Universal Diesel M 35b Technical Manual
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ivarsal 10151C101 28 29 63 64 23 24 AND METRIC CONVERSION DATA LENGTHDISTANCE Inches inx 254 Millimeters mmx 0394 Inches Feet ftx 305 Meters mx 3281 Feet Miles x 1609 Kilometers kmx 0621 Miles VOLUME Cubic Inches inlx 16387 Cubic x 061 inl Imperial Pints IMP ptx 568 Liters Lx 176 IMP pt Imperial Quarts IMP qtx 1137 Liters Lx88 IMP qt Imperial Gallons IMP galx 4546 Liters Lx 22 IMP gal Imperial Quarts IMP qtx 1201 US Quarts US qtx 833 IMP qt Imperial Gallons IMP galx 1201 US Gallons US galx 833 IMP gal Fluid Ounces x 29573 Milliliters x 034 Ounces US Pints US ptx 473 LitersL x 2113 Pints US Quarts US qtx 946 Liters Lx 1057 Quarts US Gallons US galx 3785 Liters Lx 264 Gallons MASSWEIGHT Ounces ozx 2835 Grams gx 035 Ounces Pounds I bx 454 Kilograms kgx 2205 Pounds PRESSURE Pounds Per Sq In psix 6895 Kilopascals kPax 145 psi Inches of Mercury Hgx 4912 psi x 2036 Hg Inches of Mercury Hgx 3377 Kilopascals kPax 2961 Hg Inches otWater H20x 07355 Inches of Mercury x 13783 H20 Inches of Water H20x 03613 psi x 27684 H20 Inches of Water H20x 248 Kilopascals kPax 4026 H20 TORQUE PoundsForce Inches inIbx 113 Newton Meters Nmx 885 inIb PoundsForce Feet ftIbx 1356 Newton Meters Nmx 738 ftIb VELOCITY Miles Per Hour MPHx 1609 Kilometers Per Hour KPHx 621 MPH POWER Horsepower Hpx 745 Kilowatts Kwx 134 MPH FUEL CONSUMPTION Miles Per Hour IMP MPGx 354 Kilometers Per Liter KmLKilometers Per Liter KmLx 2352 IMP MPG Miles Per Gallons US MPGx 425 Kilometers Per Liter KmLKilometers Per Liter KmLx 2352 US MPG TEMPERATURE Degree Fahrenheit OF OC X 18 32 Degree Celsius 0C OF 32x 56 107 AdobeUCSmm mm Meters Meters kg kg AdobeUCS9 1 8 NOTE Screws bolts and nuts must be tightened to the specified torque using a torque wrench Some screws bolts and nuts such as those used on the cylin255der head must be tightened in a certain sequence and at the proper torque Tightening Torques for Specific Engine Components For marked screws bolts and nuts in the table apply engine oil to their threads and seats before tightening COMPONENT Cylinder head cover cap nuts Cylinder head bolts Main bearing case bolts 1 Main bearing case bolts 2 Flywheel bolts Connecting rod bolts Rocker arm bracket nuts Idler gear shaft bolts Crankshaft end bolt Bearing case cover screws Glow plugs Nozzle holder assembly Oil switch taper screw Injection line retaining nuts Overflow line assembly retaining nuts Starters terminal B mounting nut Apply engine oil to threads and seats before tightening Tightening Torques for General Use Screws Bolts and Nuts SIZE x PITCH M7 x 10 Ml0 x 125 M8 x 125 M9 x 125 Ml0 x 125 M8 x 10 M7 x 10 M6 x 10 M14 xl5 M6 x 10 M8 x 10 M20 x 15 PT 18 M12 x 15 M12 x 15 M8 When the tightening torques are not specified tighten the screws bolts and nuts according to the following table ftIb kgm 51 65 07 09 470 506 65 70 217 253 30 35 362 398 50 55 398 434 55 60 304 340 42 47 159 195 22 27 72 83 100 115 1736 1808 240 250 72 83 100 115 58 108 08 15 362 506 50 70 108 145 15 20 181253 25 35 145 181 2025 65 87 09 12 Nm 69 88 637 686 294 343 490 539 539 588 412 461 216 265 98 113 2354 2452 98 113 78 147 490 686 147 196 245 343 196 245 88 118 STANDARD SCREW AND BOLT SPECIAL SCREW AND BOLT NOMINAL GRADE DIAMETER ftIb kgm M6 58 69 08 095 M8 130 152 18 21 Ml0 289 333 40 46 M12 463 535 64 74 Screw and bolt material grades are shown by numbers punched on the screw and bolt heads Prior to tightening be sure to check the numbers as shown below Punched Number Screw and Bolt Material Grade None or 4 Standard screw and bolt SS41 S20C 7 Special screw and bolt S43C S48C refinedNm 79 93 177 206 392 451 628 726 225225 Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 104 GRADE jftIb kgm Nm 723 832 10 115 98 113 174 203 24 28 235 275 354 412 49 57 481 559 571 665 79 92 775 902 D D TOOLS The special tools shown in this section are not provided Use the following plans and specifications for field fabrication Valve Guide Replacing Tool Application Use to press out and to press fit the valve guide A 079 in dia 20 mm diaB 0460 0468 in dia 117 119 mm diaC 0256 0259 in dia 65 66 mm dia0 886 in 225 mmE 276 in 70 mmF 177 in 45 mmG 098 in 25 mmH 0197 in 5 mmI 0263 0275 in dia 67 70 mm diaJ 0787 in dia 20 mm diaK 0492 0504 in dia 125 128 mm diaL 0350 0358 in 89 91 mmC1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mmC2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mmCO3 Chamfer 0012 in 03 mm0 I F 1 E 1 tr61 C2 C1 A B C G I I J I I n K WJ H t Bushing Replacing Tool Application Use to press out and to press fit the bushing FOR SMALL END BUSHING FOR IDLER GEAR BUSHING A 61811 in 157 mm77165 in 196 mmB 09449 in 24 mm10236 in 26 mmC 47244 in 120 mm59055 in 150 mm0 08583 08622 in 10157 10197 in 218 219 mm258 259 mmE 09764 09803 in dia 10157 10197 in dia 248 249 mm dia288 289 mm diaF 07874 in 20 mm07874 in 20 mma 250 liin 63 lim250 liin 63 limb 250 liin 63 lim250 liin 63 limo E F C2 a b Flywheel Stopper Application Use to loosen and tighten the flywheel screw A 787 in 200 mmB 118 in 30 mmC 079 in 20 mm0 059 in 15 mmE 059 in 15 mmF 031 in 8 mmG 039 in 10 mm0 3 E L i I I FII 1 A 102 AdobeUCSHURTH HBW TRANSMISSIONS OPERATING TEMPERATURE A WARNING If the transmission fluid temperature is too high stop the engine immediately and check the transmission fluid Normal operating temperature of the transmission fluid should be in the range of 50260Cto 212260F l00260CA maximum temperature of 266260F 130260Cmay be only reached for a short time Make certain there is enough space around the transmission to provide good ventilation and cooling TRANSMISSION COOLER Coolers are standard equipment for the HBW 100 125 150 150A 150V and the 250 no cooler is necessary for the HBW 35 and 50The cooler is a separate part of the transmission which prevents any possibility of coolant diluting the transmission fluid However the continued flow of coolant thru the cooler will in time erode the inside of the cooler causing external leaks A transmission cooler may last ten years or more but in some circumstances depending on operating hours tropical waters maintenance etc it might only last half that time UNIVERSAL recommends having a spare cooler aboard TRANSMISSION COOLER PERIODICALLY INSPECT FOR EROSION AND LEAKAGE MAINTENANCE Transmission maintenance is minimal Keep the exterior housing clean check the fluid level as part of your regular routine and change the fluid every 300 operating hours Periodically inspect the transmission and the cooler for leaks and corrosion Lubricate the cable connections LayupWinterize Storage requires special care Follow these procedures D Drain water from the transmission oil cooler and replace with a proper mixture of antifreeze coolant NOTE This operation will normally occur when the engine raw water cooling system is properly winterized D Clean up the transmission and touch up unpainted areas use heat resistant paintD Fill the transmission with Dextron III ATF fluid to pre255vent internal corrosion extended storage only twelve months or moreD Loosen attaching hardware from the transmission output flange and propeller shaft coupling flange before remov255ing the boat from the water Separate the flanges and spray with lubricant D Inspect the gear shift cable linkage and attachments Look for corrosion of the end fittings cracks or cuts in the conduit and bending of the actuator rods Lubricate all moving parts NOTE If the transmission is to be storedfor a long time twelve months or moreit should be topped off with fluid to prevent internal corrosion Reduce the fluid level before putting the engine back into service For additional information contact HURTH MARINE GEAR ZF Industries Marine US Headquarters 3131 SW 42nd Street Fort Lauderdale FL 33312 Tel 9545814040 Fax 9545814077 100 AdobeUCSHURTH HBW TRANSMISSIONS INITIAL OPERATION All HBW marine transmissions are testrun on a test stand with the engine at the factory prior to delivery For safety reasons the fluid is drained before shipment Fill the gearbox with Automatic Transmission Fluid DEXTRON IIIThe fluid level should be up to the index mark on the dipstick To check the fluid level just insert the dipstick do not screw it in Screw the dipstick into the case after the fluid level is checked and tighten Do not forget the sealing ring under the hexhead of the dipstick Check for leaks and make a visual inspection of the coupling oil cooler and hoses and shift cables DIPSTICK FLUID CHANGE CHECKING FLUID FLUID LEVEL TRANSMISSION OPERATING Change the fluid for the fIrst time after about 25 hours of operation then every 250 operating hours or at least once a year or when you change engine oil Removing the fluid Push a suction pump hose down through the dipstick hole to the bottom of the housing and suck out the fluid If space allows use the transmission drain Remove the drain plug from the bottom of the transmission and allow the fluid to drain into a container then reinstall the plug with its sealing washer Wipe down the transmission and properly dispose of the used fluid After running the engine shut down and recheck the fluid level DRAIN PLUG TORQUE 20 25 fUlbs NOTE When changing the fluid take care not to lose the drain plug sealing washer The drain plug will leak without this sealing washer A WARNING Never pull out the dipstick while the engine is running Hot fluid will splash from the dipstick hole This could cause severe bums LOCKING THE PROPELLER Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not required use the gear shift lever position opposite your direc255tion of travel for this purpose Never put the gear shift in the position corresponding to the direction of travel of the boat WHEN UNDER SAIL OR BEING TOWED Rotation of the propeller without load such as when the boat is being sailed being towed or anchored in a river as well as operation of the engine with the propeller stopped for charging the batterywill have no detrimental effects on the transmission DAILY OPERATION D Check the transmission fluid D Visually check the gear shift linkage and transmission D Start the engine in neutral allowing a few minutes at idle to warm the fluid D Shift into gear NOTE Too Iowan idle speed will produce a chattering noise from the transmission gear and damper plate In such cases the idle speed should be increased For additional information refer to the following text in this Transmission Section SHAFT COUPLINGS MAINTE255NANCE AND TRANSMISSION 99 HBW TRANSMISSIONS SPECIFICATIONS General Hurth Standard helical gears with a multiple disc clutch Gear ratio forward HBWSO 20S1 standard 1791 HBW1S0 1881 LUbricating Fluid Transmission Sump Capacity Propeller ShaH Direction of Rotation ATF type A or Dextran I or 11 HBWSO 037 qt 035 literHBW100 037 qt 03SliterHBW1S0 0S8 qt 0S6IiterRight hand standard transmission HURTH HBW TRANSMISSIONS DESCRIPTION The infonnation below is specific to the HBW Transmissions the TRANSMISSION SECTION applies to all models HURTH HBW 150 A CAUTION The position of the mechanism behind the actuating lever is to ensure equal shift lever travel from neutral position A and B If this mechanism is in any way tampered with the transmission warranty will be void SHAFT COUPLINGS UNIVERSAL recommends a flexible connection between the transmission and the propeller shaft if the engine is flexi255bly mounted in order to compensate for angular deflections The installation of a special propeller thrust bearing is not required since the propeller thrust will be absorbed by the transmission bearing provided the value specified under SPECIFICATIONS is not exceeded However the output shaft should be protected from additional loads Special care should be taken to prevent torsional vibration When using a universal joint shaft make certain to observe the manufacturers instructions Even with the engine solidly mounted the use of flexible coupling or DRIVESAVER will reduce stress in the gear255box bearings caused by hull distortions especially in wooden boats or where the distance between transmission output flange and stem gland is less than about 800mm Drivesaver is a product of Globe Marine Rockland MA 98 NOTE When installing the transmission make certain that shifting is not impeded by restricted movability of the cable or rod linkage by unsuitably positioned guide sheaves too small a bending radius or other restrictions In order to mount a support for shift control cable connections use the two threaded holes located above the cable bracket mounted on the gear housing Refer to the UNIVERSAL parts list SHIFT LEVER The transmission is suitable for single lever remote control Upon loosening the retaining screw the actuating lever can be moved to any position required for the control elements cable or rod linkageMake certain that the shift lever does not contact the actuating lever cover plate the minimum distance between lever and cover should be O5mm The control cable or rod should be arranged at right angle to the actuating shift lever when in the neutral position The neutral position of the operating lever on the control console should coincide with the neutral position of this lever The shifting travel as measured at the pivot point of the actu255ating lever between the neutral position and end positions A and B should be at least 35mm for the outer and 30mm for the inner pivot point A greater amount of shift lever travel is in no way detrimental and is recommended However if the lever travel is shorter proper clutch engagement might be impeded which in turn would mean premature wear excessive heat generation and clutch plate failure This would be indicated by slow clutch engagement or no engagement at all NOTE Check for proper lever travel at least each season NEUTRAL SHIFT LEVER OSmm COVER MINIMUM DISTANCE 12 VDC DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM WIRING SCHEMATIC 200360 CATALINA YACHTS STARTER SOLENOID rl STARTER I I I I I I PREHEAT SOLENOID rl GLOWPLUGS I I I u si l w Crh a1i I C I I fr 0J U u o L J RES I STOR IK IIZW AL TERNATOR OUTPUT Ju LIFT PUMP P WATER TEMP SaER 0 WATER TEMP SWITCH rj 1 o THE B TO THE TO THE S TO THE I TO THE TO THE P TO THES TO THES TO THE c TO THE T AeH GROUNO LTERM OF START TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN Of TERN OF TERN OF KEYSWITCH SWITCH KEYSITCH KEYSTCH THE lARN THE AlARN THE TACH WT GUAGE THE ALARH BUZZER BUZZER BUZZER j Univarsal 243 2 fjtatiW3i97 AdobeUCS4 9 AdobeUCSrif 206 D iwwfNBWtONLY o ALARM ap L I SENDER TACHOMETER GNO I 0 ORN 14 PUR 14 GRA ADMIRAL 256MITSUBISHI 50 AMP AlT PANEL CAPTAIN PANEL 51 liMP lIL TERNAIOB STANDARD AL HRNATOR ON THE 63a Ill 63e Ill 71a IT a2B IT 1086 2J IOBC n Unlvanal MARINE POWER 95 CTAP fl BRN NOTE WIRE FOR BATTERY ATTACHMENT WilL NEED TO BE UPGRADEO TO N 8 GAUGE FROio 10 GAUGE 256 90 AMP All 1114 l T BLU II J 0 RED o PRESTOL I TE 72 AMP All 14 BRN I 4 GRA w I 4 PINK t I 4 L AdobeUCS1 1 1 I I 1 I 1 BATTERY PI DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAM 39144 19 110 BlU 14 T BlU ALAR aUZZER I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 1 1 I 1 10 REO I ADMIRAL PANEL 1 PI 1 0 1 1 I 1 I TEST SWITCtt 1 I START 1 SWITCH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 KEYSWlTCH 1 I I I ISlIlI 1 1 118 Bll 1 118 BLII ALT LA OP LAMP CAPTAIN PANEL 1 i 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 94 These diagrams illustrate the 12 volt negative ground electrical circuit The two optional instrument panels the CAPTAIN PANEL and the ADMIRAL PANEL are diagramed below When an ADMIRAL PANEL is installed two additional instrument senders are assembled to the engine to provide data for the panel gauges refer to the belowREMOVE THE PLUG AND INSTALL THE OIL PRESSURE SENDER NOTE An onoff switch should be installed in this circuit to disconnect the starter from the battery in an emergency and when leaving the boat Twelve volt diesel engine starters typically draw 200 to 300 amps when cranking A switch with a continuous rating of 175 amps at 12 VDC will normally serve this function but a switch must never be used to make the starter circuit AdobeUCSPRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE The carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must be capable of handling the alternators rated output at rated rpm A CAUTION Make sure the connections are well secured and tight to avoid possible damage to the instruments alternator or wiring due to short circuits Starting with the carbon pile off slowly increase the load while observing the ammeter and maintaining 5000 rpm Increase the load until a minimum output voltage of approximately 137 volts is obtained Record the output current at this point and refer to the chart for minimum acceptable ratings MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT VALUES AT 70260 80260F 21 260 27260 CRATING OUTPUT 51 AMP 46AMP 93 RED INTEGRAL REGULAmR EXCITE TOIGN SW OR OIL PRESS SWPOS OUTPUT REMOTE BAn SENSE ONLY 0 AC TAP TACHTYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TEST PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE 4 Assemble the rotor and front housing Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press using two steel blocks for support as shown in the illustration Place the front housing over the shaft Using a driver sleeve that contacts the inner bearing race only press the front housing down until the inner bearing race contacts the shoulder on the shaft A CAUTION Be sure the rotor leads clear the blocks PRESS FRONT HOUSING ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO ROTOR 5 Assemble the spacer fan and pulley Place the pulley spacer over the shaft Install the woodruff key Install the fan Install the pulley lock washer and nut Mount the pulley as shown in the and tighten to 3550 ftlbs 475678 NmSpin the rotor by hand to test the freedom of the bearing 6 Assemble the front and rear housings Place the stator into the front housing with the stator leads at the top and the notches in the laminations aligned with the bolt holes Position the rear housing over the slip rings with the housing bolt holes aligned and the stator leads extending through the openings at the top of the rear housing Install the throughbolts and tighten them evenly to 5060 inlbs 5768 NmSpin the rotor by hand to test the freedom of the bearings NOTE New front housings contain throughbolt holes that are not tapped Therefore a socket wrench rather that a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient torque to drive the thread forming throughbolts 7 Install the diode rectifier bridge and diode trio Insert the B strap through the slot in the diode trio body Bend the strap over the B terminal and secure it with a cone locknut Apply a thin film of heat sink compound to the back of the diode rectifier bridge and to the mating area on the rear housing Install the assembly to the rear housing four screwsPlace the strap AC tapin position and connect the stator leads three screwsInstall the capacitor where applicable8 Install the integral regulator Install the brush mounting screws twothough the openings in the regulator body Secure the regulator to the rear housing two screws9 Install the brush assembly 92 Insert the brush holder into the grooves in the hub of the rear housing Place the D strap or male terminal where applicableon the stud and secure the brush holder with locknuts two placesSecure the other end of the D strap 10 Install the rear cover Be sure the felt gasket is in place see the rear cover on the rear housing and secure it with two screws INSTALLING REAR COVER ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS FELT GASKET The following tests will determine the current producing capability of the repaired alternator Mount the alternator in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator rpm Select the required battery voltage and circuit polarity Turn the drive motor on and adjust to obtain 5000 alterna255tor rpm Slowly reduce the field rheostat resistance the alternator should develop a charge Continue to reduce resistance until the alternator reaches its rated current out255put in amperes CAUTION Limit the output voltage to 15V maximum DO NOT operate the alternator for more than a few minutes in this manner due to the lack of volt255age control If the alternator will deliver its rated output end the test Connect the fixture leads and instruments to the alternator terminals as shown in the following PERFORMANCE TEST diagram reassembly requirements on a AdobeUCSPRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE 14 Inspect the front housing Check the housing for cracks Check the condition of the threads in the adjusting ear Check the bore in the mounting foot Discard the housing if the bore shows signs of elongation oval or Rotor inspection electrical testing Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical properties see illustrationA Current draw or resistance of the winding A CAUTION Turn off the DC power source before removing the test leads to avoid ave dam255age to the slip ring surfaces 1 Current Draw in amperes at 7026080260F 2126027260C12 Volt Models Correct Current Draw Rated At 15DV 51 Amperes 3236 Amperes 2 Resistance of winding in Ohms at 7026080260F 2126027260C12 Volt Models Correct Winding Rated At 51 Amperes TEST CURRENT Resistance 4147 Ohm POLE FINGERS BEARING AREA I KEY SLOT SHAFT THREADS DRAW OR RESISTANCE BEWEEN RINGS NOTE PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING ARCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING B Grounded slip ring or winding Use a 12 volt DC test lamp ohmmeter or 110V AC test lamp Place one test lead to the rotor body and the other on either slip ring An open circuit from either slip ring to the rotor body is a correct condition C Condition of the slip rings 1 Clean the brush contacting surfaces with a fine crocus cloth wipe the dust and residue away 2 If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration replace the entire rotor assembly 90 D Rotor shaft and pole pieces 1 Stripped threads on shaft 2 Worn key slot 3 Worn bearing surface 4 Scuffed pole fingers 5 Worn or dry rear bearing Replace the rotor assembly if any of the above faults are noted with the exception of item D 5 NOTE New rotors include a new rear bearing and new slip rings as part of the assembly If the rear bearing requires replacement follow the instructions for this operation 16 Remove the slip rings from the rotor assembly Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil leads from the slip ring terminals as shown in the illustration REMOVE ALL RESIDUE FROM BETWEEN SLIP RINGS UNSOLDER CAUTION DO NOT OVERHEAT UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS Straighten the rotor leads Insert a No 10 xl cap screw into the opening at the center of the slip ring assembly Position the bearing puller as shown in the illustration and pull the slip ring assembly off the rotor shaft A CAUTION When holding the rear end of the rotor shaft in a vise be sure not to grip the bear255ing area of the rotor shaft STRAIGHTEN ROTOR LEADS NO 10 X 1 CAP SCREW REMOVING SUP RING ASSY AdobeUCSare removed placed on be reused PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE 2 Remove the brush holder Remove the two locknuts securing the brush holder Pull out the brush holder see BRUSH HOLDER 3 Inspect and test the brush assembly BRUSH OLDER MOUNTING LOCKNUTS 2The illustration below shows the terminals brush arrangement and testing procedure The original brush set may be reused if the brushes are 316 in 5 mmor longer and if the brushes are not oil soaked cracked or show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes caused by vibration TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER BRUSH TEST I TEST CONTINUITY FROM A TO B FROM C TO D NO CIRCUIT FROM A OR B TO C OR D 4 Remove the integral voltage regulator Remove the two screws securing the integral voltage regulator to the rear housing REGULATOR MOUNTING SCREWS 2REMOVING VOLTAGE REGULATOR 5 Remove the diodetrio field diodeand rectifier diode bridge The diodetrio and rectifier diode bridge are detached as an assembly Remove the cone lockout from the positive output Bterminal Straighten the B strap Remove the three terminal screws and the four diode255trio mounting screws Detach the assembly from the rear housing and separate the diodetrio assembly from the rectifier bridge see BRIDGE REMOVING DIODETRIO AND RECTIFIER DIODE BRIDGE CONE LOCKNUT AND B STRAP t AUnlVQrsal 243 S AdobeUCS 3 B ALTERNATOR SERVICE The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to provide a slightly higher voltage at low temperatures and a lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide for the charging requirements of the battery under these conditions TESTING PROCEDURE Iii w ffi 80 a 5 60 IZ W a a 40 J U Iir 20 I255J o V i INTEGRAL REGULATOR 12 VOLT 51 AMP W l 3 12 a 2 0 a w s 1 0 a w Cfa o 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 750F 2380CSAE TEST METHOD AC TAP BACK TACHCOVER 0INDICATOR LIGHT TERM GROUND INTEGRAL REGULATOR ACTAP TACHGROUND INTEGRAL REGULATOR EXCITE BACK COVER ALTERNATOR SENSE SENSE TO BATT REMOTE BATTERY SENSE GUIDE ALTERNATOR TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION A Battery undercharged 1 Defective cables dirty battery 1 Check clean repair or replace Ammeter if usedindicates posts corroded terminals etc as needed constant discharge 2 Loose or broken belt 2 Check belt Indicator lamp remains on 3 Worn or broken brushes 3 Replace brush assembly 4 Defective alternator system 4 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM section B Battery undercharged 1 Indicator lamp burned out or 1 Check bulb and harness Indicator lamp off with key defective wire harness on and engine stopped 2 Broken brush 2 Replace brush assembly Normal condition is lamp on3 Defective alternator system 3 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM section c Battery overcharges 1 Defective wire harness 1 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM Excessive use of water 2 Defective alternator system 2 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM Ammeter if usedshows constant 3 Poor ground 3 Check ground excessive charge 4 Broken sense lead remote battery 4 Check clean repair or replace as Voltmeter indicates greater than sense onlyneeded 145 volts connected across battery with no loadwith engine idling D Battery charges at idle but discharges 1 Slipping belt 1 Check belt and adjust tension or under load conditions 2 Alternator defective replace as necessary 2 Disassemble check diodes E Indicator lamp glows slightly under 1 Defective diodetrio 1 Remove and replace moderate load battery appears charged 84 ALTERNATOR SERVICE 6 The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator should be between 135 and 145 volts If your alterna255tor is overor undercharging have it repaired at a reli255able service shop NOTE Before removing the alternator for repair use your voltmeter to ensure that 12 volts DC excitation is present at the R terminal if the previous test showed only battery volt255age at the B output terminal ALTERNATOR DESCRIPTION The stator is connected to a threephase fullwave bridge rectifier package which contains six diodes The bridge converts the AC generated in the stator to a DC output for battery charging and accessories such as radio heater lights refrigerator depth sounder etc See the illustrations below Power to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator alternator is provided by the field diode or diode triopack255age contained in the alternator The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 amperes Rated output is achieved at approximately 6000 alternator rpm at an ambient temperature of 75260F 238260CThe alter255nator is designed to operate in an ambient temperature range of 40260 to 212260F 40260 to 100260CTo ensure proper cooling of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alterna255tor it must be used with the proper cooling fan EXCITE REGULATOR ICID B GROUND AC TAP TACHALTERNATOR SENSE INTEGRAL REGSENSE EXCITE REGULATOR ICID B GROUND AC TAP TACHBATTERY SENSE INTEGRAL REG83 14 GRAY 1 14 PINKBLUE 14 BROWN iBEi14 RED 14 PINKBLUE VOLTAGE REGULATOR 14 BROWN TYPICAL UNIVERSAL 51 AMP ALTERNATOR CONNECTIONS 10 RED 14 PINKBLUE 14 BROWN OPTIONAL 72 AMP ALTERNATOR CONNECTIONS The integral voltage regulator is an electronic switching device which senses the system voltage level and switches the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain a proper system voltage The regulator design utilizes allsilicon semi conductors and thickfilm assembly techniques After the voltage has been adjusted to the proper regulating value the entire circuit is encapsulated to protect the circuit and the components from possible damage due to handling or vibration and moisture encountered in a vessel ALTERNATOR SERVICE GENERAL The charging system consists of an alternator with a mount255ed voltage regulator an engine DC wiring harness a mount255ed DC circuit breaker and a battery and connection wires Because of the use of integrated circuits ICsthe electronic voltage regulator is very compact and is mounted internally or on the back of the alternator It is desirable to test the charging system alternator and voltage regulatorin the boat using the wiring harness and electrical loads that are a permanent part of the system In255boat testing will then provide the technician with an opera255tional test of the charging system as well as the major com255ponents of the electrical system PRELIMINARY CHECKS AND TESTS Before starting the actual alternator and voltage regulator test procedures the charging system batteries and wiring should be checked to eliminate possible problem areas The following checks are recommended A WARNING A failed alternator can become very hot Do not touch until the alternator has cooled down 1 Make certain your alternator is securely mounted 2 Check the drive belt for proper tension Replace the belt if it is worn or glazed 3 Check that all terminals connectors and plugs are clean and tight Loose or corroded connections cause high resistance and this could cause overcharging or damage to the charging system Badly cor255roded battery cables could prevent the battery from reaching a fully charged condition 4 Check the condition of the battery and change if neces255sary A low or discharged battery may cause false or misleading readings on the invessel tests NOTE An isolator with a diode a solenoid or a bat255tery selector switch is usually mounted in the circuit to isolate the batteries so the starting battery is not dis255charged along with the house batteries If the isolator is charging the starting battery but not the house bat255tery the alternator is OK and the problem is in the battery charging circuit A WARNING Shut off the engine battery switch Dr disconnect from the battery when working on the engine electrical system Test Equipment Requirements The alternator and regulator tests described in this section require electrical test equipment to measure voltage only however most commercial test equipment incorporates several testing devices in a single unit The following test equipment will be necessary DC VOLTMETER 020 volt scale HYDROMETER Any commercial type having a temperature correction scale Storage Battery The starting battery circuit supplies a continuous although variable electrical load to the alternator If the circuit positive or negative is opened or broken while the alterna255tor is charging the loss of the battery will result in the charging voltage rising to unsafe levels Battery Inspection The following table illustrates typical ranges of specific gravity for a cell in various states of charge The battery must be at least 75 of full charge for effective alternator testing 1260 SPECIFIC 1280 SPECIFIC CHARGE GRAVITY BATTERY GRAVITY BATTERY STATE 1260 Specific Gravity 1280 Specific Gravity 100 Charged 1230 Specific Gravity 1250 Specific Gravity 75 Charged 1200 Specific Gravity 1220 Specific Gravity 50 Charged 1170 Specific Gravity 1190 Specific Gravity 25 Charged 1140 Specific Gravity 1160 Specific Gravity Very Low Capacity 111 0 Specific Gravity 1130 Specific Gravity Discharged After completing these preliminary checks and tests pro255ceed with the tests as outlined in the GUIDE Checking for Proper Voltage If you suspect the alternator has failed perform the follow255ing tests with the engine off 1 Using a voltmeter connect the voltmeter red wire clip to the output terminal B 2 Connect the voltmeter negative wire to any ground on the engine 3 Check the battery voltage It should read 12 to 13 volts 4 Check the voltage between the alternator positive terminal B and any engine ground If the circuit is good the voltage at the alternator should be the same as the battery unless theres an isolator in the circuit then the reading would be zeroA CAUTION To avoid damage to the battery charg255ing circuit never shut off the engine battery switch when the engine is running A WARNING Before starting the engine make cer255tain that everyone is clear of moving parts Keep away from sheaves and belts during test procedures 5 Start the engine UnlVQrsal 2 2 Mt1JjVb3i82 tighten the AdobeUCSMANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE SLEEVE DRIVER INSTALLING FRONT HOUSING ON ROTOR ASSEMBLY 4 Install the rectifier assembly into the rear housing 5 Insert the Phillips screw and tighten it see RECTIFIER ASSEMBLY 6 Assemble the front and rear housings as follows a Put the stator winding in the front housing with the stator leads away from the front housing and the notches in the stator laminations aligned with the four throughbolt holes in the housing b Align the scribe marks you made In the stator and front and rear housings during disassembly c Slip the rear housing into place over the rotor shaft Align the mounting holes and put the stator leads through the holes at the top of the rear housing d Install the four bolts and tighten them see ltheront housing is new the throughbolt will not be tapped STATOR WINDING ASSEMBLING HOUSINGS 7 Install the spacer and the fan Then push the pulley lockwasher and nut onto the shaft Turn the nut a few turns FAN NUT PULLEY AND FAN COMPONENTS 80 insure that MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE h Reverse the tester leads and repeat the resistance checks c A very low resistance should be indicated in one direction and a very high resistance should be indi255cated in the other direction if the diodes are normal d If any diode appears to be defective replace the complete assembly Do not attempt to replace an individual diode 3 Test the dioderectifier bridge as follows a Using a commercial diode tester check for continu255ity from each of three terminals to the output termi255nal see TERMINAL BRIDGE RECTIFIER DIODES h Reverse the tester leads and repeat Step a c Continuity should exist in only one direction and all diodes should check alike d Perform the same continuity checks between the three terminals and strap ground terminal This should show continuity in only one direction through the diodes and all diodes should check alike e If any diode appears to be defective replace the rectifier assembly 4 Clean and inspect the front and rear housings a Inspect the rear housing for cracks or breaks in the casting stripped threads or a damaged bearing bore Replace the housing if any of these conditions exist h Inspect the front housing for cracks stripped or damaged threads in the adjusting ear or an outof255round bore in the mounting foot If possible correct slightly damaged threads using a tap Replace the housing if necessary c If the housings are to be reused clean them in solvent and dry with compressed air 5 Clean and inspect the rotor shaft bearings NOTE Do not use a solvent on the rear rotor bearing since it is serviced as a unit with the rotor a The bearings should be wiped clean with a lintfree cloth containing a moderate amount of commercial solvent Do not immerse a bearing in solvent or use pressurized solvent or air h Check the bearings for obvious damage looseness or rough rotation Replace a bearing if any doubt exists as to its condition 78 NOTE If the rear rotor bearing needs replacement replace the entire rotor 6 Inspect the belt pulley for rough or badly worn belt grooves or keyway and for cracks or breaks Remove minor burrs and correct minor surface damage replace a badly worn or damaged pulley ALTERNATOR BEARINGS 7 Test the stator windings as follows a Using an ohmmeter or test lamp check for continu255ity between all three leads 1 2 and 3A low ohm reading or lit test lamp should be observed see STATOR WINDINGS LAMINATIONS h Check the resistance from each lead 1 2 and 3to the laminations 4There should be no continuity if the insulation is good MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE HOUSING AND STATOR REMOVAL 14 Carefully push the rotor assembly out of the front housing and rear housing see REMOVAL NOTE If the bearing is removed from the housing a new bearing must be installed 15 After removing the three bearing locking screws care255fully press the front bearing out of the housing Press against the inner race of the bearing see BEARING FRONT HOUSING FRONT HOUSING BEARING REMOVAL BEARING LOCKING SCREWS 16 Remove the rectifier assembly by removing the Phillips screw and lifting out the assembly RECTIFIER REMOVAL CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS 1 Inspect and test the brushregulator assembly The brush set may be reused if the brushes are 114 in 6 mmor longer The brushes must not be oil soaked cracked or grooved Test for continuity between 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 using a test lamp or an ohmmeter These checks will indicate a good brushregulator assembly replace the complete assembly if necessary see BRUSHI REGULATOR ASSEMBLY TESTING BRUSHREGULATOR ASSEMBLY 225 2 Inspect and test the diodetrio assembly a Using a commercial diode tester a 12volt DC test lamp or an ohmmeter check the resistance between each of the three diode terminals and the indicator light stud see ASSEMBLY INDICATOR LIGHT STUD Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 77 the Phillips terminal insulators nut lockwasher tor ground AdobeUCSMANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE TEST ALTERNATOR CURRENT OUTPUT Perform this test to check if the alternator is capable of producing the rated current output using a 0 55 amp DC ammeter 1 Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery 2 Disconnect the output lead from the terminal and connect the ammeter in series between the lead and the output terminal Connect the positive side of the ammeter toward the output terminal 3 Reconnect the negative battery cable 4 Diesel Operate the engine stop lever Perform this so the engine can be cranked with the starter motor and not start Tum on all accessories and crank the engine over with the starter motor for 15 20 seconds 5 Tum off the accessories Return the stop lever to the run position Start the engine and adjust the engine speed to 1500 2000 rpm Quickly observe the ammeter The reading should be at least 30 amps see r MODE ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 1 6 If the reading is low stop the engine and connect a jumper lead between the terminal and the indicator light terminal Repeat Steps 4 and 5 see illustration74 7 If the reading is now within the specifications the diode trio is faulty Disassemble the alternator and replace the diode trio as explained in this section S If the reading is still low with the jumper lead connect255ed perform the Voltage Regulator Test to determine if the fault is in the regulator or the alternator ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 2 TEST VOLTAGE REGULATOR Perform this test to determine if the voltage regulator is operating correctly using a 0 20 volt DC voltmeter NOTE The battery must be fully charged 1265 or above specific gravity to obtain a proper voltage reading in this test 1f necessary charge the battery with a battery charger or allow the engine to run a sufficient length of time to fully charge the battery before taking a reading 1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the positive battery terminal and the negative voltmeter lead to the negative terminal see ALTERNATOR SERVICE TEST OUTPUT CIRCUIT 1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the alternator output terminal and the negative lead to the ground ter255minal on the alternator see illustration2 Wiggle the engine wiring harness while observing the voltmeter The meter should indicate the approximate battery voltage and should not vary If no reading is obtained or if the reading varies check the circuit for loose or dirty connections or damaged wiring TESTING ALTERNATOR IUTPUT CIRCUIT TEST EXCITATION CIRCUIT 1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the excitation terminal on the alternator and the negative lead to the ground terminal on the alternator TESTING EXCITER CIRCUIT 2 Tum the ignition switch to the on position and note the voltmeter reading The reading should be 13 to 25 volts see illustration3 If the reading is between 75 and 11 volts the rotor field circuit probably is shorted or grounded Disas255semble the alternator and test the rotor as described under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPO255NENTS in this section 4 If the reading is between 60 and 70 volts the rotor field circuit probably is open Remove the regulator and inspect it for worn brushes or dirty slip rings Replace the brushes if they are less than 114 in 6 mmlong If the brushes and slip rings are in good condi255tion disassemble the alternator and test the rotor as outlined under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS in this section 5 If no reading is obtained an open exists in the lead or in the excitation circuit of the regulator Disconnect the lead from the regulator Connect the positive voltmeter lead to this lead and the negative voltmeter lead to ground If the voltmeter now indicates an approximate battery voltage the voltage regulator is defective and must be replaced If no voltage is indicated check the excitation circuit for loose or dirty connections or damaged wiring see WIRE DISCONNECTED TESTING EXCITER LEAD 73 MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE PRECAUTIONS FOR TESTING ALTERNATOR MANDD ALTERNATOR A WARNING Be sure that the engine compartment is well ventilated and that there is no gasoline vapor present This is to prevent the possibility of an explo255sion andor fire should a spark occur A WARNING Keep fingers and clothing away from the alternator belt and pulley severe bodily harm can occur A CAUTION 1 00 not attempt to polarize the alternator 2 00 not short across or ground any of the terminals on the alternator except as specifically instructed in the tests 3 Never disconnect the lead or battery cables when the alternator is being driven by the engine 4 Never disconnect the regulator lead from the terminal when the alternator is being driven by the engine 5 Always remove the negative battery cable from the battery before working on the alternator system 6 When installing the battery be sure to connect the negative cable to the negative battery terminal and the positive battery cable to the positive battery terminal 7 If a charger or booster battery is to be used be sure to connect it in parallel with the existing battery positive to positive negative to negative72 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS Fastener Ibft Ibin Location Nm Nm Alternator front 25 35 Ibin housing screws 28 40 NmAlternator end 35 65 Ibin frame screws 40 73 NmAlternator 35 50 Ibft pulley nut 47 68 NmRegulator 25 45 Ibin mounting screws 28 51 NmPREPARING TO CHECK ALTERNATOR Before starting the alternator tests check these items 1 If the problem is an undercharged battery check to ensure that the undercharged condition has not been caused by an excessive accessory current draw or by accessories which have accidentally been left on Also check that the undercharged condition has not been caused by running the engine at too low a speed for extended periods of time 2 Check the physical condition and the state of charge of the battery The battery must be fully charged to obtain valid results in the following tests If not charge the battery before testing the system 3 Inspect the entire alternator system wiring for defects Check all connections for tightness and cleanliness the battery cable clamps and battery terminals ALTERNATOR WIRING CONNECTIONS 4 Check the alternator drive belt for excessive wear cracks fraying and glazed surfaces and replace it if necessary Also check the drive belt tension and adjust it if necessary see DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE SERVICE Armature Bearing 1 Check the bearing for smooth rotation 2 If it does not rotate smoothly replace it Overrunning Clutch 1 Inspect the pinion for wear or damage 2 If there is any defect replace the overrunning clutch assembly 3 Check that the pinion turns freely and smoothly in the overrunning direction and does not slip in the cranking direction 4 If the pinion slips or does not turn in both directions replace the overrunning clutch assembly Magnet Switch 1 Check the continuity across terminal C and terminal B with an ohmmeter while pushing the plunger 2 If it does not conduct check the contacts 71 ture coil and ball blade and AdobeUCSa 6 AdobeUCS9 ground side 6 8 CONTROL PANEL CAPTAIN PANEL This control panel is equipped with a Key Switch an RPM gauge PREHEAT and START buttons an INSTRUMENT TEST button and three indicator lamps one for ALTERNATOR DISCHARGE one for low OIL PRES255SURE RPM GAUGE REGISTERS REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE OF THE ENGINE AND CAN BE RECALIBRATED FOR ACCURACY FROM THE REAR OF THE PANEL WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM LIGHT START BunON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE THIS BUTTON WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE PREHEAT BUTTON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME TIME and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE It also includes an alarm buzzer for low OIL PRESSURE or high WATER TEMPERATURE The RPM gauge is illumi255nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains illumi255nated while the engine is in operation ALARM THE ALARM WILL SOUND IFTHE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE FALLS BELOW 5 10 PSI IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOUND IF THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN THE FRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 210260F IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A SIGNAL NOTE THE ALARM WILL SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAL ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI THE ALARM WILL SILENCE TEST BUTTON WHEN PRESSED TESTS THE ALTERNATOR THE OIL PRESSURE AND THE WATER TEMPERATURE CONTROL CIRCUITS WHEN PRESSED THE ALTERNATOR THE OIL PRESSURE AND THE WATER TEMPERATURE INDICATOR LIGHTS ILLUMINATE IN ADDI267 TION TO SOUNDING THE ALARM BUZZER KEY SWITCH PROVIDES POWER TO THE INSTRUMENT PANEL CLUSTER AND THE DC ALTERNATOR REGULATOR TERMINAL PREHEAT BunON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE FUEL LIFT PUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDITION THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES THE START BUTTON Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 64 ADMIRAL CONTROL PANEL UNIVERSAL offers two optional panels Refer to the instruction page that applies to the panel you purchased ADMIRAL PANEL This control panel is equipped with a Key Switch and RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME meter which measures the engines running time in hours and in 110 hours The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERA255TURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees Fahrenheit an OIL PRESSURE gauge which measures the engines oil pressure in pounds per square inch and a DC control circuit VOLTAGE gauge which measures the sys255tems voltage All gauges are illuminated when the key switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine is in operation The panel also contains two rubberbooted pushbuttons one for PREHEAT and one for START When the engine is shut down with the Key Switch turned off the water temperature gauge will continue to register the last temperature reading indicated by the gauge before elec255trical power was turned off The oil pressure gauge will fall to zero when the Key Switch is turned off The temperature gauge will once again register the engines true temperature when electrical power is restored to the gauge A separate alarm buzzer with harness is supplied with every Admiral Panel The installer is responsible for electrically connecting the buzzer to the fourpin connection on the engines electrical harness The installer is also responsible for installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and where it will be audible to the operator should it sound while the engine is running The buzzer will sound when the igni255tion key is turned on and should silence when the engine has started and the oil pressure rises above 15 psi Note Refer to the WIRING DIAGRAM in this manual for the installation of two engine sendors WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS GRADUATED IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT AND IS ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING TEMPERATURE IS 170260190260 F 7r88260COIL PRESSURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS GRADU255ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH PSIAND IS ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 3060 PSI RPM GAUGE REGISTERS REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE OF THE ENGINE AND CAN BE RECALIBRATED FOR ACCURACY FROM THE REAR OF THE PANEL HOURMETER REGISTERS ELAPSED TIME AND SHOULD BE USED AS A GUIDE FOR THE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE PREHEAT BUnON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE ALTERNATORS REGULATOR THE FUEL LIFT PUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDI255TION THIS BUnON ENERGIZES THE START BUnON START BUTIONWHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE THIS SUnON WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE PREHEAT BUnON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME TIME AUTOMATIC ALARM SYSTEM KEY SWITCH PROVIDES POWER ONLY TO THE INSTRUMENT PANEL CLUSTER DC VOLTMETER INDICATES THE AMOUNT THE BATTERY IS BEING CHARGED SHOULD SHOW 13V TO 14V HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM AN ALARM BUZZER HAS BEEN SUPPLIED WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL IF THE ENGINES FRESH WATER COOLANT REACHES 210260 F 98260CTHIS SWITCH WILL CLOSE SOUNDING THE ALARM WHICH WILL EMIT A CONTINUOUS SIGNAL LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM A LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IS LOCATED OFF THE ENGINES OIL GALLERY THIS SWITCH MONITORS THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE SHOULD THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE FALL TO 5 10 PSI THE SWITCH WILL OPEN SOUNDING THE ALARM IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL w mf1M7IgVN9j63 AdobeUCSFUEL SYSTEM SERVICE FUEL INJECTORS A CAUTION The spray nozzle velocity is such that it may penetrate deeply into the skin of the fingers and hands destroying tissue If it enters the blood267 stream it may cause blood poisoning Nozzle Injection Pressure 1 Install the injection nozzle to the nozzle tester 2 Slowly move the tester handle to measure the pressure at which fuel begins jetting out from the nozzle 3 If the measurement is not within the standard value disassemble the injection nozzle and change the adjusting washer until the proper injection pressure is obtained The pressure variation with a 0001 in 0025 mmdifference in adjusting washer thickness is approximately 85 psi 6 kgcm2 59 kPaADJUSTING WASHER 62 Nozzle Spraying Condition 1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester and check the nozzle spraying condition 2 If the spraying condition is defective replace the nozzle piece GDDD Valve Seat Tightness BAD 1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester 2 Raise the fuel pressure and keep it at 1849 psi 1275 MPa 130 kgcm2for 10 seconds 3 If any fuel leak is found replace the nozzle piece Fuel Injectors Service In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise have the injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized fuel injection service center Poor fuel quality contaminants and loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection pump can result in injector faults Since fuel injectors must be serviced in a clean room environment it is best to carry at least one extra injector as a spare should a problem occur Before removing the old injector clean the area around the base of the injector to help prevent any rust or debris from falling down into the injector hole If the injector will not lift out easily and is held in by carbon buildup or the like work the injector sidetoside with the aid of the socket wrench to free it and then lift it out The injector seats in the cylinder head on a copper sealing washer Remove this washer with the injector and replace it with a new washer when the new injector is installed Injector to cylinder head tightening torque 362 506 ftIb 50 70 mkg490 686 Nmwith shims AdobeUCSFUEL SYSTEM DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY A WARNING 00 not allow smoking or open flames near the fuel system when servicing Also provide proper ventilation INJECTION PUMP If replacing the pump element the amount of fuel injection should be bench tested and adjusted DELIVERY VALVE HOLDER TAPPET ROLLER INJECTION PUMP DELIVERY VALVE SPRING DELIVERY VALVE 60 INJECTION NOZZLE Nozzle Holder 1 Secure the nozzle retaining nut in a vise 2 Remove the nozzle holder and take out the parts inside the nozzle holder When Reassembling 1 Assemble the nozzle in clean fuel oil 2 Install the push rod noting its direction 3 After assembling the nozzle be sure to adjust the fuel injection pressure NOZZLE HOLOER INJECTION NOZZLE ADJUSTING WASHER NOZZLE SPRING PUSH ROD DISTANCE PIECE NOZZLE PIECE AdobeUCS 1 key switchpreheat AdobeUCSspring via AdobeUCS2133 psi 140 150 kgfcm21373 1471 MPaAdobeUCSany parts AdobeUCS0236 in 6 mmAdobeUCSon other COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION The engine is cooled by a closed fresh water coolant cir255cuit The coolant is circulated by a beltdriven impeller pump The coolant temperature is con255trolled Raw water is pumped by geardriven impeller pump through an enginemounted heat exchanger to cool the engine coolant The raw water then enters the exhaust elbow where it mixes with and cools the exhaust gasses This mixture then discharges overboard COOLANT PUMP The coolant pump is a metal impeller pump mounted on the front of the engine It is driven from the crankshaft by a Vbelt MECHANICAL SEAL BODY IMPELLER COOLANT PUMP THERMOSTAT A thermostat located near the manifold at the front of the engine controls the coolant temperature as it continuously flows through the closed cooling circuit The thermostat is a wax pellet type thermostat Wax is enclosed in the pellet The wax is solid at low but turns liquid at high temperatures expands and opens the valve When the engine is first started the closed thermostat pre255vents coolant from flowing some coolant is bypassed through a hole in the thermostat to prevent the exhaust manifold from overheatingAs the engine warms up the thermostat gradually opens The thermostat is accessible and can be checked cleaned or replaced easily WATER TEMPERATURE SWITCH The water temperature switch is located on the thermostat housing see switch is normally open When activated it will close and sound an alarm WATER TEMPERATURE SENDER OptionalThe water temperature sender if suppliedis located on the thermostat housing see illustrationIt is a variable resis255tor affected by heat Voltage from the water temperature gauge is grounded through the sender to the block Depending on the resistance through the sender affected by coolant heat the gauge will indicate a temperature reading WATER TEMPERATURE SENDER OPTIONALWATER TEMPERATURE SWITCH RAW WATER PUMP THERMOSTAT HOUSING WATER FLANGE The raw water pump is a gear driven positive selfpriming rotary pump with a nonferrous housing and a neoprene impeller The impeller has flexible vanes which wipe against a curved cam plate within the impeller housing producing the pumping action On no account should this pump be run dry as water acts as a lubricant for the impeller There should always be a spare impeller and impeller cover gasket aboard an impeller kitRaw water pump impeller failures occur when lubricant raw wateris not present during engine operation Such failures are not warrantable and operators are cautioned to make sure raw water flow is present at startup HOUSING IfCAM RAW WATER PUMP 225225 Unlvarsal IMPELLER HOUSING MARINE POWER 52 SYSTEM SERVICE Clearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body 1 Measure the clearance between the outer rotor and the pump body with a feeler gauge 2 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the oil pump rotor assembly Clearance Between Rotor and Cover 1 Put a strip of plastigauge onto the rotor face with grease 2 Install the cover and tighten the screws 3 Remove the cover carefully measure the amount of the flattening with the scale and get the clearance 4 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the oil pump rotor assembly 51 5 pressure usually SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION The lubricating system consists of an oil strainer oil pump relief valve oil filter and oil pressure switch The oil pump draws lubricating oil from the oil sump through the oil strainer to the oil filter Then the oil is delivered under pressure to the crankshaft connecting rods idler gear governor shaft camshaft and rocker arm shaft through oil galleries in the engine block Some of the oil that lubricates these components or is splashed by the crankshaft also reaches and lubricates the pistons cylinders small ends of the connecting rods tap255pets pushrods intake and exhaust valves and timing gears The oil then returns to the oil sump to repeat the continu255ous cycle When the oil pressure exceeds the specified pressure the oil pushes open the relief valve in the oil pump and returns to the oil sump keeping the oil pressure within its specified range ROCKER ARM ROCKER ARM SHAFT VALVE GOVERNOR SHAFT IDLER GEAR CRANKSHAFT OIL PUMP CAMSHAFT PISTON OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE LUBRICATION SYSTEM Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 48 EXHAUST MANIFOLD SERVICE EXHAUST MANIFOLD The exhaust manifold which was disassembled from the cylinder head should be inspected before reassembly 1 Remove the exhaust nipples elbows and plugs from the manifold 2 Examine all parts for defects corrosion and wear and replace as needed 3 Flush out the manifolds interior with a liquid cleaner and rinse thoroughly with fresh water 4 Use a pipe cleaner to clear the passage that connects the filler neck to the coolant recovery tank tubing 5 Flush out the coolant recovery tank and its connecting tube EXHAUST MANIFOLD MODEL M26735B SHOWN47 ASSEMBLY 1 If the manifold was removed as an assembly and left intact it can be replaced on the cylinder head in the reverse order of removal Do not reuse the gaskets install new ones a Loosely attach the manifold elbows to the cylinder head using new gaskets Do not use any gasket seal255ant on these gaskets b Gradually tighten each fitting to ensure proper alignment of all the parts This should be done in three steps 2 Reinstall the exhaust connections Use new gaskets and check the exhaust clamps condition Replace it if necessary 3 Check the manifold pressure cap Open the valve by pulling it and make sure it closes when released Make certain the upper and lower seals are in good condition If any doubt replace the cap RUBBER SEALS CHECKING THE PRESSURE CAP when the dramatically the compression value 5 cates worn AdobeUCS2 3 3 4 2 the bellhousing AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE Correcting Cylinder 1 When the cylinder is worn beyond the limit bore and hone it to the specified dimension STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Cylinder ID M25XPB 30118 30126 in M35B 76500 76519 mmM40B 30906 30913 in 78500 78519 mmMaximum Wear 00059 in 015 mmFinishing Hone to 000047 000079 inR max 12 20 max2 Replace the piston and the piston rings with oversize 05 mmrings MODEL MARKING M25XPB Piston M35B 05 OS M40B Piston Ring M25XPB Assembly M35B 05 OS M40B NOTE When an oversize cylinder is worn beyond the limit sleeve the block to return the cylinder to the standard size CYLINDER 10 BEFORE CORRECTION OVERSIZE CYLINDER 10 42 AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE STANDARD VALUE Crankshaft journal 188716 188779 in 00 47950 mmCrankshaft bearing 188913 189091 in No2 10 47984 48029 mmSTANDARD VALUE LIMIT Oil Clearance 000134 000386 in 00079 in between crankshaft 0034 0098 mm020 mmjournal and crankshaft bearing NO3 STANDARD VALUE Crankshaft journal 204413 204488 in 00 flywheel side51921 51940 mmCrankshaft bearing 204622 204799 in NO3 10 51974 52019 mmUNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARINGS NO2 NO3 UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING 0008 in Crankshaft bearing No2 02 020 US 02 mmCrankshaft bearing NO3 02 0016 in Crankshaft bearing No2 04 040 US 04 mmCrankshaft bearing NO3 04 UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL 0008 in 0016 in Dimension 02 mm04 mmA 00906 01063 in radius 00906 01063 in radius 23 27 mm radius23 27 mm radiusB 00394 00591 in radius 00394 00591 in radius 10 15 mm radius10 15 mm radiusC 187929 187992 in 187141 187204 in 47734 47750 mm47534 47550 mmD 203626 203700 in 202838 202913 in 51721 51740 mm51521 51540 mmO8SThe crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than Vil1 B A 41 CYLINDER Cylinder Wear 1 Measure the ID of the cylinder at the six positions shown in the illustration with a cylinder gauge to find the maximum and minimum IDs TOP MIODlE BonOM TO PISTON PIN PISTON PIN DIRECTION 2 Determine the difference maximum wearbetween the maximum and minimum LDs 3 If the maximum wear exceeds the limit bore and hone to the oversize dimension see Correcting Cylinder below4 Visually check the cylinder wall for scratches If deep scratches are found the cylinder should be bored see Correcting Cylinder belowSTANDARD VALUE LIMIT Cylinder 10 M25 XPB 29921 29929 in M35B 76000 76019 mmM40B 30709 30716 in 78000 78019 mmMaximum Wear 00059 in O15mmAdobeUCSo 3 S and calculate ENGINE SERVICE CRANKSHAFT Crankshaft Side Clearance 1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the end of the crankshaft 2 Measure the side clearance by moving the crankshaft to the front and to the rear 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the thrust bearings 4 If a samesize thrust bearing is inadequate because of crankshaft journal wear replace it with an oversize thrust bearing see illustration and tableSTANDARD VALUE LIMIT Crankshaft 00059 00122 in 00197 in side clearance 015 031 mm050 mmOVERSIZE THRUST BEARING OVERSIZE BEARING MARKING 0008 in Thrust bearing No1 02 020 OS 02 mmThrust bearing No2 02 0016 in Thrust bearing No1 04 040 OS 04 mmThrust bearing No2 04 OVERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL 0008 in 0016 in Dimension 02 mm04 mmA 11102 11122 in 1118111201 in 2820 2825 mm2840 2845 mmB 2028 2035 in 2031 2039 in 515 517 mm516 518 mmC 0091 0106 in radius 0091 0106 in radius 23 27 mm radius23 27 mm radiusO8SThe crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than Jlll o c Crankshaft Alignment 1 Support the crankshaft with V blocks on the surface plate and set a dial indicator with its tip on the journal at a right angle 2 Rotate the crankshaft on the V blocks and get the half of the measurement3 If the misalignment exceeds the limit replace the crankshaft CRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT Oil Clearance between Crankpin and Crankpin Bearing 1 Clean the crankpin and crankpin bearing 2 Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the crankpin 3 Install the connecting rod cap and tighten the connect255ing rod screws to the specified torque then remove the cap Unlvarsal 243 a AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE PRESSING OUT EXISTING BUSHING PRESSING IN NEW BUSHING 3 Drill a hole through the bushing aligning with the oil hole in the connecting rod Use a 0157 in 40 mmdia drill NOTE Be sure to chamfer the oil hole with an oilstone SEAM 45 079 radPiston Ring Gap 1 Insert the piston ring into the lower part of the liner the least worn out part of the linerusing the piston 2 Measure the ring gap with a feeler gauge 3 If the gap exceeds the limit replace the piston ring Piston Ring Clearances 1 Remove carbon from the ring grooves 2 For Ring No1 keystone typemeasure the clearance between the outer side of the ring and the side of the piston 3 For Ring No2 and the Oil Ring measure the clearance between the rings and the grooves with a feeler gauge or depth gauge 4 If a clearance exceeds the limit replace the ring 5 If the clearance still exceeds the limit after replacing the ring replace the piston 37 RING NO1 KEYSTONE TYPERING NO 2OIL RING PISTON RING CLEARANCES STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Ring No1 00079 in Keystone Type020 mmRing No2 00033 00044 in 00079 in 0085 0112 mm020 mmOil Ring 00008 00021 in 00059 in 0020 0055 mm015 mmConnecting Rod Alignment NOTE Since the JD of the connecting rod small end bush255ing is the basis of this check check this bushing for wear beforehand 1 Remove the crankpin bearing and install the connecting rod cap 2 Install the piston pin in the connecting rod 3 Install the connecting rod on the connecting rod align255ment tool 4 Put a gauge over the piston pin and move it against the face plate 5 If the gauge does not fit squarely against the face plate measure the space between the pins of the gauge and the face plate 6 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the con255necting rod ENGINE SERVICE Camshaft Journal Oil Clearance 1 Measure the camshaftjoumal aD with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the cylinder block bore LD for the camshaft with an inside micrometer Calculate the oil clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the camshaft Oil Clearance between Idler Gear Shaft and Idler Gear Bushing 1 Measure the idler gear shaft aD with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the idler gear bushings LD with an inside micrometer and calculate the oil clearance 3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the bushing B Replacing the Idler Gear Bushing 1 Using an idler gear bushing replacing tool see SPECIAL TOOLSpress out the existing bushing 2 Clean a new idler gear bushing and the idler gear bore and apply engine oil to them 3 Using the idler gear bushing replacing tool press in a new bushing to the specified dimension see REPLACING TOOL PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD Piston Pin Bore 10 1 Measure the piston pin bore LD in both the horizontal and vertical directions with a cylinder gauge 2 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the piston Oil Clearance between Piston Pin and Connecting Rod Small End Bushing 1 Measure the aD of the piston pin where it contacts the bushing with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the LD of the piston pin bushing at the con255necting rod small end with a cylinder gauge Calculate the oil clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the bushing If it still exceeds the limit replace the piston pin Replacing Connecting Rod Small End Bushing When removing 1 Press out the existing bushing using a small end bush255ing replacing tool When installing 1 Clean a new small end bushing and bore and apply engine oil to them 2 Insert the new bushing onto the tool and pressfit it so that the seam of the bushing is positioned as shown in the illustration and the bushing is flush with the con255necting rod PRESSING OUT EXISTING BUSHING PRESSING IN NEW BUSHING i b Mji1IIijM 36 AdobeUCSand calculate on a on a AdobeUCSseat with ENGINE SERVICE NOTE Servicing specifications are included in this section Also refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS section NOTE Cylinder heads with serial numbers 489291 on up are partially modified because of the introduction of the nozzle heat seal When replacing the cylinder head see the parts list and choose the right one in reference to its serial number CYLINDER HEAD Cylinder Head Distortion 1 Thoroughly clean the cylinder head surface 2 Place a straightedge on the cylinder head and measure for distortion in the six directions A through F as shown in the illustration Measure the clearance with a feeler gauge NOTE Do not place the straightedge on the combustion chamber 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit correct it with a surface grinder NOTE Be sure to check the valve recession after correcting Cylinder Head Flaw 1 Prepare an air spray red check 2 Clean the surface of the cylinder head with detergent 3 Spray the cylinder head surface with red permeative liquid Wait five to ten minutes after spraying 4 Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder head surface with the detergent S Spray the cylinder head surface with white developer 6 If the surface is flawed the flaws will be identified as red marks 32 1m8I1 fDJlWl RCAA atAD 8 247mJ RED PERMEATIVE DETERGENT WHITE LIQUID DEVELOPER Valve Recession 1 Clean the cylinder head valve face and seat 2 Insert the valve into the valve guide 3 Measure the valve recession with a depth gauge 4 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the valve If the measurement still exceeds the limit after replacing the valve correct the valve seat face of the cylinder head with a valve seat cutter or valve seat grinder Then correct the cylinder head surface with a surface grinder or replace the cylinder head 260 co 0 o 0 o 0 0 260oOOoOOc Valve Stem to Valve Guide Clearance 1 Remove carbon from the valve guide 2 Measure the valve stem DD with an outside micrometer t CHECKING VALVE STEM OIL CLEARANCE 0t 3 Using a small hole gauge measure the valve guide LD where it shows maximum wear Then calculate the clearance 4 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the valve If it still exceeds the limit replace the valve guide AdobeUCS 3 ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY NOTE Mark the same number on both the connecting rod and the piston so as not to change the combination FLYWHEEL AND CRANKSHAFT Starter 1 Remove the starter Flywheel 1 Lock the flywheel so it will not tum 2 Remove the flywheel screws except for two which must be loosened and left as they are 3 Use a flywheel puller and remove the flywheel or work the flywheel off using two screwdrivers When Reassembling 1 Apply engine oil to the flywheel screws REMOVING THE FLYWHEEL 30 Bearing Case Cover and Crankshaft NOTE Before disassembling check the side clearance of the crankshaft Also check it during reassembly 1 Remove the bearing case cover mounting bolts Unscrew the eight inside bolts first then the nine out255side bolts 2 Screw two removed bolts into the right and left bolt holes of the bearing case cover to remove it 3 Remove the bearing case bolt 2 4 Pull out the crankshaft REMOVING THE BEARING CASE BOLTS REMOVING THE CRANKSHAFT REMOVING THE BEARING CASE COVER ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY Piston 1 Tum the flywheel and bring the No 1 piston to top dead center TDC2 Pull the piston out upward by lightly tapping it from the bottom of the crankcase with the handle of a hammer When Reassembling 1 Before inserting the piston into the cylinder apply engine oil to the cylinder 2 When inserting the piston into the cylinder face the mark on the connecting rod toward the injection pump NOTE Do not change the combinations of cylinder and piston Make sure of the location of each piston by mark255ing it For example mark 1 on the No1 piston 3 When inserting the piston into the cylinder place the gap of compression ring No1 on the side opposite the combustion chamber and place the gaps of com255pression ring No2 and the oil ring at right angles from the gap of compression ring No1 see illustration4 Carefully insert the pistons using a piston ring com255pressor otherwise their chromeplated sections may become scratched causing trouble inside the liner PISTON PIN HOLE Piston Ring and Connecting Rod 1 Remove the piston rings using a piston ring tool 2 Align the casting mark ion the piston as shown in the illustration 3 Remove the piston pin and separate the connecting rod from the piston CONNECTING ROD When Reassembling 1 When installing the rings assemble them so that the manufacturers mark near the gap faces the top of the piston 2 When installing the oil ring onto the piston place the expander joint on the opposite side of the oil ring gap Hi Oil RING GAP 3 Apply engine oil to the piston pin 4 Before installing the piston pin immerse the piston in 1760 F 800 Coil for 10 to 15 minutes then insert the piston pin into the piston S When installing the connecting rod to the piston align the mark on the connecting rod to the casting mark on the piston Dll RING GAP Unlvarsal MARINE POWER PISTON RING GAP POSITIONS 29 Gear and Idler Gear 1 1 Remove the snap ring 2 Remove the idler gear 3 Remove the camshaft stopper mounting bolt 4 Remove the camshaft NOTE When installing the idler gear be sure to align the alignment marks on the gears Make sure to assemble the external snap ring and stopper INJECTION PUMP GEAR PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD Oil Pan and Oil Pan Filter 1 Remove the oil pan mounting screws IDLER GEAR 2 Remove the oil pan by lightly tapping the rim of the pan with a wooden hammer 3 Remove the oil pan filter When Reassembling 1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalentto both sides of the oil pan gasket 2 To avoid uneven tightening tighten the mounting screws in a diagonal pattern from the center 3 Clean the oil pan filter and install it Take care not to damage the Oring 28 OIL PAN MOUNTING OIL PAN SCREWS OIL PAN FILTER 256 Connecting Rod Cap 1 Remove the connecting rod screws from the connecting rod caps 2 Remove the connecting rod caps When Reassembling 1 Align the marks Awith each other Face the marks toward the injection pump2 Apply engine oil to the connecting rod screws and lightly screw them in by hand then tighten them to the specified torque If a connecting rod screw doesnt screw in smoothly clean the threads If the screw is still hard to screw in replace it Connecting rod screws tightening torque 303 339 ftIbs 42 47 kgfm412 461 NmREMOVING CONNECTING ROO CAPS MARKS Al ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY Governor Shaft 1 Remove the snap ring from the governor shaft 2 Remove the governor shaft When Reassembling 1 Make sure the external snap ring for the governor shaft is installed 2 Check the governor shaft for smooth rotation NOTE When replacing the ball bearing for the governor shaft securely fit the ball bearing to the crankcase apply an adhesive Three Bond 1324B or equivalentto the set screw and insert the set screw until its tapered part con255tacts the side of the ball bearing BALL BEARING GOVERNOR SHAFT SETSCREW GOVERNOR SHAFT Fork Lever 1 Remove the start spring 2 Remove the fork lever shaft cover 3 Remove the fork lever shaft 4 Remove the spacer bearing and fork levers 1 and 2 BEARING When Reassembling 1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalentto both sides of the fork lever shaft cover 2 Assemble the fork lever shaft cover with the mark UP on it facing upward 3 Make sure the start spring is assembled NOTE Assemble fork lever 2 to the right side of the fuel limit bolts as shown in the illustration EEOlI4lFUEL LIMIT BOLT FORK LEVER 2 225225 Unlvarsal a S lI193i27 2 Install tap the AdobeUCSENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY b Tum the screwdriver three or four times in each direction While turning the screwdriver slowly pull the heat seal out together with the injection nozzle copper washer c If the heat seal drops repeat the above procedure The heat seal and injection nozzle copper washer must be changed when the injection nozzle is removed for cleaning or for service PHILLIPS SCREWDRIVER Cylinder Head Cover 1 Remove the cylinder head cover cap nuts 2 Remove the cylinder head cover When Reassembling 1 Check the cylinder head cover gasket if it is defective replace it Rocker Arm and Push Rod 1 Remove the rocker arm bracket mounting nuts 2 Detach the rocker arm as an assembly 3 Remove the push rods When Reassembling 1 When installing the push rods onto the tappets make sure their ends are properly engaged with the grooves NOTE After reassembling the rocker arm assembly be sure to adjust the valve clearances ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY Cylinder Head 1 Remove the air breather hose 2 Remove the cylinder head screws in a descending sequence see M25XPB from 14 to 1 Models M35B and M40B from 18 to 1 Then remove the cylinder head 3 Remove the cylinder head gasket and Oring When Reassembling 1 Replace the head gasket with a new one 2 Install the cylinder head using care not to damage the Oring 3 After applying engine oil tighten the cylinder head screws gradually in an ascending sequence see M25XPB from 1 to 14 Models M35B and M40B from 1 to 18 4 Retighten the cylinder head screws after running the engine for 30 minutes REAR MODEL M26725XPB 014 06 03 REAR 018 010 02 07 00 00 00 00 01010 009 0 26001 0 26008 0 016 013 05 04 012 MODELS M26735B M2674oB Tappets 1 Remove the tappets from the crankcase NOTE Mark the cylinder numbers on the tappets to prevent interchanging When Reassembling 1 Before installing the tappets apply engine oil thinly around them FRONT t Unlvarsal 243 2 MiI242IUWBj24 filter and injection DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY EXTERNAL COMPONENTS NOTE After servicing the engine reinstall the external components in the reverse of their order of removal With the transmission separated from the engine begin the following stepbystep disassembly procedure 1 Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt and oil 2 Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand for disassembly 3 Drain the coolant from the engine and engine hoses and from the heat exchanger Drain the fuel and drain or pump out the engine oil 4 Remove the engine wiring harness in its entirety Label the terminal connections to insure proper reattachment When Reassembling LABEL THE TERMINAL CONNECTIONS Check all AC and DC wiring connections by referring to the UNIVERSAL wiring diagrams and schematics 5 Remove the engine heat exchanger If possible leave one end of each hose connection attached to the heat exchanger267 The heat exchanger should be serviced when the engine is overhauled see HEAT EXCHANG255ER under COOliNG SYSTEM for inspection and servicing EXCHANGER 6 Remove the starter motor 7 Remove the engine bellhousing 8 Remove the transmission damper plate 9 Remove the flywheel and flywheel washer 10 Remove the engine back plate 11 Remove the exhaust manifold When Reassembling Retighten the exhaust manifold using the same torque after idling for 20 minutes 12 Remove the drive belt alternator and alternator adjust255ing strap See ALTERNATOR for testing information When Reassembling A CAUTION Connect the alternator properly Should the polarity be reversed a powerful cur255rent would flow from the battery into the alterna255tor damaging the diodes and wiring harness a Install the alternator cap screw through the alterna255tor leg undersideand spacer into the alternator bracket b Swing the alternator into position on the adjusting strap and fasten Lightly tighten c Install the drive belt and adjust the belt tension d Tighten both bolts and recheck the belt tension NOTE Make certain the belts are perfectly aligned with the alternator and engine pulleys If not insert or remove spacers as needed to align the alternator UnlvQrsal 2 2 22 AdobeUCSENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY Before disassembling your engine read the following GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES and GENERAL REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES They will provide impor255tant information to ensure the proper servicing of your engine The EXTERNAL COMPONENTS DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY section gives the order of removal of the engines external components alternator heat exchanger air intake silencer etcThese components are reinstalled in the reverse of their order of disassembly Specific information is provided for the main engine parts bearings crankshaft pistons etcin individual sections GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES NOTE Before disassembly and cleaning carefully check for defects which cannot be found after disassembly and cleaning 225 All disassembled parts should be carefully arranged in the order of reassembly Mark or label the parts as needed to insure proper mating and reassembly in the proper directions and positions 225 If the disassembly procedure is complex requiring many parts to be disassembled the parts should be in a way that will allow them to be efficiently reassembled without any change in the engines exter255nal appearance or its performance 225 Do not remove or disassemble parts that require no disassembly 225 Carefully inspect each part after removal for damage deformation and other problems 225 Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals even if checking is not specified Replace with new ones if defective 225 Be careful not to damage the disassembled parts Keep the parts clean 225 Use the proper tools Apply oil when necessary Take special care to keep the fuel system parts free from the intrusion of dust and dirt GENERAL REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES 225 Clean or wash the parts to be reassembled Apply lubri255cating oil when specified or as needed to the surfaces of moving parts during reassembly Heavily oil sliding turning rotating and reciprocating parts lightly oil head bolts and other fasteners except those that pene255trate into the water jacket These fasteners should be sealed with Permatex No 2 or a hightack equivalent Make sure that moving parts after assembly onto the engine are not subject to binding or excessive tension 225 Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals even if checking is not specified Use new gaskets lockwash255ers and Orings 225 Be careful not to mix bolts and nuts Both metric and SAE bolts are used on various engine assemblies 225 Replace plain bearings if they are peeling burned or otherwise damaged 225 Reassemble parts eg pistons piston rings bearings bearing capsin their proper order positions and directions relative to the engine block Avoid reversed orientation note that the cylinder head gasket head bolt washers and thermostat are assymetrical Any mating marks that were drawn or scribed during disas255sembly should be positioned correctly for reassembly Position gaskets carefully especially the head gasket so they will not be damaged during assembly 225 Inspect all critical clearances end plays oil clearances and bends Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS section 225 Use liquid sealants when specified or needed on nuts bolts and gaskets Use Permatex No2 or equivalent Dont use tape sealants Refer to SEALANTS LUBRICANTS in this manual 225 Tighten the bolts and nuts on the important parts of the engine to the specified torques using a reliable torque wrench Tighten fasteners in the specified torque sequences and in three steps 112 23 and 111 torque Exceptions are torquetoyield head bolts and rocker arm shaft fasteners The former are torqued as indicat255ed The latter rocker shaft fasteners should be brought down in very small increments working from the center bolts out Where a tightening torque is not specified tighten evenly to an ordinary torque 225 After completion of reassembly recheck for any Then fill the engine cooling system with premixed coolant 5050 good quality antifreeze and distilled waterFill the engine oil sump to the mark on the dipstick with lube oil AP1 spec CF or CG4Test run the engine under load prior to reinstalling At this time readjust the valve clearances on the hot engine Allow the engine to cool to room temperature and retorque the cylinder head bolts and recheck the valve clearances see ENGINE 1 Unplug the instrument panel wiring harness 2 Drain the transmission fluid 3 Unbolt the transmission from the engine NOTE For transmission service and maintenance refer to your transmission owners manual To rebuild a contact your WESTERBEKE dealer or a qualified marine transmission service facility If the transmission is not being rebuilt it should be visually inspected Inspect and lubricate the gear shift linkage and the propeller shaft coupling Clean and repaint the and change the transmission fluid Refer to the TRANSMISSIONS section in this manual 225 225 Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 21 ENGINE DESCRIPTION FLYWHEEL The flywheel stores the rotating force of the combustion stroke as inertial energy reduces crankshaft rotating speed fluctuation and maintains smooth rotating conditions The flywheels periphery is inscribed with marks showing the fuel injection timing angle lines and the top dead center mark Te It has gear teeth around its outer rim that mesh with the starters drive pinion FLYWHEEL SCREW 20 ENGINE DESCRIPTION Several grooves are cut into the pistons crown to swirl the fuelair mixture for complete combustion and to allow a smooth ejection of the exhaust gas VALVE RECESSES CONNECTING ROD DEPRESSION The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft The big end of the connecting rod has a split type crankpin bearing and the small end has a solid type bushing SMALL END BUSHING CONNECTING ROD CRANKPIN BEARING CONNECTING ROO ROCKER ARM The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms rocker arm brackets and rocker arm shaft This assembly converts the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an openclose movement of the intake and exhaust valves Lubricating oil is forcefed through the bracket to the rock255er arm shaft which by its reciprocating motion distributes lubricating oil throughout the entire rocker arm assembly 19 ADJUSTING SCREW 247 256 LOCKNUT ARM RACKET i 256 CAMSHAFT ROCKER ARM SHAFT ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY The camshaft is made of special cast iron and the journal and cam sections are hardened to resist wear The journal sections are FUEL CAMSHAFT The fuel camshaft controls the reciprocating movement of the injection pump The fuel camshaft is made of carbon steel and the cam sections are quenched and tempered to provide greater wear resistance INJECTION PUMP GEAR I V9J t f 0 iFUEL CAMSHAFT 0 if FUEL CAMSHAFT rS component grooves in LUBRICATION SYSTEM Oil Pump DESCRIPTION Engine Oil Pressure At Idle Speed At Rated Speed Clearance between Inner Rotor and Outer Rotor Clearance between Outer Rotor and Pump Body End Clearance between Inner Rotor and Cover COOLING SYSTEM Thermostat Thermostats Valve Opening Temperature Temperature at which Thermostat Completely Opens FUEL SYSTEM Injection Pump Injection Timing Spill Timing3000 rpm Pump Element Fuel Tightness Delivery Valve Fuel Tightness Injection Nozzle Fuel Injection Pressure Nozzle Valve Seat Tightness STANDARD VALUE 7 psi 05 kgfcm249 kPa280 640 psi 20 45 kgfcm21960 4410 kPa00024 00071 in 006 018 mm00039 00071 in 0100 0180 mm00098 00295 in 0025 075 mm1571 1625260F 695 725260C185260F 85260C18 20260 BTDC 031 035 rad10 seconds or more 2133 1990 psi 150 140 kgfcm2147 137 MPa1991 2133 psi p 40 150 kgfcm2 373 1471 MPaWhen the pressure is 1849 psi 130 kgfcm21275 MPathe valve seat must not leak fuel SERVICE STANDARDS LIMIT 213 psi 15 kgfcm21471 kPaELECTRICAL SYSTEM Starter DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE Commutator 00 11811 in 300 mmMica Undercut 00197 00315 in 05 08 mmBrush Length 05118 in 130 mmAlternator LIMIT 11417 in 290 mm0079 in 02mm03346 in 85 mmNoload Voltage 137 147 V at 1500 2000 rpm Stator Resistance 41 47Q at 70 80260F21 27260CBrush Length minimum025 in 6 mmGlow Plug I Glow Plug Resistance I Approx 09 12Q I 2133 psi 150 kgfcm2 147 MPa 5 seconds 2133 1990 psi 50 140 kgfcm2147 137 MPa Unlvarsal 243 3 I1NijijW3i17 STANDARDS Timing Gear Connecting Rod DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Timing Gear Backlash Connecting Rod 00020 in Alignment 005 mmCrank Gear00013 00045 in 00059 in Clearance between 00006 00015 in 00059 in Idler Gear No1 0032 0115 mm015 mmIdler Gear No100014 00045 in 00059 in Piston Pin and Small 0014 0038 mm015 mmEnd Bushing Cam Gear 00360114 mm015mmIdler Gear No100013 00046 in 00059 in Piston Pin 00 08662 08666 in 22002 22011 mmInjection Pump Gear 0034 0116 mm015 mmSmall End 08671 08677 in Bushing 10 22025 22040 mmIdler Gear No100013 00046 in 00059 in Idler Gear No2 0033 0117 mm015mmIdler Gear No200012 00046 in 00059 in Crankshaft Governor Gear 00300117 Alignment 00008 in Clearance between 002 mmIdler Gear Shaft and Oil Clearance between 00013 00045 in 00079 in Idler Gear Bushing Idler Gear No1 00008 00021 in 00039 in Crankshaft and 0034 0114 mm020 mmCrankshaft Bearing No1 0020 0054 mm010 mmCrankshaft 00 18872 18878 in Idler Gear 10236 10244 in 47934 47950 mmBushing 10 26000 26021 mmCrankshaft 18891 18917 in Idler Gear Shaft 10223 10228 in Bearing No1 10 47984 48084 mmNo1 00 25967 25980 mmOil Clearance between 00013 00037 in 00079 in Idler Gear No2 00008 00021 in 00039 in 0020 0054 and 0034 0095 mm020 mmCrankshaft Bearing No2 Idler Gear 10236 10244 in Bushing 10 26000 26021 mmCrankshaft 00 18872 18878 in 47934 47950 mmIdler Gear Shaft 10223 10228 in No2 00 25967 25980 mmCrankshaft 18891 18909 in Bearing No2 10 47984 48029 mmIdler Gear Side Clearance Oil Clearance between 00013 00039 in 00079 in Crankshaft and 0034 0098 mm020 mmCrankshaft Bearing NO3 Idler Gear No1 00079 00200 in 00315 in 020 051 mm08 mmIdler Gear No2 00079 00200 in 00315 in 020 051 mm008 mmCrankshaft 00 20441 20449 in 51921 51940 mmCrankshaft 20462 20480 in Bearing NO3 10 51974 52019 mmOil Clearance between 00011 00036 in 00079 in Piston Piston Ring Crank Pin and 0029 0091 mm020 mmCrank Pin Bearing Piston Pin Bore 08661 08687 in 08673 in 22000 22013 mm2203 mmCrank Pin 00 15732 15738 in 39959 39975 mmClearance between 00033 00044 in 00079 in Compression Ring 0085 0112 mm020 mmNo2 and Ring Groove Clearance between 00008 00021 in 00059 in Oil Ring and Ring 0020 0055 mm015 mmGroove Crank Pin 15750 15768 in Bearing 10 40004 40050 mmCrankshaft Side 00059 00122 in 000197 in Clearance 015 031 mm050 mmRing Gap Cylinder liner Compression 00118 00170 in 00492 in Ring No1 030 0045 mm125 mmCompression 00118 00170 in 00492 in Ring No2 030 0045 mm125 mmOil Ring 00098 00157 in 00492 in 025 0040 mm125 mmCylinder Liner 10 M25XPB 29921 29929 in 00059 in M35B 76000 76019 mm015 mmM40B 30709 30716 in 00059 in 78000 78019 mm015 mmOversized Cylinder 00197 in 00059 in Liner 10 05 mm015 mm16 SERVICE STANDARDS These service standards specify the values at which the engine components will require adjustment repair or replacement It is important to observe these standards for your engine and to take action when necessary to maintain a high level of safety dependability and performance NOTE Most of the service standards given in this section apply to all three UNNERSAL Engine Models covered in this manual M25XPB M35B M40BThese engine models will only be listed where a particular service stan255dard does not apply to all three models ENGINE COMPONENTS Cylinder Head DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE Cylinder Head Surface Flatness Top Clearance 00217 00295 in 055 075 mmCompression 412 469 psi Pressure 290 330 kgfcm2284 323 MPaVariance Among Cylinders Valves Valve Clearance 00057 00072 in Cold0145 0185 mmValve Seal Width Intake 00835 in 212 mmExhaust 00835 in 212 mmValve Seal Angle Intake 60260 1047 radExhaust 45260 0785 radValve Face Angle Intake 60260 1047 radExhaust 45260 0785 radValve Recessing 00020 00060 in 005 025 mmClearance between 00014 00025 in Valve Stem and 0035 0065 mmValve Guide Finishing Size Intake Valve 02741 02764 in Guide 10 6960 6975 mmExhaust Valve 02760 02765 in Guide 10 7010 7025 mmLIMIT 00019 in 005 mm327 psi 23 kgfcm2225 MPa10 or less 0016 in 04 mm00039 in 01 mmValve Timing DESCRIPTION Intake Valve Open Intake Valve Closed Exhaust Valve Open Exhaust Valve Closed Valve Spring Free Length Setting Loadl Setting Length Tilt Rocker Arm Clearance between Rocker Arm Shaft and Rocker Arm Rocker Arm Shaft 00 Rocker Arm 10 Tappet Clearance between Tappet and Guide Tappet 00 Tappet Guide 10 Camshaft Camshaft Side Clearance Camshaft Alignment Cam Height Intake Exhaust Camshaft Oil Clearance Camshaft Journal 00 Camshaft Bearing 10 15 STANDARD VALUE LIMIT 14260 024 radBlOC 30260 052 radABDC 55260 096 radBBDC 14260 024 radAlOC 1457 1476 in 1437 in 370 375 mm365 mm264 Ibs 1 122 in 225 Ibs 1 122 in N310 mm 197 kgf 1 310 mm000 N 1 310 mm102 kgf 1310 mm0039 in 10 mm00006 00018 in 00039 in 0016 0045 mm010 mm04714 04718 in 11973 11984 mm04724 04731 in 12000 12018 mm00008 00024 in 00028 in 0020 0062 mm007 mm07858 07866 in 19959 19980 mm07874 07882 in 20000 20021 mm00028 00087 in 00118 in 007 022 mm03 mm00004 in 001 mm11339 in 11319 in 2880 mm2875 mm11417 in 11398 in 2900 mm2895 mm00020 00036 in 00047 in 0050 0091 mm012 mm14147 13799 in 35934 35050 mm1417314183 in 36000 36025 PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE ENGINE OVERHEATS 7 Coolant not circulating 7 Check a through d SHUTS DOWN a Thermostat remove and test in hot water contdReplace thermostat b Loss of coolant check hoses hose clamps drain plug etc for leaks c Broken or loose belt tightenreplace d Air leak in system run engine and open the pressure cap to bleed air Add coolant as needed Unlvarsal 243 2 ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE EXCESSIVE OIL OIL LEVEl RISING CONSUMPTION 1 Incorrectly positioned piston ring gaps 1 Correct ring gap positions contd2 Displaced or twisted connecting rod 2 Replace connecting rod 3 Worn piston ring or piston ring groove 3 Replace ring or piston 4 Oil ring worn or stuck 4 Replace oil ring 5 Worn piston or cylinder liner 5 Repair or replace 6 Worn crankshaft bearing and crankpin bearing 6 Replace OIL LEVEL FALLING 1 Defective stem seal 1 Replace stem seal 2 Worn valve and valve guide 2 Replace valve and valve guide LOW OIL PRESSURE 1 Worn main or connecting rod bearings 1 Replace bearings 2 Relief valve malfunction 2 Overhaul oil pump 3 Diesel fuel is diluting the oil 3 Injection pump repair 4 Oil strainer clogged 4 Clean oil strainer 5 Excessive oil clearance of crankshaft bearing 5 Replace crankshaft bearing 6 Excessive oil clearance of crankpin bearing 6 Replace crankpin bearing 7 Excessive oil clearance of rocker arm bearing 7 Replace rocker arm bearing 8 Oil passage clogged 8 Clean oil passage 9 Improper grade of oil 9 Replace with specified grade of oil HIGH OIL PRESSURE 1 Relief valve defective 1 Overhaul oil pump 2 Improper grade of oil 2 Replace with specified grade of oil FUEl MIXED INTO 1 Injection pump plunger worn 1 Replace pump element or injection pump LUBE OIL 2 Deficient nozzle injection 2 Repair or replace nozzle 3 Injection pump malfunction 3 Replace injection pump COOLANT MIXED INTO 1 Defective cylinder head gasket 1 Replace cylinder head gasket LUBE OIL 2 Defective cylinder head or cylinder block 2 Replace cylinder head or cylinder block ENGINE OVERHEATS 1 Vbelt slackening or slippery with oil 1 Adjust replace or clean belt SHUTS DOWN 2 Low oil level or poor oil quality 2 Add or change oil 3 Knocking 3 See KNOCKING 4 Moving parts seized or damaged 4 Replace 5 Lack of coolant 5 Add coolant 6 Raw water not circulating 6 Check a and b a Raw water pump failure Check impeller replace if necessary b Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water filter continued13 ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE INTERMITTENT EXHAUST SOUND 1 Fuel filter clogged 1 Clean or replace filter 2 Fuel line sucks air 2 Retighten fuel line joints or replace fuel line 3 Water mixed in fuel 3 Replace fuel EXCESSIVE FUEL ENGINE PROBLEMS CONSUMPTION 1 Noisy knocking 1 See KNOCKING 2 Smoky exhaust 2 See SMOKY EXHAUST 3 Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn 3 Repair or replace 4 Poor compression 4 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING 5 Improper valve timing 5 Adjust timing 6 Improper valve clearance 6 Adjust clearance INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR 1 Air intake obstructed 1 Remove obstruction FUEL INJECTION PROBLEMS 1 Injection timing incorrect 1 Adjust timing 2 Faulty injection starting pressure 2 Adjust starting pressure 3 Seized nozzle 3 Replace nozzle 4 Worn nozzle 4 Replace nozzle 5 Nozzle leaking 5 Tighten nozzle or replace sealing gasket 6 Injector not operating properly 6 Adjust nozzle spray pressure 7 Clogged fuel filter 7 Replace filter S High idling speed S Adjust idling speed FUEL PROBLEMS 1 Improper fuel 1 Replace with proper fuel 2 Fuel leaks 2 Find fuel leaks ENGINE OVERLOADED 1 Propeller size 1 Check propeller size and engine performance at rated rpm EXCESSIVE OIL OIL LEAKAGE CONSUMPTION 1 Defective oil seals 1 Replace oil seals 2 Broken gear case gasket 2 Replace gasket 3 Loose gear case attaching bolts 3 Retighten bolts 4 Loose drain plug 4 Retighten plug 5 Loose oil line connector 5 Retighten oil line connections 6 Broken rocker cover gasket 6 Replace gasket 7 Loose rocker cover attaching bolts 7 Retighten attaching bolts continued SMOKY EXHAUST EXCESSIVE EXHAUST SMOKE ENGINE PROBABLE CAUSE WHITISH OR PURPLISH 1 Engine is running cold 2 Excessive engine oil 3 Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber a Poor piston contact b Piston ring or liner worn or seized c Excessive clearance d Worn valve stem and valve guide e Low engine oil viscosity f Excessive oil pressure 4 Injection timing is too late 5 Insufficient compression BLUE 1 Incorrect grade of engine oil 2 Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil oil is blow255ing out through the OR DARK GRAYISH 1 Poor compression 2 Improper valve clearance 3 Improper injection timing 4 Improper fuel 5 High backpressure in exhaust 6 Insufficient intake air 7 Overload BLACK LARGE AMOUNT 1 Clogged fuel filter 2 Restricted air intake 3 Engine overloaded 4 Injection timing 5 Fuel injectors not operating properly 6 Improper grade of fuel 1 Faulty injection timing 1 Warmup engine 2 Correct oil level 3 Check a through f a Check b Clean or replace c Correct or replace d Replace valve stem and guide e Replace engine oil f Inspect the lubrication system See LUBRICATION SYSTEM 4 Adjust timing 5 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING 1 Use the correct grade of oil see Oil Grade under SPECIFICATIONS 2 Decrease oil level 1 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING 2 Adjust valve clearance 3 Adjust injection timing 4 Replace with proper fuel 5 Check for restrictions in exhaust system 6 Increase engine compartment air supply 7 Reduce load 1 Replace fuel filter and bleed system 2 Remove air obstruction 3 Check engine propeller size and engine performance noload through fully loaded 4 Check the injection pump timing and adjust as needed 5 Check nozzle spray pressure setting 6 Use specified grade of fuel 1 Adjust timing 2 Water in injection pump fuel filter or fuel filterwater 2 Drain fuel system separator 3 Faulty injection starting pressure 3 Adjust starting pressure 4 Injection pump malfunctioning 4 Replace injection pump continued11 AdobeUCSENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE ABNORMAL SOUND CONNECTING ROD AND CONNECTING ROD BEARING OR NOISE Contd1 Worn connecting rod big end bearing 1 Replace bearing 2 Worn crankpin 2 Grind crankshaft 3 Bent connecting rod 3 Correct bend or replace 4 Excessive connecting rod bearing oil clearance 4 Repair or replace bearing 5 Connecting rod bearing seized or heatdamaged 5 Replace bearing PISTON PISTON PIN PISTON RING CYLINDER LINER 1 Worn cylinder liner 1 Repair or replace liner 2 Worn piston or piston pin 2 Replace piston 3 Piston seized 3 Replace piston and rebore cylinder 4 Piston seized and ring worn or damaged 4 Replace piston and rings VALVES OR TIMINGRELATED PARTS 1 Worn camshaft 1 Replace camshaft 2 Excessive valve clearance 2 Adjust valve clearance 3 Worn timing gear 3 Replace timing gear 4 Broken valve spring 4 Replace valve spring 5 Excessive clearance between rocker arm and 5 Replace bushing bushing 6 Excessive clearance between idler gear bushing and 6 Replace bushing spindle FUEL SYSTEM 1 Poor quality andor incorrect fuel 1 Use No2 diesel fuel 2 Incorrect injection timing Timing too advanced 2 Check and correct injection timing 3 Fuel injector stuck open 3 Locate and remove faulty injector Rebuild or replace OTHER 1 Coolant pump bearing worn or seized 1 See Coolant Pump under COOLING SYSTEM 2 Improper drivebelt tension 2 Adjust 3 Malfunction of alternator bearing 3 See Alternator under DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 4 Exhaust gas leakage 4 Repair ROUGH OPERATION INJECTION PUMP HUNTING1 Uneven injection 1 Adjust injection or replace parts 2 Inadequate injection nozzle spray 2 Replace injection nozzle GOVERNING SYSTEM 1 Governor lever malfunctioning 1 Check governor shaft and adjust 2 Fatigued governor spring 2 Replace spring continued10 ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE lOW OUTPUT LOW COMPRESSION See Low Compression under HARD STARTING INJECTION SYSTEM OUT OF ADJUSTMENT 1 Incorrect injection timing 1 Adjust injection timing 2 Insufficient injection 2 Repair or replace injection pump 3 Low injection pressure 3 Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure INSUFFICIENT FUEL 1 Air trapped in fuel system 1 Bleed and check for source 2 Clogged filter 2 Clean or replace filter element 3 Contaminated or inferior fuel 3 Purge fuel system and replace with quality fuel 4 Contaminated fuel tank 4 Clean fuel tank OVERHEATING 1 Low coolant level 1 Add coolant 2 Loose Vbelt 2 Adjust or replace Vbelt 3 Incorrect injection timing 3 Adjust injection timing 4 Low engine oil level 4 Add engine oil OTHER 1 Insufficient intake air 1 Increase engine compartment air supply KNOCKING ENGINE KNOCKS WITHOUT MUCH SMOKE 1 Main engine troubles 1 Check a and b a Overheated cylinder a See ENGINE OVERHEATSSHUTS DOWN LOW OUTPUT b Carbon deposits in cylinder h Clean 2 Injection timing too early 2 Correct the timing 3 Injection pressure too high 3 Correct the pressure 4 Improper fuel 4 Replace with proper fuel KNOCKING WITH DARK SMOKE 1 Poor compression 1 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING 2 Injection pump malfunctioning 2 AdjusVRepair 3 Nozzle malfunctioning 3 Check a through d a Poor spray a Clean or replace nozzle h Chattering h Repair or replace nozzle c Afterinjection drip c Repair or replace nozzle d Nozzle needle valve seized d Replace needle valve ABNORMAL SOUND CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARING OR NOISE 1 Badly worn main bearing 1 Replace bearing and grind crankshaft 2 Badly worn crankshaft 2 Grind crankshaft 3 Melted bearing 3 Replace bearing and check lubrication system 4 Excessive crankshaft end play 4 Repair or replace crankshaft continued9 ENGINE IDLING TOO LOW ROUGH IDLING ENGINE SLOWS AND STOPS ENGINE PROBABLE CAUSE 1 Idle speed too low 2 Fuel filter clogged 3 Incorrect injection pump timing 4 High pressure injection line leaking 5 Fuel injector leaking at sealing gasket in head 6 Injection nozzle not operating properly 7 Engine air intake obstructed MALFUNCTION OF ENGINERELATED COMPONENTS 1 Improper valve clearance 2 Poor valve to valve seat contact 3 Failure of cylinder head gasket 4 Governor malfunctioning FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEM 1 Faulty idling speed 2 Faulty injection timing 3 Clogged fuel line or fuel filter 4 Leak in fuel line or fuel filter 5 Air in injector fuel line injection pump fuel filter or fuel filterwater separator 6 Seized or leaky delivery valve 7 Faulty injection starting pressure S Injection nozzle malfunction 9 Feed pump malfunction 10 Injection pump malfunction 1 Fuel lift pump failure 2 Switches andor wiring loose or disconnected 3 Fuel starvation 4 20 amp circuit breaker tripping 5 Exhaust system is restricted 6 Water in fuel 225225 Unlvarsal 243 2 t1IjgiW3i8 1 Adjust idle stop as needed 2 Replace filter and bleed fuel system 3 Check timing and adjust as needed 4 Slacken attaching nut and retighten 5 Retighten injector andor replace sealing washer 6 Check nozzle and adjust as needed 7 Check air intake silencer and air flow into engine compartment 1 Adjust clearance 2 Repair or replace valve 3 Replace gasket 4 Repair governor 1 Adjust idling speed 2 Adjust injection timing 3 Clean fuel line or replace fuel filter 4 Repair fuel line or replace fuel filter 5 Bleed air 6 Clean or replace delivery valve 7 Adjust starting pressure S Clean or replace injection nozzle 9 Clean or replace feed pump 10 Take to a fuel injection pump service facility or replace the pump 1 Check fuel lift pump operation 2 Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose connections Inspect switches for proper operation 3 Check fuel supply fuel valves fuel lift pump 4 Check for high DC amperage draw during operation Ensure breaker is not overly sensitive to heat which would cause tripping 5 Check for blockage collapsed hose carbon buildup at exhaust elbow 6 Pump water from fuel tankschange filters and bleed fuel system The following table describes certain problems relating to engine service the probable causes of these prob255lems and the to overcome these problems NOTE The engines electrical system is protected by a 20 ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on a bracket The preheat solenoid is mounted on the same bracket PROBLEM HARD STARTING PROBABLE CAUSE LOW CRANKING SPEED 1 Engine oil viscosity too high 2 Rundown battery 3 Worn battery 4 Battery terminals loosely connected 5 Defective starter DEFECTIVE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM 1 No fuel at injectors a No fuel in fuel tank andor fuel shutoff b Fuel filter clogged c Injection pump faulty 2 Fuel injectors faulty inadequate spray 3 Low injection pressure 4 I njection timing incorrect 5 Poor quality fuel 6 Water andor air in fuel system MAIN ENGINE TROUBLES 1 Low compression a Leaking compression from fuel injector gasket b Incorrect valve clearance c Inadequate contact of valve seat d Valve stem seized e Weak or broken valve spring f Bent push rod g Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket h Cracked or worn piston i Piston ring seized j Worn piston ring or cylinder liner k Cracked or distorted cylinder head I Fuel camshaft worn 2 Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber UnlvaHal MARINE POWER 7 1 Replace engine oil with less viscous oil 2 Recharge battery 3 Replace battery 4 Clean terminals and tighten cables 5 Repair or replace starter 1 Check a through e a Fill fuel tank Open shutoff and bleed system b Replace filter and bleed c Inspect pump Repair or replace pump as needed 2 Remove and test nozzles Repair nozzles as needed 3 Adjust injection pressure 4 Check and adjust timing 5 Drain and replace with proper fuel 6 Remove water andor bleed air from fuel system Check fuel system for leaks and fuel tank for water contamination 1 Check a through k a Tighten fuel injector or replace gasket b Adjust valve clearance c Lap valve d Replace valve and valve guide e Replace valve spring f Replace push rod g Replace gasket h Replace piston i Replace piston and piston ring j Replace piston ring or cylinder liner k Replace cylinder head I Replace fuel camshaft 2 Clean in is evident and when SPECIFICATIONS UNIVERSAL MODEL M26725XPB I M26735B I M26740B COOLING SYSTEM Type of System Fresh water cooled block controlled with raw water heat exchanger and centrifugal fresh water pump Operating Temperature 170260 190260 F 77260 88260CCoolant Pump Centrifugal type metal impeller beltdriven Coolant Capacity 40 qts 38 liters1 60 qts 56 litersI 45 qts 43 litersRaw Water Pump Positive displacement neoprene impeller gear driven Raw Water Flow 3000 rpm before discharge into exhaust elbow 70 galmin 265 SYSTEM Starting Battery 12 volt DC negative ground Battery Capacity 400 600 cold cranking amps Mando 51 amp 12 volt beltdriven with internal regulator Starter Motor 12 volt reduction gear actuated shift with solenoid Starting Aid 12 volt sheathed type glow plugs TRANSMISSION Model HURTH HBW50 I HURTH HBW100 J HURTH HBW150 Type of Transmission Casehardened helical gears with a servooperated multiple disc clutch Gear Ratio Forward Std2051 1 1791 I 1881 Propeller Shaft Rotation Right hand standard transmission Lubrication Fluid ATF type A Dextron II or Dextron III Transmission Sump Capacity 037 qt 035 literI 058 qt 056 liter5 1 2 3 TRANSMISSION CONTROL BRACKET TRANSMISSION CONTROL BRACKET PARTS IDENTIFICATION MANIFOLD PRESSURE CAP COOLANT FLUID DRAIN MODEL M25XPB MANIFOLD PRESSURE CAP COOLANT FLUID DRAIN MODELS M35B M40B OIL FILL THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY INJECTION PUMP AIR INTAKE SILENCER RAW PUMP INJECTION PUMP OIL DRAIN RAW WATER PUMP AIR INTAKE SILENCER AIR INTAKE SILENCER OIL PAN MANIFOLD PRESSURE CAP MODEL M25XPB AIR INTAKE SILENCER MANIFOLD PRESSURE CAP ALTERNATOR ID NAMEPLATE MANIFOLD ID NAMEPLATE OIL FILTER OIL PAN MODELS M35B M40B 3 AdobeUCSthe service AdobeUCSTABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 2 Parts Identification 3 Specifications 4 Testing for OverhauL 6 Engine 7 Service Standards 15 Engine Description 18 Engine Disassembly Reassembly 21 Engine Service 32 Engine Adjustments 43 Exhaust Manifold Service 47 Lubrication System Description 48 Lubrication System Service 50 Cooling System Description 52 Cooling System Service 54 Fuel System Description 56 Fuel System Disassembly Reassembly 60 Fuel System Service 61 Admiral Control PaneL 63 Captain Control PaneL 64 Control Panel 65 Glow Plug Service 67 Starter Service 68 Mando Alternator Service 72 Prestolite Alternator Service 82 Wiring Diagram 39144 94 Wiring Schematic 39144 95 Wiring Diagram 200360 Catalina yachts 96 Wiring Schematic 200360 Catalina Yachts 97 Hurth HBW Transmissions 98 Transmission 101 Special Tools 102 Torques 104 Standard Hardware Sealants Lubricants 105 Metric Conversions 106 Standard and Metric Conversion Data 107 Index 108 it itUnlvarsal 32 1iJjijeiW3i1 INSTALLATION When installing UNIVERSAL engines it is important that strict attention be paid to the following information CODES AND REGULATIONS Federal regulations ABYC guidelines and safety codes must be complied with when installing engines and generators in a marine environment SIPHONBREAK For installations where the exhaust exhaust elbow is close to or will be below the vessels waterline provisions must be made to install a siphonbreak in the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow This hose must be looped a minimum of 20 in 51 emabove the vessels waterline Failure to use a siphonbreak when the exhaust manifold injection pori is at or below the load waterline will result in raw water damage to the engine and possible flood255ing of the boat If you have any doubt about the position of the waterinjected exhaust elbow rela255tive to the vessels waterline under any of the vessels various operating conditions or when the vessel is not underway install a siphonbreak This precaution is necessary to protect your engine NOTE A siphonbreak requires periodic inspection and cleaning to ensure proper operation Failure to properly maintain a siphonbreak can result in catastrophic engine damage Consult the siphonbreak manufacturer for a proper maintenance schedule EXHAUST SYSTEM The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use The system must be designed to prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any angle of the vessels hull A detailed 40page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and diesel engines and generators is available from your UNIVERSAL dealer iv SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 225 Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing equipment tie back long hair and avoid wearing loose jackets shirts sleeves rings necklaces or bracelets that could be caught in moving parts 225 Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened Keep protective shields and guards in their respective places at all times 225 Do not check fluid levels or the drive belts tension while the engine is operating 225 Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling when the engine is running hair and clothing can easily be caught in these rotating parts HAZARDOUS NOISE A WARNING High noise levels can cause hearing loss 225 Never operate an engine without its muffler installed 225 Do not run an engine with the air intake 225 Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures open A WARNING Do not work on machinery when you are mentally or physically incapacitated by fatigue OPERATORS MANUAL Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and notes to highlight critical information Read your manual carefully maintain your equipment and follow all safety procedures ENGINE INSTALLATIONS Preparations to install an engine should begin with a thor255ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht Councils ABYCstandards These standards are a combination of sources including the USCG and the NFPA Sections of the ABYC standards of particular interest are H2 Ventilation Pl Exhaust systems P4 Inboard engines E9 DC Electrical systems All installations must comply with the Federal Code of Regulations FCRiii ABYC NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES Read the following ABYC NFPA and USCG publications for safety codes and standards Follow their when installing your engine ABYC American Boat and Yacht CouncilSafety Standards for Small Craft Order from ABYC 3069 Solomons Island Rd Edgewater MD 21037 NFPA National Fire Protection Protection Standardfor Motor Craft Order from NFPA 11 Tracy Drive Avon Industrial Park Avon MA 02322 USCG United States Coast GuardUSCG 33CFR183 Order from US Government Printing Office Washington DC 20404 sure the addition to discharge outlet SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS INTRODUCTION Read these safety instructions carefully before servicing your engine Most accidents are caused by failure to follow fundamental rules and precautions Know when dangerous conditions exist and take the necessary precautions to protect yourself your personnel and your machinery The following safety instructions are in compliance with the American Boat and Yacht Council ABYCstandards PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK A WARNING Do not touch AC electrical connections while engine is running or when connected to shore power Lethallloltage is present at these connections 225 Do not operate this machinery without electrical enclosures and covers in place 225 Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical equipment 225 Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical equipment 225 Make sure your clothing and skin are dry not damp particularly shoeswhen handling electrical equipment 225 Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on electrical equipment 225 Do not connect utility shore power to vessels AC circuits except through a shiptoshore double throw transfer switch Damage to vessels AC generator may result if this procedure is not followed 225 Electrical shock results from handling a charged capaci255tor Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together with an insulated tool PREVENT BURNS HOT ENGINE A WARNING Do not touch hot engine parts or exhaust system components A running engine gets lIery hot 225 Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant recovery tank A WARNING Steam can cause injury or death 225 In case of an engine overheat allow the engine to cool before touching the engine or checking the coolant PREVENT BURNS FIRE A WARNING Fire can cause injury or death 225 Prevent flash fires Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near the carburetor fuel line filter fuel pump or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel vapors Use a suitable container to catch all fuel when removing the fuel line carburetor or fuel filters 225 Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved flame arrester removed Backfire can cause severe injury or death 225 Do not operate with the air removed Backfire can cause severe injury or death 225 Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near the fuel system Keep the compartment and the engine clean and free of debris to minimize the chance of fire Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil 225 Be aware diesel fuel will burn PREVENT BURNS EXPLOSION A WARNING Explosions from fuelllapors can cause injury or death 225 Follow refueling safety instructions Keep the vessels hatches closed when fueling Open and ventilate cabin after fueling Check below for fumesvapor before run255ning the blower Run the blower for four minutes before starting your engine 225 All fuel vapors are highly explosive Use extreme care when handling and storing fuels Store fuel in a area away from sparkproducing equipment and out of the reach of children 225 Do not fill the fuel tankswhile the engine is running 225 Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing the fuel system Take care in catching any fuel that might spill DO NOT allow any smoking open flames or other sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servicing Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the fuel system 225 Do not alter or modify the fuel system 225 Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve 225 Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and free of leaks 225 Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is properly maintained Be familiar with its proper use Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate for all applications encountered in this environment CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNING Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer birth defects and other reproductive harm A WARNING Exhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide an odorless and colorless gas Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can cause and death Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide exposure can Include Dizziness Nausea Headache Throbbing in Temples Muscular Twitching Vomiting Weakness and Sleepiness Inability to Think Coherently IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS GET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY If symptoms persist seek medical attention Shut down the unit and do not restart until it has been inspected and repaired WARNING Engines PnxIJce CARBON MONOXIDE Regular Maintenance Required This WARNING DECAL is provided by UNIVERSAL and should be fixed to a bulkhead near your engine or generator UNIVERSAL also recommends installing CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the livingsleeping quarters of your vessel They are inexpensive and easily obtainable at your local marine store 243 It IJ f I1ft t q SERVICE MANUAL Univarsal MARINE DIESEL ENGINES M26725XPB M26735B M26740B PUBLICATION NO 200554 1 st EditionJanuary 2001 WESTERBEKE CORPORATION MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK 150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319 USA TEL 508FAX 508WEBSITE IIIMMA Member National Marine Manufacturers Association AdobeUCS
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