Universal Diesel M2 12 Technical Manual
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Piston ring stuck I Piston ring worn Lubricant rises through piston gap I Excessive gap between cylinder liner and piston Too much oil I Injection delayed I Compression pressure insufficient I Injection too early Injection mistimed I I Injection delayed Plunger does not return completely because Fuel pumps injecting capacity spring is stuck or broken varies Plunger worn Needle valve stuck I Nozzle does not inject fuel I Nozzle spring broken I properly I Too much carbon sticks to nozzle tip Injection pressure too low i Y Not enough air Excessive gap between piston and liner Piston ring stuck Piston ring worn Excessive gap between intakeexhaust valve and valve stem Valve stem seal broken Oil leaks from defective packings t l r Injection pump plunger leaks much fuel Fuel mixed with oil I L Fuel pump leaks much fuel I I Head gasket packing faulty Water mixed with oil I I J I Crankcase cracked Gear oil mixed with oil Hydraulic pumps oil seal broken 175 White or blue exhaust fumes Black or dark gray exhaust fumes 174 Fuel filter clogged r I Fuel pipes broken or loose Air in pump Pump capacity not constant f Injection pump wrong Tappet roller and pin worn Delivery valve not completely oiltight H tc Fuel leaks from nozzle tip Injection nozzle faulty Fuel not spraying properly Governor spring deformed L Valve clearance incorrect Injection pump or nozzle not functioning normally L Compression pressure is different among cylinders r Governor sleeve not sliding properly Governor not functioning 1 Fork lever not functioning normally normally j Start spring deformed Control rack not sliding properly y Idling maladjusted r Idling regulator maladjusted L Accelerator rod maladjusted Main moving parts have almost seized up f Engine overheated f Injection mistimed Governor not functioning normally Filter clogged Fuel supply insufficient f Fuel pipe broken or loose f Injection pumps capacity not enough Nozzle needle valve worn I Compression pressure not Air leaking I enough L Air cleaner clogged 173 AdobeUCSENGINE DOES NOT TURN NY f Revolution irregular ENGINE OUTPUT Slow engine revolutions INSUFFICIENT 172 Revolution is not smooth at high speeds Idling not smooth Crankshaft and camshaft have seized up Frictional resistance of moving parts Piston and cylinder liner have seized up is too much rBearings are oilstuck Lubrication system not working properly Starter faulty L Battery capacity is low or terminal loose Fuel pipe broken r1 Fuel supply to injection pump 1 Air elters fuel pipe through connection is insufficient Fuel filter clogged Fuel pump faulty Plunger has worn or seized up Injection pump does not send Delivery valve spring broken on fuel Delivery valve not cQmpletely oiltight Needle valve stuck Fuel does not inject through Nozzle spring broken injection nozzle Injection pressure maladjusted Injection pipe mounting nut loose r1 1 Injection mistimed I Injection timing maladjusted J I Contact between intakeexhaust valve and seat not tight Intakeexhaust valve spring broken r Intakeexhaust valve stuck rGasket faulty I 1 Compressed air leaks Tightness torque of cylinder head not enough I I riston stck Piston ring worn Cylinder liner worn Tightness torque of injection nozzle and glow plug not enough 1 1 Valve action timing improper J Valve clearance excessive I 171 Crankshaft does not turn Crankshaft turns 170 No or small fuel injection sounds Fuel injection sounds Battery not sufficiently charged Faulty battery Terminal contact poor 267 Poor grounding 267 Over267running clutch slips Poor contact of contact plate Faulty starter Poor contact between brush and commutator r Armature and field coil shorted r Bearing worn Pinion and ring gear worn r H Pinion and ring gear do not mesh Plunger and shaft distorted Clutch slips J Over267running clutch worn Main switch or starter switch faulty 267 I Faulty magnet switch Pinion does not pop out by the I attractive force of magnet switch Screw spline rusted Faulty battery Battery not sufficiently charged Faulty battery I Poor terminal contact I Grounded poorly I Faulty magnet switch Holding coil broken J I Battery not charged sufficiently Faulty battery Poor terminal contact Poorly grounded r Incorrect wiring between battery and glow plug y r Glow plug indicator disconnected Incorrect wiring Glow plug disconnected Main switch or starter switch faulty r Shorted between glow plug indicator and glow plug Circuit shorted f Glow plug indicator shorted r Glow plug shorted Glow plug cable shorted 169 Slow engine speed Starter runs but engine does not No meshing sound from pinion and ring gear Pinion shifts repeatedly Does not turn red at all Turns red too quickly 168 Faulty regulator AC dynamos noload Conductivity between voltage is equal or superior regulator connector Faulty wiring between regulator and to the reference value AClead wires main sw AC dynamo sidecheck 2check 3Faulty wiring between dynamo and L not conductive regulator t No reference value Faulty dynamo I Faulty dynamo 167 dynamo runs dynamo does not run 166 Battery charging current is equal to or exceeds the reference value check 1lower than the reference value slow running does not run at all Grounding of Brush Holder 1 Check the insulation of the positive brush holder 2 Replace if faulty Reference value If it is not conducting the brush holder is acceptable if it is conducting the brush holder is faulty 165 Checking for Brush Wear 1 Check to see that the brush has worn down more than 13 the standard dimensions 2 If wear exceeds the allowable limit replace Allowable limit Longer than 105 mm 04134 in225 Dimensions of starter brush Length 160 mm 06299 in Width 120 mm 04724 in Thickness 70 mm 02756 in Checking Brush Spring Tension 1 Measure the tension with a new spring in place 2 Replace if the tension is under the reference value Reference value Spring tension Commutator diameter 1 Spring Hanger 98N 10 kgf 221 Ibs3270 mm 12874 in I 1 2 Install the Brush and Spring in this Manner 3 Brush 164 AdobeUCSif it if it Staining or Burning of Commutator 1 Check to see if the commutator surface is stained or burnt 2 If it is locally burnt correct with fine sandpaper Checking Mica Undercut1 Check to see if the mica has sunk below the allowable limit 2 If it is below the allowable limit correct with a saw blade Since the correction produces burrs on the corner of the segment chamfering should be executed Reference value Allowable limit 050 to 080 mm 00197 to 00315 in Less than 020 mm 00079 mm in1 Bad 2 Good 3 Mica 4 Segment 5 Depth of Mica 162 Checking Commutator Wear 1 Check to see if the contact face of the brush is scored 2 If scored grind off with sand paper or on a lathe 3 When the wear between the maximum and minimum diameters exceeds 04 mmcorrect the wear to within 005 mm on the lathe Allowable limit is not less than 2 mm smaller than the reference value of outside diameter Commutator diameter Reference value Allowable limit 280 mm 270 mm 11024 in 10630 in 161 if it Removing Brush Holder 1 Draw out the brush from the holder while holding the spring up 2 Take off the brush holder NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Be sure not to mistake the direction and position of the spring Do not contact the body with the positive brushs lead Removing Yoke 1 Draw out the yoke from the drive end frame NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Take care yoke does not knock pin Removing Armature 1 Remove the set bolt from the driver lever 2 Draw out the armature from the drive end frame 3 Detach the drive lever IMPORTANT When reassembling be sure not to mistake the installing direction of the drive lever 158 Removing Armature Brake 1 Remove the end frame cap 2 Remove the washers 3 Remove the brake spring 4 Remove the packing Removing End Frame 1 Remove the through bolt 2 Remove the end frame 157 Checking for Breakage and ShortCircuit of Glow Plug 1 Disconnect the glow plug cable and lead 2 Connect a circuit tester across the screw of the glow plug end and body 225 If the resistance is zero ohms the glow plug is shorted 225 If the resistance is infinite the glow plug coil is broken DISASSEMBLY OF STARTER Removing Magnet Switch 1 Remove the connecting lead 2 Remove the set screws Reference value Approx 16 1 Glow Plug DISASSEMBLY 3 Detach the magnet switch by lifting it up while taking care that it does not contact the drive lever 156 Checking Magnet Switch Holding Coil Retention Test1 Apply 12 the rated voltage across S terminal and the body push the plunger in by hand and release your hand 2 If the plunger is attracted strongly the pullin coil is normal if not it is faulty Reference value If the plunger is maintained in the attracted position the holding coil is good if not it is faulty Checking Magnet Switch Plunger Return 1 Apply the rated voltage across C terminal and body push the plunger in by hand and release your hand 2 If the plunger returns immediately it is good if not it is faulty Reference value If the plunger returns immediately it is good if not it is faulty 155 STARTER AND GLOW PLUG If the starter system malfunctions do the following checks to locate the cause 1Test the starter at noload I 2Motor test I 3Magnet switch check 4Test for breakage and shortcircuit of glow plug No Load Testing of Starter 1 Connect the ammeters positive prove to the battery position terminal and the negative probe to the starters B terminal 2 Connect the battery negative terminal to the starter body 3 Connect the voltmeters positive prove to the starters B terminal and the negative probe to the starter body 4 Set a tachometer 5 Connect the starters B terminal to the magnet switchs S terminal 6 Check to see that the magnet switch actuation results in the specified speed current and voltage NOTE FOR CHECKING Use a fully charged battery Use an ammeter and lead of more than 200A capacity because strong current flows when the starter runs Reference value Current Less than 50A Voltage 11V Speed More than 5000 rpm AI Electrical connections for noload testing 1 Starter 153 BATTERY Checking Battery Charging Current 1 After starting the engine disconnect lead of the battery and connect an amperemeter 2 Measure charging current with full electric load with lights etcNOTES ON CHECKING Connect the amperemeter only after starting the engine In the event of a lower electric load or fully charged battery the stipulated value may not be given Reference value 14 to 15A with dynamo turning at 5200 rpm Checking AC Dynamos NoLoad Voltage 1 Disconnect lead wire from the dynamo 1 Battery Lead 2 Start the engine and measure the voltage generated by the single dynamo Reference value AC 20V or more with the dynamo turning at 5200 rpm 152 SECTION VII DYNAMO AND REGULATOR BATTERY Checking Battery Charging Current 152 Checking AC Dynamos No267267load Voltage 152 STARTER AND GLOW PLUG Noload Testing of Starter 153 Motor Test 154 Checking Magnet Switch 154 Checking Magnet Switch Holding Coil Retention Test 155 Checking Magnet Switch Plunger Return 155 Checking for Breakage and Shortcircuit of Glow Plug 156 DISASSEMBLY Disassembly of Starter 156159 Servicing Starter 159165 151 AdobeUCSr II ro a Cl Cl CO3 SMALL END BUSHINGS 1 Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig AAdobeUCS9 I oo1 30 118L 0 vJ7 imoo I 0 m I 0 o REPLACING ROCKER ARM BUSHINGS 1 Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig A8Finishing size of inlet valve guide eFinishing size of exhaust valve guide 2 Press out the used bushing and using this tool press fit the new bushing taking due care to see that the rocker arm hole matches the bushing hole ATool for replacing rocker arm bushing If the standardsize bearing cannot be employed due to excessive wear of the crankpin and crank journal employ undersize or oversize bearings For undersize or oversize bearing use follow the precautions noted below 1 33 to 37 mm 01300 to 01457 in2 28 to 32 mm 01102 to 01260 in3 Oil hole must be 1 to 15 mm 00394 to 00591 inBe sure to chamfer the oil circumference with an oil stone Undersize and Oversize 4 The crankpin must be finefinished to higher than 1 0455 The crank journal must be finefinished to higher than 1 0456 The crank journal side surface must be finefinish to higher than 0455ee engine specifications 436147 CYLINDER LINER CHECKING WEAR OF CYLINDER LINER 1 Set a cylinder gauge and adjust it to the reference valve of the cylinder liner with an outside micrometer 2 To find out the maximum wear measure the diameters at six points on the cylinder liner with the cylinder gauge as shown below NOTE When the cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit bore and hone it by 05 mm 00197 in1 The cylinder liner which has been oversized by 05 mm 00197 inshould use a piston and ring of the same oversize NOTE When the oversized cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit replace the cylinder liner and bore and hone it See engine specifications Measuring points of cylinder liner 11EO bI 1 Top 2 Middle 3 Bottom Skirta Rightangle to the piston pin b Parallel to the piston pin 146 OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANK PINS AND CRANK PIN BEARINGS 1 Paste a press gauge onto the crank pin bearing with grease 2 Tighten the connecting rod onto the crank pin to the specified torque 265 to 304 Nm 27 to 31 kgfOm 1952 to 2242 ftIbs3 Remove the connecting rod gently and measure the depression of the press gauge with a sheet of gauge paper4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the crankpin bearing NOTE FOR MEASURING Fasten the crankshaft so that it does not turn Do not insert the press gauge into the crank pin hole Crankpin bearing measuring points are shown below See engine specifications Crank pin measuring points CHECKING END PLAY OF CRANKSHAFT 1 Move the crankshaft to the crank gear side 2 Set a dial gauge to the crankshaft 3 Push the crankshaft toward the flywheel and measure the clearance 4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the side bearing IMPORTANT When replacing the side bearing face the oil grooves of side bearing outward See engine specifications 145 CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL AND CRANKSHAFT BEARING 1 1 Measure the crankshaft journal on the side of the crankshaft bearing 1with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the crankshaft bearing 1 with an inside micrometer Calculate the clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace the crankshaft bearing 1 See engine specifications CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNALS AND CRANKSHAFT BEARINGS 2 1 Paste a press gauge with grease on the crankshaft bearing 2 Tighten the crankshaft bearing case onto the crankshaft journal to the specified torque 294 to 343 Nm 30 to 35 kgfOm 217 to 253 ftIbs3 Detach the bearing case slowly and measure the depression of the press gauge with a sheet of gauge paper4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the crankshaft bearing 2 See engine specifications 144 of the the allowable of the inside diameter PISTON CONNECTING ROD CHECKING INSIDE DIAMETER OF PISTON BOSSES 1 Measure the piston bosses with a cylinder gauge Set the cylinder gauges reference measurement to 23 mm and carry out zero point adjustment with an outside micrometer 2 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine specifications CHECKING CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON PIN AND SMALL END BUSHING 1 Measure the piston pin with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the LD of connecting rod small end bushing with an inside micrometer Calculate the clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine specifications 141 Checking Radial Clearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body 1 Insert a feeling gauge into the gap between the oil pump body and the outer rotor and measure the clearance 2 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine specifications Checking end Clearance Between Rotor and Cover 1 Paste a press gauge to the surface of the gear with grease 2 Attach the cover 3 Gently remove the cover Measure the clearance by placing the gauge paperon the press gauge where it is crushed 4 If the measurement is not within the reference value replace Reference value 140 008 to 013 mm 00031 to 00051 in LUBRICATION SYSTEM TESTING OIL PRESSURE 1 Remove the oil switch and set a pressure gauge 2 Start the engine Measure the oil pressure both at idling and at the rated speed 3 If the measurement is not within the reference value check the oil pump oilways oil clearances and pressure regulating valve NOTE FOR MEASURING Supply the specified amount of recommended oil The oil filter must not be clogged or broken See engine specifications OIL PUMP ROTOR TYPEChecking Rotor Lobe Clearance 1 Insert a feeler gauge into the gap between the inner and outer rotors and measure the clearance 2 If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine specifications 139 CHECKING CAM HEIGHTS OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST 1 Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with a micrometer 2 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the camshaft See engine specifications 1 Cam Height CHECKING GEAR BACKLASH 1 Install a levertype indicator between the gear teeth 2 Clamp one gear rotate the other and measure the backlash 3 If the backlash exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine specifications 138 Cam height measuring points TIMING GEARS CAMSHAFT CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE OF CAMSHAFT 1 Measure the camshaft bearing in the crankcase with an inside micrometer 2 Measure the camshaft journal with an outside micrometer Calculate the clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace the camshaft See engine specifications CHECKING CAMSHAFT ALIGNMENT 1 Gently put the camshaft on V blocks 2 Set a dial gauge to the journal 3 While slowly rotating the camshaft read the dial gauge The camshaft flexure is half of the reading 4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the camshaft I Allowable limit 137 008 mm 00031 in CHOKING AND ADJUSTING INJECTION TIMING 1 Disconnect the injection pipe from the fuel injection pump 2 Set the acceleration lever for maximum fuel discharge 3 Turn the flywheel until fuel jets out from the delivery valve holder of the fuel injection pump 4 Continue to turn the flywheel slowly and stop it as soon as the fuel level at the tip of the valve holder begins to increase 5 Check to see if the F1 mark on the flywheel is aligned with the dot mark 6 If the timing is out of adjustment readjust with shims IMPORTANT Adding or removing one shim 015 mm 00059 invaries the crank angle by approx 15260 After adjustment apply a thin film of nondrying adhesive to both sides of the shims See engine specifications Adjustment of injection timing 1 F1 Mark 2 Mark 3 Injection Timing Adjusting Shim 136 CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF DELIVERY VALVE OF FUEL INJECTION PUMP 1 Set a pressure gauge to the pump 2 Rotate the flywheel to increase the pressure to 98 MPa 100 kgfcm2 1422 psi3 Align the plunger with the bottom dead center 4 Measure the time needed to decrease the initial pressure 5 If the measurement is less than allowable limit replace the delivery valve See engine specifications Reference value Allowable limit 1 Connector 2 Pressure Sensor 10 seconds or more 5 seconds Pressure gauge construction 147 MPa 150 kgflcm2 2133 psiand 686 MPa 700 kgflcm2 9954 psi3 Nondrying Adhesive 4 Weld Entire Circumference 5 Copper Packing 6 S45C Steel Tube 7 S45C Hexagonal Steel Tube 8 Injection Pipe 135 1710671 Unit mm in8AdobeUCSthe top FUEL SYSTEM TESTING OPENING PRESSURE OF NOZZLE 1 Move the tester handle up and down to prime fuel Measure the pressure of fuel jetting from the nozzle tip 2 If the measurement is not within the reference value adjust with the adjustment washer inside the nozzle holder Each extra 01 mm 00039 inof washer thickness causes an approximate 9806 kPa 10 kgfcm2 1422 psiincrease in fuel injection pressure DANGER Be careful not to come into direct contact with the injected fumes The fumes destroy any cells they may touch They may arso cause blood poisoning See engine specifications CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF NOZZLE VALVE SEAT 1 Apply a pressure 2 After keeping the nozzle under this pressure for 10 seconds check to see if fuel leaks from the nozzle valve seat 3 If fuel should leak replace the nozzle piece See engine specifications 133 the top CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN ROCKER ARM SHAFT AND BUSHING 1 Measure the rocker arm 10 2 Measure the rocker arm 00 3 If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine specifications CHECKING TOP CLEARANCE 1 Remove the nozzle holder 2 Lower the piston in the cylinder to be measured 3 Insert a highquality fuse from the nozzle holder hole Be careful not to let the fuse touch the valve surface 4 Rotate the engine with your hand 5 Take the fuse out carefully 6 Measure the place where the fuse was crushed with vernier calipers 7 If the clearance is not within the reference value adjust by inserting a shim between the cylinder head and the gasket 131 Reference value Thickness of gasket when tightened Thickness of gasket shim 06 to 08 mm 00236 to 000315 in 105 to 115 mm 00413 to 00453 in 020 mm 00079 in of the CHECKING GUIDE CLEARANCE 1 Remove carbon from the valve guide 2 After making sure that the valve stem is straight insert the valve into the valve guide 3 Measure the stem guide clearance with a dial gauge 4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the stem guide and the valve IMPORTANT When changing the valve guide be sure to ream as the figure indicates after inserting the valve guide See engine specifications Finishing size of inlet valve guide Finishing size of exhaust valve guide CHECKING VALVE SPRING FREE LENGTH 1 Measure the spring with a set of vernier calipers 2 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine specifications 129 REPAIRING THE VALVE SEAT 1 Clean the valve seat surface 2 Use a 45260 cutter suitable for the valve guide and the valve seat 3 Grind the upper surface of valve seat with 15260 cutter so that the valve seat fits to the valve center so as to ensure a b as shown in the figureNOTE After correcting the valve seat check for valve recessing B 15260 cutter A 45260 cutter 1Valve 2Corrected surface of valve seat CHECKING VALVE RECESSING 1 Clean the face of the valve 2 Measure the recessing with a depth gauge 3 See engine specifications 128 How to repair the valve seat B 2How to check cylinder head surface CHECKING FLAW OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE 1 Clean the surface of the cylinder head 2 Spray the cylinder head surface with the red permeative liquid 3 Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder head surface with the detergent 4 Spray the cylinder head surface with the developer If flawed it can be identified as red marks Reference Should be no flaw A Air spray red check 1 Detergent 2 Red Permeative Liquid 3 White Developer 123127 REMOVING WATER PUMP 1 Remove the water pump from gear case cover 2 Remove the fan and fan pulley IMPORTANT If changing the water pump change the whole pump If disassembling the water pump check to see the clearance between the water pump impeller and body Water pump assembly 1 Water Pump Impeller 2 Seal Set 3 Water Pump Body 4 Bearing CHECKING FLATNESS OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE See illustration on page 1271 Clean the surface of the cylinder head 2 Place a straight edge on each of the cylinder headss four sides and two diagonally as shown at the left to check the straightness of the surface 3 Insert a feeler gauge between the straight edge and the cylinder head surface 4 The maximum thickness that can be inserted is the amount of flatness 5 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit correct with a surface grinder IMPORTANT Do not place the straight edge on the combustion chamber Allowable limit 005 mm 0002 inper 100 mm 4 inof cylinder head surface length 126 1 Dry Liner Centering Base 2 Bearing Cradle 3 Center Bolt 4 Nut THERMOSTAT WATER PUMP REMOVING THERMOSTAT 1 Remove the thermostat cover 2 Remove the thermostat NOTE FOR REASSEMBLIING Apply a nondrying adhesive only at the thermostat cover side of the gasket 125 u R 2 u R the crankcase case cover the top PISTON CRANKSHAFT REMOVING OIL PAN 1 Lay the engine on the engine cradle on its side 2 Remove the eighteen oil pan mounting bolts 3 Detach the oil pan by lightly tapping the grove of the pan with a wooden hammer NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Wipe off oil on the oil pan mounting surface apply a nondrying adhesive and install the oil pan To avoid uneven tightening tighten mounting bolts in diagonal order from the center Check to see that the drain plug is tight 1 Oil Pan REMOVING OIL FILTER 1 1 Remove the mounting bolt of oil filter 1 2 Detach oil filter 1 being careful of the aring NOTE FOR cleaning the oil filter check to see that the filter mesh is clean and install it Visually check the aring apply engine oil and install it After checking to see that the aring is securely installed attach the oil filter 1 Oil Filter 1 120 REMOVING OIL PUMP 1 Remove the four pump mounting bolts Detach the oil pump NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Tighten the bolts 10 to 12 Nm 10 to 12 kgfm 72 to 87 ftIbs1 Oil Pump Assembly REMOVING CRANK GEAR 1 Set a special puller on the crank gear 2 Screw in the center bolt of the puller and draw out the crank gear NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see that the key is on the crankshaft Heat the crank gear to about 990C 1200Fand fit on the crankshaft If there is fear of the shaft being damaged heat the gear more and fit 1 13T Gear Crank Gear119 REMOVING FUEL CAMSHAFT 1 Remove the fuel camshaft stopper 2 Draw out the fuel camshaft and the injection pump gear NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Apply a thin film of engine oil to each part and reassemble so that the drive groove at the end of the camshaft engages with the drive shaft of the hydraulic gear pump The balls to be contained in the governor ball case are thirty 397 mm 01563 indiameter ones and eight 13 46 mm 05300 indiameter ones 1 Fuel Camshaft Assembly 2 Fuel Camshaft Stopper REMOVING OIL PUMP DRIVE GEAR 1 Straighten the claw of the claw washer of the oil pan and remove the nut NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if there is a feather key Be sure to bend the claw of the claw washer 1 Crank Gear 2 Oil Pump Drive Gear 118 REMOVING GEAR AND CAMSHAFT 1 Draw the camshaft and the cam gear NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Apply a thin film of engine oil to the camshaft before installation 1 Camshaft Assembly REMOVING FORK LEVER ASSEMBLY 1 Remove the two fork lever holder mounting bolts 2 Detach the fork lever assembly NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Install the fork lever holder and crankcase after cleaning their contact surfaces Install the fork lever so that it will not hit the governor sleeve and so that equal space is allowed on either side of the lever After installation check to see that the fork lever 1is fixed to the fork lever shaft and that it can turn smoothly in the holder 1 Fork Lever Assembly 117 REMOVING IDLE GEAR 1 Remove the external circlip 2 Detach the idle gear collar 2 3 Detach the idle gear 4 Detach the idle gear collar 1 NOTE FOR REASEMBLlNG Check to see each gear is aligned with its aligning mark 1 Idle gear and crank gear 2 Idle gear and camshaft gear 3 Idle gear and injection pump gear Tighten the idle gear shaft mounting bolt 7Tto 10 to 12 Nm 10 to 12 kgfSm 72 to S7 ftIbs1 Idler Gear 2 Alignment Mark REMOVING CAMSHAFT STOPPER 1 Align the round hole on the cam gear with the camshaft stopper mounting bolt position 2 Remove the camshaft stopper mounting bolt 3 Detach the camshaft stopper 1 Camshaft Stopper 116 REMOVING GEAR CASE 1 Remove the gear case cover 2 Remove the Oring NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if there are three Orings inside the gear case Apply a thin film of engine to the oil seal and install it noting the lip come off Before installing the gear case gasket apply a nondrying adhesive Tighten the oil filter cartridge by hand REMOVING CRANKSHAFT OIL SLINGER 1 Remove the crankshaft collar 2 Remove the Oring 3 Detach the crankshaft oil slinger 1 Crankshaft Oil Slinger 2 ORing 3 Crankshaft Collar 115 DETACHING START SPRING 1 Remove the start spring from the gear case How to remove start spring J U U 1 Detach Start Spring on the Side of Gear Case 2 Gear Case REMOVING FAN DRIVE PULLEY 1 Flatten the crankshaft washer 2 Loosen and remove the crankshaft nut 3 Draw out the pulley with a puller NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Bend the crankshaft washer against one side of the nut Tighten the nut to 1373 to 1569 Nm 140 to 160 kgfm 1013 to 1157 ftIbsDo not tighten the nut excessively it may damage the oil slinger causing oil leakage 1 Fan Drive Pulley 114 AdobeUCSit from PUMP REMOVING INJECTION PUMP COVER 1 Remove the injection pump cover NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Before installing the pump cover gasket apply a nondrying adhesive to it REMOVING INJECTION PUMP 1 Remove the injection pump mounting bolts and nuts 2 Detach the injection pump To prevent the pump rack from being caught detach the pump along the removal groove 3 Align the control rack pin with the slot on the gear case and remove the injection pump 4 In principle the injection pump should not be disassembled NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Install the injection pump by aligning the control rack with the indicated positon Addition or reduction of one shim delays or advances the injection timing by 00262 rad 150Install the injection pump shims after applying thinly a nondrying adhesive 1 Injection Pump 2 Control Rack 3 Removal Groove 112 REMOVING VALVES 1 Remove the valve caps 2 Remove the valve spring collet pushing the valve spring retainer by valve spring replacer 3 Remove the valve spring retainer valve spring and valve stem seal 4 Remove the valve IMPORTANT Dont change the combination of valve and valve guide 1 Valve Spring Replacer 2 Valve Cap 3 Valve Spring Collet 4 Valve Spring Retainer 5 Valve Spring 6 Valve Stem Seal 7 Valve NOZZLE HOLDER DISASSEMBLING NOZZLE HOLDER 1 Secure the retaining nut with a vise 2 Remove the nut the eye jOint and the plain washer 3 Remove the nozzle holder body and take out parts inside NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING When disassembling and reassembling the nozzle piece dip it in clean fuel Install the push rod noting its direction upside downTighten the retaining nut to 588 to 784 Nm 6 to 8 kgfm to 578 ftIbsDo not tighten it too much or the needle valve will not slide easily and the injection performance will be decreased 1 Retaining Nut 2 Nozzle Holder Body 3 Nut 4 Eye Joint 5 Plain Washer 6 Adjusting Washer 7 Nozzle Spring 8 Push Rod 9 Distance Piece 10 Nozzle Piece 111 REMOVING ORING 1 Remove the Oring from the periphery of the oil pipe on the crankcase 1 Oring 2 Pipe Pin REMOVING TAPPETS 1 Remove the six tappets from the crankcase NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Visually check the contact between tappets and cams for proper rotation If a defect is found replace tappets Before installing the tappets apply engine oil thinly around them 1 Tappets 110 REMOVING CYLINDER HEADS 1 Remove the twelve cylinder head set bolts and two nuts 2 Lift up the cylinder head to detach NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Tighten the bolts and nuts after applying sufficient oil Tighten the bolts and nuts in diagonal sequence starting from the center Tighten them uniformly or the head may deform in the long run IMPORTANT When overhauling the engine replace the gasket with a new one without confusing its front and back Retighten the cylinder head after running the engine for 30 minutes Tighten the cylinder head bolts and nuts to engine specifications Cylinder head tightening sequence 10 2 7 g 10 0 0 0 213 0 5 0 4 0 12 9 1 8 1 Gear Case Side 2 Flywheel Side REMOVING CYLINDER HEAD GASKET 1 Detach the cylinder head gasket being careful not to scratch it NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Before installing the gasket check to see there is no foreign matter on the cylinder head and the cylinder 1 Cylinder Head Gasket 109 ROCKER ARM 1 Remove the set nuts for the rocker arm brackets 2 Detach the whole rocker arm NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Always adjust the valve clearance Before installing the rocker arm bracket check to see if there are any metallic particles on the surface on which the assembly is mounted Tighten the bolts to 17 to 21 Nm 17 to 21 kgfm 12 to 15 ftIbsREMOVING PUSHRODS 1 Remove the pushrods 1 Rocker Arm NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Before inserting the push rods into the tappets check to see if their ends are properly engaged with the grooves If a push rod is roughly inserted it may hit the shoulder of the tappet and be damaged 1 Pushrod 108 REMOVING NOZZLE HOLDER ASSEMBLIES 1 Remove the pipe clips holding the fuel overflow pipes and detach the pipes 2 Detach the nozzle holders using a 27mm 11116nozzle holder socket wrench after loosening the rock nuts 3 Detach the copper gaskets on the seats on which the nozzles are to be installed NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Return the nozzle holders after confirming that there are no metallic particles or foreign matter on the surface on which the nozzles are to be installed Tighten the nozzles to 29 to 49 Nm 30 to 50 kgfm 22 to 36 ftIbs1 Nozzle Holder Socket Wrench 2 Rock Nut REMOVING AC DYNAMO AND FAN BELT 1 Remove the AC dynamo 2 Detach the fan belt NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if the Vbelt is placed in a correct position where letters on the belt can be read from your sideand there is no oil or grease on the belt Fan belt tension The belt should deflect approx 7 mm 028 inwhen the center of the belt is depressed with a finger pressure of 588 to 686 N 6 to 7 kgfm 132 to 154 Ibs1 AC Dynamo 2 Fan Belt 2 107 ATTENTION When reassembling replace al the Orings and gaskets with new ones CYLINDER HEAD REMOVING HEAD COVER 1 Remove the head cover nuts 2 Remove the head cover NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if the head cover gasket is not defective To prevent valve stem seizure apply enough engine oil to the valve guide and valve stem 1 Head Cover REMOVING INJECTION PIPES 12 and 3 1 Loosen the screws on the pipe clamps 2 Detach the injection pipes in the order of 1 2 and 3 NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Send compressed air into the pipes to blowout dust Then reassemble the pipes in the reverse order Tighten the retaining nuts to 15 to 25 Nm 15 to 25 kgf255m 11 to 18 ft Ibs1 Injection Pipe 1 2 Injection Pipe 2 3 Injection Pipe 3 4 Pipe Clamp 5 Retaining Nuts 106 SECTION VI CONTENTS AND CRANKSHAFT Bearing Case Cover 122 Removing Bearing Case Bolt 2 123 Removing Crankshaft 123 Removing Main Bearing Case 124 Removing Cylinder Liner 124 THERMOSTAT WATER PUMP Removing Thermostat 125 Removing Water Pump 126 CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES Checking Flatness of Cylinder Head Surface 126127 Checking Flaw of Cylinder Head Surface 127 Reparing Valve Seat 128 Checking Valve Recessing 128 Checking Guide Clearance 129 Checking Valve Spring Free Length 129 Checking Valve Spring Squareness 130 Checking Valve Spring Tension 130 Checking Oil Clearance Between Rocker Arm Shaft and Bushing 131 Checking Top Clearance 131 Adjusting Valve Clearance 133 Adjusting Compression Release 132 FUEL SYSTEM Testing Opening Pressure of Nozzle 133 Checking Fuel Tightness of Nozzle Valve Seat 133 Checking Shape of Fumes Across Nozzle Tip 134 Checking Fuel Tightness of Fuel Injection Pump Plunger 134 Checking Fuel Tightness of Delivery Valve of Fuel Injection Pump 135 Choking and Adjusting Injection Timing 136 TIMING GEARS CAMSHAFT Checking Oil Clearance of Camshaft 137 Checking Camshaft Alignment 137 Checking Cam Heights of Intake and Exhaust 138 Checking Gear Backlash 138 LUBRICATION SYSTEM Testing Oil Pressure 139 Oil Pump Rotor Type 139140 104 for each starting easier Starter circuit 31 PC Pullin Coil 2 HC Holding Coil 3 S Switch 4 Drive Lever clutch 5 Screw Spline 6 Armature 7 Pole Core 8 Commutator 9 Contact Plate When Start Button is Pushed When the start button is pushed on a current flows from the battery through the pullin coil in the magnet switch section to the holding coil energizing the plunger to pull it in At this time the pinion moves by the drive lever to engage with the ring gear When start button is pushed 1 Battery 2 Starter Switch 3 Ground 4 Return Spring 5 Spline Tube 6 Pinion 7 Ring Gear 8 Operated By Lever When contact plate is closed When the contact plate is closed a large current flows through the motor section to generate a large mechanical power which turns the engine crankshaft At this time the pinion is moved forward by the screw spline for more contact Since the pullin coil ends are shortcircuited by the contact plate the plunger is held only by the force of the holding coil When contact plate i closed 101 9 battery current of the Install Brush Assembly Insert brush holder into grooves in hub of rear housing Place D strap or male terminal where applicableon stud and secure brush holder with locknuts two placesSecure other end of D strap Install Rear Cover Be sure felt gasket is in place see illustration belowPosition rear cover on rear housing and secure with two screws INSTALLING REAR COVER ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS FELT GASKET The following tests will determine the current producing capability of the repaired alternator Mount the alternator in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator RPM Select required battery voltage and circuit polarity A For remote regulator model connect fixture circuit leads and instruments to the alternator terminals as shown in Diagram A on page 100 Place field rheostat in maximum resistance position Turn drive motor on adjust to obtain 5000 alternator RPM Slowly reduce field rheostat resistance alternator should develop a charge Continue to reduce resistance until alternator reaches rated current output in amperes CAUTION Limit output voltage to 15V maximum DO NOT operate the alternator for more than a few minutes in the manner due to the lack of voltage control If the alternator will deliver its rated output terminate the test B For integral regulator model connect fixture leads and instruments to alternator terminals as shown in Diagram B on page 100 The Carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must be capable of handling the alternator rated output alternaotr RPM CAUTION Make sure connections are well secured and tight to avoid possible damage to instrument alternaotr or wiring due to short circuits Starting with carbon pile off slowly increase load while observing ammeter and maintaining 5000 RPM Increase load until a minimum output voltage of approximately 137 volts is obtained Record the output current at this point and refer to the chart for minimum acceptable ratings 99 top of Install Slip Ring Assembly Guide rotor leads through one of the oval passages in the slip ring assembly Be sure oval passages is in line with groove in rotor shaft Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below Choose a driver sleeve with a diameter that clears leads Press slip ring assembly on shaft Solder rotor leads to leads on slip ring Trim excess slip ring leads extending above solder connections Install Front Bearing SLIP RING PRESS DRIVER INSTALLING SLIP RING ASSEMBLY Place front bearing and housing in an arbor press as in illustration below Select a drive tool to contact the outer race only and press bearing into housing bore Bearing replacement is recommended whenever bearing is removed during alternator repair procedures of if bearing is rough dry or noisy Install three bearing retainer screws Torque to 2530 pounds PRESS DRIVER TOOL CONTACTS OUTER BEARING RACE ONLY FRONT BEARING INSTALLING FRONT BEARING 97 REASSEMBLY General DRESS ROTOR LEADS AWAY FROM PULLER REMOVING REAR BEARING The general reassembly instructions are reverse order to the procedures given for disassembly Therefore only information pertaining to special reassembly requirements will be covered in this section Install Rear Bearing Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure on inner race only and press bearing on rotor shaft until it contact shoulder New replacement bearings should be used whenever bearing is removed during repair procedures or when bearing is rough dry or noisy BLOCK REAR BEARING PRESS DRIVER SLEEVE INSTALLING REAR BEARING 96 AdobeUCSRemove Slip Rings from Rotor Assembly Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil leads from the slip ring terminals as shown in illustration below REMOVE ALL RESIDUE FROM BETWEEN SLIP RINGS UNSOLDER ji1 CAUTION DO NOT OVERHEAT UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS Straighten rotor leads Insert a No 10 x 1 cap screw into opening at center of slip ring assembly Position bearing puller as shown in illustration below and pull slip ring assembly off rotor shaft CAUTION When holding rear end of rotor shaft in vise be sure not to grip bearing area of rotor shaft Remove Rear Bearing from Rotor STRAIGHTEN ROTOR LEADS REMOVING SLIP RING ASSY Dress rotor leads away from the bearing puller contact area Adjust puller to contact inner bearing race carefully remove bearing from the shaft See illustration at top of page 96 This completes the disassembly of the alternator 95 correct condition the entire AdobeUCSRemove Front Bearing from Housing Remove three bearing retainer screws Position housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press Using a tool that contacts inner race of bearing press out fron bearing See illustrations below 3BEARING RETAINIER SCREW REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS Inspect Front Housing BEARING INNER RACE PRESSING OUT BEARING Check housing for cracks Check condition of threads in adjusting ear Check bore in mounting foot Discard housing if bore shows signs of elongation oval or INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical properties See illustration on page 89 A Current Draw or Resistance of the Winding CAUTION Turn off DC power source before removing test leads to avoid avc damage to slip ring surfaces 1 CURRENT DRAW IN AMPERES AT 70260 TO 80260F 12 VOLT MODELS RATED AT 51 AMPERES CORRECT CURRENT DRAW 150 V 32 to 36 AMPERES 2 RESISTANCE OF WINDING IN OHMS AT 70260 TO 80260 F 12 VOLT MODELS RATED AT 51 AMPERES CORRECT WINDING RESISTANCE 41 to 47 OHM 93 Remove Pulley Fan and Spacer The pulley is a slipfit on the rotor shaft positioned with a Woodruff Key Remove the nut and lockwasher from the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool After nut and lockwasher are removed the alternator can be separated from the pulley The fan will slide over the key The key may be removed with diagonal pliers or with a screwdriver Inspect the fan for cracked or broken fins note the condition of the mounting hole If worn from running loose replace the fan to insure balance Inspect pulley for possible faults as listed in illustration below PULLEY REMOVAL Separate Rotor from Front Housing CHECK FOR WORN DRIVE SURFACES CHECK FOR POLISHED SURFACE HERE NOTE CONDITION OF 11 KEY GROOVE CHECK BORE FOR WEAR PULLEY INSPECTION POINTS Position front housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press Push rotor assembly from housing See illustration below ROTOR SHAFT IPRESS FRONT HOUSING SEPARATING ROTOR FROM FRONT HOUSING 92 Separate StatorRear Housing Assy from Front Housing Remove four thrubolts See illustration below Carefully insert two screwdriver blades in opposite openings between the stator and front housing as shown in illustration below Pry units apart CAUTION Do not insert screwdriver blades deeper than 116 to avoid damaging stator winding THRUBOLT REMOVAL Inspect Rear Housing 4THROUGH BOLT BLADE SCREWDRIVERS AT OPPOSITE OPENINGS CAUTION DO NOT INSERT BLADE OF SCREWDRIVER MORE THAN 116 STATORREAR HOUSING SEPARATION Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken casting stripped threads or evidence of severe wear in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing If casting is to be reused clean in solvent dry with compressed air and install a new rear bearing retainer if retainer is damaged Test Stator The stator assembly consists of three individual windings terminated in the delta type connections Using an ohmmeter or a test lamp check for winding continuity between terminals A Band C There should be no continuity from any terminal to point D stators showing any signs of winding discoloration should be discarded See illustration below D STATOR WINDING TESTS 91 AdobeUCSTest Diode Trio Assembly Using a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test lamp check for continuity from each terminal separately to the 0 stud continuity should be observed in one direction polarityonly and all diodes should check alike If any diode is defective replace the entire diode trio assembly See illustration below COMMERCIAL DIODE TESTER Lulf D STUDIND LIGHT DIODETRIO Test Diode Rectifier Bridge Assembly Using a commercial diode tested check for continuity Check betweenn point A and each of three terminals C for negative diodes Continuity should be observed in one direction polarityonly and all diodes should check alike Then check between point B B strapand each of the three terminals C for positive diodes Continuity should be observed in one direction only and all diodes should check alike See illustration below If any diode is defective replace the entire diode rectifier bridge assembly e g TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE 90 e 9 rectifier diode Remove Brush Holder Remove two locknuts securing brush holder Pull out brush holder See illustration below 2BRUSHOLDER MOUNTING LOCKNUT REMOVING BRUSH HOLDER Inspect and Test Brush Assembly The illustration below shows the terminals brush arrangement and testing procedure The original brush set may be reused if the brushes are 316 or longer and if brushes are not oil soaked cracked or show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes caused by vibration TEST CONTINUITY FROM A TO B FROM C TO 0 NO CIRCUIT FROM A OR B TO C OR 0 TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER BRUSH TEST 88 ALTERNATOR REPAIR PROCEDURE General The following instructions are presented as a general overall procedure for complete disassembly of an alternator However it should be pOinted out that following the complete procedure whenever a repair is necessary will seldom if ever be required In cases where the causes of the malfunction are known it is only necessary to follow that portion of the procedure directly related to resolving the problem Similarly when the reasons for the malfunction are uncertain it will be necessary to follow the procedure in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem The following diagram should help identify some of the more common problems to concentrate on during the overhaulrepair procedure Disassembly Testing Detach Back Cover NO LOW NOISY ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR OUTPUT 225 OUTPUT DEFECTIVE REGULATOR 225 DEFECTIVE REGULATOR 225 LOOSE DRIVE PULLEY 225 DEFECTIVE BRUSHES WORN BRUSHES CRACKED OR DAMAGED HOUSING 225 225 OPEN FIELD GROUNDEDI SHORTED WORN DIODE RareR WINDINGS BEARINGS 225 225 OPEN RareR GROUNDEDI SHORTED STATOR WINDINGS SHORTED RECTIFIER DIODE 225 225 SHORTEDOPEN SHORTED OR RECTIFIER DIODE GROUNDED STATOR WINDINGS ALTERNATOR Remove nuts from terminals Remove two screws securing back cover to rear housing REMOVING BACK COVER 87 2BACK COVER MOUNTING SCREWS AdobeUCS 3 A AdobeUCSA B C D E TEST REGULATOR SYSTEMSAC TAP TACHDINDICATOR LIGHT TERM GROUND ALTERNATOR TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION REMOTE GUIDE REMOTE REGULATOR SYSTEMS PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSES Battery undercharged 1 Defective cables dirty battery 1 ammeter if usedindicates posts corroded terminals etc constant discharge indicator lamp remains on 2 Loose or broken belt 2 3 Worn or broken brushes 3 4 Defective alternator system 4 Battery undercharged 1 Indicator lamp burned out or 1 indicator lamp off with key defective wire harness on engine stopped Normal condition is lamp on2 Broken brush 2 3 Defective alternator system 3 Battery overcharges 1 Poor ground 1 excessive use of water 2 Defective alt system 2 ammeter if usedshows constant excessive charge voltmeter indicates greater than 145 volts connected across battery with no loadwith engine idling Battery charges at idle but 1 Slipping belts 1 discharges under load 2 Alternator defective conditions 2 Indicator lamp glows slightly 1 Defective diodetrio 1 under moderate load battery appears charged 84 CORRECTIVE ACTION Check clean repair or replace as needed Check belt Replace brush assy Refer to Problem Area Determination Section Check bulb harness Replace brush assy Refer to Problem Area Determination Section Check ground Refer to Problem Area Determination Section Check belts and adjust tension or replace as necessary Disassemble check diodes Remove replace l AdobeUCS with of the BELT INSTALLATION ALIGNMENT TENSIONING Correct belt alignment is essential for maximum alternator and belt service life The center line of all pulleys related to the alternator drive must be within 132 of the true center line See illustration below Tighten drive belts by applying pressure to the alternator front housing ONLY DO NOT apply pressure to the rear housing or stator Set belt tension to the engine manufacturers If this information is not available tighten belts to the pOint where the alternator fan cannot be turned by hand AMMETER CAUTION APPLY PRESSURE HERE TO FRONT HOUSING ONLYWHEN SETTING BELT TENSION ALTERNATOR PULLEY AND ENGINE I DRIVE PULLEY MUST BE IN LINE WITH EACH OTHER REAR FRONT HOUS ING HOUSING ALTERNATOR BELT ALIGNMENT Ammeter requirements vary with application An original equipment ammeter may be difficult to replace with a higher reading unit due to limited panel space and the vehicle wiring system For an ammeter to show alternator charge and accessory discharge it must be connected as shown in illustration below ALTERNATOR CHARGE PATH 1 o AMMETER BATTERY DISCHARGE PATH I l AMMETER CHARGE DISCHARGE CIRCUIT An accessory ammeter may be used if it provides 75075 scale information Such meters are available in two types direct reading and external shunt types Internal shunt direct are not usually recommended for charging systems of high output capability due to the long heavy gauge wiring required Failure to provide adequate wiring will result in poor system performance 78 Excitation The residual magnetism of an alternator is very low therefore some field current must be supplied to the rotor to initiate the generation of power by the machine TO BATT CHARGE IND LIGHT INGSW ON0 IND LIGHT REGULATOR ALTERNATOR EXCITATION CIRCUIT Alternator Installation TO BATT CHARGE IND LIGHT INGSW ON0 IND LIGHT TERMINALREMOTE REGULATOR ALTERNATOR EXCITATION CIRCUIT Observe vehicle battery polarity prior to connecting output cables to the alternator Reverse battery polarity will destroy the alternator rectifier diodes ALTERNATOR REAR HOUSING ROTATION For special installation requirements the alternator rear housing may be rotated to one of four different positions that are spaced 90260 apart To rotate the rear housing proceed as follows 1 Detach plastic cover from rear housing 2 Remove the four 4throughbolts using a 14 nutdriver or socket See illustration below 3 Rotate the housing clockwise or the desired location The stator assembly must be rotated with the rear housing 4 Replace throughbolts Tighten throughbolts alternately and evenly until tight Check that rotor shaft turns freely after reassembly 5 Reattach plastic cover to rear housing NOTE Be sure felt gasket located on inside of cover is in place THROUGH BOLT 4STATOR ASSV REAR HOUSING THROUGHBOLT REMOVAL 77 ALT FIELD REGULATOR Integral Voltage Regulator The voltage regulator is an electronic switching device which senses system voltage level and switches the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain proper system voltage The regulator design utilizes all silicon semiconductors and thickfilm assembly techniques After the voltage has been adjusted to the proper regulating valve the entire circuit is encapsulated to protect the circuit and the components from possible damage due to handling or vibration and moisture encountered in a vehicle The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to provide a Slightly higher voltage at low temperatures and a lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide for charging requirements of the battery under these conditions Vi w ffi 80 Il E z w a a 40 I 20 I o I I 12 VOLT 51 AMP 4 3 2 1 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 750 2380CSAE TEST METHOD 76 en III J W I o a a o a w 3 o Il W tJa o J AdobeUCSThe stator is connected to a threephase fullwave bridge rectifier package which contains six diodes The bridge converts the AC generated in the stator to a DC output for battery charging and accessories such as radio heater lights ignition etc See illustrations below Power to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator alternators is provided by the field diode or diode triopackage contained in the alternator Remote regulator alternators obtain field power via the regulator in the charging system The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 amperes Rated output is achieved at 6000 alternator RPM at an ambient temperature of 75 degrees F 238 degrees CThe alternator is designed to operate in an ambient of 40 degrees to 212 degrees F 40 to 100 degrees CTo ensure proper cooling of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alter255nator it must be used with the proper cooling fan D B D B EXCITE SENSE EXCITE REGULATOR ICI GROUND REGULATOR ICI GROUND STATORAC TAP TACHALTERNATOR SENSE INTEGRAL REGBATTERY SENSE INTEGRAL REGD B GROUND STATOR255 ROTOR b TACHREMOTE REGULATOR ALTERNATOR SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS 75 These alternators are available in two basic versions One version includes a solidstate regulator and forms a complete charging system The other version does not include a regulator However it is equipped with a blade terminal for connection to a remote regulator The alternator portions of these charging systems are threephase diode rectified machines with die cast aluminum housings to provide the necessary strength while keeping the weight to a minimum The weight of a typical alternator excluding pulley is approximately 10 pounds TYPICAL ALTERNATOR MODEL The field for the alternator is wound concentrically about the core of the rotor The field structure contains twelve poles six sets of pole pairsand the rotor is dynamically balanced after assembly to minimize vibration The rotor is supported in the alternator by a pair os sealed ball bearings Field current of approximately 25 Amperes is supplied to the field through copper slip rings and a set of brushes The slip rings ar small in diameter for extended brush life NOTE The design is a sealed brush design and therefore is suitable for marine applications The brusholder is easily removed for either inspection or replacement Removal does not require the disassembly of the alternator 74 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM General Information The 8E series of charging systems were designed for the replacement of many current Motorola models Models are available for 51 amp 12 volt negative ground systems with or without an integral solidstate voltage regulator The integral voltage regulator incorporates an IC all silicon semiconductors and thickfilm construction The remote regulator model alternator is quipped with a blade terminal for connection to the associated remote regulator Serviceable features of previous Motorola Charging System designs have been retained in these units The voltage regulator and brush assembly can be removed without disassembly of the alternator thus allowing for individual testing or inspection 1 2 3 1 Long life silicon diodes 2 Permanently lubricated sealed rear ball bearing 3 Quiet troublefree dynamically balanced rotor 4 Convenient regulator brush replacement 5 Insulated stator prevents shorts 6 Permanently lubricated sealed front ball bearing 7 Standard shaft CUTAWAY VIEW OF TYPICAL ALTERNATOR 73 Glow Plugs 1 per cylWIRE NO COLOR 1 Black 2 Grey 3 YellowRed 4 Orange 5 Red 6 Purple 7 Lt Blue 8 Tan 9 Open 10 Grey 11 OrangeRed WIRE SIZE 10 10 16 10 10 16 16 16 14 16 14 WIRING DIAGRAM Starter Extenalon Harne 72 AdobeUCS NOTES 70 At high speed running with overload When an overload is applied to the engine running at a high speed the centrifugal force of ball weights become small as the speed is reduced and fork lever 2 is pulled rightward by governor springs 1 and 2 increasing fuel injection Fork lever 2 becomes ineffective to increase fuel injection when it is stopped by maximum output limit bolt After that when the force of spring becomes larger than the centrifugal force of ball weights fork lever 1 moves rightward to increase fuel injection driving the engine continuously with a high torque At high speed running with overload 1 Ball Weight 2 Fork Lever 2 3 Governor Spring 1 4 Governor Spring 2 5 Maximum Output Limit Bolt 6 Spring 7 Fork Lever 1 To stop engine 65When stop lever is moved to STOP position fork lever is moved leftward and then control rack is moved to the noninjection position stopping the engine To stop engine 1 I I rl 1 rIll LJ u 1 Stop Lever 2 Fork Lever 1 3 Control Rack 69 AdobeUCSAt middlehigh speed running The engine speed is controlled when the tension of governor springs 1 and 2 which are pulled speed control lever and the centrifugal force of ball weights are balanced When the speed is reduced A Bwith load increased a bthe centrifugal force of ball weights becomes smaller than the tension of governor springs 1 and 2 As a result the control rack is moved rightward and fuel injection amount is increased to produce an engine torque required for the load a cAt middlehigh speed running 1 Speed Control Lever 2 Governor Spring 1 3 Governor Spring 2 4 Ball Weights When load is increased 132t 54 1 Engine Torque Curve 2 Small Loan Torque Curve 3 Large Load Torque Curve 4 Engine RPM 5 Torque 68 GOVERNOR With centrifugal ball weight system this mechanical governor works in the whole range of speeds It keeps the engine speed and controls the engine output At Start When the engine is started more fuel is required than in running At starting fork lever 1 is pulled rightward by starter spring because ball weights have no centrifugal force Control rack moves to a position for overlimit discharging of fuel to assure easy starting At start 1 Ball Weights 2 Start Spring 3 Fork Lever 1 4 Control Rack At Idling When speed control lever is set at idling position after the engine is started high speed governor spring 1 does not work at all and also low speed governor spring 2 does only a little action Therefore governor sleeve is pushed leftward by a centrifugal force of ball weights Fork lever 1 and control rack are moved leftward by the sleeve and then idling limit spring is compressed by control rack As a result the control rack is kept at a position where a centrifugal force of ball weights and forces start spring governor spring 2 and idling limit spring are balanced providing stable idling At idling 1 Speed Control Lever 2 Governor Spring 1 3 Governor Spring 2 4 Ball Weight 5 Governor Sleeve 6 Fork Lever 1 7 Control Rack 8 Idling Limit Spring 9 Start Spring 67 INJECTION NOZZLE This nozzle is throttletype Fuel fed from the pump pressurized to push the needle valve up and the fuel is then injected The needle valve is pressed by the nozzle spring through the push rod Fuel overflow is passed from nozzle holder center through the fuel overflow nipple and the fuel overflow pipe to the fuel tank Injection pressure can be controlled by inserting shims between nozzle holder body and adjusting washers The pressure increases when a O1mm shim is inserted Injection nozzle is also precision finished as is the injection pump treat it carefully and protect from water and dust Injection nozzle 31 41 51 JH1ftttt17l 1811 1 Nozzle Holder Body 2 Adjusting Washer 3 Nozzle Spring 4 Push Rod 5 Retaining Nut 6 Nozzle Body 7 Needle Valve 8 Combustion Chamber 9 Fuel Overflow Nipple 10 Fuel Overflow Pipe 66 Valve The delivery valve is composed of the valve and the valve seat It performs two functions 1 Reverse flow prevention If the circuit between the delivery chamber and the nozzle is always closed a time lag will occur between pressure feed start of valve element and start of nozzle injection This in turn will prevent injection from stopping properly until after completion of pressurefeed To eliminate this time lag the valve lowers on completion of pressurefeed and the relief valve contacts the valve seat and breaks the circuit between the injection pipe and plunger 2 Fuel dribbling prevention After the relief valve contacts delivery valve seat this valve lowers a little Since the relief valve breaks the circuit pressure int he injection pipe is reduce as the valve lowers preventing fuel dribbling from the nozzle Pump Element The pump element is composed of a cylinder and a plunger Their contact surfaces are precision finished to provide a high injection pressure even at low speeds The cylindrical surface of the plunger has slanted grooves which are called control grooves and a connecting hole for plunger head Control Rack This is connected directly to the governor fork in the engine body It is connected with the plunger by pinion to change injection volume Tappet The tappet converts rotating movement of the camshaft into a reciprocating movement to drive plunger A roller is used where it contacts the cam to reduce friction Delivery Velve Pump Element 879561 Relief Valve 2 Seat 3 Delivery Valve Seat 4 Pressure Decrease Because of Increase in this Volume 5 End of Pressurefeed and Start of Sucking Back 6 End of Sucking Back 7 Pump Element 8 Cylinder 9 Plunger 10 Feed Hole 11 Control Groove 12 Driving Face 65 Control 1 Injection zero The feed hole meets the control groove before it is closed by the plunger top Therefore fuel is not pressurized and is not injected even if the plunger moves up 2 Injection medium When the plunger is rotated a certain amount in the direction of the arrow by the control rack stroke A is effective until the feed hole meets the control groove and fuel is injected as the stroke amount 3 Injection maximum When the plunger is rotated by the control rack to the maximum amount in the direction of the arroweffective stroke reaches maximum and maximum injection is provided Injection Control t 1 11 231 Effective Stroke 64 Fuel Pressurefeed 1 Bottom dead center of plunger At bottom dead center fuel enters the delivery chamber through the fuel chamber and the feed hole Fuel chamber is always kept full by the fuel pump2 Pressurefeed start 3 Pressurefeed process Plunger is pushed up by camshaft to close the feed hole and fuel pressurization starts As the plunger moves up pressure increases and delivery valve is opened Then fuel is pressurefed through the injection pipe and nozzle into the combustion chamber 4 Completion of pressurefeed When plunger moves further up the control groove and feed hole meet Pressurized fuel in the delivery chamber is returned through the plungers center hole control groove and feed hole to the fuel chamber Then pressure falls and pressurefeed is completed Pressurefeed Start to Completion 1 11 2341 Delivery Chamber 2 Delivery Valve 3 Feed Hole 4 Fuel Chamber 5 Plunger 63 the crankshaft AdobeUCS1 2 NEW STYLE SHER NOW WATER PUMP ENGINES PUMP ASS EMBLY 302648 LD Impeller Housi ORing ng Cam Screw Cam Impeller CirClip Flat Washer Seal Seat Not Available 0 CirCr rder 13 Ip Internal ClrClip External Ball Bearing Seal Seat A CirCr ssembly Ip External Key Shaft End Plate Gasket Pump Body Lock Washer Bolt 60 AdobeUCS1 6 2 1 9 1 2 1 7 1 1 1 WATER PUMP 35 Imino 77 IMpgalsmin 92 US galsminof water is forced into the crank case and cyliinder head to cool them The impeller of backward type is bent as far as possible from the center in the opposite direction to rotation The bearing unit prevents cooling water from entering by a special mechanical seal 1 Water Pump Impeller 2 Mechanical Seal 3 Water Pump Body 4 Bearing Unit THERMOSTAT The thermostat maintains the cooling water at correct temperature and uses wax pellet type thermostat Wax is enclosed in the pallet The wax is solid at low temperatures but turns liquid at high temperatures expands and opens the valve Flow of cooling water Temperature sensor of wax pellet type thermostat 1al bl 1 Leak hole 7 To radiator 2 Water cover 3 Spindle 8 To engine 9 Pellet 4 Pellet 10 Wax liquid5 Valve 11 Wax solid6 Sheet aAt low temperature bAt high temperature 56 AdobeUCSOIL SWITCH Oil switch is provided on the way for the oil pressure If the oil pressure is proper it is switched off if oil pressure falls below 490 kPa 71 psithe oil warning lamp etc will light warning the operator In this case stop the engine immediately and check the cause of the pressure drop Oil switch 11121 When oil pressure is proper 8 Rubber packing 2 When oil pressure falls 9 Oil seat 3 Screw 10 Contact rivet 4 Terminal 11 Contact 5 Spring plate 12 Lamp 6 Insulator 13 Battery 7 Spring retainer OIL PUMP The oil pump is of rotor type and works smoothly and noiselessly An inner and outer rotor turn inside a housing In operation the inner rotor is driven inside the outer rotor The inner rotor has one less lobe than the outer rotor so that only one lobe is in full engagement with the outer rotor at anyone time This allows the other lobes to slide over the outer lobes making a seal to prevent backup of oil As the lobes slide up and over the lobes on the outer rotor oil is drawn in As the lobes fall into the rings cavities oil is squeezed out 1 Draw in 1 Rotortype pump in operation 2 Draw in 2 3 Draw in 3 4 Squeeze out 5 Inlet 6 Outlet 7 Inner rotor 8 Outer rotor 56755 8RELIEF VALVE Relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system due to high oil pressure Control range of the relief valve is 196 to 441 KPa 28 to 64 psiWhen oil pressure exceeds the upper limit the ball is pushed back by high pressure oil and the oil escapes BYPASS VALVE Oil filter cartridge has a bypass valve inside to prevent the lack of lubrication oil in the engine if the oil filter element is clogged When the pressure difference before filtering and after is more than 981 kPa 142 psithe bypass valve opens and lets the oil pass to each part of engine without passing through the filter Relief valve and bypass valve 1 Relief valve 2 Bypass valve 3 From pump 4 To rocker arm shaft and camshaft 5 To crankshaft 54 3ENGINE OIL FLOW 151 141 TIMING GEAR 161 CAMSHAFT I 1201 DRAIN I l 31 1BI ROCKER ARM SHAFT 151 I I 1201 I DRAIN I I 121 I I TAPETS I I I I I I 1911 SPLflSH I I I I I 61 MAIN OIL GALLERY 151 I I 1201 DRAIN I I 121 I I TAETS I I I I I 191 SPLASH I I I I I I I I J I I 11 OIL PAN This engine lubrication system consists of oil filter 1 straineroil pump relief valve oil filter cartridge and oil switch The oil pump suctions lubrication oil from the oil pan through oil filter 1 and the oil flows down to the filter cartridge where it is further filtered Then the oil is forced to crankshaft connecting rods idle gear camshaft and rocker arm shaft to lubricate each part Some part of oil splashed by the crankshaft or leaking and dropping from gaps of each part lubricates these parts pistons cylinders small ends of connecting rods tappets push rods inlet and exhaust valves and timing gears 53 LUBRICATION SYSTEM Crankpin Bearing Piston Oil Filter 1 52 Oil Filter Cartridge and Relief Valve 1To rocker arm shaft and camshaft 2To crankshaft SECTION IV LUBRICATION COOLING AND FUEL SYSTEMS LUBRICATION SYSTEM Lubrication System Diagram 52 Engine Oil Flow Diagram 53 Relief Valve 54 Bypass Valve 54 Oil Switch 55 Oil Pump 55 COOLING SYSTEM Water Pump 56 Thermostat 56 Oberdorfer Water Pump 57 Sherwood Water Pump 58 Johnson Water Pump 59 New Style Sherwood Water Pump 60 FUEL SYSTEM Fuel Filter 61 Fuel Pump 62 Fuel Injection Pump 6265 Injection Nozzle 66 Governor 6769 51 INLET AND EXHAUST VALVES The inlet and exhaust valves and their guides are different from each other Other parts such as valve springs valve spring retainers valve spring collets valve stem seals and valve caps are the same for both the inlet and exhaust valves All contact or sliding parts are quenched and tempered to resist wear 1 Valve cap 2 Valve spring Retainer 3 Valve spring Collets 4 Valve spring 5 Valve stem seal 6 Valve guide 7 Inlet valve 8 Exhaust valve FLYWHEEL 7Intake and exhaust valve 468Flywheel is connected with the crankshaft Storing explosive force by each cylinder as the force of inertia the flywheel functions to rotate the crankshaft smoothly On the circumference of the flywheel are stamped marks for fuel injection timing and top dead center The flywheel and crankshaft can be fixed to each other at a certain point according to the arrangement of flywheel mounting bolt hole 2TC 2FI 1 127 rad 225 73260225 27 730127 rad 127 rad 732607JD119 rad 682601 TC 1TC Mark for top dead center of 1st piston 1FI Mark for fuel injection of 1st piston 50 AdobeUCSand rocker system are AdobeUCSPISTON AND PISTON RINGS Piston circumference has a special elliptic shape in consideration of expansion due to explosion heat Piston head is flatformed Furthermore ribs are provided between the piston head and top ring to reduce distortion and to help heat radiation Piston is made of special aluminum alloy of low thermal expansion and high temperature resistance Top ring is of key stone type which can stand against heavy load and the sliding surface to the cylinder wall is shaped into barrel face which is well fitted to the wall and plated with hard chrome Second ring is of undercut type which is effective to prevent oil rising Oil ring is effective to scrape oil because it is closely fitted to the cylinder wall by coil expander and the upper and lower ends of its sliding surface are cut diagonally to raise fare pressure to the cylinder walls A part of scraped oil is forced into the inside of piston through oil escape holes of rings and piston The oil ring is plated with hard chrome to increase wear resistance quality Pistons and piston rings 411 Rib 2151225 225 2 Top ring 3 Barrel face 4 Hard chrome plating 5 Second ring 6 Coil expander ring 6CONNECfING RODS Connecting rod is used to connect the piston with the crankshaft The big end of the connecting rod has crankpin bearings split typeand the small end has a bushing solid type11 Connecting rod 2 Crankpin bearing 3 Bushing I 48 The crankshaft is driven by the pistons and connecting rods and translates its reciprocating movement into a circular movement It also drives the oil pump camshaft and fuel camshaft Six counterweights are integrated into one unit to minimize bearing wear and lubricating oil temperature rise Crankshaft journals crankpins and oil seal sliding section are to raise wear resistance quality Crankshaft journals are supported by the main bearing cases in which bearing is used Crankshaft bearing 1 at the front end is a wind type bushing and the three bearings 2 behind are split type bushings Side bearings 12 of split type are mounted on both sides of the main bearing case 1 at the flywheel side Crankshaft bearings and side bearings are plated with special alloy to raise wear resistance quality Crankslulft 81 Crankshaft 2 Piston 3 Connecting rod 4 Oil passage 5 Crankshaft bearing 1 6 Crankshaft bearing 2 7 Side bearing 8 Counterweight 47 CYLINDER BLOCK The engine features a high durability tunneltyped cylinder in which the crank bearing part is constructed body Furthermore drytype cylinder liners being pressurefitted into cylinders allow effective cooling less distortion higher wearresistance qualities and each cylinder having its own chamber helps to minimize noise Tunnel cylinder block CYLINDER HEAD The crossflow type inletexhaust ports in this engine have their openings at both sides of the cylinder head Because overlaps of inletexhaust ports are smaller than in ports of other types which have openings one side the suction air can be protected from being heated and expanded by heated exhaust air The cool high density suction air has a higher voluminous efficiency and raises the power of the engine Furthermore distortion of the cylinder head by heated exhaust air is reduced because suction ports are arranged alternately The combustion chamber is exclusive spherical combustion chamber type Suction air is whirled to be mixed effectively with fuel prompting combustion and reducing fuel consumption In the combustion chamber are installed throttle type injection nozzle and rapid heating sheathed type glow plug This glow plug assures easier than ever engine starts even at 15260C type cylinder head Combustion chamber 6 11 1 Combustion chamber 2 Suction 3 Exhaust 4 Nozzle assembly 5 Glow plug 6 Cylinder head 46 SECTION III CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION Cylinder Block 46 Cylinder Head 46 Crankshaft 47 Piston and Piston Rings 48 Connecting Rods 48 Camshaft and Fuel Camshaft 49 Rocker Arm Assembly 49 Inlet and Exhaust Valves 50 Flywheel 50 45 VENTING THE FUEL SYSTEM Models 18 25 25XP and 35 Air must be vented when 225 The fuel filter and piping are removed 225 The fuel tank becomes completely empty 225 The engine has not been used for an extended time Venting procedure is as follows 1 Fill the fuel tank with fuel and open the fuel cock 2 Twist off the air vent screw at the top of the filter by turning it twice 3 When bubbles disappear from fuel coming out of the plug twist it back on 4 Open the air vent plug on the fuel injection pump 5 Pull the engine stop lever back completely to stop the engine and run the starter for about 10 seconds 6 Close the air vent plug when air bubbles disappear from the fuel flowing out Models 12 212 320 and 430 have continuous bleed systems IMPORTANT Do not perform venting when the engine is hot 1 Air vent screw 44 CHANGING ENGINE OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE Remove the oil filter cartridge with a filter wrench Apply a slight coat of oil to the rubber gasket on the new cartridge Screw the new cartridge in by hand Overtightening may cause deformation of rubber gasket After cartridge has been replaced engine oil normally decreases a little Check that the engine oil does not leak through the seal and be sure to read the oil level Then add engine oil up to the prescribed level 1 Oil filter cartridge INSPECTION OF FUEL FILTER The fuel filter is installed in the fuel line from the fuel tank to the injection pump between the tank and feed pump in the basic modelAs the fuel from the inlet of the cock body moves through the filter element the dirt and impurities in the fuel are filtered allowing only clean fuel to enter the inside of the filter element The cleaned fuel flows out from the outlet of the cock body Before starting or after disassembling and reassembling loosen the air vent plug to bleed the air in the fuel line 2 1 1 Cock Body Inlet 2 Cock Body Outlet 3 Air Vent Plug 43 how new every every every every every every every every every every months months GENERAL WARNINGS 225 When disassembling engine arrange each part on a clean surface Do not mix them up Replace bolts and nuts in their original positions 225 When servicing voltaged parts or connecting instruments to electrical equipment first disconnect negative battery terminal 225 Replace gaskets or Orings with new ones when disassembling and apply grease on the 0ring and the oil seal when reassembling 225 When exchanging parts use Universal genuine parts to maintain engine performance and safety 225 To prevent oil and water leakage apply nondrying adhesive to the gasket according to this manual before reassembling 225 When hoisting the engine use the hook provided on the cylinder head 225 When installing external circlips or internal circlips direct corner end to the nonloosening direction Applying grease to oil seal Direction of installing circlips 3 F1 5 1 Inside of Lip 2 Grease 3 External Circlip 4 Internal Circlip 5 Direct the Corner End to the Direction Subject to Force 40 4 5 SECTION II PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE General Warnings 40 Maintenance Check List 41 POINTS OF INSPECTION AND CHANGING Engine Lubricating Oil 42 Changing Engine Oil Level 42 Changing Engine Oil 42 Changing Engine Oil Filter Cartridge 43 Inspection of Fuel Filter 43 Venting the Fuel System 44 39 BOLT TORQUES Standard Bolt Special Bolt Special Bolt Nominal Dia SS41S20C S43C S48C RefinedSCR3 SCM3 RefinedM6 58 69 Ibsft 72 83 Ibslft 90 105 Ibslft M8 130 152 Ibslft 174 203 Ibsft 217 253 Ibslft M 10 289 333 Ibsft 354 412 Ibsft 448 521 Ibsft M 12 463 535 Ibsft 571 665 Ibsft 759 868 Ibsft M 14 796 926 Ibsft 911 1085 Ibsft 1230 1447 Ibsft M 16 1230 1410 Ibsft 1447 1664 Ibsft 1917 2242 Ibsft M 18 1800 2098 Ibsft 2025 2351 Ibsft 2532 2965 Ibsft M 20 2459 2893 Ibslft 2712 3182 Ibsft 3616 4195 Ibsft Bolt material grades are shown by numbers punched on the bolt heads Prior to tightening be sure to check out the numbers as shown below Punched Bolt Material Grade Number None Standard Bolts SS41 S20C 7 Special Bolts S43C S48C Refined9 Special Bolts SCM3 SCR3 Refined38 AdobeUCSBOLT TORQUES M25XP M35 66 to 71 kgfm 66 to 71 kgfm 477 to 514 ftlbs 477 to 514 ftllbs 20 to 24 kgfm 20 to 24 kgfm 145 to 174 ftlbs 145 to 174 ftlbs 30 to 35 kgfm 30 to 35 kgtlm 217 to 253 ftlbs 217 to 253 ftlbs 55 to 60 kgtlm 55 to 60 kgfm 398 to 434 ftlbs 398 to 434 ftlbs 27 to 31 kgtlm 27 to 31 kgtlm 195 to 224 ft to Ibs 195 to 224 ftlbs 17 to 21 kgtlm 17 to 21 kgfm 123 to 152 ftlbs 123 to 152 ftlbs 10 to 115 kgfm 10 to 115 kgfm 723 to 832 ftllbs 723 to 832 ftlbs 20 to 25 kgfm 20 to 25 kgfm 145 to 181 ftllbs 145 to 181 ftlbs 40 to 45 kgtlm 40 to 45 kgfm 289 to 362 ftlbs 289 to 362 ftlbs 30 to 50 kgfm 40 to 50 kgfm 217 to 362 ftlbs 289 to 362 ftlbs 014 to 02 kgfm 014 to 02 kgfm 101 to 145 ftlbs 101 to 145 ftllbs 15 to 20 kgfm 15 to 20 kgfm 108 to 145 ftlbs 108 to 145 ftlbs 28 to 35 kgfm 28 to 35 kgtlm 203 to 253 ftllbs 203 to 253 ftlbs 25 to 30 kgfm 25 to 300 kgtlm 181 to 217 ftlbs 181 to 217 ftllbs 15 to 26 kgtlm 15 to 26 kgfm 108 to 188 ftlbs 108 to 188 ftlbs 14 to 16 kgfm 14 to 16 kgfm 101 to 116 ftlbs 101 to 116 ftlbs 14 to 18 kg tim 14 to 18 kgfm 101 to 130 ftllbs 101 to 130 ftllbs 37 BOLT TORQUES As a lot of bolts and nuts in the engine are of special shape be careful to them correctly using a torque wrench When tightening follow this method First tighten all the bolts 50 of the regular torque then tighten them fully TIGHTENING BOLTS OF IMPORTANT PARTS 225 Marked bolts must be tightened after applying oil Model M18 M225 225 Head bolts and nuts 66 to 71 kgfm 66 to 71 kgfm 47 7 to 514 ftlbs 477 to 514 ftlbs 225 Bearing case bolts 1 20 to 24 kgfm 20 to 24 kgfm 145 to 174 ftllbs 145 to 174 ftllbs 225 Bearing case bolts 2 30 to 35 kgfm 30 to 35 kgfm 217 to 253 ftlbs 217 to 253 ftlbs 225 Flywheel bolts 55 to 60 kgfm 55 to 60 kgfm 398 to 434 ftlbs 398 to 434 ftllbs 225 Connecting rod bolts 27 to 31 kgfm 27 to 1 kgfm 195 to 224 ftlbs 195 to 224 ftllbs 225 Rocker arm bracket 17 to 211 kgfm 17 to 21 kgfm studs 123 to 152 ftlbs 123 to 152 ftllbs 225 Idle gear shaft bolts 10 to 115 kgfm 10 to 115 kgfm 723 to 832 ftlbs 723 to 832 ftlbs Glow plugs 20 to 25 kgfm 20 to 25 kgfm No need to apply oil145 to 181 ftlbs 145 to 181 ftlbs Drain plugs 40 to 45 kgfm 40 to 45 kgfm 289 to 362 ftllbs 289 to 362 ftlbs Nozzle holders 30 to 50 kgfm 30 to 50 kgfm 217 to 362 ftlbs 217 to 362 ftllbs Bis 014 to 020 kgfm 014 to 02 kgfm Oil 101 to 145 ftlbs 101 to 145 ftlbs switch Taper Screw 15 to 20 kgfm 15 to 20 kgfm 108 to 145 ftlbs 108 to 145 ftlbs Fuel limit lock nut 28 to 35 kgfm 28 to 35 kgfm 203 to 253 ftllbs 203 to 253 ftlbs Fuel liimit cap nut 25 to 30 kgfm 25 to 30 kgfm 181 to 217 ftlbs 181 to 217 ftllbs Injection pipes 15 to 25 kgfm 15 to 26 kgfm 108 to 188 ftllbs 108 to 188 ftlbs 225 Crankshaft nut 14 to 16 kgfm 14 to 16 kgfm 100 to 116 ftlbs 101 to 116 ftllbs Air vent screw 14 to 18 kgfm 14 to 18 kgfm on injection pump101 to 130 ftlbs 101 to 130 ftlbs AdobeUCSBOLT TORQUES BOLT TORQUES Model 320 M 430 40 to 45 kgfm 40 to 45 kgfm 289 to 325 ftlbs 289 to 325 ftlbs 13 to 16 kgfm 13 to 16 kgfm 94 to 116 ftllbs 94 to 116 ftlbs 27 to 311 kgfm 27 to 31 kgfm 195 to 224 ftllbs 195 to 224 ftlbs 55 to 60 kgfm 55 to 60 kgfm 398 to 434 ftllbs 398 to 434 ftlbs 15 to 19 kgfm 15 to 19 kgfm 108 to 137 ftlbs 108 to 137 ftllbs 10 to 115 kgfm 10 to 115 kgfm 723 to 832 ftllbs 723 to 832 ftllbs 10 to 115 kgfm 10 to 115 kgfm 723 to 832 ftlbs 723 to 832 ftlbs 20 to 25 kgfm 20 to 25 kgfm 145 to 181 ftlbs 145 to 181 ftllbs 33 to 38 kgfm 33 to 38 kgfm 239 to 275 ftlbs 239 to 275 ftllbs 50 to 70 kgfm 50 to 70 kgfm 362 to 506 ftllbs 362 to 506 ftlbs 15 to 20 kgfm 15 to 20 kgfm 108 to 145 ftlbs 108 to 145 ftlbs 15 to 20 kgfm 15 to 20 kgfm 108 to 145 ftllbs 108 to 145 ftllbs 08 to 10 kgfm 08 to 10 kgfm 58 to 72 ftlbs 58 to 72 ftlbs 08 to 10 kgfm 08 to 10 kgfm 58 to 72 ftlbs 58 to 72 ftlbs 25 to 35 kgfm 25 to 35 kgfm 181 to 253 ftllbs 181 to 253 ftlbs 100 to 110 kgfm 100 to 110 kgfm 723 to 796 ftlbs 723 796 ftlbs Not Used Not Used 35 BOLT TORQUES As a lot of bolts and nuts in the engine are of special shape be careful to tighten them correctly using a torque wrench When tightening follow this method First tighten all the bolts 50 of the regular torque then tighten them fully TIGHTENING BOLTS OF IMPORTANT PARTS 225 Marked bolts must be tightened after applying oil Model M12 M212 225 Head bolts and nuts 40 to 45 kgfm 40 to 45 kgfm 289 to 325 ftlbs 289 to 325 ftllbs 225 Bearing case bolts 1 13 to 16 kgfm 13 to 16 kgfm 94 to 116 ftlbs 94 to 116 ftlbs 225 Bearing case bolts 2 27 to 31 kgfm 27 to 31 kgfm 195 to 224 ftllbs 195 to 224 ftlbs 225 Flywheel bolts 55 to 60 kgfm 55 to 60 kgfm 398 to 434 ftllbs 398 to 434 ftllbs 225 Connecting rod bolts 15 to 19 kgfm 15 to 19 kgfm 108 to 137 ftlbs 108 to 137 ftlbs 225 Rocker arm bracket 10 to 115 kgfm 10 to 115 kgfm studs 723 to 832 ftlbs 723 to 832 ftlbs 225 Idle gear shaft bolts 10 to 115 kgfm 10 to 115 kgfm 723 to 832 ftlbs 723 to 832 ftlbs Glow plugs 20 to 25 kgflbs 20 to 25 kgfm No need to apply oil145 to 181 ftlbs 145 to 181 ftlbs Drain plugs 33 to 38 kgfm 33 to 38 kgfm 239 to 275 ftllbs 239 to 275 ftllbs Nozzle holders 50 to 70 kgfm 50 to 70 kgfm 362 to 506 ftllbs 362 to 506 ftllbs Bis 15 to 20 kgfm 15 to 20 kgfm Oil 108 to 145 ftlbs 108 to 145 ftllbs switch Taper Screw 15 to 20 kgfm 15 to 20 kgfm 108 to 145 ftllbs 108 to 145 ttlbs Fuel limit lock nut 08 to 10 kgfm 08 to 10 kgfm 58 to 72 ftlbs 58 to 72 ftllbs Fuel limit cap nut 08 to 10 kgfm 08 to 10 kgfm 58 to 72 ftlbs 58 to 72 ftlbs Injection pipes 25 to 35 kgfm 25 to 35 kgfm 181 to 253 ttl bs 181 to 253 ftllbs 225 Crankshaft nut 100 to 110 kgfm 100 to 110 kgfm 723 to 796 ftlbs 723 to 796 ftlbs Air vent screw Not Used Not Used on injection pump34 F F AdobeUCSF F F F AdobeUCSF F AdobeUCSENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Model2SXP Model3S Allowable Limit 002 mm 002 mm 008 mm 00008 in00008 in00031 in0034 to 0106 mm 0034 to 0106 mm 020 mm 00013 to 00042 in00013 to 00042 in00079 in43934 to 43950 mm 43934 to 43950 mm 020 mm 17297 to 17303 in17297 to 17303 in00079 in43934 to 43950 mm 43934 to 43950 mm 17297 to 17303 in17297 to 17303 in43984 to 44040 mm 43984 to 44040 mm 17317 to 17339 in17317 to 17339 in43984 to 44026 mm 43984 to 44040 mm 17317 to 17339 in17317 to 17339 in0029 to 0091 mm 0029 to 0087mm 020 mm 00011 to 00036 in00011 to 00036 in00079 in36959 to 36975 mm 36959 to 36975mm 14551 to 14557 in14551 to 14557 in37004 to 3705 mm 37004 to 3705 mm 14569 to 14587 in14569 to 14587 in015 to 031 mm 015 to 031 mm 05 mm 00059 to 00122 in00059 to 00122 in00197 in02 mm 04 mm 02 mm 04 mm 0008 in 0Q16 in0008 in 0Q16 in02 mm 04 mm 02 mm 04 mm 0008 in 0016 in0008 in 0016 in002 mm 002 mm 00008 in00008 in0014 to 0038 mm 0014 to 0038 mm 00006 to 00015 in00006 to 00015 in20002 to 20011 mm 20002 to 20011 mm 07875 to 07878 in07875 to 07878 in20025 to 20040 mm 20025 to 20040 mm 07884 to 0789 in07884 to 0789 in60 KPa 60 KPa 07 kgfcm2 o267r 10 Psi10 Psi 196 to 441 KPa 196 to 441 KPa 20 to 45 kgfcm2 to 45 kgfcm2 28 to 64 PSil 28 to 64 Psi 011 to 015 mm 011 to 015 mm 02 mm 00043 to 00059 in00043 to 00059 in00079 in007 to 015 mm 007 to 015 mm 025 mm 00028 to 00059 in00028 to 00059 in00098 in008 to 013 mm 008 to 013 mm 02 mm 00031 to 00051 in00031 to 00051 in00079 in29 AdobeUCSm m ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Model 320 Model 430 Allowable Limit 002 mm 002 mm 008 mm 00008 in00008 in00031 in0034 to 0106 mm 0034 to 0106 mm 020 mm 000134 to 000417 in000134 to 000417 in00079 in39934 to 39950 mm 39934 to 39950 mm 020 mm 157221 to 157284 in157221 to 157284 in00079 in43934 to 49950 mm 43934 to 49950 mm 172969 to 173032 in172969 to 173032 in39984 to 40040 mm 39984 to 40040 mm 157418 to 157638 in157418 to 157638 in43984 to 44026 mm 43984 to 44026 mm 173166 to 173331 in173166 to 173331 in0019 to 0081 mm 0019 to 0081mm 015 mm 000075 to 000319 in000075 to 000319 in00059 in33959 to 33975 mm 33959 to 33975mm 133697 to 133760 in133697 to 133760 in33994 to 34040 mm 33994 to 34040 mm 133835 to 134016 in133835 to 134016 in015 to 031 mm 015 to 031 mm 015 mm 00059 to 00122 in00059 to 00122 in00059 in02 mm 04 mm 02 mm 04 mm 0008 in 0016 in00081 in 0016 in02 mm 04 mm 02 mm 04 mm 0008 in 0016 in0008 in 0016 in005 mm 0002 in0016 to 0039 mm 0016 to 0039 mm 010 mm 000063 to 000154 in000063 to 000154 in00039 in18001 to 18009 mm 18001 to 18009 mm 07087 to 070902 in07087 to 070902 in18025 to 18040 mm 18025 to 18040 mm 070965 to 071024 in070965 to 071024 in69 KPa 69 KPa 07 kgfcm2o 10 PSR 10 Psi 196 to 441 KPa 196 to 441 KPa 10 Psi 20 to 45 kgfcm2 20 to 45 kgfcm2 28 to 64 Psi 28 to 64 Psi025 mm 00098 in007 to 015 mm 007 to 015 mm 030 mm 00028 to 00059 in00028 to 00059 in00118 in0075 to 0135 mm 00075 to 0135 mm 020 mm 00029 to 00053 in00029 to 00053 in00079 in27 Item Crankshaft alignment Oil clearance between crankshaft journal and bearing Front and Journal 00 intermediate Rear Front and Bearing 10 intermediate Rear Oil clearance between crank and bearing Crank pin 00 Crank pin bearing 10 Crank shaft side clearance Under sizes of crankshaft bearing and crank pin bearing Oversizes of thrust bearing Connecting Rod Connecting rod alignment Oil clearance between piston pin and small end bushing Piston 00 Pin Small end bushing 10 SYSTEM At idle Oil pressure speed At rated speed Oil Pump Rotor lobe clearance Radial clearance between outer rotor and pump body End clearance between rotor and cover Oil Filter Opening pressure of bypass valve ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Model 12 002 mm 00008 in0034 to 0106 mm 000134 to 000417 in39934 to 39950 mm157221 to 157284 in43934 to 49950 mm 172969 to 173032 in39984 to 40040 mm 157418 to 157638 in43984 to 44026 mm 173166 to 173331 in0019 to 0081 mm 000075 to 000319 in33959 to 22975 mm 133697 to 133760 in33994 to 34040 mm 133835 to 134016 in015 to 031 mm 00059 to 00122 in02 mm 04 mm 0008 in 0Q16 in02 mm 04 mm 0008 in 0016 in0Q16 to 0039 mm 000063 to 000154 in18001 to 18009 07087 to 070902 in18025 to 18040 mm 070965 to 071024 in69 KPa 07 kgtem2 10 psi 196 to 441 KPa 20 to 45 kgfem2 28 to 64 psi007 to 015 mm 00028 to 00059 in0075 to 0135 mm 00029 to 00053 in98 KPa 10 kgfcm2 142 psi26 Model 212 002 mm 00008 in0034 to 0106 mm 000134 to 000417 in39934 to 39950 mm 157221 to 157284 in43934 to 49950 mm 172969 to 173032 in39984 to 40040 mm 157418 to 157638 in43984 to 44026 mm 173166 to 173331 in0019 to 0081 mm 000075 to 000319 in33959 to 33975 mm 133697 to 133760 in33994 to 34040 mm 133835 to 134016 in015 to 031 mm 00059 to 00122 in02 mm 04 mm 0008 in 0Q16 in02 mm 04 mm0008 in 0016 in0Q16 to 0039 mm 000063 to 000154 in18001 to 18009 mm 07087 to 07902 in18025 to 18040 mm 070965 to 071024 in69 KPa 07 kgfem2 10 psi196 to 441 KPa 20 to 45 kgfcm2 28 to 64 psi007 to 015 mm 00028 to 00059 in0075 to 0135 mm 00029 to 00053 in98 KPa 10 kgfcm2 142 psim m ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Rocker Arm Item Model 18 Model 25 Clearance between rocker 00013 to 0065 mm 0013 to 0065 mm arm and bushing 00005 to 00026 in00005 to 00026 in Rocker arm shaft O D 10973 to 10984 in 10973 to 10984 mm 0432 to 04324 in0432 to 04324 inRocker arm bushing ID 10997 to 11038 mm 10997 to 11038 mm 0433 to 04346 in0433 to 04346 inCamshaft Camshaft alignment 005 mm 005 mm 0002 in0002 inCam height IN EX2688 mm 2688 mm 10583 in10583 inOil clearance of camshaft 0050 to 0091 mm 0002 to 00036 in0002 to 00036 in0002 to 00036 inCamshaft journal OD 32934 to 32950 mm 32934 to 32950 mm 12966 to 12972 in12966 to 12972 inCamshaft bearing 10 33000 to 33025 mm 33000 to 33025 mm 12992 to 13002 in12992 to 13002 inTiming Gear Timing gear backlash 0042 to 0115 mm 0042 to 00115 mm 00017 to 00045 in00017 to 00045 inIdle gear side clearance 020 to 051 mm 020 to 051 mm 00079 to 00201 in00079 to 00201 inClearance between idle gear 0016 to 0045 mm 0016 to 0045 mm shaft and idle gear bushiing 00007 to 00017 in00007 to 00017 inIdle gear shaft 00 17973 to 17984 mm 19973 to 17984 mm 07076 to 07080 in07076 to 07080 inIdle gear bushing ID 18000 to 1801 mm 18000 to 18018 mm 07087 to 07093 in0708 to 07093 inCylinder LinerCylinder LinerID 72000 to 72019 mm 72000 to 72019 mm 28346 to 28353 in28346 to 28353 inOversize of cylinder liner 015 mm 015 mm 00059 in00059 inPistonPiston Ring Piston pin hole ID 20000 to 20013 mm 20000 to 20013 mm 07874 to 07879 in07874 to 07879 inCompression 025 to 040 mm 025 to 040 mm Piston ring ring 2 00098 to 00158 in00098 to 00158 inclearance 020 to 040 mm 020 to 040 mm Oil Ring 00078 to 0015 iin00078 to 0015 inComprerssio 0085 to 0112 mm 0085 to 0112 mm Ring gap ring 12 00033 to 00044 in00033 to 00044 in Oil ring 0020 to 0055 mm 0020 to 0055 mm 00008 to 00022 in00008 to 00022 inOversize of piston rings 05 mm 05 mm 00197 in00197 in24 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Model 320 Model 430 Allowable Limit 0016 to 0068 mm 0016 to 0068 mm 015 mm 000063 to 0000268 in000063 to 0000268 in00059 in10473 to 10484 mm 10473 to 10484 mm 041232 to 041276 in041232 to 041276 in10500 to 10541 mm 10500 to 10541 mm 041339 to 041500 in041339 to 0415 in001 mm 001 mm 008 mm 00004 in00004 in00031 in2688 mm 2688 mm 2683 mm 10583 in10583 in10563 in0050 to 0091 mm 005 to 0091 mm 015 mm 000197 to 000358 in000197 to 000358 in00059 in32934 to 32950 mm 32934 to 32950 mm 129662 to 129725 in129662 to 129725 in33000 to 33025 mm 33000 to 33025 mm 129921 to 130020 in129921 to 130020 in004 to 012 mm 004 to 012 mm 015 mm 00016 to 00047 in00016 to 00047 iin00059 in020 to 051 mm 020 to 051 mm 06 mm 00079 to 0021 in00079 to 00201 in0024 in0020 to 0054 mm 0020 to 0054 mm 010 mm 000079 to 000213 in000079 to 000213 in00039 in19967 to 19980 mm 19967 to 19980 mm 078610 to 078661 in078610 to 078661 in20000 to 20021 mm 20000 to 20021 mm 078740 to 078823 in078740 to 078823 in66000 to 66019 mm 66000 to 66019 mm 015 mm 259843 to 259917 in259843 to 259917 in00059 in wear05 mm 05 mm 0020 in0020 in18000 to 18011 mm 18000 to 18011 mm 1805 mm 079866 to 070910 in079866 to 070910 in07106 in0085 to 0112 mm 0085 to 0112 mm 015 mm 000335 to 000441 in000335 to 000441 in00059002 to 006 mm 002 to 006 mm 015 mm 0008 to 00024 in0008 to 00024 in00059 in025 to 040 mm 025 to 040 mm 125 mm 00098 to 00157 in00098 to 00157 in00492 in020 to 040 mm 020 to 040 mm 125 mm 00079 to 00157 in00079 to 00157 in00492 in05 mm 05 mm 0020 in0020 in23 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Rocker Arm Item Model 12 Model 212 Clearance between rocker 0Q16 to 0068 mm 0Q16 to 0068 mm arm and bushing 000063 to 000268 in000063 to 0000268 inRocker arm shaft 0 D 10473 to 10484 in 10473 to 10484 mm 041232 to 041276 in041232 to 041276 inRocker arm bushing ID 10500 to 10541 mm 10500 to 10541 mm 041339 to 041500 in041339 to 041500 inCamshaft Camshaft alignment 0Q1 mm 0Q1 mm 00004 in00004 inCam height IN EX2688 mm 2688 mm 10583 in10583 inOil clearance of camshaft 0050 to 0091 mm 0050 to 0091 mm 000197 to 000358 in000197 to 000358 inCamshaft journal OD 32934 to 32950 mm 32934 to 32950 mm 129662 to 129725 in129662 to 129725 inCamshaft bearing ID 33000 to 33025 mm 33000 to 33025 mm 129921 to 130020 in129921 to 130020 inTiming Gear Timing gear backlash 004 to 012 mm 004 to 012 mm 00016 to 00047 in00016 to 00047 inIdle gear side clearance 020 to 051 mm 020 to 051 mm 00079 to 00201 in00079 to 00201 inClearance between idle gear 0Q16 to 0045 mm 0020 to 0054 mm shaft and idle gear bushiing 000063 to 000177 in000079 to 000213 inIdle gear shaft OD 15973 to 15984 mm 19967 to 19980 mm 062886 to 062929 in078610 to 078661 inIdle gear bushing ID 16000 to 16018 mm 20000 to 20021 mm 062992 to 063063 in078740 to 078823 inCylinder LinerCylinder LinerID 64000 to 64019 mm 66000 to 66019 mm 251969 to 252043 iin 259843 to 259917 inOversize of cylinder liner 05 mm 05 mm 0020 in0020 inPistonPiston Ring Piston pin hole ID 18000 to 18011 mm 18000 to 18011 mm 079866 to 070910 in079866 to 070910 inCompression 0085 to 0112 mm 0085 to 0112 mm Piston ring ring 2 000335 to 000441 in 000335 to 000441 in clearance 002 to 006 mm 002 to 006 mm Oil Ring 00008 to 00024 inL0008 to 00024 inComprerssion 025 to 040 mm 025 to 040 mm Ring gap ring 12 00098 to 00157 in00098 to 00157 inOil ring 020 to 040 mm 020 to 040 mm 00079 to 00157 in00079 to 00157 inOversize of piston rings 05 mm 05 mm 0020 in0020 in22 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Model 25XP Model 35 Allowable Limit 005 mm 005 mm 00020 in00019 in06 to 08 mm 06 to 08 mm 00236 to 00315 in00236 to 00315 in115 to 130 mm 115 to 130 mm 00453 to 00512 in00453 to 00512 in105 to 115 mm 105 to 115 mm 00413 to 00453 in00413 to 00453 in02 mm 02 mm 00079 in00079 in300 MPa 309 MPa 237 kgfcm2 295 kgfcm2 427 psi315 kgfcm2 448 psi337 psi0145 to 0185 mm 0145 to 0185 mm 0006 to 0007 in0006 to 0007 in21 mm 212 mm 0083 in00835 in0785 rad 0785 rad 45260452600785 rad 0794 rad 4526045526009 to 11 mm 09 to 11 mm 13 mm 0035 to 0043 in0035 to 0043 in0051 in0035 to 0065 mm 0035 to 0065 mm 01 mm 00014 to 00026 in00014 to 00026 in0004 in6960 to 6975 6960 to 6975 mm 02740 to 02746 in0274 to 02746 in7010 to 7025 mm 7010 to 7025 mm 02759 to 02765 in02759 to 22765 in035 rad 20260035 rad 20260before TOe before TOe 079 rad 45260079 rad 45260after TOe after TOe 087 rad 50260087 rad 50260before TOe before TOe 026 rad 15260026 rad 15260after TOe after TOe 351 to 356 mm 351 to 356 mm 348 mm 1382 in to 1402 in1382 to 1402 in137 in13 mm 13 mm 0051 in0051 in74 N31 mm 74 N31 mm 63 N31 mm 75 Kgfcm2 75 Kgfcm2 64 Kgfcm2 165 Ibs 122 in165 Ibs 122 in141 Ibs 122 in21 ENGINE BODY Cylinder Head Item Cylinder head surface flatness Top clearance Free Gasket thickness Tightened Gasket shim thickness Compression pressure Variance among cylinders Valves IN EXValve clearance coldValve seat width Valve seat angle Valve face angle Valve recessing Clearance between valve stem and guide Valve stem 00 Valve guide 10 Valve Timing Inlet valve Open Close Open Exhaust valve Close Valve Spriings Free length Tilt Tension ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Model 18 05 mm 0002 in06 to 08 mm 00236 to 00315 in115 to 130 mm 00453 to 00512 in105 to 115 mm 00413 to 00453 in02 mm 00079 in300 MPa 295 kgfcm2 427 pSi0145 to 0185 mm 0006 to 0007 in21 mm 0083 in0785 rad 4502600785 rad 45026009 to 11 mm 0035 to 0043 in0035 to 0065 mm 00014 to 00026 in6960 to 6975 mm 0274 to 02746 in7010 to 7025 mm 02759 to 02765 in035 rad 20260before TOC 079 rad 45260after TOC 087 rad 50260before TOC 026 rad 15260after TOC 351 mm to 356 mm 1382 to 1402 in13 mm 0051 in74 N31 mm 75 kQf31mm 165 Ibsl122 in 20 Model 25 005 mm 00020 in06 to 08 mm 00236 to 00315 in115 to 130 mm 00453 to 00512 in 105 to 115 mm 00413 to 00453 in02 mm 00079 in300 MPa 295 kafcm2 427 psi0145 to 0185 mm 0006 to 0007 in21 mm 0083 in0785 rad 4502600785 rad 45026009 to 11 mm 0035 to 0043 in0035 to 0065 mm 00014 to 00026 in9960 to 6975 mm 0274 to 02746 in7010 to 7025 mm 02759 to 02765 in035 rad 20260before TOe 079 rad 45260after TOC 087 rad 50260before TOC 026 rad 15260after TDC 351 mm to 356 mm 1382 to 1402 in13 mm 0051 in74 N31 mm 75 kaf31 mm 165 Ibsl122 inENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Model 320 Model 430 Available Limit 003 mm 003 mm 005 mm 00012 in 00012 in00019 in060 to 080 mm 060 to 080 mm 00236 to 00315 in00236 to 00315 in115 to 130 mm 115 to 13 mm 00453 to 00512 in00453 to 00512 in105 to 115 mm 105 to 115 mm 00413 to 00453 in00413 to 00453 in309 MPa 309 MPa 237 kgfcm2 315 kgfcm2 448 psi 315 kgfcm2 448 psi337 psi10 015 to 018 mm 015 to 018 mm 0006 to 0007 in 0006 to 0007 in212 mm 212 mm 00835 in00835 in0785 rad 0785 rad 4504500785 rad 0785 rad to 095 mm 075 to 095 mm 12 mm 00295 to 00374 in00295 to 00374 in0047 in0030 to 0057 mm 0030 to 0057 mm 010 mm 000118 to 000224 in000118 to 000224 in00039 in5968 to 5980 mm 5968 to 598 mm 593 mm 023496 to 023543 in023496 to 023543 in02335 in6Q10 to 6025 mm 6010 to 6025 mm 023661 to 023721 in023661 to 023721 in035 rad 20260035 rad 20260before TOe before TOe 079 rad 45260079 rad 45260 after TOe after TOe 087 rad 50260087 rad 50260before TOe before TOe 026 rad 15260026 rad 15260after TOe after TOe 316 mm 316 mm 284 mm 1244 in1244 in1118 in12 mm 0047 in647 N27 mm 647 N27 mm 56 kgf27 mm 66 kgf27 mm 146 Ibsl1063 in66 kgf27 mm 146 Ibsl1063 in123 Ibsl1063 in19 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS ENGINE BODY Cylinder Head Item Model 12 Model 212 Cylinder head surface 003 mm 003 mm flatness 00012 in00012 inTop clearance 060 to 080 mm 060 to 080 mm 00236 to 0315 in00236 to 00315 inFree 115 to 130 mm 115 to 130 mm Gasket thickness 00453 to 00512 in00453 to 00512 in Tightened 105 to 115 mm 105 to 115 mm 00413 to 00453 in00413 to 00453 inGasket shim thickness Compression pressure 309 MPa 309 MPa 315 kgfcm2 448 psi315 kgfcm2 448 psiVariance among cylinders Valves IN EXValve clearance cold015 to 018 mm 015 to 018 mm 0006 to 0007 in0006 to 0007 inValve seat width 212 mm 212 mm 00835 in00835 inValve seat angle 0785 rad 0785 rad 45004500Valve face angle 0785 rad 0785 rad 45004500Valve recessing 075 to 095 mm 075 to 095 mm 00295 to 00374 in00295 to 00374 inClearance between valve 0030 to 0057 mm 0030 to 0057 mm stem and guide 000118 to 000224 in000118 to 000224 inValve stem 00 5968 to 5980 mm 5968 to 5980 mm 023496 to 023543 in023496 to 023543 inValve guide 10 6010 to 6025 mm 6010 to 6025 mm 023661 to 023721 in023661 to 023721 inValve Timing Open 035 rad 20260035 rad 20260Inlet valve before TOC before TOC Close 079 rad 45260079 rad 45260after TOC after TOC Open 087 rad 50260087 rad 50260Exhaust valve before TOC before TOC Close 026 rad 15260026 rad 15260after TOC after TOC Valve Springs Free length 316 mm 316 mm 1244 in1244 inTilt Tension 647 N27 mm 647 N27 mm 66 kgf27mm 146 Ibsl1063 in 66 kgf27 mm 146 Ibsl1063 in18 GLOW PLUGS SALT WATER TO EXHAUST CLEAN OUT COVERS TRANS DIP STICK OIL FILL HOLE SHIFT LEVER TRANSMISSION UNIVERSAL MODEL M35 OIL FILL CAP THERMOSTAT HOUSING BY267PASS HOSE FUEL FILTER AIR BLEED ON TOPFUEL AIR BLEED VALVE THROTTLE LOCK COOLANT DRAIN MOUNTS BELL HOUSING TEMP FW CIRCULATING PUMP SEA WATER255PUMP ALTERNATO OIL FILTER COOLANT FILL CAP OIL DRAIN HOSE OIL PAN 17 FUEL LINES REGULATOR EXHAUST FLANGE HEAT EXCHANGER ENGINE COUPLING TRANS DRAIN MODEL M35 Horsepower 30 3200 No of Cylinders 4 Bore x Stroke 296 x 276 Cubic Inch 755 Maximum RPM 3200 Cruising Range Approx21002600 RPM Compression Ratio 211 Electrical Equipment 12 Volt 51 Amp WIG low Plugs Lubrication Eng Approx ats45 to 50 SAE 30 HD CDor 10W40CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK Lubrication TransFILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK Type AFT l or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction Coolant FWC 5050 Solution ApproxExhaust Flange Fuel Type Fuel Filter Oil Filter Eng Operating Temp Degrees F Propeller Rotation Weight IbsInjection Nozzle 21 5 qts 1 Y4 NPT 2 Diesel PIN 298854 PIN 300209 165to 1950 Right Hand 3351bs PIN 299517 299518 Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 ats LUb Oil and 1 Gal 5050 Coolant All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice 16 FUEL FILTER AIR BLEED ON TOPSEA WATER TO EXHAUST TRANS DIP STICK OIL FILL HOLE TRANSMISSION ENGINE COUPLING TRANS DRAIN OPPOSITE SIDECOOLANT BLEED VALVE TEMP SENDER BYPASS HOSE FW SEA WATER PUMP ALTERN A UNIVERSAL MODEL M25XP OIL FILL CAP THERMOSTAT HSG AIR BREATHER FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE STOP LEVER THROTTLE DIP STICK COOLANT DRAIN MANIFOLD MANIFOLD DRAIN PANEL PWG HEAT EXCHANGER DRAIN ZINC MOUNTS STARTER SOLENOID STARTER 15 MODEL M25XP Horsepower 23 3200 No of Cylinders 3 Bore x Stroke 295 x 276 Cubic Inch 566 Maximum RPM 3200 Cruising Range Approx21002600 RPM Compression Ratio 211 Electrical Equipment 12 Volt 51 Amp WIG low Plugs Lubrication Eng Approx Ots40 to 43 SAE 30 HDCDor 10W40CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK Lubrication TransFILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK Type AFT A or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction Coolant FWC 5050 Solution ApproxExhaust Flange Fuel Type Fuel Filter Oil Filter Eng Operating Temp Degrees F Propeller Rotation Weight IbsInjection Nozzle 21 5 qts 1 Y4 NPT 2 Diesel PIN 298854 PIN 300209 Right Hand 2851bs PIN 299517 299518 Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 Ots Lub Oil and 1 Gal 5050 Coolant All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice 14 EXHAUST FLANGE GLOW PLUGS HEAT EX DRAIN ZIN CLEAN OUT COVERS TRANS DIP STICK OIL FILL HOLE TIMING PORT UNIVERSAL MODEL M25 FUEL LINES AIR BREATHER NJECTOR PUMP INJ PUMP BLEED THROTTLE STOP LEVER rrDIP STICK BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN BELL HOUSING OIL DRAIN HOSE COOLANT AIR BLEED TEMP SENDERFW CIRCULATING PUMP SEA WATER PUMP ALTERNATOR OIL FUEL FILTER AIR BLEED ON TOP OF FILTER13 MANIFOLD DRAIN HEAT EXCHANGER PANEL PLUG DRAIN ZINC STARTER SOLENOID TRANSMISSION TRANS DRAIN PLUG UNIVERSAL MODEL M25 Horsepower 21 3200 No of Cylinders 3 Bore x Stroke 283 x 276 Cubic Inch 52 Maximum RPM 3000 Cruising Range Approx21002600 RPM Compression Ratio 211 Electrical Equipment 12 Volt 51 Amp WIG low Plugs Lubrication Eng Approx ats40 SAE 30 HD CDor 10W40CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK Lubrication TransFILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK Type AFT Pi or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction Coolant FWC 5050 Solution ApproxExhaust Flange Fuel Type Fuel Filter Oil Filter Eng Operating Temp Degrees F Propeller Rotation Weight Ibs Injection Nozzle 21 5 qts 1 Y4 NPT 2 Diesel PIN 298854 PIN 300209 Right Hand 285IbsPIN 299517 299518 Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 ats Lub Oil and 1 Gal 5050 Coolant All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice 12 FUEL RETU FUEL FILTER BLEED ON TOPSEA WATER TO EXHAUST TRANSMISSION SHIFT LEVER COOLANT AIR BLEED TEMP SENDER BY267PASS HOSE SEA WATER PUMP ALTERNATOR V267BELT UNIVERSAL MODEL M18 OIL FILL CAP GLOW PLUGS THERMOSTAT HSG FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE P LEVER THROTTLE BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN TIMING PORT DECOMPRESSION LEVER OIL PAN EXHAUST FLANGE EXHAUST DRAIN HEAT EXCHANGER PANEL PLUG DRAIN ZINC TRANS DIP STICK OIL FILL HOLE oGINE COUPLING 11TRANS DRAIN OIL DRAIN HOSE 11 MODEL M18 Horsepower No of Cylinders Bore x Stroke Cubic Inch Maximum RPM Cruising Range Ratio Electrical Equipment Lubrication Eng Approx ats14 3200 2 260 x 245 35 3200 21002600 R P M 211 12 Volt 51 Amp WIG low Plugs 25 30 SAE 30 HD CDor 10W40CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK Lubrication TransFILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK Type AFT 1 or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction Coolant FWC 5050 Solution ApproxExhaust Flange Fuel Type Fuel Filter Oil Filter Eng Operating Temp Degrees F Propeller Rotation Weight IbsInjection Nozzle 21 30 qts 1 V4 NPT 2 Diesel PIN 298854 PIN 300209 Right Hand 2551bs PIN 299517 299518 Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 ats Lub Oil and 1 Gal 5050 Coolant All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice 10 UNIVERSAL MODEL M430 OIL FILL CAP GLOW PWGS FUEL LINES FUEL RETURN FUEL FILTER AIR BLEED ON TOPSEA WATER TO EXHAUST CLEAN OUT COVER TRANS DIP STICK OIL FILL HOLE TRANSMISSION ENGINE COUPLING TRANS N OPPOSITE SIDEFW CIRCULATING PUMP SEA WATER PUMP VBELT BELL HSG COOLANT FILL CAP THERMOSTAT HSG EL AIR BLEED VALVE STOP LEVER THROTTLE DIP STICK BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN HAUST FLANGE MANIFOLD DRAIN PANEL PWG HEAT EXCHANGER DRAIN ZINC FLEX MOUNTS STARTER SOLENOID STARTER 9 MODEL M430 Horsepower 25 3600 No of Cylinders 4 Bore x Stroke 260 x 245 Cubic Inch 519 Maximum RPM 3600 Cruising Range Approx2600 3300 Compression Ratio 231 Electrical Equip 12 Volt 51 Amp WIG low Plugs Lubrication Eng Approx ats4 SAE30 HD CDor 10W40CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK Lubrication TransFILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK 256 Type Aft 1 or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction 21 Coolant FWC 5050 Solution ApproxExhaust Flange Fuel Type Fuel Filter 011 Filter Engine Operating Temp Degrees F Propeller Rotation Weight IbsInjection Nozzles 312 ats 1 V4 NPT 2 Diesel PIN 298854 PIN 300209 Right Hand 270 PIN 302735 Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 ats Lube Oil 1 Gal 5050 Coolant All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice 8 UNIVERSAL MODEL M320 FUEL LINES FUEL RETURN FUEL FILTER AIR BLEED ON TO SEA WATER TO EXHAUST CLEAN OUT COVER TRANS DIP STICK OIL FILL HOLE TRANSMISSION ENGINE COUPLING TRANS DRAIN OIL FILL CAP GLOW PWGS THERMOSTAT HSG AIR BREATHER FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE DIP STICK CK COOLANT DRAIN OPPOSITE SIDEBELL HSG TIMING PORT COOLANT BLEED VALVE TEMP SENDER FW CIRCULATING PUMP SEA WATER PUMP VBELT OIL FILTER COOLANT FILL CAP MANIFOLD EXHAUST FLANGE MANIFOLD DRAIN PANEL PWG HEAT EXCHANGER DRAIN ZINC FLEX MOUNTS STARTER SOLENOID STARTER 7 MODEL M320 Horsepower No of Cylinders Bore x Stroke Cubic Inch Maximum RPM Cruising Range Ratio Electrical Equip Lubrication Eng Approx ats18 3600 3 260 x 245 389 3600 2600 3300 231 12 Volt 51 Amp WGlow Plugs 32 SAE 30 HD CDor 10W40CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK Lubrication TransFILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK 256 Type Aft A or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction 21 Coolant FWC SO50 Solution ApproxExhaust Flange Fuel Type Fuel Filter Oil Filter Engine Operating Temp Degrees F Propeller Rotation Weight IbsInjection Nozzles 3 ats 1 V4 NPT 2 Diesel PIN 298854 PIN 300209 Right Hand 2351bs PIN 302735 Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 ats Lube Oil 1 Gal SO50 Coolant All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice 6 UNIVERSAL MODEL M212 FUEL RETURN FUEL FILTER AIR BLEED ON TOPSEA WATER TO EXHAUST CLEAN OUT COVER TRANS DIP STICK 7 OIL FILL HOLE TRANSMISSION0 ENGINE COU TRANS DRAIN OPPOSITE SIDEBELL HSG COOLANT BLEED VALVE TEMP SENDER A8 FW CIRCULATING PUMP SEA WATER 255PUMP GLOW PWGS INJECTORS THERMOSTAT HSG R BREATHER FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE LEVER THROTTLE DIP STICK In COOLANT DRAIN TIMING PORT OIL DRAIN COOLANT FILL CAP MANIFOLD EXHAUST FLANGE HEAT EXCHANGER DRAIN ZINC PANEL PWG FLEX MOUNTS STARTER SOLENOID STARTER 5 AdobeUCSRight Hand UNIVERSAL MODEL M12 OIL FILL CAP GLOW PWGS RS FUEL RETURN FUEL FILTER AIR BLEED ON TOPSEA WATER TO EXHAUST CLEAN OUT COVER TRANS DIP STICK 70T OIL FILL HOLE ENGINE COUPLI TRANS DRAIN OPPOSITE SIDEBELL HSG COOLANT BLEED VALVE TEMP SENDER FW CIRCULATING 255PUMP SEA WATER267267 PUMP VBELT THERMOSTAT HSG AIR BREATHER FUEL AIR BLEED VALVE LEVER THROTTLE DIP STICK BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN TIMING PORT OIL DRAIN COOLANT FILL CAP EXHAUST FLANGE MANIFOLD DRAIN HEAT EXCHANGER DRAIN ZINC PANEL PWG FLEX MOUNTS STARTER 3 MODEL M12 Horsepower No of Cylinders Bore x Stroke Cubic Inch Maximum RPM Cruising Range Ratio Electrical Equipment Lubrication Eng Approx QtsModel 12 10 3600 2 252 x 245 in 25 3600 2600 3300 R P M 231 12 Volt 51 Amp WIG low Plugs 15 20 SAE 30 HD CDor 10W40CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK Lubrication TransFILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK Type AFT fl or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction Coolant FWC 5050 Solution ApproxExhaust Flange Fuel Type Fuel Filter Oil Filter Eng Operating Temp Degrees F Propeller Rotation Weight IbsInjection Nozzle 21 23 Qts 1 V4 NPT 2 Diesel PIN 298854 PIN 300209 Right Hand 1751bs PIN 301302 Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 Qt of Trans Oil 2 Qts Lub Oil and 1 Gal 5050 Coolant All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice 2 NOTES ii V MANUAL NO 189 LEADER IN MARINE POWER SlNCE 1898 SERVICE MANUAL MODELS M12 M2t2 M320 M430 M18 M25 M25XP M35 AdobeUCSMANUAL NO 189 LEADER IN MARINE POWER SlNCE 1898 SERVICE MANUAL MODELS M12 M2t2 M320 M430 M18 M25 M25XP M35 AdobeUCS
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The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerous of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.