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Universal Diesel M 18 Technical Manual



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                              MANUAL NO. 1-89




---UNIVERSAL--
    AMERICAN LEADER IN MARINE POWER SlNCE 1898




      SERVICE MANUAL



                 MODELS
    M-12      M2-t2 M3-20             M4-30
    M-18      M-25  M-25XP             M-35




-------[IDID]]~o~I-----
                              MANUAL NO. 1-89




---UNIVERSAL--
    AMERICAN LEADER IN MARINE POWER SlNCE 1898




      SERVICE MANUAL



                 MODELS
    M-12      M2-t2 M3-20             M4-30
    M-18      M-25  M-25XP             M-35




-------[IDID]]~o~I-----
                                              CONTENTS


NOTE: Refer to the beginning of the individual sections for a complete table of contents for that section.


SECTION I - SPECIFICATIONS .................................................... 1-38
SECTION II - PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ........................................ 39-44
SECTION III - CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION .................................... 45-50
SECTION IV - LUBRICATION, COOLING, AND FUEL SYSTEMS ....................... 51-69
SECTION V - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ............................................. 71-102
SECTION VI - DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLy ................................ 103-150
SECTION VII - DYNAMO AND REGULATOR ...................................... 151-165
TROUBLESHOOTING ......................................................... 166-175
NOTES




  ii
                                                   SECTION I - SPECIFICATIONS


Model M-12 ..................................................................... 2,3
Model M2-12 .................................................................... 4,5
Model M3-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,7
Model M4-30 .................................................................... 8,9
Model M-18 ................................................................... 10,11
Model M-25 ................................................................... 12,13
Model M-25XP ................................................................. 14,15
Model M-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,17
Parts Specifications ............................................................. 18-33
Bolt Torques ................................................................... 34-38




                                                                         1
                                        UNIVERSAL MODEL M-12


                                                                        Model 12
Horsepower                                                             10 @ 3600

No. of Cylinders                                                            2

Bore x Stroke                                                        2.52 x 2.45 in.

Cubic Inch                                                                  25

Maximum R.P.M.                                                             3600

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                          2600 - 3300 R. P. M.

Compression Ratio                                                          23:1

Electrical Equipment                                        12 Volt - 51 Amp WIG low Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. Qts.)                                         1.5 - 2.0

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:          FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                               FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. ''fl:' or GM-DEXRON - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                     2:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                    2.3 Qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 V4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 300209

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                           1751bs.

Injection Nozzle                                                      PIN 301302



Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 Qt. of Trans. Oil, 2 Qts. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                       2
                                      UNIVERSAL MODEL M-12

                                        OIL FILL CAP    GLOW PWGS
                                                                              RS

                                                                             THERMOSTAT HSG.

                                                                 ,~
             FUEL RETURN
                                                                               AIR BREATHER
      FUEL FILTER
  (AIR BLEED ON TOP)
                                                                               FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE
    SEA WATER
   TO EXHAUST                                                            ~--STOP          LEVER

 CLEAN OUT COVER ~_ _ _~

TRANS. DIP STICK & ---"7:'!0'T:                                                     THROTTLE
  OIL FILL HOLE



                                                                                     DIP STICK


 ENGINE COUPLI                                                               BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN


              TRANS. DRAIN
                                                              ~OILPAN
             (OPPOSITE SIDE)      BELL HSG.     TIMING PORT      OIL DRAIN

                                              COOLANT FILL CAP

    COOLANT BLEED VALVE ~
                                                   /                          EXHAUST FLANGE
   TEMP. SENDER - - - - -
                                                                                MANIFOLD DRAIN

  F.W. CIRCULATING - - -
        PUMP

                                                                      ~_-          HEAT EXCHANGER

     SEA WATER----··                                                                DRAIN & ZINC
       PUMP


                                                                                    PANEL PWG




              V-BELT                                                  ~        FLEX MOUNTS




                                                 STARTER




                                                    3
                                       UNIVERSAL MODEL M2-12

                                                                            M2-12
Horsepower                                                             11   @   3600

No. of Cylinders                                                                2

Bore x Stroke                                                         2.6 x 2.45 in

Cubic Inch                                                                   26

Maximum R.P.M.                                                              3600

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                          2600 - 3300 R. P. M.

Compression Ratio                                                           23:1

Electrical Equipment                                        12 Volt - 51 Amp WIGlow Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. ats.)                                          1.5 - 2.0

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:           FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                               FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. "A" or GM-DEXRON® - " Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                      2:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                    2.3 ats.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 Y4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 300209

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                           1751bs.

Injection Nozzle                                                      PIN 302735



Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 ats. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                      4
                                    UNIVERSAL MODEL M2-12

                                                         GLOW PWGS
                                                                         INJECTORS

                                                                                 THERMOSTAT HSG.
              FUEL RETURN

      FUEL FILTER
                                                                 ~
                                                                ..                         R BREATHER

  (AIR BLEED ON TOP)
                                                                                       FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE
    SEA WATER
   TO EXHAUST                                                             G"?'#~---STOP                   LEVER

 CLEAN OUT COVER -      _ _ _~

TRANS. DIP STICK &
  OIL FILL HOLE
                     ---"""7                                                                         THROTTLE



TRANSMISSION0                                                                                        DIP STICK


 ENGINE COU                                                                      I;;n.." " " , " ,   COOLANT DRAIN


               TRANS. DRAIN
                                                            ~OILPAN
              (OPPOSITE SIDE)   BELL HSG.     TIMING PORT            OIL DRAIN

                                            COOLANT FILL CAP         MANIFOLD
    COOLANT BLEED VALVE
                                                 /                               EXHAUST FLANGE
  TEMP. SENDER - - - - - - . A8


  F.W. CIRCULATING --~
        PUMP

                                                                          _ - - - HEAT EXCHANGER

    SEA WATER - - - - -                                                                          DRAIN & ZINC
      PUMP



                                                                                                PANEL PWG




                                                                         ~          FLEX MOUNTS



                                                            STARTER SOLENOID
                                               STARTER




                                                  5
                                       UNIVERSAL MODEL M3-20

Horsepower                                                               18 @ 3600

No. of Cylinders                                                              3
Bore x Stroke                                                            2.60 x 2.45

Cubic Inch                                                                  38.9

Maximum R.P.M.                                                              3600

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                                 2600 - 3300

Compression Ratio                                                           23:1

Electrical Equip.                                            12 Volt - 51 Amp W/Glow Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. ats.)                                              3.2

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:           FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                                FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK
                                   ®
  (Type Aft. "A" or GM-DEXRON          - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                       2:1

Coolant FWC (SO/50 Solution Approx.)                                       3 ats.

Exhaust Flange                                                           1 V4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                                 #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                              PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                               PIN 300209

Engine Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                       Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                             2351bs.

Injection Nozzles                                                        PIN 302735



Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 ats. Lube
Oil, 1 Gal. SO/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                       6
                                       UNIVERSAL MODEL M3-20
                                          OIL FILL CAP      GLOW PWGS


               FUEL RETURN

       FUEL FILTER
                             FUEL LINES

                                                    \                           THERMOSTAT HSG.

                                                                                    AIR BREATHER
   (AIR BLEED ON TO
                                                                                     FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE
     SEA WATER
    TO EXHAUST
                                                                            ~~-------S'~PLEVER

  CLEAN OUT COVER

TRANS. DIP STICK &
  OIL FILL HOLE


TRANSMISSION
                                                                                         DIP STICK


 ENGINE COUPLING                                                                      CK COOLANT DRAIN


               TRANS. DRAIN
              (OPPOSITE SIDE)      BELL HSG.     TIMING PORT

                                               COOLANT FILL CAP     MANIFOLD



                                                                  ~
    COOLANT BLEED VALVE ~.

                                                                                   EXHAUST FLANGE
   TEMP. SENDER - - - - -
                                                                        /            MANIFOLD DRAIN

  F.W. CIRCULATING
        PUMP                                                                          PANEL PWG

                                                                               _ _-HEAT EXCHANGER

     SEA WATER
       PUMP                                                                             DRAIN & ZINC




              V-BELT                                                           \    FLEX MOUNTS
                      OIL FILTER

                                                               STARTER SOLENOID
                                                  STARTER




                                                    7
                                       UNIVERSAL MODEL M4-30

Horsepower                                                               25   @   3600

No. of Cylinders                                                               4

Bore x Stroke                                                            2.60 x 2.45

Cubic Inch                                                                    51.9

Maximum R.P.M.                                                                3600

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                                 2600 - 3300

Compression Ratio                                                             23:1

Electrical Equip.                                            12 Volt - 51 Amp WIG low Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. ats.)                                                4

  (SAE) 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) -              CAUTION:       FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                                              FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK
                                   ®
  (Type Aft. ''/1\' or GM-DEXRON       - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                        2:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                      31/2 ats.

Exhaust Flange                                                           1 V4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                                 #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                              PIN 298854

011 Filter                                                               PIN 300209

Engine Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                       Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                                 270

Injection Nozzles                                                        PIN 302735



Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 ats. Lube
Oil, 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                        8
                                   UNIVERSAL MODEL M4-30
                                       OIL FILL CAP     GLOW PWGS
                          FUEL LINES
                                                                          THERMOSTAT HSG.
             FUEL RETURN

      FUEL FILTER
  (AIR BLEED ON TOP)
                                                                                EL AIR BLEED VALVE
    SEA WATER
   TO EXHAUST                                                                      STOP LEVER

 CLEAN OUT COVER

TRANS. DIP STICK & _ __
  OIL FILL HOLE                                                        ----THROTTLE


TRANSMISSION
                                                                                   DIP STICK


ENGINE COUPLING                                                           BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN



              TRANS.      N
             (OPPOSITE SIDE)   BELL HSG.

                                           COOLANT FILL CAP



                                                                              HAUST FLANGE

                                                                               MANIFOLD DRAIN

 F.W. CIRCULATING                                                               PANEL PWG
       PUMP - - - - - - - +

                                                                       - - - HEAT EXCHANGER

    SEA WATER
                                                                         ~--      DRAIN & ZINC
      PUMP




             V-BELT                                                    ~      FLEX MOUNTS



                                                           STARTER SOLENOID
                                              STARTER




                                                 9
                                       UNIVERSAL MODEL M-18


Horsepower                                                            14 @ 3200

No. of Cylinders                                                            2

Bore x Stroke                                                         2.60 x 2.45

Cubic Inch                                                                  35

Maximum R.P.M.                                                             3200

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                           2100/2600 R. P. M.

Compression Ratio                                                          21:1

Electrical Equipment                                       12 Volt - 51 Amp WIG low Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. ats.)                                         2.5 - 3.0

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:          FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                               FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. "1\' or GM-DEXRON - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                     2:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                    3.0 qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 V4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 300209

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                           2551bs.

Injection Nozzle                                                 PIN 299517       &299518


Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 ats. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                      10
                                UNIVERSAL MODEL M-18


                                                OIL FILL CAP
                                                               GLOW PLUGS

                FUEL RETU
                                                                            THERMOSTAT HSG.
        FUEL FILTER
      (BLEED ON TOP)


                                                                        FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE
SEA WATER
TO EXHAUST                                                                   P LEVER



                                                                            THROTTLE

TRANSMISSION
               "---.

                                                                       BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN

SHIFT LEVER




                                  TIMING PORT

        COOLANT AIR BLEED                             DECOMPRESSION LEVER
    TEMP. SENDER            \
   BY·PASS HOSE        ~
                                                               EXHAUST FLANGE
                                                                      EXHAUST DRAIN
                                                                          HEAT EXCHANGER
SEA WATER
  PUMP - - -
                                                                          PANEL PLUG

ALTERNATOR                                                                DRAIN & ZINC
                                                                           TRANS. DIP STICK &
                                                                             OIL FILL HOLE
      V·BELT
                                                                     @--o::::",GINE COUPLING

                                                               "*11--- TRANS. DRAIN




                                OIL PAN    OIL DRAIN HOSE




                                          11
                                       UNIVERSAL MODEL M-25


Horsepower                                                            21   @   3200

No. of Cylinders                                                             3

Bore x Stroke                                                         2.83 x 2.76

Cubic Inch                                                                  52

Maximum R.P.M.                                                             3000

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                           2100/2600 R.P.M.

Compression Ratio                                                          21:1

Electrical Equipment                                        12 Volt - 51 Amp WIG low Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. ats.)                                             4.0

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:           FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                                       FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. "Pi' or GM-DEXRON - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                      2:1

Coolant FWC( 50/50 Solution Approx.)                                       5 qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 Y4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 300209

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.                                                           285Ibs.)

Injection Nozzle                                                 PIN 299517       &299518


Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 ats. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                      12
                                  UNIVERSAL MODEL M-25



                                        FUEL LINES
                                                                  AIR BREATHER
                                                                       NJECTOR PUMP

       EXHAUST FLANGE                                                   INJ. PUMP BLEED

       GLOW PLUGS - - - - - : :
HEAT EX. DRAIN & ZIN
                                                                             THROTTLE
CLEAN OUT COVERS
TRANS. DIP STICK &                                                           STOP LEVER
  OIL FILL HOLE
                                                                         rr--DIP STICK
                                                                           BLOCK COOLANT
                                                                               DRAIN




        TIMING PORT
                        BELL HOUSING                   OIL DRAIN HOSE
                                            FUEL FILTER
                                   (AIR BLEED ON TOP OF FILTER)




COOLANT AIR BLEED-_ _
   TEMP. SENDER--
                                                                   MANIFOLD DRAIN

F.W. CIRCULATING                                                     HEAT EXCHANGER
      PUMP
                                                                          PANEL PLUG
    SEA WATER
      PUMP                                                                DRAIN & ZINC
ALTERNATOR
                                                                        STARTER SOLENOID
   OIL FILTER----


                                                                          TRANSMISSION



                                                                  TRANS. DRAIN PLUG



                     REGULATOR




                                            13
                                      UNIVERSAL MODEL M-25XP


Horsepower                                                             23   @   3200

No. of Cylinders                                                             3

Bore x Stroke                                                          2.95 x 2.76

Cubic Inch                                                                  56.6

Maximum R.P.M.                                                              3200

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                           2100/2600 R.P.M.

Compression Ratio                                                           21:1

Electrical Equipment                                        12 Volt - 51 Amp WIG low Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. Ots.)                                        4.0 to 4.3

  (SAE 30 HD.(CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:           FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                                       FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. "A" or GM-DEXRON - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                      2:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                     5 qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 Y4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 300209

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                           2851bs.

Injection Nozzle                                                 PIN 299517       &299518


Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 Ots. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                      14
                                 UNIVERSAL MODEL M-25XP
                                    OIL FILL CAP


                                                                     THERMOSTAT HSG.

                                                                        AIR BREATHER
     FUEL FILTER
 (AIR BLEED ON TOP)
                                                                        FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE

    SEA WATER
   TO EXHAUST                                                 _ - - - - STOP LEVER



TRANS. DIP STICK &                                                          . THROTTLE
  OIL FILL HOLE

TRANSMISSION
                                                                                DIP STICK


ENGINE COUPLING                                                      ~n_"",n.   COOLANT DRAIN



                TRANS. DRAIN
               (OPPOSITE SIDE)

                                                          MANIFOLD

   COOLANT BLEED VALVE ~ .

  TEMP. SENDER -     _ _ __

  BY-PASS HOSE                                                           MANIFOLD DRAIN

 F.W. CIRCULATING---                                                      PANEL PWG
       PUMP

                                                                 .---HEAT EXCHANGER

    SEA WATER                                                        ---DRAIN & ZINC
      PUMP



    ALTERN A




                                                                                MOUNTS



                                                     STARTER SOLENOID
                                           STARTER




                                              15
                                       UNIVERSAL MODEL M-35

Horsepower                                                            30   @   3200

No. of Cylinders                                                             4

Bore x Stroke                                                         2.96 x 2.76

Cubic Inch                                                                 75.5

Maximum R.P.M.                                                             3200

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                           2100-2600 R.P.M.

Compression Ratio                                                          21:1

Electrical Equipment                                        12 Volt - 51 Amp WIG low Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. ats.)                                        4.5 to 5.0

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:           FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                                       FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. "/l:' or GM-DEXRON - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                      2:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                       5 qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 Y4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 300209

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.                                       165<>to 1950

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                           3351bs.

Injection Nozzle                                                 PIN 299517       &299518


Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 ats. LUb. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                      16
                               UNIVERSAL MODEL M-35




                               OIL FILL CAP
                                                    THERMOSTAT HOUSING

            GLOW PLUGS                                          BY·PASS HOSE

   SALT WATER TO
      EXHAUST                                                         FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE

   CLEAN OUT
    COVERS
                                                                        THROTTLE
TRANS. DIP STICK &
  OIL FILL HOLE

                                                                      LOCK COOLANT DRAIN

 SHIFT LEVER

                                                                     ~FLEX MOUNTS
TRANSMISSION
                                                   FUEL FILTER
                                               (AIR BLEED ON TOP)
               BELL HOUSING




                                COOLANT FILL CAP

                                                   FUEL LINES


     TEMP. SENDERS~                                                     REGULATOR
 F.W. CIRCULATING
                                                                    EXHAUST FLANGE
       PUMP


SEA WATER---
  PUMP                                                                   HEAT EXCHANGER


   ALTERNATO
                                                                        ENGINE COUPLING



         OIL FILTER                                                 TRANS DRAIN



                         OIL DRAIN
                           HOSE
                                       OIL PAN




                                              17
                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

ENGINE BODY
Cylinder Head

               Item                           Model 12                            Model 2-12
 Cylinder head surface                         .003 mm                               .003 mm
  flatness                                    (0.0012 in.)                          (0.0012 in.)
                                           0.60 to 0.80 mm                       0.60 to 0.80 mm
 Top clearance
                                         (0.0236 to 0.315 in.)                (0.0236 to 0.0315 in.)

                      Free                 1.15 to 1.30 mm                       1.15 to 1.30 mm
                                        (0.0453 to 0.0512 in.)                (0.0453 to 0.0512 in.
 Gasket thickness
                      Tightened            1.05 to 1.15 mm                       1.05 to 1.15 mm
                                        (0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)                (0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)

  Gasket shim thickness                           -                                     -

 Compression pressure                         3.09 MPa                              3.09 MPa
                                       (31.5 kgf/cm2, 448 psi)               (31.5 kgf/cm2, 448 psi)
  Variance among cylinders                        -                                     -
Valves (IN., EX.)
 Valve clearance (cold)                    0.15 to 0.18 mm                       0.15 to 0.18 mm
                                         (0.006 to 0.007 in.)                  (0.006 to 0.007 in.)
 Valve seat width                             2.12 mm                               2.12 mm
                                             (0.0835 in.)                          (0.0835 in.)
 Valve seat angle                             0.785 rad.                            0.785 rad.
                                                (45.0 0)                              (45.0 0)
 Valve face angle                             0.785 rad.                            0.785 rad.
                                                (45.0 0)                              (45.00)
 Valve recessing                           0.75 to 0.95 mm                       0.75 to 0.95 mm
                                        (0.0295 to 0.0374 in.)                (0.0295 to 0.0374 in.)
 Clearance between valve                 0.030 to 0.057 mm                      0.030 to 0.057 mm
  stem and guide                       (0.00118 to 0.00224 in)               (0.00118 to 0.00224 in.)
  Valve stem 0.0.                        5.968 to 5.980 mm                      5.968 to 5.980 mm
                                      (0.23496 to 0.23543 in.)              (0.23496 to 0.23543 in.)
  Valve guide 1.0.                        6.010 to 6.025 mm                    6.010 to 6.025 mm
                                       (0.23661 to 0.23721 in.)             (0.23661 to 0.23721 in.)
Valve Timing
                                           0.35 rad. (20°)                       0.35 rad. (20°)
                      Open                  before TOC                            before TOC
 Inlet valve
                                           0.79 rad. (45°)                       0.79 rad. (45°)
                      Close
                                              after TOC                             after TOC
                                           0.87 rad. (50°)                       0.87 rad. (50°)
                      Open
                                            before TOC                            before TOC
 Exhaust valve
                      Close                0.26 rad. (15°)                       0.26 rad. (15°)
                                             after TOC                             after TOC
Valve Springs
 Free length                                  31.6 mm                               31.6 mm
                                             (1.244 in.)                           (1.244 in.)

 Tilt                                            -                                     -
                                            64.7 N/27 mm                          64.7 N/27 mm
 Tension
                                  (6.6 kgf/27mm, 14.6 Ibs.l1.063 in.   (6.6 kgf/27 mm, 14.6 Ibs.l1.063 in.)




                                                      18
                                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




           Model 3-20                           Model 4-30                    Available Limit
              .003 mm                             .003 mm                         0.05 mm
             (0.0012 in.                         (0.0012 in.)                    (0.0019 in.)
          0.60 to 0.80 mm                      0.60 to 0.80 mm
       (0.0236 to 0.0315 in.)               (0.0236 to 0.0315 in.)
                                                                                      -
          1.15 to 1.30 mm                       1.15 to 1.3 mm
       (0.0453 to 0.0512 in.)               (0.0453 to 0.0512 in.)
                                                                                      -
          1.05 to 1.15 mm                      1.05 to 1.15 mm
       (0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)               (0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)
                                                                                      -

                 -                                    -                               -
             3.09 MPa                             3.09 MPa                       23.7 kgf/cm2
      (31.5 kgf/cm2, 448 psi               (31.5 kgf/cm2, 448 psi)                 (337 psi)
                                                      -                              10%


         0.15 to 0.18 mm                       0.15 to 0.18 mm
        (0.006 to 0.007 in.                  (0.006 to 0.007 in.)
                                                                                      -
             2.12 mm                              2.12 mm
            (0.0835 in.)                         (0.0835 in.)
                                                                                      -
             0.785 rad.                           0.785 rad.
               (45.0)°                              (45.0)°
                                                                                      -
             0.785 rad.                           0.785 rad.
               (45.0°)                              (45.0°)
                                                                                      -
          0.75 to 0.95 mm                      0.75 to 0.95 mm                     1.2 mm
       (0.0295 to 0.0374 in.)               (0.0295 to 0.0374 in.)                (0.047 in.)
         0.030 to 0.057 mm                    0.030 to 0.057 mm                    0.10 mm
      (0.00118 to 0.00224 in.)             (0.00118 to 0.00224 in.)              (0.0039 in.)
        5.968 to 5.980 mm                     5.968 to 5.98 mm                     5.93 mm
     (0.23496 to 0.23543 in.)             (0.23496 to 0.23543 in.)               (0.2335 in.)
        6.Q10 to 6.025 mm                     6.010 to 6.025 mm
     (0.23661 to 0.23721 in.)              (0.23661 to 0.23721 in.)
                                                                                      -


          0.35 rad. (20°)                      0.35 rad. (20°)
           before TOe                           before TOe
                                                                                      -
          0.79 rad. (45°)                       0.79 rad. (45°
             after TOe                            after TOe
                                                                                      -
          0.87 rad. (50°)                      0.87 rad. (50°)
           before TOe                           before TOe
                                                                                      -
          0.26 rad. (15°)                      0.26 rad. (15°)
            after TOe                            after TOe
                                                                                      -


             31.6 mm                              31.6 mm                          28.4 mm
            (1.244 in.)                          (1.244 in.)                      (1.118 in.)
                                                                                  1.2 mm
                -                                    -                           (0.047 in.)
           64.7 N27 mm                          64.7 N/27 mm                   5.6 kgf/27 mm
(6.6 kgf/27 mm, 14.6 Ibs.l1.063 in.) (6.6 kgf/27 mm, 14.6 Ibs.l1.063 in.)    (12.3 Ibs.l1.063 in.)




                                                                      19
                                    ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

ENGINE BODY

Cylinder Head

               Item                          Model 18                             Model 25
 Cylinder head surface                         0.5 mm                              0.05 mm
  flatness                                   (0.002 in.)                         (0.0020 in.)
                                           0.6 to 0.8 mm                        0.6 to 0.8 mm
 Top clearance
                                       (0.0236 to 0.0315 in.)               (0.0236 to 0.0315 in.)

                      Free                1.15 to 1.30 mm                       1.15 to 1.30 mm
                                       (0.0453 to 0.0512 in.)                (0.0453 to 0.0512 in.
 Gasket thickness
                      Tightened           1.05 to 1.15 mm                      1.05 to 1.15 mm
                                       (0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)               (0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)

  Gasket shim thickness                        0.2 mm                               0.2 mm
                                             (0.0079 in.)                         (0.0079 in)

 Compression pressure                        3.00 MPa                             3.00 MPa
                                      (29.5 kgf/cm 2 , 427 pSi)            (29.5 kaf/cm 2 , 427 psi)
  Variance among cylinders                       -                                    -
Valves (IN., EX.)

 Valve clearance (cold)                  0.145 to 0.185 mm                   0.145 to 0.185 mm
                                         (0.006 to 0.007 in.)                (0.006 to 0.007 in.)
 Valve seat width                             2.1 mm                               2.1 mm
                                             (0.083 in.)                          (0.083 in.)
 Valve seat angle                            0.785 rad.                           0.785 rad.
                                               (45.0°)                              (45.0°)
 Valve face angle                            0.785 rad.                           0.785 rad.
                                               (45.0°)                              (45.0°)
 Valve recessing                           0.9 to 1.1 mm                        0.9 to 1.1 mm
                                        (0.035 to 0.043 in.)                 (0.035 to 0.043 in.)
 Clearance between valve                 0.035 to 0.065 mm                    0.035 to 0.065 mm
  stem and guide                        (0.0014 to 0.0026 in)               (0.0014 to 0.0026 in.)
  Valve stem 0.0.                        6.960 to 6.975 mm                    9.960 to 6.975 mm
                                        (0.274 to 0.2746 in.)                (0.274 to 0.2746 in.)
  Valve guide 1.0.                       7.010 to 7.025 mm                    7.010 to 7.025 mm
                                       (0.2759 to 0.2765 in.)               (0.2759 to 0.2765 in.)

Valve Timing
                                           0.35 rad. (20°)                      0.35 rad. (20°)
                      Open                  before TOC                           before TOe
 Inlet valve
                                           0.79 rad. (45°)                      0.79 rad. (45°)
                      Close
                                              after TOC                           after TOC
                                           0.87 rad. (50°)                      0.87 rad. (50°)
                      Open
                                            before TOC                           before TOC
 Exhaust valve
                      Close                0.26 rad. (15°)                      0.26 rad. (15°)
                                             after TOC                            after TDC
Valve Spriings
 Free length                           35.1 mm to 35.6 mm                   35.1 mm to 35.6 mm
                                        (1.382 to 1.402 in.)                 (1.382 to 1.402 in.)

 Tilt                                          1.3 mm                               1.3 mm
                                             (0.051 in.)                          (0.051 in.)

 Tension                                    74. N/31 mm                          74 N/31 mm
                                  (7.5 kQf/31mm, 16.5 Ibs.l1.22 in.   (7.5 kaf/31 mm, 16.5 Ibs.l1.22 in.)




                                                      20
                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




    Model 25XP                   Model 35                    Allowable Limit
       0.05 mm                    0.05 mm
      (0.0020 in.)               (0.0019 in.)
                                                                      -
    0.6 to 0.8 mm              0.6 to 0.8 mm
(0.0236 to 0.0315 in.)     (0.0236 to 0.0315 in.)
                                                                      -
   1.15 to 1.30 mm            1.15 to 1.30 mm
(0.0453 to 0.0512 in.)     (0.0453 to 0.0512 in.)                     -
   1.05 to 1.15 mm            1.05 to 1.15 mm
(0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)     (0.0413 to 0.0453 in.)
                                                                      -
        0.2 mm                    0.2 mm
      (0.0079 in.)              (0.0079. in.)
                                                                      -
       3.00 MPa                   3.09 MPa                      23.7 kgf/cm2
(29.5 kgf/cm2, 427 psi)    (31.5 kgf/cm2, 448 psi)                (337 psi)
           -                          -                               -

  0.145 to 0.185 mm          0.145 to 0.185 mm
  (0.006 to 0.007 in.)       (0.006 to 0.007 in.)
                                                                      -
       2.1 mm                     2.12 mm
      (0.083 in.)                (0.0835 in)
                                                                      -
      0.785 rad.                 0.785 rad.
                                                                      -
         (45°)                      (45°)
      0.785 rad.                 0.794 rad.
         (45°)                     (45.5°)
                                                                      -
    0.9 to 1.1 mm              0.9 to 1.1 mm                       1.3 mm
 (0.035 to 0.043 in.)       (0.035 to 0.043 in.)                 (0.051 in.)
 0.035 to 0.065 mm          0.035 to 0.065 mm                      0.1 mm
(0.0014 to 0.0026 in.)     (0.0014 to 0.0026 in.)                 (0.004 in)
    6.960 to 6.975           6.960 to 6.975 mm
(0.2740 to 0.2746 in.)      (0.274 to 0.2746 in.)
                                                                      -
  7.010 to 7.025 mm          7.010 to 7.025 mm
(0.2759 to 0.2765 in.)     (0.2759 to 2.2765 in.)
                                                                     -


    0.35 rad. (20°)            0.35 rad. (20°)
     before TOe                 before TOe
                                                                     -
    0.79 rad. (45°)            0.79 rad. (45°)
       after TOe                 after TOe
                                                                     -
    0.87 rad. (50°)            0.87 rad. (50°)
     before TOe                 before TOe
                                                                     -
    0.26 rad. (15°)            0.26 rad. (15°)
      after TOe                  after TOe
                                                                     -


    35.1 to 35.6 mm          35.1 to 35.6 mm                      34.8 mm
(1.382 in. to 1.402 in.)    (1.382 to 1.402 in.)                  (1.37 in.)
        1.3 mm                     1.3 mm
                                                                     -
      (0.051 in.)                (0.051 in.)
     74 N/31 mm                 74 N/31 mm                      63 N/31 mm
      7.5 Kgf/cm2                7.5 Kgf/cm2                     6.4 Kgf/cm2
  (16.5 Ibs, 1.22 in.)       (16.5 Ibs, 1.22 in.)            (14.1 Ibs, 1.22 in.)




                                                     21
                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS



Rocker Arm

               Item                        Model 12                   Model 2-12
 Clearance between rocker               0.Q16 to 0.068 mm           0.Q16 to 0.068 mm
 arm and bushing                     (0.00063 to 0.00268 in.)   (0.00063 to 0.000268 in.)
                                       10.473 to 10.484 in.      10.473 to 10.484 mm
  Rocker arm shaft 0. D.
                                     (0.41232 to 0.41276 in.)   (0.41232 to 0.41276 in.)
                                       10.500 to 10.541 mm        10.500 to 10.541 mm
  Rocker arm bushing I.D.
                                     (0.41339 to 0.41500 in.)   (0.41339 to 0.41500 in.)
Camshaft
                                             0.Q1 mm                    0.Q1 mm
 Camshaft alignment
                                           (0.0004 in.)               (0.0004 in.)
                                            26.88 mm                   26.88 mm
 Cam height (IN., EX.)
                                           (1.0583 in.)               (1.0583 in.)
                                        0.050 to 0.091 mm          0.050 to 0.091 mm
 Oil clearance of camshaft
                                     (0.00197 to 0.00358 in.)   (0.00197 to 0.00358 in.)
                                      32.934 to 32.950 mm        32.934 to 32.950 mm
  Camshaft journal O.D.
                                     (1.29662 to 1.29725 in.)   (1.29662 to 1.29725 in.)
                                       33.000 to 33.025 mm        33.000 to 33.025 mm
  Camshaft bearing I.D.
                                     (1.29921 to 1.30020 in.)   (1.29921 to 1.30020 in.)
Timing Gear
                                         0.04 to 0.12 mm            0.04 to 0.12 mm
 Timing gear backlash
                                      (0.0016 to 0.0047 in.)     (0.0016 to 0.0047 in.)
                                         0.20 to 0.51 mm            0.20 to 0.51 mm
 Idle gear side clearance
                                      (0.0079 to 0.0201 in.)     (0.0079 to 0.0201 in.)
 Clearance between idle gear            0.Q16 to 0.045 mm          0.020 to 0.054 mm
 shaft and idle gear bushiing        (0.00063 to 0.00177 in.)   (0.00079 to 0.00213 in.)
                                       15.973 to 15.984 mm        19.967 to 19.980 mm
  Idle gear shaft O.D.
                                     (0.62886 to 0.62929 in.)   (0.78610 to 0.78661 in.)
                                       16.000 to 16.018 mm       20.000 to 20.021 mm
  Idle gear bushing I.D.
                                     (0.62992 to 0.63063 in.)   (0.78740 to 0.78823 in.)
Cylinder (Liner)
                                       64.000 to 64.019 mm        66.000 to 66.019 mm
 Cylinder (Liner) I.D.
                                     (2.51969 to 2.52043 iin.   (2.59843 to 2.59917 in.)
                                             +0.5 mm                   +0.5 mm
 Oversize of cylinder liner
                                           (+0.020 in.)               (+0.020 in.)
Piston/Piston Ring
                                       18.000 to 18.011 mm        18.000 to 18.011 mm
 Piston pin hole I.D.
                                     (0.79866 to 0.70910 in.)   (0.79866 to 0.70910 in.)
                      Compression       0.085 to 0.112 mm          0.085 to 0.112 mm
 Piston ring           ring 2        (0.00335 to 0.00441 in.    (0.00335 to 0.00441 in.
 clearance                              0.02 to 0.06 mm             0.02 to 0.06 mm
                      Oil Ring
                                     (0.0008 to 0.0024 inL)       (0.008 to 0.0024 in.)
                      Comprerssion       0.25 to 0.40 mm            0.25 to 0.40 mm
                       ring 1,2       (0.0098 to 0.0157 in.)     (0.0098 to 0.0157 in.)
 Ring gap
                                         0.20 to 0.40 mm            0.20 to 0.40 mm
                      Oil ring
                                      (0.0079 to 0.0157 in.)     (0.0079 to 0.0157 in.)
                                            +0.5 mm                    +0.5 mm
 Oversize of piston rings
                                           (+0.020 in.)               (+0.020 in.)




                                                     22
                                        ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




    Model 3-20                    Model 4-30                    Allowable Limit
    0.016 to 0.068 mm           0.016 to 0.068 mm                   0.15 mm
(0.00063 to 0.000268 in.)   (0.00063 to 0.000268 in.)              (0.0059 in.)
  10.473 to 10.484 mm        10.473 to 10.484 mm
 (0.41232 to 0.41276 in.)   (0.41232 to 0.41276 in.)
                                                                       -
  10.500 to 10.541 mm         10.500 to 10.541 mm
(0.41339 to 0.41500 in.)      (0.41339 to 0.415 in.)
                                                                       -


        0.01 mm                    0.01 mm                          0.08 mm
       (0.0004 in.)               (0.0004 in.)                     (0.0031 in.)
        26.88 mm                    26.88 mm                        26.83 mm
       (1.0583 in.)                (1.0583 in.)                    (1.0563 in.)
   0.050 to 0.091 mm           (0.05 to 0.091 mm                    0.15 mm
(0.00197 to 0.00358 in.)    (0.00197 to 0.00358 in.)               (0.0059 in.)
 32.934 to 32.950 mm         32.934 to 32.950 mm
(1.29662 to 1.29725 in.)    (1.29662 to 1.29725 in.)
                                                                       -
 33.000 to 33.025 mm         33.000 to 33.025 mm
(1.29921 to 1.30020 in.)    (1.29921 to 1.30020 in.)                   -

     0.04 to 0.12 mm            0.04 to 0.12 mm                    0.15 mm
  (0.0016 to 0.0047 in.)     (0.0016 to 0.0047 iin.)              (0.0059 in.)
    0.20 to 0.51 mm             0.20 to 0.51 mm                     0.6 mm
  (0.0079 to 0.021 in.)      (0.0079 to 0.0201 in.)                (0.024 in.)
   0.020 to 0.054 mm           0.020 to 0.054 mm                   0.10 mm
(0.00079 to 0.00213 in.)    (0.00079 to 0.00213 in.)              (0.0039 in.)
  19.967 to 19.980 mm         19.967 to 19.980 mm
(0.78610 to 0.78661 in.)    (0.78610 to 0.78661 in.)
                                                                       -
 20.000 to 20.021 mm         20.000 to 20.021 mm
(0.78740 to 0.78823 in.)    (0.78740 to 0.78823 in.)
                                                                       -


  66.000 to 66.019 mm         66.000 to 66.019 mm                   0.15 mm
(2.59843 to 2.59917 in.)    (2.59843 to 2.59917 in.)            (0.0059 in. wear)
       +0.5 mm                      +0.5 mm
      (+0.020 in.)                 +0.020 in.)
                                                                       -


  18,000 to 18.011 mm         18.000 to 18.011 mm                  18.05 mm
(0.79866 to 0.70910 in.)    (0.79866 to 0.70910 in.)              (0.7106 in.)
   0.085 to 0.112 mm           0.085 to 0.112 mm                    0.15 mm
(0.00335 to 0.00441 in.)    (0.00335 to 0.00441 in.)                (0.0059)
    0.02 to 0.06 mm             0.02 to 0.06 mm                    0.15 mm
  (0.008 to 0.0024 in.)       (0.008 to 0.0024 in.)               (0.0059 in.)
   0.25 to 0.40 mm             0.25 to 0.40 mm                     1.25 mm
 (0.0098 to 0.0157 in.)      (0.0098 to 0.0157 in.)               (0.0492 in.)
   0.20 to 0.40 mm              0.20 to 0.40 mm                    1.25 mm
 (0.0079 to 0.0157 in.)      (0.0079 to 0.0157 in.)               (0.0492 in.)
       +0.5 mm                      +0.5 mm
      (+0.020 in.)                 (+0.020 in.)
                                                                       -




                                                        23
                                    ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS



Rocker Arm

               Item                       Model 18                 Model 25
 Clearance between rocker             0.0013 to 0.065 mm       0.013 to 0.065 mm
 arm and bushing                     (0.0005 to 0.0026 in.)   (0.0005 to 0.0026 in.
                                       10.973 to 10.984 in.   10.973 to 10.984 mm
  Rocker arm shaft O. D.
                                      (0.432 to 0.4324 in.)   (0.432 to 0.4324 in.)
                                     10.997 to 11.038 mm      10.997 to 11.038 mm
  Rocker arm bushing I.D.
                                     (0.433 to 0.4346 in.)    (0.433 to 0.4346 in.)
Camshaft
                                            0.05 mm                  0.05 mm
 Camshaft alignment
                                           (0.002 in.)              (0.002 in.)
                                           26.88 mm                 26.88 mm
 Cam height (IN., EX.)
                                          (1.0583 in.)             (1.0583 in.)
                                      0.050 to 0.091 mm       0.002 to 0.0036 in.)
 Oil clearance of camshaft
                                     (0.002 to 0.0036 in.)    (0.002 to 0.0036 in.)
                                     32.934 to 32.950 mm      32.934 to 32.950 mm
  Camshaft journal O.D.
                                     (1.2966 to 1.2972 in.)   (1.2966 to 1.2972 in.)
                                     33.000 to 33.025 mm      33.000 to 33.025 mm
  Camshaft bearing 1.0.
                                     (1.2992 to 1.3002 in.)   (1.2992 to 1.3002 in.)
Timing Gear
                                       0.042 to 0.115 mm       0.042 to 0.0115 mm
 Timing gear backlash
                                     (0.0017 to 0.0045 in.)   (0.0017 to 0.0045 in.)
                                        0.20 to 0.51 mm          0.20 to 0.51 mm
 Idle gear side clearance
                                     (0.0079 to 0.0201 in.)   (0.0079 to 0.0201 in.)
 Clearance between idle gear          0.016 to 0.045 mm        0.016 to 0.045 mm
 shaft and idle gear bushiing        (0.0007 to 0.0017 in.)   (0.0007 to 0.0017 in.)
                                     17.973 to 17.984 mm      19.973 to 17.984 mm
  Idle gear shaft 0.0.
                                     (0.7076 to 0.7080 in.)   (0.7076 to 0.7080 in.)
                                     18.000 to 18.01<; mm     18.000 to 18.018 mm
  Idle gear bushing I.D.
                                     (0.7087 to 0.7093 in.)   (0.708? to 0.7093 in.)
Cylinder (Liner)
                                     72.000 to 72.019 mm      72.000 to 72.019 mm
 Cylinder (Liner) I.D.
                                     (2.8346 to 2.8353 in.)   (2.8346 to 2.8353 in.)
                                           +0.15 mm                 +0.15 mm
 Oversize of cylinder liner
                                         (+0.0059 in.)            (+0.0059 in.)
Piston/Piston Ring
                                     20.000 to 20.013 mm      20.000 to 20.013 mm
 Piston pin hole I.D.
                                     (0.7874 to 0.7879 in.)   (0.7874 to 0.7879 in.)
                      Compression       0.25 to 0.40 mm          0.25 to 0.40 mm
 Piston ring           ring 2        (0.0098 to 0.0158 in.)   (0.0098 to 0.0158 in.)
 clearance                             0.20 to 0.40 mm           0.20 to 0.40 mm
                      Oil Ring
                                     (0.0078 to 0.015 iin.)    (0.0078 to 0.015 in.)
                      Comprerssio      0.085 to 0.112 mm        0.085 to 0.112 mm
                       ring 1,2      (0.0033 to 0.0044 in.)   (0.0033 to 0.0044 in.
 Ring gap
                                       0.020 to 0.055 mm       0.020 to 0.055 mm
                      Oil ring
                                     (0.0008 to 0.0022 in.)   (0.0008 to 0.0022 in.)
                                           +0.5 mm                  +0.5 mm
 Oversize of piston rings
                                         (+0.0197 in.)            (+0.0197 in.)




                                                    24
                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




  Model 25XP                  Model 35                       Allowable Limit
 0.013 to 0.065 mm         0.013 to 0.065 mm                    0.12 mm
(0.0005 to 0.0026 in.)    (0.0005 to 0026 in.)                 (0.0047 in.)
10.973 to 10.984 mm      10.973 to 10.984 mm
(0.432 to 0.4324 in.)    (0.432 to 0.4324 in.)
                                                                    -
10.997 to 11.038 mm       11.000 to 11.041 mm
(0.433 to 0.4346 in.)    (0.4331 to 0.4347 in.)
                                                                    -


      0.05 mm                   0.05 mm
     (0.002 iin.)              (0.002 in.)
                                                                    -
      26.88 mm                 26.88 mm                         26.83 mm
     (1.0583 in.)             (1.0583 in.)                     (1.0563 in.)
 0.05 to 0.091 mm          0.05 to 0.091 mm
(0.002 to 0.0036 in.)    (0.0.002 to 0.0036 in.)
                                                                    -
32.934 to 32.950 mm      32.934 to 32.950 mm
(1.2966 to 1.2972 in.)   (1.2966 to 1.2972 in.)
                                                                    -
33.000 to 33.025 mm      33.000 to 33.025 mm
(1.2992 to 1.3002 in.)   (1.2992 to 1.3002 in.)
                                                                    -


  0.042 to 0.115 mm        0.042 to 0.115 mm                     0.2 mm
(0.0017 to 0.0045 in.)   (0.0017 to 0.0045 in.)                (0.0079 in.)
   0.20 to 0.51 mm          0.20 to 0.51 mm                      0.6 mm
(0.0079 to 0.0201 in.)   (0.0079 to 0.0201 in.)                 (0.024 in.)
 0.Q16 to 0.045 m m       0.Q16 to 0.045 mm                     0.15 mm
(0.0007 to 0.0017 in.)   (0.0007 to 0.0017 in.)                (0.0059 in.)
17.973 to 17.984 mm      17.973 to 17.984 mm
(0.7076 to 0.7080 in.)   (0.7076 to 0.7080 in.)
                                                                    -
 18.000 to 18.018 in.    18.000 to 18.051 mm
(0.7087 to 0.7093 in.)   (0.7087 to 0.7106 in.)
                                                                    -


75.000 to 75.019 mm      75.000 to 75.019 mm
(2.9528 to 2.9535 in.)   (2.9528 to 2.9535 in.)
                                                                    -
     +0.15 mm            75.500 to 75.519 mm
    (+0.0059 in.)        (2.9725 to 2.9732 in.)
                                                                    -


20.000 to 20.013 mm      20.000 to 20.013 mm                    20.03 mm
(0.7874 to 0.7879 in.)   (0.7874 to 0.7879 in.)                (0.7885 in.)
  0.085 to 0.112 mm        0.085 to 0.112 mm
(0.0033 to 0.0044 in.)   (0.0033 to 0.0044 in.)
                                                                    -
 0.020 to 0.052 mm        0.020 to 0.052 mm
(0.0008 to 0.002 in.)    (0.0008 to 0.002 in.)
                                                                   -
  0.25 to 0.40 mm          0.25 to 0.40 mm
(0.0098 to 0.0158 in.)   (0.0098 to 0.0158 in.)
                                                                   -
  0.20 to 0.40 mm           0.20 to 0.40 mm
(0.0078 to 0.0158 in.)   (0.0078 to 0.0158 in.)
                                                                   -
      +0.5 mm                  +0.5 mm
    (+0.0197 in.)            (+0.0197 in.)
                                                                   -




                                                   25
                                       ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS


Crankshaft

 Item                                           Model 12                             Model 2-12
                                                 0.02 mm                               0.02 mm
 Crankshaft alignment
                                                (0.0008 in.)                          (0.0008 in)
 Oil clearance between                      0.034 to 0.106 mm                      0.034 to 0.106 mm
 crankshaft journal and bearing           (0.00134 to 0.00417 in)               (0.00134 to 0.00417 in.)
                     Front and            39.934 to 39.950 mm)                   39.934 to 39.950 mm
                     intermediate        (1.57221 to 1.57284 in)                (1.57221 to 1.57284 in)
  Journal 0.0.
                     Rear                 43.934 to 49.950 mm                    43.934, to 49.950 mm
                                         (1.72969 to 1.73032 in.)               (1.72969 to 1.73032 in.)
                     Front and             39.984 to 40.040 mm                   39.984 to 40.040 mm
                     intermediate       . (1.57418 to 1.57638 in.)              (1.57418 to 1.57638 in.)
  Bearing 1.0.
                     Rear                 43.984 to 44.026 mm                    43.984 to 44.026 mm
                                         (1.73166 to 1.73331 in.)               (1.73166 to 1.73331 in.)
 Oil clearance between crank                0.019 to 0.081 mm                      0.019 to 0.081 mm
 and bearing                             (0.00075 to 0.00319 in.)               (0.00075 to 0.00319 in.)
  Crank pin 0.0.                          33.959 to 22.975 mm                    33.959 to 33.975 mm
                                         (1.33697 to 1.33760 in.)               (1.33697 to 1.33760 in.)

  Crank pin bearing 1.0.                  33.994 to 34.040 mm                    33.994 to 34.040 mm
                                         (1.33835 to 1.34016 in.)               (1.33835 to 1.34016 in.)
 Crank shaft side clearance                  0.15 to 0.31 mm                        0.15 to 0.31 mm
                                          (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)                 (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)
 Under sizes of crankshaft                 -0.2 mm, -0.4 mm                       -0.2 mm, -0.4 mm
 bearing and crank pin bearing           (-0.008 in., -0.Q16 in.)               (-0.008 in., -0.Q16 in.)

 Oversizes of thrust bearing               +0.2 mm, +0.4 mm                      +0.2 mm, +0.4 mm)
                                         (+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)               (+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)

Connecting Rod

 Connecting rod alignment                           -                                      -
 Oil clearance between piston               0.Q16 to 0.039 mm                     0.Q16 to 0.039 mm
 pin and small end bushing               (0.00063 to 0.00154 in.)              (0.00063 to 0.00154 in.)
  Piston 0.0. Pin                            18.001 to 18.009                    18.001 to 18.009 mm
                                         (0.7087 to 0.70902 in.)                 (0.7087 to 0.7902 in.)
  Small end bushing 1.0 (fitting)          18.025 to 18.040 mm                  18.025 to 18.040 mm
                                         (0.70965 to 0.71024 in.)              (0.70965 to 0.71024 in.)

WBRICATING SYSTEM
                    At idle                       69 KPa                                69 KPa
 Oil pressure       speed                  (0.7 kgt/em2, 10 psi                  (0.7 kgf/em2, 10 psi)
                    At rated                  196 to 441 KPa                         196 to 441 KPa
                    speed           (2.0 to 4.5 kgf/em 2 , 28 to 64 psi)   (2.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm2, 28 to 64 psi)

Oil Pump

 Rotor lobe clearance                               -                                     -
 Radial clearance between                    0.07 to 0.15 mm                       0.07 to 0.15 mm
 outer rotor and pump body                (0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)                (0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)
 End clearance between rotor                0.075 to 0.135 mm                     0.075 to 0.135 mm
 and cover                                (0.0029 to 0.0053 in.)                (0.0029 to 0.0053 in.)

Oil Filter
 Opening pressure of bypass                       98 KPa                                98 KPa
 valve                                    (1.0 kgf/cm 2, 14.2 psi)              (1.0 kgf/cm 2, 14.2 psi)


                                                         26
                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




                                                             Allowable
     Model 3-20                 Model 4-30                     Limit
       0.02 mm                    0.02 mm                     0.08 mm
      (0.0008 in.)               (0.0008 in.)                (0.0031 in.)
   0.034 to 0.106 mm          0.034 to 0.106 mm               0.20 mm
(0.00134 to 0.00417 in.)   (0.00134 to 0.00417 in.)          (0.0079 in.)
 39.934 to 39.950 mm        39.934 to 39.950 mm               0.20 mm
(1.57221 to 1.57284 in.)   (1.57221 to 1.57284 in.)          (0.0079 in.)
 43.934 to 49.950 mm        43.934 to 49.950 mm                   -
(1.72969 to 1.73032 in.)   (1.72969 to 1.73032 in.)
 39.984 to 40.040 mm        39.984 to 40.040 mm                   -
(1.57418 to 1.57638 in.)   (1.57418 to 1.57638 in.)
 43.984 to 44.026 mm        43.984 to 44.026 mm                   -
(1.73166 to 1.73331 in.)   (1.73166 to 1.73331 in.)
   0.019 to 0.081 mm          0.019 to 0.081mm                 0.15 mm
(0.00075 to 0.00319 in.)   (0.00075 to 0.00319 in.)          (0.0059 in.)
 33.959 to 33.975 mm         33.959 to 33.975mm                   -
(1.33697 to 1.33760 in.)   (1.33697 to 1.33760 in.)
 33.994 to 34.040 mm        33.994 to 34.040 mm                   -
(1.33835 to 1.34016 in.)   (1.33835 to 1.34016 in.)
    0.15 to 0.31 mm            0.15 to 0.31 mm                 0.15 mm
 (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)     (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)           (0.0059 in.)
  -0.2 mm, -0.4 mm            -0.2 mm, -0.4 mm                    -
(-0.008 in., -0.016 in.)   (-0.0081 in., -0.016 in.)
  +0.2 mm, +0.4 mm           +0.2 mm, +0.4 mm                     -
(+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)   (+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)



                                                              0.05 mm
           -                           -                     (0.002 in.)
   0.016 to 0.039 mm          0.016 to 0.039 mm                0.10 mm
(0.00063 to 0.00154 in.)   (0.00063 to 0.00154 in.)          (0.0039 in.)
 18.001 to 18.009 mm        18.001 to 18.009 mm
(0.7087 to 0.70902 in.)    (0.7087 to 0.70902 in.)
                                                                 -
  18.025 to 18.040 mm        18.025 to 18.040 mm                  -
(0.70965 to 0.71024 in.)   (0.70965 to 0.71024 in.)


          69 KPa                    69 KPa
       (0.7 kgf/cm2)              o. ~10
                                       k9f/Ci~2                   -
          (10 PSR                        Psi
     196 to 441 KPa             196 to 441 KPa
    2.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm2         2.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm2               10 Psi
       28 to 64 Psi              (28 to 64 Psi)



                                                              0.25 mm
           -                          -
                                                             (0.0098 in.)
    0.07 to 0.15 mm            0.07 to 0.15 mm                0.30 mm
 (0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)     (0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)           (0.0118 in.)
   0.075 to 0.135 mm         0.0075 to 0.135 mm               0.20 mm
 (0.0029 to 0.0053 in.)     (0.0029 to 0.0053 in.)           (0.0079 in.)




                                                       27
                                         ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS


Crankshaft

                Item                              Model 18                              Model2S
                                                  0.02 mm                                0.02 mm
 Crankshaft alignment
                                                 (0.0008 in.)                           (0.0008 in)
 Oil clearance between                       0.034 to 0.106 mm                     0.034 to 0.106 mm
 crankshaft journal and bearing             (0.0013 to 0.0042 in.)                (0.0013 to 0.0042 in.)
                   Front and                43.934 to 43.950 mm                   43.934 to 43.950 mm
                   intermediate             (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.)                (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.
 Journal 0.0.
                                            43.934 to 43.950 mm                   43.934 to 43.950 mm
                   Rear
                                            (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.)                (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.)
                       Front and            43.984 to 44.040 mm                   43.984 to 44.040 mm
                       intermediate         (1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)                (1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)
 Bearing 1.0.
                       Rear                  43.984 to 44.026 mm                   43.984 to 44.026 mm
                                             (1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)                (1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)
 Oil clearance between crank                 0.029 to 0.091 mm                     0.029 to 0.091 mm
 pin and bearing                            (0.0011 to 0.0039 in.)                (0.0011 to 0.0036 in.)
                                            36.959 to 36.975 mm                   36.959 to 36.975 mm
 Crank pin 0.0.
                                            (1.4551 to 1.4557 in.)                (1.4551 to 1.4557 in.)
                                            37.004 to 37.050 m m                  37.004 to 37.050 mm
 Crank pin bearing 1.0.
                                            (1.4569 to 1.4587 in.)                (1.4569 to 1.4587 in.)
                                               0.15 to 0.31 mm                       0.15 to 0.31 mm
 Crank shaft side clearance
                                            (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)                (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)
 Under sizes of crankshaft                   -0.2 mm,     -0.4 mm                  -0.2 mm,     -0.4 mm
 bearing and crank pin bearing             (-0.008 in.,   -0.Q16 in.)            (-0.008 in.,   -0.Q16 in.)
                                             +0.2 mm,     +0.4 mm                  +0.2 mm,     +0.4 mm
 Oversizes of thrust bearing
                                           (+0.008 in.,   +0.016 in.)            (+0.008 in.,   +0.016 in.)
Connecting Rod

                                                  0.02 mm                               0.02 mm
 Connecting rod alignment
                                                 (0.0008 in.)                          (0.0008 in.)
 Oil clearance between piston                0.014 to 0.038 mm                     0.014 to 0.038 mm
 pin and small end bushing                  (0.0006 to 0.0015 in.)                (0.0006 to 0.0015 in.)
                                            20.002 to 20.011 mm                   20.002 to 20.011 mm
  Piston Pin 0.0.
                                            (0.7875 to 0.7878 in.)                (0.7875 to 0.7878 in.)
  Small end bushing 1.0.                    20.025 to 20.040 mm                   20.025 to 20.040 mm
  (fitting)                                  (0.7884 to 0.789 in.)                 (0.7884 to 0.789 in.)

WBRICATING SYSTEM
                       At idle                     60 KPa                                60 KPa
                       Speed                 (0.7 kgf/cm 2, 10 psi                (0.7 kgf/cm2, 10 psi)
 Oil pressure
                       At rated                 196 to 441 KPa                        196 to 441 KPa
                       speed          (2.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm 2, 28 to 64 psi)   (2.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm 2, 28 to 64 psi)

Oil Pump
                                               0.11 to 0.15 mm                       0.11 to 0.15 mm
 Rotor lobe clearance
                                            (0.0043 to 0.0059 in.)                (0.0043 to 0.0059 in.)
 Radial clearance between                      0.07 to 0.15 mm                       0.07 to 0.15 mm
 outer rotor and pump body                  (0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)                (0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)
 End clearance between rotor                   0.08 to 0.13 mm                       0.08 to 0.13 mm
 and cover                                  (0.0031 to 0.0051 in.)                (0.0031 to 0.0051 in.)

Oil Filter
 Opening pressure of bypass                       98.1 KPa                              98.1 KPa
 valve                                     (1.0 kgf/cm 2, 14.2 psL)              (1.0 kgf/cm 2, 14.2 psL)


                                                           28
                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




                                                             Allowable
    Model2SXP                    Model3S
                                                               Limit
       0.02 mm                    0.02 mm                     0.08 mm
      (0.0008 in.)               (0.0008 in.)                (0.0031 in.)
  0.034 to 0.106 mm          0.034 to 0.106 mm                0.20 mm
 (0.0013 to 0.0042 in.)     (0.0013 to 0.0042 in.)           (0.0079 in.)
 43.934 to 43.950 mm        43.934 to 43.950 mm               0.20 mm
 (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.)     (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.)           (0.0079 in.)
 43.934 to 43.950 mm        43.934 to 43.950 mm
 (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.)     (1.7297 to 1.7303 in.)
                                                                  -
43.984 to 44.040 mm         43.984 to 44.040 mm                   -
(1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)      (1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)
43.984 to 44.026 mm         43.984 to 44.040 mm
(1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)      (1.7317 to 1.7339 in.)
                                                                  -
   0.029 to 0.091 mm          0.029 to 0.087mm                0.20 mm
 (0.0011 to 0.0036 in.)     (0.0011 to 0.0036 in.)           (0.0079 in.)
 36.959 to 36.975 mm         36.959 to 36.975mm
                                                                  -
 (1.4551 to 1.4557 in.)     (1.4551 to 1.4557 in.)
  37.004 to 37.05 mm         37.004 to 37.05 mm
                                                                  -
 (1.4569 to 1.4587 in.)     (1.4569 to 1.4587 in.)
    0.15 to 0.31 mm            0.15 to 0.31 mm                 0.5 mm
 (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)     (0.0059 to 0.0122 in.)           (0.0197 in.)
  -0.2 mm, -0.4 mm           -0.2 mm, -0.4 mm
                                                                  -
(-0.008 in., -0.Q16 in.)   (-0.008 in., -0.Q16 in.)
  +0.2 mm, +0.4 mm           +0.2 mm, +0.4 mm
(+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)   (+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)
                                                                  -


       0.02 mm                    0.02 mm
      (0.0008 in.)               (0.0008 in.)
                                                                  -
  0.014 to 0.038 mm          0.014 to 0.038 mm
 (0.0006 to 0.0015 in.)     (0.0006 to 0.0015 in.)
                                                                  -
 20.002 to 20.011 mm        20.002 to 20.011 mm
                                                                  -
 (0.7875 to 0.7878 in.)     (0.7875 to 0.7878 in.)
20.025 to 20.040 mm        20.025 to 20.040 mm
                                                                  -
 (0.7884 to 0.789 in.)      (0.7884 to 0.789 in.)


         60 KPa                    60 KPa
      0.7 kgf/cm2
         (10 Psi)
                                 o·r10k9f/Ci~2
                                        Psi
                                                                  -
    196 to 441 KPa             196 to 441 KPa
   2.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm2         2~~: to 4.5 kgf/cm2                 -
     {28 to 64 PSil              28 to 64 Psi}



   0.11 to 0.15 mm            0.11 to 0.15 mm                  0.2 mm
(0.0043 to 0.0059 in.)     (0.0043 to 0.0059 in.)            (0.0079 in.)
   0.07 to 0.15 mm            0.07 to 0.15 mm                 0.25 mm
(0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)     (0.0028 to 0.0059 in.)            (0.0098 in.)
   0.08 to 0.13 mm            0.08 to 0.13 mm                  0.2 mm
(0.0031 to 0.0051 in.)     (0.0031 to 0.0051 in.)            (0.0079 in.)




                                                      29
                                     ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS


COOLING SYSTEM
Fan Belt
                Item                         Model 12                           Model 2-12
 Belt deflection under load of              7 to 9 mm                            7 to 9 mm
 98 N (10 kgf, 21 Ibs)                   (0.28 to 0.35 in.)                   (0.28 to 0.35 in.)

Heat Exchanger

 Exchanger water tightness                  1.2 kgf/cm 2                         1.2 kgf/cm 2
                                           (14 to 15 psi)                       (14 to 15 psi)
 Radiator cap opening                   0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2                   0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2
 pressure                                  (15 to 9 psi)                        (15 to 9 psi)

Thermostat
 Thermostat's valve opening                      600 C                                60 0 C
 temperature                                    (140 0 ) F                          (140 0 ) F
 Temperature at which                           73.9 0 C                            73.9 0 C
 thermostat completely opens                    (165 0) F                           (165 0 ) F
FUEL SYSTEM
Injection Pump
 Injection timing (static)              0.375 to 0.410 rad.                  0.375 to 0.410 rad.
                                    21.5° to 23.5° before TOC            21.50 to 23.50 before TOC
                                        ::59.2::5 to ::14.::52 _Mt"a         ::59.23 to ::54.::52 Mt"a
 Fuel tightness of pump                  400 to 350 kgf/cm 2                  400 to 350 kgflcm2
 element                                J5689 to 4978 Psi)                    (5689 to 4978 Psi)
 Fuel tightness of delivery             21.57 to 20.59 MPa                    21.57 to 20.59 MPa
 valve                                   220 to 210 kgf/cm2                   220 to 210 kgflcm 2
                                        J3129 to 2987 PsiL                   ~3129 to 2987 PsiL


Injection Nozzle
                                        13.73 to 14.71 MPa                   13.73 to 14.71 MPa
 Fuel injection pressure                140 TO 150 kgf/cm 2                  140 to 150 kgf/cm 2
                                         (1991 to 2133 Psi)                  (1991 to 2133 Psi)
                                             12.75 MPa                           12.75 MPa
 Fuel tightness of nozzle valve             190 kgf/cm 2                         130 kgf/cm2
 seat                                         1849 Psi)                           (1849 Psi)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Starter
 Minimum Acceptable                  700 to 800 F - 46 amps               700 to 800 F - 46 amps
 Output Values

 Current Draw                            3.2 to 3.6 amps                      3.2 to 3.6 amps

 Winding Resistance                       4.1 to 4.7 ohm                      4.1 to 4.7 ohm

 Brush length                       Acceptable 3/16" or longer           Acceptable 0/16" or longer


Glow Plug

I Resistance                            Approx. 0.8 ohm                      Approx. 0.8 ohm


AC dynamo

 No-load output                   AC 20 volt or more 5200 RPM          AC 20 volt or more 5200 RPM


Regulator

 Regulating voltage output              13.8 to 14.8 volts                   13.8 to 14.8 volts




                                                           30
                                                         ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




                       Model 3-20                   Model 4-30                                       Allowable Limit
                     7 to 9 mm                       7 to 9 mm
                 (0.726 to 0.354 in.)            (0.726 to 0.354 in.)
                                                                                                           -


                        1.2 kgf/cm2                  1.2 kgf/cm2
                       (14 to 15 psi)               (14 to 15 psi)
                                                                                                           -
                  0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2              0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2
                     (15 to 9 psi)                   (15 to 9 psi)
                                                                                                           -



                            60°C                         60°C
                          (140°) F                     (140°) F
                                                                                                           -
                           73.9° F                      73.9°C
                          (165°) F                     (165°) F
                                                                                                           -



                0.375 to 0.410 rad.               0.375 to 0.410 rad.
            21.5° to 23.5° before TDC         25.5° to 23.5° before TDC
                                                                                                           -
                  39.23 to 34.32 MPa              39.23 to 34.32 MPa
                  400 to 350 kgf/cm2              400 to 350 kgf/cm2                                       -
                   (5689 to 4978 Psi)              (5689 to 4978 Psi)
                  21.57 to 20.59 MPa              21.57 to 20.59 MPa
                  22.0 to 21.0 kgf/cm2            22.0 to 21.0 kgf/cm2                                     -
                   (3129 to 2987 Psi)              (3129 to 2987 Psi)



                  13.73 to 14.71 MPa              13.73 to 14.71 MPa
                  14.0 to 15.0 kgf/cm2            1~.0 to 15.0 k9f/C~2                                     -
                   (1991 to 2133 Psi)              1991 to 2133 Psi
                       12.75 MPa                      12.75 MPa
                      13.0 kgf/cm2                   13.0 kgf/cm2                                          -
                       (1849 Psi)                     (1849 Psi)




              70° to BOo F - 46 amps           70° to BOo F - 46 amps                                      -

                   3.2 to 3.6 amps                 3.2 to 3.6 amps                                         -

                       4.1 to 4.7 ohm              4.1 to 4.7 ohm                                          -
                  Acceptable 3116"                Acceptable 3/16"
                     or longer                       or longer
                                                                                                           -



                  Approx. O.B ohm                 Approx. O.B ohm




         AC 20 volt or more 5200 RPM        AC 20 volt or more 5200 RPM




.                 1_3._B_to
    L I_ _ _ _ _ _ _     __  1_4._B_v_o_ts____~_______
                                                     13_.B
                                                         __to
                                                            __14_.B
                                                                  __       ______~______________________~____________~
                                                                    VO_1_ffi




                                                                          31
                                        ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS


COOLING SYSTEM
Fan Belt
                Item                            Model 18                                Model 25
 Belt deflection under load of                  7 to 9 mm                                7 to 9 mm
 98 N (10 kgf, 21 Ibs)                     (0.726 to 0.3543 in.)                    (0.7256 to 0.354 in.)

Heat Exchanger
                                               1.2 kgf/cm 2                             1.2 kgf/cm2
 Exchanger water tightness
                                              (14 to 15 psi)                           (14 to 15 psi)
 Radiator cap opening                       0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2                       0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2
 pressure                                      (15 to 9 psi)                            (15 to 9 psi)

Thermostat
 Thermostat's valve opening                       60 0 C                                    60 0 C
 temperature                                     (140 0 ) F                               (1400 ) F
 Temperature at which                            73.9 0 C                                 73.9 0 C
 thermostat completely opens                     (165 0) F                                (165 0) F
FUEL SYSTEM
Injection Pump
 Injection timing (static)                 0.401 to 0.436 rad.                      0.401 to 0.436 rad.
                                         23° to 25° before TDC                    230 to 250 before TDC
 Fuel tightness of pump                     58.8 to 49.0 MPa                        39.23 to 34.32 MPa
 element                          600 to 500 kgf/cm 2 (8532 to 7110 psi)   400 to 350 kgf/cm 2 (5689 to 4978 psi)
 Fuel tightness of delivery                   9.8 to 0.5 MPa                        21.57 to 20.59 MPa
 valve                             100 to 5 kgf/cm2 (1442.0 to 71.1 psi)   220 to 210 kgf/cm2 (3129 to 2987 psi)

Injection Nozzle
                                            13.7 to 14.7 MPa                         13.7 to 14.7 MPa
 Fuel injection pressure
                                  140 TO 150 kgf/cm2 (1990 to 2133 psi)    140 to 150 kgf/cm 2 (1990 to 2133 psi)
 Fuel tightness of nozzle valve                 12.7 MPa                                 12.7 MPa
 seat                                    130 kgf/cm2, 1848.6 psi                  130 kgf/cm 2, 1848.6 psi
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Starter
 Minimum Acceptable                      70 0 to 800 F - 46 amps                  70 0 to 800 F - 46 amps
 Output Values

 Current Draw                                3.2 to 3.6 amps                          3.2 to 3.6 amps

 Winding Resistance                          4.1 to 4.7 ohm                           4.1 to 4.7 ohm

 Brush length                          Acceptable 3A6" or longer                Acceptable 3A6" or longer


Glow Plug

I Resistance                                Approx. 1.6 ohm                          Approx. 1.6 ohm


AC dynamo

I No-load output                               AC 20 volt                               AC 20 volt


Regulator

 Regulating voltage                         13.8 to 14.8 volts                       13.8 to 14.8 volts




                                                              32
                                          ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




         Model 25XP                    Model 35                      Allowable Limit
           7 to 9 mm                   7 to 9 mm
       (0.726 to 0.354 in.)        (0.726 to 0.354 in.)
                                                                            -



           1.2 kgf/cm 2               1.2 kgf/cm2
          (14 to 15 psi)             (14 to 15 psi)
                                                                            -
       0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2          0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2
          (15 to 9 psi)               (15 to 9 psi)
                                                                            -



              60°C                        60°C
            (140°) F                    (140°) F
                                                                            -
             73.9° F                     73.9°C
            (165°) F                    (165°) F
                                                                            -



       0.401 to 0.436 rad.        0.401 to 0.436 rad.                  22.5° to 24.5°
     23° to 25° before TOC      23° to 25° before TOC                   before TOC
          58.8 to 49.0 M Pa          58.8 to 49.0 MPa
        600 to 500 kgf/cm2         600 to 500 kgf/cm2                       -
       (8532.0 to 7110.0 Pslt      (8532 to 7110.0 Psi)
         100 to 5 kgf/cm2           100 to 5 kfg/cm2
        1422.0 to 71.1 psi)        (1422 to 71.1 psi)



          13.7 to 14.7 MPa            13.7 to 14.7 MPa
        14.0 to 15.0 kgf/cm2        14.0 to 15.0 kgf/cm2                    -
         (1990 to 2133 Psi)          (1990 to 2133 Psi)
             12.7 MPa                    12.7 MPa
    (13.0 kgf/cm2 1848.6 psi)   (13.0 kgf/cm2 1848.6 psi)
                                                                            -



    70° to 80° F - 46 amps      70° to 80° F - 46 amps                      -

        3.2 to 3.6 amps             3.2 to 3.6 amps                         -

         4.1 to 4.7 ohm             4.1 to 4.7 ohm                          -
       Acceptable 3116"            Acceptable 3116"
          or longer                   or longer                             -


        Approx. 1.6 ohm            Approx. 1.6 ohm




           AC 20 volt                 AC 20 volt




        13.8 to 14.8 volts         13.8 to 14.8 volts
I
~--------------------~----------------------~----------------------~--------------~




                                                            33
BOLT TORQUES
As a lot of bolts and nuts in the engine are of special shape, be careful to tighten them correctly using a torque
wrench.

When tightening, follow this method:

First tighten all the bolts 50% of the regular torque, then tighten them fully.

TIGHTENING BOLTS OF IMPORTANT PARTS
· Marked bolts must be tightened after applying oil.


          Model                                M-12                                         M2-12
                                         4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m                             4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m
 · Head bolts and nuts                                                               28.9 to 32.5 ftllbs.
                                        28.9 to 32.5 ft/lbs.
                                          1.3 to 1.6 kgf/m                             1.3 to 1.6 kgf/m
 · Bearing case bolts 1                  9.4 to 11.6 ft/lbs.                          9.4 to 11.6 ft/lbs.
                                         2.7 to 3.1 kgf/m                             2.7 to 3.1 kgf/m
 · Bearing case bolts 2                 19.5 to 22.4 ftllbs.                         19.5 to 22.4 ft/lbs.
                                         5.5 to 6.0 kgf/m                             5.5 to 6.0 kgf/m
 · Flywheel bolts                       39.8 to 43.4 ftllbs.                         39.8 to 43.4 ftllbs.
                                         1.5 to 1.9 kgf/m                              1.5 to 1.9 kgf/m
 · Connecting rod bolts                                                               10.8 to 13.7 ft/lbs.
                                        10.8 to 13.7 ft/lbs.
 · Rocker arm bracket                    1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m                            1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
   studs                                7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.                         7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.
                                         1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m                            1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
 · Idle gear shaft bolts                7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.                         7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.
 Glow plugs                             2.0 to 2.5 kgf/lbs.                            2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m
  (No need to apply oil)                14.5 to 18.1 ft/lbs.                          14.5 to 18.1 ft/lbs.
                                         3.3 to 3.8 kgf/m                             3.3 to 3.8 kgf/m
 Drain plugs
                                        23.9 to 27.5 ftllbs.                         23.9 to 27.5 ftllbs.
                                         5.0 to 7.0 kgf/m                             5.0 to 7.0 kgf/m
 Nozzle holders
                                        36.2 to 50.6 ftllbs.                         36.2 to 50.6 ftllbs.
                                         1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m                             1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
           Bis
 Oil                                    10.8 to 14.5 ft/lbs.                         10.8 to 14.5 ftllbs.
 switch                                  1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m                             1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
           Taper Screw
                                        10.8 to 14.5 ftllbs.                         10.8 to 14.5 tt/lbs.
                                         0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m                             0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m
 Fuel limit lock nut
                                         5.8 to 7.2 ft/lbs.                           5.8 to 7.2 ftllbs.
                                         0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m                             0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m
 Fuel limit cap nut
                                         5.8 to 7.2 ft/lbs.                           5.8 to 7.2 ft/lbs.
                                         2.5 to 3.5 kgf/m                             2.5 to 3.5 kgf/m
 Injection pipes
                                        18.1 to 25.3 tt/l bs.                        18.1 to 25.3 ftllbs.
                                        10.0 to 11.0 kgf/m                           10.0 to 11.0 kgf/m
 · Crankshaft nut                                                                    72.3 to 79.6 ft/lbs.
                                        72.3 to 79.6 ft/lbs.
 Air vent screw
                                            Not Used                                      Not Used
 (on injection pump)




                                                           34
                            BOLT TORQUES




BOLT TORQUES

     Model 3-20                 M 4-30
    4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m       4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m
   28.9 to 32.5 ft/lbs.   28.9 to 32.5 ft/lbs.
     1.3 to 1.6 kgf/m       1.3 to 1.6 kgf/m
    9.4 to 11.6 ftllbs.    9.4 to 11.6 ft/lbs.
   2.7 to 31.1 kgf/m       2.7 to 3.1 kgf/m
   19.5 to 22.4 ftllbs.   19.5 to 22.4 ft/lbs.
    5.5 to 6.0 kgf/m       5.5 to 6.0 kgf/m
   39.8 to 43.4 ftllbs.   39.8 to 43.4 ft/lbs.
    1.5 to 1.9 kgf/m       1.5 to 1.9 kgf/m
   10.8 to 13.7 ft/lbs.   10.8 to 13.7 ftllbs.
    1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m      1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
   7.23 to 8.32 ftllbs.   7.23 to 8.32 ftllbs.
    1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m      1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
   7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.   7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.
    2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m       2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m
   14.5 to 18.1 ft/lbs.   14.5 to 18.1 ftllbs.
    3.3 to 3.8 kgf/m       3.3 to 3.8 kgf/m
   23.9 to 27.5 ft/lbs.   23.9 to 27.5 ftllbs.
    5.0 to 7.0 kgf/m       5.0 to 7.0 kgf/m
   36.2 to 50.6 ftllbs.   36.2 to 50.6 ft/lbs.
    1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m       1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
   10.8 to 14.5 ft/lbs.   10.8 to 14.5 ft/lbs.
    1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m       1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
   10.8 to 14.5 ftllbs.   10.8 to 14.5 ftllbs.
    0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m       0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m
    5.8 to 7.2 ft/lbs.     5.8 to 7.2 ft/lbs.
    0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m       0.8 to 1.0 kgf/m
    5.8 to 7.2 ft/lbs.     5.8 to 7.2 ft/lbs.
    2.5 to 3.5 kgf/m       2.5 to 3.5 kgf/m
   18.1 to 25.3 ftllbs.   18.1 to 25.3 ft/lbs.
   10.0 to 11.0 kgf/m     10.0 to 11.0 kgf/m
   72.3 to 79.6 ft/lbs.    72.3 79.6 ft/lbs.

       Not Used               Not Used




                                       35
BOLT TORQUES
As a lot of bolts and nuts in the engine are of special shape, be careful to      tight~n   them correctly using a torque
wrench.

When tightening, follow this method:

First tighten all the bolts 50% of the regular torque, then tighten them fully.

TIGHTENING BOLTS OF IMPORTANT PARTS
· Marked bolts must be tightened after applying oil.


          Model                                M-18                                                M2-25
                                         6.6 to 7.1 kgf/m                                     6.6 to 7.1 kgf/m
 · Head bolts and nuts
                                        47. 7 to 51.4 ft/lbs.                                47.7 to 51.4 ft/lbs.
                                         2.0 to 2.4 kgf/m                                     2.0 to 2.4 kgf/m
 · Bearing case bolts 1
                                        14.5 to 17.4 ftllbs.                                 14.5 to 17.4 ftllbs.
                                         3.0 to 3.5 kgf/m                                     3.0 to 3.5 kgf/m
 · Bearing case bolts 2
                                        21.7 to 25.3 ft/lbs.                                 21.7 to 25.3 ft/lbs.
                                         5.5 to 6.0 kgf/m                                     5.5 to 6.0 kgf/m
 · Flywheel bolts
                                        39.8 to 43.4 ft/lbs.                                 39.8 to 43.4 ftllbs.
                                         2.7 to 3.1 kgf/m                                     2.7 to ~ 1 kgf/m
 · Connecting rod bolts
                                        19.5 to 22.4 ft/lbs.                                 19.5 to 22.4 ftllbs.
 · Rocker arm bracket                    1.7 to 21.1 kgf/m                                    1.7 to 2.1 kgf/m
   studs                                12.3 to 15.2 ft/lbs.                                 12.3 to 15.2 ftllbs.
                                         1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m                                    1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
 · Idle gear shaft bolts
                                        7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.                                 7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.
 Glow plugs                              2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m                                     2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m
  (No need to apply oil)                14.5 to 18.1 ft/lbs.                                 14.5 to 18.1 ft/lbs.
                                         4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m                                     4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m
 Drain plugs
                                        28.9 to 36.2 ftllbs.                                 28.9 to 36.2 ft/lbs.
                                         3.0 to 5.0 kgf/m                                     3.0 to 5.0 kgf/m
 Nozzle holders
                                        21.7 to 36.2 ft/lbs.                                 21.7 to 36.2 ftllbs.
                                        0.14 to   0.20 kgf/m                                 0.14 to 0.2 kgf/m
            Bis
 Oil                                    10.1 to   14.5 ft/lbs.                               10.1 to 14.5 ft/lbs.
 switch                                  1.5 to   2.0 kgf/m                                   1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
            Taper Screw
                                        10.8 to   14.5 ft/lbs.                               10.8 to 14.5 ft/lbs.
                                         2.8 to 3.5 kgf/m                                     2.8 to 3.5 kgf/m
 Fuel limit lock nut
                                        20.3 to 25.3 ftllbs.                                 20.3 to 25.3 ft/lbs.
                                         2.5 to 3.0 kgf/m                                     2.5 to 3.0 kgf/m
 Fuel liimit cap nut
                                        18.1 to 21.7 ft/lbs.                                 18.1 to 21.7 ftllbs.
                                         1.5 to 2.5 kgf/m                                     1.5 to 2.6 kgf/m
 Injection pipes
                                        10.8 to 18.8 ftllbs.                                 10.8 to 18.8 ft/lbs.
                                         14 to 16 kgf/m                                        14 to 16 kgf/m
 · Crankshaft nut
                                        100 to 116 ft/lbs.                                    101 to 116 ftllbs.
Air vent screw                           1.4 to 1.8 kgf/m                                     1.4 to 1.8 kgf/m
(on injection pump)                     10.1 to 13.0 ft/lbs.                                 10.1 to 13.0 ft/lbs.
                            BOLT TORQUES




        M-25XP                   M-35
  6.6   to 7.1 kgf/m       6.6   to 7.1 kgf/m
 47.7   to 51.4 ft/lbs.   47.7  to 51.4 ftllbs.
   2.0 to 2.4 kgf/m         2.0 to 2.4 kgf/m
  14.5 to 17.4 ft/lbs.    14.5 to 17.4 ft/lbs.
   3.0 to 3.5 kgf/m         3.0 to 3.5 kgtlm
 21.7 to 25.3 ft/lbs.     21.7 to 25.3 ft/lbs.
   5.5 to 6.0 kgtlm         5.5 to 6.0 kgf/m
 39.8 to 43.4 ft/lbs.     39.8 to 43.4 ft/lbs.
   2.7 to 3.1 kgtlm         2.7 to 3.1 kgtlm
19.5 to 22.4 ft to Ibs.   19.5 to 22.4 ft/lbs.
   1.7 to 2.1 kgtlm         1.7 to 2.1 kgf/m
 12.3 to 15.2 ft/lbs.     12.3 to 15.2 ft/lbs.
  1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m        1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
 7.23 to 8.32 ftllbs.     7.23 to 8.32 ft/lbs.
   2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m         2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m
 14.5 to 18.1 ftllbs.     14.5 to 18.1 ft/lbs.
   4.0 to 4.5 kgtlm         4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m
 28.9 to 36.2 ft/lbs.     28.9 to 36.2 ft/lbs.
   3.0 to 5.0 kgf/m         4.0 to 5.0 kgf/m
 21.7 to 36.2 ft/lbs.     28.9 to 36.2 ft/lbs.
  0.14 to 0.2 kgf/m        0.14 to 0.2 kgf/m
 10.1 to 14.5 ft/lbs.     10.1 to 14.5 ftllbs.
   1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m         1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
 10.8 to 14.5 ft/lbs.     10.8 to 14.5 ft/lbs.
   2.8 to 3.5 kgf/m        2.8 to 3.5 kgtlm
 20.3 to 25.3 ftllbs.     20.3 to 25.3 ft/lbs.
   2.5 to 3.0 kgf/m       2.5 to 3.00 kgtlm
 18.1 to 21.7 ft/lbs.     18.1 to 21.7 ftllbs.
   1.5 to 2.6 kgtlm        1.5 to 2.6 kgf/m
 10.8 to 18.8 ft/lbs.     10.8 to 18.8 ft/lbs.
    14 to 16 kgf/m          14 to 16 kgf/m
  101 to 116 ft/lbs.       101 to 116 ft/lbs.
   1.4 to 1.8 kg tim        1.4 to 1.8 kgf/m
 10.1 to 13.0 ftllbs.     10.1 to 13.0 ftllbs.




                                       37
                                                 BOLT TORQUES




~
                                     Standard Bolt                  Special Bolt             Special Bolt


   Nominal Dia.                       SS41,S20C                S43C, S48C (Refined)     SCR3, SCM3 (Refined)


           M6                       5.8 - 6.9 Ibs/ft.             7.2 - 8.3 Ibslft.        9.0 - 10.5 Ibslft.


           M8                      13.0 - 15.2 Ibslft.           17.4 - 20.3 Ibs/ft.      21.7 - 25.3 Ibslft.


           M 10                    28.9 - 33.3 Ibs/ft.           35.4 - 41.2 Ibs/ft.      44.8 - 52.1 Ibs/ft.


           M 12                    46.3 - 53.5 Ibs/ft.           57.1 - 66.5 Ibs/ft.      75.9 - 86.8 Ibs/ft.


           M 14                    79.6 - 92.6 Ibs/ft.          91.1 - 108.5 Ibs/ft.     123.0 - 144.7 Ibs/ft.


           M 16                   123.0 - 141.0 Ibs/ft.         144.7 - 166.4 Ibs/ft.    191.7 - 224.2 Ibs/ft.


           M 18                   180.0 - 209.8 Ibs/ft.         202.5 - 235.1 Ibs/ft.    253.2 - 296.5 Ibs/ft.


           M 20                   245.9 - 289.3 Ibslft.         271.2 - 318.2 Ibs/ft.    361.6 - 419.5 Ibs/ft.



Bolt material grades are shown by numbers punched on the bolt heads. Prior to tightening, be sure
to check out the numbers as shown below:


 Punched
            Bolt Material Grade
 Number
            Standard Bolts
   None
            SS41 , S20C
            Special Bolts
     7
            S43C, S48C (Refined)
            Special Bolts
     9
            SCM3, SCR3, (Refined)




                                                          38
                        SECTION II - PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE


General Warnings ................................................................. 40
Maintenance Check List ............................................................ 41
POINTS OF INSPECTION AND CHANGING
Engine Lubricating Oil ............................................................. 42
Changing Engine Oil Level ......................................................... 42
Changing Engine Oil .............................................................. 42
Changing Engine Oil Filter Cartridge ................................................. 43
Inspection of Fuel Filter ............................................................ 43
Venting the Fuel System ........................................................... 44




                                           39
                                          GENERAL WARNINGS

·   When disassembling engine, arrange each part on a clean surface. Do not mix them up.
    Replace bolts and nuts in their original positions.

·   When servicing voltaged parts or connecting instruments to electrical equipment, first
    disconnect negative battery terminal.

·   Replace gaskets or O-rings with new ones when disassembling, and apply grease on the 0-
    ring and the oil seal when reassembling.

·   When exchanging parts, use Universal genuine parts to maintain engine performance and
    safety.

·   To prevent oil and water leakage apply non-drying adhesive to the gasket according to this
    manual before reassembling.

·   When hoisting the engine, use the hook provided on the cylinder head.

·   When installing external circlips or internal circlips, direct corner end to the non-loosening
    direction.


    Applying grease to oil seal                                       Direction of installing circlips

                                                                               3                         4




                                                                       F-


                          1                                                             5                5



                            1. Inside of Lip
                            2. Grease
                            3. External Circlip
                            4. Internal Circlip
                            5. Direct the Corner End to the Direction Subject to Force.




                                                        40
                                               MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST

To maintain long-lasting and safe engine performance, make it a rule to carry out regular inspections by following the
table below.


                                                                             Service Interval
                                     every      every    every    every    every    every    every       every     every      every
               Item                                                                        one or two    three      one        two
                                     50 hrs.   100 hrs. 150 hrs. 200 hrs. 400 hrs. 500 hrs. months      months     year       year
Checking fuel pipes and clamps         ·
Changing engine oil                               ·
Cleaning air filter element                       ·
Cleaning fuel fiilter                             ·
Checking battery electrolyte level                ·
Checking fan belt tension
and damage                                        ·
Checking oii or water leakage                             ·
Checking water pipes and clamps                           ·
Changing oil filter cartridge                     ·
Changing fuel filter element                                                ·
Cleaning heat exchanger                                                               ·
Recharging battery                                                                              ·
Changing coolant                                                                                          ·
                                                                                                                     ·
                                                                                                                 or every 6
Changing air filter element
                                                                                                                 cleanings
Checking valve clearance                                                                                             ·
Checking nozzle injection pressure                                                                                   ·
Changing battery                                                                                                               ·
Changing water pipes and clamps                                                                                                ·
Changing fuel pipes and clamps                                                                                                 ·




                                                                     41
                             POINTS OF INSPECTION AND CHANGING
 ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL
Brand name oil (for diesel engines) or CC/CD class oils defined by SPI. It should be as follows
according to temperature.
SAE-30 HD or 10W-40 HD


 CHECKING ENGINE OIL LEVEL
Stop for 5 minutes or more and remove the dip stick, wipe off dip stick and recheck. Read the
engine oil level on the dip stick. If the oil level is below the lower mark on the dip stick, add
sufficient oil to the full mark. DO NOT OVERFILL.




                                            1. Dip Stick
                                            2. Oil Filler Plug


CHANGING ENGINE OIL
Drain the oil while the engine is still warm, by removing the drain plug on the oil pan and oil filler
plug, or through the oil drain hose, so that the oil may completely drain.

Do not mix different brands of oil. If a different brand of oil should be employed, drain out the
existing oil no matter how new it may be and then replace it. Do the same when using oil of a
different viscosity.




                                           1. Oil Drain Plug


                                                   42
 CHANGING ENGINE OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE
Remove the oil filter cartridge with a filter wrench.

Apply a slight coat of oil to the rubber gasket on the new cartridge.

Screw the new cartridge in by hand.
Over-tightening may cause deformation of rubber gasket.

After cartridge has been replaced, engine oil normally decreases a little. Check that the engine
oil does not leak through the seal and be sure to read the oil level. Then, add engine oil up to
the prescribed level.




                                              1. Oil filter cartridge


INSPECTION OF FUEL FILTER
The fuel filter is installed in the fuel line from the fuel tank to the injection pump (between the tank
and feed pump in the basic model).

As the fuel from the inlet of the cock body moves through the filter element, the dirt and impurities
in the fuel are filtered, allowing only clean fuel to enter the inside of the filter element.
The cleaned fuel flows out from the outlet of the cock body.

Before starting or after disassembling and reassembling, loosen the air vent plug to bleed the air
in the fuel line.

                                                                2




                               1




                                             1. Cock Body Inlet
                                             2. Cock Body Outlet
                                             3. Air Vent Plug




                                                        43
VENTING THE FUEL SYSTEM - Models 18, 25, 25XP and 35
Air must be vented when:
·    The fuel filter and piping are removed.
·    The fuel tank becomes completely empty.
·    The engine has not been used for an extended time,

Venting procedure is as follows:
1.   Fill the fuel tank with fuel, and open the fuel cock.

2.   Twist off the air vent screw at the top of the filter by turning it twice.

3.   When bubbles disappear from fuel coming out of the plug, twist it back on.

4.   Open the air vent plug on the fuel injection pump.

5.   Pull the engine stop lever back completely to stop the engine, and run the starter for about 10
     seconds.

6.   Close the air vent plug when air bubbles disappear from the fuel flowing out.

Models 12, 2-12, 3-20 and 4-30 have continuous bleed systems.

IMPORTANT: Do not perform venting when the engine is hot.




                                                  1. Air vent screw




                                                         44
                     SECTION III - CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION


Cylinder Block .................................................................... 46
Cylinder Head .................................................................... 46
Crankshaft ....................................................................... 47
Piston and Piston Rings ............................................................ 48
Connecting Rods ................................................................. 48
Camshaft and Fuel Camshaft ....................................................... 49
Rocker Arm Assembly ............................................................. 49
Inlet and Exhaust Valves ........................................................... 50
Flywheel ........................................................................ 50




                                          45
 CYLINDER BLOCK
The engine features a high durability tunnel-typed cylinder in which the crank bearing part is
constructed body. Furthermore, dry-type cylinder liners, being pressure-fitted into cylinders, allow
effective cooling, less distortion, higher wear-resistance qualities and each cylinder having its own
chamber helps to minimize noise.


                                   Tunnel cylinder block




CYLINDER HEAD
The cross-flow type inlet/exhaust ports in this engine have their openings at both sides of the
cylinder head. Because overlaps of inlet/exhaust ports are smaller than in ports of other types
which have openings one side, the suction air can be protected from being heated and expanded
by heated exhaust air. The cool, high density suction air has a higher voluminous efficiency and
raises the power of the engine. Furthermore, distortion of the cylinder head by heated exhaust air
is reduced because suction ports are arranged alternately. The combustion chamber is exclusive
spherical combustion chamber type. Suction air is whirled to be mixed effectively with fuel,
prompting combustion and reducing fuel consumption.
In the combustion chamber are installed throttle type injection nozzle and rapid heating sheathed
type glow plug. This glow plug assures easier than ever engine starts even at -15°C (15°F).


   Cross-flow type cylinder head                                              Combustion chamber




                                                                                    (6
                                                                                                   (11


                                           1_   Combustion chamber
                                           2.   Suction
                                           3.   Exhaust
                                           4.   Nozzle assembly
                                           5.   Glow plug
                                           6.   Cylinder head




                                                           46
CRANKSHAFT
The crankshaft is driven by the pistons and connecting rods, and translates its reciprocating
movement into a circular movement. It also drives the oil pump, camshaft and fuel camshaft. Six
counterweights are integrated into one unit to minimize bearing wear and lubricating oil
temperature rise. Crankshaft journals, crankpins and oil seal sliding section are induction-hardened
to raise wear resistance quality. Crankshaft journals are supported by the main bearing cases in
which bearing is used.

Crankshaft bearing 1 at the front end is a wind type bushing and the three bearings 2 behind are
split type bushings.

Side bearings 1,2 of split type are mounted on both sides of the main bearing case 1 at the
flywheel side.

Crankshaft bearings and side bearings are plated with special alloy to raise wear resistance
quality.

                                  Crankslulft




                                                     (8)


                                           1.   Crankshaft
                                           2.   Piston
                                           3.   Connecting rod
                                           4.   Oil passage
                                           5.   Crankshaft bearing 1
                                           6.   Crankshaft bearing 2
                                           7.   Side bearing
                                           8.   Counterweight




                                                           47
PISTON AND PISTON RINGS
Piston circumference has a special elliptic shape in consideration of expansion due to explosion
heat. Piston head is flat-formed. Furthermore, ribs are provided between the piston head and top
ring to reduce distortion and to help heat radiation.

Piston is made of special aluminum alloy of low thermal expansion and high temperature
resistance.

Top ring is of key stone type which can stand against heavy load, and the sliding surface to the
cylinder wall is shaped into barrel face which is well fitted to the wall and plated with hard chrome.

Second ring is of under-cut type which is effective to prevent oil rising.

Oil ring is effective to scrape oil because it is closely fitted to the cylinder wall by coil expander
and the upper and lower ends of its sliding surface are cut diagonally to raise fare pressure to the
cylinder walls.

A part of scraped oil is forced into the inside of piston through oil escape holes of rings and
piston. The oil ring is plated with hard chrome to increase wear resistance quality.



                                                                    Pistons and piston rings
                                                                                     (4)

                                                                                                   (1)
                1.   Rib
                2.   Top ring
                3.   Barrel face                                               (2)          ~
                4.
                5.
                6.
                     Hard chrome plating
                     Second ring
                     Coil expander ring
                                                                                ~-~~
                                                                                 /~o
                                                                               15, 1·,




CONNECfING RODS
                                                                               ·      (6)




Connecting rod is used to connect the piston with the crankshaft. The big end of the connecting
rod has crankpin bearings (split type) and the small end has a bushing (solid type).




                                                                         (3)-_~


                                                                         (1)-----1/1
                1. Connecting rod
                2. Crankpin bearing
                3. Bushing
                                                                                               I

                                                                                               !

                                                       48
 CAMSHAFT AND FUEL CAMSHAFT
The camshaft is made of special cast iron and the journal and cam sections are chilled to resist
wear. The journal sections are force-lubricated. The fuel camshaft controls the reciprocating
movement of the injection pump, and is equipped with a ball to control the governor. Fuel
camshaft is made of carbon steel and cam sections are quenched and tempered to provide
greater wear resistance.

Camshaft                                                            Fuel Camshaft




                                         1. Tappet
                                         2. Push rod
                                         3. Camshaft
                                         4. Camshaft gear
                                         5. Injection 'pump gear
                                         6. Governor sleeve
                                         7. Governor ball case
                                         8. Circlip
                                         9. Circlip
                                        10. Fuel camshaft
                                        11. Ball
                                        12. Ball bearing

ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms, rocker arm brackets and rocker arm shaft and
converts the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an open/close movement of the inlet and
exhaust valves. Valve control timing must be adjusted with screws on the rocker arms. Lubrication
oil is pressurized through the bracket to the rocker arm shaft so that the rocker arm bearings and
the entire system are lubricated sufficiently.


                                                                                                   (4)   (1)
                                                                            ,~~        (8)
                                                                           ~      "-
 1. Rocker arm                                                             (7)"        'F;:!===~~~~
 2. Rocker arm shaft                                                       (8)
 3. Rocker arm bracket
                                                                           (9)---fH.40T
 4. Oil filer plug
 5. Decompression lever
 6. Decompression window cover
 7. Decompression nut
 8. Decompression bolt
 9. Decompression shaft
10. Valve                                                                                       (3)




                                                    49
INLET AND EXHAUST VALVES
The inlet and exhaust valves and their guides are different from each other. Other parts, such as
valve springs, valve spring retainers, valve spring collets, valve stem seals, and valve caps are the
same for both the inlet and exhaust valves. All contact or sliding parts are quenched and tempered
to resist wear.

                                                                          Intake and exhaust valve



               1.   Valve cap
               2.   Valve spring Retainer                                                            (4)
               3.   Valve spring Collets                                                  ~_-(5)
               4.   Valve spring                                                                     (6)
               5.   Valve stem seal
               6.   Valve guide                                    (7)                               (8)
               7.   Inlet valve
               8.   Exhaust valve




FLYWHEEL
Flywheel is connected with the crankshaft. Storing explosive force by each cylinder as the force of
inertia, the flywheel functions to rotate the crankshaft smoothly.

On the circumference of the flywheel are stamped marks for fuel injection timing and top dead
center. The flywheel and crankshaft can be fixed to each other at a certain point according to the
arrangement of flywheel mounting bolt hole.


                                        2TC


                                 2FI"
                                        1         1.27 rad ·
                                          ·27 r~ad.
                                        (73°)     (730)

                                    1.27 rad.               1.27 rad.    1 TC    \~
                                    (73°)                   (7JD)
                                                1.19 rad.
                                                (68°)




                             1/TC . .... Mark for top dead center of 1st piston
                             1/FI ...... Mark for fuel injection of 1st piston




                                                            50
              SECTION IV - LUBRICATION, COOLING, AND FUEL SYSTEMS


LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Lubrication System Diagram ........................................................ 52
Engine Oil Flow Diagram ........................................................... 53
Relief Valve ...................................................................... 54
By-pass Valve .................................................................... 54
Oil Switch ....................................................................... 55
Oil Pump ........................................................................ 55
COOLING SYSTEM
Water Pump ..................................................................... 56
Thermostat ...................................................................... 56
Oberdorfer Water Pump ............................................................ 57
Sherwood Water Pump ............................................................ 58
Johnson Water Pump .............................................................. 59
New Style Sherwood Water Pump ................................................... 60
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Filter ....................................................................... 61
Fuel Pump ....................................................................... 62
Fuel Injection Pump ............................................................ 62-65
Injection Nozzle .................................................................. 66
Governor ..................................................................... 67-69




                                          51
         LUBRICATION SYSTEM




                                          Oil Filter Cartridge and
                                          Relief Valve




                       Crankpin Bearing
                                          (1) To rocker arm shaft
                                              and camshaft
                                                 (2) To crankshaft
Piston


              Oil Filter 1




                  52
ENGINE OIL FLOW

                                           (1BI ROCKER ARM SHAFT




                               I                             I                              I
                                                                                                                        I
                                                             I                              I
                               1(201                         1(201                          1(201                       I
                               : DRAIN                       I DRAIN                        : DRAIN            ,-_...J
                                                                                                               I
                               I                             I                              I

                       (161
                               l,           (151             ,
                                                             I
                                                                 \
                                                                         (151               ,
                                                                                            I
                                                                                                               I


    (151            CAMSHAFT
                                                                                                ,
                                                      (121   I                   (121       "
                                                                                            I

                                                     I   TAP:ETS     I           I   TA;ETS         I
                                                             I
                                                                                            ,
                                                                                            I
                                                             I


  (141
                                                             I

                                                             ,
                                                             I
                                                                                         I
                                                                                            ,
                                                                                            I
                                                                                            I

                                                              I
                                                         (1911                       (191!
                                                          SPLfl.SH                    SPLASH
 TIMING                                                       I                             ,
                                                                                            I
 GEAR                                                        I
                                                             I
                                                             I
                                                                                            ,
                                                                                            I
                                                                                            I
                                                             I                              I
                                                      --+-'                      -+--,




                                              (61 MAIN OIL GALLERY



                                     (31
                                                                                --- .,  I
                                                                                        I



                                                                                                        (11   OIL PAN




This engine lubrication system consists of oil filter 1 (strainer), oil pump, relief valve, oil filter
cartridge and oil switch. The oil pump suctions lubrication oil from the oil pan through oil filter 1,
and the oil flows down to the filter cartridge, where it is further filtered. Then the oil is forced to
crankshaft, connecting rods, idle gear, camshaft and rocker arm shaft to lubricate each part. Some
part of oil, splashed by the crankshaft or leaking and dropping from gaps of each part, lubricates
these parts: pistons, cylinders, small ends of connecting rods, tappets, push rods, inlet and exhaust
valves and timing gears.




                                                             53
RELIEF VALVE
Relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system due to high oil pressure. Control range of
the relief valve is 196 to 441 KPa, (28 to 64 psi.) When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit, the
ball is pushed back by high pressure oil and the oil escapes.


BY-PASS VALVE
Oil filter cartridge has a by-pass valve inside, to prevent the lack of lubrication oil in the engine, if
the oil filter element is clogged. When the pressure difference before filtering and after is more
than 98.1 kPa (14.2 psi). the by-pass valve opens and lets the oil pass to each part of engine
without passing through the filter.

                                                                Relief valve and by-pass valve




1.   Relief valve
2.   By-pass valve
3.   From pump
4.   To rocker arm shaft and camshaft
5.   To crankshaft                                                                                          (3)




                                                       54
OIL SWITCH
Oil switch is provided on the way for the oil pressure. If the oil pressure is proper, it is switched
off, if oil pressure falls below 49.0 kPa (7.1 psi), the oil warning lamp etc. will light, warning the
operator. In this case, stop the engine immediately and check the cause of the pressure drop.

                                    Oil switch




                                         (1)     (11)                       (2)


            1.   When oil pressure is proper                                       8. Rubber packing
            2.   When oil pressure falls                                           9. Oil seat
            3.   Screw                                                            10. Contact rivet
            4.   Terminal                                                         11. Contact
            5.   Spring plate                                                     12. Lamp
            6.   Insulator                                                        13. Battery
            7.   Spring retainer

 OIL PUMP
The oil pump is of rotor type and works smoothly and noiselessly. An inner and outer rotor turn
inside a housing. In operation, the inner rotor is driven inside the outer rotor. The inner rotor has
one less lobe than the outer rotor, so that only one lobe is in full engagement with the outer rotor
at anyone time. This allows the other lobes to slide over the outer lobes, making a seal to prevent
back-up of oil.

As the lobes slide up and over the lobes on the outer rotor, oil is drawn in. As the lobes fall into
the ring's cavities, oil is squeezed out.

                                                                       Rotor-type pump in operation
1.   Draw in 1
2.   Draw in 2
3.   Draw in 3
4.   Squeeze out
5.   Inlet
6.   Outlet
7.   Inner rotor
8.   Outer rotor                                               (5)    (6)                             (7)   (8)




                                                        55
WATER PUMP
35 Imino (7.7 IMp.gals/min. 9.2 U.S. gals/min) of water is forced into the crank case and cyliinder
head to cool them. The impeller, of backward type, is bent as far as possible from the center, in
the opposite direction to rotation. The bearing unit prevents cooling water from entering by a
special mechanical seal.




               1.   Water Pump Impeller
               2.   Mechanical Seal
               3.   Water Pump Body
               4.   Bearing Unit




THERMOSTAT
The thermostat maintains the cooling water at correct temperature and uses wax pellet type
thermostat. Wax is enclosed in the pallet. The wax is solid at low temperatures, but turns liquid at
high temperatures, expands and opens the valve.


                                    Flow of cooling water   ~_~              Temperature sensor of wax pellet type thermostat




                            (1)




                                                                                         (al                  (bl


                              1.   Leak hole                      7. To radiator
                              2.   Water cover                    8. To engine
                              3.   Spindle                        9. Pellet
                              4.   Pellet                        10. Wax (liquid)
                              5.   Valve                         11. Wax (solid)
                              6.   Sheet
                                                                 a) At low temperature
                                                                 b) At high temperature




                                                            56
              OBERDORFER WATER PUMP




               PUMP ASSEMBLY 301357

Item   Unit     Description

 1      4       Cover Screws
 2      1       Pump Cover
 3      1       Cover Gasket
 4      1       Impeller Snap Ring
 5      1       Impeller
 6      1       PUmp Shaft Old Style
 6A     1       1 pc. Shaft New Style
 7      1       Cam
 8      1       Carbon Bushing
 9      1       Cam Locking Screw
10      2       Oil Seal
11      1       Drain Plug




                              57
              SHERWOOD WATER PUMP




                                       \@



              PUMP ASSEMBLY 300986

Item   Unit    Description

 1      6      Cover Screws
 2      1      Pump Cover
 3      1      Cover Gasket
 4      1      Impeller Snap Ring
 5      1      Impeller
 6      1      Key
 7      1      Pump Shaft Old Style
 7A     1      1 pc. Shaft New Style
 8      1      Water Seal
 9      1      Cam
10      1      Pump Body
11      1      Cam Locking Screw
12      2      Oil Seal
13      1      Drain Plug




                             58
              JOHNSON WATER PUMP




              PUMP ASSEMBLY 302259

Item   Unit    Description

 1      6      Cover Screws
 2      1      Pump Cover
 3      1      Cover Gasket
 4      1      Impeller
 5      1      Pump Shaft
 6      1      Caqm
 7      1      Wear Plate
 8      1      Pin
 9      1      Cam Locking Screw
10      1      PUmp Body
11      1      Lip Seal
12      1      O-Ring
13      1      Washer
14      2      Ball Bearing
15      1      Guide Ring
16      1      Service Kit




                             59
NEW STYLE SHER -
   NOW INSTALL:'°f~L WATER PUMP
                     ENGINES




       PUMP ASS EMBLY 302648

       __ e_.scriP~t~iO~n-"---------~
   _--LD

        Impeller Housi
        O-Ring         ng
        Cam Screw
        Cam
        Impeller
        Cir-Clip
        Flat Washer
        Seal Seat
        Not Available 0
        Cir-Cr            rder #13
         .    Ip Internal
        Clr-Clip External
        Ball Bearing
        Seal & Seat A
        Cir-Cr         ssembly
              Ip External
        Key
        Shaft
        End Plate
        Gasket
        Pump Body
        Lock Washer
        Bolt




                    60
                                                 FUEL SYSTEM
While the engine is running, fuel is fed from the fuel tank {optional part} through the fuel filter to
the fuel pump, which feeds fuel to the injection pump. The injection pump then feeds the fuel
through the injection pipes, to the nozzles which inject fuel to the cylinders for combustion. Any
fuel leaking from nozzles is collected in the fuel overflow pipes which drain into the tank.

                                         1                    2       3




                                         1.   Fuel Tank
                                         2.   Fuel Overflow Pipe
                                         3.   Injection Pipe
                                         4.   Injection Nozzle
                                         5.   Injection Pump
                                         6.   Fuel Filter, Water Separator
                                         7.   Fuel Feed Pump (Elec.)
                                         8.   Fuel Filter


FUEL FILTER
A fuel filter is used to prevent dirty fuel from reaching the injection pump and injection nozzles.
The filter element will require occasional replacement to maintain an adequate flow 51 fuel to the
injection pump. The frequency of this service will vary according to the cleanliness of available fuel
and the care used in storage.




                                                 1


                 1 . Cock Body Inlet
                 2 . Cock Body Outlet                                                           3
                 3. Air Vent Plug




                                                         61
FUEL PUMP
Filtered fuel is forcibly sucked from the tank by the fuel pump and fed under pressure to the
injection pump. Inlet and discharge pressures are produced by a vertical movement of the
diaphragm which is caused by the special cam (for pump) of the fuel camshaft. Fuel is suctioned
on the downward stroke, and discharged on the upward stroke. A system of two valves allows fuel
to flow in only one direction.

                                       Inlet stroke                   Discharge stroke
                                                                                   (6)
                                                                                    t




                                                   1.   From Fuel Filter
                                                   2.   Inlet Valve
                                                   3.   Outlet Valve
                                                   4.   Diaphragm
                                                   5.   Fuel Camshaft
                                                   6.   To Injection Pump

FUEL INJECTION PUMP
The K type mini pump is provided, it features high injection quality even at low engine speed. The
fuel injection pump plunger is reciprocated by the fuel camshaft which is driven by the crankshaft
through a system of timing gears. Fuel camshaft rpm is 1/2 of camshaft rpm.

                 Fuel Injection pump

           (2)                                                               (9)
           (3)                                                                               (5)
                                                                                             (4)
                         l"If1\~ qJlIIL\l~- (9)

                               ~..,j,---(6)

                                                                                             (7)



                                              1.   Delivery Valve Holder
                                              2.   Delivery Valve Spring
                                              3.   Delivery
                                                    'j
                                                            Valve
                                              4.   Plunger
                                              5.   Cylinder Pump Element
                                              6.   Control Rack
                                              7.   Tappet
                                              8.   Plunger Spring
                                              9.   Air Vent Screw

                                                              62
Fuel Pressure-feed
1. Bottom dead center of plunger:
  At bottom dead center, fuel enters the delivery chamber through the fuel chamber and the
  feed hole. (Fuel chamber is always kept full by the fuel pump.)

2. Pressure-feed start

3. Pressure-feed process:
  Plunger is pushed up by camshaft to close the feed hole, and fuel pressurization starts. As
  the plunger moves up, pressure increases, and delivery valve is opened. Then fuel is
  pressure-fed through the injection pipe and nozzle into the combustion chamber.

4. Completion of pressure-feed:
  When plunger moves further up, the control groove and feed hole meet. Pressurized fuel
  in the delivery chamber is returned through the plunger's center hole, control groove, and
  feed hole to the fuel chamber. Then pressure falls and pressure-feed is completed.


                                    Pressure-feed Start to Completion




                                    (1,---..._




                                              11                         2)




                                                 3)                     4)



                                            1.   Delivery Chamber
                                            2.   Delivery Valve
                                            3.   Feed Hole
                                            4.   Fuel Chamber
                                            5.   Plunger




                                                        63
Injection Control
1. Injection "zero":
  The feed hole meets the control groove before it is closed by the plunger top. Therefore,
  fuel is not pressurized, and is not injected even if the plunger moves up.

2. Injection "medium":
  When the plunger is rotated a certain amount in the direction of the arrow by the control
  rack, stroke A is effective until the feed hole meets the control groove and fuel is injected
  as the stroke amount.

3. Injection "maximum":
  When the plunger is rotated by the control rack to the maximum amount (in the direction
  of the arrow), effective stroke reaches maximum and maximum injection is provided.

                                  Injection Control


                                                                       t     1




                                            11                         2)




                                                              3)



                                                 1. Effective Stroke




                                                         64
Delivery Valve
The delivery valve is composed of the valve and the valve seat. It performs two functions:

1. Reverse flow prevention:
  If the circuit between the delivery chamber and the nozzle is always closed, a time lag will
  occur between pressure feed start of valve element and start of nozzle injection. This, in
  turn, will prevent injection from stopping properly until after completion of pressure-feed.

  To eliminate this time lag, the valve lowers on completion of pressure-feed and the relief
  valve contacts the valve seat, and breaks the circuit between the injection pipe and
  plunger.

2. Fuel dribbling prevention:
  After the relief valve contacts delivery valve seat, this valve lowers a little. Since the relief
  valve breaks the circuit pressure int he injection pipe is reduce as the valve lowers,
  preventing fuel dribbling from the nozzle.

Pump Element
The pump element is composed of a cylinder and a plunger. Their contact surfaces are
precision finished to provide a high injection pressure even at low speeds. The cylindrical
surface of the plunger has slanted grooves, which are called control grooves, and a
connecting hole for plunger head.

Control Rack
This is connected directly to the governor fork in the engine body. It is connected with the
plunger by pinion to change injection volume.

Tappet
The tappet converts rotating movement of the camshaft into a reciprocating movement to
drive plunger. A roller is used where it contacts the cam to reduce friction.

   Delivery Velve                                                              Pump Element

                                                                                                      (10)

                                                                                               (8)



                                                                                         (7)
                                                                                                      (11)

                                                                                               (9)

              (5)                      (6)
                                                                                                      (12)




                       1. Relief Valve
                       2. Seat
                       3. Delivery Valve Seat
                       4. Pressure Decrease Because of Increase in this Volume
                       5. End of Pressure-feed and Start of Sucking Back
                       6. End of Sucking Back
                       7. Pump Element
                       8. Cylinder
                       9. Plunger
                      10. Feed Hole
                      11. Control Groove
                      12. Driving Face




                                                       65
INJECTION NOZZLE
This nozzle is throttle-type. Fuel fed from the pump pressurized to push the needle valve up and
the fuel is then injected. The needle valve is pressed by the nozzle spring through the push rod.
Fuel overflow is passed from nozzle holder center through the fuel overflow nipple and the fuel
overflow pipe to the fuel tank. Injection pressure can be controlled by inserting shims between
nozzle holder body and adjusting washers. The pressure increases when a O.1mm shim is inserted.
Injection nozzle is also precision finished as is the injection pump, treat it carefully and protect
from water and dust.

                                   Injection nozzle




                                                                           (31


                                                                            (41

                                                                                 (51


                                                        '~-===--H--tt---161
                                                      ...JH-1-f-t----+-tt-+t---17l


                                181--+---------<-1




                                         1. Nozzle Holder Body
                                         2. Adjusting Washer
                                         3. Nozzle Spring
                                         4. Push Rod
                                         5. Retaining Nut
                                         6. Nozzle Body
                                         7. Needle Valve
                                         8. Combustion Chamber
                                         9. Fuel Overflow Nipple
                                        10. Fuel Overflow Pipe




                                                      66
GOVERNOR
With centrifugal ball weight system this mechanical governor works in the whole range of speeds.
It keeps the engine speed and controls the engine output.

At Start
When the engine is started, more fuel is required than in running. At starting, fork lever 1 is
pulled rightward by starter spring because ball weights have no centrifugal force. Control rack
moves to a position for overlimit discharging of fuel to assure easy starting.

                                           At start




            1.   Ball Weights
            2.   Start Spring
            3.   Fork Lever 1
            4.   Control Rack


At Idling
When speed control lever is set at idling position after the engine is started, high speed
governor spring 1 does not work at all and also low speed governor spring 2 does only a
little action. Therefore, governor sleeve is pushed leftward by a centrifugal force of ball
weights. Fork lever 1 and control rack are moved leftward by the sleeve and then idling limit
spring is compressed by control rack. As a result, the control rack is kept at a position where
a centrifugal force of ball weights and forces start spring, governor spring 2 and idling limit
spring are balanced, providing stable idling.

                                          At idling




            1.   Speed Control Lever
            2.   Governor Spring 1
            3.   Governor Spring 2
            4.   Ball Weight
            5.   Governor Sleeve
            6.   Fork Lever 1
            7.   Control Rack
            8.   Idling Limit Spring
            9.   Start Spring




                                                      67
At middle/high speed running
The engine speed is controlled when the tension of governor springs 1 and 2, which are
pulled speed control lever, and the centrifugal force of ball weights are balanced. When the
speed is reduced (A - B) with load increased (a - b), the centrifugal force of ball weights
becomes smaller than the tension of governor springs 1 and 2. As a result, the control rack
is moved rightward and fuel injection amount is increased to produce an engine torque
required for the load. (a - c)

                                              At middle/high speed running




          1.   Speed Control Lever
          2.   Governor Spring 1
          3.   Governor Spring 2
          4.   Ball Weights




                             When load is increased             (1)
                                                                             (3)


                                                                             (2)


                                        t
                                       (5)




                                                   (4) _ _



                                       1.    Engine Torque Curve
                                       2.    Small Loan Torque Curve
                                       3.    Large Load Torque Curve
                                       4.    Engine R.P.M.
                                       5.    Torque




                                                       68
At high speed running with overload
When an overload is applied to the engine running at a high speed, the centrifugal force of
ball weights become small as the speed is reduced, and fork lever 2 is pulled rightward by
governor springs 1 and 2, increasing fuel injection. Fork lever 2 becomes ineffective to
increase fuel injection when it is stopped by maximum output limit bolt. After that when the
force of spring becomes larger than the centrifugal force of ball weights, fork lever 1 moves
rightward to increase fuel injection, driving the engine continuously with a high torque.

                                          At high speed running with overload




                                                                                                            (6)

                                                                                                            5)



          1.   Ball Weight
          2.   Fork Lever 2
          3.   Governor Spring 1
          4.   Governor Spring 2
          5.   Maximum Output Limit Bolt
          6.   Spring
          7.   Fork Lever 1

To stop engine
When stop lever is moved to "STOP" position, fork lever is moved leftward and then control
rack is moved to the non-injection position, stopping the engine.

                                          To stop engine
                                                                    -1        ,------,   '--I

                                                                     I, rl           '1 rIll
                                                                         LJ            u    ~,~-~1t=Il";I
                                                                                              ~




          1. Stop Lever
          2. Fork Lever 1
          3. Control Rack




                                                       69
NOTES




 70
                                           SECTION V - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Wiring Diagram ................................................................... 72
General Information ............................................................... 73
Alternator, General Information .................................................... 74-77
Alternator Schematic Diagrams ...................................................... 75
Alternator Rear Housing Rotation .................................................... 77
Belt Installation, Alignment and Tightening ............................................ 78
Ammeter ........................................................................ 78
Alternator/Regulator Test Procedure .................................................. 79
Test Procedure - Integral Regulator Systems ........................................ 80-83
Troubleshooting Guide - Integral Regulator Systems .................................. 80,81
Test Procedure - Remote Regulator Systems ........................................ 84-86
Troubleshooting Guide - Remote Regulator Systems .................................... 84
Alternator Repair Procedure ...................................................... 87-93
Rotor Inspection and Electrical Testing ............................................. 93-96
Alternator Reassembly .......................................................... 96-99
Alternator Performance Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..   99,100
Cranking System ............................................................. 100-102




                                                                    71
                                                       WIRING DIAGRAM

                                                                   .-------~1DI}_----__,

             Glow Plugs (1 per cyl.)




                                                       Starter




                                                   ~
                                                   ~
                                                                  Extenalon Harne..




WIRE NO.    COLOR                      WIRE SIZE
    1      Black                          #10
    2      Grey                           #10
    3      Yellow-Red                     #16
    4      Orange                         #10
    5      Red                            #10
    6      Purple                         #16
   7       Lt. Blue                       #16
   8       Tan                            #16
   9       Open                           #14
   10      Grey                           #16
   11      Orange-Red                     #14




                                                                 72
                                          ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
General Information
The 8E series of charging systems were designed for the replacement of many current Motorola
models. Models are available for 51 amp, 12 volt, negative ground systems with or without an
integral, solid-state voltage regulator.

The integral voltage regulator incorporates an IC, all silicon semiconductors and thick-film
construction.

The remote regulator model alternator is quipped with a blade terminal for connection to the
associated remote regulator.

Serviceable features of previous Motorola Charging System designs have been retained in these
units. The voltage regulator and brush assembly can be removed without disassembly of the
alternator thus allowing for individual testing or inspection.


                                   1               2                          3




                           1.   Long life silicon diodes
                           2.   Permanently lubricated & sealed rear ball bearing
                           3.   Quiet & trouble-free dynamically balanced rotor
                           4.   Convenient regulator & brush replacement
                           5.   Insulated stator prevents shorts
                           6.   Permanently lubricated & sealed front ball bearing
                           7.   Standard %" shaft

                                 CUTAWAY VIEW OF TYPICAL ALTERNATOR




                                                       73
ALTERNATOR
These alternators are available in two basic versions. One version includes a solid-state regulator
and forms a complete charging system. The other version does not include a regulator. However, it
is equipped with a blade terminal for connection to a remote regulator.

The alternator portions of these charging systems are three-phase, diode rectified machines with
die cast aluminum housings to provide the necessary strength while keeping the weight to a
minimum. The weight of a typical alternator, excluding pulley, is approximately 10 pounds.




                                      TYPICAL ALTERNATOR MODEL

The field for the alternator is wound concentrically about the core of the rotor. The field structure
contains twelve poles (six sets of pole pairs) and the rotor is dynamically balanced after assembly
to minimize vibration. The rotor is supported in the alternator by a pair os sealed ball bearings.

Field current of approximately 2.5 Amperes is supplied to the field through copper slip rings and a
set of electrographite brushes. The slip rings ar small in diameter for extended brush life.

NOTE: The design is a sealed brush design and therefore is suitable for marine applications. The
brusholder is easily removed for either inspection or replacement. Removal does not require the
disassembly of the alternator.




                                                      74
The stator is connected to a three-phase, full-wave bridge rectifier package which contains six
diodes. The bridge converts the A.C. generated in the stator to a D.C. output for battery charging
and accessories such as radio, heater, lights, ignition, etc. See illustrations below.

Power to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator alternators is provided by the field
diode (or diode trio)
package contained in the alternator. Remote regulator alternators obtain field power via the
regulator in the charging system.

The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 amperes. Rated output is achieved at approx-
imately 6000 alternator RPM at an ambient temperature of 75 degrees F (23.8 degrees C). The
alternator is designed to operate in an ambient of -40 degrees to $212 degrees F (-40 to 100
degrees C). To ensure proper cooling of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alter-
nator, it must be used with the proper cooling fan.




               D+             B+                                            D+              B+



      EXCITE                                                 SENSE EXCITE




 REGULATOR                                                     REGULATOR
    (ICI)                               ":' GROUND                (ICI)                               ":' GROUND


            STATOR-                                                       STATOR-
                                                                                    '*\.ISIII~"""--o
                                          AC TAP                                                 ACTAP
                                          (TACH.)                                                (TACH.)


      ALTERNATOR SENSE (INTEGRAL REG.)                           BATTERY SENSE (INTEGRAL REG.)



                                         D+             B+




                                                                  ":' GROUND


                                      STATOR-


                                           +  ~ACTAP
                                                ROTOR (TACH.)    b
                                           REMOTE REGULATOR

                                   ,ALTERNATOR SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS


                                                       75
                                                    INTEGRAL REGULATOR

Integral Voltage Regulator
The voltage regulator is an electronic switching device which senses system voltage level and
switches the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain proper system voltage.

The regulator design utilizes all silicon semi-conductors and thick-film assembly techniques. After
the voltage has been adjusted to the proper regulating valve, the entire circuit is encapsulated to
protect the circuit and the components from possible damage due to handling or vibration and
moisture encountered in a vehicle.

The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to provide a Slightly higher voltage at low
temperatures and a lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide for charging requirements of
the battery under these conditions.


                                                                      12 VOLT, 51 AMP     ......
                                                                                          en
                                                                                          III
                             Vi
                             w
                                                                                          ...J

                             ffi     80                                               4   ~
                                              ,.
                             Il.
                                                                                          W
                             :E                                                           ::::I
                             ~60                   ~.,
                                                                                      3   o
                                                                                          a:
                             ....

                                                                    ---
                                                                      --
                                                            ~.,




                                                    ,.- -
                             z
                             w                                      .....                 ~
                             a:           I                                               a:
                                                        . ----
                             a: 40                     -"                             2   o

                                          '~~ "
                             ::::I
                             (,)                   ~                                      a:
                                                                                          w
                             ....         I                                               3:
                             ~ 20                                                    1    o
                             ....
                                          ~'
                                                                                          Il.
                             ::::I                                                        W
                                                                                          tJ)
                             o                                                            a:
                                                                                          o
                                     1000 2000 3000           4000 5000     6000   7000   J:

                                                   ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM

                                          TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
                                          @AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 75 0
                                            (23.80 C) SAE TEST METHOD




                                                               76
Alternator Excitation
The residual magnetism of an alternator is very low therefore some field current must be supplied
to the rotor to initiate the generation of power by the machine.



               CHARGE                                                  CHARGE
              IND. LIGHT                                              IND. LIGHT



            ING.SW
                                                                   ING.SW
                                                                                 ~0+                      ALT
                                                                                                         FIELD
              (ON)
                                                                     (ON)          (IND. LIGHT
     +                     0+                                                      TERMINAL)
TO BATT               (IND. LIGHT
                      TERMINAL)
                                                           +
                                                        TO BATT


         INTERGRAL REGULATOR ALTERNATOR                         REMOTE REGULATOR ALTERNATOR
                EXCITATION CIRCUIT                                   EXCITATION CIRCUIT

Alternator Installation
Observe vehicle battery polarity prior to connecting output cables to the alternator. Reverse battery
polarity will destroy the alternator rectifier diodes.

ALTERNATOR REAR HOUSING ROTATION
For special installation requirements, the alternator rear housing may be rotated to one of four
different positions that are spaced 90° apart. To rotate the rear housing, proceed as follows:

1.   Detach plastic cover from rear housing.

2.   Remove the four (4) through-bolts using a 1/4" nutdriver or socket. See illustration below.

3.   Rotate the housing (clockwise or counter-clockwise) to the desired location. The stator assembly
     must be rotated with the rear housing.

4.   Replace through-bolts. Tighten through-bolts alternately and evenly until tight. Check that rotor
     shaft turns freely after re-assembly.

5.   Reattach plastic cover to rear housing. NOTE: Be sure felt gasket located on inside of cover is
     in place.




                                                                            STATOR
                                                                             ASSV



                                    THROUGH BOLT (4)              REAR HOUSING


                                         THROUGH-BOLT REMOVAL




                                                      77
BELT INSTALLATION, ALIGNMENT & TENSIONING

Correct belt alignment is essential for maximum alternator and belt service life. The center line of
all pulleys related to the alternator drive must be within 1/32" of the true center line. See illustration below.

Tighten drive belts by applying pressure to the alternator front housing ONLY. DO NOT apply
pressure to the rear housing or stator. Set belt tension to the engine manufacturer's
recommendations. If this information is not available, tighten belts to the pOint where the alternator
fan cannot be turned by hand.



                                                                   CAUTION:
                                                                   APPLY PRESSURE
                                                                   HERE (TO FRONT
                                                                   HOUSING ONLY)
                                                                   WHEN SETTING BELT
                                                                   TENSION




                                                                ALTERNATOR PULLEY AND ENGINE
                                                            I   DRIVE PULLEY MUST BE IN LINE
                                              /
                                                                WITH EACH OTHER.
                                       REAR         FRONT
                                      HOUS ING     HOUSING


                                      ALTERNATOR BELT ALIGNMENT

AMMETER
Ammeter requirements vary with application. An original equipment ammeter may be difficult to
replace with a higher reading unit, due to limited panel space and the vehicle wiring system. For
an ammeter to show alternator charge and accessory discharge, it must be connected as shown in
illustration below.
                             ALTERNATOR                                   BATTERY
                               CHARGE                                    DISCHARGE
                                PATH                                        PATH


                                    1               AMMETER                 T~
                                                                                  I

                                    o                                   ~)
                                                                            l('




                                AMMETER CHARGE & DISCHARGE CIRCUIT

An accessory ammeter may be used if it provides 75-0-75 scale information. Such meters are
available in two types: direct reading, and external shunt types. Internal shunt (direct reading)
ammeters are not usually recommended for charging systems of high output capability due to the
long heavy gauge wiring required. Failure to provide adequate wiring will result in poor system
performance.

                                                       78
 ALTERNATOR/REGULATOR TEST PROCEDURE
General
It is desirable to test the charging system (alternator and voltage regulator) in the vehicle using the
vehicle wiring harness and electrical loads that are a permanent part of the system. In-vehicle
testing will then provide the technician with an operational test of the charging system as well as
the major components of the electrical system.

Preliminary Checks & Tests
Before starting the actual electrical test procedure, the charging system, battery and wiring should
be checked to eliminate possible problem areas. The following procedure is recommended:

     1. Check the condition and adjustment of belts.
        A. If the alternator fan can be moved by pushing on a fan blade with your finger, the belts
           should be adjusted.
        B. Replace any worn or glazed belts.

     2. Check to see that all terminals, connectors and plugs are clean and tight.
        A. Loose or corroded connections cause high resistance and this could cause
           overcharging, undercharging or damage to the charging system.
        B. Badly corroded battery cables could prevent the battery from reaching a fully charged
           condition.

     3. Check battery condition and change if necessary. A low or discharged battery may cause
        false or misleading readings on the in-vehicle tests.

Test Equipment Requirements
The Alternator and Regulator tests outlined require electrical test equipment to measure voltage
only; however, most commercial test equipment incorporates several testing devices in a single
unit.

DC VOLTMETER: 0-20 Volt Scale

BATTERY TEST EQUIP.: Any commercial type, Hydrometer with temperature correction scale.

Storage Battery
The vehicle storage battery circuit represents a continuous although variable electrical load to the
alternator. If the circuit, pOSition or negative, is opened or broken while the alternator is charging,
the loss of the battery will result in the charging voltage rising to unsafe levels.

Battery Inspection
The following table illustrates typical ranges of specific gravity for a cell in various states of charge.
THE BATTERY MUST BE AT LEAST 75% OF FULL CHARGE FOR EFFECTIVE ALTERNATOR
TESTING.

                              1.260 SP. GR        1.280 SP. GR.      CHARGE
                              BATTERY             BATTERY            STATE
                              1.260 Sp. Gr.       1.280 Sp.   Gr.    100% Charged
                              1.230 Sp. Gr.       1.250 Sp.   Gr.    75% Charged
                              1.200 Sp. Gr.       1.220 Sp.   Gr.    50% Charged
                              1.170 Sp. Gr.       1.190 Sp.   Gr.    25% Charged
                              1.140 Sp. Gr.       1.160 Sp.   Gr.    Very Low Cap.
                              1.110 Sp. Gr.       1.130 Sp.   Gr.    Discharged                              I


After completing these preliminary checks and tests, proceed with the tests as outlined in the
Trouble-Shooting Guide.




                                                        79
     TEST PROCEDURE - (INTEGRAL REGULATOR SYSTEMS)
     (See Pages 84-86 for Remote Regulator Systems)


                  AC TAP        BACK                                       ACTAP            BACK
                  (TACH)       COVER                                       (TACH)          COVER



     (0+) INDICATOR
      LIGHT TERM.                                              (0+) INDICATOR
                                                                LIGHT TERM.

         GROUND _-uo                             JUMPER ATTACHED, 1.5 TO
                                                 3    B (D+)          3.0 VOLTS IND. LIGHT DN

                                                ·JUMPER NOT ATTACHED

                                                        OPEN REGULATOR TEST

Test No. 3 Alternator Output Test
After voltmeter is connected, as shown in Figure below, start and run engine at a fast idle of
approximately 1,500 RPM. Turn on vehicle headlights and blower fan (lOW speed). Check for
nominal system output voltage of between 13.8-14.8 volts for a properly operating charging system.
(Voltages may vary a few tenths of a volt (higher or lower) due to ambient temperature variations.)

If the alternator output voltage does not fall within the proper range, the alternator should be
disassembled for further inspection and tests.
                                                               IGN.      IND.
                                                               sw.      LIGHT


                         VOLTAGE
                        REGULATOR
                                                     RED                                        U - . - \ - - POS + OUTPUT
                                                     BlK                                                          (B+)
                                                     GRN



                               I+ - I
                                    VOLTS

                EXCITE
               (TO IGN.                              BlK
                sw.  OR
               Oil PRESS
                 sw.)               RED                      POS + OUTPUT
                                                              13.8 TO 14.8V
                                                                                                        BATTERY          -

                                                     ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST
                                                                          86
ALTERNATOR REPAIR PROCEDURE
General
The following instructions are presented as a general overall procedure for complete disassembly
of an alternator. However, it should be pOinted out that following the complete procedure whenever
a repair is necessary will seldom, if ever, be required. In cases where the causes of the
malfunction are known, it is only necessary to follow that portion of the procedure directly related
to resolving the problem. Similarly, when the reasons for the malfunction are uncertain, it will be
necessary to follow the procedure in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem.

The following troubleshooting diagram should help identify some of the more common problems to
concentrate on during the overhaul/repair procedure.


                                 NO
                             ALTERNATOR
                               OUTPUT


                                  ·
                                                     LOW
                                                 ALTERNATOR
                                                   OUTPUT
                                                      +
                                                                          ,
                                                                       "NOISY"
                                                                     ALTERNATOR


                                                                     LOOSE DRIVE
                              DEFECTIVE           DEFECTIVE
                                                  REGULATOR            PULLEY
                              REGULATOR


                                  ·
                              DEFECTIVE               ·
                                                   WORN
                                                                          ·
                                                                     CRACKED OR
                                                                      DAMAGED
                              BRUSHES             BRUSHES
                                                                      HOUSING

                                  ·                   ·
                                                 GROUNDEDI


                                                                         ,
                                OPEN
                                FIELD             SHORTED               WORN
                                DIODE          RareR WINDINGS         BEARINGS


                                  ·
                                OPEN
                                RareR
                                                      ·
                                                  GROUNDEDI
                                                   SHORTED
                                                                      SHORTED
                                                                      RECTIFIER
                                               STATOR WINDINGS         DIODE


                                                      ·
                                                SHORTED/OPEN
                                               RECTIFIER DIODE
                                                                          ·
                                                                    SHORTED OR
                                                                  GROUNDED STATOR
                                                                     WINDINGS




                              ALTERNATOR TROUBLESHOOTING-DIAGRAM

Disassembly & Testing
Detach Back Cover:
Remove nuts from terminals. Remove two screws securing back cover to rear housing.




                                                                       (2) BACK COVER
                                                                      MOUNTING SCREWS
                                          REMOVING BACK COVER




                                                     87
Remove Brush Holder:
Remove two locknuts securing brush holder. Pull out brush holder. See illustration below.




                                                                         (2) BRUSHOLDER
                                                                        MOUNTING LOCKNUT




                                         REMOVING BRUSH HOLDE'R


Inspect and Test Brush Assembly:
The illustration below shows the terminals brush arrangement and testing procedure. The original
brush set may be reused if the brushes are 3/16" or longer, and if brushes are not oil soaked,
cracked or show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes caused by vibration.




                                  TEST
                               CONTINUITY
                              FROM A TO B
                              FROM C TO 0
                               NO CIRCUIT:
                              FROM A OR B               TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC
                                TO C OR 0             TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER

                                              BRUSH TEST




                                                    88
Remove Integral Voltage Regulator:
Remove two screws securing integral voltage regulator to rear housing.

NOTE: Alternators with remote voltage regulator systems will have a space part mounted to the
rear housing instead of the integral voltage regulator.




                                                                              (2) REGULATOR
                                                                            MOUNTING SCREWS



                                   REMOVING VOLTAGE REGULATOR

Remove Diode-Trio (Field Diode) and Rectifier Diode Bridge:
The diode-trio and rectifier diode bridge are detached as an assembly. Remove cone lockout from
positive output (B+) terminal. Straighten B+ strap. Remove three terminal screws and four diode-
trio mounting screws. Detach assembly from rear housing and separate diode-trio assembly from
rectifier bridge. See illustration below.




                                                                                   (4) MOUNTING
                                                                                       SCREW




                                                                                CONE LOCKNUT
                                                                                AND B+ STRAP




                       REMOVING DIODE-TRIO AND RECTIFIER DIODE BRIDGE.




                                                    89
Test Diode Trio Assembly:
Using a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test lamp; check for continuity from each terminal
separately to the 0+ stud; continuity should be observed in one direction (polarity) only, and all
diodes should check alike. If any diode is defective replace the entire diode trio assembly. See
illustration below.


                                    COMMERCIAL
                                    DIODE TESTER




                                    L-.ulf"-:::::-:   D+ STUD- -
                                               (IND. LIGHT TERMINAL)


                                             TESTING DIODE-TRIO

Test Diode Rectifier Bridge Assembly:
Using a commercial diode tested, check for continuity. Check betweenn point A and each of three
terminals C for negative diodes. Continuity should be observed in one direction (polarity) only, and
all diodes should check alike. Then check between point B (B+ strap) and each of the three
terminals C for positive diodes. Continuity should be observed in one direction only, and all diodes
should check alike. See illustration below.

If any diode is defective, replace the entire diode rectifier bridge assembly.




                               e                                           e
                               g                                           9




                                        TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE




                                                       90
Separate Stator/Rear Housing Assy. from Front Housing:
Remove four thru-bolts. See illustration below.

Carefully insert two screwdriver blades in opposite openings between the stator and front housing,
as shown in illustration below. Pry units apart.

CAUTION: Do not insert screwdriver blades deeper than 1/16" to avoid damaging stator
winding.


                                        (4) THROUGH                  BLADE SCREWDRIVERS
                                             BOLT                    AT OPPOSITE
                                                                     OPENINGS ---.~----...




                                               CAUTION: DO NOT
                                               INSERT BLADE OF
                                               SCREWDRIVER MORE
                                               THAN 1/16"

               THRU-BOLT REMOVAL                               STATOR-REAR HOUSING SEPARATION

Inspect Rear Housing:
Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken casting, stripped threads or evidence of severe
wear in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing.

If casting is to be reused, clean in solvent, dry with compressed air, and install a new rear bearing
retainer if retainer is damaged.

Test Stator:
The stator assembly consists of three individual windings terminated in the delta type connections.
Using an ohmmeter or a test lamp, check for winding continuity between terminals A, Band C.
There should be no continuity from any terminal to point D (laminations). Also, stators showing any
signs of winding discoloration should be discarded. See illustration below.




                                        D

                                         STATOR WINDING TESTS

                                                     91
Remove Pulley, Fan and Spacer:
The pulley is a slip-fit on the rotor shaft, positioned with a Woodruff Key. Remove the nut and
lockwasher from the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool.

After nut and lockwasher are removed the alternator can be separated from the pulley.

The fan will slide over the key. The key may be removed with diagonal pliers, or with a screwdriver.

Inspect the fan for cracked or broken fins, note the condition of the mounting hole. If worn from
running loose, replace the fan to insure balance.

Inspect pulley for possible faults as listed in illustration below.



                                                             CHECK FOR WORN
                                                             DRIVE SURFACES.

                                                               CHECK FOR POLISHED
                                                               SURFACE HERE.


                                                             NOTE CONDITION OF -------1==;:===1
                                                             KEY GROOVE.
                                                                      CHECK BORE
                                                                      FOR WEAR.



                   PULLEY REMOVAL                                           PULLEY INSPECTION POINTS


Separate Rotor from Front Housing:
Position front housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press. Push rotor assembly from
housing. See illustration below.



                                                               I---PRESS
                                 ROTOR
                                                                              FRONT
                                 SHAFT
                                                                             HOUSING
                                                                        /




                               SEPARATING ROTOR FROM FRONT HOUSING




                                                        92
Remove Front Bearing from Housing:
Remove three bearing retainer screws. Position housing on support blocks placed on an arbor
press. Using a tool that contacts inner race of bearing, press out fron bearing. See illustrations below.

                   (3) BEARING RETAINIER
                           SCREW




                                                                     BEARING              INNER RACE




           REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS                                   PRESSING OUT BEARING


Inspect Front Housing:
Check housing for cracks. Check condition of threads in adjusting ear. Check bore in mounting
foot. Discard housing if bore shows signs of elongation (oval or out-of-roundness).

ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING
Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical properties. See illustration on page 89.

A.   Current Draw or Resistance of the Winding

CAUTION: Turn off DC power source before removing test leads to avoid avc damage to slip
ring surfaces.

1. CURRENT DRAW IN AMPERES, AT 70° TO 80°F.

                                                 CORRECT
           12 VOLT MODELS,                     CURRENT DRAW
               RATED AT:                          @ 15.0 V

              51 AMPERES                     3.2 to 3.6 AMPERES

2. RESISTANCE OF WINDING IN OHMS, AT 70° TO 80° F.

           12 VOLT MODELS,                   CORRECT WINDING
               RATED AT:                       RESISTANCE
              51 AMPERES                        4.1 to 4.7 OHM




                                                      93
                                 SLIP
                                         REAR
                                        BEARING
                                          \
                                                    I
                                              POLE FINGERS



                                                                  BEARING
                              RING~                                AREA
                                                              /      KEY SLOT




                 TEST CURRENT                                      SHAFT THREADS
              DRAW OR RESISTANCE
                 BEWEEN RINGS                                 NOTE: PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES
                                                              OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING
                                                              ARCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES.


                                 ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING

B.   Grounded Slip Ring or Winding
     Use 12 volt DC test lamp, ohmmeter, or 110V AC test lamp. Place one test lead to the rotor
     body and the other on either slip ring. Open circuit from either slip ring to the rotor body is a
     correct condition.

C. Condition of Slip Rings
     1.   Clean brush contacting surfaces with fine crocus cloth, wipe dust and residue away.

     2.   If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration, replace the entire rotor assembly.

D.   Rotor Shaft and Pole Pieces

     1.   Stripped threads on shaft

     2.   Worn key slot

     3.   Worn bearing surface

     4.   Scuffed pole fingers

     5.   Worn or dry rear bearing

Replace rotor assembly if any of the above faults are noted with the exception of item 5.

NOTE: New rotors include a new rear bearing and new slip rings as part of the assembly.

If rear bearing requires replacement, follow instructions for this operation.




                                                        94
Remove Slip Rings from Rotor Assembly
Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals. Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil
leads from the slip ring terminals, as shown in illustration below.

                           REMOVE ALL RESIDUE
                           FROM BETWEEN
                           SLIP RINGS



                     UNSOLDER _=:::::::.----ji"'1




                               CAUTION: DO NOT
                                  OVERHEAT

                               UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS

Straighten rotor leads. Insert a No. 10 x 1" cap screw into opening at center of slip ring assembly.
Position bearing puller as shown in illustration below and pull slip ring assembly off rotor shaft.

CAUTION: When holding rear end of rotor shaft in vise, be sure not to grip bearing area of
rotor shaft.

                                           STRAIGHTEN
                                          ROTOR LEADS




                                        REMOVING SLIP RING ASSY.

Remove Rear Bearing from Rotor
Dress rotor leads away from the bearing puller contact area.
Adjust puller to contact inner bearing race, carefully remove bearing from the shaft. See illustration
at top of page 96.

This completes the disassembly of the alternator.




                                                      95
                                         DRESS ROTOR LEADS
                                         AWAY FROM PULLER




                                        REMOVING REAR BEARING

ALTERNATOR REASSEMBLY

General
The general reassembly instructions are reverse order to the procedures given for disassembly.
Therefore, only information pertaining to special reassembly requirements will be covered in this
section.

Install Rear Bearing
Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below. Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure
on inner race only and press bearing on rotor shaft until it contact shoulder. New replacement
bearings should be used whenever bearing is removed during repair procedures or when bearing
is rough, dry or noisy.


                                                              --PRESS
                                 REAR
                                BEARING
                                                              DRIVER

                                   ROTOR~
                                                           -SLEEVE


                    BLOCK


                            \          "
                                      INSTALLING REAR BEARING




                                                     96
Install Slip Ring Assembly
Guide rotor leads through one of the oval passages in the slip ring assembly. Be sure oval
passages is in line with groove in rotor shaft. Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below.
Choose a driver sleeve with a diameter that clears leads.

Press slip ring assembly on shaft. Solder rotor leads to leads on slip ring. Trim excess slip ring
leads extending above solder connections.



                                                            ____ PRESS




                                                                        DRIVER
                                SLIP RING
                                                           ~SLEEVE
                                ASSEMBLY~




                                     INSTALLING SLIP RING ASSEMBLY

Install Front Bearing
Place front bearing and housing in an arbor press, as in illustration below. Select a drive tool to
contact the outer race only and press bearing into housing bore. Bearing replacement is
recommended whenever bearing is removed during alternator repair procedures of if bearing is
rough, dry or noisy. Install three bearing retainer screws. Torque to 25-30 pounds.




                                                                    _--- PRESS

                                                                             DRIVER TOOL
                                                                              CONTACTS
                                                                            OUTER BEARING
                                                                              RACE ONLY
                                                                /
                                                                                FRONT
                                                                               BEARING




                                       INSTALLING FRONT BEARING




                                                      97
Assemble Rotor and Front Housing
Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press, using two steel blocks for support, as shown in
illustration below. Place front housing over shaft. Using driver sleeve that contacts inner bearing
race only, press front housing down until inner bearing race contacts shoulder on the shaft.

CAUTION: Be sure rotor leads clear blocks.



                                                            ____ PRESS
                                                                   DRIVER
                                                           _______ SLEEVE

                                                                           FRONT
                                                                       /HOUSING




                                 ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO ROTOR


Assembly Spacer, Fan and Pulley
Place pulley spacer over shaft. Install Woodruff Key. Install fan. Install pulley, lock washer and nut.
Mount pulley as shown in left hand illustration on page 92. Tighten to 35 to 50 foot pounds.

Spin rotor by hand to test freedom of bearing.

Assembly Front & Rear Housing
Place stator into front housing with stator leads at top and notches in laminations aligned with bolt
holds. Position rear housing over slip rings with housing bolt holes aligned and stator leads exten-
ding through openings at top of rear housing.

Install through bolts and tighten evenly to between 50 to 60 inch pounds. Spin rotor by hand to
test freedom of bearings.

NOTE: New front housings contain thru-bolt holes that are not tapped. Therefore, a socket wrench
rather than a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient torque to drive the "thread forming"
thru-bolts.

Install Diode Rectifier Bridge and Diode Trio
Insert B + strap through slot in diode trio body. Bend strap over B + terminal and secure with
cone locknut. Apply thin film of heat sink compound to back of diode rectifier bridge and to mating
area on rear housing.

Install assembly to rear housing (four screws). Place strap (Ae tap) in position and connect stator
leads (three screws).

Install capacitor (where applicable).

Install Integral Regulator
Install brush mounting screws (two) through openings in regulator body. Secure regulator to rear
housing (two screws).


                                                      98
Install Brush Assembly
Insert brush holder into grooves in hub of rear housing. Place D + strap (or male terminal where
applicable) on stud and secure brush holder with locknuts (two places). Secure other end of D +
strap.

Install Rear Cover
Be sure felt gasket is in place (see illustration below). Position rear cover on rear housing and
secure with two screws.




                                                                            FELT
                                                                           GASKET




                                         INSTALLING REAR COVER

ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS
The following tests will determine the current producing capability of the repaired alternator. Mount
the alternator in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator RPM Select required battery
voltage and circuit polarity.

A. For remote regulator model, connect fixture circuit leads and instruments to the alternator
   terminals as shown in Diagram A on page 100. Place field rheostat in maximum resistance
   position.

Turn drive motor on, adjust to obtain 5000 alternator RPM. Slowly reduce field rheostat resistance,
alternator should develop a charge. Continue to reduce resistance until alternator reaches rated
current output in amperes. CAUTION: Limit output voltage to 15V maximum. DO NOT operate the
alternator for more than a few minutes in the manner, due to the lack of voltage control. If the
alternator will deliver its rated output, terminate the test.

B. For integral regulator model, connect fixture leads and instruments to alternator terminals as
   shown in Diagram B on page 100.

The Carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must be capable of handling the alternator
rated output alternaotr RPM.

CAUTION: Make sure connections are well secured and tight to avoid possible damage to
instrument, alternaotr or wiring due to short circuits.

Starting with carbon pile off, slowly increase load while observing ammeter and maintaining 5000
RPM. Increase load until a minimum output voltage of approximately 13.7 volts is obtained.
Record the output current at this point and refer to the chart for minimum acceptable ratings.




                                                     99
                                        MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT
                                            VAWES AT 70° TO 80°
                                               RATING          OUTPUT

                                               51 AMP          46 AMP


                                                                                          0+   AC TAP (TACH)

                            FIELD
                          RHEOSTAT


                                                                         INTEGRAL
                                                                        REGULATOR

                                                                             EXCITE
                                                                        (TO IGN. SW. OR
                                                                        Oil PRESS. SW.)

 I+vOIIS.1
        -
             BlK                                              RED        POS + OUTPUT
             RED
                                                                          "REMOTE BATT
                                                                           SENSE ONLY
                                     BATTERY


      DIAGRAM A-REMOTE REGULATOR MODEL                        DIAGRAM B-INTEGRAL REGULATOR MODEL

                               TYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS

CRANKING SYSTEM
Starter
The magnet-switch type starter is composed of two main sections. The first section converts
battery current into mechanical rotation to turn the engine crankshaft. It is composed of the field
coil, armature, brush, commutator, pinion, overrunning clutch, etc. The second section allows the
pinion and flywheel to engage together and current to flow through the motor section. It is
composed of the pull-in coil, holding coil pluge drive lever, contract plate, etc.

 1. Field Coil
 2. Brush Spring
 3. Brush Holder
 4. Brush
 5. Commutator
 6. Through
 7. Pole Core
 8. End Frame
 9. Contact Bolt
10. Contact Plate
11. Holding Coil
12. Magnet Switch
13. Pull-in Coil
14. Moving Core
15. Drive Lever
16. Drive Spring
17. Lever Set Bolt
18. Bearing
19. Drive Side Housing
20. Over Running Clutch
21. Armature
22. Yoke


                                                        100
                                                                      Starter circuit
                                                                        (3)



              1. PC :Pull-in Coil
              2. HC :Holding Coil                                                                       (9)
              3. S :Switch
              4. Drive Lever clutch
              5. Screw Spline
              6. Armature
              7. Pole Core
              8. Commutator
              9. Contact Plate


When Start Button is Pushed:
When the start button is pushed on, a current flows from the battery through the pull-in coil in the
magnet switch section to the holding coil, energizing the plunger to pull it in. At this time, the
pinion moves by the drive lever to engage with the ring gear.

                                                                         When start button is pushed



              1.   Battery
              2.   Starter Switch
              3.   Ground
              4.   Return Spring
              5.   Spline Tube
              6.   Pinion
              7.   Ring Gear
              8.   Operated By Lever




When contact plate is closed:
When the contact plate is closed, a large current flows through the motor section to generate a
large mechanical power which turns the engine crankshaft.

At this time, the pinion is moved forward by the screw spline for more contact.

Since the pull-in coil ends are short-circuited by the contact plate, the plunger is held only by the
force of the holding coil.

                                       When contact plate i. closed




                                                            101
When Push Button is Released:
When the push button is released, a current flows instantaneously through the pull-in coil in the
opposite direction as shown in Fig. Therefore, the forces of the holding coil and pull-in coil are
balanced. As a result, the plunger is returned by the return spring. Simultaneously, the pinion is
disengaged from the ring gear, the contact plate is disconnected, and the starter is promptly
stopped by the armature brake.

                                   When push button is released




Glow Plugs
Glow plugs are used for each pre-combustion chamber of the cylinder head to make starting
easier. The glow plugs are quick-heating type, which make starting easier with short pre-heating
time.

                                                                   Construction of bar glow plug



                                                                                    (31
                1. Housing
                2. Metal Tube
                3. Insulating Powder
                4. Heat Coil




                                                       102
                                SECTION VI - DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY


CYLINDER
Removing Head Cover ............................................................ 106
Removing Injection Pipes 1, 2 and 3 ................................................ 106
Removing Nozzle Holder Assemblies ................................................ 107
Removing AC Dynamo and Fan Belt ................................................ 107
Removing Rocker Arm ............................................................ 108
Removing Push Rods ............................................................. 108
Removing Cylinder Heads ......................................................... 109
Removing Cylinder Head Gasket ................................................... 109
Removing O-ring ................................................................. 110
Removing Tappets ............................................................... 110
Removing Valves ................................................................ 111
NOZZLE HOLDER
Disassembling Nozzle Holder ...................................................... 111
INJECTION PUMP
Removing Injection Pump Cover .................................................... 112
Removing Injection Pump .......................................................... 12
GEAR CASE, TIMING GEAR, CAMSHAFT, OIL PUMP
Detaching Governor Spring ......................................................... 13
Removing Speed Control Plate ..................................................... 113
Detaching Start Spring ............................................................ 114
Removing Fan Drive Pulley ........................................................ 114
Removing Gear Case ............................................................. 115
Removing Crankshaft Oil Slinger ................................................... 115
Removing Idle Gear .............................................................. 116
Camshaft Stopper ................................................................ 116
Removing Gear and Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Removing Fork Lever Assembly .................................................... 117
Removing Fuel Camshaft .......................................................... 118
Removing Oil Pump Drive Gear .................................................... 118
Removing Oil Pump .............................................................. 119
Removing Crank Gear ............................................................ 119
PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT
Removing Oil Pan ................................................................ 120
Removing Oil Filter 1 ............................................................. 120
Removing Connecting Rod Cap .................................................... 121
Removing Pistons ................................................................ 121
Removing Flywheel ............................................................... 122


                                                                 103
                           SECTION VI - CONTENTS (Continued)

PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT (Continued)

Removing Bearing Case Cover ..................................................... 122
Removing Bearing Case Bolt 2 ..................................................... 123
Removing Crankshaft ............................................................. 123
Removing Main Bearing Case ...................................................... 124
Removing Cylinder Liner .......................................................... 124
THERMOSTAT, WATER PUMP
Removing Thermostat ............................................................ 125
Removing Water Pump ........................................................... 126
CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
Checking Flatness of Cylinder Head Surface ...................................... 126-127
Checking Flaw of Cylinder Head Surface ............................................. 127
Reparing Valve Seat .............................................................. 128
Checking Valve Recessing ......................................................... 128
Checking Guide Clearance ........................................................ 129
Checking Valve Spring Free Length ................................................. 129
Checking Valve Spring Squareness ................................................. 130
Checking Valve Spring Tension ..................................................... 130
Checking Oil Clearance Between Rocker Arm Shaft and Bushing ......................... 131
Checking Top Clearance .......................................................... 131
Adjusting Valve Clearance ......................................................... 133
Adjusting Compression Release .................................................... 132
FUEL SYSTEM
Testing Opening Pressure of Nozzle ................................................. 133
Checking Fuel Tightness of Nozzle Valve Seat ........................................ 133
Checking Shape of Fumes Across Nozzle Tip ......................................... 134
Checking Fuel Tightness of Fuel Injection Pump Plunger ................................ 134
Checking Fuel Tightness of Delivery Valve of Fuel Injection Pump ........................ 135
Choking and Adjusting Injection Timing .............................................. 136
TIMING GEARS, CAMSHAFT
Checking Oil Clearance of Camshaft ................................................ 137
Checking Camshaft Alignment ...................................................... 137
Checking Cam Heights of Intake and Exhaust ......................................... 138
Checking Gear Backlash .......................................................... 138
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Testing Oil Pressure .............................................................. 139
Oil Pump (Rotor Type) ........................................................ 139-140




                                            104
                                       SECTION VI - CONTENTS (Continued)

PISTON, CONNECTING ROD
Checking Inside Diameter of Piston Bosses ........................................... 141
Checking Clearance Between Piston Pin and Small End Bushing ......................... 141
Checking Piston Ring Clearance .................................................... 142
Checking Side Clearance of Ring in Groove .......................................... 142
Checking Connecting Rod Alignment ................................................ 143
Checking Crankshaft Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearing 1 ............. 144
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearing 2 ............. 144
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crank Pins and Crank Pin Bearings ..................... 145
Checking End Play of Crankshaft ................................................... 145
Checking Wear of Cylinder Liner ................................................... 146
Crankshaft and Bearing Reference .................................................. 147
REPLACING VALVE GUIDES, BUSHINGS AND BEARINGS
Replacing Valve Guides ........................................................... 148
Replacing Rocker Arm Bushings .................................................... 148
Replacing Idle Gear Bushings ...................................................... 149
Replacing Small End Bushings ..................................................... 149
Replacing Crankshaft Bearing 1 .................................................... 150




                                                               105
ATTENTION: When reassembling, replace a/l the O-rings and gaskets with new ones.



                                             CYLINDER HEAD
REMOVING HEAD COVER
1.   Remove the head cover nuts.

2.   Remove the head cover.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if the head cover gasket is not defective. To prevent
valve stem seizure, apply enough engine oil to the valve guide and valve stem.




                                                1. Head Cover


REMOVING INJECTION PIPES 1,2 and 3.

1. Loosen the screws on the pipe clamps.

2. Detach the injection pipes in the order of 1, 2 and 3.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Send compressed air into the pipes to blowout dust. Then,
reassemble the pipes in the reverse order. Tighten the retaining nuts to 15 to 25 Nm (1.5 to 2.5 kgf-
m, 11 to 18 ft Ibs).




                   1.   Injection Pipe 1
                   2.   Injection Pipe 2
                   3.   Injection Pipe 3
                   4.   Pipe Clamp
                   5.   Retaining Nuts




                                                      106
 REMOVING NOZZLE HOLDER ASSEMBLIES
1.   Remove the pipe clips holding the fuel overflow pipes, and detach the pipes.

2.   Detach the nozzle holders using a 27mm (1-1116") nozzle holder socket wrench, after loosening
     the rock nuts.

3.   Detach the copper gaskets on the seats on which the nozzles are to be installed.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Return the nozzle holders after confirming that there are no metallic
particles or foreign matter on the surface on which the nozzles are to be installed. Tighten the
nozzles to 29 to 49 Nm (3.0 to 5.0 kgf-m, 22 to 36 ft-Ibs.).




          1. Nozzle Holder Socket Wrench
          2. Rock Nut




REMOVING AC DYNAMO AND FAN BELT
1.   Remove the AC dynamo.

2.   Detach the fan belt.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if the V-belt is placed in a correct position (where
letters on the belt can be read from your side), and there is no oil or grease on the belt. Fan belt
tension: The belt should deflect approx. 7 mm (0.28 in.) when the center of the belt is depressed
with a finger pressure of 58.8 to 68.6 N (6 to 7 kgf-m, 13.2 to 15.4 Ibs.)




                    1. AC Dynamo
                    2. Fan Belt



                                                                2




                                                      107
REMOVING ROCKER ARM
1.   Remove the set nuts for the rocker arm brackets.

2.   Detach the whole rocker arm.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Always adjust the valve clearance. Before installing the rocker arm
bracket, check to see if there are any metallic particles on the surface on which the assembly is
mounted. Tighten the bolts to 17 to 21 Nm (1.7 to 2.1 kgf-m, 12 to 15 ft-Ibs.).




                                               1. Rocker Arm



REMOVING PUSH-RODS
1.   Remove the push-rods.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before inserting the push rods into the tappets, check to see if their
ends are properly engaged with the grooves. If a push rod is roughly inserted, it may hit the
shoulder of the tappet and be damaged.




                                                1. Push-rod




                                                    108
REMOVING CYLINDER HEADS
1.   Remove the twelve cylinder head set bolts and two nuts.

2.   Lift up the cylinder head to detach.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Tighten the bolts and nuts after applying sufficient oil. Tighten the
bolts and nuts in diagonal sequence starting from the center. Tighten them uniformly, or the head
may deform in the long run.

IMPORTANT: When overhauling the engine, replace the gasket with a new one without
confusing its front and back. Retighten the cylinder head after running the engine for 30
minutes. Tighten the cylinder head bolts and nuts to engine specifications.




                                                                      Cylinder head tightening sequence

                                                                      _ _ _10              2              7_--,


                                                                       ~oo ~oo ~oog
                                                                (1)    0            0            0            0    (2)
                                                                       13     0      5     0     4        0   12
                                                                              9            1              8



                                              1. Gear Case Side
                                              2. Flywheel Side

 REMOVING CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
1.   Detach the cylinder head gasket, being careful not to scratch it.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before installing the gasket, check to see there is no foreign matter
on the cylinder head and the cylinder.




                                            1. Cylinder Head Gasket




                                                      109
 REMOVING O-RING
1.   Remove the O-ring from the periphery of the oil pipe on the crankcase.




                                                   1. O-ring
                                                   2. Pipe Pin


REMOVING TAPPETS
1.   Remove the six tappets from the crankcase.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Visually check the contact between tappets and cams for proper
rotation. If a defect is found, replace tappets. Before installing the tappets, apply engine oil thinly
around them.




                                                   1. Tappets




                                                       110
 REMOVING VALVES
1.   Remove the valve caps.

2.   Remove the valve spring collet, pushing the valve spring retainer by valve spring replacer.

3.   Remove the valve spring retainer, valve spring and valve stem seal.

4.   Remove the valve.

IMPORTANT: Don't change the combination of valve and valve guide.




              1. Valve Spring Replacer
              2. Valve Cap
              3. Valve Spring Collet
              4. Valve Spring Retainer
              5. Valve Spring
              6. Valve Stem Seal
              7. Valve




                                             NOZZLE HOLDER
 DISASSEMBLING NOZZLE HOLDER
1.   Secure the retaining nut with a vise.

2.   Remove the nut, the eye jOint and the plain washer.

3.   Remove the nozzle holder body and take out parts inside

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: When disassembling and reassembling the nozzle piece, dip it in
clean fuel. Install the push rod, noting its direction (upside down). Tighten the retaining nut to 58.8
to 78.4 Nm (6 to 8 kgf-m, to 57.8 ft-Ibs). Do not tighten it too much, or the needle valve will not
slide easily and the injection performance will be decreased.




                1.   Retaining Nut
                2.   Nozzle Holder Body
                3.   Nut
                4.   Eye Joint
                5.   Plain Washer
                6.   Adjusting Washer
                7.   Nozzle Spring
                8.   Push Rod
                9.   Distance Piece
               10.   Nozzle Piece




                                                      111
                                             INJECTION PUMP

 REMOVING INJECTION PUMP COVER
1.   Remove the injection pump cover.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before installing the pump cover gasket, apply a non-drying
adhesive to it.




 REMOVING INJECTION PUMP
1.   Remove the injection pump mounting bolts and nuts.

2.   Detach the injection pump. To prevent the pump rack from being caught, detach the pump
     along the removal groove.

3.   Align the control rack pin with the slot on the gear case and remove the injection pump.

4.   In principle, the injection pump should not be disassembled.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Install the injection pump by aligning the control rack with the
indicated positon. Addition or reduction of one shim delays or advances the injection timing by
0.0262 rad. (1.5 0 ). Install the injection pump shims after applying thinly a non-drying adhesive.




                                             1. Injection Pump
                                             2. Control Rack
                                             3. Removal Groove




                                                      112
                      GEAR CASE, TIMING GEAR, CAMSHAFT, OIL PUMP

DETACHING GOVERNOR SPRING
1.   Detach the governor springs 1 and 2 from governor fork lever 2.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Fix the governor spring to the speed control lever, and pull the
spring or wire through the window of the injection pump, and spring will be able to be hooked on
the governor fork with ease. Bend the end of the governor spring to prevent it from falling off.



                                                             How to remove governor spring

                                                              ~


                                                                                                   (2)




                           1. Detach Governor Spring on the Side of Fork Lever
                           2. Gear Case
                           3. Fork Lever 2

REMOVING SPEED CONTROL PLATE
1.   Remove the speed control plate and governor spring.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Be careful not to drop the governor spring in the gear case.




                                                    113
DETACHING START SPRING
1.   Remove the start spring from the gear case.




                                                               How to remove start spring
                                                                     ,J     U      U
                                                                   ~.




                              1. Detach Start Spring on the Side of Gear Case
                              2. Gear Case

 REMOVING FAN DRIVE PULLEY
1.   Flatten the crankshaft washer.

2.   Loosen and remove the crankshaft nut.

3.   Draw out the pulley with a puller.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Bend the crankshaft washer against one side of the nut. Tighten
the nut to 137.3 to 156.9 Nm (14.0 to 16.0 kgf-m, 101.3 to 115.7 ft-Ibs.). Do not tighten the nut
excessively; it may damage the oil slinger, causing oil leakage.




                                             1. Fan Drive Pulley




                                                     114
 REMOVING GEAR CASE
1.   Remove the gear case cover.

2.   Remove the O-ring.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if there are three O-rings inside the gear case. Apply
a thin film of engine to the oil seal, and install it, noting the lip come off. Before installing the gear
case gasket, apply a non-drying adhesive. Tighten the oil filter cartridge by hand.




REMOVING CRANKSHAFT OIL SLINGER
1.   Remove the crankshaft collar.

2.   Remove the O-ring.

3.   Detach the crankshaft oil slinger.




                1. Crankshaft Oil Slinger
                2. O-Ring
                3. Crankshaft Collar




                                                       115
 REMOVING IDLE GEAR
1.   Remove the external circlip.

2.   Detach the idle gear collar 2.

3.   Detach the idle gear

4.   Detach the idle gear collar 1.

NOTE FOR REASEMBLlNG: Check to see each gear is aligned with its aligning mark: ,
1. Idle gear and crank gear
2. Idle gear and camshaft gear
3. Idle gear and injection pump gear
Tighten the idle gear shaft mounting bolt (7T) to 10 to 12 Nm (1.0 to 1.2 kgfSm, 7.2 to S.7 ft-Ibs).




                                              1. Idler Gear
                                              2. Alignment Mark



REMOVING CAMSHAFT STOPPER
1.   Align the round hole on the cam gear with the camshaft stopper mounting bolt position.

2.   Remove the camshaft stopper mounting bolt.

3.   Detach the camshaft stopper.




                                            1. Camshaft Stopper




                                                      116
REMOVING GEAR AND CAMSHAFT
1.   Draw the camshaft and the cam gear.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Apply a thin film of engine oil to the camshaft before installation.




                                             1. Camshaft Assembly


REMOVING FORK LEVER ASSEMBLY
1.   Remove the two fork lever holder mounting bolts.

2.   Detach the fork lever assembly.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Install the fork lever holder and crankcase after cleaning their
contact surfaces. Install the fork lever so that it will not hit the governor sleeve, and so that equal
space is allowed on either side of the lever. After installation, check to see that the fork lever (1) is
fixed to the fork lever shaft, and that it can turn smoothly in the holder.




                                            1. Fork Lever Assembly




                                                        117
REMOVING FUEL CAMSHAFT
1.   Remove the fuel camshaft stopper.

2.   Draw out the fuel camshaft and the injection pump gear.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Apply a thin film of engine oil to each part, and reassemble so that
the drive groove at the end of the camshaft engages with the drive shaft of the hydraulic gear
pump. The balls to be contained in the governor ball case are thirty 3.97 mm (0.1563 in.) diameter
ones and eight 13. 46 mm (0.5300 in.) diameter ones.




                                         1. Fuel Camshaft Assembly
                                         2. Fuel Camshaft Stopper



REMOVING OIL PUMP DRIVE GEAR
1.   Straighten the claw of the claw washer of the oil pan, and remove the nut.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if there is a feather key. Be sure to bend the claw of
the claw washer.




                                          1. Crank Gear
                                          2. Oil Pump Drive Gear




                                                     118
 REMOVING OIL PUMP
1.   Remove the four pump mounting bolts. Detach the oil pump.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Tighten the bolts 10 to 12 Nm (1.0 to 1.2 kgf-m, 7.2 to 8.7 ft-Ibs.).




                                               1. Oil Pump Assembly


 REMOVING CRANK GEAR
1.   Set a special puller on the crank gear.

2.   Screw in the center bolt of the puller, and draw out the crank gear.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see that the key is on the crankshaft. Heat the crank gear
to about 990 C (120 0 F), and fit on the crankshaft. If there is fear of the shaft being damaged, heat
the gear more and fit.




                                           1. 13T Gear (Crank Gear)




                                                       119
                                           PISTON, CRANKSHAFT
 REMOVING OIL PAN
1.   Lay the engine on the engine cradle on its side.

2.   Remove the eighteen oil pan mounting bolts.

3.   Detach the oil pan by lightly tapping the grove of the pan with a wooden hammer.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Wipe off oil on the oil pan mounting surface, apply a nondrying
adhesive, and install the oil pan. To avoid uneven tightening, tighten mounting bolts in diagonal
order from the center. Check to see that the drain plug is tight.




                                                     1. Oil Pan

REMOVING OIL FILTER 1
1.   Remove the mounting bolt of oil filter 1.

2.   Detach oil filter 1, being careful of the a-ring.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLlNG:.After cleaning the oil filter, check to see that the filter mesh is
clean, and install it. Visually check the a-ring, apply engine oil, and install it. After checking to see
that the a-ring is securely installed, attach the oil filter.




                                                   1. Oil Filter 1




                                                         120
REMOVING CONNECTING ROD CAP
1.   Remove the connecting rod bolts from connecting rod cap.

2.   Detach the connecting rod caps.

IMPORTANT: Apply engine oil to the connecting rod bolts and tighten them to 26 to 30 Nm
(2.7 to 3.1 kgfOm, 20 to 22 ft-Ibs).


                                                             Reassembling of connecting            rciCi··1




                                                                                         (a) (b)

                              1. Connecting Rod Cap
                                 a. Align the marks with each other.
                                 b. Face the marks toward the injection pump.

 REMOVING PISTONS
1.   Turn the crankshaft by 3.14 rad (180 0 ) and bring the piston to top dead center.

2.   Draw out the piston upward by lightly tapping it from the bottom of the crankcase with the grip
     of a hammer.

3.   Draw out the other two pistons in the same method as above.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before inserting the pistons into the cylinders, apply enough engine
oil to the pistons.

IMPORTANT: Install the piston rings with their gaps making an angle of 2.09 rad (1200 ) or 3.14
rad (1800 ) to each other. (Place the top ring with their gaps on the opposite side of the
combustion chamber.) Attach a ring to the pistons securely with a piston ring compressor,
and set them to the cylinder, being careful about the cylinder number and the position of the
connecting rod (Connecting rods must be installed with their ends being the number toward
the fuel injection pump). Carefully insert the pistons. Otherwise, their chromeplated section
may be scratched, causing trouble inside the liner.




                                                    1. Piston

                                                       121
REMOVING FLYWHEEL
1.   Flatter the flywheel washers.

2.   Remove the flywheel bolts, except for two which must be loosened and left as they are.

3.   Set a flywheel puller, and remove the flywheel

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING:, Apply a thin film of grease to the bearing and oil seal at the back of
the crankshaft. Check the ring gear for any uneven wear, lack or crack of teeth. Check to see that
there are no metal particles left on the flywheel mounting surface. To ease alignment of the
crankshaft and the flywheel, bring the crank of one of the cylinders to TC (top dead center). Make
sure of the flywheel TC, align it with the punch mark of the rear end plate, and set the flywheel.
Tighten the flywheel bolts to 54 to 59 Nm (5.5 to 6.0 kgfOm, 40 to 43 ft-Ibs) in diagonal order. Bend
the tangs of the flywheel washer against the bolts.




                                               1. Flywheel Puller
                                               2. Crankshaft

REMOVING BEARING CASE COVER
1.   Remove the bearings case cover mounting bolts. First unscrew the eight bolts inside, and then
     work on the nine outside.

2.   Screw the two bolts removed above into the two right and left holes for the bearing case cover,
     and pull off the cover by jacking it up.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: When installing the main bearing case cover, check to see that
there are no scratches on the oil seal lip. Then, apply a thin film of engine oil, and install. Tighten
the mounting bolts in diagonal order to 10 to 12 Nm (1.0 to 1.2 kgfOm, 7.2 to 8.7 ft-Ibs).




                1. Lift Bolt
                2. Bearing Case Cover




                                                       122
REMOVING BEARING CASE BOLT 2
1.   Straighten the washer for the bearing case bolt 2.

2.   Detach the bearing case bolts.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: When tightening the main bearing case bolts, align the direction of
the holes so that the crankshaft can be easily installed. Tighten the bearing case bolts 2 to 30 to
34 Nm (3.0 to 3.5 kgfOm, 22 to 25 ft-Ibs). Securely bend tangs of the washer.




                                         1. Bearing Case Bolt 2

 REMOVING CRANKSHAFT
1.   Draw out the crankshaft from the back of the crankcase by lightly tapping it with a copper
     hammer.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before installing the crankshaft, clean the oil holes in the crankshaft
with compressed air.




                                                     123
 REMOVING MAIN BEARING CASE
1.   Remove the two mounting bolts for main bearing case assembly

2.   Detach the main bearing case, being careful with the side and crankshaft bearings.

3.   Detach the other bearing cases 2 and 3 in the same method. Be careful not to mix them up.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLIING: Clean the oil holes in the main bearing case. Install the main
bearing case with their side marks toward the flywheel. Be sure to install main bearing 1 with its
oil grove facing outward. Tighten the bearing case bolts 1 to 2 to 24 Nm (2.0 to 2.4 kgfOm, 15 to 17
ft-Ibs).




         1.   Main Bearing Case Assembly 1
         2.   Main Bearing Case Assembly 2
         3.   Main Bearing Case Assembly 3
         4.   Bearing Case Bolt 1




 REMOVING CYLINDER LINER (See illustration on page 125)
1.   Grind the cylinder head mounting surface with an oil grinding stone.

2.   Set a dry liner centering base and adaptor on the frame head

3.   Set the dry liner centering base.

4.   Set the bearing cradle to the dry liner centering base with the bearing on top.

5.   Insert the pulling-out adaptor coupling and fix the center bolt.

6.   Contact the pUlling-out adaptor with the bottom of the liner from the bottom of the crankcase.

7.   Pull out the liner by turning the nut with a ratchet handle.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Clean the frame holl3s and oil where the liner fits. Clean the sur-
face of the liner and apply oil. Insert the liner with its most-chamfered end downed. After installa-
tion, insert a feeler gauge through the check window on the bottom of the liner centering base and
check to see the liner has been properly pressed in. Tolerance: Liner projection (±0.001O in). Hone
the cylinder liner. 1.2 u R max to 2 u R max.




                                                       124
1. Dry Liner Centering Base
2. Bearing Cradle
3. Center Bolt
4. Nut




                                    THERMOSTAT, WATER PUMP

REMOVING THERMOSTAT
1.   Remove the thermostat cover.

2.   Remove the thermostat.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLIING: Apply a non-drying adhesive only at the thermostat cover side of
the gasket.




                                                125
     REMOVING WATER PUMP
 1.    Remove the water pump from gear case cover.

 2.    Remove the fan and fan pulley.

 IMPORTANT: If changing the water pump, change the whole pump. If disassembling the
 water pump, check to see the clearance between the water pump impeller and body.



                                                                                 Water pump assembly




                                             1.   Water Pump Impeller
                                             2.   Seal Set
                                             3.   Water Pump Body
                                             4.   Bearing

 CHECKING FLATNESS OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE (See illustration on page 127)
1.    Clean the surface of the cylinder head.

2.    Place a straight edge on each of the cylinder heads's four sides and two diagonally as shown
      at the left to check the straightness of the surface.

3.    Insert a feeler gauge between the straight edge and the cylinder head surface.

4.    The maximum thickness that can be inserted is the amount of flatness.

5.    If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, correct with a surface grinder.

IMPORTANT: Do not place the straight edge on the combustion chamber.


                                                  0.05 mm (0.002 in.) per 100 mm (4 in.)
                               Allowable limit
                                                  of cylinder head surface length.




                                                         126
                                                                             How to check cylinder head surface




CHECKING FLAW OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE
1.   Clean the surface of the cylinder head.

2.   Spray the cylinder head surface with the red permeative liquid.

3.   Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder head surface with the detergent.

4.   Spray the cylinder head surface with the developer. If flawed, it can be identified as red marks.


                                      Reference              Should be no flaw.




          A. Air spray red check
             1. Detergent
             2. Red Permeative Liquid
             3. White Developer




                                                                   (1)              (2)                (3)




                                                      127
 REPAIRING THE VALVE SEAT
1.   Clean the valve seat surface.

2.   Use a 45° cutter suitable for the valve guide and the valve seat.

3.   Grind the upper surface of valve seat with 15° cutter so that the valve seat fits to the valve
     center (so as to ensure a = b as shown in the figure.).

NOTE: After correcting the valve seat, check for valve recessing.

                                                                             How to repair the valve seat




                                                                         B




                                                                                      (2)

A 45° cutter           B 15° cutter
  (1) Valve               (2) Corrected surface of valve seat

 CHECKING VALVE RECESSING
1.   Clean the face of the valve.

2.   Measure the recessing with a depth gauge.

3.   See engine specifications.




                                                      128
 CHECKING GUIDE CLEARANCE

1.   Remove carbon from the valve guide.

2.   After making sure that the valve stem is straight, insert the valve into the valve guide.

3.   Measure the stem guide clearance with a dial gauge.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the stem guide and the valve.

IMPORTANT: When changing the valve guide, be sure to ream as the figure indicates after
inserting the valve guide. See engine specifications.



                                                                      Finishing size of inlet valve guide




                                                                        Finishing size of exhaust valve guide




CHECKING VALVE SPRING FREE LENGTH
1.   Measure the spring with a set of vernier calipers.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                      129
 CHECKING VALVE SPRING SQUARENESS
1.   Put the spring on a surface plate, place a square on the side of the spring, and check to see
     if the entire side is in contact with the square.

2.   Rotate the spring and measure the maximum B. (See illustration below.).

3.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. The flat surface at the end of the
     spring coil must exceed the full circumference by two-thirds. Check the entire surface of the
     spring for scratches.


                                                              1.3 mm
                            I Allowable limit                0.051 in.




                                                                              How to measure squarenass of valve sprin.g




                                                                            111/




 CHECKING VALVE SPRING TENSION
1.   Place the spring on a tester and compress it to the same degree that it is actually compressed
     in the engine, (31 mm, 12 in.)

2.   Read the compression load on the gauge.

3.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                     130
 CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN ROCKER ARM SHAFT AND BUSHING
1.   Measure the rocker arm 1.0.

2.   Measure the rocker arm 0.0.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




 CHECKING TOP CLEARANCE
1.    Remove the nozzle holder.

2.   Lower the piston in the cylinder to be measured.

3.   Insert a high-quality fuse from the nozzle holder hole. Be careful not to let the fuse touch the
     valve surface.

4.   Rotate the engine with your hand.

5.   Take the fuse out carefully.

6.   Measure the place where the fuse was crushed with vernier calipers.

7.   If the clearance is not within the reference value, adjust by inserting a shim between the
     cylinder head and the gasket.


                                                            Reference value            0.6 to 0.8 mm
                                                                                       0.0236 to 0.00315 in.
                                                            Thickness of gasket        1.05 to 1.15 mm
                                                            when tightened             0.0413 to 0.0453 in.
                                                            Thickness of gasket shim   0.20 mm
                                                                                       0.0079 in.




                                                      131
ADJUSTING VALVE CLEARANCE
1.   Measure the clearance with a feeler gauge after aligning each cylinder with the top dead
     center of compression.

NOTE: Align the flywheel mark (TC) with the timing check mark on the crankcase.




                                                                      Valve clearance




                                                                                                   0.145 0.185 mm
                                                                                                -T 0.006 to 0.007 in.




ADJUSTING COMPRESSION RELEASE
1.   Close the exhaust valve completely.

2.   Remove the compression release window cover from the head cover.

3.   Pull the compression release lever.

4.   Reduce the valve clearance to zero by the compression release adjustment bolt. Reach for the
     bolt through the window. Then, screw in the bolt by 1 to 1.5 turns and tighten the lock nut.

NOTE: After adjustment, turn the crankshaft by hand and check to see that the valve and the
piston should not be in contact with each other.


                                                          0.750 to 1.125 mm
                             Reference value
                                                          0.0295 to 0.0443 in.



                                                                             Compression release adjustment




                                 1. Compression Release Window Cover
                                 2. Compression Position
                                 3. Compression Release Position



                                                    132
                                                FUEL SYSTEM
 TESTING OPENING PRESSURE OF NOZZLE
1.   Move the tester handle up and down to prime fuel. Measure the pressure of fuel jetting from
     the nozzle tip.

2.   If the measurement is not within the reference value, adjust with the adjustment washer inside
     the nozzle holder. Each extra 0.1 mm (0.0039 in.) of washer thickness causes an approximate
     980.6 kPa (10 kgf/cm2, 142.2 psi) increase in fuel injection pressure.

DANGER: Be careful not to come into direct contact with the injected fumes. The fumes
destroy any cells they may touch. They may arso cause blood poisoning. See engine
specifications.




 CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF NOZZLE VALVE SEAT
1.   Apply a pressure.

2.   After keeping the nozzle under this pressure for 10 seconds, check to see if fuel leaks from
     the nozzle valve seat.

3.   If fuel should leak, replace the nozzle piece. See engine specifications.




                                                      133
 CHECKING SHAPE OF FUMES ACROSS NOZZLE TIP
1.   Set the nozzle to a nozzle tester and shoot it in the air. Check the shape of the fumes.

2.   If the shape is defective, replace the nozzle piece.




                                                                                1. Good
                                                                                2. Bad




CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF FUEL INJECfION PUMP PLUNGER

1.   Set a pressure gauge to the pump.

2.   Rotate the flywheel to increase the pressure to 58.8 MPa (600 kgf/cm 2 , 8532 psi).

3.   Align the plunger with the top dead center.

4.   Measure the time needed to decrease the initial pressure.

5.   If the measurement is less than allowable limit, replace the pump element. In this case, ask a
     repair shop to do the replacement. Be sure to give them adjustment reference data on the fuel
     injection pump. (Shown below) See engine specifications.

                                                        Adjustment of Injection
 Reference valve         8 seconds or more

 Allowable limit         4 seconds                          Control rack Speed Amount of injection Allowance (mm3)
                                                            position (*1) (rpm)    (mm3/st)              (*3)
                                                                   9         1400    22.5 to 23.5           ±1.5 or less

                                                                   8         1400    11.2 to 26.2           ±3.8 or less

                                                                   7         1400        6.0 to 21.0        ±3.8 or less

                                                              o to 3.5       1550          0.(*2)
                                                    *1: Travel distance from non-injecting pOint of control rack
                                                    *2: Zero opening pressure and no injection
                                                    *3: Allowance on the basis of standard cylinder




                                                                                             Profile of fuel pump cam




                                                              1.       Base Circle




                                                      134
CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF DELIVERY VALVE OF FUEL INJECTION PUMP
1.   Set a pressure gauge to the pump.

2.   Rotate the flywheel to increase the pressure to 9.8 MPa (100 kgf/cm 2 , 1422 psi).

3.   Align the plunger with the bottom dead center.

4.   Measure the time needed to decrease the initial pressure.

5.   If the measurement is less than allowable limit, replace the delivery valve. See engine
     specifications.


                              Reference value               10 seconds or more

                              Allowable limit               5 seconds


                                                                    Pressure gauge                   Unit: mm (in.)
                                                                    construction




                                                                                                           (8)




                                                                                          1710671

                                                                                          23(Q91)~




                                  1. Connector
                                  2. Pressure Sensor
                                     14.7 MPa (150 kgflcm 2 , 2133 psi) and
                                     68.6 MPa (700 kgflcm 2 , 9954 psi)
                                  3. Non-drying Adhesive
                                  4. Weld Entire Circumference
                                  5. Copper Packing
                                  6. S45C Steel Tube
                                  7. S45C Hexagonal Steel Tube
                                  8. Injection Pipe




                                                      135
CHOKING AND ADJUSTING INJECTION TIMING
1.   Disconnect the injection pipe from the fuel injection pump.

2.   Set the acceleration lever for maximum fuel discharge.

3.   Turn the flywheel until fuel jets out from the delivery valve holder of the fuel injection pump.

4.   Continue to turn the flywheel slowly, and stop it as soon as the fuel level at the tip of the valve
     holder begins to increase.

5.   Check to see if the F1 mark on the flywheel is aligned with the dot mark.

6.   If the timing is out of adjustment, readjust with shims.

IMPORTANT: Adding or removing one shim (0.15 mm, 0.0059 in.) varies the crank angle by
approx. 1.5°*. After adjustment, apply a thin film of non-drying adhesive to both sides of the
shims. See engine specifications.




                                                                            Adjustment of injection timing




                                      1. F1 Mark
                                      2. Mark
                                      3. Injection Timing Adjusting Shim




                                                       136
                                        TIMING GEARS, CAMSHAFT
 CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE OF CAMSHAFT
1.   Measure the camshaft bearing in the crankcase with an inside micrometer.

2.   Measure the camshaft journal with an outside micrometer. Calculate the clearance.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace the camshaft. See engine specifications.




CHECKING CAMSHAFT ALIGNMENT
1.   Gently put the camshaft on V blocks.

2.   Set a dial gauge to the journal.

3.   While slowly rotating the camshaft, read the dial gauge. The camshaft flexure is half of the
     reading.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the camshaft.


                            I Allowable limit               0.08 mm
                                                            0.0031 in.




                                                      137
CHECKING CAM HEIGHTS OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST
1.   Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with a micrometer.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the camshaft. See engine
     specifications.




                                                                                        Cam height measuring points




                                                               1. Cam Height

 CHECKING GEAR BACKLASH
1.   Install a lever-type indicator between the gear teeth.

2.   Clamp one gear, rotate the other and measure the backlash.

3.   If the backlash exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                       138
                                         LUBRICATION SYSTEM
TESTING OIL PRESSURE
1.   Remove the oil switch and set a pressure gauge.

2.   Start the engine. Measure the oil pressure both at idling and at the rated speed.

3.   If the measurement is not within the reference value, check the oil pump, oilways, oil
     clearances and pressure regulating valve.

NOTE FOR MEASURING: Supply the specified amount of recommended oil. The oil filter must not
be clogged or broken. See engine specifications.




OIL PUMP (ROTOR TYPE)
Checking Rotor Lobe Clearance
1.   Insert a feeler gauge into the gap between the inner and outer rotors and measure the
     clearance.

2.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                      139
Checking Radial Clearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body
1.   Insert a feeling gauge into the gap between the oil pump body and the outer rotor and
     measure the clearance.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




Checking end Clearance Between Rotor and Cover
1.   Paste a press gauge to the surface of the gear with grease.

2.   Attach the cover.

3.   Gently remove the cover. Measure the clearance by placing the gauge (paper) on the press
     gauge where it is crushed.

4.   If the measurement is not within the reference value, replace.


                              Reference value              0.08 to 0.13 mm
                                                           0.0031 to 0.0051 in.




                                                     140
                                      PISTON, CONNECTING ROD
CHECKING INSIDE DIAMETER OF PISTON BOSSES
1.   Measure the piston bosses with a cylinder gauge. Set the cylinder gauge's reference
     measurement to 23 mm, and carry out zero point adjustment with an outside micrometer.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications




 CHECKING CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON PIN AND SMALL END BUSHING
1.   Measure the piston pin with an outside micrometer.

2.   Measure the LD. of connecting rod small end bushing with an inside micrometer. Calculate the
     clearance.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications




                                                      141
CHECKING PISTON RING CLEARANCE
1.   Put the piston ring in the cylinder.

2.   Turn the piston upside down and push the ring into the cylinder with the piston head.

3.   Insert a feeler gauge into the piston ring gap.

4.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace.

IMPORTANT: Measure the piston ring gap at the point of the minimum inside diameter of the
cylinder liner. See engine specifications ..




CHECKING SIDE CLEARANCE OF RING IN GROOVE
1.   Remove the piston ring from the piston.

2.   Place the ring in its groove as it shown at left, and measure the clearance.

3.   If the clearance is not within the reference valve, replace the ring.

NOTE: As the top ring is a keystone type, it cannot be measured by this method. See engine
specifications.




                                                       142
 CHECKING CONNECTING ROD ALIGNMENT
1.   Remove the connecting rod crank pin bearing and tighten the rod bolts.

2.   Set the connecting rod to a connecting rod aligner.

3.   Place the gauge on the piston pin. Measure the gap between the pin of the gauge and the flat
     surface of the aligner.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace

IMPORTANT: Because the 1.0. of the connecting rod small end bushing is used as the basis
for this check, check it is not worn beforehand. See engine specifications.




                                                CRANKSHAFT
 CHECKING CRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT
1.   Place V blocks on the surface plate, and support the journals at both ends of the crankshaft
     on the V blocks.

2.   Set a dial gauge to the central journal.

3.   Read the dial gauge while rotating the crankshaft slowly. Crankshaft flexure is half of the
     reading.

4.   If the reading exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                     143
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL AND CRANKSHAFT
BEARING 1
1.   Measure the crankshaft journal (on the side of the crankshaft bearing 1) with an outside
     micrometer.

2.   Measure the crankshaft bearing 1 with an inside micrometer. Calculate the clearance.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace the crankshaft bearing 1. See engine
     specifications.




 CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNALS AND CRANKSHAFT
 BEARINGS 2
1.   Paste a press gauge with grease on the crankshaft bearing.

2.   Tighten the crankshaft bearing case onto the crankshaft journal to the specified torque 29.4 to
     34.3 Nm (3.0 to 3.5 kgfOm, 21.7 to 25.3 ft-Ibs).

3.   Detach the bearing case slowly, and measure the depression of the press gauge with a sheet
     of gauge (paper).

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the crankshaft bearing 2. See engine
     specifications.




                                                     144
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANK PINS AND CRANK PIN BEARINGS
1.   Paste a press gauge onto the crank pin bearing with grease.

2.   Tighten the connecting rod onto the crank pin to the specified torque 26.5 to 30.4 Nm. (2.7 to
     3.1 kgfOm, 19.52 to 22.42 ft-Ibs).

3.   Remove the connecting rod gently, and measure the depression of the press gauge with a
     sheet of gauge (paper).

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the crankpin bearing.

NOTE FOR MEASURING: Fasten the crankshaft so that it does not turn. Do not insert the press
gauge into the crank pin hole. Crankpin bearing measuring points are shown below. See engine
specifications.




                                                                                 Crank pin measuring points




 CHECKING END PLAY OF CRANKSHAFT
1.   Move the crankshaft to the crank gear side.

2.   Set a dial gauge to the crankshaft.

3.   Push the crankshaft toward the flywheel and measure the clearance.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the side bearing.

IMPORTANT: When replacing the side bearing, face the oil grooves of side bearing outward.
See engine specifications.




                                                     145
                                             CYLINDER LINER
CHECKING WEAR OF CYLINDER LINER
1.   Set a cylinder gauge and adjust it to the reference valve of the cylinder liner with an outside
     micrometer.

2.   To find out the maximum wear, measure the diameters at six points on the cylinder liner with
     the cylinder gauge, as shown below.

NOTE: When the cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit, bore and hone it by 0.5 mm
(0.0197 in.).

1.   The cylinder liner which has been oversized by 0.5 mm (0.0197 in.) should use a piston and
     ring of the same oversize.

NOTE: When the oversized cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit, replace the cylinder
liner, and bore and hone it. See engine specifications.




                                                                                     Measuring points of cylinder liner




                                                                                     1---(1)-




                                                                                 ~
                                                                                     ~(2)-




                                                                                     ~(3)~

                                                                                                -
                                                                                                         EO    I
                                                                                                                   (b)




                                      1. Top
                                      2. Middle
                                      3. Bottom (Skirt)

                                      a. Right-angle to the piston pin
                                      b. Parallel to the piston pin




                                                      146
                                                    Reference
If the standard-size bearing cannot be employed due to excessive wear of the crankpin and crank
journal, employ undersize or oversize bearings.

For undersize or oversize bearing use, follow the precautions noted below.

1.   3.3 to 3.7 mm (0.1300 to 0.1457 in.)

2.   2.8 to 3.2 mm (0.1102 to 0.1260 in.)

3.   Oil hole must be 1 to 1.5 mm (0.0394 to 0.0591 in.).
     Be sure to chamfer the oil circumference with an oil stone.

Undersize and Oversize

4.   The crankpin must be fine-finished to higher than 1////// (0.4-5).

5.   The crank journal must be fine-finished to higher than //////1
     (0.4-5).

6.   The crank journal side surface must be fine-finish to higher than ////// (0.4-5). 5ee engine
     specifications

                                                                      (4)          (3)




                                                                                          (6)




                                                         147
                                  REPLACING VALVE GUIDES, BUSHINGS AND BEARINGS
REPLACING VALVES GUIDES
1.     Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig (A).

2.     Press out the used valve guide from the cylinder head's lower end.

3.    Apply engine oil to the outer surface of the new valve guide; press fit the valve guide from the
      upper end of the cylinder head until the flange part of the valve guide contacts the cylinder
      head.

4.    After press-fitting, finish the valve guide by means of reemer machining to dimensions shown
      in Figs. (B) and (C).

NOTE~       Be careful not to strike valve guides with a hammer, during replacement.

     (A) Tool for replacing valve guides                                                           (8) Finishing size of inlet valve guide


                                           190 (7 48")

                                                    80 (3.15")                30 {1.18"L
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