'clock position (see Fig; Da. 2). Press the
diaphragm downwards and turn it anticlockwise DESCRIPTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS
through an angle of 90° to engage the diaphragm The fuel injectors each comprise two main parts, the
pull-rod with the connecting link. nozzle and the nozzle holder, which are clamped together
(5) When assembling the two halves of the pump body axially by a nozzle nut. The mating faces of both the
ensure that the marks scribed on the joint flanges nozzle and the nozzle holder are lapped to ensure a high
before dismantling coincide. Hold the diaphragm, pressure seal.
by means of the rocker arm, level with the joint The nozzle is of the long-stem type, having four equally
flange apd secure the two halves of the pump body, spaced holes at an angle of 20° from the nozzle centre line
leaving the screws finger-tight. Push the rocker and positioned to give a spray cone angle of 140°. The
arm towards the pump body to position the dia- nozzle valve is accurately lapped into the nozzle body to
phragm at the bottom of its stroke and tighten the give the closest possible fit within which it will operate
securing screws diagonally. freely.
The nozzle holder contains a spindle and spring which
(6) Test the pump as described in Section Da. 2.
retains the nozzle valve on its seat. The upper end of
the spring is located in an adjustable cap nut by which
the opening pressure of the nozzle is 'let.
Mount the injector in dismantling fixture 18G 388, un-
screw the injector cap nut, and remove the copper joint
washer. Cn~crcw the spring cap nut and remove the
spring plate, spring, and spindle.
Using spanner 18G 210, remove the nozzle nut and
nozzle, taking care not to let the valve drop out of the
~OTE.-Each nonle body and valve are a mated as-
sembly and shOUld always be kept together.
Thoroughly clean the injector components, using clean-
ing kit 18G 487 when dealing with the nozzles.
Using the brass wire brush. remO\'e all carbon from the
nozzle body and nozzle valve. Examine the valve for
scoring and scratches, and for blueing due to overheating.
Clean out the internal feed passages. the annular gal-
lery. and the valve seat, using the brass scrapers, and clear
the spray holes with an appropriate size cleaning wire
fitted to the probing tool.
Assemble the nozzle body into adaptor 18G 109 E with
the nozzle tip towards the inlet connection. Connect the
adaptor to testing machine 18GI09 A, and reverse-flush
the nozzle (See Fig. Da.25) to clear all loose carbon from
Fig. Da.18 the internal passages.
Where the carbon build-up is particularly hard it may
FUll Injector be softened in the following manner:
I. Cap Dat. 7. Nozzle holder. Prepare a 10 per cent. solution of caustic soda with an
2. SpriD. cap DUt. S. SpiDdle.
3. SpriD, plate. 9. Nozzle DUt. added detergent by dissolving 2 oz. (56 gm.) of caustic
4. SpriDJ. 10. Needle valve. soda in I pint ('57 litre) of water and add i oz. (14 gm.)
5. Joint washer. II. Nozzle body.
6. Feed-pipe UDioD. of an ordinary washing detergent. Place the nozzle bod-
ies in the liquid, bring it to the boil, and allow it to boil
for a minimum of I hour and not more than I! hours.
Lubrication is by back leakage of fuel past the nozzle
Take care not to allow the water to evaporate too much.
valve and a leak-off connection on the nozzle holder
because jf the percentage of caustic soda rises above IS
returns this fuel to the fuel tank. per cent. the surface of the nozzle bore and sealing face
may be roughened, making it impossible for the injectors
Section De·.8 to be serviced correctly.
Remove the nozzle bodies from the solution. wash
REMOVING AND REPLACING AN INJECTOR
them in running water, and then immerse them in a de-
Disconnect the injector feed pipe union nut and all the watering oil such as Shell Ensis 254. Remove the surplus
injector leak-off unions. oil by draining or compressed air.
Remove the two set bolts securing the injector to the
cylinder head and withdraw the injector, using tool
If the injector is to be stored for any length of time seal
its inlet union, using sealing cap 18G 216.
Thoroughly clean the copper sleeve in the cylinder
head. ensuring that all carbon is removed from its bottom
Place the injector in position in the cylinder head and
tighten the securing bolts, using torque wrench 18G 537
set to the figure given in 'GENERAL DATA'.
Connect the fuel feed pipe and leak-off unions.
DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
As in the case of injection pump dismantling, absolute
cleanliness is essential when work is being carried out on Fig. Da.19
the injectors. Withdrawing an injector. using tool l8G 491 A
and torque wrench 18G 372 set to the figure given in
'GENERAL DATA'. Do not overtighten the nozzle nut.
Fig. Da.20 Reassemble the spindle, spring, and spring plate, and
fit the spring cap nUL and the injector cap nut with its
Clearing the feed copper joint washer.
channel bores Test and set the injector as described in Section Da. 10
Section Da 10
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
Fig. Da.21 To Lest or adjust the injectors it is necessary to use
testing machine 18G 109 A. and an oil such as Shell
Cleaning the car-
bon from the fuel Calibration Fluid 'C', which will not affect the skin of
galiery the operator, should be used in the machine.
WARNING.-Wben an injector is being tested the spray
boles ill the nozzle should always be turned away from the
Before removing an injector from the testing machine,
close the check valve to the pressure gauge in order to
prevent damage. which may result from a sudden drop in
Fig. Da.22 Checking and adjusting the nozzle opening pressure
Connect the injector to the testing machine, open the
dome cavity check valve and operate the pump lever. Note the read-
ing on the pfl:ssure gauge at the instant the nozzle sprays.
If the pressure is incorrect (see 'GENERAL DATA'),
adjust the spring cap nut until the correct injection pres-
sure is obtained.
Check the tightness of the injector cap nut and make
sure that the copper joint washer is in position.
Cbecking the nozzle spray
Fig. Da.23 Close the check valve to cut out the pressure gauge and
C I e ani n g the operate the pump lever at the rate of 60 strokes per min-
valve seat ute. There should be four equal sprays from the nozzle,
evenly distributed, and each spray should persist for
about 6 in. (15 cm.) without any visible core or jets of
C 1ear i n g the
The carbon may now be removed, using cleaning kit
18G 487 as already described.
To reassemble the injector, thoroughly wash all the
injector components in clean calibration fluid. Immerse .' ~
the nozzle body and valve in a bowl of clean calibration rt:~
fluid and assemble them under the liquid. The valve
should fit easily and without any tightness. ~
Mount the nozzle holder in fixture 18G 388, make sure
the mating faces of the nozzle holder and nozzle body are Reverse /lushing an injector nouJe. using telfing
perfectly clean and undamaged, and place the nozzle mochine 18G 109 A and adaptor 18G 109 E.
assembly in position on the nozzle holder. Fit the Shown inset is II sectioned adaptor with 1M no_
nozzle nut and tighten carefully, using spanner 18G 210 In poation.
After 30 seconds lapping time withdraw the nozzle, ing valve. Oscillate the collet over the valve guide surface
clean the lap, and examine the conical lap tip. There will and after every IO to 15 seconds of lapping time clean
be a mat surface where the lap has been in contact with the valve and test it for correct fit in the nozzle body. A
the nozzle seat, and in the early stages of lapping this correctly fitting nllve should just slide into the nozzle
mat surface will probably be narrow or have a bright body under its own weight when lubricated with fuel oil.
circumferential ring in the middle. These markings indi- After attention to the nozzle body valve seat or to the
cate the extent of the wear on the nozzle seat. valve seat face on the nozzle valve, check the nozzle valve
The lap should be refaced, as already described, after lift (needle lift) against the figure given in 'GENERAL
every I-fr minutes of lapping time, but in the case of a DATA'. If the needle lift is excessive it may be restored
badly worn nozzle seat it may be necessary to reduce this by lapping the joint face of the nozzle body on a surface
time. lapping plate.
Wip\! the lap stem clean and recoat it with tallow. Wben lapping tbe nozzle face, extreme care should be
Recharge the tip of the lap with lapping paste and conti- takeD to al"oid tilting tbe nozzle, as this face makes a high
nue lapping until the seat is free from scorc:s and grooves; pressure joint witb the nozzle holder and must therefore
When the scat appears satisfactory after a few seconds be true and at rigbt angles to the nozzle axis.
lapping with a freshly ground lap, charge the lap with Reassemble the injector as described in Section Da
fine lapping paste and continue lapping until a smooth 9 and test and adjust it as described in Section Da. 10
mat surface is produced over the entire seat. Throughout
the lapping operation the lap should be cleaned and
examincd after every 30 seconds of lapping time.
Thoroughly clean the nozzle by 'reverse-flushing' as
described in Section Da. 9 , and dry out with compres-
sed air. Make a final inspection of the nozzle seat under
Examine the conical valve face of the nozzle valve
under the microscope for scoring and pitting. The most
critical part of the valve face is the angle formed by the
conical face and the parallel stem on which the conical
face is formed. This angle shoul~ be sharp and clearly
defined with no 'rounding' or wear breaking the 'knife-
edge' anywhere on its diameter. The reason for this is to
ensure a high pressure, fuel proof line-contact between
the nozzle valve and seat. If wear is evident the conical
valve face should be refaced on the nozzle grinding and
Ensure that the grinding-wheel is dressed correctly and
that the refacing angle is set for the nozzle valve (see
Mount the valve in the lathe of the machine and reface
the conical tip in the same way as already dcscribed for
the nozzle body lap.
Remove only the absolute minimum of material; suf-
ficient to change the colour of the valve face is enough,
otherwise the needle lift will be affected. As a guide,
there should be no sparks or audible hiss from the
grinding-wheel when carrying out this operation.
The operation is best observed through a magnifying-
glass, the point of focus being the surface of the conical
face away from the grinding-wheel.
In the event of the no:ale valve being a tight fit in the
nozzle body, due to slight distortion or deposits on the
guide surface of the valve, it is possible to restore the fit.
Mount the nozzle valve in the lapping chuck of the
machine, using a suitable adaptor chuck, and apply a
very small quantity of fine lapping paste to the guide
surface of the valve. Start the machine and thread the
lapping collet, supplied with the machine, over the rotat-
Select a suitable lap from those supplied with the grind-
ing and lapping machine. The bore diameter varies
slightly from one nozzle to another, and it is necessary to
choose a lap which fits the nozzle body in the same man-
ner as the nOlLle valve. This will ensure concentricity of
the valve seat in the body with the body bore after lap-
Mount the lap in the lathe of th.! nozzle grinding and
lapping machine and grind the conical tip to the correct
nozzle body SC;Jt angle as given in 'GENERAL DATA'.
The lap should be passed slowly backwards and forwards
across the surface l)f the grinding-wheel, feeding-in the
lap very gradually until its conical surface is entirely
cleaned up. Inspect the lap under the nozzle microscope
to ensure that its ground surface is smooth. If the surface
appears rough the grinding-wheel should be dressed.
Fit the lap into the lapping chuck of the machine and
apply a coating of tallow to the guide surface of the lap
for lubrication purposes. Apply a very small quantity of
lapping paste to the tip of the lap, taking care that the
Fig. Da.26 paste does not extend to the top of the cone.
Reassembling an injector, using fixture 18G 388 NOTE.-If any lapping paste is allowed to get between
and spanner 18G 210 with torque wrench 18G 372 the guide surfaces of the lap and the nozzle body, the
clearance between the nozzle body and valve will be
unatomized fuel. If the spray is not correct, or if any increased and the nozzle will probably be made UD-
leaks or dribble occur wipe the nozzle dry and repeat the seniceable.
test to locate the cause. Start the machine and carefully slide the nozzle over
the rotating lap. Oscillate the nozzle on the lap, in very
Checking the pressure tightness of seatings
short strokes, at a rate of 20 to 30 strokes per minute.
Open the check valve, wipe the nozzle dry, and depress
engaging the nozzle seat with the lap at the end of each
the pump lever slowly until a pressure of 160 atmos-
stroke. The lap should not remain in contact with the
pheres is obtained. Hold this pressure for 10 seconds and
nozzle seat for more than five seconds at a time and the
then check the nozzle tip for dryness-slight dampness
pressure applied to the nozzle should be light. Excessive
is permissible. If in doubt, maintain the 160 atmospheres
pressure will cause grooving of the nozzle seat.
pressure for 60 seconds while holding a piece of blotting-
paper below the nozzle tip. The diameter of the wet spot
on the paper should not exceed tin. (13 mm.).
Checking the back-leakage
Depress the pump lever slowly until a pressure of 160
atmospheres is' obtained, then check the time taken for
the pressure to drop from 150 to 100 atmospheres. For
a new nozzle the time taken should be 12 to 30 seconds.
A nozzle which has been in service will show a faster
pressure drop but as this does not seriously affect engine
performance a nozzle may be considered serviceable until
a time factor of less than 5 seconds is recorded.
Section Da 11
RECLAIMING INJECTOR NOZZLES
If after dismantling, cleaning and testing, as described
in Sections Da. 9 and Da. 10 an injector is found to
be unsatisfactory, it is usually possible to recondition the
nozzle providing it has been found satisfactory when
'Checking the back-leakage'.
To recondition a nozzle the use of a nozzle grinding and
lapping machine is required. A nozzle microscope is also Fig. Da.27
necessary for inspection of the nozzle body and valve An injector assembled to machine J8G 109 A ready
during the reclaiming process. for spray testing
D. P. A. TEST DATA
Pump Type: 3248880A - 3248889A
BASIC PUMP SPECIFICATION
Mechanical governor. with Anti-stall device
Light load advance device
Rotation (looking on drive end) - Clockwise
Governor link length 52.5 mm ± 1 mm nominal
Governor control spring No. 2 hole control arm and No. 2 hole throttle lever link
Roller to roller dimension 50. 37 mm
Plunger diameter 6. 5 mm
Fit auto-advance measuring device and set scale to zero before commencing test.
Where marked thus use 30 seconds glass draining time and allow fuel to settle for
15 seconds before taking reading.
Shimming of Light Load Advance Device.
A 0.5 mm shim is fitted to the piston cap on assembly. This must NOT be
removed. No further shimming is necessary. Throttle idle and maximum speed
screw fully retracted.
Test No. Description R. P. M. Requirements
1 Priming 100 max. Fuel delivery from all injectors.
2 Transfer pump vacuum 100 Note time to reach 16 in.
(406 mm) Hg. Max. time
allowed 60 secs.
3 Transfer pressure 100 11 lb/in 2 (0.8 kg/ cm 2 ) min.
4 Transfer pressure 1250 48 to 60 lb/in 2 (3.4 to 4. 2
NOTE: on tests 5 and 6. To obtain the required degree of advance use the
metering valve adjuster on the end of the governor housing.
5 Delivery setting 1250 Fit shut-off lever adjustment
tool to pump. Obtain average
delivery 6.0 to 6.8 cc by shut-
off lever adjustment. Note-
Advance indicator must show
6 Advance setting 1250 With shut-off lever as at. (5) set
external.adjustment to obtain
1-3/40 to 2-1/40 advance
7 Delivery check 1250 With shut-off lever and external
adjustment as at (5) and (6)
average delivery to be 6.0 to
8 Advance check 1250 With shut-off lever fully closed.
advance to be 3-1/20 to 4-1/20.
Test No. Description R.P.M. Requirements
9 Back leakage 700 5 to 50 cc for 100 stroke time
. Throttle lever fully cycle.
lOMax. fuel delivery 700 Set to 8. 2 ± O. 1 cc. Spread
between lines not to exceed
0.8 cc. Note - Advance indi-
cator must show zero.
11 Max. fuel delivery 100 Average delivery to be not less
check than average at (10) minus 1. 0 cc.
12 Cut-off operation. 200 Average delivery not to exceed
Shut-off lever closed 1. 5 cc.
13 Throttle .operation 200 Screw back anti-stall device
Throttle lever closed and lock to give delivery not
exceeding 0.8 cc.
14 Fuel delivery check 1700 Record average delivery.
15 Governor setting 1950 Set throttle by maximum speed
adjustment screw to give maxi-
mum average delivery of 1. 5 cc.
No line to exceed 2.5 cc. Lock
16 Fuel delivery check 1700 With throttle set as at (15)
average delivery to be not less
than average at (14) minus
17 Timing Using outlet 'V' (30 ats pressure)
set indexing tool to 86 0 and
scribe line on housing flange.
Camshaft - removing and replacing · 69
Connecting rod and piston . · 61
Dismantling and reassembling · 62
Removing and replacing · 61
Crankshaft and main bearings - removing and replacing . · 70
Cylinder head - removing and replacing . · 56
Cylinder liner - removing and replacing . · 63
Decarbonizing. · 60
Diesel Engine· FOUR- 230 . 43
External components · 44
Internal components 46
Diesel Engine SIX-346 . · 49
External components · · 50
Internal components · 52
Engine sandwich plate - removing and replacing .70
Flywheel and starter ring - removing and replacing . 70
Injection pump drive 69
Dismantling and reassembling. · 69
Removing and replacing · · 69
Injector sleeves - removing and replacing · 61
Oil pressure relief valve · 55
Oil pump and strainer . .54
Dismantling and reassembling . .54
Removing and replacing · .54
Rocker shaft assembly. 55
Dismantling and reassembling. · 55
Removing and replacing · · 55
Timing gear case - removing and replacing. · 67
Timing gear case cover - removing and replacing · .64
Timing gears . .64
Dismantling and reassembling. 66
Removing and replacin~ · 65
Valve grinding. · · 59
Valve guides - removing and replacing 58
Valve rocker clearance · 55
Valve seat inserts 60
Valve timing · 67
F 0 U R - 23 0 -LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
FOUR-230· DIESEL ENGINE EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
_ P ;9--189 109
'V ~_ r _rO;!'
-34 - ~~~-192 ~
~ ,u ~ ·
FOUR-230 DIESEL ENGINE EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
No. Description No. Description No. Description No. Description
I. Cyllnder block. 5 I. Ioint for timing gear case. 93. Bolt-delivery pipe to block 143. Spring washer for nut.
2. Main bearing cap (front). 52. Bolt--timing case to cylinder (long). 146. Thermostat.
3. Main bearing cap (intermediate). block. 94. Tab washer for bolt. 147. Thermostat body.
4. Main bearing cap (centre and 53. Spring washer for bolt. 95. Bolt delivery pipe to pump. 148. Ioint for thermostat body.
rear). 54. Dowel for timing gear case cover. 96. Tab washer for bolt. 141). Bolt-body to cylinder head.
5. Dowel for main bearing cap. 55. Timing gear case cover. 97. Oil strainer. 150. Spring washer for bolt.
6. Stud for main bearing cap (short). 56. Joint for timing gear case cover. 98. Ioint for oil strainer. 151. Plug for thermostat body.
7. Stud for main bearing cap (long). 57. Crankshaft oil seal. 99. Oil sump. 152. Fibre washer for plug.
8. Nut for stud. 58. Bolt-timing case and cover to 100. Gasket for sump. 153. Water outlet pipe.
9. Washer for nut. block. 101. Drain plug. 154. loint for water outlet pipe.
10. Main bearings. 59. Bolt-dynamo bracket, case and 1O:!. Washer for drain plug .. 155. Bolt-outlet pipe to thermostat
II Crankshaft thrust washers. cover to block. 103. Blanking plug. body.
12. Dowel for flywheel housing. 60. Spring washer for bolt. 104. Washer for blanking plug. 156. Spring washer for bolt.
13. Dowel for cylinder head. 61. Bolt-timing gear cover to cas·e. 105. Bolt-sump to block. 157. Rocker shaft bracket (front and
14. Dowel for injection pump bracket. 62. Nut for bolt. 106. Spring washer for bolt. rcar).
15. Dowel for rear half of timing case. 63. Spring washer for nut. 107. Plain washer for bolt.
16. Front camshaft bearing. 158. Rocker shaft bracket (centre).
64. Front lifting plate. 108. Oil level indicator. 151). Rocker shaft bracket (inter'
17. Locating screw for bearing. 65. Timing cover blanking plate. 109. Guide tube for indicator.
18. Seloc washer for screw. mediate).
66. loint for blanking plate. 110. Breather pipe. 160. Plug for intermediate bracket.
19. Oil gallery plug (front and rear). 67. Screw-blanking plate to cover.
20. Washer for plug. II I. Clip for breather pipe. 161. Wa~her for plug.
68. Spring washer for screw. 112. Bolt for clip. 162. Rolt for bracket.
21. Oil gallery plug (brass). 69. Oil feed jet for timing gears.
22. Washer for plug. 113. Nut for bolt. 163. Spring washer for bolt.
70. Bolt-lifting plate to cover and 114. Spring washer for nut. 164. Plain washer for bolt.
23. Oil gallery plug (tapped). case.
24. Washer for plug. 115. Cylinder head. 165. Bolt for intermediate bracket.
71. Spring washer for bolt. 116. Gasket for cylinder head. 166. Spring wa~her for bolt.
25. Water gallery plug (brass). 72. Engine front support bracket.
26. Washer for plug. 117. Engine rear lifting plate. 167. Plain wa~her for bolt.
73. Bolt-support bracket, cover and 118. Joint for lifting plate. 168. Relief valve body.
27. Water gallery plug (steel). ca~e to block.
28. Water gallery core plug. 119. Stud for lifting plate. 169. Relief valve ball.
29. Cylinder liner. 74. Bolt-support bracket to cover I :!O. Nut for stud. 170. Relief valve spring.
30. Cylinder liner sealing ring. and case. I:! I. Spring washer for nut. 171. Scat for relief valve spring.
31. Cylinder block water drain tap. 75. Steady for breather pipe. 1:!:!. Injector sleeve. I n. Plug for relief valve body.
32. Shim for drain tap. 76. Spring washer for bolt. I ~3. Cylinder head stlld. 173. Plain wa~her for plug.
33. Washer for drain tap. 77. Outrigger bearing for idler grar 124. Nut for stud. 174. Tab wa~hcr for pillg.
34. Adaptor for drain tap. shaft. 125. Core plug (steel). 175. Overnow pipe for relief val",·.
35. Washer for adaptor. 78. Ioint for bearing. 126. Plug (brass). 176. Wa~her for overnow pipe hillaI/).
36. Rear cover plate and oil seal. 79. Screw-bearing to IImmg covcr. 127. Air inlet manifold. 177. Wa~hcr fo~ overnow pipe (large).
37. Bolt for plate. 80. Spring washer for screw. 1211. loint washer for manifold. 1711. Valve roder cover.
38. Spring washer for bolt. 81. Dynamo adjusting link. 129. Bolt-manifolJ to head (short). 17!). ('a'iket for rocker covcr.
39. Ioint for cover plate. 82. Dynamo bracket-front. 130. Bolt-manifold to head (long). 180. Stlld for rorker eO\'.r.
40. Screw-cover plate to block. 83. Bolt for steady. IJ I. Spring washer for bolt. III I. Hand nut for stud.
41. Spring washer for screw. 84. Nut for bolt. 132. Plain washer for bolt. 182. ribre washer for nut.
42. Sandwich plate. 85. Spring washer for nut. 133. Throttle unit (Venturi). 183. Oil liller COl p.
43. Ioint for sandwich plate. 86. Dynamo bracket-rear. 134. loint washer for throttle unit. 187. Oil feed pipe to rockers (lower).
44. Bolt-plate to block. 87. Bolt-bracket to cylinder block. 135. Stud for throttle unit. 188. Oil fe~d pipe to rockers (upper).
45. Spring washer for bolt. 88. Spring washer for bolt. 136. Nut for stud. 18lJ. Pin for feed pipe banjo.
46. Valve tappet cover. 89. Oil delivery pipe. 137. Spring washer for nut. IlJO. Washer for pin (small).
47. Joint for tappet cover. 90. Joint-delivery pipe to block. 139. Exhaust manifold. 11)1. Washer for pin (large).
48. Bolt-tappet cover to block. 91. Ioint-delivery pipe to pump. 140. Joint washer for manifold. 19:!. Tab wa~her for pin.
49. Washer for bolt. 92. Bolt-delivery pipe to block 141. Stud for manifold. I'H. (Jnion for oil gauge pipe.
SO. Timing gear case. (short). 14~. Nut for stUd. t'l4. Wa,hcr for IInion.
FOUR-230 DIESEL ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS
21. 3Se ~~I
~.-~ ;i" , ,-~~_~ @"
~(j~ == f i 33
3<- 5 14--fI1
S-ij I 35
, 15- , 24 ...:.. - 30
FOUR-230 DIESEL ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS
No. Description No. Description No. Description No. Description
I. Compression ring (taper sided, 32. Spring washer for screw. 64. Injection pump driving gear hUb. 94. Spring washer for nut.
chrome face). 33. Plain washer for screw. 65. Injection pump driving gear. 95. Coupling dog flange.
2. Compression ring (taper face). 34. Valve rocker spacing washer- 66. Locking nut-hub to injection 96. Coupling insert.
3. Scraper ring (slotted). thick. pump drive shaft.
97. Coupling pump flange.
4. Piston. 35. Valve rocker spacing washer- 67. Tab washer for nut.
9S. Oil pump driven gear.
thin. 68. Bolt-driving gear to hub.
5. Gudgeon pin clip. 99. Nut-oil pump gear to oil pump
36. Valve rocker. 69. Injection pump drive housing. shaft.
6. Gudgeon pin.
37. Valve rocker adjusting screw. 70. Injection pump drive shaft. 100. Split pin for nut.
7. Small end bush.
38. Lock nut for screw. 71. Key-driving flange to drive shaft. 101. Oil pump rotor and shaft assembly.
8. Connecting rod. 39. Push rod. n. Key-hub to drive shaft. I 02. Key~il pump gear to shaft.
9. Hollow dowel. 40. Tappet. 73. Drive shaft bearing (large). 103. Oil pump body.
10. Connecting rod bolt. 41. Camshaft. 74. Cover plate for bearing. 104. Adjusting shim~il pump to
II. Tab washer for bolt. bearing cap.
42. Key-hub to camshaft. 75. Cover plate retaining screw.
12. Big-end bearing. 105. Oil pump cover.
43. Camshaft locatin'g plate. 76. Drive shaft bearing (small).
13. Crankshaft. 107. loint-relief valve to pump.
44. Bolt-locating plate to block. 77. Drive shaft oil seal.
14. Inlet valve thimble. 1.0S. Bolt-relief valve body to oil
45. Spring washer for bolt. 7S. Drive housing end cover. pump.
15. Inlet valve oil seal. 46. Camshaft gear hub. 79. Screw~nd cover to drive 109. Washer for bolt.
16. Inlet valve guide. 47. Camshaft gear. housing.
110. Oil relief valve body.
17. Thimble locating dowel. 48. Bolt-camshaft gear to hub. SO. Spring washer for screw.
III. Oil relief valve seat.
18. Inlet valve key. 49. Washer for bolt. S!. loinl-drive housing to timing
ca~e. 112. Oil relief valve.
19. Valve spring collar. 50. Locking nut-hub to camshaft. 113. Oil relief valve spring.
8:!. Screw-drive housing to timing
20. Retainer for collar. 51. Tab washer for nut. case. 114. Oil relief valve plug.
21. Spring clip for retainer. 52. Idler gear shaft. 83. Spring washer for screw. 115. Tab washer for plug.
22. Inlet valve. 53. Idler gear. 84. Driving flange. 116. Screw-cover to oil pump bod y
23. Exhaust valve oil seal. 54. Idler gear thrust washer. 85. Screw-driving flange to dog (short).
24. Retainer for exhaust valve oil 55. Key-gear to crankshaft. flange. 117. Screw-cover to oil pump body
seal. 56. Key-pulley to crankshaft. S6. Spring wa~her for screw. (long).
25. Exhaust valve guide. 57. Oil pump driving gear. 87. Plain washer for screw. 118. Bolt-cover to oil pump body.
26. Exhaust valve. 88. Dowel screw-driving flange to 119. Spring washer for bolt and screw:
58. Crankshaft timing gear. dog flange.
27. Inner valve spring. 59. Oil thrower. 120. Flywheel.
89. Spring washer for screw.
28. Outer valve spring. 60. Distance piece. 121. Dowel-flywheel 10 crankshaft.
90. Plain washer for screw.
29. Valve rocker shaft. 61. Crankshaft pulley. 91. Driving flange clamping bolt. 122. Bush for crankshaft.
30. Plug for shaft. 62. law-starting handle. 92. Tab washer for bolt. 123. Shims for starling jaw nut.
31. Shaft locating screw. 63. Tab washer for jaw. 93. Nut for bolt. 124. Bolt-flywheel to crankshaft.
SIX-346 DIESEL ENGINE
. . . . . 11111111 . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 .. I II I'" I.................. __ ~.I .~.+.~.I~.+I .............___.............................................................. ~
·· ,'111'1' III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '111 11"11'111'
···· ··· ·'.,' ................................ 11, ·· , ................. ++++4"'1""1, ··· ,.,
~ .,~ ~
~~ r" · .'-4
SIX - 346 Engine-external components
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ·· 111 ··· ..................... - ...... KEY TO FIG. E.4. ENGINE-EXTERNAL COMPONENTS ...... - ...----.............. .
J. Cylinder block assembly. ;9. Support bracket (driUed) intermediate- 156. Set bolt-filter to cylinder block. 2J4. Boll for dynamo bra"kel to timing chain
2. Dowel-injection p.ump support braekel. for rocker shaft. 157. Plain washer ..or set bolt. 215. Spring washer for holt. icover.
3. Dowel-sandwich plate. 80. Set boll-support brackets to cylinder head 158. Spring washer for set bolt. 2J6. Fuel pipe-injection pump to No. I
4. Dowel-timinl case-rear half.
5. Dowel---<:ylinder head.
6. Camshafl bearinl bush.
7. Localinl screw for bush.
8. Sprinll washer for screw.
9. Core disc for water ..IIery.
80a. S.t boll-supPOrt brackets 10 cylinder head
81. Sprinlwasherforsetboh(j\ in.). [\lin.).
81a. Sprinl washer for set bolt II in.).
82. Valve tappel.
Oil pipe-on cylinder head for rocker
Oil pipe-oil gallery to pipe on "ylinder
I'in for han;o of pipes.
Joint washer for pin.
Joint washer for rin.
Fuel pipe-injeclion pump to No. 2
Fuel pipe-injeclion pump to No. 3
Fuel pipe-injection pump 10 No. 4
10. Plug-brass-for water lallery. 84. Cover for push-rods. 164. T.b wasber for pin. "ylinder. ·
II. Wa,her for plug.
12. Plug-for oir ..IIery I in. gas circular head.
Il. Core plug-steel-for waler gallery.
14. Plug-for oil gallery l in. gas.
IS. Joint for Pluf (No. 12).
85. Joinl---<:over 10 cylinder block.
86. Sel bolt-cover 10 cylinder block (short).
87. Spring washer for scI bolt.
88. Valve lIear em·er.
89. Oil filler cap.
Oil pipe-in liminll use for "hain lubrice-
Pin for banjo of pipe.
Wa_her for pin.
1 al"o washer for pin.
CIi" for pipe.
Fuel pipe-inicetion pump 10 No. ,
Fuel pipe-injeclion pump to N O . 6 ,
aamp for fuel pipes.
Bolt for clamp.
I 16. Union for oi .. uge pipe. 90. Gasket for vah'e gear cover. 170. Oil sump. 244. Nut for bolt. :
17. Washer for plug (No. 14) and union 91. Nut for "alve ~ear e,"cr. 171. Blanking plug. 245. Sprinll washer for bolt. :
18. Cylinder liner.
19. Sealing rinl (rubber) for liner
[(No. 16). 92. Washer llibre) for valve gear cove. nu'.
93. Air manifold.
Washer for plug.
Ora in plUI for sump.
Distance piece-slarter 10 sandwich pIa Ie. 'I
20. Drain lap for cylinder block. 94. Stud for air manifold. 174. JoiDl washer for plug. 249. .Slud-starter 10 clUI"b housinll.
21. Shi.n for drain tap. 95. Joinl-air manifold 10 cylinder head. 175. Joinl---for banjo. !
: 59. Joint for Ihenooslat bo"'y. Ill. Sel bolt for "hain lensioner. 212. \'Iemenl for filter. 289. Joint--exhauster to timing chain c3,ing. ,
: 60·. ScI holt fnr Ihermustal body. 1l2. NUl for stud. 21 J. JIlin. (.)r cover. 290. Pin-plain-for starter slrap. "
: 61. Plu!! for thermoslat ""dy. IlJ. Tab washer for stud and holt. 214. Sel boll-filler 10 bracket. 291. Spacing washer for valve rocker (thin).
I 62. Spring wa,her for sel bolt. 134. Timing chain. 21~. Plain wash.:, fur set holt. 292. Orain lap lube.
: 63. CIA washer for plug. U5. Uftinl plale-fronl. 211i. S"ring w3\her for set h"h. 293. Steady for drain lap tube. I
: 64. Waler ou,let pipe. \l6. Cover for liminll case-fronl half. 217. Fuel pipc·-Iift pump 10 filter. 294. Grommet for drain tap tuhe.
: 65. Joinl for waler oUllel pipe. 1l7. Joint---<:over to casing. 218. Fuel pi"e--fiher 10 injection pump. 295. Cylinder block blanking pia Ie. t
t 66. Set bolt for water oullel pipe. 118. Sel boll---<:over to ca.ing. 2111. le;.k-on pipe-au.iliary.
9rackel fur fuel filter
Joinl for blanking platc.
Bolt for hlankinll pia Ie. ,
67. Spring washer for sel holt. 139. SCI bolt-cover and casing to cylinder 220.
68. Valve. rocker. 140. Spring washer for set bohs. [hlnck. 221. Sleady plale for fuel filter. 298. Valve cover venl pipe. i
69. Spacing wa.her for valve rocker (thick). 141. Oil seal. 222. Oynamn. 300. Nut for cover vent pirt'. ·
70. Adjuslinll screw for valve rocker. 145. Hlanking plale for fronl cover. 22J. "ulle)" for dynamo. 101. Wafer drain plug. :
71. Locknul for adjusting screw. 146. Joinl--blanking plate 10 fronl cover. 224. IIracket f,'r dynamo-rear. 302. Washer for plug. :
" 72. Shaft for valve rockers. 147. Set screw-blanking plale 10 fronl cover. 225. Set holt-rear dynamo brackel I,' cylinder 301. Set screw for oil pipe on cylin';., I·· ad. :
t 73. Plug for valve rocker shaft. 148. Spring washer for sct screw. 226. Spring washer for sel boh. [block. 304. Guide IUN assemhly for dip-rod. i
I 74. Locating screw for rocker shaft
7'. Spring washer for localing screw.
76. Supporl bracket-fronl and rear -for
149. Distance piece for front cover.
ISO. ScI boll for di.,ance piece.
IS\. Sprinl washer for set ""It.
Boll-brackets to dynamo.
Nul for boh.
S"ring washer for boh.
Spacing washers for luide.
Plug for intermediate rocker brad. et.
I rocker .ha'\.
77. Support bra"ket---<:enlrc-for rocleer shaft.
152. Oil filler.
153. Oil filter elemenl.
Set screw-dynamo nange to adjustinl
Plain washer for set screw. [Iinlc.
Washer for plug.
W!::: }~~ ~~I~t'
In j_u_u~~~uu~~ rocker~~.:..........____ ··_ ······~~: ..~:~~~::~~~~:'~~~~"",··· ",~~" "
78. sUfcport brackel (plain)-interrnediato- 154. Oil filter ,askel. 232. Adjustin. link for dynamo. 310.
Bracket for dynamo-fronl. 311.
___... _ _ _ ._ ·· _ _ _ · _ _ _
c.n ...........................-_. .................................... --
L __. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . ,. . . ~~~~~.~. ~I componenu .........- ..............
Checking the oil pump drive backlash
Section Aa.6 B
REMOVING AND REPLACING mE
OIL PUMP AND STRAINER Check the oil pump rotor lobe clearance with the
rotors ill positions A alld B. The dimensions given
are for the maximum clew·ance
Remove the sump. still in situ hy ullscrcwlIlg tht: two set holts whidl secure
Unscrew the two set bolts securing the oil delivery the oil ~uction pipe flange to the oil pump.
pipe to the cylinder block.
Remove the nuts securing the oil pump to the front
main bearing cap and withdraw the pump. complete
with delivery pipe. oil strainer. and pressure relief valve.
noting the shims between the bearing cap and oil pump. Section Aa.7
To replace the oil pump. reverse the above procedure DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
and fit a new gasket to the delivery pipe flange. Tighten TBE OIL PUMP
the oil pump securing nuts to the figure given in
'GENERAL DATA' using torque wrench 18G 372.
Check that the backlash on the oil pump drive gears
is as given in 'GENERAL DATA' and. if necessary. Disconnect the delivery pipe. oil strainer, and pressure
adjust the backlash by means of the shims between the relief valve from the oil pump.
oil pump and main bearing cap. Remove the gear and key from the end of the pump
The oil strainer can be removed with the oil pump shaft.
Unscrew the set bolts, separate the oil pump cover
from the body, and remove the pump shaft complete
with inner and outer rotors.
Thoroughly clean and inspect aU the dismantled com-
Check the rotor end-float and driving shaft clear-
ance against the figures given in 'GENERAL DATA',
Excessive rotor end-float can be remedied by lapping
the pump body face.
Measure the rotor lobe clearance as illustrated in
Reassemble the oil pump by reversing the dismantling
procedure, noting that the chamfered end of the outer
rotor should be fitted towards the bottom of the rotor
Fig. Aa.5 pocket. During reassembly smear all working parts
Checking the oil pump rotor end-float with new engine oil.
bracket set bolts. then reset the torque wrench (see
'GENERAL DATA') and tighten the i in. diameter
Adjust the valve rocker clearance (Section Aa.H)
and replace valve rocker cover.
Start the engine and inspect the rocker cover joint
for oil leaks.
DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
THE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY
Fig. Aa.7 Unscrew the set bolts from the centre rocker
Adjustillg the valve 10 rocker clearance bracket and separate the rocker shafts from the
Remove the rockers and distance collars and the
remaining brackets from the rocker shafts. and unscrew
the blanking plug from the end of each shaft.
Release the tab washer from the oil relief valve drain
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE pipe on the front intermediate bracket and unscrew
the relief valve from the bracket.
The pressure relief valve is mounted Remove the plug from the relief valve body and with- .
on the outlet flange of the oil pump, facing draw the spring. spring seat. and relief valve ball.
towards the front of the engine. Clean all the dismantled components. paying particu-
Release the locking washer and re- tar attention to the oilways.
move the oil pressure relief pI ug, locking
washer, and valve seat from cover. Inspect the components and check them against their
Examine the valve seat and the specifications in 'GENERAL DATA'.
plunger for wear or score marks, and When reassembling. which is a reversal of the dis-
check the spring against the specifica- mantling procedure. smear all moving parts with new
tion in "GENERAL DATA." engine oil. renew the tab washer and copper gaskets
When reassembling, which is a re- on the oil pressure relief valve. and fit the drain pipe
versal of the dismantling procedure, so that it is directed down the push-rod tunnel. Also
renewthe body plug locking washer, and ensure that the rocker shaft distance collars are cor-
the mounting flange gasket. rectly pOSitioned (see 'GENERAL DATA,).
Unscrew the set bolts from the
center rocker bracket and separate the
rocker shafts from the center bracket. Section As.ll
VALVE ROCKER CLEARANCE
The clearance between tile ends of the valve stems
and the valve rockers is checked by means of a feeler
REMOVING AND REPLACING Crank the engin~ until No. g valve is fully open and
THE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY check the clearance of No. 1 valve. which will now be
Remove the valve rocker cover.
Slacken the rocker adjusting screws until all pressure To adjust the clearance. hold the adjusting screw with
is relieved from the valve springs. a screwdriver and slacken the locknut (Fig. Aa.7).
Remove the set bolts securing the rocker brackets to Rotate the adjusting screw until the clearance between
the cylinder head and lift off the rocker shaft assembly. the valve stem and rocker is as given in 'GENERAL
Refit the rocker shaft assembly to the cylinder head DATA'. Hold the adjusting screw against rotation. lock
with all rocker adjusting screws fully slackened. Using it in position with the locknut. and then re-check the
torque wrench 18G 537 set to the figure given in clearance.
'GENERAL DATA' tighten the /r in. diameter rocker Check the remaining rocker clearances by reference.
to the following table:
Remove water hose between fresh
No.1 valve (ex.) with No.8 valve fully open. water pump and heat exchanger, at pump.
" " Remove water hose between heat
5 (ex.) 4
" " exchanger and the dual oil cooler, at
" 2 " (in.) " " 7 "
. " "
" " . Disconnect the water discharge
hose from side of heat exchanger.
6 (in.) 3
" 4 " " " " " " Remove the two bolts securing the
" " " dual oil cooler to the engine lifting
7 (in.) 2 bracket and move cooler away from
" " " " " "
The valve rocker clearance should be checked engine.
periodically at the intervals recommended · Disconnect exhaust pipe from ex-
pansion tank/ exhaust manifold.
SIX-346 Remove the expansion tank/ exhaust
manifold from the _cylinder head, and
Crank the engine until No. 12 valve is fully opeD and lift away with heat exchanger attached.
check' the clearance of No. 1 valve. which wiD now be Release the "T" connection in the
fully closed. rocker feed pipe. Seal ends to prevent
To adjust the clearance. hold the adjusting screw with entrance of dirt.
a screwdriver and slacken the locknut (Fig. Aa.7). Remove the two bolts securing the
Rotate the adjustina screw until the clearance betweeD wiring bracket to the cylinder head.
tho valve stem and rocker is u Jiven in 'GENERAL Disconnect the fuel pipe unions and
DATA'. Hold the adjusting screw against rotation. lock leak off unions at fuel injectors. Seal
it in position with the locknut. and then re-check the off all pipes and injectors to prevent
clearance. the entry of dirt.
Check the remaining rocker clearances by referenm Remove the six bolts securing the
to the following table: intake manifold to cylinders head.
Remove intake manifold.
Check and adjust No. I valve (ex.) with No. 12 valve fully open Remove the injectors from the
.... ..7 .
6 .. .. cylinder head.
9 (ex.) 4
... ... ...
2 (in.) 11 NOTE: The injectors should not be left
in position in the cylinder head as the
nozzle tips protrude below the bottom
.. .... ... .... . face of the head and are liable to sus-
12 (ex.) I
6 (in.) 7
tain damage .
4 (ex.) 9
Working in the order shown in
Fig. Aa.8 (A) for the four-230, or
" 3 .
Aa.8(B) for the six-346, slacken each
The valve rocker clearance should cylinder head nut a quarter of a turn
be checked periodically at the intervals only, then unscrew each nut a further
recommended. amount in the same order until loose.
Remove the cylinder head nuts and lift
off the cylinder head.
Section h.12 On no account should a screwdriver or similar tool
be used as a wedge between the cylinder head and block.
REMOVING AND REPLACING A suitable method of removing the cylinder head is
THE CYLINDER BEAD to place a sling round the exhaust manifold studs on
Drain cooling system. one side, and round two high-tensile ,i-in. UNF. set
Remove hoses connected to .thermo- bolts screwed into the air inlet manifold bolt holes on
the other side. When lifting the head a direct pull
Remove the four bolts securing should be given to lift it evenly up the studs.
thermostat housing and engine lifting Unscrew the two locating dowels and remove the
bracket from cylinder heads. cylinder head gaskeL
Check the cylinder head joint face for flatness. uSlng
If there is any doubt as to the condition of the
cylinder head gasket. it should be discarded and a new
one fitted. plain side downwards.
Replace the remaining components by reversing the
removal procedure. The cylinder head DUts should be
tightened in the order shown in Fig. Aa.S.
Adjust the valve rocker clearance as described in
Bleed the fuel system of air
Start the engine and allow it to run at a fast idling
speed until it is thoroughly warm.
Stop the engine. remove the valve rocker cover. and
retighten the cylinder head nuts in the order shown in
Recheck the valve rocker clearance as
described in Section Aa. 11. Fig. Aa.9
Using spanner 18G 396 and torque wrench 18G 372
to tighten the cylinder head nuts
Fig. Aa.8A (FOUR-230) -
Cylinder head nut slackening and
Fig. Aa. 8B (SIX-346)
Cylinder head nut slackening and
I A I'll
Fig. Aa.JO Engine valve components showing the locating fiat
Compressing the valve springs. using tool18G 106 (A) on the inlet valve and the chamfered bore
(B) of the exhaust valve oil seal
Recheck the valve rocker clearance as described in
Section Aa.ll. original positions in the cylinder head. Position the
inlet valves 80 that the small flat (Fig. Aa.ll) on the
top of the valve stem is in line with the valve guide
Section Aa.13 locating peg. Insert the valve key into position in the
inlet guide slot and replace the thimble complete with
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE VALVES oil seal. Fit the inner and outer valve springs, the
Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section exhaust valve oil seal (chamfer downwards) and
Aa.9). retainer. and the valve spring collar. Compress the
Drain the cooling system valve springs with tool 18G 106, and refit the spring
Remove the cylinder head (Section Aa.l2). collar retainers. Release the compressing tool and
Detach the spring clips from the valve spring collar replace the spring clips on the collar retainers.
retainers. Compress each set of valve springs. using Check that the valve head 'stand-down' below the
tool18G 106 and remove both halves of the spring collar cylinder head face is in accordance with the figures in
retainer. Release the compressing tool and remove 'GENERAL DATA.' If the valve head 'stand-down'
the valve spring collar. oil seal. and retainer (exhaust is excessive, fit new valves. and in the event of the
valve only), valve springs. and the exhaust valve. With- 'stand-down' being excessive with new valves. fit new
draw the thimble from the inlet valve stem. detach the valves seat inserts as described in Section Aa.l6.
valve key from its slot in the inlet guide and remove
the inlet valve. Remove the inlet valve oil seal from
inside the thimble.
Clean the valves and guides. The carbon can be
removed from the guides by dipping the valve stem
in petrol or paraffin and moving it up and down in
the guide until it is free. If excessive wear is disclosed
the valve guides should be renewed (Section Aa.15).
Inspect the valve faces and seats. and recondition
them as necessary (Section Aa.l4).
Check the valve springs against the specification in
'GENERAL DA TAt and ensure that the ends of the
springs are square with thp. spring axis.
A new oil seal should be fitted to each valve during
reassembly to avoid the loss of oil tightness which will
result from re-fitting the old seals. It will be found
that the seals are more easily fitted if they are soaked Fig. Aa.12
in engine oil before use. Fit the valves with their top faces standing down
lubricate the valve stems and guides with new engine below the cylinder head joint face to the dimension
oil and replace the valves. which are numbered, in their shown inset
angle (see 'GENERAL DATA') on a valve grinding
machine. and the valve seats recut, using tools 18G 27.
18G 28. 18G 28 A. 18G 28 B. 18G 28 C. 18G 174.
18G 174 A. 18G 174 B. ~8G 174 C. and 180230. Use
the glaze-breaker to prepare the seat surface and recut
the seats, removing only as little metal as is necessary
to ensure a true seat. Restore the seats to their correct
width (see 'GENERAL DATA') by using the narrowing
cutters. Finally. lap. the valves onto their seats as
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE VALVE GUIDES
Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section
Grinding·in a valve, using tool18G 29
Aa.9). Drain the cooling system; Remove
the cylinder head (Section Aa.12) and the valves
Section As.14 (Section Aa.13).
Drive the valve guides out of the cylinder head.
using tool 18G 228 inserted into the guide from the
If only slightlY pitted the valve faces and sea~s ~aD port end_
be reconditioned by grinding-in with tine grmdmg
New valve guides should be driven into position with
compound. Smear the valve face ligh~ly with gri~ding
tool 18G 228 until the shoulder on the guide is flush
compound and lap the valve on to Its s~at, usm~ a
against the cylinder head. When titting the inlet valve
semi-rotary motion, with tool 18G 29. ThIs operatlon
guides ensure that the locating peg slot in the valve
is not complete until a dull, even, mat surface, free from
guide shoulder is in line with the locating peg in the
blemish is produced on both the valve face and seat.
cylinder head before driving the guide into position.
After cleaning away all traces of grinding compound
the valve seating can be checked by applying a spot of Finish ream new valve guides, using tool 18G 229A,
marking blue to the valve face and rotating the valve then ensure that the valve seatings are concentric with
about one tum on its seat; the marking should be the valve guide bores. recutting the seatings if necessary
completely reproduced on the valve seat. A tinal
lapping, using oil only, is recommended. Replace the remaining components by reversing the
When the valve faces and seats cannot be corrected
by lapping the valves should be refaced to the .correct
Badly pitted valve seats should be re/aced, using Fig. Aa.1S
tools 18G 27, 18G 28, 18G 28 A, l8G 28 B. 18G 28 C, Driving a valve guide into position, using tool
l8G 174, l8G 174 A, 18G 174 B, l8G 174 C, and 18G 230 18G 228
=.-. -. -: -... ':-
==. "":. :---=-:.. ..:;:=
Fig. Aa.16 Fig. AaJ8
Reaming a valve guide using tool l8G 229A Cutting a· thread in an injector sleeve. using tool
18G 213 A. to enable the sleeve to be withdrawn by
removal procedure, and adjust the valve rocker tool 18G 213. Shown inset is the 'Alkathene' plug
clearance (Section Aa.11). inserted ill the sleeve to prevent swart entering the
the insert. which has an interference fit of ·002 to ·004 in.
VALVE SEAT INSERTS ('051 to '102 mm.), into the cylinder head. Finally,
If a valve seating cannot be restored with the normal grind or machine the new seat to the dimensions given
cutting and refacing tools, or if valve head stand-down in Fig. Aa.l7, ensuring that the throat of the new seat
is excessive with a new valve, a valve seat insert should blends into the throat in the cylinder head.
be fitted. Check the area of contact between the new seat and
To fit an insert. machine the seating in the cylinder its valve with marking blue, and if necessary lap the
head to the dimensions given in Fig. Aa.l7. and press valve onto its seat (Section Aa.14).
Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section
Drain the cooling system.
Remove th~ cylinder head (Section Aa.12) and the
valves (Section Aa.13).
Plug the waterways in the cylinder head and the
Fig. Aa.17 cylinder block with clean rag.
Valve seat machining dimensions If special equipment for decarbonizing is not available
Inlet (A) Exhaust (8)
it will be necessary to remove the carbon deposit from
C. Nominal diameter 1·450 in. L. Nominal diameter 1·290 in. the piston crown and cylinder head by scraping. A
(36,8 rnm.). (32-75 rnm.). length of copper tubing with the end flattened and filed
D. 1·775 to 1·776 in. (45'076 M. 1·625 to 1-626 in. (41'27 to
to 45·102 mm.). 41·30 mm.). up makes an ideal scraper which will not scratch.
E. Maximum radius ·015 in. N Maximum radius ·015 in. The ridge of carbon in the top of each cylinder bore
(·38 rnm.). (·38 mm.).
F. ·325 to ·328 in. (8·25 to P. ·325 to ·328 in. (8,25 to
should not be disturbed and a ring of carbon should
8·33 mm.). 8'33 rnm.). also be left round the periphery of each piston crown.
G. '135 to '140 in. (3,43 to Q. ·135 to ·140 in. (3,43 to An old piston ring sprung into the bore and resting on
3-56 rnm.). 3'56 rnm.).
H. ·070 to ·080 in. (1·78 to R. ·070 to ·080 in. (1·78 to
the top of the piston will facilitate this operation.
2·03 rnm.). 2·03 rnm.). Remove the carbon deposit from the valves, valve
J. 45· s. 45·. ports, valve guides, and cylinder head. Thoroughly
L Chamfer ·020 to ·030 in T. Chamfer '020 to '030 in.
('508 to '762 rnm.). at 45·. ('508 to ·762 rnm.) at 4S·. clean the cylinder head and ensure that all traces of
.. -- .-
--=:';''':": .. "::'.: . - " .
· Withdralt'ing an injector sleeve. using too/18G 213 D. Fig. Aa.20
Installing an injector sleeve. using tool 18G 561
carbon dust are removed from the head and cylinder
bores. Drain the cooling system.
Replace the components. reversing the removal Remove the cylinder head.
procedure. and adjust the valve rocker clearance If No. 1 connecting rod is to be removed detach the
(Section As. I I). oil strainer and suction pipe from the oil pump.
Remove the cap and the bottom half of the big-end
Section Aa.18 Clean the carbon deposit from the top of the cylinder
bore and withdraw the cunnecting rod and piston
REMOVING AND REPLACING upwards through the cylinder.
THE INJEcroR SLEEVF.S NOTE.-Each collDeCtiDa rod aad cap Is stamped
If it is found necessary to renew an injector sleeve with the Dumber of the cyliader from which it w.
the operation can be carried out without removing the removed (Fig. ALll).
Lubricate the cylinder bore and piston with clean
engine oil. space the compression ring gaps equally
Remove the injector.
round the circumference of the piston. and compress
.Insert an 'Alkathene' plug, supplied with tool the rings, using too118G 55 A.
18G 213 A, into the injector sleeve to prevent swarf Insert the connecting rod and piston downwards
entering the cylinder. Using tool 18G 213 A. cut a through the cylinder bore. so positioned that the
thread on the inside of the sleeve. Remove the tool connecting rod cap will be towards the left-hand side of
but leave the plug in position. Screw tool 18G 213 0
into the injector sleeve and withdraw the sleeve (Fig.
Remove the 'Alkathene' plug from the injector sleeve.
Crank the engine to position the piston. in the cylinder
being operated on. at B.D.C.
Coat the new injector sleeve with sealing compound
part number AKF 1702 on those surfaces which contact
the cylinder head and drive it into position using tool
~. - ... ,,, ... ,, ..... .
REMOVING AND REPLACING ~
A CONNECTING ROD AND PISTON -:F
Drain and remove the sump. Fig. Aa.21
Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section Installing a piston and connecting rod assembly
AL9). using tool18G 55 A
1. Connecting rod.
S. Tab washer.
6. Hollow dowel.
7. Little-end bush.
When checking the gap clearance of a new piston
ring enmre that the ring is inserted illto an unworn
part of the cylinder bore
DISMANn..ING AND REASSEMBLING
A CONNECTING ROD AND PISTON
Remove the bearing halves from the connecting rod
and cap. If the bearing is to be re4lSed it should be
marked to ensure reassembly in its original position.
Using tool 18G 1004. withdraw the two circlips from
Fig. Aa.22 the piston and press the gudgeon pin out. Mark the
The arrows (A) indicate the bearing locating tags piston and gudgeon pin to ensure correct reassembly.
and grooves. The arrows (8) indicate the cylinder Remove the rings from the piston and place them in
number from which the connecting rod was the order in which they are removed. to assist in
removed reassembling them in their original grooves.
Thoroughly clean all the dismantled components and
inspect them for damage.
Check the cylinder bore for scoring and for wear (see
'GENERAL DATA'). If the diameter of the bore is
the engine. The cavity in the piston crown should now worn in any place by ·010 in. (·254 mm.) or more. a new
be offset towards the right-hand side of the engine.
Ensure that the connecting rod and cap. the bearing.
and the crankpin are absolutely clean. Fit the two
halves of the bearing to the connecting rod and cap.
NOTE: On the VD series of the four
and six cylinder engi!les there are two
Each half bearing has a tag which locates in a groove grooves. one above and one below the
in the connecting rod and cap (Fig. Aa.22). If the old wrist pin. for two scraper rings. For
bearing is being used the two halves should be replaced the VD series engines. both of these
in their original positions. Lubricate the bearing and scraper rings are used.
crank pin with clean engine oil. position the hollow
dowels between the connecting rod and cap, and fit the For the 98 series engines both grooves
cap into positiQ.TI with the stamped numbers on rod and are present but only the upper scraper
cap adjacent to each other. Fit new tab washers under ring may be installed. If a lower
the big-end bolts and tighten the bolts to the figure given ring is installed. the piston will be
in 'GENERAL DATA,' using torque wrench 18G 372. starved for lubrication.
Lock the bolts in position with the tab washers.
Replace the remaining components, reversing the
removal procedure, and adjust the valve rocker
clearance (Section Aa.ll).
Reassemble the remaining components. reversing the
dismantling procedure. noting that the cavity in the
piston crown should be offset to the connecting rod on
the opposite side to the big-end cap.
REMOVING AND REPLACING
A CYLINDER LINER
Drain and remove the sump
Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section
Drain the cooling system
Remove the cylinder head (Section Aa.12).
Fig. Aa.25 Withdraw the connecting rods and pistons (Section
Removing and replacing a connecting rod little-end Aa.19).
bush using tool18G 616 Using tool ISG 227 C. withdraw the cylinder liner
upwaros from the cylinder block (Fig. Aa.26).
Remove the cylinder liner sealing ring from its groove
in the bottom of the cylinder block.
NOTE.-1be aeaIiag riDg should be raaewed OD aD
liner and piston should be fitted (Section Aa.21). In the OCCllliODS of qUader liDer removaL
event of a water leak at the bottom of the cylinder Inspect the cylinder liner seating in the top of the
liner. the cylinder liner sealing ring should be renewed cylinder block for signs of burrs. carbon. or rust
(Section Aa.21 ). accumulation. Thoroughly clean the seating. being
Check the piston to cylinder bore clearance (see careful not to remove any metal. otherwise a water leak
'GENERAL DATA'). is liable to occur. If the old liner is to be refitted. clean
Insert each piston ring into the cylinder bore and the locating flange at the top of the liner exercising the
measure the piston ring gap (Fig. Aa.23) against the same care as for the liner seating.
figure in 'GENERAL DATA.' The ring should be Thoroughly clean the sealing ring groove in the
placed in an unworn part of the bore and the piston cylinder block.
used to position the ring square to the cylinder bore axis. Insert the cylinder liner into the cylinder block
Check the clearance of each ring in its own groove without fitting the sealing ring. and clamp the liner in
(Fig. Aa.24) against the figure in 'GENERAL DATA.' the fuIly-home position,
The top ring is taper-sided. and to check its groove
clearance the ring should be fitted to the piston and
inserted into an unworn cylinder liner. Push the piston
into the liner until about three-quarters of the piston
ring width has entered the liner. then check the ring
If it is decided to fit new piston rings in a used
cylinder. the glaze should be removed from the cylinder
Check the fit of the gudgeon pin in the piston (see
Measure the gudgeon pin to small-end bush clearance
(see 'GENERAL DATA'). and. if necessary. renew the
bush (Fig. Aa.2S). using tool 18G 616. Before pressing
in a new bush. line up the oil hole in the bush with the
hole in the top of the connecting rod.
Check the connecting rod alignment against the figure
in 'GENERAL DATA.'
Fit the rings into their respective grooves in the
piston. ensuring that Nos. 2 and 3 compression rings.
which are taper-faced. are installed with the side marked Fig. Aa.26
Withdrawing a cylinder liner. using tool18G 227 C
the sealing ring is seating correctly. It may be necessary
to exchange the sealing ring to reduce the liner ovality
to an acceptable limi,:.
Replace the remaining components, reversing the
removal procedure, and adjust the valve rocker clearance
REMOVING AND R£PLACING
THE TIMING GEAR CASE COVER
T~ke the w,;ight of the engwe at the !iont, prefelibly
with a sling, but do not lift directly under the sump.
Release ~the engine front support bracket from its
Insert shims at (A) to adiust the standing height of mountings
the early cylinder liner. Shown inset are the faces Unlock and unscrew the nut from the front of the
of the cylinder block and the liner from which the crankshaft, using spanner 18G 97.
standing heir:ht is measured Withdraw the crankshaft pulley, using tool 18G 231
and adaptor 18G 231 A, and extract the pulley key from
Check the standing height of the cylinder liner against the end of the crankshaft. The crankshaft oil seal may
the dimension in 'GENERAL DATA.' The top face of be removed and replaced, using tool 18G 1111.
the liner is stepped and the standing height should be Remove the engine front support bracket from the
measured between the lower face of the step and the timing gear case.
top face of the cylinder block. If necessary, the stand- Unscrew the remaining bolts securing the timing gear
ing height of early liners can be increased by fitting case cover to the timing gear case. and detach the
shims (see 'GENERAL DATA' for thickness) under the engine front lifting bracket and the alternator
cylinder liner flange. support bracket.
Remove the liner, install a new sealing ring in the Remove the set bolts securing the front of the sump
groove in the bottom of the cylinder block, and apply to the timing case cover and slacken the remaining sump
a coating of Hylomar SQ32 jointing compound to the bolts two complete turns.
reduced diameter at the lower end of the liner. Install Pull the timing case cover, complete with crankshaft
the liner, using a semi-rotary motion to prevent the
oil seal and distance piece, off the two locating dowels
sealing ring becoming twisted or dislodged. Press the
at the lower end of the timing gear case, taking care
liner fully home then check its bore for ovality in the
not to damage the sump gasket.
area adjacent to the sealing ring. If the ovality exceeds
Cover the open end of the sump to prevent the ingress
·00175 in. ('04 mm.), withdraw the liner and check that
,.' "/> !i!)~_/
,. "<'.'j' .,
... j j
Fig. Aa.28 Fig. Aa.29
Removing the starting handle jaw nut, using tool Withdrawing the crankshaft pulley, using tools
18G 97 18G 231 and 18G 231 A
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE TIMING GEARS
Before removing the timing gears check the gear
backlash against the figure in 'GENERAL DATA.'
Refit the crankshaft nut and rota'te the crankshaft.
using spanner 18G 97. until Nos. 1 and 4 pistons are
at T.D.C. with No.4 piston commencing its induction
stroke. This will correctly position the timing marks
on the crankshaft and camshaft gears for reassembly.
kl:lI ( Li1<: .;rallkshai L oj!.
L Cla lC 'tile cr an""snall.
using spanner 18G 97. until Nos. 1 and ,6 pistons are
at T.D.C. with No.'l? 'piston commencing its induction
stroke. This will corr<:ctly position the timing marks
on the crankshaft and camshaft gears for reassembiy,
Press back the jocking washers and umcrew the n1.its
Withdrawing the camshaft gear. using tools from the camshaft and the injection pump dnve shaft.
18G 231.18G 231 C. and 18G 231 D Remove the thrust washer and withdraw the idl<:r !l.ear
from its shaft.
NOTE.-After the idler gear bas beea remon~d .
of foreign matter. ...... the c:raaksbaft or camshaft should be rotated
Clean the joint faces of both timing case and cover. ..... all the "alft rocker adjasdDg serews are com-
and examine them for burrs. Inspect the crankshaft pletely slackeaed oil to allow all the "alvea to remain
oil seal and renew it. if necessary. Ensure that the fully dOled. If this conditioD is Dot obse"ed the "alvet
crankshaft distance piece is free from burrs and may foal the pistODS &Dd cause serious d8JlUlle.
scratches where it contacts the crankshaft oil seal. Remove the oil thrower from the end of the
When replacing the components. which is a reversal crankshaft.
of the foregoing procedure. fit a new gear case cover Withdraw the oil pump driving gear and crankshaft
gasket but do not use jointing compound. The groove gear. using tool 18G 231 and adaptor 18G 231 B.
between the sealing lips of the crankshaft oil seal should Using tool 18G 231 and adaptor 18G 231 C. withdraw
be filled with high melting point grease before assembly. the gears from the camshaft and the injection pump
o o o
Timing gears showing ®
(A) the '0' marks on the o \ ~~-~ 10
drive gears and hubs. and ' I
(B) the timing nuuks on \
the idler and drive gears 0-"
RelllOl'illg, replacing, and broaching to size the timing idler gear bush, using tool 18G 683
drive shaft. Thrust pads 18G 2311 D and 18G 23'1 E from their hubs without removing the hubs from their
should be used for the camshaft gear and injection shafts.
pump drive gear respectively. Position the crankshaft so that the
Thoroughly clean and inspect all the dismantled Four-230 No. 4 piston or the Six-346
components. No. 6 piston is just commencing its in-
Check the idler gear thrust washer thickness and the duction stroke as described in Section
idler gear bush to shaft clearance against the figures Aa.23.
given in 'GENERAL DATA.' If necessary. renew the
bush. as described in Section Aa.24. Remove the thrust washer and idler gear from its
Refit the gears to the camshaft. crankshaft. and shaft. and the camshaft gear and injection pump drive
injection pump drive shaft and ensure that the timing gear from their hubs.
marks on the teeth of these gears are in the position If the idler gear bush is to be removed. press the old
shown in Fig. Aa.31. Slide the idler gear onto its shaft bush out. using tool 18G 683. with the larger bore of
and engage the teeth with those of the other gears so the tool support uppermost. Reverse the tool support
that the timing marks line up as shown in Fig Aa.31. so that its lipped end is uppermost when pressing in a
noting that the double mark on the idler gear is lined new bush. This will ensure that the bush is correctly
up with the timing mark on the crankshaft gear. positioned with its ends equidistant from the sides of
Tighten the nuts on the camshaft and injection pump the gear. With the tool support still in this latter
drive shaft and secure them with the locking washers. position. broach the bush after first lubricating the
Check the valve timing as described in Section Aa.26. broach liberally with clean paraffin.
Fit the idler gear thrust washer to the shaft. with the Reassemble the camshaft gear and the injection pump
oil groove towards the gear. drive gear to their hubs so that the timing mark on the
Refit the crankshaft oil thrower with the chamfered inner face of each gear lines up with the timing mark
side towards the gear. on its hub as in Fig. Aa.31.
Replace the remaining components in the reverse
order to that in which they were removed. Refit the idler gear to its shaft so that the timing
Check the injection timing as described in Section marks on all four timing gears are in the relationship
Da. shown in Fig. Aa.31. noting that the double mark on
the idler gear is lined up with the timing mark on the
Tighten and rewire the securing screws on the
OISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING injection pump drive gear. but leave the securing screws
THE TIMING GEARS on the camshaft gear finger-tight.
Adjust the valve timing as described in Section Aa.26.
Two of the timing gears-those fitted to the camshaft Refit the idler gear thrust washer with the oil groove
and the injection pump drive shaft-can be dismantled towards the gear.
Four- 230 Engine
When timing pin AMK 9990 engages the fly.
wheel, No.4 piston is at 25 0 B.T.D.C. and the
degree plate must be set at 25 0 before zero.)
With the timing marks on the g~ars correctly r~lated
as in Fig. Aa.3I. and the valve rocker clearance adjusted
as in Section Aa.II. final adjustment of the valve timing
(see 'GENERAL DATA' and Fig. Aa.33) is made by
rotating the camshaft drive gear in relation to its hub.
the securing bolt holes in the camshaft gear being
elongated for this purpose.
Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction or
rotation until the 50 A.T.D.C. mark is at the top of the
flywheel in the vertical position with No. 1 piston
G commencing its firing stroke and No. 4 piston
Fig. Aa.33 commencing its induction stroke.
Valve riming diagram Four-230 Slacken· the six set bolts securing the camshaft gear
Fuel injection timing 28
to its hub and rotate the camshaft in the normal
A. Inlet valve opens. E.
B. Exhaust valve close.~. B.T.D.C. direction of rotation until the exhaust valve (No.8) of
C. Exhaust valve opens. F. Top dead centre. No.4 cylinder is just closed.
D. Inlet valve closes. G. Bottom dead centre. A clock gauge. moun·ted on the engine with its
indicator contacting the valve spring collar. will
facilitate this operation. Tighten the camsllaft gear
securing bolts. recheck the valve timing, and rewire the
gear securing bolts.
An alternative method of setting the crankshaft at
Section Aa.25 50 A.T.D.C. is to use a degree plate and pointer in
REMOVING AND REPLACING conjunction WIth timing pin AMK 9990. as follows:
THE TIMING GEAR CASE (1) Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction of
rotation until the inlet valve (No.2) of No. 1
Remove the timing gear case cover (Section Aa.22). cylinder is just closed. No. 1 piston will now
Withdraw the idler gear and the camshaft gear as be commencing its compression stroke and No.4
described in Section Aa.23. piston will be on its exhaust stroke.
Unscrew the idler gear shaft. which has a lefthand (2) Insert timing pin AMK 9990 through the reamed
thread. and the timing gear oil fee4 jet complete with hole in the lower half of the engine sandwich
copper seal washer. plate and. while maintaining pressure on the pin.
Remove the set screws securing the gear case to the rotate the crankshaft slowly until the pin engages
crankcase and pull the gear case. complete with the timing hole in the flywheel.
injection pump drive and the driving half of the (3) Mount the degree plate on the front end of the
injection pump coupling, off the three I~cating dowels crankshaft, attach the pointer in a suitable
on the crankcase. position to the engine. and set the degree plate
If necessary, remove and dismantle the injection at 28 0 (25 0 on engines with a Simms Minimec
pump drive as described in Sections Aa.27 and Aa.28. injection pump) before zero.
(.1) Remove the timing pin and rotate the crankshaft
Thoroughly clean and inspect al\ the dismantled
components. to bring the 50 after zero mark on the degree
When replacing the components, which is a reversal plate in line with the timing pointer. The crank-
of the foregoing procedure. fit a new gasket between shaft will now be at 50 A.T.O.C.· with No. 4
piston on its induction stroke.
the crankcase and timing gear case, coating the
crankcase joint face with sealing compound.
Ensure that the injection pump drive coupling is
assembled correctly. The coupling dowel bolt must
engage the hole in the pump drive flange.
The idler gear shaft should only be tightened
sufficiently to retain it in position.
To facilitate retiming, one tooth on each gear, with The valve timing may be checked, using a degree plate
the exception of the idler gear, is marked with an and pointer, a dial-gauge, and timing pin AMK 9990, as
'0' or drill dimple (see Fig. 28). The correspond- follows:
ing teeth on the idler gear which mesh with the (1) Set No.6 cylinder inlet valve clearance to ·021 in.
marked tooth on the camshaft drive gear and the (·53 mm.) then crank the engine until No.6 piston
fuel injection pump/exhauster drive gear are is on its firing stroke.
identified with similar marks, while the correspond- (2) Insert timing pin AMK 9990 through the reamed
ing teeth which mesh with the marked tooth on the hole in the lower half of the engine sandwich plate.
crankshaft gear are marked with 'OC' or twin Maintain pressure on the head of the pin, and
drill dimples. Also, the faces of the fuel injection crank the engine until the pin engages the timing
pump drive hub, the camshaft flan8C or
drive hub, and their drive gears are stamped with F
'0' marks to ensure correct timing relationship
between these components.
Assemble the drive gear to the fuel injection pump
drive hub, lining up the '0' mark on the
face of the hub with the '0' mark on the face of the
gear. In a similar manner, assemble the drive gear
to the camshaft, lining up the '0' marks on the faces
of the gear and the camshaft flange or drive hub,
but do not lock the securing bolts at this stage as
final adjustment of the valve timing has still to be
If necessary, after first ensuring that the valve
rocker adjusting screws are fully released, rotate
the crankshaft to position No. 6 piston at T.D.C.
on its induction stroke. The tooth with the timing
mark on the crankshaft gear will now be between
11 and 12 o'clock (see Fig. 31). G
Rotate the camshaft to position the gear tooth
with the timing mark between eight and nine
o'clock and then tum the fuel injection pump Vah'c timing diagram-Engille fyl'(' Six - 34 6
drive gear so that its tooth with the tim- A. Inlet valve opens. E. Fuel inj~'Ction timing (fully
ing mark is between three and four o'clock (see n. Exhaust valve closes. retarded) 14' B.T.D.C.
Fig. 31:). c. Exhaust valve opens. .... Top dead centre.
1>. ]nlet valve closes. G. Bottom dead centre .·
Fit the idler gear to its shaft with the marked teeth
on the drive gears engaging the corresponding hole in the flywheel. No. 6 piston is now
teeth on the idler gear as shown in Fig. 31 14 0 B.T.D.C. on its exhaust stroke.
Fit the idler gear thrust washer with the oil groove
in the washer next to the gear. (3) Mount the degree plate on the front end of the
crankshaft and attach the pointer in a suitable
position on the timing case. Set the degree plate
at 140 before zero then remove timing pin AMK
(4) Mount the dial gauge on the cylinder head with
its indicator resting on the collar of No. ~
/~ cover plate and when the countersunk screws are fully
tightened, lock them in position by peening.
" Fit the drive gear key to the front of the shaft and
insert the shaft into the housing from the rear end
until the flange on the shaft is against the bearing.
Pass the small ball bearing over the shaft and press
the bearing into the housing until it contacts the
shoulder in the housing.
Fit the oil seal into the end cover so that its sealing
lip fJc(;:s towards the bearings.
SmeJr the joint face of the end cover with sealing
compound and relit the end cover to the drive housing,
being ca:eful not to damage the oil seal.
Refit the coupling key and driving flange.
Inject a liberal quantity of clean engine oil through
Fig. Aa.34 the hole in the top of the drive housing to provide initial
Checking the camshaft end-float lubrication un til the oil in the engine is circulating.
REMOVING AND REPLACING
TIlE INJECTION PUMP DRIVE Section Aa.29
Remove the injection pump (Section Da).
Remove the blanking plate from the timing gear case REMOVING AND REPLACING
cover. and unlock and unscrew the nut from the THE CAMSHAFT
injection pump drive shaft.
Remove the six set bolts securing the injection pump
drive to the timing gear case and withdraw the injection
pump drive. using tool 18G loo8B to Remove the timing gear case cover (Section Aa.22).
separate the drive shaft from its drive gear.
Withdraw the camshaft drive gear (Section Aa.23).
When replacing the drive housing ensure that the ·
joint faces of the timing gear case and the drive housing Remove the rocker cover and slacken fully the valve
are clean. Smear the joint face on the rear of the rocker adjusting screws. Withdraw the pushrods.
timing gear case with jointing compound, and fit a new Remove the fuel lift pump
drive housing gasket. Disconnect the external oil pipe from the main oil
Replace the remaining components by reversing the gallery and cylinder head.
Remove the tappet and pushrod cover and the oil
Bleed the fuel system as described in Section Da.
level indicator guide from the side of the cylinder block.
Section Aa.28 Lift out the tappets.
Remove the camshaft thrust plate and withdraw the
DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING camshaft. being careful to avoid damage to the bearing
THE INJECTION PUMP DRIVE surfaces as the camshaft is withdrawn.
Slacken the clamp bolt nut on the coupling driving Thoroughly clean and inspect all the dismantled
flange and withdraw the flange from the drive shaft. parts.
Extract the coupling key from the drive shaft and Check the camshaft bearing clearance against the
remove the end cover, complete with oil seal, from the dimensions in 'GENERAL DATA.'
Fit the thrust plate and the drive gear to the
Remove the cover plate from the front of the drive
camshaft. tighten the camshaft nut, and check the
housing and press the shaft out of the housing in a
camshaft end-Boat as shown in Fig. Aa.34 against the
forward direction The large bearing will be ejected
from the housing as the drive shaft is pressed out. dimension given in 'GENERAL DATA.'
Extract the drive gear key from the drive shaft. If necessary. remove the locating bolt and withdraw
Press the small ball bearing out of the rear of the the camshaft front bearing from the cylinder block.
housing and remove the oil seal from the end cover. Press a new bearing into position, plain edge first.
Clean and inspect all the dismantled components. aligning the rwo holes in the bearing with the two holes
Commence reassembly by pressing the large ball in the bearing housing. When the bearing is in position
bearing into the front of the housing. Refit the front the holes can be tapped into final alignment. using a
soft drift against the aligning notch in the bearing. Fit Section Aa.31
the locating bolt and line-ream the bearing to the
REMOVING AND REPLACING
dimension given in 'GENERAL DATA.'
THE ENGINE SANDWICH PLATE
Replace the remaining components, lubricating all
the bearing surfaces with clean engine oil, by reversing Remove the Transmission Section and
the removal procedure. the flywheel (Section Aa.30).
Remove the starter motor
Adjust the valve rocker clearance as described in
Unscrew the set bolts securing the sandwich plate to
Section Aa.11 and bleed the fuel system of air I
the cylinder block, and pull the sandwich plate off the
three dowels which locate it on the cylinder block.
Remove the sandwich plate joint washer.
Replacement is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,
Section Aa.30 using a new joint washer between the sandwich plate
and the cylinder block.
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE FLYWHEEL AND STARTER RING
Remove the Transmission Section Aa.32
Unlock and remove all but two of the bolts securing REMOVING AND REPLACING
the flywheel to the crankshaft flange. Unscrew the two
THE CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS
remaining bolts sufficiently to allow the flywheel to be
drawn off the crankshaft flange.
Withdraw the flywheel by screwing two tin. UNF.
bolts into the withdrawal holes in the flywheel, and
remove the two remaining flywheel bolts_
Remove the sump Remove the oil pump
Examine the flywheel face and the starter ring teeth
(Section Aa.6), and the timing gear case cover (Section
for wear against the figures given in 'GENERAL
Remove the oil thrower from the front end of the
If necessary, remove the starter ring by drilling a hole crankshaft and withdraw the oil pump driving gear and
in the ring and splitting it across the hole with a hammer the crankshaft gear, using tool 18G 231 and adaptors
and chisel_ 18G 231 B. Withdraw the two halves of the crankshaft
Ensure that the bore of the new starter ring and its thrust washer from the front main bearing.
mating surface on the flywheel are perfectly clean and Remove the flywheel (Section AL30) and the engine
free from burrs. Heat the starter ring uniformly to the sandwich plate (Section AL31).
temperature given in 'GENERAL DATA.' The strip
of temperature-indicating paint on the starter ring will
change from greyblue to buff colour when the
temperature is correct.
Place the heated starter ring, bore chamfer foremost,
squarely on the flywheel. The expansion should allow
the ring to be readily fitted by placing a piece of
hardwood across the ring and pressing or tapping it
until the starter ring is hard against its register. When
the ring is cold the 'shrink' fit will be permanently
established and no further treatment is necessary.
When replacing the flywheel check that the locating
dowels are not a loose fit in their holes, and that they
are free from burrs. The dowels are diagonally offset
to ensure correct positioning of the flywheel.
Tighten the flywheel bolts in diagonal sequence to
the torque figure given in 'GENERAL DATA.'
Check the flywheel alignment with a clock gauge,
against the figure given in 'GENERAL DATA-' Fig. Aa.35
Lock the flywheel bolts and replace the rem a ;,,;", Checking the crankshaft rear oil seal cover to oil
components by reversing the removal procedure. return thread clearance
Aa DIESEL ENGINE
The arrow indicates the gauge paper used whell Fig. Aa.37
checking the diametrical clearance of a crankshaft Checking the crankshaft end-finat
Remove the connecting rod bearing caps' and shells. Before attaching the connecting rods to the crank·
keeping the shel1s with their respective caps for correct shaft. align the marks on the timing gears as described
replacement. and separate the connecting rods from the in Section Aa.23.
crankshaft. Replace the remaining components by reversing the
Unscrew the two bolts holding the two halves of the removal procedure. refill the sump with new engine oil.
crankshaft rear oil seal cover together. Remove the and bk:ed the fuel system of air as described in Section
bolts securing the bottom half of the cover to the Da.
crankcase and remove the bottom half cover. taking
care not to damage the gasket. If the gasket is damaged Section Aa.33
in any way the top half of the cover should be removed
MODIFIED INLET VALVE LOCATING
and a new gasket fitted. DETAILS
Remove the main bearing caps complete with the A new type inlet valve locating key and thimble. and
bottom halves of the main bearings. The crankcase a modified valve guide locating dowel have been
and caps are marked for correct assembly. and the introduced on later engines. These parts. which
bearings and caps should always be replaced in their facilitate the assembly of the valves to their guides. are
original positions. interchangeable in sets with their equivalent parts
referred to in Section Aa.l3.
Lift the crankshaft out of the crankcase and remove
the remaining halves of the bearings and the thrust
Thoroughly clean and inspect all the dismantled
components and examine all bearing surfaces for wear
Check the crankshaft endfioat and main bearing (.:.:::---;-.~
clearance against the figures given in 'GENERAL
New bearings are prefinished to size and do not
require any scraping or fitting. r1.:
When replacing the crankshaft lubricate all the ·:
bearings with clean engine oil and ensure that the ·
hollow locating dowels are in position over the main
bearing studs before fitting the bearing caps.
Refit the crankshaft rear oil seal cover and check
that the clearance between the cover and the oil return
. /: ..
thread on the crankshaft is in accordance with the figure
in 'GENERAL DATA.' The ftat surface of the bottom Fig. Aa.38
half of the oil seal cover should be perfectly level with Modified inlet valve locating details
the crankcase surface to which the sump is mounted. I Thimble. 2 Key. 3 Dowel.
WESTERBEKE-PARAGON .. . · 74
INTRODUCTION .... ... .. ... 75
INSTALLA TION . . . . · 75
OPERATION. · · . . . . . . . . · 76
MAINTENANCE . . . . 77
TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART. · · · . . . . . . . . 78
REDUCTION GEARS · · · · · . . . . . . . .85
WARNER HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS · · . . . . . . 91
A. Description Chart
P200 P300 P400 REDUCTION RATIO DIRECTION OF ROTA TION
P21R P31R P41R DIRECT RIGHT
P21L P31L P41L DIRECT LEFT
P22R P32R P42R 1. 5:1 RIGHT
P22L P32L P42L 1. 5:1 LEFT
P23R P33R P43R 2.0: 1 RIGHT
P23L P33L P43L 2.0:1 LEFT
P24R P34R P44R 2.5:1 RIGHT
P24L P34L P44L 2.5:1 LEFT
P25R P35R P45R 3.0:1 RIGHT
P25L P35L P45L 3.0:1 LEFT
B. Model and Serial Numbers
Each reverse gear has a model number and
a serial number. These numbers are on
the name plate, located on the housing
of the transmission.
MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER CHART
DIRECT DRIVE MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS
P2· Gear. Size 1 · Direct Drive R· Right Hand Rotation Unit 5J. 1234 . Transmi asion Seriol No.
L · L "ft H and Rotation Uni t
REDUCTION GEAR MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS
P 2· G"or Size
~ I R"du ction
1.5: 1 j
2.0: 1 ,~:~~c'ion
R· Right Hand Rotation Unit
L - Left Hand Rota'ion Unit
: \ Si Ztt
2.5: 1 \ Ro'io No.
II. INTRODUCTION ward drive is through a multiple disc clutch
arrangement, while the reverse drive utilizes
The Models P200, P300 and P400 hydraulic a reverse clamp band and planetary gear
transmissions have been designed for smooth train. The transmission oil is circulated and
operation and dependability in marine use. The cooled through a separate external oil cooler
transmission is se1£- contained, having an oil core, which is in turn cooled by the engine
pressure system and oil supply completely water. Paragon transmissions are furnished
separated from engine lubricating oil systems. with either direct drive or reduction gears.
Gear reduction ratios and corresponding
Trans:qlission oil under pressure is used to model identification numbers are listed in
engage a forward or reverse drive. The for- Section I, under "SPECIFICATIONS".
III. INSTALLATION 4. Install and tighten four bolts with lock-
washers through the transmiSSion
A. The installation instructions below are for housing flange into the engine adapter
use when the original transmi ssion has been plate. Remove the 3-1/2" studs. Install
removed for servicing and must be re- and tighten the two remaining bolts
installed, or when the transmission unit with lockwashers through the trans-
is to be adapted as non-original eqUip- mission housing flange.
ment to a marine engine.
D. The transmission and propeller shaft cou-
B. It is important that the engine and trans- pling must be carefully aligned before the
mission rotations are matched. The direc- propeller shaft is connected to the trans-
tion of rotation of an engine is defined in mission, in order to avoid vibration and
this manual as the direction' of rotation consequent damage to the transmission,
of the engine crankshaft as viewed from the engine, and boat hull during operation.
output end of the transmission. A clock- To align the coupling, move the propeller
wise rotation of the engine is a right hand shaft, with attached coupling flange, toward
rotation and a counterclockwise rotation of the transmission so that the faces of the
the engine is a left hand rotation. propeller shaft coupling flange and trans-
miSSion shaft coupling flange are in con-
A letter - "R" or "L" appearing on the tact. The coupling flange faces should be
transmission serial number plate illus- in contact throughout their entire circum-
trated in Section It "SPECIFICATIONS", ference. The total runout or gap between
indicates whether the transmission is for the faces should not exceed .002" at any
use with a right or left hand rotating . point. If the runout exceeds .002", reposi-
engine. tion the engine and attached transmission
by loosening the engine support bolts and
C. The hydraulic transmission is attached to adding or removing shims to raise or lower
the engine in the following manner: either end of the engine. If necessary,
move the engine sideways to adjust the
1. Insert two 3-1/2" studs in opposite runout or to align the coupling flange
transmission mounting holes in the faces laterally. Tighten the engine support
engine adapter plate. bolts and recheck the alignment of the
coupling before bolting the coupling flanges
2. Place the transmission against the studs together. Connect the coupling flanges with
so that the studs go through two of the bolts, lockwashers, and nuts.
matching holes in the transmission
E. Connect the oil cooler lines to the trans-
housing flange. mission.
3. Slide the transmission along the studs F. Connect the shift control cable from the
toward the engine so that the spline on cockpit control station to the transmission
the shaft at the front of the transmission control valve lever, shown in Figure on
enters the matching splined hole in the page 5. Place the transmiSSion control
engine vibration dampener. valve lever in the neutral position and
adjust the shaft control cable length until or reverse position, and should return
the cockpit control station hand lever is exactly to the neutral position when the
in the neutral position. Move the cockpit hand lever is in the neutral position.
control hand lever to forward and reverse
positions several times while observing the G. Remove the oil dipstick, shown in Figure
transmission control valve lever motion. on page 5, and fill the transmission with
The transmission control valve lever should Type A transmission fluid to the mark on
move fully into forward or reverse position the dipstick. Replace the dipstick in the
when the hand lever is moved into forward transmission housing.
IV. OPERATION Starting Procedure
1. Always start the engine with the trans-
Principle of Operation mission in NEUTRAL to avoid moving the
boat suddenly forward or back.
The transmission forward and reved. drives
2. When the engine is first started, allow it
are operated by transmission oil undar pres-
to idle for a few moments. Stop the engine
sure. An internal gear type oil pump C1elivers
and check the transmission oil level. Add
the transmission oil, under pressure, to the
oil if necessary to bring the oil level up
external oil cooler. The transmission oil is to the mark on the transmission dipstick.
returned, still under pressure, to the oil
distribution tube and relief valve. The relief
valve maintains the oil pressure by remaining NOTE
closed until the oil pressure reaches 60 PSI. ON SUBSEQUENT START- UPS, THE
When the control lever is shifted to the TRANSMISSION OIL LEVEL MAY BE
forward pOSition, oil under pressure is de- CHECKED BEFORE RUNNING THE
livered to the multiple disc clutch piston, ENGINE, WHEN ENGINE OIL IS
which moves to clamp the clutch discs and CHECKED.
planetary reverse gear case together. The 3. Start the engine again, with the transmission
discs and case then revolve as a solid cou- in NEUTRAL, and allow the enginetowarm
pling in the direction of engine rotation. The up to operating temperature.
reverse drive is engaged by shifting the
control lever to the reverse poSition, so that 4. Shift the transmission into FORWARD or
oil under pressure is delivered to the reverse REVERSE as desired. If the engine should
piston. The reverse piston moves to clamp stall when the transmission is shifted to
the reverse band around the planetary gear FORWARD or REVERSE, place the trans-
case, preventing the planetary gear case mission in NEUTRAL before restarting the
from moving but allowing the planetary gears engine.
to revolve to drive the 9utput or propeller It is recommended that shifting be done at
shaft in a direction opposite to the rotation speeds below 1000 RPM, and preferably in
of the engine. With the control lev~r in the the 800 RPM, or idle engine range, to pro-
neutral poSition, pressurized oil is prevented long the life of the engine, transmission,
from entering the clutch piston or reverse and boat. EMERG ENCY shifts may be at
band piston and the propeller shaft remains higher engine speeds, but this is not a
stationary . recommended practice.
v. MAINTENANCE are full. If necessary, refill to the mark
on the dipstick to ensure proper operation
A. Lubrication of the transmission. The transmission oil
level should be checked each time the engine
The Models P200, P300 and P400 trans- oil level is checked, before running the
missions are self-contained units, indepen- engine.
dent of the engine lubricating systems.
The units are lubricated by pressure and by The oil in the transmission should be
splash from its own oil. The type of oil changed every 100 hours, or each season
recommended is "Transmission Fluid, under normal conditions. However, the
Type A", commonly used for automatic number of hours that can be run between
transmissions in automobiles. oil changes varies with the operating condi-
tions. Drain plugs are located at the
The quantity of oil depends upon the angle bottom of the reverse gear housing and the
of installation, as well as the reduction reduction gear housing.
model. The level must be maintained at
the mark on the dipstick and should be
checked periodically to ensure satisfac- B. Adjustments
No adjustment is necessary for the FOR-
When filling for the first time or refilling WARD drive multiple disc clutches,andthe
after an oil change, check the level after reverse band is self adjusting to compen-
running for a few minutes to mnke certain sate for lining wear, so that no external
that the oil cooler and the various passages reverse band adjustment is necessary.
OIL TO COOLER
C. Trouble Shooting Chart
PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES AND METHODS OF CORRECTION
Drive Shaft does not operate
with selector valve in forward 1. Low Oil Pressure. a. Low oil supply. Add oil, refer to
or reverse. lubrication.
b. Faulty oil gauge. Replace S-auge.
Oil gauge slow to register, air or
obstruction in oil gauge line. Clean
and bleed oil gauge liLe.
c. Plugged oil lines or passages.
Clean lines or passages.
d. Oil pressure relief valve scored
and sticking. Remove relief valve.
Clean valve and valve bore in
control val ve housing with crocus
cloth to free valve, or replace.
e. Defective pistons and oil distributor
seal rings. Replace seal rings.
f. Defective oil pump. Check for wear
and replace if necessary.
2. High Oil Temperature a. Low oil supply. Add oil, refer to
b. Low water level in cooling system.
Add ,,'ater, and check for leaks.
c. Plugged raw water inlet screen.
d. Collapsed or disintegrated water
inlet hose. Replace hose.
e. Air leak in cooling water suction
line~ Replace suction line.
f. Raw water pump impeller worn or
damaged. Replace impeller.
g. Clogged or dirty oil cooler element.
Remove and clean
3. Reverse Band not
engaging Planetary a. Reverse b"'o1d lining worn out.
Gear Cage. Replace lining.
b. Defective reverse piston "0" ring.
Replace "0" ring.
4. Failure of Planetary Remove gear case assembly, and check
Assembly. for defective or damaged parts. Replace
defective or damaged parts.
5. Failure of Reduction Remove reduction gear assembly and
Gear. check for defective or d::unaged parts.
Replace defective or damaged parts.
PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES AND lfiETHODS OF CORRECTION
Drive Shaft rotates either
forward or reverse with Forward clutch plates warped and
Selector Valve in neutral 1. Defective forward sticking. Remove clutch plates and
position. Clutch Plates. replace.
2. Defective forward Forward clutch piston release spring
Clutch Piston Release broken or weak. Replace spring.
3. Binding in Planetary a. Bearings and gears worn excessively
Assembly. in gear case. Replace necessary
b. Input shaft bearings worn excessively,
causing misalignment of input shaft.
Replace necessary parts.
GEAR SLIPPING OR SLOW TO
With Selector Valve in forward
or reverse position. 1. Low Oil Pressure. See "Gear Inoperative',' (1).
2. Worn forward Clutch Remove forward clutch plates and check
Plates. for wear excessively, replace clutch
3. Reverse Band not See "Gear Inoperative", (3).
engaging Gear Case.
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
LEAKS 1. Water in Lubricating a. Hole in oil cooler element permitting
Oil. water to seep into oil compartment.
Replace oil cooler element.
b. Oil cooler gaskets. Check gaskets
2. Excessive Oil in
Engine Crankcase or Defective front end plate oil seal.
Flywheel Housing. Replace on seal.
3. Oil on Exterior of
Marine Gear. a. Oil seeping from breather. Check
for too high oil level.
b. Defective rear end oil seal. Replace
4. Loss of on from
Transmission. a. Check for defective gaskets and
Each part illustrated in the exploded views ALWAYS GIVE THE PART NUMBER, PART
has a key number and an arrow pointing from NAME, TRANSMISSION MODEL NU~lBER,
the key number to the part. Refer to the key AND TRANSMISSION SERIAL NUl\1BER \VHEN
number in the parts list to determine the part ORDERING PARTS.
number and name.
No. Description No. Description
1 Gear Case - Needle Bearing 67 Ho.d Down Spring
2 Gear Case 68 Socket Head Pipe Plug
3 Long Pinion 69 Pipe Plug
4 Pinion Thrust Pad 70 Control Lever Pin
5 Roller Bearing 71 Capscrew
6 Long Pinion Bearing Spacer 72 Lockwasher
7 Pinion Shaft 73 Plain Washer
8 Engine Gear - Roller Bearing 74 Control Lever
9 Engine Gear 75 Control Lever Bushing
10 Short Pinion 76 Control Lever Pawl
11 Roller Bearing 77 Control Valve "0" Ring
12 Short Pinion Bearing Spacer 78 Control Valve
13 Short Pinion Spacer 79 Control Valve Retaining Ring
14 Pinion Shaft Locking Tab 80 Cover
15 Case Clip 81 Reverse Piston "0" Ring
16 Capscrew 82 Reverse Piston and Shaft Assembly
17 Engine Gear Thrust Washer 83 Piston Back Up Plate
18 Direct Drive Tailshaft 84 Reverse Piston Shaft Pin
19 Propeller Gear 85 Retaining Ring
20 Propeller Gear Thrust Washer 86 Reverse Band Roll Pin
21 Steel Clutch Plate 87 Reverse Band Lever
22 Bronze Clutch Plate 88 Reverse Band Roll
23 Screw Collar Spring 89 Piston Back-Up Plate "0" Ring
24 Screw Collar - Needle Bearing 90 ReliM Valve Plug
25 Screw Collar 91 Relief Valve Spring
26 Forward Piston "0" Ring - Outer 92 Relief Valve Retaining Ring
27 Forward Piston "0" Ring - Inner 93 Relief Valve "0" Ring
28 Forward Piston 94 Relief Valve Pin
29 Clip - Screw Collar 95 Relief Valve Housing
30 Lockscrew 96 Front Plate Oil Seal
31 Oil Distributor Seal Rings 97 Front Plate
32 Tailshaft Thrust Washer 98 Front Plate Thrust Washer
33 Tailshaft Seal Washer 99 Roller Bearing
34 Woodruff Key 100 Pump Pert Plate
35 Spring Retainer 101 Pump Housing Pin
36 Retaining Ring 102 Inner Pump Gear
37 Cover Gasket 103 Outer Pump Gear
38 Distributor Tube 104 Pump Housing
39 Tailshaft Needle Thrust Race 105 Lockwasher
40 Tailshaft Needle Thrust Bearing 106 Capscrew
41 Retaining Ring 107 Dipstick
42 Ball Bearing 108 Flat Head Socket Capscrew
43 Reduction Pinion Tailshaft 109 Breather
44 Reduction Adapter Plate 110 Pump Key
45 Adapter Plate Seal 111 Reverse Band
46 Capscrew 112 Pipe Plug
47 Gasket 113 Brass Washer
48 Crescent 114 Brake Band Support Screw
49 Plain Steel Washer 115 External Socket Head Cap Screw
50 Lockwasher 116 Detent Seal Washer
51 Capscrew 117 Detent Ball
52 Locknut 118 Capscrew
53 Lockwasher 119 Detent Spring
54 Capscrew 120 Lockwasher
55 Lockwasher 121 Capscrew
56 Ball Bearing 122 Reduction Gear Housing
57 Direct Drive Plate 123 Pipe Plug
58 Oil Seal 124 Oil Seal
59 Gear Half Coupling 125 Gear Half Coupling
60 Rear Gasket 126 Lockwasher
61 Housing 127 Loelmut
62 Dipstick Tube 128 Internal Gear
63 Front Gasket 129 Bearing Assembly
64 Reverse Band Housing Pin 130 Retaining Ring
65 Baffle 131 "0" Ring
66 Flat Head Socket Capscrew 132 Suction Tube
GEAR CA SE ASSEMBLY REVEJ
r-------- --._._ ."__.
/1 -'. "--
FRONT END PLATE AND PUM P ASSEMBLY
~\ \ 119 E
\ "--- / 104
-- " ' . 105
" / /106
SE GEAR HOUSING ASSEMBLY COVER ASSEMBLY
74 RELIEF VALVE
" S! ~2
I I I 70
'; /! /
/ ' 78
,@ .. ~
\ 79 92
. - '
' ·... ,.. .-
·· \, ~ SI
"" \ \ 81----tr
~Q.(.,~. . -', .~~
~ ~ \. ~-
40' '41 '.
DAlvE 44 ~5 '~6
MPLETE ASSEM BL Y
REDUCTION GEAR ASSEMBLY
Disassembly of Reduction Unit
The Westerbeke Paragon reduction
gears consist of an internal ring gear This manual is intended to serve as a
and a drive gear that offers a variety guide in servicing the reduction gears~
of reduction ratios. The reduction since these units are similar in most
units are used integrally with either details except for size.
manual or hydraulic reverse gears.
As in any servicing operation, clean-
Model and Serial Numbers liness is a must and all rules for good
and Part Numbers
workmanship apply. Some of these rules
The model and serial numbers are on are as follows:
a plate affixed to the cover of the
transmis sion. 1. Use only clean fluid in any clean-
The parts list accompanying the dia- ing or washing of parts.
grams are intended only to identify the
parts in regards to disassembly and 2. Use only clean oil for lubrication
assembly. when pressing parts together.
To order parts refer to "Parts List
Manual" giving complete description 3. Neverpress a ball bearing so that
and part number ~ with Model and Serial the force is carried through the
numbers of the transmission. balls.
4. Never use a hammer to drive ball
The reduction gears are lubricated bearings in jllace.
with the same oil as used in the reverse
gears. Refer to "General Data".
5. Use only properly sized wrenches
Adjustments in removing or securing nuts and
There are no adjustments necessary
to maintain the reduction gears in
proper rUJ?Iling condition. 6. Replace gaskets with DeW ma-
ALWAYS GIVE MODEL NUMBER AND SERIAL NUMBER OF TRANSMISSION
WHEN ORDERING PARTS.
7. Work on a clean bench and protect 6. Remove retaining ring (4) from groove
gear teeth and oil seal surfaces next to ball bearing (3) inside reduction
from nicks and scratches. gear housing and press ball bearing (3)
Before removing the reduction unit from
the reverse gear, drain all of the lu- 7. If necessary to replace, remove oil
bricating oil from the transmission and seal (5).
the reduction unit.
8. Remove Woodruffkey (13) from flanged
shaft and remove seal washer (12). and
DISASSEMBLY NEED BE CARRIED spacer (11).
OUT ONLY AS FAR AS NECESSARY
TO CORRECT THOSE DIFFICULTIES 9. Press ball bearing (10) from flanged
WHICH INTERFERE WITH PROPER shaft using two holes in flange.
MARINE GEAR OPERATION.
10. Remove caps crews (9) and lockwashers
(8) from rim of flanged shaft and re-
DISASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION UNIT move ring gear (7) from flanged shaft
1. Remove oil drain plug (1) from bottom
of reduction gear housing (2) and drain INSPECTION
oil from unit. Make certain that all
lubricating oil is removed from reverse All parts should be thoroughly cleaned
gear unit. before inspection. Parts showing ex-
cessive wear should be replaced.
2. Remove capscrews (18) and lockwash-
ers (17) from flange of reduction gear 1. Ball bearings should be examined for
housing and slide entire reduction unit indications of corrosion and pitting on
straight back approximately 3 inches balls and races.
until reduction unit clears reduction
drive pinion. 2. All gear teeth should be examined for
"pitch line pitting" uneven wear pat-
3. Bend tang of 10ckwasher(lS)away from tern or excessive wear.
locknut (16). Remove locknut using
3. Examine oil seal for rough or charred
suitable wrench and lift lockwasher
from shaft. lips.
4. Remove gear half coupling (14) with
4. Hetaining rings should be ·checked for
gear type puller or by supporting en- burrs or deformities.
tire assembly under flange of gear half
coupling and press against shaft to force 5. All gaskets should be replaced.
coupling from assembly.
ASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION UNIT
S. Support reduction gear housing so that
flanged shaft assembly can drop free 1. Replace oil drain plug(l} Into reduction
approximately 2 inches and press gear housing (2).
flanged shaft assembly from reduction
gear housing. 2. Press ball bearing (3) into reduction
gear housing (2) and install retaining 10. Support unit on inside of flanged shaft
ring (4) into groove next to ball bearing. with large end of unit down and press
gear half coupling (14) onto shaft end
3. If removed for replacement, press new and into ball bearing (3) until coupling
oil seal (5) into reduction gear housing. is seated against ball bearing. Care
must be taken to line up keyway in coup-
4. Place flanged shaft (6) over ring gear ling and key in shaft before pressing to-
(7) and line up holes in flange with those gether.
in ring gear.
11. Place lockwasher -(15) over end of
5. Place lockwasher (8) over caps crew flanged shaft with tang on inside of lock-
(9) and insert capscrew into hole in washer in slot on flanged shaft. Place
flanged shaft and secure flanged shaft locknut (16) onto shaft and secure using
to ring gear. suitable wrench.
6. Press ball bearing (10) onto flanged 12. Bend one tang of lockwasher into slot
shaft. Place spacer (11) over shaft on locknut.
next to ball bearing and place seal
washer (12) over shaft next to spacer. 13. Install two studs 3 1/2 inches long into
two OPPOSite holes in reduction adapter
7. Install Woodruff key (13) into keyway in plate .
8. Place reduction gear housing over small 14. Position reduction gear assembly over
end offlanged shaft and start ball bear- studs with oil drain plug at bottom of
ing (10) on flanged shaft into bore in housing and Slide onto reduction drive
housing by tapping housing with a soft gear. It may be necessary to rotate
reduction gear slightly to properly mesh
9. Turn unit over with small end of housing
down and press on center of flanged shaft 15. Installiockwashers (17) and capscrews
until spacer (11) is seated against ball (18) around flange of reduction gear
bearing (3) in reduction housing. housing and tighten uniformly.
REDUCTION ASSEMBLY DRAWING
4 3 5
NOTE SEE APPROPRIATE
S.ERVICE MANUAL FOR
OTHER REVERSE GEAR PARTS
10 12 13 16
PARTS LIST AND EXPLODED VIEW
NO. DESCRIPTION NO. DESCRIPTION
1 Drain Plug 10 Ball Bearing
2 Reduction Gear Housing 11 Spacer
3 Ball Bearing 12 Seal Washer
4 Ball Bearing Retaining Ring 13 Woodruff Key
5 Oil Seal 14 Gear Half Coupling
6 Flanged Shaft 15 Lockwasher
7 Ring Gear 16 Locknut
8 Lockwasher 17 Lockwasher
9 Caps crew 18 Capscrew
WARNER HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS
DESCRIPTION be shifted to the point where it covers
The Westerbeke Six-346 and Four-230 the letter "F" on the case casting, and
Engines are also furnished with Warner is located in its proper position by the
hydraulic direct drive and reduction poppet ball. The Warranty is cancelled
gear assemblies. if the shift lever poppet spring and/ or
ball is permanently removed, or if the
The direct drive transmission consists control lever is changed in any manner,
of a planetary gear set, a forward or repositioned, or if linkage between
clutch, a reverse clutch, an oil pump, remote control and transmission shift
and a pressure regulator and rotary lever does not have sufficient travel in
control valve. All of these are con- both directions. This does not apply to
tained in a cast iron housing along with transmissions equipped with Warner
necessary shafts and connectors, to Gear. electrical shift control.
provide forward, reverse and neutral
operation. A direct drive ratio is used LUBRICATION
for all forward operation. In reverse,
the speed of the output shaft is equal to The properties of the oil used in the
input shaft speed, but in the opposite transmission are extremely important
direction. Helical gearing is used to to the proper function of the hydraulic
provide quieter operation than can be system. Therefore, it is extremely
important that the recommended oil,
obtained with spur gearing. automatic transmission fluid (ATF),
Oil pressure is provided by the cres- Type "A" be used.
cent type pump, the drive gear of
which is keyed to the drive shaft and PROCEDURE FOR FILLING
operates at transmission input speed TRANSMISSION WITH OIL
to provide screened oil to the pressure
When filling the transmission, oil
regulator. should be added until it reaches the
From the regulator valve the oil is full mark on the dipstick. The quan-
directed through the proper circuits tity of oil depends upon the angle of
to the bushings and anti-friction bear- the installation. The unit should be
ings~ requiring lubrication. A flow of turned over at engine idle speed for a
lubricant is present at the required short time in order to fill all circuits,
parts whenever the front pump is turn- including the cooler and cooler piping.
ing and it should be noted that supply
is positive in forward, neutral and PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING OIL
reverse conditions. LEVEL
The unit has seals to prevent escape The oil level should be checked im-
of oil. mediately after shutting off engine and
sufficient oil added to again bring the
Both the input and output shafts are
coaxial, with the input shaft splined transmission oil level to the full mark
on the dipstick assembly. The dipstick
for the installation of a drive damper, assembly need not be threaded into the
and the output shaft provided with a case to determine the oil level. It
flange for connecting to the propeller need only be inserted into the case
shaft. until the cap or plug rests on the sur-
face surrounding the oil filler hole.
CONTROL LEVER POSITION The transmission should be checked
The position of the control lever on periodically to assure proper oil level,
transmission when in forward should and oil should be added if necessary.
It is recommended that the transmis-
sion oil be changed once each season.
After draining oil from the unit. the
removable oil screen should be
thoroughly cleaned before refilling
the transmission with the recom-
mended oil (ATF) Type "A".
REDUCTION GEAR BOX
The reduction gear box operates in
conjunction with the direct drive unit.
The reduction gear box consists of a
planetary gear set which reduces the
input revolutions to a fixed ratio.
It is recommended that all installa-
tions using a reduction gear have a
suitable locking device or brake to
prevent rotation of the propeller shaft
when the boat is not under direct pro-
pulsion. If the marine gear is not in
operation and the forward motion of
the boat causes the propeller shaft to
rotate. lubricating oil will not be cir-
culated through the gear because the
oil pump is not in operation. Over-
heating and damage to the marine gear
may result unless rotation of the pro-
peller shaft is prevented.
Except in an emergency. shift from
forward to reverse drive through
neutral at engine speeds below
1000 rpm to prevent damage to the
engine. or marine gear.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ..····...·.................................................... 1
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4
Component Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6
Question and Answer Troubleshooting Guide. . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7
A. No Output Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . .. 7
B. Unstable Output Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8
C. High or Low Output Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 8
D. Field Circuit Breaker Trips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9
E. Unbalanced Generator Terminal Voltages. . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9
Flow Chart Troubleshooting Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10
No Voltage Buildup . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 10
Voltage Builds Up, But Circuit Breaker Trips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Output Voltage Too High \lr Too Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Voltage 150~; or More Than Ratt'd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13
Unstable Output Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14
Cycling Buildup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Unbalanced Terminal Voltages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16
B. Flashing the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~i'
C. No AC Power to Exciter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
D. Testing Ll Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
E. Testing Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
F. Testing SCR's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
G. Testing Transistors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20
H. Testing Generator Rotor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21
J. Testing Generator Stator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
K. Testing Brushless Exciter Rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . .. 22
L. Testing Brushless Exciter Stator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23
M. Reconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23
N. Voltage Reference Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
P. Generator Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 25
Q. Voltage Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ·. 25
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE 1. Static Exciter Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. RntClting (Brush less) Exciter Design . . . . . . . . . .
3. Top View of Exciter-Regulator Chassis Assembly.
4. Voltage Regulator Printed Circuit Board Location .. :J
7. Flashing the Field 17
8. Testing Diodes .. . 18
9-11. Testing SCR's . . . . 19
12-17. Testing Transistors 20
18. Testing Rotor for Grounds 21
19. Test ing Rotor for an Open Circuit 21
20. Testing Stator Windings .. 22
21. Testing Exciter Armature . . . . . . 22
22. Testing Exciter Field . . . . . . . . . . . 23
23. Connecting Lead From Terminal 63 .. 23
24. Reconnection Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
25. VR21 Printed Circuit Board . . . . . . . 24
26. Generator Disassembly . . . 24
27. Adjusting Voltage on VR21 . 2S
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Resistance Values for Rotors . 21
Table 2. Resistance Values for Stators. 22
Tliere are two generator aeslgns us~u un ln~ UK senes. 1 U gi:im access to generator, remove gnue section
They are basically the same except for the method of below control box.
field excitation. 1. Exciter-regulator chassis assembly VR22 mounts
on the rear portion of the generator; SCR's (silicon
The Static Exciter (brush type) design uses a brush controlled rectifiers). and diodes are easily ac-
rig and collector rings for field excitation. This design cessible for testing. See Figures 1-3.
was used on some of the earlier models within the 2. On static-excited generators. brushes attach to
range of 25 KW - 90 KW. the brush rig inside of end bell housing; inspect
through large access holes in the end belL See
The Brushless design uses a rotating rectifier exciter Figure 1.
assembly i~ place of the brush rig for field excitation. 3. On brushless models, rotating exciter assembly
The brushless design is standard on all models from mounts directly behind exciter-regulator chassis
25 KW -175 KW. assembly with all diodes accessible for servicing.
See Figure 2.
4. Voltage-regulator PC Board VR21 (Printed Circuit
Board) mounts inside the control box on the rear
NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, the tests In this panel (left side); turn 1/4 turn fasteners on front
section apply to both designs. of control box to gain access. See Figure 4.
CHASSIS ASSEMBLV ENDBELL AC
__--~ STATOR \oII::~---~= ..... -4~
~ , 208-240
' - - RESIDUAL MAGNETISM
IN ROTOR STARTS
... ND VOLTAGE
REVOLVING FIELD OVERSPEED SWITCH
GENERATOR END VIEW (GRILLE REMOVED) EXCITATION SCHEMATIC
FIGURE I. STATIC EXCITER DESIGN
CHASSIS ASSEMBL Y
OVERSPEED SWITCH REGULATOR
SENERATOR END VIEW (SRILLE REMOVED) EXCITATION SCHEMATIC
FIGURE 2. ROTATING (BRUSHLESS) EXCITER DESIGN
CHECK THESE DOUBLE LEAD SCR'S
ACCORDING TO PROCEDURE "F"
LCHECK THESE SINGLE LEAD RECTIFIERS
ACCORDING TO PROCEDURE "E"
FIGURE 3. TOP VI EW OF EXCITER·REGULATOR CHASSIS ASSEMBL Y
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ....:;;;;;;;;;..~;;.;..~~-...;;;.;;;;;;;.......
FIGURE 4. VOLTAGE REGULATOR PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD LOCATION 97
VISUAL INSPECTION nections, dust, dirt or moisture. If dirty, clean
Before proceeding with the troubleshooting on the with a suitable solvent and compressed air.
following pages, a few simple checks can be made 3. Visually inspect the exciter-regulator chassis
which could directly indicate the cause of trouble. assembly (VR22) for burned components, broken
wires, loose connections, carbon tracks caused
1. Always be sure that connection of generator leads by arcing between parts or between parts and
is correct. Whenever leads are reconnected for a ground. Also check for shorted paths between
different voltage, check the output with an inde- terminals caused by dust, dirt and moisture.
pendent voltmeter. Do not use the control panel 4. Large banks of SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)
meter since it could indicate that the voltage is regulated loads can cause the generator voltage
correct even if connection is wrong. to increase as load is applied. If such loads exist,
2. Visually inspect the voltage regulator printed and the voltage increases more than 5 or 10%,
circuit board assembly (VR21) in the control box consult the factory; an additional filter is available
for burned components, broken wires, loose con- for the regulator circuit to correct the situation.
THE QUESTION AND ANSWER TROUBLESHOOTING
GUIDE, BEGINNING ON PAGE 7, GIVES A STEP·BY·STEP
PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING THE GENERATOR. THE
FLOW.CHART TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDES ON PAGES
10 TO 16, ARE GIVEN AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO RE·
SOLVE VARIOUS GENERATOR PROBLEMS. ALL CHARTS
REFER TO PROCEDURES SHOWN AT THE END OF THIS
SECTION (PAGES 17 TO 25).
QUESTION AND ANSWER TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
To correct a particular problem, answer the q'Jestion either "yes" or "no" then proceed to the next step given in
whichever column question wac:: answered.
A. NO AC OUTPUT VOLTAGE - ENGINE RUNNING YES NO
1A. Is the circuit breaker on the meter panel in the "on" position? 3A 2A
2A. Switch the circuit breaker to the "on" position. Does the AC voltage build up? 3A
NOTE: If voltage builds up, but is high, low or unstable, or causes the circuit
breaker on the meter panelto trip, refer to section "B", "c" or "0" of
the troubleshooting guide.
3A. Is the AC voltage at terminals 1 and 2 on VR21 voltage regulator printed circuit board SA 4A
and at terminals 9 and 10 on VR22 exciter-regulator chassis assembly S to 10 volts?
4A. Check continuity of wires and connections between terminal 1 on VR21 printed circuit - lOA
board and terminal 9 on VR22 chassis assembly; and between terminal 2 on VR21
printed circuit boaed and terminal 10 on VR22 chassis assembly. Is there continuity
between these connections?
SA. Check for broken wires and loose connections on VR22 exciter-regulator chassis assembly. - 6A
Replace or repair any that are defective and clean all dust, dirt and other foreign material
from the assembly. Does the AC voltage now build up?
6A. Is the DC voltage at terminals 4 and S on VR22 exciter-regulator chassis assembly S to 13A 7A
7A. Are diodes CR I, CR2 and CR3 on VR22 exciter-regulator chassis assembly OK? 8A -
(See Method E in Procedure section for checking diodes.)
8A. Are SCR's Q4 and Q5 on VR 22 exciter-regulator chassis assembly OK? 9A -
(See Method F in Procedure section for checking SCR's.)
9A. The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on the voltage regulator - -
printed circuit board. REPLACE VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. (See Figure 4)
lOA. With the circuit breaker on the meter panel in the "off" position, is the AC voltage at 14A llA
terminals 62 and 63 (on terminal board TB21 on the left side of control box) S to 10 volts?
llA. With the circuit breaker on the meter panel in the "off" position, flash the exciter field. l2A 13A
(See Method B in Procedure section for field flashing.) Is the AC voltage at terminals
62 and 63 now 5 to 10 volts?
12A. Turn the circuit breaker on the meter panel to the "on" position. Does the AC output - ISA
voltage build up?
NOTE: If voltage builds up, but is high, low or unstable, or causes the circuit breaker
to trip, refer to section B, C or 0 of this troubleshooting guide.
13A. Is the brushless exciter stator winding OK? (See Method L in Procedure section for 17A -
l4A. With a jumper wi re connected across the terminals of the circuit breaker on the meter - ISA
panel, does the voltage build up?
NOTE: If the voltage does build up, the circuit breaker CB21 is defective and MUST BE
1SA. Is Ll commutating reactor mounted on the back side of VR22 exciter-regulator chassis 16A -
assembly OK? (See Method 0 in Procedure section for checking Ll reactor.)
16A. Check continuity of wires and connections between TB21 terminal 62 on left side of - -
control box and terminal 1 on VR21 printed circuit board. Also check between TB21
terminal 63 on the left side of control box and terminal 2 on VR21 printed circuit board.
A. NO AC OUTPUT VOLTAGE - ENGINE RUNNING (CONTINUED) YES NO
17A. Are the rotating diodes CRl, CR2, CR3, CR4, CRs and CR6 on the brushless exciter 18A -
rotor OK? (See Method E in Pro~edure section for checking diodes.)
18A. Is the main generator field winding OK? (See Method H for checking generator field.) 19A -
19A. Is the brushless exciter rotor winding OK? (See Method K for checking exciter rotor
20A. Are the generator stator windings OK? (See Method J for checking stator windings.) - -
B. AC OUTPUT VOLTAGE BUILDS UP, BUT IS UNSTABLE - ENGINE RUNNING OK YES NO
lB. Are there any loose or broken wires or connections at VR2l printed ·circuit board - 2B
2B. Does adjustment of R26* (damping control pot) on VR2l printed circuit board result in - 3B
stable generator voltage? (See Method Q)
3B. The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on VR21 voltage regulator - -
printed circuit board. REPLACE VR2l PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. (See Figure 4)
* R26 is used on brushless generators only.
C. AC OUTPUT BUILDS UP, BUT IS HIGH OR LOW - ENGINE RUNNING OK YES NO
lC. Does adjustment of R21 "Voltage Adjust" knob on the meter panel result in the correct - 2C
2C. Does adjustment of R18 potentiometer on VR21 printed circuit board result in the correct - 3C
voltage? (See Method Q in Procedure section.)
3C. Is the correct voltage reference transformer tap on TB21 being used? (See Method M 4C -
for choosing correct tap.)
4C. Are generator output leads properly connected? (See Method M for proper connection of SC -
SC. The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on VR21 voltage regulator - -
printed circuit board. REPLACE VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD.
D. GENERATOR VOLTAGE BUILDS UP, BUT CAUSES THE CIRCUIT
BREAKER ON CONTROL PANEL TO TRIP - ENGINE RUNNING OK
10. Does the AC output voltage LoJild up to 150% or more of rated voltage before CB21 circuit 20 70
20. Are there any loose or broken terminals or connections at VR21 voltage regulator printed - 3D
circuit board terminals?
3D. Is diode CR3 on center heat sink of VR22 exciter-regulator chassis assembly OK? 40 -
(See Method E for checking diodes.)
40. Are the voltage regulator transformer (T21) windings and connections OK? 50 -
50. Are stator leads connected properly? (See Method M for correct connections.) 60 -
60. The trouble is probably caused by a defective component on VR21 voltage" regulator - -
printed circuit board. REPLACE VR21 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. (See Figure 4.)
70. Does the AC output voltage build up to rated voltage or less before tripping CB21 circuit 80 -
breaker on the meter panel?
80. Are the rotating diodes CR1, CR2, CR3, CR4, CR5 and CR6 on the brushless xciter 90 -
rotor OK? (See Method E for checking rotating diodes.)
90. Is the brushless exciter stator winding OK? (See Method L for checking exciter stator 100 -
100. Is the main generator field winding OK? (See Method H for checking generator rotor.) 110 -
110. Is the brush less exciter rotor winding OK? (See Method K for checking exciter rotor - -
E. UNBALANCED GENERATOR TERMINAL VOLTAGES* YES NO
IE. Remove load from generator terminals. Are generator terminal voltages still unbalanced? 2E 4E
2E. Are generator leads properly connected and/or grounded? 3E -
3E. Is continuity of thp. generator stator windings OK? (See Method J for checking stator - -
4E. Is grounding procedure of generator and load correct? 5E -
5E. Check for ground faults in load. - -
* NOTE: Unbalanced voltages of up to 5% will occur if unbalanced loads are applied to the generator terminals.
I I I I I I
CB21 NO AC LOW FAUL T IN DEFECTIVE DEFECTIVE FAULTY FAULT IN
CIRCUIT POWER RESIDUAL GENERATOR COMPONENT COMPONENT ROTATING BRUSHLESS
BREAKER TO VOLTAGE FIELD ON ON DIODE EXCITER
ON METER EXCITER (FLASH WINDING REGULATOR VOLTAGE ON ROTOR OR
PANEL IN FIELD) PC BOARD REGULATOR BRUSH LESS STATOR
"OFF" (VR21) CHASSIS EXCITER WINDING
& £ & & & & &
PANEL BUILD-UP 04 OR 05
RELAY. KI ~ OPEN
CRa OR CR9 ~
CR2 OR CR3
RI, R2 OR R3 ~ &.
REGULATOR I, 2, .., 5
PC BOARD I--
I OR 2
NOTE: Whenever a letter appears near the box,"a separate procedure,
corresponding to that letter. is given at the end of this section.
· Check SCR's. 04 and 05 on VR22 voltage regulator chassis assembly
and replace (if defective) before repairing or replacing VR21 voltage
regulator printed circuit board ·
·· Static excited generators only.
VOLTAGE BUILDS UP BUT
CB21 CIRCUIT BREAKER
ON METER PANEL TRIPS
DEFECTIVE FAULT IN FAULT IN
ROTATING DIODE EXCITER ROTOR GENERATOR
CR I. CR2. CR3. OR STATOR MAIN FIELD
CR4. CRS OR CR6 WINDING WINDING
NOTE: Whenever a letter appears near the box. a separate procedure. correspond ing
to that letter. is given at the end of th i s sect ion.
TOO HIGH OR
REFERENCE SETTING OF COMPONENT ON COMPONENT ON
TRANSFORMER TAP VOLTAGE ADJUST VOLTAGE VOLTAGE
ON Tli POT (R21) ON REGULATOR CHASSIS REGULATOR P.C.
METER PANEL ASSEMBL Y (VR22) BOARD (VR21)
INCORRECT OPEN LEAD OR R2. R3 OR R4
SETTING OF CONNECTION AT ~ OPEN
" - - VOLTAGE ADJUST TERMINALS 3. 4. ···
POT (RI8) ON S. 7 OR 8
VR21 P.C. BOARD
CR8 OR CR9
OPEN IN OPEN
Q4 OR QS ···
VOLTAGE -1 SHORT IN RI8
Q4 OR Q5
---1 MINIMUM VOLTAGE
SETTING ON RI8
NOTE: Whenever a letter appears near the box. a separate procedure, corresponding
to that letter, is given at the end of this section.
· Causes low voltage as load is applied ·
·· Wi II cause voltage to increase after warmup or voltage adjustment ·
··· Check SCR's 04 and OS on VR22 voltage regulator chassis assembly (replace if
defective) before repairing or replacing VR21 voltage regulator printed circuit board.
MORE THAN RATED
I 1 I
OPEN TRANSFORMER OPEN WIRE OR DEFECTIVE COMPONENT DEFECTIVE COMPONENT
(T11) WINDING CONNECTION AT ON VOLTAGE ON VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE REGULATOR REGULATOR CHASSIS REGULATOR PRINTED
CHASSIS ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY (VR12) CIRCUIT BOARD (VR11)
TERMINALS 4. 5 OR 6
OPEN WIRE OR
~ PRINTED CIRCUIT
TERMINALS 5. 6. 9. 10,
II OR 11
H CR4, CR5, CR6--1
OR CR7 OPEN
BREAKOOWN OF t--
Q4 OR Q5
H CR 15 SHORTED
NOTE: Whenever a letter appears near the box, a separate procedure, corresponding
to that letter, is given at the end of this section.
· Malfunction occurs after warmup or voltage adjustment.
DEFECTIVE COMPONENT BROKEN WIRES OR
ON (VR21) VOLTAGE LOOSE CONNECTIONS OF R26 POT ON (VR21)
REGULATOR PRINTED AT (VR21) VOLTAGE PRINTED CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT BOARD REGULATOR PRINTED BOARD (BRUSHLESS ONLY)
I C6. C7. RI4 OR
RIS OPEN r
C II. C 12. R27 OR
NOTE: Whenever a letter appears near the box. a separate procedure. correspondin&
to that letter. is given at the end of this section.
OPEN LEAD AT OPEN IN R21
(VR21) PRINTED CIRCUIT VOLTAGE ADJUST POT ON VR21 PRINTED
BOARD TERMINALS ON METER PANEL CIRCUIT BOARD
I. 2. 5. 7 OR 8
OPEN IN RI8
VOL TAGE ADJUST POT
ON VR21 PRINTED ~ ---1 CRIO. CRI2. CRI3
OR CR 14 OPEN I
----1 R4. R6. R 17 OR
R21 OPEN I
----1 CI. C2 OR CI3
H QI SHORTED
L....f Q2 OR Q3 OPEN
NOTE: Whenever a letter appears near the box. a separate procedure.
corresponding to that letter. is given at the end of this section.
* Generator voltage builds uP. then collapses. builds uP. etc.
INCORRECT RECONNECTION INCORRECT GROUNDING FAULTY GENERATOR
ANDIOR GROUNDING OF OF LOAD OR GROUND STATOR WINDING
GENERATOR LEADS FAUL T IN LOAD
NOT E: Whenever a letter appears near the box, a separate procedure,
corresponding to that letter, is given at the end of this section.
3. After starting the plant, touch the positive (+)
FLASHING THE FIELD (NO VOLTAGE) lead to TBs and the negative (-) lead to TB4;
If output voltage will not build up, it may be necessary hold on terminals just long enough until voltage
to flash the field to restore residual magnetism. starts to build up or damage may occur to the
1. Remove end grille to obtain access to exciter- exciter-regulator system.
regulator chassis assembly.
2. Use a six volt dry cell (lantern) battery with a ten
ohm resistor as shown in Figure 7. If a lantern
battery is not available, a 12 volt automotive I WARNING I Be cautious when workin~ on a
battery can be used by increasing the lO-ohm . · ~enerator that IS runnin~.
resistor to 20-ohms; or a 24 volt automotive battery
can be used by increasing the resistor to 40-ohms.
CHASSIS ASSEMBLY ~..n.0L0U1""
HOLD ON TERMINALS
UNTIL VOLTAGE STARTS
TO BUILD UP. LAD'
e VOLT ORV CELL
FIGURE 7. FLASHING THE FIELD
Resistance between 1-3, 2-3, 1-4 or 2-4 should be
infinity. Resistance from any terminal to reactor
frame should be infinity.
NO AC POWER TO EXCITER
If any of the above conditions are not met. install
NOT E: Re'sidual should be checked before the circuit a new reactor.
breaker; the best place to check it is at the fh'e leads
61 through 65 coming directly out of the stator. The
combination of leads should be chosen by the wiring
configuration of the stator, ie: 120/240 Delta, 120/208
Parallel Wye, 277/430Series Wye. After checking
residual, proceed to VR21 PC board and then check
the circuit breaker CB21. TESTING DIODES
If residual voltage is present, check AC voltage at Diodes mount on the center heat sink of the exciter-
terminals 1 and 2 on VR21 , voltage regulator printed regulator chassis assembly. They are labeled CR t,
circuit board. Voltage should be 5-10 volts. The AC CR2 and CR3 as shown in Figure 3. On brushless
voltage at terminals 9 and 10 on VR22 exciter-regulator generators, six diodes mount on the rotating exciter
chassis assembly should be the same (5 to 10 volts). assembly as shown in Figure 2. These six diodes are
If not, check continuity between these points. If labeled CRt, CR2, CR3, CR4. CRs and CR6. Test
voltage is low, check Lt reactor. diodes as follows:
1. Disconnect lead from only one diode at a time or
remove diode from heat sink. Test that diode and
reconnect lead before proceeding to the next one.
2. Use an accurate ohmmeter to check the resistance
TESTING L 1 REACTOR of the diode. Connect one lead to the top of the
The Lt reactor mounts on the rear of VR22 exciter- diode and the other lead to the heat sink. Observe
regulator chassis assembly. Terminals are marked 1, reading.
2, 3 and 4. 3. Now reverse leads and again observe reading. A
good diode should have a higher reading in one
direction than the other. If both readings are high,
~ or if both readings are low, diode is defective
and must be replaced with a new, identical part.
~ !t~~:ss~::::ns~n~; onc:~~:esO\~;r~
Terminals 1-2 and 3-4 are wound on the same iron heating and e\'entual failure. Keep these assemblies
core. Resistance between 1-2 and 3-4 should be equal. clean!
GOOD DIODE WILL HAVE HIGH RESISTANCE READING IN ONE DIRECTION
AND LOW READING WHEN OHMMETER LEADS ARE REVERSED
FIGURE 8. TESTING DIODES
OHMM ETER --,~~~~4iia OHMMETER
GATE AND ANODE
FIGURE 9. TESTING SCR's FIGURE 10. TESTING SCR's FIGURE II. TESTING SCR's
REPLACING RECTIFIERS (SCR'S AND DIODES)
1. Unsolder leadwires from terminals.
TESTING SCR's 2. Use proper size wrenches to hold the body while
SCR's mount on the outer heat sinks of the exciter- removing the nut.
regulator chassis assembly. They are labeled Q4 and 3. Push the rectifier free of its mounting hole in
Q5 as shown in Figure 3. the heat sink.
1. Remove the leads from both SCR's. 4. Insert new rectifier into its mounting hole in the
2. Determine polarity of ohmmeter leads. Connect heat sink. Using nut and washer provided, secure
the ohmmeter leads to the anode and cathode as rectifier to heat sink.
shown in Figure 9. Use the high scale on the 5. Torque the two large diodes on the center heat
ohmmeter. The resistance should be 1 megohm sink of exciter-regulator chassis assembly to
or greater. 20-25 in. lb.
NOTE: The cathod(> i,<; the longer lead. the gate 6. Torque the small diode on center heat sink of
is the shorter lead. The anode is the threaded exciter-regulator chassis assembly to 12-15 in. lb.
stud. 7. Torque SCR's on outer heat sinks to 20-25 in. lb.
3. Reverse the leads as shown in Figure 10. The 8. On brushless generators, torque diodes on rotating
resistance again should be 1 megohm or greater. exciter assembly ttl 15 in. lb.
4. With the leads connected as in Step 3, and using 9. Solder leadwires to new rectifiers.
the low scale on the ohmmeter, short the gate to
the anode as shown in Figure 11. The resistance
should drop to a low value.
~I U>A.SLOW SLOWI It:
~~~FEAT (MOM) ~--------~~~~--~~--,
~ISTAR" (MOIol) rh
( 0 MANUAL SWITCH
@ HOUR METER
~'rUEL -;-OL:-- I O.S.R
I 3 @
START SOL. RELAY @
I @ O.S.RELAY