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Universal Diesel M 40b Technical Manual


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              PUBLICATION NO. 200554
               1st Edition/January 2001

   150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319 U.S.A.
   TEL: (508)823-7677' FAX: (508)884-9688· WEBSITE: WWW.WESTERBEKE.COM

      .,.,.,.,        Member National Marine Manufacturers Association
                       PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
           Diesel engine exhaust and some
           of its constituents are known to
           the State of California to cause
           cancer, birth defects, and other
           reproductive harm.

                                    A WARNING:
Exhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide, an odorless and
colorless gas. Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can cause
unconsciousness and death. Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide
exposure can Include:
- Dizziness                  - Throbbing in Temples
-Nausea                      - Muscular Twitching
-Headache                    - Vomiting
- Weakness and Sleepiness - Inability to Think Coherently

seek medical attention. Shut down the unit and do not restart
until it has been inspected and repaired.

                                     This WARNING DECAL is provided by
                                     UNIVERSAL and should be fixed to a
                                     bulkhead near your engine or generator.
                                     UNIVERSAL also recommends installing
                                     CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the
                                     living/sleeping quarters of your vessel.
                                     They are inexpensive and easily
     Regular Maintenance Required    obtainable at your local marine store.
                                              SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
INTRODUCTION                                                     PREVENT BURNS - FIRE
Read these safety instructions carefully before servicing your
engine. Most accidents are caused by failure to follow
fundamental rules and precautions. Know when dangerous
                                                                     A WARNING: Fire can cause injury or death!
conditions exist and take the necessary precautions to protect
                                                                 ·     Prevent flash fires. Do not smoke or permit flames or
yourself, your personnel, and your machinery.                          sparks to occur near the carburetor, fuel line, filter, fuel
The following safety instructions are in compliance with the           pump, or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel
American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) standards.                      vapors. Use a suitable container to catch all fuel when
                                                                       removing the fuel line, carburetor, or fuel filters.
PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK                                           ·     Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved flame
                                                                       arrester removed. Backfire can cause severe injury or
    A WARNING: Do not touch AC electrical connections            ·     Do not operate with the air cleaner/silencer removed.
    while engine is running, or when connected to shore                Backfire can cause severe injury or death.
    power. Lethallloltage is present at these connections!       ·     Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near
                                                                       the fuel system. Keep the compartment and the engine
·    Do not operate this m.achinery without electrical                 clean and free of debris to minimize the chance of fire.
     enclosures and covers in place.                                   Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil.
·    Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical       · Be aware -       diesel fuel will burn.
·    Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical           PREVENT BURNS - EXPLOSION
·    Make sure your clothing and skin are dry, not damp
     (particularly shoes) when handling electrical equipment.
                                                                     A WARNING: Explosions from fuelllapors can cause
                                                                     injury or death!
·    Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
     electrical equipment.                                       ·     Follow re-fueling safety instructions. Keep the vessel's
·    Do not connect utility shore power to vessel's AC                 hatches closed when fueling. Open and ventilate cabin
     circuits, except through a ship-to-shore double throw             after fueling. Check below for fumes/vapor before run-
     transfer switch. Damage to vessel's AC generator may              ning the blower. Run the blower for four minutes before
     result if this procedure is not followed.                         starting your engine.
·    Electrical shock results from handling a charged capaci-    ·     All fuel vapors are highly explosive. Use extreme care
     tor. Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together           when handling and storing fuels. Store fuel in a well-ven-
     with an insulated tool.                                           tilated area away from spark-producing equipment and
                                                                       out of the reach of children.
PREVENT BURNS - HOT ENGINE                                       ·      Do not fill the fuel tank(s) while the engine is running.
                                                                 ·      Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing
    A WARNING: Do not touch hot engine parts or                         the fuel system. Take care in catching any fuel that might
                                                                        spill. DO NOT allow any smoking, open flames, or other
    exhaust system components. A running engine gets                  . sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servic-
    lIery hot!                                                          ing. Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the
                                                                        fuel system.
·    Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant
                                                                 ·     Do not alter or modify the fuel system.
     recovery tank.
                                                                 ·     Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve.
                                                                 ·     Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and
    A WARNING: Steam can cause injury or death!                        free of leaks.
                                                                 ·     Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is
·    In case of an engine overheat, allow the engine to cool           properly maintained. Be familiar with its proper use.
     before touching the engine or checking the coolant.               Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate
                                                                       for all applications encountered in this environment.
                                                SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
ACCIDENTAL STARTING                                                 TOXIC EXHAUST GASES

    A WARNING: Accidental starting can cause injury                     A WARNING: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly gas!
    or death!
                                                                    ·     Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
·     Disconnect the battery cables before servicing the engine.
                                                                          discharged from the engine. Check the exhaust system
      Remove the negative lead first and reconnect it last.
                                                                          regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifolds
·     Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before           are securely attached and no warping exists. Pay close
      starting.                                                           attention to the manifold, water injection elbow, and
·     Make certain all covers, guards, and hatches are re-                exhaust pipe nipple.
      installed before starting the engine.                         ·     Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated.
                                                                    ·     In addition to routine inspection of the exhaust system,
BATTERY EXPLOSION                                                         install a carbon monoxide detector. Consult your boat
                                                                          builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors.
    A WARNING: Battery explosion can cause injury                   ·     For additional information refer to ABYC T-22 (educa-
                                                                          tional information on Carbon Monoxide).
    or death!
·     Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
      being serviced. Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen, a              A WARNING: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible
      highly explosive gas, which can be ignited by electrical          odorless gas. Inhalation produces flu-like symptoms,
      arcing or by lit tobacco products. Shut off all electrical        nausea or death!
      equipment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing dur-
      ing servicing.                                                ·     Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems. Diesel
·     Never connect the negative (-) battery cable to the posi-           fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust sys-
      tive (+) connection terminal of the starter solenoid. Do            tems. Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of copper
      not test the battery condition by shorting the terminals            tubing resulting in exhaust/water leakage.
      together. Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapors.   ·     Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
      Ventilate any compartment containing batteries to prevent           through portholes, vents, or air conditioners. If .the engine
      accumulation of explosive gases. To avoid sparks, do not            exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline, water could
      disturb the battery charger connections while the battery           enter the exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
      is being charged.                                                   flow of exhaust. Avoid overloading the craft.
·     Avoid contacting the terminals with tools, etc., to prevent   ·     Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as 10xic as
      bums or sparks that could cause an explosion. Remove                exhaust fumes from gasoline engines, carbon monoxide
      wristwatch, rings, and any other jewelry before handling            gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes. Some of the symp-
      the battery.                                                        toms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or poisoning
·     Always tum the battery charger off before disconnecting             are:
      the battery connections. To avoid sparks from an                          Dizziness      Throbbing in temples
      accidental short circuit, always remove the negative lead                 Headache       Muscular twitching
      first and reconnect it last when servicing the battery.                   Nausea         Weakness and sleepiness
                                                                                Vomiting       Inability to think coherently
                                                                    AVOID MOVING PARTS
    A WARNING: Sulfuric acid In batteries can cause                     A WARNING: Rotating parts can cause Injury
    severe injury or death!
                                                                        or death!
·     When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
      level, wear rubber gloves, a rubber apron, and eye protec-    ·     Do not service the engine while it is running. If a situa-
      tion. Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is destructive.         tion arises in which it is absolutely necessary to make
      If it comes in contact with your skin, wash it off at once          operating adjustments, use extreme care to avoid touching
      with water. Acid may splash on the skin or into the eyes            moving parts and hot exhaust system components.
      inadvertently when removing electrolyte caps.
                                                 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
·     Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing                 ABYC, NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR
      equipment; tie back long hair and avoid wearing loose
      jackets, shirts, sleeves, rings, necklaces or bracelets that
                                                                           INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES
      could be caught in moving parts.                                     Read the following ABYC, NFPA and USCG publications
                                                                           for safety codes and standards. Follow their recommenda-
·     Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened.
                                                                           tions when installing your engine.
      Keep protective shields and guards in their respective
      places at all times.                                                 ABYC (American Boat and Yacht Council)
·     Do not check fluid levels or the drive belt's tension while
                                                                           Safety Standards for Small Craft
      the engine is operating.                                             Order from:
·     Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling             ABYC
      when the engine is running; hair and clothing can easily                3069 Solomons Island Rd.
      be caught in these rotating parts.                                      Edgewater, MD 21037
                                                                           NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
HAZARDOUS NOISE                                                            Fire Protection Standardfor Motor Craft
                                                                           Order from:
    A WARNING: High noise levels can cause hearing                           NFPA
    loss!                                                                    11 Tracy Drive
                                                                             Avon Industrial Park
·     Never operate an engine without its muffler installed.                 Avon, MA 02322
·     Do not run an engine with the air intake (silencer)                  USCG (United States Coast Guard)
      removed.                                                             USCG 33CFR183
·     Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures            Order from:
                                                                             U.S. Government Printing Office
                                                                             Washington, D.C. 20404
    A WARNING: Do not work on machinery when you are
    mentally or physically incapacitated by fatigue!

Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
notes to highlight critical information. Read your manual
carefully, maintain your equipment, and follow all safety
Preparations to install an engine should begin with a thor-
ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht Council's
(ABYC) standards. These standards are a combination of
sources including the USCG and the NFPA.
Sections of the ABYC standards of particular interest are:
      H-2 Ventilation
      P-l Exhaust systems
      P-4 Inboard engines
      E-9 DC Electrical systems
All installations must comply with the Federal Code of
Regulations (FCR).


When installing UNIVERSAL engines, it is important that strict attention be paid
to the following information:
Federal regulations, ABYC guidelines and safety codes must be complied with
when installing engines and generators in a marine environment.
For installations where the exhaust manifold/water-injected exhaust elbow is close
to or will be below the vessel's waterline, provisions must be made to install a
siphon-break in the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow. This hose must
be looped a minimum of 20 in (51 em) above the vessel's waterline. Failure to
use a siphon-break when the exhaust manifold injection pori is at or below the
load waterline will result in raw water damage to the engine and possible flood-
ing of the boat.
If you have any doubt about the position of the water-injected exhaust elbow rela-
tive to the vessel's waterline under any of the vessel's various operating conditions
or when the vessel is not underway, install a siphon-break. This precaution is
necessary to protect your engine.
NOTE: A siphon-break requires periodic inspection and cleaning to ensure proper
operation. Failure to properly maintain a siphon-break can result in catastrophic
engine damage. Consult the siphon-break manufacturer for a proper maintenance
The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use. The system must be designed
to prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any
angle of the vessel's hull.

   A detailed 40-page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and
   diesel, engines and generators, is available from your UNIVERSAL dealer.

                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 2
Parts Identification...................... :........................................................................ 3
Specifications ....................................................................................................... 4
Testing for OverhauL ........................................................................................... 6
Engine Troubleshooting ....................................................................................... 7
Service Standards ............................................................................................... 15
Engine Description ............................................................................................. 18
Engine Disassembly & Reassembly................................................................... 21
Engine Service ................................................................................................... 32
Engine Adjustments ........................................................................................... .43
Exhaust Manifold Service .................................................................................. 47
Lubrication System Description ......................................................................... 48
Lubrication System Service ............................................................................... 50
Cooling System Description .............................................................................. 52
Cooling System Service ..................................................................................... 54
Fuel System Description.................................................................................... 56
Fuel System Disassembly & Reassembly.......................................................... 60
Fuel System Service ........................................................................................... 61
Admiral Control PaneL ...................................................................................... 63
Captain Control PaneL ....................................................................................... 64
Control Panel Troubleshooting .......................................................................... 65
Glow Plug Service ............................................................................................. 67
Starter Service .................................................................................................... 68
Mando Alternator Service .................................................................................. 72
Prestolite Alternator Service .............................................................................. 82
Wiring Diagram #39144 .................................................................................... 94
Wiring Schematic #39144 .................................................................................. 95
Wiring Diagram #200360 - Catalina yachts ..................................................... 96
Wiring Schematic #200360 - Catalina Yachts ................................................... 97
Hurth HBW Transmissions. ............. ........... .......... ........ .......... .............. ........... 98
Transmission Troubleshooting ......................................................................... 101
Special Tools .................................................................................................... 102
Torques ............................................................................................................. 104
Standard Hardware; Sealants & Lubricants ..................................................... 105
Metric Conversions .......................................................................................... 106
Standard and Metric Conversion Data............................................................. 107
Index ................................................................................................................. 108

                                              it   itUnlvarsal
                                             32         1'&'i J@jijeiW3i-
This service manual contains detailed information relating           A WARNING:       Procedures, which if not properly fol-
to the servicing and overhaul of the Universal M-25XPB,              lowed, can result in personal injury or loss of life.
M-35B and M-40B marine diesel engines. Information
about the construction and function of the various systems
and components can be found in the Description sections.            CUSTOMER IDENTIFICATION CARD
For the major engine overhaul procedure, refer to the
SERVICE sections. Additional service information for spe-
cific components and systems may be found by referring to
the TABLE OF CONTENTS and the INDEX. Refer also to
your UNIVERSAL parts Catalog.                                          Customer Identification
These service procedures are intended for the guidance of              UNIVERSAL OWNER
suitably equipped and staffed marine engine service and
rebuilding facilities, and should only be undertaken by such           MAIN STREET
facilities and their personnel.
                                                                       HOMETOWN, USA
The service information in this manual generally applies to
all three models covered by this manual. The individual
models will only be noted where information does not apply             Model M-358                          Ser. #XXXX-D704
to all three models.
                                                                       Expires 4/24/01
Product software (tech data, parts lists, manuals, brochures        The UNIVERSAL engine serial number is an alphanumeric
and catalogs) provided from sources other than UNIVER-              number that can assist in determining the date of manufac-
SAL are not within UNIVERSAL'S CONTROL.                             ture of your UNIVERSAL engine. The manufacturer's date
UNIVERSAL CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE                             code is placed at the end of the engine serial number and
CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE, MAKES NO WAR-                             consists of a character followed by three numbers. The
RANTIES OR REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT                             character indicates the decade (D=1990s, E=2000s), the first
THERETO, INCLUDING ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR                          number represents the year in the decade, and the second
COMPLETENESS THEREOF AND WILL IN NO EVENT                           and third numbers represent the month of manufacture.
                                                                    ORDERING PARTS/SERIAL NUMBER LOCATION
OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.                          Whenever replacement parts are needed, always provide
                                                                    the engine model number and engine serial number as they
UNIVERSAL customers should also keep in mind the time
                                                                    appear on the silver and black identification nameplate
span between printings of UNIVERSAL product software
                                                                    located on the side of the engine's exhaust manifold. The
and the unavoidable existence of earlier UNIVERSAL manu-
                                                                    engine serial number can also be found stamped into the
als. Product software provided with UNIVERSAL products,
                                                                    engine block on the left side of the engine below the cylin-
whether from UNIVERSAL or other suppliers, must not and
                                                                    der head cover. You must provide us with this information
cannot be relied upon exclusively as the definitive authority
                                                                    so we may properly identify your engine. In addition,
on the respective product. It not only makes good sense but
                                                                    include a complete part description and part number for
is imperative that appropriate representatives of UNIVER-
                                                                    each part needed (see the separately furnished Parts List).
SAL or the supplier in question be consulted to determine
                                                                    Also insist upon UNIVERSAL packaged parts because will
the accuracy and currentness of the product software being
                                                                    fit or generic parts are frequently not made to the same
consulted by the customer.
                                                                    specifications as original equipment.

As this manual takes you through the service procedures
and troubleshooting of your marine engine, critical informa-
tion will be highlighted by NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARN-
INGS. An explanation follows:
NOTE: An operating procedure essential to note.                     NOTE: Component locations in this manual are referenced
                                                                    from the front of the engine which is the pulley/drive belt
                                                                    end. Left and right sides are determined as follows: imag-
  A CAUTION: Procedures, which if not strictly                       ine straddling the engine, facing in the same direction as
 observed, can result in the damage or destruction of               the front of the engine: the left side is at your left, the right
 your engine.                                                       side is at your right. The cylinder number sequence starts
                                                                    with the No.1 cylinder located at the front of the engine.

                                                    PARTS IDENTIFICATION
                         MANIFOLD PRESSURE
                         CAP (COOLANT FILL)                   OIL FILL

                                                                          INJECTION PUMP
                                                                                                    AIR INTAKE             MANIFOLD
                                                                            AIR INTAKE              SILENCER               PRESSURE CAP
                                                                            SILENCER                                                           ALTERNATOR

                                                                                                                                                            I.D. NAMEPLATE


                 TRANSMISSION                                            RAW
                 FLUID DRAIN                                             PUMP
                                    MODEL M-25XPB

                                                                                                            OIL PAN
                                                                                                                      MODEL M-25XPB
                         MANIFOLD PRESSURE
                         CAP (COOLANT FILL)

                                                           JIl1:;;;;:~\'"'iI;~- INJECTION PUMP

                                                                                   AIR INTAKE
TRANSMISSION                                                                                               AIR INTAKE           PRESSURE CAP
CONTROL                                                                                                    SILENCER


                                                                                                                                ~~!!~~-t~1--                 I.D. NAMEPLATE

                FLUID DRAIN         MODELS M-35B & M-40B
                                                              OIL DRAIN

                                                              RAW WATER

                                                                                           OIL FILTER                 OIL PAN

                                                                                                         MODELS M-35B & M-40B

                                                                                        UNIVERSAL MODEL
                                                      M-25XPB                                M·35B                                   M-40B
 Engine Type                                          Diesel, four-cycle, fresh water cooled, vertical, in-line overhead valve mechanism
 Horsepower                                      26   @ 3000 rpm                        35 @ 3000 rpm                        37.5 @ 3000 rpm
 Cylinders                                                3                    I                                       4
 Aspiration                                                                             Naturally aspirated
 Bore & Stoke                                                 2.99 x 2.90 in. (76.0 x 73.6 mm)                      3.07 x 3.09 in. (78.0 x 78.4 mm)
 Combustion Chamber                                                       Spherical type; three vortex combustion system
 Displacement                                 61.2 cu. in. (1.0 liters)              81.47 cu. in. (1.335 liters)          91.41 cu. in. (1.498 liters)
 Compression Ratio                                                                                23:1
 Firing Order                                         1-2- 3                                                     1-3-4-2
 Crankshaft Direction of Rotation                                         Counterclockwise as viewed from flywheel end
 Maximum Torque                          47 ft-Ibs (6.5 kg-m)   @   2440 rpm 62 ft-Ibs (8.6 kg-m)        @   2460 rpm 73 ft-Ibs (10.1 kg-m)   @   2180 rpm
 Dry Weight, with Transmission

                                                295 Ibs (133.8 kg)
                                             Length 28.4 in. 1721.4 mml
                                             Width 18.9 in. 4BO.1 mm
                                             Height 22.1 in. 561.3 mm
                                                                                           352 Ibs (159.0 kg)
                                                                                      Length 32.7 in. 30 .6 mml
                                                                                      Width 1B.9 in. 480.1 mm
                                                                                      Height 22.0 in. 55B.9 mm
                                                                                                                               356 Ibs (161.5 kg)
                                                                                                                            Length 33.2 in. (843.3 mml
                                                                                                                            Width 18.9 in. 14BO.1 mm
                                                                                                                            Height 22.1 in. 561.3 mm
 Maximum Angle of Installation                                                       Not to exceed 14° (24 rad.)
 Maximum Angle of Rotation                                                        Not to exceed 25° (44 rad.)
 Engine Speed                                                 Idle speed M-25XPB: 1,000 - 1,200 rpm; M-35B, M-40B: BOO - 1,000 rpm
                                                              Cruise Speed M-25XPB, M-35B, M-40B: 2,000 - 2,500 rpm
 Engine Timing                                                                      18° (0.314 rad.) before lD.C.
 Engine Stop                                                                                    Manual
 Type of System                                                                    Forced lubrication by gear pump
 Oil Grade                                                          API Specification CF or CG-4, SAE 30, 10W-30, 15W-40
 Oil Filter                                                                        Full-flow, spin-on filter element
 Lubricant Capacity                                                   4.0 qts/3.8 liters                                       4.5 qts (4.3 liters)
 Operating Oil Pressure   (Engine Hot)                                       40-60 psi (276-414 kPa) at rated speed
 Type of System                                                                        Open flow, self priming
 Fuel                                                                      No.2 Diesel Oil, cetane rating of 45 or higher
 Fuel Injection Pump                                                                  Bosch in-line plunger type
 Fuel Injectors                                                                            Bosch throttle type
 Governor                                                                            Centrifugal mechanical type
 Fuel Lift Pump                                                                 12 volt 5 ft. lift capacity, solid state
 Fuel Filter                                                                          Full flow, spin-on element
 Fuel Supply & Return Piping                                   1/8 in. 1.0. (3.18 mm) minimum; 3/8 in. 1.0. (9.52 mm) maximum
 Typical Fuel Consumption                    1.0 gal.lhr (3.8 liters/hr)               1.3 gal.lhr (4.9 liters/hr)          1.4 gal.lhr (5.3 liters/hr)
 @2500 rpm
 Air Intake Silencer                                                            Cleanable, replaceable filter element
 Air Flow @3000 rpm                           53.1 cfm (1503.5 Ipm)                    70.7 cfm (2001.8 Ipm)                 79.3 cfm (2245.3 Ipm)
 (Engine Combustion)


                                                                          UNIVERSAL MODEL
                                           M·25XPB                I            M·35B                   I              M·40B
 Type of System                                        Fresh water cooled block, thermostatically controlled with
                                                      raw water heat exchanger and centrifugal fresh water pump
 Operating Temperature                                                   170° - 190° F (77° - 88°C)
 Coolant Pump                                                    Centrifugal type, metal impeller, belt-driven
 Coolant Capacity                      4.0 qts (3.8 liters)      1             6.0 qts (5.6 liters)        I    4.5 qts (4.3 liters)
 Raw Water Pump                                            Positive displacement, neoprene impeller, gear driven
 Raw Water Flow @ 3000 rpm                                             7.0 gal/min (26.5 liters/min)
 before discharge into exhaust elbow
 Starting Battery                                                     12 volt DC, negative ground
 Battery Capacity                                                 400 - 600 cold cranking amps (CCA)
 Alternator/Regulator                                  Mando, 51 amp, 12 volt, belt-driven, with internal regulator
 Starter Motor                                            12 volt, reduction gear, actuated shift, with solenoid
 Starting Aid                                                       12 volt sheathed type glow plugs
 Model                                  HURTH HBW-50            I         HURTH HBW-100                 J   HURTH HBW-150
 Type of Transmission                         Case-hardened helical gears, with a servo-operated multiple disc clutch
 Gear Ratio Forward (Std)                  2.05:1                 1           1.79:1                I             1.88:1
 Propeller Shaft Rotation                                       Right hand - standard transmission
 Lubrication Fluid                                              ATF type A Dextron II or Dextron III
 Transmission Sump Capacity                           0.37 qt. (0.35 liter)                         I      0.58 qt. (0.56 liter)

                                           TESTING FOR OVERHAUL
HOW TO DETERMINE WHEN                                                  Measuring Compression Pressure
TO OVERHAUL THE ENGINE                                                 To check the compression pressure, see ENGINE COMPRES-
Cause of Low Compression                                               SION TEST under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS.
Generally, the time at which an engine should be overhauled            NOTE: Do not guess the conditions of other cylinders from a
is determined by various conditions such as lowered engine             result of testing one cylinder. Be sure to measure the com-
power output, decreased compression pressure, and increased            pression pressure for each cylinder. Look for cylinders with
fuel and oil consumption. The lowered engine power output,             dramatically (at least 20%) lower compression than the aver-
in the case of diesel engines, is not necessarily due to trouble       age of the other cylinders. If the weak cylinder is flanked by
with the engine itself, but is sometimes caused by injector            healthy cylinders, the problem is either valve- or head-gasket
nozzle wear or injection pump wear. It is most reasonable to           related. Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder indi-
judge by a decrease in compression pressure. The decrease in           cates gasket failure. Abnormally high readings on all cylin-
compression pressure is caused by many factors. It is, there-          ders indicate heavy carbon accumulations, a condition that
fore, necessary to determine a cause or causes on the basis of         might be accompanied by high pressures and noise.
data produced by periodic inspection and maintenance. Oil              NOTE: In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise,
analysis on a seasonal basis is a good means of monitoring             have the injectors overhauled by an authorized fuel injection
engine internal wear. When caused by worn cylinders or pis-            service center. Poor fuel quality, contaminants, and loss of
ton rings, the following symptoms will occur:                          positive fuel pressure to the injection pump will result in
    ·   Low engine power output                                        injector faults.
    ·   Increased fuel consumption                                     OVERHAUL CONDITIONS
    ·   Increased oil consumption                                      Compression pressure tends to increase a little in a new
    ·   Hard engine starting                                           engine until the piston rings and valve seats have been bro-
                                                                       ken in. Thereafter, it decreases gradually with the progressive
    ·   Noisy engine operation
                                                                       wear of these parts.
These symptoms often appear together. Increased fuel con-
                                                                       When the decrease of compression pressure reaches its limit
sumption and hard engine starting can also result from exces-
                                                                       (see SERVICE STANDARDS), the engine must be over-
sive fuel injection, improper injection timing, and wear of the
                                                                       hauled. The engine also requires an overhaul when oil con-
injection pump and nozzles. They are also caused by defec-
                                                                       sumption is high, when blowby is evident, and when
tive electrical components such as the battery, alternator;
                                                                       compression values are at a minimum or below.
starter and glow plugs. Therefore it is desirable to judge the
optimum engine overhaul time by the lowered compression                NOTE: Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS chart during an
pressure caused by worn cylinders and piston rings plus                engine overhaul. It gives the measurements and values for
increased oil consumption. In diesel engines, satisfactory             the repair or replacement of the engine components.
combustion is obtained only under sufficient compression               NOTE: The ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING section may be
pressure. If an engine lacks compression pressure, incomplete          helpful in determining the need for an engine overhaul.
combustion of fuel will take place even if other parts of the
engine are operating properly. To determine the period of
engine overhaul, it is important to measure the engine com-
pression pressure regularly. At the same time, the engine
speed at which the measurement of compression pressure is
made should be checked because the compression pressure
varies with engine rpm. The engine rpm can be measured at
the front end of the crankshaft.

                                         ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
The following troubleshooting table describes certain problems              NOTE: The engine's electrical system is protected by a 20
relating to engine service, the probable causes of these prob-              ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on a bracket.
lems, and the recommendations to overcome these problems.                   The preheat solenoid is mounted on the same bracket.

        PROBLEM                                 PROBABLE CAUSE                                        VERIFICATION/REMEDY

                            1. Engine oil viscosity too high.                             1. Replace engine oil with less viscous oil.
                            2. Run-down battery.                                          2. Recharge battery.
                            3. Worn battery.                                              3. Replace battery.
                            4. Battery terminals loosely connected.                       4. Clean terminals and tighten cables.
                            5. Defective starter.                                         5. Repair or replace starter.

                            DEFECTIVE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
                            1. No fuel at injectors.                                      1. Check a. through e.
                               a. No fuel in fuel tank and/or fuel shutoff.                  a. Fill fuel tank. Open shutoff and bleed system.
                               b. Fuel filter clogged.                                       b. Replace filter and bleed.
                               c. Injection pump faulty.                                     c. Inspect pump. Repair or replace pump as
                            2. Fuel injectors faulty; inadequate spray.                   2. Remove and test nozzles. Repair nozzles as
                            3.   Low injection pressure.                                  3. Adjust injection pressure.
                            4.   Injection timing incorrect.                              4. Check and adjust timing.
                            5.   Poor quality fuel.                                       5. Drain and replace with proper fuel.
                            6.    Water and/or air in fuel system.                        6. Remove water and/or bleed air from fuel system.
                                                                                             Check fuel system for leaks and fuel tank for
                                                                                             water contamination.

                            MAIN ENGINE TROUBLES
                            1. Low compression.                                           1. Check a. through k.
                               a. Leaking compression from fuel injector gasket.             a. Tighten fuel injector or replace gasket.
                               b. Incorrect valve clearance.                                 b. Adjust valve clearance.
                               c. Inadequate contact of valve seat.                          c. Lap valve.
                               d. Valve stem seized.                                         d. Replace valve and valve guide.
                               e. Weak or broken valve spring.                               e. Replace valve spring.
                               f. Bent push rod.                                             f. Replace push rod.
                               g. Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket.            g. Replace gasket.
                               h. Cracked or worn piston.                                    h. Replace piston.
                               i. Piston ring seized.                                        i. Replace piston and piston ring.
                               j. Worn piston ring or cylinder liner.                        j. Replace piston ring or cylinder liner.
                               k. Cracked or distorted cylinder head.                        k. Replace cylinder head.
                               I. Fuel camshaft worn.                                        I. Replace fuel camshaft.
                            2. Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber.                 2. Clean.


                                                           + .UnlvaHal
                                                                     MARINE POWER

                              ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
    PROBLEM                          PROBABLE CAUSE                                           VERIFICATION/REMEDY

ENGINE IDLING   1.   Idle speed too low.                                      1.   Adjust idle stop as needed.
                2.   Fuel filter clogged.                                     2.   Replace filter and bleed fuel system.
                3.   Incorrect injection pump timing.                         3.   Check timing and adjust as needed.
                4.   High pressure injection line leaking.                    4.   Slacken attaching nut and retighten.
                5.   Fuel injector leaking at sealing gasket in head.         5.   Retighten injector and/or replace sealing washer.
                6.   Injection nozzle not operating properly.                 6.   Check nozzle and adjust as needed.
                7.   Engine air intake obstructed.                            7.   Check air intake silencer and air flow into
                                                                                   engine compartment.

                1. Improper valve clearance.                                  1. Adjust clearance.
                2. Poor valve to valve seat contact.                          2. Repair or replace valve.
                3. Failure of cylinder head gasket.                           3. Replace gasket.
                4. Governor malfunctioning.                                   4. Repair governor.

                 1. Faulty idling speed.                                      1.   Adjust idling speed.
                 2. Faulty injection timing.                                  2.   Adjust injection timing.
                 3. Clogged fuel line or fuel filter.                         3.   Clean fuel line or replace fuel filter.
                 4. Leak in fuel line or fuel filter.                         4.   Repair fuel line or replace fuel filter.
                 5. Air in injector, fuel line, injection pump, fuel filter   5.   Bleed air.
                    or fuel filter/water separator.
                 6. Seized or leaky delivery valve.                            6. Clean or replace delivery valve.
                 7. Faulty injection starting pressure.                        7. Adjust starting pressure.
                 S. Injection nozzle malfunction.                              S. Clean or replace injection nozzle.
                 9. Feed pump malfunction.                                     9. Clean or replace feed pump.
                10. Injection pump malfunction.                               10. Take to a fuel injection pump service facility,
                                                                                   or replace the pump.

ENGINE SLOWS     1. Fuel lift pump failure.                                   1. Check fuel lift pump operation.
                 2. Switches and/or wiring loose or disconnected.             2. Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose
                                                                                 connections. Inspect switches for proper
                 3. Fuel starvation.                                          3. Check fuel supply, fuel valves, fuel lift pump.
                 4. 20 amp circuit breaker tripping.                          4. Check for high DC amperage draw during
                                                                                 operation. Ensure breaker is not overly sensi-
                                                                                 tive to heat which would cause tripping.
                 5. Exhaust system is restricted.                             5. Check for blockage, collapsed hose, carbon
                                                                                 buildup at exhaust elbow.
                 6. Water in fuel.                                            6. Pump water from fuel tank(s); change filters
                                                                                 and bleed fuel system.

                                                £2       &t.1;I@jg,iW3i-

                             ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
    PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                    VERIFICATION/REMEDY

lOW OUTPUT       LOW COMPRESSION                          See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.

                 1. Incorrect injection timing.           1. Adjust injection timing.
                 2. Insufficient injection.               2. Repair or replace injection pump.
                 3. Low injection pressure.               3. Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure.

                 INSUFFICIENT FUEL
                 1. Air trapped in fuel system.           1. Bleed and check for source.
                 2. Clogged filter.                       2. Clean or replace filter element.
                 3. Contaminated or inferior fuel.        3. Purge fuel system and replace with quality
                 4. Contaminated fuel tank.               4. Clean fuel tank.

                 1. Low coolant level.                    1. Add coolant.
                 2. Loose V-belt.                         2. Adjust or replace V-belt.
                 3. Incorrect injection timing.           3. Adjust injection timing.
                 4. Low engine oil level.                 4. Add engine oil.

                 1. Insufficient intake air.              1. Increase engine compartment air supply.

                 1. Main engine troubles.                 1. Check a. and b.
                    a. Overheated cylinder.                  a. See ENGINE OVERHEATS/SHUTS
                                                                DOWN; LOW OUTPUT.
                    b. Carbon deposits in cylinder.          h. Clean.
                 2. Injection timing too early.           2. Correct the timing.
                 3. Injection pressure too high.          3. Correct the pressure.
                 4. Improper fuel.                        4. Replace with proper fuel.

                 1. Poor compression.                     1. See Low Compression under HARD
                 2. Injection pump malfunctioning.        2. AdjusVRepair.
                 3. Nozzle malfunctioning.                3. Check a. through d.
                    a. Poor spray.                           a. Clean or replace nozzle.
                    h. Chattering.                            h. Repair or replace nozzle.
                    c. After-injection drip.                  c. Repair or replace nozzle.
                    d. Nozzle needle valve seized.            d. Replace needle valve.

                 1. Badly worn main bearing.              1. Replace bearing and grind crankshaft.
                 2. Badly worn crankshaft.                2. Grind crankshaft.
                 3. Melted bearing.                       3. Replace bearing and check lubrication system.
                 4. Excessive crankshaft end play.        4. Repair or replace crankshaft.


                               ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
     PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                                       VERIFICATION/REMEDY

OR NOISE (Cont'd)
                    1. Worn connecting rod big end bearing.                 1. Replace bearing.
                    2. Worn crankpin.                                       2. Grind crankshaft.
                    3. Bent connecting rod.                                 3. Correct bend or replace.
                    4. Excessive connecting rod bearing oil clearance.      4. Repair or replace bearing.
                    5. Connecting rod bearing seized or heat-damaged.       5. Replace bearing.

                    1. Worn cylinder liner.                                 1.   Repair or replace liner.
                    2. Worn piston or piston pin.                           2.   Replace piston.
                    3. Piston seized.                                       3.   Replace piston and rebore cylinder.
                    4. Piston seized and ring worn or damaged.              4.   Replace piston and rings.

                    1. Worn camshaft.                                       1. Replace camshaft.
                    2. Excessive valve clearance.                           2. Adjust valve clearance.
                    3. Worn timing gear.                                    3. Replace timing gear.
                    4. Broken valve spring.                                 4. Replace valve spring.
                    5. Excessive clearance between rocker arm and           5. Replace bushing.
                    6. Excessive clearance between idler gear bushing and   6. Replace bushing.

                    FUEL SYSTEM
                    1. Poor quality and/or incorrect fuel.                  1. Use No.2 diesel fuel.
                    2. Incorrect injection timing. Timing too advanced.     2. Check and correct injection timing.
                    3. Fuel injector stuck open.                            3. Locate and remove faulty injector. Rebuild or

                    1. Coolant pump bearing worn or seized.                 1. See Coolant Pump under COOLING SYSTEM.
                    2. Improper drive-belt tension.                         2. Adjust.
                    3. Malfunction of alternator bearing.                   3. See Alternator Troubleshooting under
                                                                               DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.
                    4. Exhaust gas leakage.                                 4. Repair.

                    1. Uneven injection.                                    1. Adjust injection or replace parts.
                    2. Inadequate injection nozzle spray.                   2. Replace injection nozzle.

                    GOVERNING SYSTEM
                    1. Governor lever malfunctioning.                       1. Check governor shaft and adjust.
                    2. Fatigued governor spring.                            2. Replace spring.

                            ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
    PROBLEM                        PROBABLE CAUSE                                           VERIFICATION/REMEDY

                1. Engine is running cold.                                      1. Warm-up engine.
                2. Excessive engine oil.                                        2. Correct oil level.
                3. Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber.               3. Check a. through f.
                  a. Poor piston contact.                                         a. Check.
                  b. Piston ring or liner worn or seized.                         b. Clean or replace.
                  c. Excessive piston-to-cylinder clearance.                      c. Correct or replace.
                   d. Worn valve stem and valve guide.                             d. Replace valve stem and guide.
                   e. Low engine oil viscosity.                                    e. Replace engine oil.
                  f.   Excessive oil pressure.                                     f. Inspect the lubrication system. See
                                                                                      LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
                4. Injection timing is too late.                                4. Adjust timing.
                5. Insufficient compression.                                    5. See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.

                1. Incorrect grade of engine oil.                               1. Use the correct grade of oil; see Oil Grade
                                                                                   under SPECIFICATIONS.
                2. Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil (oil is blow-        2. Decrease oil level.
                   ing out through the exhaust).

                1. Poor compression.                                            1. See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.
                2. Improper valve clearance.                                    2. Adjust valve clearance.
                3. Improper injection timing.                                   3. Adjust injection timing.
                4. Improper fuel.                                               4. Replace with proper fuel.
                5. High back-pressure in exhaust.                               5. Check for restrictions in exhaust system.
                6. Insufficient intake air.                                     6. Increase engine compartment air supply.
                7. Overload.                                                    7. Reduce load.

                BLACK, LARGE AMOUNT
                1. Clogged fuel filter.                                         1. Replace fuel filter and bleed system.
                2. Restricted air intake.                                       2. Remove air obstruction.
                3. Engine overloaded.                                           3. Check engine propeller size and engine
                                                                                   performance no-load through fully loaded.
                4. Injection timing.                                            4. Check the injection pump timing and adjust as
                5. Fuel injectors not operating properly.                       5. Check nozzle spray pressure setting.
                6. Improper grade of fuel.                                      6. Use specified grade of fuel.

EXHAUST SMOKE    1. Faulty injection timing.                                    1. Adjust timing.
                 2. Water in injection pump, fuel filter or fuel filter/water   2. Drain fuel system.
                 3. Faulty injection starting pressure.                         3. Adjust starting pressure.
                 4. Injection pump malfunctioning.                              4. Replace injection pump.



                             ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
     PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                                        VERIFICATION/REMEDY

EXHAUST SOUND                                                                1. Clean or replace filter.
                 1. Fuel filter clogged.
                 2. Fuel line sucks air.                                     2. Retighten fuel line joints or replace fuel line.
                 3. Water mixed in fuel.                                     3. Replace fuel.

                 1. Noisy knocking.                                          1. See KNOCKING.
                 2. Smoky exhaust.                                           2. See SMOKY EXHAUST.
                 3. Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn.          3. Repair or replace.
                 4. Poor compression.                                        4. See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.
                 5. Improper valve timing.                                   5. Adjust timing.
                 6. Improper valve clearance.                                6. Adjust clearance.

                 1. Air intake obstructed.                                   1. Remove obstruction.

                 1. Injection timing incorrect.                              1. Adjust timing.
                 2. Faulty injection starting pressure.                      2. Adjust starting pressure.
                 3. Seized nozzle.                                           3. Replace nozzle.
                 4. Worn nozzle.                                             4. Replace nozzle.
                 5. Nozzle leaking.                                          5. Tighten nozzle or replace sealing gasket.
                 6. Injector not operating properly.                         6. Adjust nozzle spray pressure.
                 7. Clogged fuel filter.                                     7. Replace filter.
                 S. High idling speed.                                       S. Adjust idling speed.

                 FUEL PROBLEMS
                 1. Improper fuel.                                           1. Replace with proper fuel.
                 2. Fuel leaks.                                              2. Find fuel leaks.

                 ENGINE OVERLOADED
                 1. Propeller size.                                          1. Check propeller size and engine performance
                                                                                at rated rpm.

                 1. Defective oil seals.                                     1. Replace oil seals.
                 2. Broken gear case gasket.                                 2. Replace gasket.
                 3. Loose gear case attaching bolts.                         3. Retighten bolts.
                 4.   Loose drain plug.                                      4.   Retighten plug.
                 5.   Loose oil line connector.                              5.   Retighten oil line connections.
                 6.   Broken rocker cover gasket.                            6.   Replace gasket.
                 7.   Loose rocker cover attaching bolts.                    7.   Retighten attaching bolts.


                                                ~ ~UnivQrsal
                                                ....      M·'iMI:ila·iw#;-

                                 ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
      PROBLEM                          PROBABLE CAUSE                                  VERIFICATION/REMEDY

CONSUMPTION                                                              1. Correct ring gap positions.
(cont'd)             1. Incorrectly positioned piston ring gaps.
                     2. Displaced or twisted connecting rod.             2.   Replace connecting rod.
                     3. Worn piston ring, or piston ring groove.         3.   Replace ring or piston.
                     4. Oil ring worn or stuck                           4.   Replace oil ring.
                     5. Worn piston or cylinder liner.                   5.   Repair or replace.
                     6. Worn crankshaft bearing and crankpin bearing.    6. Replace

                     OIL LEVEL FALLING
                     1. Defective stem seal.                             1. Replace stem seal.
                     2. Worn valve and valve guide.                      2. Replace valve and valve guide.

LOW OIL PRESSURE     1. Worn main or connecting rod bearings.            1.   Replace bearings.
                     2. Relief valve malfunction.                        2.   Overhaul oil pump.
                     3. Diesel fuel is diluting the oil.                 3.   Injection pump repair.
                     4. Oil strainer clogged.                            4.   Clean oil strainer.
                     5. Excessive oil clearance of crankshaft bearing.   5.   Replace crankshaft bearing.
                     6. Excessive oil clearance of crankpin bearing.     6.   Replace crankpin bearing.
                     7. Excessive oil clearance of rocker arm bearing.   7. Replace rocker arm bearing.
                     8. Oil passage clogged.                             8. Clean oil passage.
                     9. Improper grade of oil.                           9. Replace with specified grade of oil.

HIGH OIL PRESSURE    1. Relief valve defective.                          1. Overhaul oil pump.
                     2. Improper grade of oil.                           2. Replace with specified grade of oil.

FUEl MIXED INTO      1. Injection pump plunger worn.                     1. Replace pump element or injection pump.
LUBE OIL             2. Deficient nozzle injection.                      2. Repair or replace nozzle.
                     3. Injection pump malfunction.                      3. Replace injection pump.

COOLANT MIXED INTO   1. Defective cylinder head gasket.                  1. Replace cylinder head gasket.
LUBE OIL             2. Defective cylinder head or cylinder block.       2. Replace cylinder head or cylinder block.

ENGINE OVERHEATS/    1. V-belt slackening or slippery with oil.          1. Adjust, replace or clean belt.
                     2. Low oil level or poor oil quality.               2. Add or change oil.
                     3. Knocking.                                        3. See KNOCKING.
                     4. Moving parts seized or damaged.                  4. Replace.
                     5. Lack of coolant.                                 5. Add coolant.
                     6. Raw water not circulating.                       6. Check a. and b.
                                                                            a. Raw water pump failure. Check impeller;
                                                                               replace if necessary.
                                                                            b. Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water


                                ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
     PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                                       VERIFICATION/REMEDY

ENGINE OVERHEATS/   7. Coolant not circulating.                                7. Check a. through d.
SHUTS DOWN                                                                        a. Thermostat - remove and test in hot water.
(cont'd)                                                                             Replace thermostat.
                                                                                  b. Loss of coolant - check hoses, hose clamps,
                                                                                     drain plug, etc. for leaks.
                                                                                  c. Broken or loose belt - tighten/replace.
                                                                                  d. Air leak in system; run engine and open the
                                                                                     pressure cap to bleed air. Add coolant as
                                                                                     needed .

                                                  ... ...Unlvarsal
                                                  £2   l!Jt.1jl!¢1#l4·M3 ; -

                                                SERVICE STANDARDS
These service standards specify the values at which the             Valve Timing
engine components will require adjustment, repair or
replacement. It is important to observe these standards for             DESCRIPTION            STANDARD VALUE                LIMIT
your engine, and to take action when necessary to maintain          Intake Valve Open         14° (0.24 rad.) BlOC             -
a high level of safety, dependability and performance.
                                                                    Intake Valve Closed       30° (0.52 rad.) ABDC             -
NOTE: Most of the service standards given in this section           Exhaust Valve Open        55° (0.96 rad.) BBDC             -
apply to all three UNNERSAL Engine Models covered in
this manual (M-25XPB, M-35B, M-40B). These engine                   Exhaust Valve Closed 14° (0.24 rad.) AlOC                  -
models will only be listed where a particular service stan-
dard does not apply to all three models.                            Valve Spring
                                                                    Free Length                 1.457 - 1.476 in.            1.437 in.
Cylinder Head                                                                                  (37.0 - 37.5 mm)             (36.5 mm)
   DESCRIPTION          STANDARD VALUE              LIMIT           Setting Loadl              26.4 Ibs. 1 1.22 in.    22.5 Ibs. 1 1.22 in.
                                                                    Setting Length              ~117.4 N/31.0 mm)      ~1 00.0 N 131.0 mm)
 Cylinder Head                  -                0.0019 in.                                    ( 1.97 kgf 131.0 mm)     10.2 kgf 131.0 mm)
 Surface Flatness                                (0.05 mm)
                                                                     Tilt                              -                     0.039 in.
 Top Clearance          0.0217 - 0.0295 in.         -                                                                        (1.0 mm)
                         (0.55 - 0.75 mm)
 Compression               412 - 469 psi           327 psi
 Pressure              (29.0 - 33.0 kgf/cm 2)   (23 kgf/cm2)        Rocker Arm
                         (2.84 - 3.23 MPa)       (2.25 MPa)
                                                                    Clearance between          0.0006 - 0.0018 in.         0.0039 in.
 Variance Among                 -               10% or less         Rocker Arm Shaft           (0.016 - 0.045 mm)          (0.10 mm)
 Cylinders                                                          and Rocker Arm
                                                                        Rocker Arm             0.4714 - 0.4718 in.             -
Valves                                                                  Shaft 0.0.             (11.973 -11.984 mm)
                                                                        Rocker Arm 1.0.        0.4724 - 0.4731 in.             -
 Valve Clearance       0.0057 - 0.0072 in.          -                                          (12.000 -12.018 mm)
 (Cold)                (0.145 - 0.185 mm)
 Valve Seal Width
     Intake                 0.0835 in.              -               Tappet
                            (2.12 mm)
                                                                     Clearance between         0.0008 - 0.0024 in.         0.0028 in.
     Exhaust                0.0835 in.              -                Tappet and Guide          (0.020 - 0.062 mm)          (0.07 mm)
                            (2.12 mm)
                                                                         Tappet 0.0.           0.7858 - 0.7866 in.             -
 Valve Seal Angle                                                                             (19.959 -19.980 mm)
     Intake                     60°                 -                       Tappet Guide 1.0. 0.7874 - 0.7882 in.              -
                            (1.047 rad.)                                                       (20.000 - 20.021 mm)
      Exhaust                   45°                  -
                            (0.785 rad.)
  Valve Face Angle
      Intake                    60°                  -               Camshaft Side             0.0028 - 0.0087 in.         0.0118 in.
                            (1.047 rad.)                             Clearance                  (0.07 - 0.22 mm)           (0.3 mm)
      Exhaust                   45°                  -               Camshaft Alignment                 -                  0.0004 in.
                            (0.785 rad.)                                                                                   (0.01 mm)
  Valve Recessing       0.0020 - 0.0060 in.      0.016 in.           Cam Height
                         (0.05 - 0.25 mm)        (0.4 mm)               Intake                       1.1339 in.            1.1319 in.
  Clearance between     0.0014 - 0.0025 in.      0.0039 in.                                         (28.80 mm)             (28.75 mm)
  Valve Stem and        (0.035 - 0.065 mm)       (0.1 mm)                   Exhaust                  1.1417 in.
  Valve Guide                                                                                                               1.1398 in.
                                                                                                    (29.00 mm)             (28.95 mm)
  Finishing Size                                                     Camshaft Oil                0.0020 - 0.0036 in.        0.0047 in.
       Intake Valve     0.2741 - 0.2764 in.          -               Clearance                  (0.050 - 0.091 mm)          (0.12 mm)
       Guide 1.0.       (6.960 - 6.975 mm)                                Camshaft               1.4147 -1.3799 in.             -
       Exhaust Valve    0.2760 - 0.2765 in.          -                    Journal 0.0.         (35.934 - 35.050 mm)
       Guide 1.0.       (7.010 - 7.025 mm)                                Camshaft               1.4173-1.4183 in.              -
                                                                          Bearing 1.0.         (36.000 - 36.025 mm)

                                                 SERVICE STANDARDS
Timing Gear                                                       Connecting Rod
    DESCRIPTION           STANDARD VALUE            LIMIT                DESCRIPTION            STANDARD VALUE             LIMIT
 Timing Gear                                                          Connecting Rod                    -               0.0020 in.
 Backlash                                                             Alignment                                         (0.05 mm)
     Crank Gear-         0.0013 - 0.0045 in.      0.0059 in.          Clearance between         0.0006 - 0.0015 in.     0.0059 in.
     Idler Gear No.1     (0.032 - 0.115 mm)       (0.15 mm)           Piston Pin and Small      (0.014 - 0.038 mm)      0.15 mm)
                                                                      End Bushing
     Idler Gear No.1-    0.0014 - 0.0045 in.      0.0059 in.
     Cam Gear            (0.036-0.114 mm)         (0.15mm)                Piston Pin 0.0.       0.8662 - 0.8666 in.         -
                                                                                                (22.002 - 22.011 mm)
     Idler Gear No.1-    0.0013 - 0.0046 in.      0.0059 in.
     Injection Pump      (0.034 - 0.116 mm)       (0.15 mm)               Small End              0.8671 - 0.8677 in.        -
     Gear                                                                 Bushing 1.0.          (22.025 - 22.040 mm)
     Idler Gear No.1-    0.0013 - 0.0046 in.      0.0059 in.
     Idler Gear No.2     (0.033 - 0.117 mm)       (0.15mm)
     Idler Gear No.2- 0.0012 - 0.0046 in.         0.0059 in.
     Governor Gear (0.030-0.117 mm)               (0.15mm)            Crankshaft Alignment               -              0.0008 in.
 Clearance between                                                                                                      (0.02 mm)
 Idler Gear Shaft and                                                 Oil Clearance between     0.0013 - 0.0045 in.     0.0079 in.
 Idler Gear Bushing                                                   Crankshaft and            (0.034 - 0.114 mm)      (0.20 mm)
      Idler Gear No.1    0.0008 - 0.0021 in.      0.0039 in.          Crankshaft Bearing No.1
                         (0.020 - 0.054 mm)       (0.10 mm)                Crankshaft 0.0.     1.8872 - 1.8878 in.          -
     Idler Gear          1.0236 - 1.0244 in.          -                                       (47.934 - 47.950 mm)
     Bushing 1.0.        (26.000 - 26.021 mm)                              Crankshaft          1.8891 - 1.8917 in.          -
     Idler Gear Shaft    1.0223 - 1.0228 in.          -                    Bearing No.1 1.0. (47.984 - 48.084 mm)
     No.1 0.0.           (25.967 - 25.980 mm)                         Oil Clearance between 0.0013 - 0.0037 in.          0.0079 in.
     Idler Gear No.2     0.0008 - 0.0021 in.      0.0039 in.          Crankshaft and           (0.034 - 0.095 mm)       (0.20 mm)
                         (0.020 - 0.054 mm)       (0.10mm)            Crankshaft Bearing No.2
                                                      -                    Crankshaft 0.0.      1.8872 - 1.8878 in.         -
     Idler Gear          1.0236 - 1.0244 in.
     Bushing 1.0.        (26.000 - 26.021 mm)                                                 (47.934 - 47.950 mm)
                                                      -                    Crankshaft           1.8891 - 1.8909 in.         -
      Idler Gear Shaft   1.0223 - 1.0228 in.
      No.2 0.0.          (25.967 - 25.980 mm)                              Bearing No.2 1.0. (47.984 - 48.029 mm)
 Idler Gear Side                                                      Oil Clearance between 0.0013 - 0.0039 in.         0.0079 in.
 Clearance                                                            Crankshaft and           (0.034 - 0.098 mm)       (0.20 mm)
                                                                      Crankshaft Bearing NO.3
      Idler Gear No.1    0.0079 - 0.0200 in.      0.0315 in.
                         (0.20 - 0.51 mm)         (0.8 mm)                 Crankshaft 0.0.     2.0441 - 2.0449 in.          -
                                                                                              (51.921 - 51.940 mm)
     Idler Gear No.2     0.0079 - 0.0200 in.      0.0315 in.
                         (0.20 - 0.51 mm)         (0.08 mm)                Crankshaft         2.0462 - 2.0480 in.           -
                                                                           Bearing NO.3 1.0. (51.974 - 52.019 mm)
                                                                      Oil Clearance between 0.0011 - 0.0036 in.         0.0079 in.
Piston & Piston Ring                                                  Crank Pin and          (0.029 - 0.091 mm)         (0.20 mm)
                                                                      Crank Pin Bearing
 Piston Pin Bore          0.8661 - 0.8687 in.      0.8673 in.              Crank Pin 0.0.    1.5732 - 1.5738 in.            -
                          (22.000 - 22.013 mm)    (22.03 mm)                                (39.959 - 39.975 mm)
 Clearance between         0.0033 - 0.0044 in.     0.0079 in.              Crank Pin          1.5750 - 1.5768 in.           -
 Compression Ring         (0.085 - 0.112 mm)       (0.20 mm)               Bearing 1.0.     (40.004 - 40.050 mm)
 No.2 and Ring Groove
                                                                      Crankshaft Side        0.0059 - 0.0122 in.        00.0197 in.
 Clearance between    0.0008 - 0.0021 in.          0.0059 in.         Clearance                (0.15 - 0.31 mm)         (0.50 mm)
 Oil Ring and Ring    (0.020 - 0.055 mm)           (0.15 mm)
 Ring Gap                                                             Cylinder liner
     Compression          0.0118 - 0.0170 in.      0.0492 in.          Cylinder Liner 1.0.
     Ring No.1             (0.30 - 0045 mm.)       (1.25 mm)
                                                                            M-25XPB              2.9921 - 2.9929 in.    +0.0059 in.
     Compression          0.0118 - 0.0170 in.      0.0492 in.               M-35B               (76.000 - 76.019 mm)    (+0.15 mm)
     Ring No.2             (0.30 - 0045 mm.)       (1.25 mm)
                                                                            M-40B                3.0709 - 3.0716 in.    +0.0059 in.
     Oil Ring             0.0098 - 0.0157 in.       0.0492 in.                                   (78.000 - 78.019 mm)   (+0.15 mm)
                            (0.25 - 0040 mm)       (1.25 mm)
                                                                       Oversized Cylinder             +0.0197 in.       +0.0059 in.
                                                                       Liner 1.0.                     (+0.5 mm)         (+0.15 mm)

                                                 SERVICE STANDARDS
LUBRICATION SYSTEM                                                           ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Oil Pump                                                                     Starter
   DESCRIPTION         STANDARD VALUE                 LIMIT                      DESCRIPTION         STANDARD VALUE            LIMIT
 Engine Oil Pressure                                                          Commutator 0.0.           1.1811 in.           1.1417 in.
     At Idle Speed               7 psi                 -                                                (30.0 mm)            (29.0 mm)
                            (0.5 kgf/cm2)                                     Mica Undercut         0.0197 - 0.0315 in.      0.079 in.
                               (49 kPa)                                                               (0.5 - 0.8 mm)         (0.2mm)
     At Rated Speed       28.0 - 64.0 psi            21.3 psi                 Brush Length               0.5118 in.          0.3346 in.
                        (2.0 - 4.5 kgf/cm2)       (1.5 kgf/cm 2)                                         (13.0 mm)           (8.5 mm)
                       (196.0 - 441.0 kPa)         (147.1 kPa)
 Clearance between     0.0024 - 0.0071 in.              -
 Inner Rotor and         (0.06 - 0.18 mm)                                    Alternator
 Outer Rotor
                                                                              No-load Voltage           13.7 -14.7 V at 1500 - 2000 rpm
 Clearance between     0.0039 - 0.0071 in.              -
 Outer Rotor and       (0.100 - 0.180 mm)                                     Stator Resistance         4.1 - 4.7,Q at 70 - 80°F(21 - 27°C)
 Pump Body
                                                                              Brush Length (minimum)    0.25 in. (6 mm)
 End Clearance         0.0098 - 0.0295 in.              -
 between Inner Rotor   (0.025 - 0.75 mm)
 and Cover                                                                   Glow Plug

COOLING SYSTEM                                                               I Glow Plug Resistance I Approx. 0.9 -1.2,Q I
Thermostat's Valve       157.1 -162.5°F                 -
Opening Temperature      (69.5 - 72.5°C)
Temperature at                185°F                     -
which Thermostat              (85°C)
Completely Opens

Injection Pump
 Injection Timing
 (Spill Timing)
      3000 rpm            18 - 20° BTDC                 -
                        (0.31 - 0.35 rad.)
 Pump Element Fuel              -                   2133 psi
 Tightness                                        150 kgf/cm 2
                                                   14.7 MPa
 Delivery Valve Fuel   10 seconds or more          5 seconds
 Tightness               2133 ---+ 1990 psi 2133 ---+ 1990 psi
                       (150 ---+ 140 kgf/cm2) ~ 50 ---+ 140 kgf/cm2)
                        (14.7 ---+ 13.7 MPa) (14.7 -13.7 MPa)

Injection Nozzle
 Fuel Injection           1991 - 2133 psi               -
 Pressure                p 40 -150 kgf/cm2)
                        ( 3.73 -14.71 MPa)
 Nozzle Valve Seat      When the pressure is            -
 Tightness             1849 psi (130 kgf/cm2 )
                         (12.75 MPa), the
                        valve seat must not
                              leak fuel.

                                                              ,. ., .Unlvarsal
                                                            £3         I1Ni'@jij"W3i-

                                           ENGINE DESCRIPTION
CYLINDER BLOCK                                                      In the precombustion chamber, the intake air is whirled
                                                                    and mixed efficiently with the fuel, assuring proper com-
The engine has a high durability tunnel-type cylinder block
                                                                    bustion and reducing fuel consumption. The shape of the
in which the crank bearing component is a constructed body.
                                                                    throat in the air inlet to the combustion chamber produces,
                                                                    under compression, an ideal mixture of air and fuel.

                                                                    FUEL INJECTOR


The cross-flow type intake and exhaust ports in this engine
have their openings at both sides of the cylinder head.
Because the overlaps of the intake and exhaust ports are                                                  AIR INLET
smaller than in the ports of other types of engines which have      CRANKSHAFT
their openings on one side, the intake air is protected from
                                                                    The crankshaft with the connecting rod converts the recip-
being heated and expanded by the heated exhaust air. The
                                                                    rocating motion of the piston into a rotating motion. The crank-
cool, high-density intake air has high volume efficiency and
                                                                    shaft is made of tough special alloy steel, and the journals, pins
increases the power of the engine. Distortion of the cylinder
                                                                    and oil seal sliding portions are induction-hardened for higher
head by heated exhaust gas is reduced because the intake
                                                                    wear resistance. The front journal is supported by a solid type
ports are arranged alternately.
                                                                    bearing, the intermediate journal by a split type bearing and the
                                                                    rear journal by a split type bearing with thrust bearings. The
                                                                    crankshaft has an oil gallery, through which engine oil is fed
                                                                    to the crankpin to lubricate it.


                                                                                    BEARINGS - - - -                          THRUST
Installed into the precombustion chamber are a throttle type
fuel injector and a rapid-heating sheathed-type glow plug.
The glow plugs assure easier engine starts, even at 5° F
(_15° C).
                                                                    PISTON AND PISTON RINGS
                                                                    The piston has a slightly oval shape when cold due to ther-
                                                                    mal expansion and a concave head. Three rings are installed
                                                                    in grooves in the piston.
                                                                    The top ring is a keystone type, which can stand heavy
  INJECTOR                                                          loads, and the barrel-shaped facing on this ring fits well to
                                                                    the cylinder wall.
                                                                    The second ring is an undercut type, which effectively pre-
                                                                    vents the oil from being carried up.
PRECOMBUSTION                                                       The oil ring has chamfered contact faces and an expander
                                                                    ring, which increases the pressure of the oil ring against the
                                                                    cylinder wall.

                                            ENGINE DESCRIPTION
                                                                                                      ADJUSTING SCREW                 .§
                                                                                                                        \.®           ~

                                                                                        ®~ ~OCKER
                                                                                      i~~                                           i ~

                                                                                ~~                                                  @~-
                                                                         ~~ ~                                 ;.dtJ~

Several grooves are cut into the piston's crown to swirl the                                          ~~                    ~
fuel/air mixture for complete combustion and to allow a smooth
ejection of the exhaust gas.
                             ------             DEPRESSION
                                                                                                         ROCKER ARM

                                                                                            ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY

                                                                     The camshaft is made of special cast iron, and the journal
                                                                     and cam sections are hardened to resist wear. The journal
                                                                     sections are force-lubricated.

The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft.
The big end of the connecting rod has a split type crankpin
bearing and the small end has a solid type bushing.

           SMALL END

                                                                     FUEL CAMSHAFT
                                                                     The fuel camshaft controls the reciprocating movement of
                                                                     the injection pump. The fuel camshaft is made of carbon
       BEARING    ~
                         ~                                           steel and the cam sections are quenched and tempered to
                                                                     provide greater wear resistance. ~.-::P'
                                                                         INJECTION   ~                ~-;::/
                                                                              .                                                            /._
                                                                         PUMP GEAR                    I (\\   --<.,
                       CONNECTING ROO
                                                                                     ~ ~~ ~           ll\~ '~,
The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms, rocker
arm brackets and rocker arm shaft. This assembly converts            ~~           ~~ D~               ~'C'"
                                                                                                        9.J ~"                       V--

the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an
open/close movement of the intake and exhaust valves.
                                                                                ~~                       '\ \)                       r-r"~0
Lubricating oil is force-fed through the bracket to the rock-           -. ~
                                                                     (}?~             FUEL CAMSHAFT
                                                                                                                        .            i)}
er arm shaft, which by its reciprocating motion, distributes

                                                                                                                  "~ . .r./'/-'S
lubricating oil throughout the entire rocker arm assembly.
                                                                                            FUEL CAMSHAFT

                                            ENGINE DESCRIPTION
The flywheel stores the rotating force of the combustion
stroke as inertial energy, reduces crankshaft rotating speed
fluctuation and maintains smooth rotating conditions. The
flywheel's periphery is inscribed with marks showing the
fuel injection timing angle lines and the top dead center
mark Te. It has gear teeth around its outer rim that mesh
with the starter's drive pinion


                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
Before disassembling your engine, read the following                 ·   Replace plain bearings if they are peeling, burned or
GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES and GENERAL                               otherwise damaged.
REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES. They will provide impor-                      ·   Reassemble parts (e.g. pistons, piston rings, bearings,
tant information to ensure the proper servicing of your                  bearing caps) in their proper order, positions and
engine.                                                                  directions relative to the engine block. Avoid reversed
The EXTERNAL COMPONENTS DISASSEMBLY/                                     orientation - note that the cylinder head gasket, head
REASSEMBLY section gives the order of removal of the                     bolt washers and thermostat are assymetrical. Any
engine's external components (alternator, heat exchanger,                mating marks that were drawn or scribed during disas-
air intake silencer, etc.). These components are reinstalled             sembly should be positioned correctly for reassembly.
in the reverse of their order of disassembly.                            Position gaskets carefully, especially the head gasket,
Specific disassembly/reassembly information is provided                  so they will not be damaged during assembly.
for the main engine parts (bearings, crankshaft, pistons,            ·   Inspect all critical clearances, end plays, oil clearances,
etc.) in individual sections.                                            and bends. Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS
                                                                     ·   Use liquid sealants when specified or needed on nuts,
NOTE: Before disassembly and cleaning, carefully check                   bolts and gaskets. Use Permatex No.2 or equivalent.
for defects which cannot be found after disassembly and                  Don't use tape sealants. Refer to SEALANTS &
cleaning.                                                                LUBRICANTS in this manual.
·   All disassembled parts should be carefully arranged in           ·   Tighten the bolts and nuts on the important parts of the
    the order of reassembly. Mark or label the parts as                  engine to the specified torques using a reliable torque
    needed to insure proper mating and reassembly in the                 wrench. Tighten fasteners in the specified torque
    proper directions and positions.                                     sequences, and in three steps: 112, 2/3, and 111 torque.
·   If the disassembly procedure is complex requiring many               Exceptions are torque-to-yield head bolts and rocker
    parts to be disassembled, the parts should be disassem-              arm shaft fasteners. The former are torqued as indicat-
    bled in a way that will allow them to be efficiently                 ed. The latter - rocker shaft fasteners - should be
    reassembled without any change in the engine's exter-                brought down in very small increments, working from
    nal appearance or its performance.                                   the center bolts out. Where a tightening torque is not
·   Do not remove or disassemble parts that require no                   specified, tighten evenly to an ordinary torque.
    disassembly.                                                     ·   After completion of reassembly, recheck for any abnor-
·   Carefully inspect each part after removal for damage,                malities. Then fill the engine cooling system with
    deformation, and other problems.                                     pre-mixed coolant (50/50 good quality antifreeze and
                                                                         distilled water). Fill the engine oil sump to the mark on
·   Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals, even if              the dipstick with lube oil (A.P.1. spec. CF or CG-4).
    checking is not specified. Replace with new ones, if
    defective.                                                           Test run the engine under load prior to reinstalling. At
                                                                         this time readjust the valve clearances on the hot
·   Be careful not to damage the disassembled parts. Keep                engine.
    the parts clean.
                                                                         Allow the engine to cool to room temperature and
·   Use the proper tools. Apply oil when necessary. Take                 retorque the cylinder head bolts and re-check the valve
    special care to keep the fuel system parts free from the             clearances (see ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS).
    intrusion of dust and dirt.
GENERAL REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES                                         1. Unplug the instrument panel wiring harness.
·   Clean or wash the parts to be reassembled. Apply lubri-
                                                                      2. Drain the transmission fluid.
    cating oil when specified or as needed to the surfaces
    of moving parts during reassembly. Heavily oil sliding,           3. Unbolt the transmission from the engine.
    turning, rotating and reciprocating parts; lightly oil           NOTE: For transmission service and maintenance, refer to
    head bolts and other fasteners except those that pene-           your transmission owners manual. To rebuild a transmis-
    trate into the water jacket. These fasteners should be           sion, contact your WESTERBEKE dealer or a qualified
    sealed with Permatex No. 2 or a high-tack equivalent.            marine transmission service facility.
    Make sure that moving parts, after assembly onto the
    engine, are not subject to binding or excessive tension.          If the transmission is not being rebuilt, it should be visually
                                                                      inspected. Inspect and lubricate the gear shift linkage and
·   Carefully check gaskets, packings and oil seals, even if          the propeller shaft coupling. Clean and repaint the trans-
    checking is not specified. Use new gaskets, lockwash-             mission and change the transmission fluid. Refer to the
    ers and O-rings.                                                  TRANSMISSIONS section in this manual.
·   Be careful not to mix bolts and nuts. Both metric and
    S.A.E. bolts are used on various engine assemblies .

                                                      · ·Unlvarsal
                                                               MARINE POWER

                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
NOTE: After servicing the engine, reinstall the external
components in the reverse of their order of removal.
With the transmission separated from the engine, begin the
following step-by-step disassembly procedure.
 1. Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt
    and oil.
 2. Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand for
 3. Drain the coolant from the engine and engine hoses,
    and from the heat exchanger. Drain the fuel, and drain
    or pump out the engine oil.
. 4. Remove the engine wiring harness in its entirety. Label
     the terminal connections to insure proper reattachment.

                                                                      11. Remove the exhaust manifold.
                                                                          When Reassembling:
                                                                          Retighten the exhaust manifold using the same torque
                                                                          after idling for 20 minutes.

                                       LABEL THE TERMINAL

    When Reassembling:
    Check all AC and DC wiring connections by referring
    to the UNIVERSAL wiring diagrams and schematics.
 5. Remove the engine heat exchanger. If possible, leave
    one end of each hose connection attached to the heat
    exchanger.· The heat exchanger should be serviced                 12. Remove the drive belt, alternator and alternator adjust-
    when the engine is overhauled (see HEAT EXCHANG-                      ing strap.
    ER under COOliNG SYSTEM for inspection and                            See ALTERNATOR TROUBLESHOOTING for testing
    servicing information).                                               information.
                                                                          When Reassembling:

                                                                            A CAUTION:       Connect the alternator properly.
                                         HEAT EXCHANGER                     Should the polarity be reversed, a powerful cur-
                                                                            rent would flow from the battery into the alterna-
                                                                            tor, damaging the diodes and wiring harness.

                                                                          a. Install the alternator cap screw through the alterna-
                                                                             tor leg (underside) and spacer into the alternator
                                                                          b. Swing the alternator into position on the adjusting
                                                                             strap and fasten. Lightly tighten.
                                                                          c. Install the drive belt and adjust the belt tension.
 6. Remove the starter motor.                                             d. Tighten both bolts and recheck the belt tension.
 7. Remove the engine bellhousing.                                        NOTE: Make certain the belts are perfectly aligned with
 8. Remove the transmission damper plate.                                 the alternator and engine pulleys. If not, insert or
                                                                          remove spacers as needed, to align the alternator.
 9. Remove the flywheel and flywheel washer.
 10. Remove the engine back plate.

                                                      " .UnlvQrsal
                                                      22       &"';'@ja·1~93;-

                            ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                                                                      21. Remove the air intake silencer.
                                                                      22. Remove the front and rear lifting eyes.
                                                                      23. Remove the intake manifold.
                                                                      24. Remove the alternator bracket.
                                                                      25. Remove the crankcase breather hose.

13. Remove the raw water pump.
14. Remove all the high pressure injector lines from the
    injection pump to the injectors. Leave the upper line
    clamps in place.
   NOTE: Cap the ends of the lines, and the connections
   at the injection pump and at the injectors, to prevent
   entry offoreign material.
15. Remove the oil level dipstick.
16. Remove the oil filter/oil cooler assembly.
17. Remove the fuel line to the injection pump. (Note the
    arrangement of the sealing washers on the banjo bolts
    at the fuel filter and the injection pump.)                                                   BREATHER HOSE
18. Remove the fuel return lines from the top of the injec-
                                                                       26. Remove the glow plugs.
    tors and from the fuel injection pump. (Note the
    washer arrangement on the fuel return line banjo bolts.            CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
    Cap all openings on the fuel return line, injectors and
    injection pump.)
                                                                       Nozzle Holder Assembly
19. Remove the engine-mounted fuel filter and fuel filter
                                                                       1. Loosen the screws on the fuel injection line clamps.
    bracket.                                                           2. Remove the injection lines.
20. Remove the thermostat housing, gasket, and the ther-               3. Remove the fuel overflow lines.
    mostat. Leave the temperature sender in place.                     4. Loosen the injector and unscrew it from the
                                                                          cylinder head.
                                                                       5. Remove the copper washers on the seats.




                              /1111"-_ THERMOSTAT
                                                                       6. Remove the nozzle heat seal.
                                                                          NOTE: Use a Phillips screwdriver that has a diameter
                                                                          larger than the heat seal hole (0.25 in (6 mm)).
                                                                          a. Insert the screwdriver lightly into the heat seal hole.


                            ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
    b. Tum the screwdriver three or four times in each
       direction. While turning the screwdriver, slowly                          ROCKER ARM
       pull the heat seal out together with the injection
       nozzle copper washer.
    c. If the heat seal drops, repeat the above procedure.
       The heat seal and injection nozzle copper washer
       must be changed when the injection nozzle is
       removed for cleaning or for service.


                                                                     Cylinder Head
                                                                     1. Remove the air breather hose.
                                                                     2. Remove the cylinder head screws in a descending
                                                                        sequence (see illustration): Model M-25XPB, from 14
                                                                        to 1; Models M-35B and M-40B, from 18 to 1. Then
                                                                        remove the cylinder head.
                                                                     3. Remove the cylinder head gasket and O-ring.
                                                                     When Reassembling:
                                                                     1. Replace the head gasket with a new one.
Cylinder Head Cover
                                                                     2. Install the cylinder head, using care not to damage the
1. Remove the cylinder head cover cap nuts.
2. Remove the cylinder head cover.
                                                                     3. After applying engine oil, tighten the cylinder head
When Reassembling:                                                      screws gradually in an ascending sequence (see illustra-
1. Check the cylinder head cover gasket; if it is defective,            tion): Model M-25XPB, from 1 to 14; Models M-35B
   replace it.                                                          and M-40B, from 1 to 18.
                                                                     4. Retighten the cylinder head screws after running the
                                                                        engine for 30 minutes.


                                                                                                    MODEL M·25XPB

                                                                                           0 14        06        03
                                                                                    0 18      010           02        07
                                                                                       00          00         00         00       FRONT

Rocker Arm and Push Rod                                                                0 0 1300
                                                                                    01 1 0    9
                                                                                                    1 0
                                                                                                            0 12
                                                                                                                0 16
                                                                                                                 0         0

1. Remove the rocker arm bracket mounting nuts.
                                                                                                  MODELS M·35B & M·4oB
2. Detach the rocker arm as an assembly.
3. Remove the push rods.
                                                                      1. Remove the tappets from the crankcase.
When Reassembling:
                                                                         NOTE: Mark the cylinder numbers on the tappets to
1. When installing the push rods onto the tappets, make                  prevent interchanging.
    sure their ends are properly engaged with the grooves.
                                                                      When Reassembling:
NOTE: After reassembling the rocker arm assembly, be sure
to adjust the valve clearances.                                       1. Before installing the tappets, apply engine oil thinly
                                                                         around them.

                                                     ,t.,   .Unlvarsal
                                                     £2        M"i'I¢I.U'WB!j-
                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                                                                      Gear Case
                                                                      1. Remove the gear case.
                                                                      When Reassembling:
                                                                      1. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
                                                                         to both sides of the gear case gasket.
                                                                      2. Apply a thin coat of grease to the oil seal and install it,
                                                                         ensuring the lip does not come off.

1. Remove the valve cap.
2. Remove the valve spring collet with a valve lifter.
3. Remove the valve spring retainer, valve spring and
When Reassembling:
1. Wash the valve stem and valve guide hole, and apply                                          GEAR CASE
   sufficient engine oil.
2. After installing the valve spring collet, lightly tap the          Length of the gear case mounting bolts (see illustration):
   valve stem to assure a proper fit.                                     A: 45 mm           E: 68 mm
                                                                          B: 50mm            F: 80mm
                                                                          C: 55 mm           G: Nut
                                                                         D: 59mm

                                                                                                                GEAR CASE

                                                                      Engine Stop Solenoid (optional) and
Coolant Pump                                                          Speed Control Plate
1. Remove the coolant pump flange.
                                                                      1. Remove the engine stop solenoid.
When Reassembling:
                                                                      2. Remove the speed control plate with the governor
1. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)                 springs.
   to both sides of the water pump flange gasket.
                                                                      When Reassembling:
                                                                      1. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
                                                                         to both sides of the solenoid cover gasket and control
                                                                         plate gasket.
                                                                      2. Be careful not to drop the governor springs into the

                                                       it   .Unlvarsal
                   COOLANT PUMP
                                                      £s       ~&!;J@j4·V?j3;-

                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                                                                         Engine Serial Numbers 489291 and up:
                                                                         1. Apply sealant to both sides of the soft metal gasket
                                                                            shim. Liquid gasket is not required.
                                                                         2. The addition or subtraction of a shim (0.0020 in.
                                                                            (0.05 mm» delays or advances the injection timing
                                                                            by approx. OS (0.0087 rad.).
                                   ENGINE STOP SOLENOID                  3. In disassembling and replacing shims, be sure to
                                8. SPEED CONTROL PLATE                      use the same number of new gasket shims having
                                                                            the same thickness.

                                                                             PUMP      .

Injection Pump
1. Align the control rack pin with the notch on the
   crankcase and remove the injection pump.                                                                          NOTCH
2. Remove the injection pump shims.
NOTE: The fuel injection pump is a very important com-
ponent of the diesel engine, requiring the utmost care in
handling. It has been thoroughly bench-tested, and the
owner/operator is cautioned not to attempt to service it.
If the fuel injection pump requires servicing, remove it and
take it to an authorized fuel injection pump service facility.
Do not attempt to disassemble and repair it. If the pump is
defective, UNIVERSAL recommends that you replace the
entire pump.
The only adjustments the servicing mechanic should make
to the fuel injection pump are the adjustments for idle
ADJUSTMENTS), and injection timing (see INJECTION
When Reassembling:
1. When installing the injection pump, insert the control
   rack pin firmly into the groove of the fork lever and
   thrust lever.
                                                                      Fuel Camshaft
2. Install the shims as follows:
                                                                      1. Remove the fuel camshaft stopper.
   Engine Serial Numbers up to 489290:
                                                                      2. Pull out the fuel camshaft and injection pump gear.
    1. Insert the same number of shims as used before,
       between the crankcase and the injection pump.                  When Reassembling:
    2. The addition or subtraction of a shim 0.0059 in.               1. Apply a thin coat of engine oil to the fuel camshaft
       (0.15 mm) delays or advances the injection timing                 before installing.
       by approx. 1.50 (0.026 rad.).
    3. Apply a liquid-type gasket (HIGH TACK or equiva-
       lent) to both sides of the injection pump shim before

                                                                                 FUEL CAMSHAFT
                                                          .., .Unlvarsal         STOPPER         FUEL CAMSHAFT

                              ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
Governor Shaft                                                       Fork Lever
1. Remove the snap ring from the governor shaft.                     1. Remove the start spring.
                                                                     2. Remove the fork lever shaft cover.
                                                                     3. Remove the fork lever shaft.
                                                                     4. Remove the spacer, bearing, and fork levers 1 and 2.

2. Remove the governor shaft.


When Reassembling:
1. Make sure the external snap ring for the governor shaft
   is installed.
2. Check the governor shaft for smooth rotation.
NOTE: When replacing the ball bearing for the governor
shaft, securely fit the ball bearing to the crankcase, apply
an adhesive (Three Bond 1324B or equivalent) to the set              When Reassembling:
screw, and insert the set screw until its tapered part con-
tacts the side of the ball bearing.                                  1. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
                                                                         to both sides of the fork lever shaft cover.
                     BALL BEARING
                                       GOVERNOR SHAFT                2. Assemble the fork lever shaft cover with the mark
                                                                         "UP" on it facing upward.
                                                                     3. Make sure the start spring is assembled.
                                                                     NOTE: Assemble fork lever 2 to the right side of the fuel
                                                                     limit bolts as shown in the illustration.

                                                                                                    EEOlI4l-_-FUEL LIMIT BOLT


                      GOVERNOR SHAFT

                                                                                                    -+-- FORK LEVER 2
                                                        aS l&!;'@I#';'193i-
Camshaft Gear and Idler Gear #1
1. Remove the snap ring.
2. Remove the idler gear.
3. Remove the camshaft stopper mounting bolt.
4. Remove the camshaft.
NOTE: When installing the idler gear, be sure to align the
alignment marks on the gears. Make sure to assemble the
external snap ring and stopper.

                                                                                                                            OIL PAN
                                                                                                                  OIL PAN   SCREWS

                                                                                     ,,"----"'---OIL PAN FILTER
                                                                    Connecting Rod Cap
                                                                    1. Remove the connecting rod screws from the connecting
                                                                       rod caps.
                                                                    2. Remove the connecting rod caps.
                                                                    When Reassembling:
                                                                    1. Align the marks (A) with each other. (Face the marks
  INJECTION                                                            toward the injection pump.)
                                                                    2. Apply engine oil to the connecting rod screws and
                                                                       lightly screw them in by hand, then tighten them to the
                                                                       specified torque. If a connecting rod screw doesn't
                                                                       screw in smoothly, clean the threads. If the screw is
                                                                       still hard to screw in, replace it.

                                                                        Connecting rod screws          30.3 - 33.9 ft-Ibs
                                                                           tightening torque           (4.2 - 4.7 kgf/m)
                                              IDLER                                                    (41.2 - 46.1 Nm)

Oil Pan and Oil Pan Filter
1. Remove the oil pan mounting screws.
2. Remove the oil pan by lightly tapping the rim of the
   pan with a wooden hammer.
3. Remove the oil pan filter.
When Reassembling:
1. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
   to both sides of the oil pan gasket.                                  REMOVING CONNECTING ROO CAPS

2. To avoid uneven tightening, tighten the mounting
   screws in a diagonal pattern from the center.
3. Clean the oil pan filter and install it. Take care not to
   damage the O-ring.
                                                                                          MARKS (Al

                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
Piston                                                             Piston Ring and Connecting Rod
1. Tum the flywheel and bring the No. 1 piston to top              1. Remove the piston rings using a piston ring tool.
   dead center (TDC).
                                                                   2. Align the casting mark (i) on the piston as shown in
2. Pull the piston out upward by lightly tapping it from              the illustration.
   the bottom of the crankcase with the handle of a hammer.
                                                                   3. Remove the piston pin and separate the connecting rod
                                                                      from the piston.



When Reassembling:
1. Before inserting the piston into the cylinder, apply            When Reassembling:
    engine oil to the cylinder.
                                                                   1. When installing the rings, assemble them so that the
2. When inserting the piston into the cylinder, face the              manufacturer's mark near the gap faces the top of the
    mark on the connecting rod toward the injection pump.             piston.
NOTE: Do not change the combinations of cylinder and
piston. Make sure of the location of each piston by mark-
ing it. For example, mark"1" on the No.1 piston.
3. When inserting the piston into the cylinder, place the
    gap of compression ring No.1 on the side opposite
    the combustion chamber, and place the gaps of com-
    pression ring No.2 and the oil ring at right angles from
    the gap of compression ring No.1 (see illustration).
4. Carefully insert the pistons using a piston ring com-           2. When installing the oil ring onto the piston, place the
    pressor, otherwise their chrome-plated sections may               expander joint on the opposite side of the oil ring gap.
    become scratched, causing trouble inside the liner.

                                                                              "'''''''"' "'Hi   ~    ~ Oil RING GAP

                                                                   3. Apply engine oil to the piston pin.
                                                                   4. Before installing the piston pin, immerse the piston in
                                                                      176 0 F (80 0 C) oil for 10 to 15 minutes, then insert the
                                                                      piston pin into the piston.
                                                                   S. When installing the connecting rod to the piston, align
                                                                      the mark on the connecting rod to the casting mark on
                                                                      the piston.
      PIN HOLE ...L.-+~--t='....£.::.~-----t4--+

                                           Dll RING GAP   ;., . Unlvarsal
                                                               MARINE POWER
                    PISTON RING GAP POSITIONS
                           ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                                                             Bearing Case Cover and Crankshaft
                                                             NOTE: Before disassembling, check the side clearance of
                                                             the crankshaft. Also check it during reassembly.
                                                             1. Remove the bearing case cover mounting bolts.
                                                                Unscrew the eight inside bolts first, then the nine out-
                                                                side bolts.
                                                             2. Screw two removed bolts into the right and left bolt
                                                                holes of the bearing case cover to remove it.
NOTE: Mark the same number on both the connecting rod
and the piston so as not to change the combination.
1. Remove the starter.

                                                                                                               THE BEARING
                                                                                                               CASE COVER

                                                             3. Remove the bearing case bolt 2.
                                                             4. Pull out the crankshaft.

1. Lock the flywheel so it will not tum.
2. Remove the flywheel screws, except for two which
   must be loosened and left as they are.
3. Use a flywheel puller and remove the flywheel, or
   work the flywheel off using two screwdrivers.
When Reassembling:
1. Apply engine oil to the flywheel screws.                                  REMOVING THE BEARING CASE BOLTS

                   REMOVING THE FLYWHEEL

                                                                                   REMOVING THE CRANKSHAFT

                            ENGINE DISASSEMBLY &REASSEMBLY
When Reassembling:                                                         When Reassembling:
1. Install the crankshaft sub-assembly, aligning the                       1. Clean the oil passage in the main bearing case.
   bolt hole of main bearing case 2 with the bolt hole in                  2. Apply clean engine oil on crankshaft bearing 2 and the
   the cylinder block.                                                        thrust bearings.
2. Apply engine oil to the seat and thread of bearing case                 3. Since the diameters of the main bearing case vary,
   bolt 2 and tighten it.                                                     install them in the order of the markings CA, B, C) from
3. Install the bearing case cover with its casting mark "UP"                  the gear case side.
   facing upward.                                                          4. When installing the main bearing case assemblies 1, 2
4. Tighten the bearing case cover mounting bolts with even                    and 3, face the mark "FLYWHEEL" toward the fly-
   force on the diagonal line.                                                wheel.
Main Bearing Case Assembly                                                 5. Be sure to install the thrust bearing with its oil groove
                                                                              facing outward.
1. Remove the two main bearing case bolts 1, and remove
   the main bearing case assembly, being careful with the
   thrust bearings and crankshaft bearing 2.
2. Remove the main bearing case assemblies I, 2 and 3 as

                                                                                           MAIN BEARING CASE ASSEMBLY

                                                                MAIN BEARING
                                                                CASE ASSEMBLY

                                               MAIN BEARING CASE
                                               ASSEMBLIES 1, 2, & 3
                     REMOVING THE MAIN
                   , BEARING CASE ASSEMBLIES

                                                 ENGINE SERVICE
NOTE: Servicing specifications are included in this section.
Also refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS section.
NOTE: Cylinder heads with serial numbers 489291 on up                           ~              1m8]]I1       fDJl!Wl
are partially modified because of the introduction of the
nozzle heat seal. When replacing the cylinder head, see
the parts list and choose the right one in reference to its
serial number.

                                                                             RED PERMEATIVE
CYLINDER HEAD                                                                LIQUID                          DEVELOPER

Cylinder Head Distortion                                            Valve Recession
1. Thoroughly clean the cylinder head surface.                      1. Clean the cylinder head, valve face and seat.
2. Place a straightedge on the cylinder head and measure            2. Insert the valve into the valve guide.
   for distortion in the six directions A through F as shown
   in the illustration. Measure the clearance with a feeler         3. Measure the valve recession with a depth gauge.
   gauge.                                                           4. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the valve.
   NOTE: Do not place the straightedge on the combustion               If the measurement still exceeds the limit after replacing
   chamber.                                                            the valve, correct the valve seat face of the cylinder
                                                                       head with a valve seat cutter or valve seat grinder. Then
3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, correct it with a             correct the cylinder head surface with a surface grinder,
   surface grinder.                                                    or replace the cylinder head.
   NOTE: Be sure to check the valve recession after

                                                                                                I~:>.-'O"   ° c,o 0
                                                                                o               0
                                                                                                 0         eOo~e
                                                                                   ~                    ~                ~
                                                                    Valve Stem to Valve Guide Clearance
                                                                    1. Remove carbon from the valve guide.
                                                                    2. Measure the valve stem D.D. with an outside micro-
                                                                       meter.                                    t
                                                                         CHECKING VALVE STEM
                                                                         OIL CLEARANCE

Cylinder Head Flaw                                                  3. Using a small hole gauge, measure the valve guide LD.
                                                                       where it shows maximum wear. Then calculate the
1. Prepare an air spray red check.
2. Clean the surface of the cylinder head with detergent.
                                                                    4. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the valve. If
3. Spray the cylinder head surface with red permeative                 it still exceeds the limit, replace the valve guide.
   liquid. Wait five to ten minutes after spraying.
4. Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder
   head surface with the detergent.
S. Spray the cylinder head surface with white developer.
6. If the surface is flawed, the flaws will be identified as
   red marks.

                                                   ENGINE SERVICE
Valve Seating                                                           c. After resurfacing the seat, inspect for even valve
                                                                           seating, then apply a thin film of compound
1. Coat the valve face lightly with prussian blue and put
                                                                           between the valve face and valve seat and fit them
   the valve on its seat to check the contact.
                                                                           with a valve lapping tool.
2. If the valve does not seat all.the way around the seat
                                                                        d. Check the valve seating with prussian blue. The
   or the valve contact is less than 70%, correct the
                                                                           valve seating surface should show good contact all
   valve seating as follows.
3. If the valve contact does not comply with the reference
   value, replace the valve or correct the valve seating.

                                                                              15' (0.262 rad.! or
                                                                              30' (0.523 rad.

                                                                                                                                45' (0.785 rad.! or
                                                                                                                                60' (1.047 rad.

      o   CORRECT

Correcting Valve and Valve Seat
                                    o  INCORRECT
                                                                                1. CHECK CONTACT
                                                                                                                              30' (0.523 rad.! or
                                                                                                                              15' (0.262 rad.

                                                                                                              2. CORRECT SEAT WIDTH

NOTE: Before correcting the valve and seat, check the valve                                                            IDENTICAL DIMENSIONS
stem and the I.D. of the valve guide, and repair them if nec-
essary. After correcting the valve seat, be sure to check the
valve recession.                                                                                    3. CHECK CONTACT

1. Correcting the Valve                                              Valve lapping
   a. Correct the valve with a valve refacer.                        1. Apply compound evenly to the valve lapping surface.
                                                                     2. Insert the valve into the valve guide. Lap the valve
                                                                        onto its seat with a valve lapper or screwdriver.
                                                                     3. After lapping the valve, wash the compound away and
                                                                        apply oil, then repeat the valve lapping with the oil.
                                                                     4. Apply prussian blue to the contact surface to check the
                                                                        seated surface. If it is less than 70%, repeat the valve
                                                                        lapping again.
                                                                     NOTE: When valve lapping is peiformed, be sure to check
                                                                     the valve recession, and adjust the valve clearance after
                                                                     assembling the valve.

2. Correcting the Valve Seat
   a. Slightly correct the seat surface with a 60°
      (1.047 rad.) seat cutter (intake valve), or a 45°
      (0.785 rad.) seat cutter (exhaust valve).
   b. Resurface the seat surface with a 30° (0.523 rad.)
      valve seat cutter for the intake valve seat and with a
      15° (0.262 rad.) valve seat cutter for the exhaust
      valve seat, so that the width is close to the specified
      valve seat width of 0.0835 in. (2.12 mm).

                                                 ENGINE SERVICE
Replacing Valve Guide                                                Valve Spring Setting load
When removing:                                                       1. Place the valve spring on a tester and compress it to the
                                                                        same length that it is compressed in the engine.
1. Using a valve guide replacing tool (see SPECIAL
   TOOLS), press out the existing valve guide.                       2. Read the compression load on the gauge.
When installing:                                                     3. If the measurement is less than the limit, replace the
                                                                        valve spring.
2. Clean a new valve guide, and apply engine oil to it.
3. Using a valve guide replacing tool (see SPECIAL
   TOOLS), press in a new valve guide until it is flush
   with the cylinder head as shown in the illustration.
4. Ream the J.D. of the valve guide precisely to the speci-
   fied dimension.

 A CAUTION:       Do not hit the valve guide with a
 hammer during replacement; only use the valve
 guide replacing tool.
                                                                     Oil Clearance between Rocker Arm Shaft and Bearing
                                                                     1. Measure the rocker arm bearing I.D. with an inside
                                                                     2. Measure the rocker arm shaft O.D. with an outside
                                                                        micrometer, then calculate the oil clearance.
                                                                     3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the rocker
                                                                        arm and measure the oil clearance again. If it still
                                                                        exceeds the limit, replace the rocker arm shaft also.

            REMOVING                INSTALLING
           VALVE GUIDE             VALVE GUIDE

Measuring Valve Spring
1. Measure the free length of the valve spring A with                Push Rod Alignment
   vernier calipers. If the measurement is less than the             1. Check both ends of the push rod for cracks, damage and
   limit, replace it.                                                   unusual wear.
2. Put the spring on a level surface, place a square on the          2. Measure the bending of the push rod with a dial
   side of the spring, and check to see if the entire side is           indicator.
   in contact with the square. Then rotate the spring and
   measure the maximum B. If the measurement exceeds                 3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the push
   the limit, replace the spring.                                       rod.
3. Check the entire surface of the spring for scratches, and
   replace the spring if there are any.


        $bl;1/~ rJ~(iAI/I
                                                   ENGINE SERVICE
Oil Clearance between Tappet and Tappet Guide Bore                   Camshaft Side Clearance
1. Measure the tappet O.D. with an outside micrometer.               1. Set a dial indicator with its tip on the camshaft.
2. Measure the I.D. of the tappet guide bore with a cylin-           2. Measure the side clearance by moving the cam gear to
   der gauge, and calculate the oil clearance.                          the front and to the rear.
3. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit or the tappet is           3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the
   damaged, replace the tappet.                                         camshaft stopper.

Timing Gear Backlash                                                 Camshaft Alignment
1. Set a dial indicator (lever type) with its tip on the gear        1. Support the camshaft with V blocks on the surface plate
   tooth.                                                               and set a dial indicator with its tip on the intermediate
2. Move the gear to measure the backlash, holding its                   journal at a right angle.
   mating gear.                                                      2. Rotate the camshaft on the V blocks and get the mis-
3. If the backlash exceeds the limit, check the oil clearance           alignment (half of the measurement).
   of the shaft and gear.                                            3. If the misalignment exceeds the limit, replace the
4. If the oil clearance is correct, replace the gear.                   camshaft.

                                                                     Cam Height
Idler Gear Side Clearance                                            1. Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with
                                                                        an outside micrometer.
1. Set a dial indicator with its tip on the idler gear.
                                                                     2. If the measurement is less than the limit, replace the
2. Measure the side clearance by moving the idler gear to               camshaft.
   the front and to the rear.
3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the idler
   gear collar.

                                                     ENGINE SERVICE
Camshaft Journal Oil Clearance                                       PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
1. Measure the camshaftjoumal a.D. with an outside                   Piston Pin Bore 1.0.
   micrometer.                                                       1. Measure the piston pin bore LD. in both the horizontal
2. Measure the cylinder block bore LD. for the camshaft                 and vertical directions with a cylinder gauge.
   with an inside micrometer. Calculate the oil clearance.           2. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the
3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the camshaft.            piston.

Oil Clearance between Idler Gear Shaft and
Idler Gear Bushing
1. Measure the idler gear shaft a.D. with an outside                 Oil Clearance between Piston Pin and Connecting
   micrometer.                                                       Rod Small End Bushing
2. Measure the idler gear bushing's LD. with an inside               1. Measure the a.D. of the piston pin where it contacts
   micrometer, and calculate the oil clearance.                          the bushing with an outside micrometer.
3. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace the               2. Measure the LD. of the piston pin bushing at the con-
   bushing. B                                                           necting rod small end with a cylinder gauge. Calculate
                                                                        the oil clearance.
                                                                     3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the bushing.
                                                                        If it still exceeds the limit, replace the piston pin.

Replacing the Idler Gear Bushing
1. Using an idler gear bushing replacing tool (see
   SPECIAL TOOLS), press out the existing bushing.
2. Clean a new idler gear bushing and the idler gear bore,
   and apply engine oil to them.
3. Using the idler gear bushing replacing tool, press in a
   new bushing to the specified dimension (see illustration).
                                                                     Replacing Connecting Rod Small End Bushing
                                                                     When removing:
                           REPLACING                                 1. Press out the existing bushing using a small end bush-
                             TOOL                                       ing replacing tool.
                                                                     When installing:
                                                                     1. Clean a new small end bushing and bore, and apply
                                                                        engine oil to them.
                                                                     2. Insert the new bushing onto the tool and press-fit it so
                                                                        that the seam of the bushing is positioned as shown
                                                                        in the illustration and the bushing is flush with the con-
                                                                        necting rod.

                                       PRESSING IN   ;j\rr:';~UnivQrsal
        EXISTING BUSHING               NEW BUSHING     ib      Mj;i1IIij#,M*_

                                                    ENGINE SERVICE

                                                                                                                 RING NO.1
                                                                                                                 (KEYSTONE TYPE)

                  PRESSING OUT        PRESSING IN

3. Drill a hole through the bushing, aligning with the oil
   hole in the connecting rod. Use a 0.157 in (4.0 mm)
   dia. drill.
     NOTE: Be sure to chamfer the oil hole with an oilstone.

45' (0.79 rad.)

                                                                                        RING NO. 2/OIL RING

                                                                                       PISTON RING CLEARANCES
                                                                                                 STANDARD VALUE              LIMIT
Piston Ring Gap
                                                                     Ring No.1                                            0.0079 in.
1. Insert the piston ring into the lower part of the liner           (Keystone Type)                                      (0.20 mm)
   (the least worn out part of the liner) using the piston.
                                                                     Ring No.2                  0.0033 - 0.0044 in.       0.0079 in.
2. Measure the ring gap with a feeler gauge.                                                    (0.085 - 0.112 mm)        (0.20 mm)
3. If the gap exceeds the limit, replace the piston ring.            Oil Ring                   0.0008 - 0.0021 in.       0.0059 in.
                                                                                                (0.020 - 0.055 mm)        (0.15 mm)

                                                                    Connecting Rod Alignment
                                                                    NOTE: Since the J.D. of the connecting rod small end bush-
                                                                    ing is the basis of this check, check this bushing for wear
                                                                    1. Remove the crankpin bearing, and install the connecting
                                                                       rod cap.
                                                                    2. Install the piston pin in the connecting rod.
                                                                    3. Install the connecting rod on the connecting rod align-
                                                                       ment tool.
Piston Ring Clearances                                              4. Put a gauge over the piston pin, and move it against
1. Remove carbon from the ring grooves.                                the face plate.
2. For Ring No.1 (keystone type), measure the clearance             5. If the gauge does not fit squarely against the face plate,
   between the outer side of the ring and the side of the              measure the space between the pins of the gauge and the
   piston.                                                             face plate.
3. For Ring No.2 and the Oil Ring, measure the clearance            6. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the con-
   between the rings and the grooves with a feeler gauge               necting rod.
   or depth gauge.
4. If a clearance exceeds the limit, replace the ring.
5. If the clearance still exceeds the limit after replacing
   the ring, replace the piston.

                                                     ENGINE SERVICE
                                                                             OVERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL

                                                                                                   0.008 in                 0.016 in
                                                                                                  (0.2 mm)                 (0.4 mm)
                                                                                            1.1102 -1.1122 in.         1.1181-1.1201 in.
                                                                                A           (28.20 - 28.25 mm)         (28.40 - 28.45 mm)
                                                                                 B            2.028 - 2.035 in.         2.031 - 2.039 in.
                                                                                              (51.5 - 51.7 mm)         (51.6 - 51.8 mm)
                                                                                 C         0.091 - 0.106 in. radius 0.091 - 0.106 in. radius
                                                                                            (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)    (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)
                                                                          The crankshaft journal must be fine-finished to higher than   \J'\l\l\l

Crankshaft Side Clearance
1. Set a dial indicator with its tip on the end of the
   crankshaft.                                                                         o

2. Measure the side clearance by moving the crankshaft
   to the front and to the rear.
3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the thrust
   bearings.                                                                                                      c
4. If a same-size thrust bearing is inadequate because of
   crankshaft journal wear, replace it with an oversize                  Crankshaft Alignment
   thrust bearing (see illustration and table).                          1. Support the crankshaft with V blocks on the surface
                                                                            plate and set a dial indicator with its tip on the interme-
                          STANDARD VALUE               LIMIT                diate journal at a right angle.
 Crankshaft               0.0059 - 0.0122 in.        0.0197 in.          2. Rotate the crankshaft on the V blocks and get the mis-
 side clearance            (0.15 - 0.31 mm)          (0.50 mm)
                                                                            alignment (half of the measurement).
                                                                         3. If the misalignment exceeds the limit, replace the

                                                                                           CRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT
                   OVERSIZE THRUST BEARING
      OVERSIZE                   BEARING              MARKING            Oil Clearance between Crankpin and
      0.008 in.           Thrust bearing   No.1 02                       Crankpin Bearing
                                                        020 OS
      (0.2 mm)            Thrust bearing   No.2 02                       1. Clean the crankpin and crankpin bearing.
       0.016 in.          Thrust bearing   No.1 04      040 OS           2. Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the crankpin.
       (0.4 mm)           Thrust bearing   No.2 04
                                                                         3. Install the connecting rod cap and tighten the connect-
                                                                            ing rod screws to the specified torque, then remove the

                                                          + +Unlvarsal
                                                         £a       M"ill ¢lj4,V;93i-

                                                          ENGINE SERVICE
4. Measure the amount of flattening with the scale, and                                           A
   get the oil clearance.



                                                                           Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and
                                                                           Crankshaft Bearing No.1
5. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace the                     1. Measure the O.D. of the crankshaft's front journal with
   crankpin bearing.                                                          an outside micrometer.
6. If a same-size bearing is too big because of crankpin
   wear, replace it with an undersize bearing (see illustra-
   tion and table).
NOTE: Never insert the plastigauge into the crankpin oil
hole. Be sure not to move the crankshaft while the con-
necting rod screws are tightened.

                              STANDARD VALUE                  LIMIT
 Oil Clearance              0.00114 - 0.00358 in.          0.0079 in.
 between crankpin            (0.029 - 0.091 mm)            (0.20 mm)
 and crankpin bearing

                             STANDARD VALUE
 Crankpin 0.0.             1.57319 - 1.57382 in.
                           (39.959 - 39.975 mm)
                                                                           2. Measure the LD. of the crankshaft bearing No.1 with
 Crankpin bearing          1.57496 - 1.57677 in.
 1.0.                      (40.004 - 40.050 mm)                               an inside micrometer, and calculate the oil clearance.

     UNDERSIZE                      BEARING                  MARKING
      0.008 in.               Crankpin bearing 02
      (0.2 mm)                                                020 US
      0.016 in.               Crankpin bearing 04             040 US
      (0.4 mm)



                        0.008 in.
                        (0.2 mm)

                 0.1102 - 0.1260 in. radius
                   (2.8 - 3.2 mm radius)
                                                     0.016 in.
                                                     (0.4 mm)

                                              0.1102 - 0.1260 in. radius
                                                (2.8 - 3.2 mm radius)

      B          0.0394 - 0.0591 in. radius 0.0394 - 0.0591 in. radius
                   (1.0 -1.5 mm radius)       (1.0 - 1.5 mm radius)        3. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace crankshaft
                                                                              bearing No.1.
      C           1.56531 - 1.56594 in.       1.55744 - 1.55807 in.
                  (39.759 - 39.775 mm)        (39.559 - 39.575 mm)         4. If a same-size bearing is too big because of crankshaft
                                                                              journal wear, replace it with an undersize bearing (see
     The crankpin must be fine-finished to higher than      \lVV'V            illustration and table).
                                                        ENGINE SERVICE
                            STANDARD VALUE                  LIMIT                                          STANDARD VALUE
 Oil Clearance            0.00134 - 0.00449 in.          0.0079 in.                Dimension A               o- 0.0118 in.
 between crankshaft        (0.034-0.114 mm)              (0.20 mm)                                           (0 - 0.3 mm)
 journal and crank-
 shaft bearing No. 1

                            STANDARD VALUE
 Crankshaft journal       1.88716 -1.88779 in.
 0.0.                     (47.934 - 47.950 mm)                                                                                   BEARING NO.1
 Crankshaft bearing       1.88913 - 1.89165 in.
 No.1 1.0.                (47.984 - 48.048 mm)

     UNDERSIZE                     BEARING                 MARKING
      0.008 in.                                                                                                                  CYLINDER
      (0.2 mm)          Crankshaft bearing No.1 02          020 US                                                               BLOCK

      0.016 in.
      (0.4 mm)          Crankshaft bearing No.1 04          040 US
                                                                                 Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and
                                                                                 Crankshaft Bearings No.2 & No.3

                                                                                 1. Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the journal.
                        0.008 in                   0.016 in.                     2. Install the bearing case and tighten the bearing case
                       (0.2 mm)                    (0.4 mm)
Dimension                                                                           screws to the specified torque, then remove the bearing
               0.0906 - 0.1063 in. radius   0.0906 - 0.1063 in. radius              case.
      A          (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)        (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)              3. Measure the amount of the flattening with the scale,
      B        0.0394 - 0.0591 in. radius   0.0394 - 0.0591 in. radius              and get the oil clearance.
                 (1.0 - 1.5 mm radius)        (1.0 - 1.5 mm radius)

      C        1.87929 - 1.87992 in.        1.87142 - 1.87204 in.
               (47.734 - 47.750 mm)         (47.534 - 47.550 mm)
The crankshaft journal must be fine-finished to higher than    \J\/\l'V

                                                                                 4. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace the
                                                                                    crankshaft bearing.
Replacing Crankshaft Bearing No.1                                                S. If a same-size bearing is too big because of the crank-
When removing:                                                                      shaft journal wear, use an undersize one (see illustra-
                                                                                    tion and table).
1. Press out the existing crankshaft bearing No.1 using a
   crankshaft bearing No 1 replacing tool.                                       NOTE: Be sure not to move the crankshaft while the bear-
                                                                                 ing case screws are being tightened.
When installing:
1. Clean a new crankshaft bearing No.1 and the crank-                                                      STANDARD VALUE              LIMIT
   shaft journal bore, then apply engine oil to them.                             Oil Clearance          0.00134 - 0.00374 in.      0.0079 in.
2. Using the crankshaft bearing No.1 replacing tool,                              between crankshaft      (0.034 - 0.095 mm)        (0.20 mm)
                                                                                  journal and crank-
   press in a new bearing No.1 so that its seam faces the                         shaft bearing No.2
   exhaust manifold side.

                                                               s+   .Unlvarsal
                                                              3S          ¢&'i!@jij,WJ 3i-

                                                           ENGINE SERVICE
                            STANDARD VALUE                                        CYLINDER
Crankshaft journal         1.88716 - 1.88779 in.                                  Cylinder Wear
0.0. (intermediate)        (47.934 - 47.950 mm)                                   1. Measure the I.D. of the cylinder at the six positions
Crankshaft bearing         1.88913 - 1.89091 in.                                     shown in the illustration with a cylinder gauge to find
No.2 1.0.                  (47.984 - 48.029 mm)                                      the maximum and minimum I.D.'s.

                             STANDARD VALUE                   LIMIT
Oil Clearance              0.00134 - 0.00386 in.           0.0079 in.
between crankshaft          (0.034 - 0.098 mm)             (0.20 mm)
journal and crank-
shaft bearing NO.3

                             STANDARD VALUE
Crankshaft journal         2.04413 - 2.04488 in.
0.0. (flywheel side)       (51.921 - 51.940 mm)
Crankshaft bearing         2.04622 - 2.04799 in.
NO.3 1.0.                  (51.974 - 52.019 mm)

     UNDERSIZE                    BEARING                   MARKING
      0.008 in.           Crankshaft bearing   No.2   02
      (0.2 mm)            Crankshaft bearing   NO.3   02      020 US
                                                                                                      TOP                   RIGHT-ANGLE
       0.016 in.          Crankshaft bearing   No.2   04                                                                    TO PISTON PIN
                          Crankshaft bearing   NO.3   04      040 US
      (0.4 mm)


                        0.008 in.                  0.016 in.
                        (0.2 mm)                   (0.4 mm)
               0.0906 - 0.1063 in. radius   0.0906 - 0.1063 in. radius                                                     PISTON PIN
      A          (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)        (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)

               0.0394 - 0.0591 in. radius   0.0394 - 0.0591 in. radius
      B          (1.0 - 1.5 mm radius)        (1.0 - 1.5 mm radius)
                   1.87929 - 1.87992 in.    1.87141 -1.87204 in.                  2. Determine the difference (maximum wear) between the
      C            (47.734 - 47.750 mm)     (47.534 - 47.550 mm)
                                                                                     maximum and minimum LD.'s.
      D            2.03626 - 2.03700 in.    2.02838 - 2.02913 in.
                   (51.721 - 51.740 mm)     (51.521 - 51.540 mm)                  3. If the maximum wear exceeds the limit, bore and hone
                                                                                     to the oversize dimension (see Correcting Cylinder,
                                                                (O.8-S)              below).
The crankshaft journal must be fine-finished to higher than      'V\i'\l\1
                                                                                  4. Visually check the cylinder wall for scratches. If deep
                                                                                     scratches are found, the cylinder should be bored (see
                                                                                     Correcting Cylinder, below).

             A                                                                                                 STANDARD VALUE                 LIMIT
                                                                                    Cylinder 1.0.
                                                                                     M-25 XPB                   2.9921 - 2.9929 in.            -
                                                                                     M-35B                    (76.000 - 76.019 mm)

                                                                                     M-40B                      3.0709 - 3.0716 in.            -
                                                                                                              (78.000 - 78.019 mm)

                                                                                    Maximum Wear
                                                                                                                       -                    0.0059 in.

                                                   ENGINE SERVICE
Correcting Cylinder
1. When the cylinder is worn beyond the limit, bore and
   hone it to the specified dimension.

                            STANDARD VALUE            LIMIT
 Cylinder I.D.
   M-25XPB                  3.0118 - 3.0126 in.        -
   M-35B                  (76.500 - 76.519 mm)
   M-40B                    3.0906 - 3.0913 in.        -
                          (78.500 - 78.519 mm)
 Maximum Wear
                                     -             0.0059 in.
                                                   (0.15 mm)
 Finishing                Hone to 0.00047 - 0.00079 in.R max.
                                  (1.2 - 2.0 ~R max.)

2. Replace the piston and the piston rings with oversize
   (0.5 mm) rings.

                                    MODEL            MARKING
        Piston                      M-35B              05 OS
      Piston Ring                  M-25XPB
       Assembly                     M-35B              05 OS

NOTE: When an oversize cylinder is worn beyond the limit,
sleeve the block to return the cylinder to the standard size.

                          CYLINDER 1.0.     ,
                    ,        BEFORE         ,

                    :      CORRECTION

                          CYLINDER 1.0.

                                           ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                             NOTE: UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust-
                             ments be performed by a competent engine mechanic. The information
                             below is provided to assist the mechanic.

VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT                                            Four Cylinder Models
NOTE: Valve adjustments should not be necessary under                 Rotate the crankshaft 180 0 in the normal direction of rota-
normal operating conditions. These adjustments, when                  tion and adjust the No.3 Cylinder's valves. Rotate the
required, should be performed by an authorized mechanic.              crankshaft another 180 0 and adjust the No.4 Cylinder's
                                                                      valves. Rotate the crankshaft another 180 0 and adjust the
Remove the valve rocker cover to expose the engine's valve
train. Remove the glow plugs from each of the cylinders to            No.2 Cylinder's valves.
enable the engine to be easily rotated by hand to position                                                          VALVE
each cylinder for valve adjustment.
The valves are adjusted with the piston in the cylinder posi-
tioned at TDC (Top Dead Center) of its compression stroke.                                                          t
Each cylinder is adjusted following the engine's firing
Firing Order: 3 Cylinder Models 1- 2 - 3
                 4 Cylinder Models 1- 3 - 4 - 2
                                                                                                             STANDARD VALUE
Adjust the valves beginning with Cylinder No. 1. Rotate
the crankshaft slowly and observe the operation of the                  Valve clearance                      0.0071 - 0.0087 in.
                                                                        (engine cold)                         (0.18 - 0.22 mm)
valves for Cylinder No.1. Watch for the intake valve to
open indicating the piston is on its intake stroke (the piston
is moving down in the cylinder). Continue to rotate the               TOP CLEARANCE
crankshaft slowly and look for the intake valve to close.
The piston is now starting its compression stroke (the pis-           1. Remove the cylinder head (remove the cylinder head
ton is moving up in the cylinder towards TDC).                           gasket completely).
Watch the timing hole in the bellhousing for the timing               2. Bring the piston to its top dead center. Measure the top
numbers to appear. Position the lTC mark in alignment                    clearance using a plastigauge. Position the plastigauge
with the notch in the timing hole. The piston in Cylinder                on the piston top.
No.1 is now at TDC. Adjust the valves in Cylinder No. 1.              3. Bring the piston to its middle position, install the cylin-
Proceed to the next cylinder in the firing order.                        der head, and tighten the cylinder head bolts to their
                                                                         specified torque. (The head gasket must be changed to
                                                                          a new one.)
                                                                      4. Tum the crankshaft until the piston exceeds its top dead
                                                                      S. Remove the cylinder head and measure the clearance.
                                                                      6. If the measurement is not within the standard value,
                                                                         check the oil clearance of the crankpin journal and the
                                                                         piston pin.

                                                                       Top clearance       Standard value           0.0217- 0.0295 in.
                                                                                                                    (0.55 - 0.75 mm)

                                                                       Tightening torque    Cylinder head           47.0 - 50.6 ft-Ibs
                                                                                            mounting bolts          ~6.5 - 7.0 kgf/m}
                                                                                                                     63.7 - 68.6 Nm}

                                                                      TIGHTENING THE CYLINDER HEAD BOLTS
Three Cylinder Models                                                 Pull off the air breather pipe from the rocker cover and
                                                                      remove the rocker cover. Retighten the cylinder head bolts
Rotate the crankshaft 240 0 in the normal direction of rota-
                                                                      to their specified torque as shown in the diagram. Make
tion and adjust the No.2 Cylinder's valves. Rotate the
                                                                      sure the engine is cold when this is done. Before applying
crankshaft another 240 0 and adjust the No.3 Cylinder's
                                                                      the specified torque to a bolt, loosen it 114 to 112 a tum and
                                                                      then apply the torque.

                                               ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                               NOTE: UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust-
                               ments be performed by a competent engine mechanic. The information
                               below is provided to assist the mechanic.

Tighten the cylinder head bolts in an ascending sequence:               Checking the Oil Pressure
   Model M-25XPB - from 1 to 14
                                                                        1. Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical
   Model M-35B - from 1 to 18
                                                                            oil pressure gauge in its place.
   Model M-40B - from 1 to 18
                                                                        2. Start the engine. After warming up to operating temper-
                                                                           ature, measure the oil pressure at both idling and rated
                                                                        3. If the oil pressure is less than the specified limit, check
                                                                           the following:
                                                                           a. Engine oil insufficient.
                           MODEL M·25XPB                                   b. Oil pump defective.
                                                                           c. Oil strainer clogged.
                                                                           d. Oil filter.
                            06           03        01                      e. Oil gallery clogged.
                              0     2         07        0                  f. Excessive oil clearance of bearing.
           00           00          00 00
        01 1 0 0900 °0
             0 13  05
                      1 0 °0
                           8 0
                              0 12
                                  0 16
                                                                           g. Foreign matter in the relief valve.
                                                                        When Reassembling:
                        MODELS M·35B & M·40B                            1. After checking the engine oil pressure, tighten the
                                                                           engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque.
OIL PRESSURE                                                               Oil pressure at idle speed:
The engine's oil pressure, during operation, is indicated by                    15 psi (1.05 kglcm2) (103.4 kPa)
the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel. During nor-                Oil pressure at rated speed:
mal operation, the oil pressure will range between 40 and                       40 - 60 psi (2.8 - 4.2 kglcm2) (276 - 414 kPa)
60 psi (2.8 and 4.2 kg/cm2 ).                                              Oil pressure switch torque:
                                                                                10.8 - 14.5 ft-Ib (1.5 - 2.0 kg-m)
NOTE: A newly started, cold engine can have an oil pres-
sure reading up to 60 psi (4.2 kg/cm 2). A warmed engine                TESTING ENGINE COMPRESSION
can have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi (2.5
                                                                        Make certain the oil level (dipstick) is at the correct level
kg/cm 2). These readings will vary depending upon the tem-
                                                                        and the air intake filter is clean. The battery and starter motor
perature of the engine and the rpms.
                                                                        must also be in good condition.
Low Oil Pressure                                                         1. Warm the engine to normal operating temperature.
The specified safe minimum oil pressure is 5 - 10 psi (0.35              2. Move the control lever to a position for shutting off the fuel.
- 0.70 kg/cm 2 ). A gradual loss of oil pressure usually indi-              (Disconnect the wires if a fuel shutdown solenoid is used.)
cates worn bearings. For additional information on low oil
                                                                         3. Remove all the glow plugs from the engine and install
pressure readings, see ENGINE TROUBLE SHOOTING.
                                                                            the compression gauge/adapter combination to the
                                                                            cylinder on which the compression is to be measured.

                          OIL PRESSURE

                            OIL PRESSURE SWITCH                                                            MEASURING

                                                            A.   A.Unlvarsal
                                                            D¥     M·';lI~I*4·M3;-
                                            ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                              NOTE: UNNERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust-
                              ments be performed by a competent engine mechanic. The information
                              below is provided to assist the mechanic.

4. Close the raw water seacock (thru-hull).
5. Crank the engine and allow the gauge to reach a maxi-                 A WARNING:         Never attempt to check or adjust the
   mum reading. Record the reading.                                      drive belt's tension while the engine is in operation.
6. Repeat this process for each cylinder. Look for cylin-
   ders with dramatically (at least 20%) lower compres-                 Checking Belt Tension
   sion than the average of the others.
                                                                        1. To check the belt tension, press the belt at the midpoint
    Compression pressure at cranking speed:                                between the alternator pulley and the crankshaft pulley
      Standard value: 412 - 469 psi (29 - 33 kgf/cm2)                      with a force of 221bs. (10 kfg) (98 N). The belt deflec-
          (2.84 - 3.24 MPa)                                                tion should be 3/8 in. - 112 in. (10 - 12 mm) deep.
      Limit: 327 psi (23 kgf/cm2) (2.26 MPa)
      Maximum difference between cylinders:
          10% or less.
    NOTE: If the readings are below the limit, the engine
    needs an overhaul.
7. Re-install the glow plugs (use anti-seize compound on                                           COOLANT PUMP
   the threads) and reset the fuel shut-off to the run                                             PULLEY
   position.                                                                                                                 \
8. Open the raw water seacock (thru-hull).                                                                                   PULLEY

If a weak cylinder is flanked by healthy cylinders, the prob-
lem is either valve- or piston- related. Check the valve                           CRANKSHAFT
clearances for the weak cylinder, adjust as needed, and test
again. If the cylinder is still low, apply a small amount of
oil into the cylinder to seal the rings, and repeat the test. If
the compression comes up, the rings are faulty.
Abnormally high readings on all cylinders indicate heavy
carbon accumulation, a condition that might be accompa-                                                 CHECKING BELT TENSION
nied by high pressures and noise.
NOTE: In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise,
have the injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized              Adjusting Belt Tension
fuel injection service center. Poor fuel quality, contami-              1. To adjust the belt tension, loosen the alternator adjusting
nants and loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection                  strap bolt and the base mounting bolt.
pump will result in injector faults.                                    2. With the belt loose, inspect the belt for damage, wear,
When low compression is found, determine the cause by                      cracks and frayed edges. If the belt is damaged, replace
applying a small amount of oil in the cylinder through the                 it. If it is nearly worn out and deeply sunk in the pulley
glow plug hole. Allow the oil to settle.                                   groove, replace it.
Install the pressure gauge and repeat the above test. If the
compression reading rises dramatically, the fault is with the
rings. If the compression value does not rise, the problem
is with the valves.
A slight rise in compression would indicate a problem with
both the rings and the valves.
                                                                                            GOOD                      BAD
DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT                                                                       BELT                      BELT

The drive belt must be properly tensioned. A loose drive                3. Pivot the alternator on the base mounting bolt to the left
belt will not provide proper alternator charging and will                  or right as required, to loosen or tighten.
eventually damage the alternator. A drive belt that is too              4. Tighten the base mounting bolt and the adjusting strap
tight will pull the alternator out of alignment and/or cause               bolt securely.
the alternator to wear out prematurely. Excessive drive belt
                                                                        5. Run the engine for about 5 minutes, then shut down
tension can also cause rapid wear of the belt and reduce the
                                                                           and recheck the belt tension.
service life of the coolant pump's bearing. A slack belt or
the presence of oil on the belt can cause belt slipping,
resulting in high operating temperatures and tachometer

                                           ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                              NOTE: UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine adjust-
                              ments be peiformed by a competent engine mechanic. The information
                              below is provided to assist the mechanic.

IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT                                               Adjusting the Idle Speed
& TACHOMETER CHECK (New Installation)                               1. Loosen the locknut on the idle adjustment bolt on the
Checking the Idle Speed                                                fuel injection pump.
Use a photoelectric-type tachometer to check the idle speed.        2. Turn the idle adjustment bolt until the idling speed is
NOTE: In a new installation having new instrument panels,              within the standard range. The idle speed will increase
the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to               when the adjusting bolt is turned clockwise and
the engine's rpm. This calibration should be checked in all            decrease when the bolt is turned counterclockwise.
new installations.                                                  3. Tighten the locknut.
1. Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature.              4. Race the engine several times to ensure the idle speed
   Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a                   remains as set.
   clean cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape        NOTE: Should the engine rpm be in question, verify the
   on the pulley to facilitate the use of the tachometer.           tachometer readings as shown at the instrument panel with
2. Start and idle the engine.                                       a mechanical or strobe-type tachometer at the engine
3. Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape         crankshaft·
   to confirm the engine speed. Check the instrument
   panel tachometer reading. Adjust the tachometer in the
   panel by using the instrument calibration pod as needed
   to bring the instrument panel tachometer into the same
   rpm reading as the engine.
4. Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within
   the specified value.                                                                              LEVER
   Normal idle speed:
     Model M-2SXPB: 1000 -1200 rpm
      Model M-3SB: 800 - 1000 rpm
     Model M-40B: 800 - 1000 rpm

                                                                               ADJUSTING THE IDLE SPEED


                                      EXHAUST MANIFOLD SERVICE
EXHAUST MANIFOLD                                                      ASSEMBLY
The exhaust manifold, which was disassembled from the                 1. If the manifold was removed as an assembly and left
cylinder head, should be inspected before reassembly.                    intact, it can be replaced on the cylinder head in the
1. Remove the exhaust nipples, elbows and plugs from the                 reverse order of removal.
   manifold.                                                              Do not reuse the gaskets; install new ones.
2. Examine all parts for defects, corrosion and wear, and                 a. Loosely attach the manifold elbows to the cylinder
   replace as needed.                                                        head using new gaskets. Do not use any gasket seal-
3. Flush out the manifold's interior with a liquid cleaner and               ant on these gaskets.
   rinse thoroughly with fresh water.                                     b. Gradually tighten each fitting to ensure proper
4. Use a pipe cleaner to clear the passage that connects the                 alignment of all the parts. This should be done in
   filler neck to the coolant recovery tank tubing.                          three steps.
5. Flush out the coolant recovery tank and its connecting             2. Reinstall the exhaust connections. Use new gaskets and
   tube.                                                                 check the exhaust elbow-to-manifold clamp's condition.
                                                                         Replace it if necessary.
                                                                      3. Check the manifold pressure cap. Open the valve by
                                                                         pulling it, and make sure it closes when released. Make
                                                                         certain the upper and lower seals are in good condition.
                                                                         If any doubt, replace the cap.

                                                                                                                 RUBBER SEALS

                         EXHAUST MANIFOLD
                       (MODEL M·35B SHOWN)
                                                                                     CHECKING THE PRESSURE CAP

                                      LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION                                                            Some of the oil that lubricates these components or is
                                                                       splashed by the crankshaft also reaches and lubricates the
The lubricating system consists of an oil strainer, oil pump,
                                                                       pistons, cylinders, small ends of the connecting rods, tap-
relief valve, oil filter and oil pressure switch.
                                                                       pets, pushrods, intake and exhaust valves, and timing gears.
The oil pump draws lubricating oil from the oil sump                   The oil then returns to the oil sump to repeat the continu-
through the oil strainer to the oil filter. Then the oil is            ous cycle. When the oil pressure exceeds the specified
delivered under pressure to the crankshaft, connecting rods,           pressure, the oil pushes open the relief valve in the oil
idler gear, governor shaft, camshaft and rocker arm shaft              pump and returns to the oil sump, keeping the oil pressure
through oil galleries in the engine block.                             within its specified range.

                                                                ROCKER ARM
                         ROCKER ARM                             SHAFT



            IDLER GEAR


                 OIL PUMP

                                                                                                  OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE

                                                            LUBRICATION SYSTEM

                                                      ,., ,.,Unlvarsal
                                                            MARINE POWER

                                LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
OIL PUMP                                                              OIL FILTER
The oil pump is a trochoid type pump. Inside the pump                 Impurities in engine oil can cause wear and components to
body, the lO-lobe inner rotor is eccentrically engaged with           seize as well as impairing the physical and chemical proper-
the ll-lobe outer rotor. The inner rotor is driven by the             ties of the oil itself. Impurities contained in force-fed engine
crankshaft, which in turn rotates the outer rotor.                    oil are absorbed as they pass through the filter element.
When the inner rotor rotates, the outer rotor also rotates in                           FILTER ELEMENT
the same direction. Since the two rotors have different cen-
ters and different numbers of lobes, spaces are generated
between the lobes as shown in the illustration.
At position A, there is little space between lobes in the
inlet port. As the rotor rotates towards position B, the space
between the lobes becomes larger, creating a negative pres-
sure which draws in oil.
Outside the inlet port, as shown in position B, the space
between the lobes becomes gradually smaller, and oil pres-
sure increases. At position C, oil is discharged from the
outlet port.
 OUTER                                                                When the filter element is clogged and the oil pressure in
                                                                      the inlet line builds up by 14 psi (1.0 kgf/cm2) (98 kPa) more
                                                                      than the outlet line, the bypass valve opens and the oil flows
                                                                      from the inlet to the outlet, bypassing the filter element.
                                                                  FILTER ELEMENT    BYPASS VALVE

                  A                           B

                Oil PUMP         c
                                                                      OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
RELIEF VALVE                                                          The oil pressure switch is mounted on the cylinder block,
                                                                      to warn the operator that the lubricating oil pressure is low.
The relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system            If the oil pressure falls below 7 psi (0.5 kgf/cm 2) (49 kPa),
due to high oil pressure. This relief valve is a ball-type
                                                                      the oil warning light will go on, alerting the operator. If this hap-
direct acting relief valve, and is best suited for low pres-
                                                                      pens, stop the engine immediately and check the cause of the oil
sures. When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit, the ball is
                                                                      pressure drop.
pushed back by the oil pressure, and the oil escapes.



                                      I       TEEL BALL                                             OIL PRESSURE


                                                  VALVE SEAT
                                                                                   OIL PRESSURE
                                                                                                         OIL PRESSURE SWITCH

                      RELIEF VALVE

                                   LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE
OIL PRESSURE                                                         Oil Pressure Switch
The engine's oil pressure, during operation, is indicated by         Oil Pressure Sender (optional)
the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel. During               When performing an engine overhaul, replace the oil pres-
normal operation, the oil pressure will range between 40             sure switch, and the oil pressure sender if used.
and 60 psi (2.8 and 4.2 kg/cm2).                                      When installing the new parts, apply teflon sealant to the
NOTE: A newly started, cold engine can have an oil pres-              threaded ends being careful not to close off the oil hole in
sure reading up to 60 psi (4.2 kg!cm 2). A warmed engine              the sender.
can have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi (2.5               Oil pressure switch torque:
kg!cm 2). These readings will vary depending upon the                    10.8 - 14.5 ft-Ib (1.5 - 2.0 kg-m)
temperature of the engine and the rpms.
Low Oil Pressure
The specified safe minimum oil pressure is 5 - 10 psi. A
                                                                       A CAUTION:        Oil Pressure Switch - Do not use lock
                                                                       pliers, vise grips, or pipe wrenches on the oil pressure
gradual loss of oil pressure usually indicates worn bearings.          switch. Use the correct socket which is available from
For additional information on low oil pressure readings,               Snap-On, Proto, New Britain and others. Damage to
see ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING.                                            the switch will cause oil leaks and/or switch failure.


         Oil PRESSURE
                        OIL PRESSURE SWITCH

                                                                                                     -"""'-_- Oil PRESSURE SWITCH
Checking the Oil Pressure
1. Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical
   oil pressure gauge in its place.
2. Start the engine. After warming up to operating tem-
                                                                                        OIL PRESSURE SWITCH & SENDER
   perature, measure the oil pressure at both idling and
   rated speeds.
3. If the oil pressure is less than the specified limit, check.        OIL PUMP
   the following:                                                      Rotor Lobe Clearance
   a. Engine oil insufficient.                                         1. Measure the clearance between the lobes of the inner
    b. Oil pump defective.                                                rotor and the outer rotor with a feeler gauge.
    c. Oil strainer clogged.                                           2. If the clearance exceeds the standard value, replace the
                                                                          oil pump rotor assembly.
    d. Oil filter.
    e. Oil gallery clogged.
    f.   Excessive oil clearance of bearing.
    g. Foreign matter in the relief valve.
When Reassembling:
1. After checking the engine oil pressure, tighten the
   engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque.
   Oil pressure at idle speed:
       15 psi (1.05 kglcm2) (103.4 kPa)
    Oil pressure at rated speed:
        40 - 60 psi (2.8 - 4.2 kglcm2) (276 - 414 kPa)
    Oil pressure switch torque:
        10.8 ~ 14.5 ft~lb (1.5 - 2.0 kg-m)
                                                                MARINE POWER

                                   LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE
Clearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body
1. Measure the clearance between the outer rotor and the
   pump body with a feeler gauge.
2. If the clearance exceeds the standard value, replace the
   oil pump rotor assembly.

Clearance Between Rotor and Cover
1. Put a strip of plastigauge onto the rotor face with grease.
2. Install the cover and tighten the screws.
3. Remove the cover carefully, measure the amount of the
   flattening with the scale, and get the clearance.
4. If the clearance exceeds the standard value. replace the
   oil pump rotor assembly.

                                  COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The engine is cooled by a closed fresh water coolant cir-
cuit. The coolant is circulated by a belt-driven impeller
pump. The coolant temperature is thermostatically con-
Raw water is pumped by gear-driven impeller pump                                TEMPERATURE _--t'I;~               THERMOSTAT
                                                                                SENDER                             HOUSING
through an engine-mounted heat exchanger to cool the                            (OPTIONAL)
engine coolant. The raw water then enters the water-inject-                   WATER
ed exhaust elbow where it mixes with and cools the exhaust                    TEMPERATURE
gasses. This mixture then discharges overboard.
The coolant pump is a centrifugal-type metal impeller
pump mounted on the front of the engine. It is driven from
the crankshaft by a V-belt.

                                        MECHANICAL SEAL

                 BODY                                                                                              FLANGE


                                     COOLANT PUMP
                                                                      RAW WATER PUMP
THERMOSTAT                                                            The raw water pump is a gear driven, positive displace-
A thermostat, located near the manifold at the front of the           ment, self-priming rotary pump with a non-ferrous housing
engine, controls the coolant temperature as it continuously           and a neoprene impeller. The impeller has flexible vanes
flows through the closed cooling circuit.                             which wipe against a curved cam plate within the impeller
                                                                      housing, producing the pumping action. On no account
The thermostat is a wax pellet type thermostat. Wax is                should this pump be run dry as water acts as a lubricant for
enclosed in the pellet. The wax is solid at low tempera-              the impeller. There should always be a spare impeller and
tures, but turns liquid at high temperatures, expands and             impeller cover gasket aboard (an impeller kit). Raw water
opens the valve.                                                      pump impeller failures occur when lubricant (raw water) is
When the engine is first started, the closed thermostat pre-          not present during engine operation. Such failures are not
vents coolant from flowing (some coolant is by-passed                 warrantable, and operators are cautioned to make sure raw
through a hole in the thermostat to prevent the exhaust               water flow is present at start-up.
manifold from overheating). As the engine warms up, the
thermostat gradually opens. The thermostat is accessible
and can be checked, cleaned, or replaced easily.
The water temperature switch is located on the thermostat
housing (see illustration). This switch is normally open.
When activated, it will close and sound an alarm.
WATER TEMPERATURE SENDER (Optional)                                 HOUSING

The water temperature sender (if supplied) is located on the
thermostat housing (see illustration). It is a variable resis-
tor affected by heat. Voltage from the water temperature                                                                     ':':<-'I---f---CAM
gauge is grounded through the sender to the block.
Depending on the resistance through the sender affected by
coolant heat, the gauge will indicate a temperature reading.
                                                                                 RAW WATER PUMP
                                                               MARINE POWER

                                   COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
COOLANT RECOVERY TANK                                                  ZINC ANODE
A coolant recovery tank allows for engine coolant expan-               A zinc anode or "pencil", is located in the raw water cool-
sion and contraction during engine operation, without any              ing circuit within the heat exchanger. The purpose of the
significant loss of coolant and without introducing air into           zinc anode is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking
the cooling system. This tank is best located at or above              place in the raw water cooling circuit, thereby reducing the
the engine manifold level, and should be easily accessible.            effects of electrolysis on other components of the system.
                                                                       The condition of the zinc anode should be checked month-
                                                                       ly and the anode cleaned or replaced, as required. Spare
                                                                       anodes should be carried onboard. The area in the
                                                                       exchanger where the anode is located should periodically
                                                                       be cleaned of anode debris.

                                                   PRESSURE CAP

                        MANIFOLD                                           NEW            REPLACE             REPLACE      ClEAN AND
                                                                                                ZINC ANODES
The heat exchanger is a copper tube which encloses a num-
ber of small copper tubes. Raw water is pumped through
the small copper tubes and the freshwater coolant from the
engine is circulated around the copper tubes. The raw
water removes heat from the freshwater coolant. To keep
the heat exchanger operating efficiently, it should be
removed from the engine every 1000 hours to be thorough-
ly cleaned and pressure tested.


                                          HEAT EXCHANGER

                                             COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE
   THERMOSTAT                                                                      Checking the Thermostat Valve Opening Temperature
   1. Remove the thermostat housing mounting screws, then                          1. Push down the thermostat valve and insert a string
      remove the thermostat housing.                                                  between the valve and the valve seat.
   2. Remove the thermostat.                                                       2. Place the thermostat and a thermometer in a container
                                                                                      with water and gradually heat the water.
                                                                                   3. Hold the string to suspend the thermostat in the water.
                                                                                      When the water temperature rises, the thermostat valve
                                                                                      will open, allowing it to fall down from the string.
                                                                                      Read the temperature at this moment on the
          TEMPERATURE                               THERMOSTAT
          SENDER                                    HOUSING
          (OPTIONAL)                                                               4. Continue heating the water and read the temperature
                                                   AIR BLEED
                                                                                      when the valve has completely opened [about 0.236 in.
        TEMPERATURE --~                            PETCOCK                            (6 mm)].
                                                                                   5. If these temperatures are not within the standard values
                                                                                      as shown in the chart below, replace the thermostat.

                                                                                                               STANDARD VALUE
                                                                                       Thermostat's valve      157.1 -162.5 0 F
                                                                                       opening temperature     (69.5 - 72.5 0 C)
                                                                                       Temperature at which         185 0 F
                                                                                       thermostat completely        (85 0 C)

    3. Visually check the thermostat for damage. Then put it
       in water and raise the water temperature to test its valve
       opening temperature as described below. Replace if
       defective.                                                                  When Reassembling:
                                                                                   Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
         A CAUTION:       The wax pellet-type thermostat                           only at the thermostat cover side of the gasket.
         remains closed if its heat-sensing part is defec-                         CHANGING THE RAW WATER IMPELLER
         tive. Leaving this uncorrected would cause the
         engine to overheat.                                                       1. Close the raw water intake.
                                                                                   2. Remove the inlet and outlet port hoses from the pump,
                                                                                      noting the port location and positioning.
 SEAT                                                                              3. Remove the pump assembly and its gasket from the
                                                                                   4. Remove the three hex head screws that hold the
VALVE                            LEAK HOLE                                            housing to the cover.
                                                                                   5. Tap the housing/cover assembly on its side to loosen
                                 SPRING                                               and separate the cover from its housing.
                                                                                   6. Remove the cover and its O-ring and remove the
                                                                                      impeller gasket and plate.
                                                               .L   WAX
                                                                                   7. Remove the retaining ring (circlip) and pry out the
                                                               ,.   (UQUID)           impeller. Take care not to lose the key off the shaft's
                 CLOSED                                   OPEN                        keyway.
                             (Model M·40B shown)

                                                                    ~ ~UnlvQrsal
                                                                    rr  M·';jj~!¥l4·lW=;-
                                      COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE
                                                                   COOLANT PUMP
 A CAUTION:       If any of the vanes have broken off              1. Loosen the alternator mounting bolts, and remove the
 the impeller they must be found to prevent b/~ckage in               drive belt.
 the cooling circuit. They often can be found In the
                                                                   2. Remove the coolant pump pulley.
 heat exchanger.
                                                                   3. Remove the coolant pump assembly from the gear case
8. Replace the gasket, impeller, and O-ring.
                                                                   4. Remove the flange.
9. Apply a film of petroleum jelly or silicon to the inner
   surface of the impeller housing.                                5. Press out the shaft with the impeller on it.

NOTE: Just coat the suiface; do not over apply.                    6. Remove the impeller from the shaft.

10. Install the cover housing over the impeller.                   7. Remove the mechanical seal assembly.

11. Install the three hex screws and tighten.                      8. Check every part for cracks, damage and water leaks.
                                                                      Replace any parts that are defective.
12. Mount the pump to the engine taking care that the end
    seal and gasket are in place. Do not tighten the pump             NOTE: No rebuilding kits are available for the antifreeze
    mounting screws, just finger tight.                               circulating pump, however individual parts are avail-
                                                                      able to allow the pump to be rebuilt.
13. Reassemble the hose connections and open the raw
    water intake.                                                  9. Check the impeller and shaft for rotating condition. If
                                                                      they make a noise or rotate irregularly, replace as an
14. Start the engine in idle; this will allow the pump to             assembly.
    align itself with its drive shaft.
                                                                   When Reassembling:
15. Stop the engine and tighten the pump assembly
    mounting screws.                                               1. Apply a liquid gasket (three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
                                                                      to both sides of the gasket.
16. Start and run the engine, check for leaks and check for
    a normal operating temperature.                                2. Repl"'" [he meehru>ica'   ,ef,With a nC:C:~:"L
                                                                                                   W         SEAL

                                                                                 COOLANT PUMP


                    RAW WATER PUMP


                                                 FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
An electromagnetic fuel lift pump draws fuel from the fuel                    fuel injectors is returned from the nozzle holders through
tank through an owner-suppled fuel filter/water separator to                  fuel lines to the fuel injection pump and the fuel tank.
remove impurities such as dirt and water. The lift pump                       NOTE: Fuel supplied to the fuel lift pump must be filtered
then pumps the fuel through the engine's primary fuel filter                  to 10 - 25 microns or smaller by the (owner-supplied)fuel
to the fuel injection pump. The fuel is pressurized by the                    filter/water separator.
fuel injection pump to the opening pressure of the injection
nozzles [1991 - 2133 psi (140 - 150 kgf/cm2) (13.73 -
14.71 MPa)] and injected into the combustion chamber.
Some of the fuel that is fed to the injection nozzles lubri-
cates the plungers inside the nozzles. Excess fuel from the

                                          LIFT                                                                             FUEL RETURN
                                         PUMP                                                                              LINE FROM
                                                                                                                           FUEL INJECTORS
                                                                                                                           TO INJECTION PUMP

   FROM FUEL TANK ~         E:::====:=:::'-
     TO FUEL TANK .......   c==::;==============l
                                  FUEL RETURN
                                  LINE FROM         t                                              FUEL
                                  FUEL INJECTORS                                                  PUMP
                                  TO FUEL TANK

                      FUEL SYSTEM                        FUEL

INJECTION PUMP                                                                Pump Element
The fuel injection pump is a Bosch MD type mini pump.                         The pump element consists of the plunger and the cylinder.
It is small, lightweight and easy to handle.                                  The sliding surfaces are super-precision machined to main-
                                                                              tain injection pressures at low engine speeds. The plunger
The plunger with a left-hand lead reciprocates via the tap-
                                                                              is machined to have a slot and a control groove. Since the
pet roller by means of the fuel camshaft, causing the fuel to
                                                                              driving face on the plunger fits in the control sleeve, the
be delivered into the injection nozzle.
                                                                              plunger is rotated by the movement of the control rack to
                                                                              increase or decrease the fuel delivery.

                                                        DELIVERY VALVE



                                                                                                                   CYLINDE} PUMP
                                                                                      CONTROL                      PLUNGER

                                                                                                                  ORIVING FACE

                                                                                                  PUMP ELEMENT

                                  INJECTION PUMP

                                        FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
 Delivery Valve                                                                                             DELIVERY CHAMBER

 The delivery valve consists of the valve and valve seat.
 The delivery valve performs the following functions:                                                          FEED HDLE
 1. Reverse Flow Preventing Function
 If the fuel flow should reverse from the injection nozzle
 side when the plunger lowers, the time lag between the
 next delivery start and the nozzle injection start would
 increase. This is avoided by the delivery valve, which pre-
 vents the fuel flow from the delivery chamber to the injec-
 tion line from reversing. This keeps the nozzle and the fuel
 line filled with fuel to maintain the prime.
 2. Draw-Back Function
 After completing the fuel delivery, the delivery valve low-                                                      FEED HDLE

 ers and the relief plunger end contacts the delivery valve
 seat. The valve further lowers until it seats firmly in the
 delivery valve seat. During this time, the amount of fuel
 corresponding to "A" is drawn back from inside the injec-
 tion line, and the pressure inside the pipe is reduced, thus          CDNTROL RACK
 leading to an improved injection shut-off and preventing
 after-leakage dribbling.
                                                                         INJECTION CONTROL

                                                                   INJECTION NOZZLE
                                                                   This nozzle is a throttle-type. The needle valve is
                                    A                              pushed against the nozzle body by the nozzle spring via the
                                                                   push rod. Fuel pressurized by the injection pump pushes
                                                                   the needle valve up, and then is injected into the precom-
                                                                   bustion chamber.
                                                                   Excessive fuel flow passes from the nozzle holder center
                   1                              2                through the eye joint and the fuel overflow line to the fuel
                            DELIVERY VALVE                         tank.
                                                                   The injection pressure is 1991 - 2133 psi (13.73 - 14.71
 Injection Control                                                 MPa) (140 - 150 kgf/cm2) and is adjusted with adjusting
 1. No Fuel Delivery                                                                                          BAR FILTER
 At the engine stop position of the control rack, the length-
 wise slot on the plunger aligns with the feed hole. The                                                      NOZZLE HOLDER
 delivery chamber is led to the feed hole during the entire
 stroke of the plunger.
 The pressure in the delivery chamber does not build up and
 no fuel can be forced to the injection nozzle.
 2. Fuel Delivery                                                                                             WASHER
 The plunger is rotated (see illustration) by the control rack.
                                                                                                              NOZZLE SPRING
 When the plunger is pushed up, the feed hole is closed.
 The pressure in the delivery chamber builds up and force-
                                                                                                              PUSH ROD
 feeds the fuel to the injection nozzle until the control groove
 meets the feed hole.
 The amount of the fuel corresponds to the distance "A".
                                                                                                               RETAINING NUT

                                                                                                              , NOZZLE BODY
                                                                                                              NEEDLE VALVE
                                                                         HEAT SEAL --~:;;;:::rIii'-o:s:JJ

                                                                                         INJECTION NOZZLE

                                        FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
FUEL FILTER                                                          This engine uses a mechanical governor that controls the
                                                                     fuel injection rate at all speed ranges (from idling to
The fuel filter prevents dirty fuel from reaching the injec-         maximum speed) by utilizing the balance between the fly-
tion pump and the injection nozzles. Each moving part of
                                                                     weight's centrifugal force and spring tension.
the injection pump and nozzle is extremely precision
machined, and the clearances of their sliding parts are              A governor shaft for monitoring engine speed is independ-
extremely small. Fuel itself serves as lubricating oil. For          ent of the injection pump shaft and rotates at twice the
this reason, it is extremely important to completely remove          speed of conventional types, providing better response to
any water and dirt contained in the fuel.                            load fluctuation and delivering greater engine output.
The fuel filter cartridge will require occasional replacement                                       GOVERNOR
                                                                                      GOVERNOR -YSPRING #1
to maintain an adequate flow of fuel to the injection pump.                           SPRING #2
                                                                                                          ~START SPRING
The frequency of this service will vary according to the
cleanliness of the available fuel and the care used in its
storage. The fuel filter eliminates any foreign matter com-
ing from the fuel tank and protects the injection pump and
injection nozzles. When fuel enters the filter, it passes
from the filter element's circumference toward the center
for filtering.




SPIN-ON                                                              At Start
CARTRIDGE                                                            Because no centrifugal force is applied to the flyweight,
                                                                     the low tension of the start spring permits the control rack to
                                                                     move to the starting position, supplying the amount of fuel
                                                                     required to start the engine.
                          FUEL FILTER                                At Idling
                                                                     Setting the speed control lever to the idling position dur-
FUEL LIFT PUMP                                                       ing engine rotation permits the low tension of governor
The on-engine fuel system is virtually self priming. Under           spring #2, the start spring and the idle limit spring to balance
ordinary circumstances the engine's electric fuel lift pump,         the centrifugal force of the flyweight without activating high
which is energized by the key switch/preheat button, will            tension governor spring #1. In this way, the fuel injection
supply a continuous flow of fuel from the tank. This fuel is         rate can be controlled to ensure stable idling.
drawn through the fuel filter/water separator to the engine
                                                                     At High Speed Running With Overload
lift pump, the primary spin-on fuel filter, and the injection
pump.                                                                Governor springs #1 and #2 control the fuel injection
                                                                     rate. To maintain the required engine speed, fuel is supplied
GOVERNOR                                                             according to the speed control lever setting and load by bal-
This mechanism maintains engine speed at a constant rate             ancing the tension of governor springs #1 and #2 with the
even under fluctuating loads, provides stable idling and reg-        centrifugal force of the flyweight.
ulates maximum engine speed by controlling the fuel injec-           In addition, the idle limit spring provides stable engine
tion rate.                                                           rotation.

                                              FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
                                                                               During Low-Speed Travel
                                                                               Because the centrifugal force applied to the flyweight is
                                                                               small, spring force presses the flyweight inward, permitting
                                                                               the driving bolt to come in contact with the flyweight at the
                                                                               position shown in the illustration.


     FORK LEVER #1



                                                                               During Medium to High Speed Travel
                                                                               As the engine speed increases, the centrifugal force applied
      During Overload                                                          to the flyweight increases, expanding it around the hub bolt
      At load increases, the engine speed decreases, reducing                  in the direction of the arrow, thereby rotating the position
      the flyweight's centrifugal force. Governor springs #1 and               (where the driving bolt is in contact with the flyweight)
      #2, therefore, pull fork levers # 1 and #2, increasing the fuel          through angle 0 as shown in the illustration.
      injection rate and maintaining engine speed.                             Therefore, since the fuel camshaft rotates from the injection
      If engine speed decreases due to a further increase in load,             pump gear in the rotational direction through angle 0, injec-
      fork lever #2 will come in contact with the fuel limit bolt,             tion timing is advanced.
      stopping a further increase in the fuel injection rate.
      The torque spring incorporated in fork lever #1 moves the
      lever in the direction of a fuel injection rate increase, there-
      by boosting torque and providing greater engine output.

                                                         FUEL LIMIT
                                                         ADJUSTING BOLT

        LEVER #1

                                                         FORK LEVER #2

                         FUEL SYSTEM DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                                                                                  INJECTION NOZZLE
 A WARNING:        00 not allow smoking or open flames                            Nozzle Holder
 near the fuel system when servicing. Also provide
                                                                                  1. Secure the nozzle retaining nut in a vise.
 proper ventilation.
                                                                                  2. Remove the nozzle holder, and take out the parts inside
                                                                                     the nozzle holder.
INJECTION PUMP                                                                    When Reassembling:
If replacing the pump element, the amount of fuel injection
                                                                                  1. Assemble the nozzle in clean fuel oil.
should be bench tested and adjusted.
                                                                                  2. Install the push rod, noting its direction.
                                                                                  3. After assembling the nozzle, be sure to adjust the fuel
                                                                                     injection pressure.
              DELIVERY VALVE ______   .,..!::::;;~~
              HOLDER                                  DELIVERY VALVE

                                                                  DELIVERY                                                        WASHER


                                                                                                                                  PUSH ROD


                                                                                    HOLOER                                       NOZZLE


                                                                                                         INJECTION NOZZLE

                                  INJECTION PUMP

                                                             FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
       INJECTION PUMP                                                                       Shim Specifications - up to Engine Serial Number 489290.
       Injection Timing                                                                     1. Shims are available in thicknesses of 0.0059 in. (0.15
                                                                                               rom) and 0.0118 in. (0.30 rom). Combine these shims
       1. Remove the injection lines.                                                          for adjustments.
       2. Remove the injection pump side cover, push in the con-
                                                                                            2. The addition or reduction of a shim 0.0059 in. (0.15
          trol rack of the injection pump by 0.2 in. (5 mm) and                                mm) delays or advances the injection timing by approx.
          hold it at that position.                                                            1.5 0 (0.026 rad.).
                                                                                            3. After adjusting the injection timing, apply a liquid-type
                                                                                               gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent) to both sides of
                                                                                               the injection pump shim before reassembling.
                                                                                            Shim Specifications - Engine Serial Number 489291 on up.
                                                                                            1. The sealant is applied to both sides of the soft metal
                                                                         CONTROL               gasket shim. The liquid gasket is not required for
                                                             o                                 assembling.
                                                                                            2. Shims are available in thicknesses of 0.0079 in. (0.20
                                                                                               rom), 0.0098 in. (0.25 mm) and 0.0118 in. (0.30 mm).
                                                                                               Combine these shims for adjustments.
                                                                                            3. The addition or reduction of a shim 0.0020 in. (0.05
       3. Tum the flywheel counterclockwise until fuel flows                                   mm) delays or advances the injection timing by approx.
          from the delivery valve holder.                                                      0.5 0 (0.0087 rad.).
       4. Continue to tum the flywheel slowly, and stop it as soon                          4. In disassembling and replacing, be sure to use the same
          as the fuel level at the tip of the delivery valve holder                            number of new gasket shims with the same thicknesses.
          begins to increase.
       S. Check to see if the "FI" mark (or the timing angle lines                          Fuel Tightness of Pump Element
          on the flywheel) is aligned with the punch mark.                                  1. Remove the fuel injection lines and glow plugs.
                                                                                            2. Install the injection pump pressure tester to the injection
                                                                                            3. Set the speed control lever to the maximum speed
                                                                                            4. Tum the flywheel ten times or more to increase the
                                                                               PUNCH            pressure.
                                                                                            S. If the pressure cannot reach the limit, replace
MARK                                                                                             the pump element or injection pump assembly.
                                                                                            NOTE: Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equiva-
                                                                                            lent) to both sides of the solenoid cover gasket.

       6. If the timing is out of adjustment, readjust the timing                           Fuel Tightness of Delivery Valve
          with shims.                                                                       1. Remove the fuel injection lines and glow plugs.
                                                                                            2. Set a pressure tester onto the fuel injection pump.
                                 o                                                          3. Tum the flywheel and raise the pressure to approx.
                                                                                               2133 psi (150 kgf/cm2) (14.7 MPa).
         SHIM                                                                               4. Now tum the flywheel back about half a tum (to keep
                                                                                                the plunger free). Maintain the flywheel at this position
                                                                                                and measure the time taken for the pressure to drop
                                                                                                from 2133 to 1990 psi (150 to 140 kgf/cm2) (14.7 to
                    o             ",--",
                                O loo:                                                          13.7 MPa).

                                                                                                If the measurement is less than the limit, replace the
                               , \
                                   . \     :. 0          i       H
                                                                                                delivery valve.
                           ........         ..........           "'.--                      NOTE: Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equiva-
                            A                  B                  c                         lent) to both sides of the solenoid cover gasket.
                          Shim A \TWO holes): 0.0079 In. (0.20 mm)
                          Shim B One hole): 0.0098 in. (0.25 mm)
                          Shim C Wilhou! a hole): 0.0118 in. (0.30 mm)

                                          FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
FUEL INJECTORS                                                      Nozzle Spraying Condition
                                                                    1. Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester and check the
                                                                       nozzle spraying condition.
 A CAUTION:       The spray nozzle velocity is such that
                                                                    2. If the spraying condition is defective, replace the nozzle
 it may penetrate deeply into the skin of the fingers
 and hands, destroying tissue. If it enters the blood·
 stream, it may cause blood poisoning.

Nozzle Injection Pressure
1. Install the injection nozzle to the nozzle tester.
2. Slowly move the tester handle to measure the pressure at
   which fuel begins jetting out from the nozzle.

                                                                                        GDDD                 BAD

                                                                    Valve Seat Tightness
                                                                    1. Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester.
                                                                    2. Raise the fuel pressure, and keep it at 1849 psi (12.75
                                                                       MPa; 130 kg/cm2) for 10 seconds.
                                                                    3. If any fuel leak is found, replace the nozzle piece.

3. If the measurement is not within the standard value,
   disassemble the injection nozzle and change the adjusting
   washer until the proper injection pressure is obtained.
   The pressure variation with a 0.001 in. (0.025 mm)
   difference in adjusting washer thickness is approximately
   85 psi (6 kg/cm2; 59 kPa).

                                                                    Fuel Injectors Service
                                                                    In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise, have the
                                                                    injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized fuel
                                                                    injection service center. Poor fuel quality, contaminants and
                                                                    loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection pump can result
                                                                    in injector faults. Since fuel injectors must be serviced in a
                                        WASHER                      clean room environment, it is best to carry at least one extra
                                                                    injector as a spare should a problem occur.
                                                                    Before removing the old injector, clean the area around the
                                                                    base of the injector to help prevent any rust or debris from
                                                                    falling down into the injector hole. If the injector will not lift
                                                                    out easily and is held in by carbon build-up or the like, work
                                                                    the injector side-to-side with the aid of the socket wrench to
                                                                    free it, and then lift it out.
                                                                    The injector seats in the cylinder head on a copper sealing
                                                                    washer. Remove this washer with the injector, and replace
                                                                    it with a new washer when the new injector is installed.
                                                                    Injector to cylinder head tightening torque:
                                                                       36.2 - 50.6 ft-Ib (5.0 -7.0 m-kg) (49.0 - 68.6 Nm)

                                             ADMIRAL CONTROL PANEL
UNIVERSAL offers two optional panels. Refer to the                    When the engine is shut down with the Key Switch turned
instruction page that applies to the panel you purchased.             off, the water temperature gauge will continue to register the
                                                                      last temperature reading indicated by the gauge before elec-
ADMIRAL PANEL                                                         trical power was turned off. The oil pressure gauge will fall
                                                                      to zero when the Key Switch is turned off. The temperature
This manually-operated control panel is equipped with a Key           gauge will once again register the engine's true temperature
Switch and RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME meter                       when electrical power is restored to the gauge.
which measures the engine's running time in hours and in
1/10 hours. The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERA-                  A separate alarm buzzer with harness is supplied with every
TURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees               Admiral Panel. The installer is responsible for electrically
Fahrenheit, an OIL PRESSURE gauge which measures the                  connecting the buzzer to the four-pin connection on the
engine's oil pressure in pounds per square inch, and a DC             engine's electrical harness. The installer is also responsible
control circuit VOLTAGE gauge which measures the sys-                 for installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and
tem's voltage. All gauges are illuminated when the key                where it will be audible to the operator should it sound while
switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine           the engine is running. The buzzer will sound when the igni-
is in operation. The panel also contains two rubber-booted            tion key is turned on and should silence when the engine has
pushbuttons, one for PREHEAT and one for START.                       started and the en~ne's oil pressure rises above 15 psi.
                                                                       Note: Refer to the WIRING DIAGRAM in this manual for the
                                                                       installation of two engine sendors.
                                                                                                OIL PRESSURE GAUGE: THIS GAUGE IS GRADU-
                                                                                                ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (PSI) AND IS
                                WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE: THIS GAUGE IS                          ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS
                                GRADUATED IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT AND IS                          TURNED ON. THE ENGINE'S NORMAL OPERATING
                                ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS                             OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 30-60 PSI.
                                TURNED ON. THE ENGINE'S NORMAL OPERATING
                                TEMPERATURE IS 170°-190° F (7r-88°C).


REGISTERS ELAPSED                                                                                                         KEY SWITCH: PROVIDES
TIME, AND SHOULD BE                                                                                                       POWER ONLY TO THE
USED AS A GUIDE FOR                                                                                                       INSTRUMENT PANEL
THE MAINTENANCE                                                                                                           CLUSTER.

                                                                                                                          DC VOLTMETER:
                                                                                                                          INDICATES THE AMOUNT THE
                                                                                                                          BATTERY IS BEING CHARGED.
                                                                                                                          SHOULD SHOW 13V TO 14V.
                                                                              SOUNDING THE ALARM WHICH WILL EMIT A
START BUTION:WHEN PRESSED, ENERGIZES                                          CONTINUOUS SIGNAL.
AT THE SAME TIME.                                                             THE ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE. SHOULD THE ENGINE:S OIL PRESSURE
                                                                              FALL TO 5 -10 PSI, THE SWITCH WILL OPEN SOUNDING THE ALARM.
                                                                              IN THIS EVENT, THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL.

                                                        w       mf.1;M!7Ig'VN9j-

                                            CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL
CAPTAIN PANEL                                                           and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE. It
                                                                        also includes an alarm buzzer for low OIL PRESSURE or
This manually-operated control panel is equipped with a Key             high WATER TEMPERATURE. The RPM gauge is illumi-
Switch, an RPM gauge, PREHEAT and START buttons, an                     nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains illumi-
INSTRUMENT TEST button and three indicator lamps, one                   nated while the engine is in operation.

                                                                        ALARM: THE ALARM WILL SOUND IFTHE ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE FALLS
                                                                        BELOW 5 -10 PSI. IN THIS EVENT, THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING
                                                                        SIGNAL. THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOUND IF THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN
                                                                        THE FRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 210°F. IN THIS EVENT, THE
RPM GAUGE:                                                              ALARM WILL EMIT A SIGNAL.

                                                                                                                      TEST BUTTON: WHEN
                                                                                                                      PRESSED, TESTS THE
                                                                                                                      ALTERNATOR, THE OIL
                                                                                                                      PRESSURE, AND THE
                                                                                                                      WATER TEMPERATURE
                                                                                                                      CONTROL CIRCUITS.
                                                                                                                      WHEN PRESSED, THE
                                                                                                                      ALTERNATOR, THE OIL
                                                                                                                      PRESSURE, AND THE
                                                                                                                      WATER TEMPERATURE
                                                                                                                      INDICATOR LIGHTS
                                                                                                                      ILLUMINATE IN ADDI·
                                                                                                                      TION TO SOUNDING
                                                                                                                      THE ALARM BUZZER.

                                                                                                                      KEY SWITCH:
                                                                                                                      PROVIDES POWER TO
                                                                                                                      THE INSTRUMENT
                                                                                                                      PANEL CLUSTER AND
                                                                                                                      THE DC ALTERNATOR
                                                                                                                      REGULATOR TERMINAL.

                                  WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM

                     TIME.                                                            THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES THE START BUTTON.

                                                          ;.. ;..Unlvarsal
                                                                 MARINE POWER

                                CONTROL PANEL TROUBLESHOOTING
TACHOMETER/HOURMETER                                                 NOTE: Current model tachometers use a coarse adjustment
The tachometerlhourmeter used in propulsion engine instru-           dial to set the tachometer to the crankshaft pulley rpms. The
ment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a         calibrating screw is then used for fine tuning.
common ground. One circuit operates the hourmeter and
the other the tachometer. The hourmeter circuit operates on
12 volts alternator charging voltage supplied to the (+) ter-
minal on the back of the instrument.
                                                                     TACHOMETER   W "

The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6 - 8 volts,
fed from one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to
the tachometer input terminal while the engine is running,
and the alternator producing battery charging voltage
13.0 - 14.8 volts DC.                                                                                                   (+) TERMINAL

The following are procedures to follow when troubleshoot-
ing a fault in either of the two circuits in a tachometer/
Hourmeter Inoperative                                                                                   CALIBRATION
Check for the proper DC voltage between (+) and (-)
                                                                     IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT
1. Voltage present - meter is defective - repair or replace.
                                                                     & TACHOMETER CHECK (New Installation)
2. Voltage not present - trace (+) and (-) electrical con-
   nections for fault. (Jump 12 volts DC to meter (+)                Checking the idle speed
   terminal to verify the operation.)                                NOTE: In a new installation having new instrument panels,
                                                                     the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to the
Tachometer Inoperative                                               engine s rpm. This calibration should be checked in all new
Check for the proper AC voltage between tachometer input             installations.
terminal and (-) terminal with the engine running.                   1. Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature.
1. Voltage present - attempt adjusting meter through calibra-            Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a clean
   tion access hole. No results, repair or replace meter.                cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape on the
2. AC voltage not present - check for proper alternator DC               pulley to facilitate use of a photoelectric type tachometer.
   output voltage.                                                   2. Start and idle the engine.
3. Check for AC voltage at tach terminal on alternator to            3. Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape to
   ground.                                                               confIrm the engine speed. Check the instrument panel
4. Check electrical connections from tachometer input ter-               tachometer reading. Adjust the tachometer in the panel by
   minal to alternator connection.                                       using the instrument coarse adjustment to calibrate the
                                                                         instrument reading to the closest R.P.M. that the photo tach
Tachometer Sticking                                                      is showing. Then use the fIne calibration adjustment to
1. Check for proper AC voltage between "tach inp." termi-                bring the instrument to the exact reading as the photo tach.
   nal and (-) terminal.                                                 The fine calibration adjustment is made using a 5/64 Allen
2. Check for good ground connection between meter (-) ter-               head wrench.
   minal and alternator.                                             4. Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within the
3. Check that alternator is well grounded to engine block at             specified value.
   alternator pivot bolt.
                                                                         Normal idle speed:
Tachometer Inaccurate                                                      M-25XPB: 1,000 - 1,200 rpm
a. With a hand-held tach on the front of the crankshaft                    M-35B:        800 -1,000 rpm
   pulley retaining nut or with a strobe-type tach, read the               M-40B:        800 - 1,000 rpm
   front crankshaft pulley rpm at idle.
b. Adjust the tachometer with a small Phillips type screw-
   driver through the calibration access hole in the rear of
   the tachometer. Zero the tach and bring it to the rpm
   indicated by the strobe or hand tach. (Verify the rpm at
   idle and at high speed). (Adjust the tach as needed.)

                                        CONTROL PANEL TROUBLESHOOTING
                                 MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (TOGGLE SWITCHES)
                     NOTE: The engine control system is protected by a 20 amp manual reset circuit breaker
                     located on the engine as close as possible to the power source.

              Problem                               Probable Cause                                         VerificationJRemedy
 PREHEAT depressed, no panel indications   1. Oil Pressure switch.                        1. Check switches and/or battery connections.
 fuel solenoid, electric fuel pump and
 preheat solenoid not energized.           2. 20 amp circuit breaker tripped.             2. Reset breaker. If opens again, check preheat solenoid circuit
                                                                                             and run circuit for shorts to ground.
 START SWITCH DEPRESSED, no starter        1. Connection to solenoid faulty.              1. Check connection.
                                           2. Fau Ity switch                              2. Check switch with ohmmeter.
                                           3. Faulty solenoid.                            3. Check that 12 volts are present at the solenoid connection.
                                           4. Loose battery connections.                  4. Check battery connections.
                                           5. Low battery.                                5. Check battery charge state.
 NO IGNITION, cranks, does not start.      1. Faulty fueling system.                      1. Check for fuel.
                                           2. Check for air in the fuel system.           2. Allow system to bleed.
                                           3. Faulty fuel lift pump.                      3. Replace fuel lift pump.
 NOT CHARGING BATTERY                      1. Faulty alternator drive.                    1. Check the drive belt and its tension. Be sure the alternator
                                                                                              turns freely. Check for loose connections. Check the
                                                                                              output with a voltmeter. Ensure 12V are present at the
                                                                                              regulator terminal.
 BATTERY RUNS DOWN                         1. Oil pressure switch.                        1. Observe if the gauges and panel lights are activated when the
                                                                                              engine is not running. Test the oil pressure switch.
                                           2. High resistance leak to ground.             2. Check the wiring. Insert sensitive (0-.25 amp) meter in battery
                                                                                             lines (Do NOT start engine). Remove connections and replace
                                                                                             after short is located.
                                           3. Low resistance leak to ground.              3. Check all wires for temperature rise to locate the fault.
                                           4. Faulty alternator.                          4. After a good battery charging, disconnect alternator at output.
                                                                                             If leakage stops. Remove alternator and bench test. Repair or

If the gauge reading is other than what is normally indicated                     If both of the above gauge tests are positive, the gauge is
by the gauge when the instrument panel is energized, the first                    undoubtedly OK and the problem lies either with the conduc-
step is to check for 12 volts DC between the ignition (B+)                        tor from the sender to the gauge or with the sender.
and the Negative (B-) terminals of the gauge.
                                                                                  If either of the above gauge tests are negative, the gauge is
Assuming that there is 12 volts as required, leave the instru-                    probably defective and should be replaced.
ment panel energized (key switch on) and perform the
following steps:                                                                  Assuming the gauge is OK, check the conductor from the
                                                                                  sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for continuity.
1. Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the
gauge reads zero, which is the normal reading for this situa-                     Check that the engine block is connected to the ground.
tion.                                                                             Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the bat-
                                                                                  tery is connected to the starter (both plus and minus termi-
2. Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and                         nals), the ground side will not necessarily be connected to the
see if the gauge reads full scale, which is the normal reading                    block.
for this situation.

                                                                   '" ...Univarsal
                                                                   £a    M·'iW'.U·'W=j-

                                           GLOW PLUG SERVICE
The glow plugs are wired through the preheat solenoid.
When PREHEAT is pressed at the control panel this sole-
noid should "click" on and the glow plug should begin to
get hot.
To inspect the plug, remove the electrical terminal connec-
tions, then unscrew or unclamp each plug from the cylinder
head. Thoroughly clean each plug's tip and threads with a
soft brush and cleaning solution to remove all the carbon
and oil deposits. While cleaning, examine the tip for wear
and bum erosion; if it has eroded too much, replace the
An accurate way to test glow plugs is with an ohmmeter.                           TESTING A GLOW PLUG
This method can be used with the plug in or out of the                             WITH AN OHMMETER
engine. You can also use an ammeter to test the power
drain (8 - 9 amps per plug).

 A   WARNING: These glow plugs will become vary
 hot to the touch. Be careful not to burn your fingers
 when testing the plugs.

1. Disconnect the leads from the glow plugs.
2. Measure the resistance with the ohmmeter across the
   glow plug terminal and the body of the glow plug (see
3. If 0 ohm is indicated, the screw at the tip of the glow
   plug and the body of the glow plug are short-circuited.
4. If the standard value is not indicated, the glow plug is
   faulty; replace the glow plug.
 NOTE: Refer to the TORQUE page for the glow plug
 tightening torque.

                  GLOW PLUG RESISTANCE
           STANDARD VALUE: Approx. 0.9 to 1.2 ohm

 Re-install the plugs in the engine and test them again. The
 plugs should get very hot (at the terminal end) within 7 to
 15 seconds. If the plugs don't heat up quickly, check for a
 short circuit. When reinstalling the glow plugs, use anti-
 seize compound on the threads.

  A WARNING:          00 not keep a glow plug on for more
  than 30 seconds.

                                                    · .UnlVGrsal
                                                    £S        &t.!jll@lj#.lW#i-

                                                   STARTER SERVICE
                                                                                               CONTACT               HOLDING
                                                              CONTACT BOLT                     PLATE                 COIL
The magnet-switch type starter                                                                                                                             PULL·IN
is composed of two main sections.                                                                                                                          CDiL
The first section converts battery    FIELD CDiL                                                                        r--~~"77\---- MOVING
current into mechanical rotation                                                                                                      CORE
to turn the engine crankshaft. It        BRUSH                                                                             71'!:~~--'I""--- DRIVE LEVER
is composed of the field coil,           SPRING
armature, brush, commutator,                                                                                                           - : ; - - ; - - - DRIVE SPRING
pinion, overrunning clutch, etc.
The second section allows the                                                                                                             ;;;;:::Iii;;;;~-lIEVER SET BOLT
pinion and flywheel to engage
together and current to flow
through the motor section. It is
composed of the pull-in coil,
holding coil, plunger, drive lever,
contact plate, etc.


                                                                         YOKE                 ARMATURE               OVERRUNNING                  DRIVE SIDE         BEARING
                                                                                                                     CLUTCH                       HOUSING

STARTER TESTING                                                        Magnet Switch Test (Pull-in, Holding COils)
Motor Test                                                             1. Remove the motor from the starter housing.
                                                                       2. Prepare a 6 volt battery for the test.
 A   CAUTION: Secure the starter in a vise to                          3. Connect jumper leads from the battery negative termi-
 prevent it from moving while testing the motor.                          nal to the housing and the starter terminal C.
                                                                       4. If the plunger is attracted and the pinion gear pops out
1. Disconnect the ground cable clamp from the battery                     when a jumper lead is connected from the battery posi-
   negative terminal post.                                                tive terminal to the S terminal, the pull-in coil is good;
                                                                          if not, it is defective.
2. Disconnect the battery positive cable and the leads
   from the starter.                                                   S. Disconnect the jumper lead to the starter terminal C.
                                                                          Then the pinion gear should remain popped out.
3. Remove the starter motor from the engine.
                                                                       NOTE: Testing time must be 3 to 5 seconds.
4. Disconnect the connecting lead from the starter
   terminal C.
S. Connect a jumper lead from the connecting lead to the
   battery positive terminal post.
6. Connect a jumper lead momentarily between the starter
   motor housing and the battery negative terminal post.
7. If the motor does not run, check the motor.

                                                                   TO NEGATIVE ===::::::::~:...,....

                                                                      TO POSITIVE   ::::::::::::::::::::=:;::::::-;::::::.':;:::;==::::::==:::7


                                                        STARTER SERVICE
STARTER DISASSEMBLY &REASSEMBLY                                           STARTER SERVICE
Motor                                                                     Commutator and Mica
1. Disconnect the connecting lead from the magnet switch.                 1. Check the contact face of the commutator for wear, and
2. Remove the through-screws, and then separate the end                      grind the commutator with emery paper if it is slightly
   frame, yoke and armature.                                                 worn.
3. Remove the two screws and then take out the brush
   holder from the end frame.
When Reassembling:
Apply grease to the spline teeth of the armature.

               SPLINE TEETH

               J         ARMATURE


                                                                          2. Measure the commutator O.D. with an outside micro-
                                                         FRAME               meter at several points.
                                                                          3. If the minimum O.D. is less than the limit, replace the
                                                       !J "               4. If the difference of the O.D.'s exceeds the limit, correct
                                                                             the commutator on a lathe to the standard value.

Magnet Switch
1. Remove the drive end frame mounting screws.
2. Remove the overrunning clutch, ball, spring, gear,
   rollers and retainer.
When Reassembling:
Apply grease to the gear teeth of the gear, overrunning
clutch and ball.

                         ROLLER ---..
                                     ...      ~                           5. Measure the mica undercut.
                     GEAR   ---0                             JUMPER ATIACHED, 1.5 TO
                                                                                                                                                               ''''REMOTE BATI
is probably "open" (defective) and the alternator should be                                                       3      B (0+)      3.0 VOUS IND. LIGHT ON
                                                                                                                                                                    SENSE ONLY
removed for repair.                                                                                              "JUMPER NOT ATIACHED

                          IGN.        IND.                                                              REGULATOR TEST (BACK COVER REMOVED)
                           SW         LIGHT
                                                                  AC TAP (TACH)
                                                                                                    Test No.3-Harness Voltage Test (remove battery sense
                                                                                                    Remove the harness sense lead from the sense terminal and
                                                                               POS +
                                                              r;:;(:I.....---OUTPUT                 connect the voltmeter leads as shown in the illustration.
                                                                                (6+)                The voltmeter should indicate the battery voltage (approx.
                                                                                                    12.6 volts for a fully charged battery with the ignition key
                                                                                                    off). If the voltage is zero, the hardness "sense" lead is
 I+ - I
                                 (TO IGN. SW. OR
                                 OIL PRESS. SW.)
                                                                          **    SENSE TO
                                                                               BATI (+)
                                                                                                    open and should be repaired or replaced.

                                                                                                                                                                           ~SENSE TO
   RED                                        INDICATION                                                                                                                   BATI (+)
     ...J'                                                                                                                  INTEGRAL
  :r=-, ...":> ,                      BATIERY VOlJAGE
  :F=~:>                              1.5 TO 3.0 VOlJS WITH
                                      IND. LIGHT ON                     BATIERY
  --"1             3   A (B+)
                                      13.5 TO 15.0 VDlJS & IND.
                                      LIGHT OFF. (JUMPER
                                      ATIACHED. ENGINE IDLING)
                                                                     "'REMOTE BATI
                                                                        SENSE ONLY
                                                                                                      I+ - I
                                                                                                                      (TO IGN. SN. OR
                                                                                                                      Dll PRESS. SW.)

               ·JUMPER NOT ATIACHED                                                                                BLK

                            OPEN DIODE-TRIO TEST                                                                   REO

                                                                                                                      'REMOTE BATIERY SENSE ONLY                     BATIERY

                                                                                                                         CABLE HARNESS VOLTAGE TEST

                                                                               33          M"i!@a'U,iW3i-

                                 PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
Test No.4-Alternator Output Test
                                                                                   NO                  LOW                 "NOISY"
After the voltmeter is connected as shown in the illustra-                     AlTERNAIDR           ALTERNAIDR           ALTERNATOR
                                                                                 OUTPUT               OUTPUT
tion, start and run the engine at a fast idle of approximately
                                                                                   t                     t                   t
1,500 rpm. Check for a nominal system output voltage of                        DEFECTIVE            DEFECTIVE           LOOSE DRIVE
                                                                                                    REGULAIDR             PULLEY
between 13.8-14.8 volts for a properly operating charging                      REGULAIDR
system. (Voltages may vary a few tenths of a volt (higher                          t                     t                    t
                                                                                                                         CRACKED OR
or lower) due to ambient temperature variations).                              DEFECTIVE              WORN
                                                                               BRUSHES               BRUSHES
If the alternator output voltage does not fall within the                          t                    t
proper range, the alternator should be disassembled for fur-                     OPEN              GROUNDEDI                 +
                                                                                 FIELD              SHORTED
ther inspection and tests.                                                       DIODE           ROTOR WINDINGS           BEARINGS

                IGN.      IND
                                                                                   t                    t                    t
                                                                                 OPEN               GROUNDEDI             SHORTED
                 SW.     LIGHT                                                                                            RECTIFIER
                                            AC TAP (TACH)                        ROTOR               SHORTED
                                                                                                 STATOR WINDINGS           DIODE

                                                                                                         t                   t
                                                                                                   SHORTED/OPEN         SHORTED OR
                                                                                                  RECTIFIER DIODE     GROUNDED STAIDR

                                                          ·SENSE TO
                                                            BAIT (+)
                                                                              ALTERNATOR TROUBLESHOOTING DIAGRAM
                INTEGRAL --~~~. .~

I+ - I
                                                                            ALTERNATOR DISASSEMBLY & TESTING
         BlK                                                                1. Detach the back cover:
  RED          PDS + OUTPUT                                                    Remove the nuts from the terminals. Remove the two
                13.8 TO 14.BV                                                  screws that secure the back cover to the rear housing.

                                       ·REMOTE BAITERY SENSE ONLY


 The following instructions provide a general overall proce-
 dure for the complete disassembly of an alternator.
 However, it should be pointed out that following the com-
 plete procedure whenever a repair is necessary will seldom,
 if ever, be required. In cases where the causes of the mal-
 function are known, it will only be necessary to follow that                                                       BACK COVER
                                                                                                                 MOUNTING SCREWS (2)
 portion of the procedure directly related to resolving the
 problem. Similarly, when the reasons for the malfunction                                   REMOVING BACK COVER
 are uncertain, it will be necessary to follow the procedure
 in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem.
 The following troubleshooting diagram should help identify
 some of the more common problems encountered during
 the overhauUrepair procedure.

                               PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
2. Remove the brush holder:                                           4. Remove the integral voltage regulator:
   Remove the two locknuts securing the brush holder.                     Remove the two screws securing the integral voltage
   Pull out the brush holder (see illustration).                          regulator to the rear housing.

                                                 BRUSH OLDER
                                                 MOUNTING                                                            REGULATOR
                                                 LOCKNUTS (2)                                                        MOUNTING
                                                                                                                     SCREWS (2)

           REMOVING BRUSH HOLDER                                                  REMOVING VOLTAGE REGULATOR

                                                                     5. Remove the diode-trio (field diode) and rectifier
3. Inspect and test the brush assembly:                                 diode bridge:
   The illustration below shows the terminal's brush                      The diode-trio and rectifier diode bridge are detached
   arrangement and testing procedure. The original brush                  as an assembly. Remove the cone lockout from the
   set may be reused if the brushes are 3/16 in. (5 mm) or                positive output (B+) terminal. Straighten the B+ strap.
   longer, and if the brushes are not oil soaked, cracked or              Remove the three terminal screws and the four diode-
   show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes                   trio mounting screws. Detach the assembly from the
   caused by vibration.                                                   rear housing and separate the diode-trio assembly from
                                                                          the rectifier bridge (see illustration).

                                                 CONTINUITY                                                              CONE
                                                FROM A TO B
                                                FROM C TO D                                                              LOCKNUT
             TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC                                                                                        AND B+
           TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER                 NO CIRCUIT:                                                             STRAP
                                                FROM A OR B
                                                 TO C OR D
                    BRUSH TEST

                                                                                    REMOVING DIODE-TRIO AND
                                                                                     RECTIFIER DIODE BRIDGE

                                                      .t,   AUnlVQrsal
                                                     £S        MNi!@lg·l!i!13i-

                                  PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
6. Test the diode-trio assembly:                                   8. Separate the stator/rear housing assembly from the
   Using a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test                 front housing:
   lamp, check for continuity from each terminal separate-               Remove the four thru-bolts (see illustration).
   ly to the D+ stud; continuity should be observed in one               Carefully insert two screwdriver blades in opposite
   direction (polarity) only, and all diodes should check                openings between the stator and the front housing as
   alike. If any diode is defective, replace the entire diode            shown in the illustration. Pry the units apart.
   trio assembly. See illustration.

                                                                       A CAUTION:      Do not insert the screwdriver
                                                                       blades deeper than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) to avoid
                                                                       damaging the stator winding.

                                                                                                                       BOLTS (4)

         '----'iiI>I,.::J---- 0+     STUD
                          (IND. LIGHT TERMINAL)

                   TESTING DIODE-TRIO

7. Test the diode rectifier bridge assembly:
   Using a commercial diode tester, check for continuity.
   Check between point A and each of the three terminals
   C for negative diodes. Continuity should be observed                               THRU-BOLT REMOVAL
   in one direction (polarity) only, and all diodes should
   check alike. Then check between point B (B+ strap)
   and each of three terminals C for positive diodes.                        SCREWDRIVER BLADES--'""'?'\
   Continuity should be observed in one direction only,                      AT OPPOSITE OPENINGS
   and all diodes should check alike (see illustration).
   If any diode is defective, replace the entire diode rectifi-
    er bridge assembly.

                                                             I            CAUTION: DO NOT
                                                             I            INSERT BLADE OF
     e                                                 e     I
                                                                          SCREWDRIVER MORE

    9                                                 g:   I
                                                                          THAN 1/16" (1.5 mm)

                                                                                  STATOR-REAR HOUSING SEPARATION
                                                      ___ JI           9. Inspect the rear housing:

                                                      ®                   Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken
                                                                          casting, stripped threads or evidence of severe wear
                                                                          in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing.
                TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE                                  If the casting is to be reused, clean it in solvent, dry with
                                                                          compressed air, and install a new rear bearing retainer if
                                                                          the retainer is damaged.

                                PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
10. Test the stator:                                                 12. Separate the rotor from the front housing:
   The stator assembly consists of three individual wind-                  Position the front housing on support blocks placed on
   ings terminated in the delta type connections. Using                    an arbor press. Push the rotor assembly from the
   an ohmmeter or a test lamp, check for winding continu-                  housing (see illustration).
   ity between terminals A, Band C. There should be no
   continuity from any terminal to point D (laminations).
   Also, stators showing any signs of winding discoloration
   should be discarded (see illustration).


                                                                                                 SEPARATING ROTOR
             STATOR WINDING TESTS                                                               FROM FRONT HOUSING

11. Remove the pulley, fan and spacer:                                  13. Remove the front bearing from the housing:
    The pulley is a slip-fit on the rotor shaft, positioned with           Remove the three bearing retainer screws. Position the
    a woodruff key. Remove the nut and lockwasher from                     housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press.
    the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool.               Using a tool that contacts the inner race of the bearing,
    After the nut and lockwasher are removed, the alternator               press out the front bearing (see illustrations).
    can be separated from the pulley.
                                                                                                         BEARING RETAINER
    The fan will slide over the key. The key may be remove-                                              SCREWS (3)
    ed with diagonal pliers, or with a screwdriver.
    Inspect the fan for cracked or broken fins, and note the
    condition of the mounting hole. If it is worn from run-                                                          FRONT
    ning loose, replace the fan to insure balance.
    Inspect the pulley for possible faults as shown in the

                                                                                 REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS

                   ·PULLEY REMOVAL
          CHECK FOR WORN                                                             HOUSING
          DRIVE SURFACES. .....-_ _--..                                                HUB
         KEY GROOVE.
               CHECK BORE
               FOR WEAR.                                                               BEARING               INNER RACE

         PULLEY INSPECTION POINTS                                                     PRESSING OUT BEARING
                                                        + ,;,Unlvarsal
                                                               MARINE POWER

                                   PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
  14. Inspect the front housing:                                        D. Rotor shaft and pole pieces.
     Check the housing for cracks. Check the condition of                  1. Stripped threads on shaft.
     the threads in the adjusting ear. Check the bore in the               2. Worn key slot.
     mounting foot. Discard the housing if the bore shows
     signs of elongation (oval or out-of-roundness).                       3. Worn bearing surface.
  15. Rotor inspection & electrical testing:                               4. Scuffed pole fingers.
     Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical                 5. Worn or dry rear bearing.
     properties (see illustration).                                     Replace the rotor assembly if any of the above faults
     A. Current draw or resistance of the winding.                      are noted, with the exception of item D, 5.
                                                                        NOTE: New rotors include a new rear bearing and new
                                                                        slip rings as part of the assembly. If the rear bearing
       A CAUTION:         Turn off the DC power source                  requires replacement, follow the instructions for this
       before removing the test leads to avoid ave dam-                 operation.
       age to the slip ring surfaces.                                16. Remove the slip rings from the rotor assembly:
                                                                        Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals.
         1. Current Draw in amperes, at 70°-80°F                        Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil leads from
             (21°-27°C):                                                the slip ring terminals, as shown in the illustration.
              12 Volt Models,          Correct Current Draw
              Rated At:                @15.DV:                              REMOVE ALL RESIDUE
                                                                            FROM BETWEEN
              51 Amperes               3.2-3.6 Amperes                      SLIP RINGS

         2. Resistance of winding in Ohms, at 70°-80°F
            (21°-27°C):                                               UNSOLDER _-===:'-'--~,-

                                                                        ~                                                      ~
                                                                                              -'                   %                   Z           Z
An on-off switch should be installed between the battery and   "   .,  '"            '"
                                                                                     =>                   I-
                                                               · ...   -'
                                                                                                                               '"      '"
                                                               . . . ..... .... ... .... . .... ...
                                                                                                          -'                                       "-
the starter to disconnect the battery in an emergency and
when leaving the boat. A switch with a continuous rating of    '"             '"                          ;;                   '"                  ;;
175 amps at 12 volts will serve the function. This switch                                                                                                                                     # 14 GRA

should not be used to make or break this circuit.               :I:.


                                                                                 .. '" .. .. ....
                                                                                 .... .... ....

                                                                .. '" .... .... ""
                                                                V       %

                                                                                      i           =>
                                       tl4 LT, BLU              -          ,...:                         >-         0
                                                               ,I-      a:                                 ::z:                                        ::E

(NOT USED ) (                                                   a:                                                     a:                              a:
                                         114 PINK                        '" '"        '"          ,.;                           '" a: :i.

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