Universal Diesel M3 20b Technical Manual
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1044 82001 Crankshaft Bearings 28 29 27 28 STANDARD AND METRIC CONVERSION DATA LENGTHDISTANCE Inches inx 254 Millimeters mmx 0394 Inches Feet ttx 305 Meters mx 3281 Feet Miles x 1609 Kilometers kmx 0621 Miles VOLUME Cubic Inches inlx 16387 Cubic Centimeters x 061 in3 Imperial Pints IMP ptx 568 Liters Lx 176 IMP pt Imperial Quarts IMP qtx 1137 Liters Lx88 IMP qt Imperial Gallons IMP galx 4546 Liters Lx 22 IMP gal Imperial Quarts IMP qtx 1201 US Quarts US qtx 833 IMP qt Imperial Gallons IMP galx 1201 US Gallons US galx 833 IMP gal Fluid Ounces x 29573 Milliliters x 034 Ounces US Pints US ptx 473 LitersLx 2113 Pints US Quarts US qtx 946 Liters Lx 1057 Quarts US Gallons US galx 3785 Liters Lx 264 Gallons MASSWEIGHT Ounces ozx 2835 Grams gx 035 Ounces Pounds Ibx 454 Kilograms kgx 2205 Pounds PRESSURE Pounds Per Sq In psix 6895 Kilopascals kPax 145 psi Inches of Mercury Hgx 4912 psi x 2036 Hg Inches of Mercury Hgx 3377 Kilopascals kPax 2961 Hg Inches of Water H20x 07355 Inches of Mercury x 13783 H20 Inches of Water H20x 03613 psi x 27684267 H20 Inches of Water H20x 248 Kilopascals kPax 4026 H20 TORQUE PoundsForce Inches inIbx 113 Newton Meters Nmx 885 inIb PoundsForce Feet ftIbx 1356 Newton Meters Nmx 738 ftIb VELOCITY Miles Per Hour MPHx 1609 Kilometers Per Hour KPHx 621 MPH POWER Horsepower Hpx 745 Kilowatts Kwx 134 MPH FUEL CONSUMPTION Miles Per Hour IMP MPGx 354 Kilometers Per Liter KmLKilometers Per Liter KmLx 2352 IMP MPG Miles Per Gallons US MPGx 425 Kilometers Per Liter KmLKilometers Per Liter KmLx 2352 US MPG TEMPERATURE Degree Fahrenheit OF OC X 18 32 Degree Celsius OC OF 32x 56 113 METRIC CONVERSIONS INCHES TO MILLIMETERS MILLIMETERS TO INCHES Inches mm Inches mm mm Inches mm Inches 1 2540 15 38100 1 00394 15 05906 2 5080 20 50800 2 00787 20 07874 3 7620 25 63500 3 01181 25 09843 4 10160 30 76200 4 01575 30 11811 5 12700 35 88900 5 01969 35 13780 10 25400 40 101600 10 03937 40 15748 10 MIlliMETERS 1 CENTIMETER 100 CENTIMETERS 1 METER 3937 INCHES 33 FEETINCHES TO METERS METERS TO INCHES Inches Meters Inches Meters Meters Inches Meters Inches 1 00254 7 01778 01 3937 07 27559 2 00508 8 02032 02 7874 08 31496 3 00762 9 02286 03 11811 09 35433 4 01016 10 02540 04 15748 10 39370 5 01270 11 02794 05 19685 11 43307 6 01524 12 03048 06 23622 12 47244 TO CONVERT METERS TO CENTIMETERS MOVE DECIMAL POINT TWO PLACES TO THE RIGHT YARDS TO METERS METERS TO YARDS Yards Meters Yards Meters Meters Yards Meters Yards 1 091440 6 548640 1 109361 6 656168 2 182880 7 640080 2 218723 7 765529 3 274320 8 731520 3 328084 8 874891 4 365760 9 822960 4 437445 9 984252 5 457200 10 914400 5 546807 10 1093614 MOVE DECIMAL POINT FOR HIGHER VALUES eg 6000 METERS 656168 YARDS POUNDS TO KILOGRAMS KILOGRAMS TO POUNDS Ib kg Ib kg kg Ib kg Ib 1 0454 6 2722 1 2205 6 13228 2 0907 7 3175 2 4409 7 15432 3 1361 8 3629 3 6614 8 17637 4 1814 9 4082 4 8818 9 19842 5 2268 10 4536 5 11023 10 22046 GALLONS TO LITERS LITERS TO GALLONS Gallons Liters Gallons Liters Liters Gallons Liters Gallons 1 379 10 3786 1 026 60 1566 2 757 20 7571 2 053 90 2377 3 1136 30 11357 5 132 120 3132 4 1514 40 15142 10 264 150 3962 5 1893 50 18928 20 528 180 4754 PINTS TO LITERS LITERS TO PINTS Pints Liters Pints Liters Liters Pints Liters Pints 1 047 6 284 1 211 6 1268 2 095 7 331 2 423 7 1479 3 142 8 379 3 634 8 1691 4 189 9 426 4 845 9 1902 5 237 10 473 5 1057 10 2113 TEMPERATURE 32 40 50 60 70 75 85 95 105 140 175 212 OF I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 60 80 100 260C 112 1 8 TORQUES NOTE Screws bolts and nuts must be tightened to the specified torque using a torque wrench Some screws bolts and nuts such as those used on the cylin255der head must be tightened in a certain sequence and at the proper torque Tightening Torques for Specific Engine Components For marked screws bolts and nuts in the table apply engine oil to their threads and seats before tightening COMPONENT Cylinder head cover cap nuts Cylinder head bolts Main bearing case bolts 1 Main bearing case bolts 2 Flywheel bolts Connecting rod bolts Rocker arm bracket nuts Idler gear shaft bolts Crankshaft end bolt Bearing case cover screws Glow plugs Nozzle holder assembly Oil switch taper screw Injection line retaining nuts Starters terminal B mounting nut Apply engine oil to threads and seats before tightening Tightening Torques for General Use Screws Bolts and Nuts SIZE x PITCH M6 x 10 M8 x 125 M6 x 10 M7 x 10 M10 x 125 M7 x 075 M6 x 10 M6 x 10 M14 x 15 M6 x 15 M8 x 10 M20 x 15 PT 18 M12 x 15 M8 When the tightening torques are not specified tighten the screws bolts and nuts according to the following table ftIb kgm 29 43 04 06 289 325 40 45 94 116 13 16 195 224 27 31 398 434 55 60 195 224 27 31 723 832 100 115 723 832 100115 868 940 120 130 72 83 100115 58 108 08 15 362 506 50 70 108 145 15 20 181 253 25 35 65 87 09 12 Nm 39 59 392 441 127 157 265 304 539 588 265 304 981 1128 981 1128 1177 1275 98 112 78 147 490 686 147 196 245 343 88 118 STANDARD SCREW AND BOLT SPECIAL SCREW AND BOLT NOMINAL GRADE DIAMETER ftIb kgm M6 58 69 08 095 M8 130 152 18 21 M10 289 333 40 46 M12 463 535 64 74 Screw and bolt material grades are shown by numbers punched on the screw and bolt heads Prior to tightening be sure to check the numbers as shown below Punched Number Screw and Bolt Material Grade None or 4 Standard screw and bolt SS41 s20C 7 Special screw and bolt S43C S48C ftIb kgm Nm 79 93 723 832 10115 98 113 177 206 174 203 24 28 235 275 392 451 354 412 49 57 481 559 628 726 571 665 79 92 775 902 110 SPECIAL TOOLS Connecting Rod Small End Bushing Tool Application Use to press out and to press fit the connect255ing rod small end bushing A 571 in 145 mmB 098 in 25 mmC 079 in 20 mmD 098 in dia25 mm diaE 0862 0864 in dia 2190 2195 mm diaF 0783 0785 in dia 1990 1995 mm diaC1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mmC2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mmC3 Chamfer 0118 in 30 mmC4 Chamfer 0157 in 40 mmA B C Idler gear Bushing Replacing Tool Application Use to press out and to press fit the idler gear bushing A B C D E F C1 C2 CO3 C2 591 in 150 mm118 in 30 mm079 in 20 mm098 in dia25 mm dia0862 0864 in dia 2190 2195 mm dia0783 0785 in dia 1990 1995 mm diaChamfer 0039 in 10 mmChamfer 0079 in 20 mmChamfer 0012 in 03 mmA B C JV 77l Ell H D CO3 Unlvarsal 109 C1 TOOLS The special tools shown in this section are not provided Use the following plans and specifications for field fabrication Valve Guide Replacing Tool Application Use to press out and to press fit the valve guide A 079 in dia 20 mm diaB 03921 03929 in dia 996 998 mm diaC 0216 0224 in dia 55 57 mm diaD 787 in 200 mmE 315 in 80 mmF 158 in 40 mmG 059 in dia15 mm diaH 0197 in 5 mmI 0236 0240 in dia 60 61 mm diaJ 071 in dia 18 mm diaK 0417 0421 in dia 106 107 mm diaL 0276 in 7 mmC1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mmC2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mmCO3 Chamfer 0012 in 03 mmCrankshaft Bearing No1 Replacing Tool Application Use to press out and to press fit the crank255shaft bearing No1 A 512 in 130 mmB 256 in 65 mmC 157 in radius 40 mm radiusD 039 in 10 mmE 087 in 22 mmF 079 in dia 20 mm diaG 1728 1730 in dia 4390 4395 mm diaH 1570 1572 in dia 3990 3995 mm diaC1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mmC2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 diaCO3 Chamfer 0012 in 03 mmH Unlvanal 108 HURTH HBW TRANSMISSION CONTROL CABLES The majority of transmission difficulties arise as a result of prob255lems with control cables rather than from problems with the itself A new cable and perhaps a new linkage mechanism may be need255ed While the cable is loose shift the transmission in and out of gear using the actuating lever on the side of the transmission to make sure theres no binding inside the case If you experience operating problems with the transmission shut the engine down First check the transmission fluid level then have a helper move the cockpit shift lever through the full range from neutral to full forward back to neutral into full reverse and back to neutralwhile you observe the actuating lever on the transmission If the remote is stiff to operate break the cable loose at the transmission and try again If it is still stiff check the cable for kinks or excessively tight bends and check any linkage for binding If the transmission passes these tests crank the engine and have a helper put it in forward and reverse while you observe the pro255peller shaft if the shaft isnt turning the transmission needs attention If it does tum but theres no thrust check to see if you still have a propeller on the end of the shaft or if you have a folding or feathering propeller that it isnt stuck in the no pitch position NOTE If you suspect a major problem in your transmission immediately contact your UNIVERSAL dealer or an authorized marine transmission facility Problem Probable Cause Remedy Transmission gears cannot 1 Actuating lever is loose 1 Tighten damping bolt on actuating lever be shifted Fails to move 2 Shifting cable is broken bent or unattached 2 Check the cable reattach or replace into gear Cable radius is too severe 3 Actuating lever is binding against cover 3 Detach the shift cable and operate the actuating lever by plate hand Clearance should be 002 in 05 mmTransmission shifts into 1 Output coupling is not tuming 1 Transmission needs professional attention gear but fails to propel 2 Propeller shaft is not turning Output 2 The coupling bolts are sheared or the coupling is Slipping the boat coupling is turning on the propeller shaft Tighten or replace set screws keys pins and coupling bolts as necessary 3 Output coupling and propeller shaft are 3 Inspect the propeller it may be missing or damaged A both turning folding propeller may be jammed A variable pitch propeller may be in no pitch position Delay of gear engagement 1 Actuating lever travel N to B not equal to 1 Adjust cover plate until the lever is exact mid position or engages only after an N to A Refer to diagram Refer to actuating lever text and diagram increase in speed 2 Actuating lever travel is insufficient 2 Check actuating lever cable length Refer to lever diagram 3 Actuating lever is binding against cover plate 3 Check clearance adjust if necessary Chattering transmission 1 The engine or propeller generates torsional 1 Mount a flexible coupling with another stiffness factor noise mainly at low engine vibrations in the drive unit which produces between the transmission coupling and the driveshaft A speed a chattering noise in the transmission higher stiffness factor might be sufficient 2 Inspect the damper plate between the engine and the transmission Replace if necessary Transmission noise becomes 1 Damage starting on flexible coupling due to 1 Check alignment inspect flexible coupling If noise louder wear or fatigue possibly due to inspect the damper plate between the transment between engine and the drive shaft mission and the engine Replace if necessary 2 Beginning damage of bearings in trans2 Transmission needs professional attention mission due to torsional vibrations running without fluid overload wrong alignment of transmission or excessive engine output Boat fails to attain specified 1 Operating temperature is high 1 Wrong type of fluid use ATF type A or DEXTRON I or III max speed Check fluid level Oil leakage 1 Corrosion at radial sealing ring and shaft 1 Transmission needs professional attention Damaged sealing ring 2 Misalignment of output flanges 2 Check alignment Must be within 0003 in 008 mm107 HURTH HBW TRANSMISSION MAINTENANCE Transmission maintenance is minimal Keep the exterior housing clean check the fluid level as part of your regular routine and change the fluid every 300 operating hours Periodically inspect the transmission for leaks and corrosion Lubricate the cable connections LayupWinterize Storage requires special care Follow these procedures o Clean up the transmission and touch up unpainted areas use heat resistant painto Fill the transmission with Dextron III ATF fluid to prevent internal corrosion extended storage only twelve months or moreo Loosen attaching hardware from the transmission output flange and propeller shaft coupling flange before removing the boat from the water Separate the flanges and spray with lubricant o Inspect the gear shift cable linkage and attachments Look for corrosion of the end fittings cracks or cuts in the conduit and bending of the cable rods Lubricate all moving parts NOTE If the transmission is to be stored for a long time twelve months or moreit should be topped off with fluid to prevent internal corrosion Reduce the fluid level before put255ting the engine back into service For additional information contact HURTH MARINE GEAR ZF Industries Marine US Headquarters 3131 SW 42nd Street Fort Lauderdale FL 33312 Tel 954Fax 954106 HURTH HBW TRANSMISSION INITIAL OPERATION All HBW maine transmissions are testrun on a test stand with the engine at the factory prior to delivery For safety reasons the fluid is drained before shipment Fill the gearbox with Automatic Transmission Fluid DEXTRON IllThe fluid level should be up to the index mark on the dip255stick To check the fluid level just insert the dipstick do not screw it in Screw the dipstick into the case after the fluid level is checked and tighten Do not forget the sealing ring under the hexhead of the dipstick Check for leaks and make a visual inspection of the coupling and shift cables DIPSTICK FWID CHANGE FlUID LEVEL ISSION OPERATING Change the fluid for the first time after about 25 hours of opera255tion then every 300 operating hours or at winterizing Removing the Fluid Push a suction pump hose down through the dipstick hole to the bottom of the housing and suck out the fluid If space allows use the transmission drain Remove the drain plug from the bottom of the transmission and allow the fluid to drain mto a container then reinstall the plug with its sealing washer Wipe down the transmission and properly dispose of the used fluid After running the engine shut down and recheck the fluid level Drain plug torque 20 25 Mb 277 346 NmNOTE When changing the fluid take care not to lose the drain plug sealing washer The drain plug will leak without this sealing washer A WARNING Never pull out the dipstick while the engine is running Hot fluid will splash from the dipstick hole This could cause sever burns LOCKING THE PROPELLER Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not required use the gear shift lever position opposite your direction of travel for this purpose Never put the gear shift in the position corresponding to the direction of travel of the boat WHEN UNDER SAIL OR BEING TOWED Rotation of the propeller without a load such as when the boat is being sailed being towed or anchored in a river as well as opera255tion of the engine with the propeller stopped for charging the bat255terywill have no detrimental effects on the transmission DAILY OPERAnON D Check the transmission fluid level D check the gear shift linkage and transmission D Start the engine in neutral allowing a few minutes at idle to warm the fluid D Shift into gear NOTE Too low an idle speed will produce a chattering noise from the transmission gear and damper plate In such cases the idle speed should be increased For additional information refer to the following text in this Transmission section SHAff COUPliNGS MAINTENANCE and TRANSMISSION Operating Temperature A WARNING if the transmission fluid temperature is too high stop the engine immediately and check the transmission fluid Normal operating temperature of the transmission fluid should be in the range of 1220 F 500 Cto 2120 F 1000 CA maximum temperature of 2660 F 1300 Cmay be only reached for a short time Make certain there is enough space around the transmission to provide good ventilation and cooling SPECIFICATIONS General Gear Ratio Ruid Transmission Sump Capacity Propeller Shaft Direction of Rotation TRANSMISSION HURTH HBW5D2R Standard Transmission case hardened helical gears with a multiple disc clutch 2051 ATFtype A or DEXTRON I or III 037 qts 035 litersRight handstandard transmission JJnlvarsal 105 position pivot point 12 VDC DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM WIRING SCHEMATIC 200360 CATALINA YACHTS STARTER SOLENOID r STARTER I I I I I I PREHEAT SOLENOID r GLOWPLUGS II I I u 0 W 5rCil Q01 I 0 col I fLJ 0l o U 0 u RESISTOR IK 112W AL TERNATOR OUTPUT 1 rJ LIFT PUMP P WATER TEMP CJ WATER TEMP SWITCH rHIH1 I I TO THE B TO THE TO THES TO THE I TO THE TO THE P TO THES TO THE S TO THE C TO THE TACH TERN OF START TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF KETSITCH SWITCH KETSWITCH KETSITCH THE ALARN THE ALARN THE TACH 225225 T GUAGE THE ALARN GROUND BUllER BUZZER BUZZER 103 AdobeUCS4 9 AdobeUCSNOTE An onoff switch should be installed in this circuit to disconnect the starter from the battery in an emergency and when leaving the boat Twelve volt diesel engine starters typically draw 200 to 300 amps when cranking A switch with a continuous rating of 175 amps at 12 VDC will normally serve this function but a switch must never be used to make the starter circuit DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM WIRING SCHEMATIC 26739144 STARTER f titH J s 225 ALTUUOIl I I I I I I I I I I I i I FUEl 1lItlil r1r 208 c 1 CJ ALARM op SENDU TACttCMETEft S GNO VOLTMETeR 0 W T GAUGE ADMIRAL 50 AMP AIT PANE L 51 CAPTAIN PANEL TERNAIQR STANDARD ALTERNATOR ON THE 6lS Cl 6lC 01 716 01 B26 01 1088 lZJ 10BC JZ 101 NOTE WRE roll AnERY ATTACNN1iIT WILL NEtO TO Bt UGRAO243D TO AN a GAUGE rROM 10 GACIGE E 90 AMP ALT II LT BlU I PI NK o PRESTQI ITE 72 AMP AI T t 14 SRN 4 GRA RED 225 I 4 PINK 114 IT S 0UN IVERSAI PRQPlll S IQN PRESIQI I TE 51 AMP AI T AdobeUCS1 1 ALTERNATOR SERVICE The carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must be capable of handling the alternators rated output at rated rpm A CAUTION Make sure the connections are well secured and tight to avoid possible damage to the instruments alternator or wiring due to short circuits Starting with the carbon pile off slowly increase the load while observing the ammeter and maintaining 5000 rpm Increase the load until a minimum output voltage of approximately 137 volts is obtained Record the output current at this point and refer to the chart for minimum acceptable ratings MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT VALUES AT 70260 80260F 21260 27260 CRATING OUTPUT 51 AMP 46 AMP 99 RED EXCITE TO IGNSW OR OIL PRESS SWPOS OUTPUT REMOTE BAIT SENSE ONLY 0 AC TAP TACHTYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TEST PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE 4 Assemble the rotor and front housing Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press using two steel blocks for support as shown in the illustration Place the front housing over the shaft Using a driver sleeve that contacts the inner bearing race only press the front housing down until the inner bearing race contacts the shoulder on the shaft A CAUTION Be sure the rotor leads clear the blocks FRONT HOUSING ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO ROTOR 5 Assemble the spacer fan and pulley Place the pulley spacer over the shaft Install the woodruff key Install the fan Install the pulley lock washer and nut Mount the pulley as shown in the and tighten to 3550 ftIbs 475678 NmSpin the rotor by hand to test the freedom of the bearing 6 Assemble the front and rear housings Place the stator into the front housing with the stator leads at the top and the notches in the laminations aligned with the bolt holes Position the rear housing over the slip rings with the housing bolt holes aligned and the stator leads extending through the openings at the top of the rear housing Install the throughbolts and tighten them evenly to 5060 inIbs 5768 NmSpin the rotor by hand to test the freedom of the bearings NOTE New front housings contain throughbolt holes that are not tapped Therefore a socket wrench rather that a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient torque to drive the thread forming throughbolts 7 Install the diode rectifier bridge and diode trio Insert the B strap through the slot in the diode trio body Bend the strap over the B terminal and secure it with a cone locknut Apply a thin film of heat sink compound to the back of the diode rectifier bridge and to the mating area on the rear housing Install the assembly to the rear housing four screwsPlace the strap AC tapin position and connect the stator leads three screwsInstall the capacitor where applicable8 Install the integral regulator Install the brush mounting screws twothough the openings in the regulator body Secure the regulator to the rear housing two screws9 Install the brush assembly Insert the brush holder into the grooves in the hub of the rear housing Place the D strap or male terminal where applicableon the stud and secure the brush holder with locknuts two placesSecure the other end of the D strap 10 Install the rear cover Be sure the felt gasket is in place see the rear cover on the rear housing and secure it with two screws INSTALLING REAR COVER ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS FELT GASKET The following tests will determine the current producing capability of the repaired alternator Mount the alternator in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator rpm Select the required battery voltage and circuit polarity Tum the drive motor on and adjust to obtain 5000 alterna255tor rpm Slowly reduce the field rheostat resistance the alternator should develop a charge Continue to reduce resistance until the alternator reaches its rated current out255put in amperes CAUTION Limit the output voltage to 15V maximum DO NOT operate the alternator for more than a few minutes in this manner due to the lack of volt255age controL If the alternator will deliver its rated output end the test Connect the fixture leads and instruments to the alternator terminals as shown in the following PERFORMANCE TEST diagram Univarsal MARINE POWER 98 AdobeUCSPRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE 17 Remove the rear bearing from the rotor Dress the rotor leads away from the bearing puller con255tact area Adjust the puller to contact the inner bearing race then carefully remove the bearing from the shaft see completes the disassembly of the alternator REMOVING REAR BEARING ALTERNATOR REASSEMBLY The reassembly sequence generally is the reverse of the order of disassembly therefore only information pertaining to special reassembly requirements will be covered in this section 1 Install the rear bearing Place the rotor on a press as shown in the illustration Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure on the inner race only and press the bearing onto the rotor shaft until it contacts the shoulder New replacement bear255ings should be used whenever the bearing is removed during repair procedures or when the bearing is rough dry or noisy REAR BEARING INSTALLING REAR BEARING 2 Install the slip ring assembly Guide the rotor leads through one of the oval passages in the slip ring assembly Be sure the oval passage is in line with the groove in the rotor shaft Place the rotor on a press as shown in the illustration Choose a driver sleeve having a diameter that clears the leads Press the slip ring assembly onto the shaft Solder the rotor leads to the leads on the slip ring Trim excess slip ring leads extending above the solder connections SLIP RING ASSEMBLY PRESS INSTALLING SLIP RING ASSEMBLY 3 Install the front bearing 97 Place the front bearing and housing in an arbor press as shown in the illustration Select a drive tool to contact the outer race only and press the bearing into the housing bore Bearing replacement is recommended whenever a bearing is removed during alternator repair procedures or when the bearing is rough dry or noisy Install three bearing retainer screws Torque to 2530 ftlbs 339407 NmPRESS DRIVER TOOL CONTACTS OUTER BEARING RACE ONLY FRONT BEARING FRONT HOUSING INSTALLING FRONT BEARING ALTERNATOR SERVICE 14 Inspect the front housing Check the housing for cracks Check the condition of the threads in the adjusting ear Check the bore in the mounting foot Discard the housing if the bore shows signs of elongation oval or Rotor inspection electrical testing Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical properties see illustrationA Current draw or resistance of the winding A CAUTION Turn off the DC power source before removing the test leads to avoid avc dam255age to the slip ring surfaces 1 Current Draw in amperes at 7026080260F 2126027260C12 Volt Models Correct Current Draw Rated At 150V 51 Amperes 3236 Amperes 2 Resistance of winding in Ohms at 7026080260F 2126027260C12 Volt Models Correct Winding Rated At 51 Amperes TEST CURRENT Resistance 4147 Ohm POLE FINGERS BEARING AREA KEY SLOT SHAFT THREADS DRAW OR RESISTANCE BEWEEN RINGS NOTE PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING LRCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES D Rotor shaft and pole pieces 1 Stripped threads on shaft 2 Worn key slot 3 Worn bearing surface 4 Scuffed pole fingers 5 Worn or dry rear bearing Replace the rotor assembly if any of the above faults are noted with the exception of item DS NOTE New rotors include a new rear bearing and new slip rings as part of the assembly If the rear bearing requires replacement follow the instructions for this operation 16 Remove the slip rings from the rotor assembly Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil leads from the slip ring terminals as shown in the illustration REMOVE ALL RESIDUE FROM BETWEEN 255SLIP RINGS UNSOLDER CAUTION DO NOT OVERHEAT UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS Straighten the rotor leads Insert a No 10 x 1 cap screw into the opening at the center of the slip ring assembly Position the bearing puller as shown in the illustration and pull the slip ring assembly off the rotor shaft A CAUTION When holding the rear end of the rotor shaft in a vise be sure not to grip the bear255ing area of the rotor shaft ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING STRAIGHTEN ROTOR LEADS NO 10 X 1 CAP SCREW B Grounded slip ring or winding Use a 12 volt DC test ohmmeter or nov AC test lamp Place one test lead to the rotor body and the other on either slip ring An open circuit from either slip ring to the rotor body is a correct condition C Condition of the slip rings 1 Clean the brush contacting surfaces with a fine crocus cloth wipe the dust and residue away 2 If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration replace the entire rotor assembly REMOVING SLIP RING ASSY 96 from AdobeUCSin one AdobeUCStest the AdobeUCS plete procedure AdobeUCS ALTERNATOR SERVICE The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to provide a slightly higher voltage at low temperatures and a lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide for the charging requirements of the battery under these conditions TESTING PROCEDURE Ui w ffi 80 c E ct 60 Iz w II II 40 J J I20 I255J o 100 V INTEGRAL REGULATOR 12 VOLT 51 AMP W J 3 II 2 0 II W i 1 0 c w en II o 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 z ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 750F 2380CSAE TEST METHOD AC TAP BACK TACHCOVER DINDICATOR LIGHT TERM GROUND ACTAP TACHDINDICATOR LIGHT TERM GROUND INTEGRAL REGULATOR EXCITE BACK COVER ALTERNATOR SENSE SENSE TO BATT REMOTE BATTERY SENSE GUIDE ALTERNATOR TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION A Battery undercharged 1 Defective cables dirty battery 1 Check clean repair or replace Ammeter if usedindicates posts corroded terminals etc as needed constant discharge 2 Loose or broken belt 2 Check belt Indicator lamp remains on 3 Worn or broken brushes 3 Replace brush assembly 4 Defective alternator system 4 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM section B Battery undercharged 1 Indicator lamp burned out or 1 Check bulb and harness Indicator lamp off with key defective wire harness on and engine stopped 2 Broken brush 2 Replace brush assembly Normal condition is lamp on3 Defective alternator system 3 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM section C Battery overcharges 1 Defective wire harness 1 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM Excessive use of water 2 Defective alternator system 2 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM Ammeter if usedshows constant 3 Poor ground 3 Check ground excessive charge 4 Broken sense lead remote battery 4 Check clean repair or replace as Voltmeter indicates greater than sense onlyneeded 145 volts connected across battery with no loadwith engine idling D Battery charges at idle but discharges 1 Slipping belt 1 Check belt and adjust tension or under load conditions 2 Alternator defective replace as necessary 2 Disassemble check diodes E Indicator lamp glows slightly under 1 Defective diodetrio 1 Remove and replace moderate load battery appears charged 225 Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 90 AdobeUCSPRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE 6 The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator should be between 135 and 145 volts If your alterna255tor is overor undercharging have it repaired at a reli255able service shop NOTE Before removing the alternator for repair use your voltmeter to ensure that 12 volts DC excitation is present at the R terminal if the previous test showed only battery volt255age at the B output terminal ALTERNATOR DESCRIPTION The stator is connected to a threephase fullwave bridge rectifier package which contains six diodes The bridge converts the AC generated in the stator to a DC output for battery charging and accessories such as radio heater lights refrigerator depth sounder etc See the illustrations below Power to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator alternator is provided by the field diode or diode triopack255age contained in the alternator The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 amperes Rated output is achieved at approximately 6000 alternator rpm at an ambient temperature of 75260P 238260CThe alter255nator is designed to operate in an ambient temperature range of 40260 to 212260P 40260 to 100260CTo ensure proper cooling of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alterna255tor it must be used with the proper cooling fan EXCITE REGULATOR ICI0 B GROUND ACTAP TACHALTERNATOR SENSE INTEGRAL REGSENSE EXCITE REGULATOR ICI0 B GROUND AC TAP TACHBATTERY SENSE INTEGRAL REG89 14 GRAY 114 PINKBLUE 14 BROWN 14 RED 14 PINKBLUE VOLTAGE REGULATOR 14 BROWN 10 RED TYPICAL UNIVERSAL 51 AMP ALTERNATOR CONNECTIONS 10 RED 14 PINKBLUE 14 BROWN OPTIONAL 72 AMP ALTERNATOR CONNECTIONS The integral voltage regulator is an electronic switching device which senses the system voltage level and switches the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain a proper system voltage The regulator design utilizes allsilicon semi conductors and thickfilm assembly techniques After the voltage has been adjusted to the proper regulating value the entire circuit is encapsulated to protect the circuit and the components from possible damage due to handling or vibration and moisture encountered in a vessel AdobeUCSand any AdobeUCSMANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE 8 Place an oversized Vbelt around the pulley and fasten the pulley in a vise see PULLEY AND FAN NUT 9 Use a torque wrench to tighten the nut 10 Carefully install the brushregulator assembly on the rear housing with the two mounting screws 11 Install the small terminal insulators 12 Install the large terminal insulator 13 Install the jumper 14 Install the nut on the terminal 15 Install the brushregulator assembly cover 16 Install the Phillips screw for the brushregulator assembly cover 17 Install the capacitor 18 Install the terminal nuts 19 Install the jumper 20 Install the last terminal nut INSTALL ALTERNATOR 1 Install the alternator screws and washers 2 Connect the wiring leads 3 Put the belt on the alternator crankshaft and coolant pump pulleys 4 Adjust the alternator belts tension see DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE TERMINAL NUTINSULATOR ALTERNATDR ASSEMBLY MANDO ALTERNATOR SPECIFICATIONS Battery Voltage 12 volt Maximum Speed 13500 rpm Cut In Speed Max 2000 rpm Exc Max 1500 rpm at L2 Reg Set Voltage 141 volts Ambient Temperature 20260C to 100260C Ground Negative 87 AdobeUCSbolts and capacitor checker be reused MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE HOUSING AND STATOR REMOVAL 14 Carefully push the rotor assembly out of the front housing and rear housing see REMOVAL NOTE If the bearing is removed from the housing a new bearing must be installed 15 After removing the three bearing locking screws care255fully press the front bearing out of the housing Press against the inner race of the bearing see BEARING FRONT HOUSING FRONT HOUSING BEARING REMOVAL BEARING LOCKING SCREWS 16 Remove the rectifier assembly by removing the Phillips screw and lifting out the assembly RECTIFIER REMOVAL CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS 1 Inspect and test the brushregulator assembly The brush set may be reused if the brushes are 114 in 6 mmor longer The brushes must not be oil soaked cracked or grooved Test for continuity between 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 using a test lamp or an ohmmeter These checks will indicate a good brushregulator assembly replace the complete assembly if necessary see BRUSHI REGULATOR ASSEMBLY TESTING BRUSHREGULAToR ASSEMBLY 2 Inspect and test the diodetrio assembly a Using a commercial diode tester a l2volt DC test lamp or an ohmmeter check the resistance between each of the three diode terminals and the indicator light stud see TRIO ASSEMBLY INDICATOR LIGHT STUD Unlvcarsal MARINE POWER 83 AdobeUCSMANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE ALTERNATOR MOUNTING DISASSEMBLE ALTERNATOR 1 Remove the tenninal nuts to remove the jumper see illustration2 Remove the remaining terminal nuts 3 Remove the capacitor 4 Remove the Phillips screw from the regulator cover 5 Remove the cover 6 Remove the nut from the tenninal 7 Remove the jumper S267 Remove the tenninal insulators 9 Remove the two Phillips screws and remove the brushregulator assembly JUMPER TERMINAL NUTINSULATOR ALTERNATOR DISASSEMBLY 10 Place an oversized Vbelt around the pulley and fasten the pulley in a vise 11 Use a 78 in box wrench to loosen and remove the pulley nut PULLEY REMOVAL 12 Remove the pulley nut lockwasher pulley fan and spacer see NUT PULLEY AND FAN COMPONENTS A CAUTION DO NOT insert screwdriver blades more than 116 in 16 mmDamage to the stator winding could result from deeper penetration NOTE Score the stator and the front and rear housings so the unit may be reassembled correctly 13 Remove the four throughbolts and carefully pry the front housing away from the rear housing using two screwdrivers see illustration82 MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE NEGATIVE LEAD BATTERY SYSTEM VOLTAGE CHECK 2 Start the engine and run it at fast idle until the engine reaches its normal operating temperature Adjust the engine speed to 1500 2000 rpm and observe the volt255meter for the highest reading The reading should be between 137 and 147 volts 3 If the reading is high check for a loose or dirty regula255tor ground lead connection If the connection is good the voltage regulator is faulty and must be replaced Be sure to disconnect the battery cables before attempting to remove the regulator 4 If the reading is low a Stop the engine h PHILLIPS COVER SCREW REGULATOR COVER REMOVAL c Remove the nut from the output terminal and the nut from the sensing terminal and remove Jumper Ad Remove another nut from the sensing terminal and the nut from the excitation terminal e Remove the regulator cover f Temporarily install Jumper Aand all associated nuts Leave Jumper Binstalled g Remove the plastic plug from the side of the regulator h Connect a jumper between the top brush lead from the brush and ground see TERMINAL PLASTIC PLUG JUMPER END VIEW OF REGULATOR WITH COVER REMOVED i Repeat steps 1 and 2 NOTE Do not let the voltage exceed 16 volts j If a voltmeter reading of 145 volts or above is now obtained the voltage regulator is faulty and must be replaced If the voltmeter reading is below 145 volts inspect the brushes and slip rings for wear dirt or damage If the brushes and slip rings are good the alternator is faulty internally Disassem255ble the alternator and test the components as out255lined in this section REMOVE ALTERNATOR 1 Disconnect the negative battery ground cable 2 Disconnect the wiring leads 3 Loosen the screws Holding the alternator rotate it toward the engine and lift the belt off the pulley 4 Remove the screws and washers and remove the alternator 81 AdobeUCSMANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE TEST ALTERNATOR CURRENT OUTPUT Perform this test to check if the alternator is capable of producing the rated current output using a 0 55 amp DC ammeter 1 Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery 2 Disconnect the output lead from the terminal and connect the ammeter in series between the lead and the output terminal Connect the positive side of the ammeter toward the output terminal 3 Reconnect the negative battery cable 4 Diesel Operate the engine stop lever Perform this so the engine can be cranked with the starter motor and not start Turn on all accessories and crank the engine over with the starter motor for 15 20 seconds 5 Turn off the accessories Return the stop lever to the run position Start the engine and adjust the engine speed to 1500 2000 rpm Quickly observe the ammeter The reading should be at least 30 amps see d n MODE NEGATIVE LEAD ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 1 6 If the reading is low stop the engine and connect a jumper lead between the terminal and the indicator light terminal Repeat Steps 4 and 5 see illustration7 If the reading is now within the specifications the diode trio is faulty Disassemble the alternator and replace the diode trio as explained in this section 8 If the reading is still low with the jumper lead connect255ed perfonn the Voltage Regulator Test to determine if the fault is in the regulator or the alternator ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 2 TEST VOLTAGE REGULATOR Perform this test to determine if the voltage regulator is operating correctly using a 0 20 volt DC voltmeter NOTE The battery must be fully charged 1265 or above specific gravity to obtain a proper voltage reading in this test If necessary charge the battery with a battery charger or allow the engine to run a sufficient length of time to fully charge the battery before taking a reading 1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the positive battery terminal and the negative voltmeter lead to the negative terminal see illustrationt Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 80 defective and MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE PRECAUTIONS FOR TESTING ALTERNATOR MANDo ALTERNATOR A WARNING Be sure that the engine compartment is well ventilated and that there is no gasoline vapor present This is to prevent the possibility of an explo255sion andor fire should a spark occur A WARNING Keep fingers and clothing away from the alternator belt and pulley severe bodily harm can A CAUTION 1 Do not attempt to polarize the alternator 2 Do not short across or ground any of the terminals on the alternator except as specifically instructed in the tests 3 Never disconnect the or battery cables when the alternator is being driven by the engine 4 Never disconnect the regulator lead from the terminal when the alternator is being driven by the engine 5 Always remove the negative battery cable from the battery before working on the alternator system 6 When installing the battery be sure to connect the negative cable to the negative battery terminal and the positive battery cable to the positive battery terminal 7 If a charger or booster battery is to be used be sure to connect it in parallel with the existing battery positive to positive negative to negativeTORQUE SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS Fastener IbH Ibin Location Nm Nm Alternator front 25 35 Ibin housing screws 28 40 NmAlternator end 35 65 Ibin frame screws 40 73 NmAlternator 35 50 IbH pulley nut 47 68 NmRegulator 25 45 Ibin mounting screws 28 51 NmPREPARING TO CHECK ALTERNATOR Before starting the alternator tests check these items 1 If the problem is an undercharged battery check to ensure that the undercharged condition has not been caused by an excessive accessory current draw or by accessories which have accidentally been left on Also check that the undercharged condition has not been caused by running the engine at too low a speed for extended periods of time 2 Check the physical condition and the state of charge of the battery The battery must be fully charged to obtain valid results in the following tests If not charge the battery before testing the system 3 Inspect the entire alternator system wiring for defects Check all connections for tightness and cleanliness the battery cable clamps and battery terminals ALTERNATOR WIRING CONNECTIONS 4 Check the alternator drive belt for excessive wear cracks fraying and glazed surfaces and replace it if necessary Also check the drive belt tension and adjust it if necessary see DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS78 SERVICE Solenoid Switch 1 Check the continuity across Band M terminals with an ohmmeter pushing in the plunger 2 If not continuous or if a certain value is indicated replace the solenoid switch 3 Pull the pullrod to check the spring built in the plunger 225 1 Pinion Clearance 1 Reassemble the starter with the connecting leads unconnected 2 Connect a cable from the negative terminal of the bat255tery to the starter body and a cable from S terminal of the starter to the positive terminal of the battery to force out the pinion 3 Push back the pinion slightly to kill the play and measure the pinion clearance 4 If the clearance is not within the specified values add or remove the washer between the solenoid switch and the front end frame DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE Pinion Clearance 0020 0079 in 005 20 mm jUnlvarsai MARINE POWER 77 STARTER SERVICE Field Coil 1 Check the continuity across the yoke and brush with an ohmmeter 2 If either are not conducting replace the yoke assembly Brush Wear 1 If the contact face of the brush is dirty or dusty clean it with sandpaper 2 Measure the brush length with vernier calipers 3 If the length is less than the limit replace the yoke assembly and brush holder DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Brush Length 0630 in 413 in 160 mm105 mmBrush Spring 1 Pull the brush in the brush holder with a spring scale 2 Measure the brush spring tension required to raise the spring from contact position with the commutator 3 If the tension is less than the limit replace the spring DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Spring Tension 31 57 Ibs 20Ibs 14 26 09 kg f137 255 88 N76 Brush Holder 1 Check the continuity across the brush holder and the holder support with an ohmmeter 2 If it conducts replace the brush holder Overrunning Clutch 1 Inspect the pinion for wear or damage 2 If there is any defect replace it 3 Check that the pinion turns freely and smoothly in the overrunning direction and does not slip in the cranking position 4 If the pinion slips or does not tum in both directions replace the overrunning clutch assembly AdobeUCSand calculate AdobeUCS6 SERVICE MAIN SWITCH I SWITCH PUll267IN COil ARMATURE SPIRAL SPLINE OVERRUNNING CLUTCH When Main Switch is Released The current from the battery flows to the holding coil through the pun in coil to diminish the magnetism between them The plunger is pushed by the spring to pull in the pinion STARTER TESTING Motor Test 1 Disconnect the connecting lead from the C terminal of the starter and connect a jumper lead from the connect255ing lead to the positive battery terminaL 2 Connect a jumper lead momentarily between the starter body and the negative battery terminaL 3 If the motor does not run check the motor 73 Magnet Switch NOTE Each test should be carried out for a start time 3 to 5 secondsand at half of the rated voltage 6VChecking PullIn Coil 1 Connect jumper lead from the batterys negative termi255nal post to the C terminaL 2 The plunger should be attracted strongly when a jumper lead is connected from the battery positive terminal to the S terminaL Checking Holding Coil 1 Connect jumper leads from the batterys negative termi255nal post to the body and the batterys positive terminal post to the S terminaL 2 Push the plunger in by hand and release it Then the plunger should remain being attracted SERVICE STARTER DESCRIPTION The starter is of the drive type It is com255posed of a starting motor and a solenoid switch SOLENOIO SWITCH PLUNGER KEY SWITCH Overrunning Clutch OVERRUNNING CLUTCH SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT PINION The overrunning clutch is so constructed that the power transmission relationship is automatically severed when the clutch pinion shaft speed exceeds the clutch gear outer speed at increased engine speeds Therefore the armature drives the ring gear and is never driven by the engine WHEII POWER IS TRANSMITTED IDUNG ROTATION WITH CWTCH PINION SHAFT SPEED EXCEEDING THAT OF CWTCH GEAR OUTER Solenoid Switch The solenoid switch forces out the pinion for engaging with the ring gear and operates as a relay to drive the armature It consists of a pullin coil a holding coil and a plunger Starter Operation When Main Switch is Turned to START Position The contacts of the main switch close and the holding coil is connected to the battery to pull the plunger The pullin coil and the starting motor are also connected to the battery The pinion is pushed against the ring gear with the overrun255ning clutch by the drive lever and the solenoid switch is closed SWITCH SOLENOID SWITCH When Solenoid Switch is Closed The current from the battery flows through the solenoid switch to the starting motor The pinion which is pushed against the ring gear and rotat255ed along the spline meshes with the ring gear to crank the engine The engine starts and increases its speed GEAR While the pinion spins faster than the armature the overrun255ning clutch allows the pinion to spin independently from the armature The pullin coil is shortcircuited through the solenoid switch and the main switch MARINE POWER 72 to test to test 9 the problem tachometer circuit 6 8 verify the CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL CAPTAIN PANEL This control panel is equipped with a Key Switch an RPM gauge PREHEAT and START buttons an INSTRUMENT JEST button and three indicator lamps one for AL1ERNATOR DISCHARGE one for low OIL PRES255SURE RPM GAUGE REGISTERS REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE OF THE ENGINE AND CAN BE RECALIBRATED FOR ACCURACY FROM THE REAR OF THE PANEL WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM UGHT START BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE THIS BUnON WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE PREHEAT BunON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME TIME and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE It also includes an alarm buzzer for low OIL PRESSURE or high WAJER TEMPERATURE The RPM gauge is illumi255nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains illumi255nated while the engine is in operation ALARM THE ALARM WILL SOUND IF THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE FALLS BELOW 5 10 PSI IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOU NO IF THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN THE FRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 210260F IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A SIGNAL NOTE THE ALARM WILL SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAL ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI THE ALARM WILL SILENCE TEST BUTTON WHEN PRESSED TESTS THE ALTERNATOR THE OIL PRESSURE AND THE WATER TEMPERATURE CONTROL CIRCUITS WHEN PRESSED THE ALTERNATOR THE OIL PRESSURE AND THE WATER TEMPERATURE INDICATOR LIGHTS ILLUMINATE IN ADDI255TION TO SOUNDING THE ALARM BUZZER KEY SWITCH PROVIDES POWER TO THE INSTRUMENT PANEL CLUSTER AND THE DC ALTERNATOR REGULATOR TERMINAL PREHEAT BUnON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE FUEL LIFT PUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDITION THIS BUnON ENERGIZES THE START BUnON 68 The temperature 5 AdobeUCSKIKI CO LTD Code No 1057600010 50 Hzor 1057600020 gasket AdobeUCSFUEL SYSTEM SERVICE FUEL INJECTORS A CAUTION The spray nozzle velocity is such that it may penetrate deeply into the skin of the fingers and hands destroying tissue If it enters the blood255stream it may cause blood poisoning Nozzle Injection Pressure 1 Install the injection nozzle to the nozzle tester 2 Slowly move the tester handle to measure the pressure at which fuel begins jetting out from the nozzle 3 If the measurement is not within the standard value disassemble the injection nozzle and change the adjusting washer until the proper injection pressure is obtained STANDARD VALUE Fuel injection 1991 2133 psi pressure 140 150 kgfcm21373 1471 MPaAdjusting washers are provided for every 000098 in 0025 mmof thickness from 003543 in 0900 mmto 007677 in 1950 mmFUEL LINE NUT PLAIN WASHER NOZZLE HOLOER AOJUSTING WASHER NOZZLE SPRING PUSH ROO DISTANCE PIECE NOZZLE PIECE Nozzle Spraying Condition 1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester and check the nozzle spraying condition 2 If the spraying condition is defective replace the nozzle piece GOOD BAD Valve Seat Tightness 1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester 2 Raise the fuel pressure and keep it at 1849 psi 130 kgfcm21275 MPafor 10 seconds 3 If any fuel leak is found replace the nozzle piece STANDARD VALUE Valve seat tightness No fuel leak at 1849 psi 130 kgfcm21275 MPaFuel Injectors Service In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise have the injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized fuel injection service center Poor fuel quality contaminants and loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection pump can result in injector faults Since fuel injectors must be serviced in a clean room environment it is best to carry at least one extra injector as a spare should a problem occur Before the old injector clean the area around the base of the injector to help prevent any rust or debris from falling down into the injector hole If the injector will not lift out easily and is held in by carbon buildup or the like work the injector sidetoside with the aid of the socket wrench to free it and then lift it out The injector seats in the cylinder head on a copper sealing washer Remove this washer with the injector and replace it with a new washer when the new injector is installed Injector to cylinder head tightening torque 362 506 ftIb 50 70 mkg490 686 NmINJECTION NOZZLE MARINE POWER 64 AdobeUCSFUEL SYSTEM DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY A WARNING Do not allow smoking Dr open flames near the fuel system when servicing Also provide proper ventilation INJECTION PUMP If replacing the pump element the amount of fuel injection should be bench tested and adjusted DELIVERY VALVE HOLDER CYLINDER PLUNGER BIPLUNGER SPRING TAPPET INJECTION PUMP 63 INJECTION NomE Nozzle Holder 1 Secure the nozzle retaining nut in a vise 2 Remove the nozzle holder and take out the parts inside the nozzle holder When Reassembling 1 Assemble the nozzle in clean fuel oil 2 Install the push rod noting its direction 3 After assembling the nozzle be sure to adjust the fuel injection pressure NOZZLE HOLDER INJECTION NOZZLE AOJUSTING WASHER NOZZLE SPRING PUSH ROO DISTANCE PIECE NOZZLE PIECE AdobeUCSFUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION At Medium or High Speed Running When the speed control lever is turned further the governor spring increases the tension and control rod is pulled to increase the engine speed The steel balls increase their cen255trifugal force and the control rod is pushed decreasing the engine speed until the centrifugal force and the spring tension are balanced When the engine speed is dropped A Bwith the increase of the load a bthe centrifugal force of the steel balls decreases and the control rod is pulled The amount of fuel delivered to the injection nozzle is increased to produce the higher engine torque required for the load SPEED CONTROL At Maximum Speed Running with an Overload When the engine is overloaded at a high speed and the engine speed drops the centrifugal force of the steel balls decreases and the governor spring pulls fork levers 1 and 2 When fork lever 2 contacts the adjusting screw the spring that is built into fork lever 1 begins to push fork lever 1 to pull the control rod The amount of fuel delivered to the injection noz255zle is increased to run the engine at a high speed and torque 62 To Stop the Engine When the stop lever is moved to the stop position fork lever 1 is pushed and the control rod is moved to stop the fuel injection FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION GOVERNOR This mechanism maintains engine speed at a constant rate even under fluctuating loads provides stable idling and reg255ulates maximum engine speed by controlling the fuel injec255tion rate Fork lever 1 is held where two forces on it are balanced One is the force that fork lever 2 pushes which is caused by the tension of the governor spring between the governor lever and fork lever 2 Another is the component of the centrifugal force produced by the steel balls which are rotated by the fuel camshaft At Start The steel balls have no centrifugal force Fork lever 1 is pulled by the start spring and the control rod moves to the maximum injection position for easy starting At Idling When the speed control lever is set at the idling position the governor spring is pulled slightly As the camshaft rotates the steel balls increase their centrifugal force and push the governor sleeve Fork lever 1 pushed by the gov255ernor sleeve pushes the control rod and the control rod compresses the idling adjusting spring The control rod is kept at a position where the centrifugal force is balanced with the spring tensions on the control rod providing stable idling 225 Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 61 system is AdobeUCSnozzle and also lowers trol groove 2133 psi 140 150 kgfcm21373 1471 the coolant pump coolant pump any parts AdobeUCS0236 in 6 mmlose the COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION COOLANT RECOVERY TANK A coolant recovery tank allows for engine coolant expan255sion and contraction during engine operation without any significant loss of coolant and without introducing air into the cooling system This tank is best located at or above the exhaust manifold level and should be easily accessible HEAT EXCHANGER The heat exchanger is a copper tube which encloses a num255ber of small copper tubes Raw water is pumped through the small copper tubes and the freshwater coolant from the engine is circulated around the copper tubes The raw water removes heat from the freshwater coolant To keep the heat exchanger operating efficiently it should be removed from the engine every 1000 hours to be thorough255ly cleaned and pressure tested ZINC ANODE A zinc anode or pencil is located in the raw water cool255ing circuit within the heat exchanger The purpose of the zinc anode is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking place in the raw water cooling circuit thereby reducing the effects of electrolysis on other components of the system The condition of the zinc anode should be checked month255ly and the anode cleaned or replaced as required Spare anodes should be carried onboard The area in the exchanger where the anode is located should periodically be cleaned of anode debris NEW 225 225 REPLACE Z1NCAHODES REPLACE ClEAN AND REUSE Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 55 cools the LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE OIL PUMP Rotor Lobe Clearance 1 Measure the clearance between the lobes of the inner rotor and the outer rotor with a feeler gauge 2 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the oil pump rotor assembly STANDARD VALUE Rotor lobe 0012 00055 in clearance 003 014 mmClearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body 1 Measure the clearance between the outer rotor and the pump body with a feeler gauge 2 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the oil pump rotor assembly STANDARD VALUE Clearance between 00028 00059 in outer rotor and pump body 007 015 mm53 Clearance Between Inner Rotor and Cover 1 Put a strip of plastigauge onto the rotor face with grease 2 Install the cover and tighten the screws 3 Remove the cover carefully measure the amount of the flattening with the scale and get the clearance 4 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the oil pump rotor assembly STANDARD VALUE Clearance between 00029 00053 in inner rotor and cover 0075 0135 mmthreaded ends SYSTEM DESCRIPTION OIL FILTER After lubricating the engine components the lubricating oil brings various particles of grit and dirt back to the oil pan Those particles and other impurities in the lubricating oil can cause wear or seizure of the engine parts They may also impair the physical and chemical properties of the oil itself The lubricating oil which is forcefed by the pump is filtered by the filter element in the filter cartridge FILTER ELEMENT NORMAL DlL FILTER When the filter element accumulates an excessive amount of dirt and the oil pressure in the inlet line builds up by 14 psi 10 kgfcm298 kPamore than the outlet line the bypass valve opens and the oil flows from the inlet to the outlet bypassing the filter element FILTER ELEMENT BYPASS VALVE 51 OIL PRESSURE SWITCH The oil pressure switch is mounted on the cylinder block to warn the operator that the lubricating oil pressure is low If the oil pressure falls below 15 psi 105 kgfcm21034 kPathe oil alarm will sound alerting the operator If this happens stop the engine immediately and check the cause of the oil pressure drop OIL PRESSURE OIL PRESSURE SWITCH OIL PUMP L I I I I I I I LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION CAMSHAFT I SPLASH ROCKER ARM SHAFT I I I DRAIN I I CAMSHAFT I I DRAIN I I I I I r I PISTON SPLASH SPLASH I I I I I I I I I I I I J fJ PISTON WBRICATION SYSTEM RELIEF VALVE The oil pump is a trochoid type pump whose rotors have trochoid lobes The inner rotor has 4 lobes and the outer rotor has 5 lobes and they are eccentrically engaged with each other The inner rotor which is driven by the crank255shaft through the gears rotates the outer rotor in the same direction varying the space between the lobes The relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system due to high oil pressure This relief valve is a balltype direct acting relief valve and is best suited for low pres255sures When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit the ball is pushed back by the oil pressure and the oil escapes While the rotors rotate from A to B see space leading to the inlet port increases which causes the vacuum to draw in the oil from the inlet port When the rotors rotate to C the space between both rotors switches from the inlet port to the outlet port At D the space decreases and the drawn oil is discharged from the outlet port ABC 0 INLET PORT OUTlET PORT OUTER ROTOR OIL PUMP Unlvanal MARINE POWER 50 SPRING I BALL SEAT REUEFVALVE AdobeUCSfilter and draws lubricating the coolant the valve ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS NOTE UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic The information below is provided to assist the mechanic IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT TACHOMETER CHECK New the Idle Speed Use a tachometer to check the idle speed NOTE In a new installation having new instrument panels the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to the engines rpm This calibration should be checked in all new installations 1 Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a clean cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape on the pulley to facilitate the use of the tachometer 2 Start and idle the engine 3 Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape to confirm the engine speed Check the instrument panel tachometer reading Adjust the tachometer in the panel by using the instrument calibration pod as needed to bring the instrument panel tachometer into the same rpm reading as the engine 4 Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within the specified value Normal idle speed 1000 1200 rpm 47 Adjusting the Idle Speed 1 Loosen the locknut on the idle adjustment bolt on the fuel injection pump 2 Tum the idle adjustment bolt until the idling speed is within the standard range The idle speed will increase when the adjusting bolt is turned clockwise and decrease when the bolt is turned 3 Tighten the locknut 4 Race the engine several times to ensure the idle speed remains as set NOTE Should the engine rpm be in question verify the tachometer readings as shown at the instrument panel with a mechanical or strobetype tachometer at the engine crankshaft267 ADJUSTING THE IDLE SPEED oil into 2 7 5 gradual loss tighten the AdobeUCS1 2 3 dimension AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE Replacing Crankshaft Bearing No1 When removing 1 Press out the existing crankshaft bearing No1 using a crankshaft bearing No 1 replacing tool When installing 1 Clean a new crankshaft bearing No1 and the crank255shaft journal bore then apply engine oil to them 2 Using the crankshaft bearing No1 replacing tool press in a new bearing No1 so that its seam faces the exhaust manifold side SEAM REPLACING CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO1 Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearings No2 No3 1 Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the journal 2 Install the bearing case and tighten the bearing case screws to the specified torque then remove the bearing case Bearing case screws tightening torque 94 116 ftIbs 13 16 kgfm127 157 NmNOTE Be sure not to move the the bearing case screws are tightened 3 Measure the amount of the flattening with the scale and get the oil clearance 42 4 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the crankshaft bearing No2 or No3 5 If a samesize bearing is too big because of the crank255shaft journal wear use an undersize one see and tableSTANDARD VALUE UMIT Oil Clearance 0001 0003 in 0007 in between crankshaft 0034 0092 mm020 mmjournal and crankshaft bearing No2 and NO3 Crankshaft journal 1729 1730 in 00 flywheel side43934 43950 mmCrankshaft bearing 1731 1733 in No2 10 43984 44026 mmCrankshaft journal 15722 15728 in 00 39950 mmCrankshaft bearing 1574 1575 in NO3 10 39984 40026 mmUNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARINGS NO2 NO3 UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING 0008 in Crankshaft bearing No2 02 020 US 02 mmCrankshaft bearing NO3 02 0016 in Crankshaft bearing No2 04 040 US 04 mmCrankshaft bearing NO3 04 UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL 0008 in 0016 in Dimension O2 mm04 mmA 012 in dia 012 in dia 3 mm dia3 mm diaB 0071 0087 in radius 0071 0087 in radius 18 22 mm radius18 22 mm radiusC 15643 15649 in 1556 1557 in 39734 39750 mm39534 39550 mmD 1721 1722 in 1713 1714 in 43734 43750 mm43534 43550 mmO4SThe crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than ww AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE STANDARD VALUE Crankpin 00 1336 1337 in 33959 33975 mmCrankpin bearing 1338 1340 in 10 33994 34040 mmUNDERSIZE CRANKPIN BEARING UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING 0008 in Crankpin bearing 02 020 US 02 mm0016 in Crankpin bearing 04 040 US 04 mmUNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKPINS OOOS in 0016 in Dimension 02 mm04 mmA 0091 0106 in radius 0091 0106 in radius 23 27 mm radius23 27 mm radiusB 016 in dia 016 in dia 4 mm dia4 mm diaC 13291 13297 in 13212 13218 in 33759 33775 mm33559 33575 mmO4SThe crankpin must be finefinished to higher than VVVV A 8 Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearing No1 1 Measure the 00 of the crankshafts front journal with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the 10 of the crankshaft bearing No1 with an inside micrometer and calculate the oil clearance MEASURING 10 OF CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO1 3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace crankshaft bearing No1 4 If a samesize bearing is too big because of crankshaft journal wear replace it with an undersize bearing see illustration and tableSTANDARD VALUE LIMIT Oil Clearance 0001 0004 in 0007 in between crankshaft 0034 0106 mm020 mmjournal and crankshaft bearing No 1 STANDARD VALUE Crankshaft journal 15722 15728 in 00 33934 39950 mmCrankshaft bearing 1574 1576 in No1 10 33984 40040 mmUNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO1 UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING 0008 in 02 mmCrankshaft bearing No1 02 020 US 0016 in 04 mm Crankshaft bearing No 1 04 040 US UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL oooS in 0016 in Dimension 02 mm04 mmA 020 in dia 020 in dia 5 mm dia5 mm diaB 15643 15649 in 1556 1557 in 39734 39534 mm39534 39550 mmC 0071 0087 in radius 0071 0087 in radius18 22 mm radius18 22 mm radiusO4SThe crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than VVVV Chamfer the oil hole with an oilstone MEASURING DO OF CRANKSHAFT FRONT JOURNAL 225 225 Unlvarsal 41 the AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE Camshaft Side Clearance 1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the camshaft 2 Measure the side clearance by moving the cam gear to the front and to the rear 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the camshaft stopper MEASURING CAMSHAFT SIDE CLEARANCE Oil Clearance between Idler Gear Shaft and Idler Gear Bushing 1 Measure the idler gear shaft 00 with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the idler gear bushings 10 with an inside micrometer and calculate the oil clearance 3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the bushing If it still exceeds the limit replace the idler gear shaft STANDARD VALUE Oil Clearance 00007 00033 in between idler gear 0020 0084 mmshaft and idler gear bushing STANDARD VALUE Idler gear shaft 00 07861 07866 in 19967 19980 mmIdler gear bushing 0787 0789 in ID 20000 20051 mmMEASURING OIl CLEARANCE BETWEEN IDLER GEAR SHAFT AND IDLER GEAR BUSHING LIMIT 00039 in 010mm39 Replacing the Idler Gear Bushing 1 Using an idler gear bushing replacing tool see SPECIAL TOOLSpress out the existing bushing 2 Clean a new idler gear bushing and the idler gear bore and apply engine oil to them 3 Using the idler gear bushing replacing tool press in a new bushing to the specified dimension see OUT EXISTING BUSHING REPLACING THE IDLER GEAR BUSHING CRANKSHAFT Crankshaft Alignment PRESSING IN NEW BUSHING 00007 In 002 mm1 Support the crankshaft with V blocks on the surface plate and set a dial indicator with its tip on the journal at a right angle 2 Rotate the crankshaft on the V blocks and get the half of the measurement3 If the misalignment exceeds the limit replace the crankshaft LIMIT Misalignment 00008 in 002 mmCRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT ENGINE SERVICE MEASURING CYUNDER BLDCK BDRE ID FDR CAMSHAFT Camshaft Alignment 1 Support the camshaft with V blocks on the surface plate and set a dial indicator with its tip on the intermediate journal at a right angle 2 Rotate the camshaft on the V blocks and get the half of the measurement3 If the misalignment exceeds the limit replace the camshaft Misalignment LIMIT 00004 in 001 mmCAMSHAFT AUGNMENT Intake and Exhaust Cam Height 1 Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with an outside micrometer 2 If the measurement is less than the limit replace the camshaft STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Intake and exhaust 1058 in 1056 in cam heights 2688 mm2683 mmMEASURING INTAKE AND EXHAUST CAM HEIGHT Idler Gear Side Clearance 1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the idler gear 2 Measure the side clearance by moving the idler gear to the front and to the rear 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the idler gear or idler gear shaft STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Idler gear side 0007 0020 in 0023 in clearance 020 051 mm060 mmMEASURING THE IDlER GEAR SIDE CLEARANCE Nnlvarsal 38 ENGINE SERVICE CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON RING AND GROOVE STANDARD VALUE Ring No2 0003 0004 in second mmsion ringOil Ring 00008 00024 in 002 006 mmMEASURING CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON RING AND GROOVE RING NO2 AND OIL RINGConnecting Rod Alignment LIMIT 0005 in 015 mm00059 in 015 mmNOTE Since the JD of the connecting rod small end bush255ing is the basis of this check check this bushing for wear beforehand 1 Remove the crankpin bearing and install the connecting rod cap 2 Install the piston pin in the connecting rod 3 Install the connecting rod on the connecting rod align255ment tool 4 Put a gauge over the piston pin and move it against the face plate 5 If the gauge does not fit squarely against the face plate measure the space between the pins of the gauge and the face plate 6 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the con255necting rod LIMIT Bend of connecting 0002 in rod 005 mmpin span at 94 in 100 mmTIMING GEARS AND CAMSHAFT Timing Gear Backlash 1 Set a dial indicator lever typewith its tip on the gear tooth 2 Move the gear to measure the backlash holding its mating gear 3 If the backlash exceeds the limit check the oil clearance of the shaft and gear 4 If the oil clearance is correct replace the gear STANDARD VALUE Backlash between 0001 0004 in idler gear and crank 0043 0124 mmgear Backlash between 0001 0004 in idler gear and cam 0047 0123 mmgear Backlash between 0001 0004 in idler gear and injection pump gear 0046 0124 mmBacklash between 0001 0004 in oil pump gear and 0041 0123 mmcrank gear MEASURIIIG TIMIIIG GEAR BACKLASH Camshaft Journal Oil Clearance LIMIT 0005 in 015 mm0005 in 015 mm0005 in 015 mm0005 in 015 mm1 Measure the camshaft journal 00 with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the cylinder block bore 10 for the camshaft with an inside micrometer Calculate the oil clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the camshaft STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Camshaft journal oil 0001 0003 in 0005 in clearance 0050 0091 mm015 mmSTANDARD VALUE Camshaft journal 1296 1297 in 00 32934 32950 mmCylinder block bore 1299 1300 in 10 bearing portion33000 33025 mms sUnlvarsal 37 AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE 2 Measure the 10 of the piston pin bushing at the con255necting rod small end with an inside micrometer Calculate the oil clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the bushing If it still exceeds the limit replace the piston pin STANDARD VALUE Oil Clearance 00005 00015 in between piston pin 0014 0038 mmand small end bushing STANDARD VALUE Piston pin OD 07874 07878 in 20002 20011 mmSmall end bushing 07883 07889 in ID 20025 20040 mmMEASURING PISTON PIN AND CONNECTING ROD SMALL END BUSHING DR CLEARANCE UMIT 00039 in 010 mmReplacing Connecting Rod Small End Bushing When removing 1 Press out the existing bushing using a small end bush255ing replacing tool When installing 1 Clean a new small end bushing and bore and apply engine oil to them 2 Using a small end bushing replacing tool press in a new bushing taking care to see that the connecting rod hole matches the bushing hole STANDARD VALUE UMIT Oil Clearance 00005 00029 in 00039 in between piston pin and small end 0015 0075 mm010 mmbushing PRESSING OUT EXISTING BUSHING PRESSING IN NEW BUSHING REPLACING CONNECTING ROD SMALL END BUSHING Piston Ring Gap 1 Insert the piston ring into the lower part of the liner the least worn out part of the linerusing a piston ring compressor and the piston 2 Measure the ring gap with a feeler gauge 3 If the gap exceeds the limit replace the piston ring PISTON RING GAP STANDARD VALUE UMIT Ring No1 0005 0011 in 0047 in top compression ringand oil ring 015030 mm12 mmRing No2 0011 0017 in 0047 in second com pres030 045 mm12 mmsion ringMEASURING PISTON RING GAP Clearance between Piston Ring and Groove 1 Remove carbon from the ring grooves 2 Place the ring into the ring groove and measure the clearance at several points around the ring groove with a feeler gauge 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the piston ring If this is not done compression leakage and oil shortage would result 4 If the clearance still exceeds the limit after replacing the piston ring replace the piston JJnlvarsai 36 ENGINE SERVICE Oil Clearance between Rocker Arm ShaH and Rocker Arm Bearing 1 Measure the rocker arm bearing 10 with an inside micrometer 2 Measure the rocker arm shaft 00 with an outside micrometer then calculate the oil clearance 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the rocker arm and measure the oil clearance again If it still exceeds the limit replace the rocker arm shaft also STANDARD VALUE Oil Clearance 00006 00017 in between rocker arm 0016 0045 mmshaft and rocker arm bearing STANDARD VALUE Rocker arm shaft 04123 04127 in 00 10473 10484 mmRocker arm 10 0413 0414 in 10500 10518 mmMEASURING ROCKER ARM SHAFT AND BEARING OIL CLEARANCES Push Rod Alignment LIMIT 00059 in 015 mm1 Check both ends of the push rod for cracks damage and unusual wear 2 Measure the bending of the push rod with a dial indicator 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the push rod Oil Clearance between Tappet and Tappet Guide Bore 1 Measure the tappet 00 with an outside micrometer 2 Measure the 10 of the tappet guide bore with a cylin255der gauge and calculate the oil clearance 3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit or the tappet is damaged replace the tappet PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD Piston Pin Bore 10 1 Measure the piston pin bore 10 in both the horizontal and vertical directions with a cylinder gauge 2 If the measureinent exceeds the limit replace the piston STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Piston pinhole 10 07874 07879 in 07894 in 20000 20013 mm2005 mmMEASURING PISTON PIN BORE ID Oil Clearance between Piston Pin and Connecting Rod Small End Bushing 1 Measure the 00 of the piston pin where it contacts the bushing with an outside micrometer MARINE POWER 225 225 Unlvanal 35 on a AdobeUCSseat with seat with AdobeUCSENGINE SERVICE Valve Stem to Valve Guide Clearance 1 Remove carbon from the valve guide 2 Measure the valve stem GD with an outside micro255meter t 0t CHECKING VALVE STEM 3 Using a small hole gauge measure the valve guide ID where it shows maximum wear Then calculate the clearance 4 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the valve If it still exceeds the limit replace the valve guide STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Clearance between 0001 0002 in 0003 in valve stem and valve 0030 0057 mm010 mmguide STANDARD VALUE Valve stem 00 0234 0235 in 5968 5980 mmValve guide 10 0236 0237 in 6010 6025 mm32 Replacing Valve Guide When removing 1 Using a valve guide replacing tool see SPECIAL TOOLSpress out the existing valve guide When installing 1 Clean a new valve guide and apply engine oil to it 2 Using a valve guide replacing tool see SPECIAL TOOLSpress in a new valve guide until it is flush with the cylinder head as shown in the illustration 3 Ream the ID of the valve guide precisely to the speci255fied dimension A CAUTION 00 not hit the valve guide with a hammer during replacement only use the valve guide replacing tool Valve guide 10 intake and VALVE GUIDE INTAKE VALVE GUIDE STANDARD VALUE 0236 0237 in 6010 6025 mmINSTALLING VALVE GUIDE EXHAUST VALVE GUIDE ENGINE SERVICE NOTE Servicing specifications are included in this section Also refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS section NOTE Cylinder heads with serial numbers 489291 on up are partially modified because of the introduction of the nozzle heat seal When replacing the cylinder head see the parts list and choose the right one in reference to its serial number CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES Cylinder Head Distortion 1 Thoroughly clean the cylinder head surface 2 Place a straightedge on the cylinder head and measure for distortion in the six directions A through F as shown in the illustration Measure the clearance with a feeler gauge NOTE Do not place the straightedge on the combustion chamber 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit correct it with a surface grinder NOTE Be sure to check the valve recession after MEASURING FOR DISTORTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Cylinder head 0002 in surface flatness 005 mmFinishing 8R max 8 Vl unit Cylinder Head Flaw 1 Prepare an air spray red check 2 Clean the surface of the cylinder head with detergent 3 Spray the cylinder head surface with red permeative liquid Wait five to ten minutes after spraying 4 Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder head surface with the detergent 5 Spray the cylinder head surface with white developer 6 If the surface is flawed the flaws will be identified as red marks 1IIilarnr InI1243JIl RCAA ftCAS ReAC M 225225 8 RED PERMEATIVE DETERGENT WHITE L1aUID DEVELOPER Valve Recession 1 Clean the cylinder head valve face and seat 2 Insert the valve into the valve guide 3 Measure the valve recession with a depth gauge 4 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the valve If the measurement still exceeds the limit after replacing the valve correct the valve seat face of the cylinder head with a valve seat cutter or valve seat grinder Then correct the cylinder head surface with a surface grinder or replace the cylinder head STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Valve recession 0003 0003 in 0011 in Intake and exhaust010 010 mm030 mmIioO 0 000 o 0 o 0 0 260oOOoOOc e MEASURING VALVE RECESSION 225225 UnIVGrsal MARINE POWER 31 AdobeUCSscrew hole AdobeUCSring onto AdobeUCSENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY r Ill V JTA Y ORING 15 r r SCREW OIL STRAINER OIL PAN MOUNTING SCREWS OIL STRAINER 3 Apply liquid gasket GE RTV 100 Silicon Rubber Adhesive Sealant or equivalentto the oil pan as follows see Scrape off the old adhesive completely Wipe the seal255ing surface clean using a waste cloth soaked with gasoline Now apply the new adhesive 118 316 in 3 5 mmthick all over the contact surface Apply the adhesive also on the center of the flange as well as on the inner wall of each bolt hole h Cut the nozzle of the fluid sealant container at its sec255ond notch Apply fluid sealant about 316 in 5 mmthick Within 20 minutes after the application of the fluid sealant reassemble the components Wait for about 30 minutes then pour oil in the crankcase OIL PAN 28 Piston and Connecting Rod 1 Unscrew the connecting rod screws and remove the connecting rod cap 2 Tum the crankshaft to bring the piston to top dead center 3 Push the connecting rod out from the bottom of the cylinder block with a handle of a hammer then pull out the piston and connecting rod NOTE Do not change the combinations of cylinder and piston Make sure of the location of each piston by marking it For example mark 1 on the No1 piston When Reassembling 1 Before inserting the piston into the cylinder apply enough engine oil to the inside surface of the cylinder 2 Apply engine oil to the crankpin bearings and connect255ing rod screws 3 Be sure to install the piston and connecting rod into the cylinder so that the number on the piston head is on the side opposite the injection pump 4 Align the alignment marks on the connecting rod and connecting rod cap 5 When inserting the piston into the cylinder face the mark on the connecting rod toward the injection pump Tightening torque Connecting rod screws J 0 0 o CONNECTING lLLH1 ROO CONNECTING ROD CONNECTING loJ ROD CAP CONNECTING ROD SCREWS PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD 195 224 ftJbs 27 31 kgfm265 304 NmNUMBER AdobeUCSENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY Idler Gear 1 Remove the external snap ring the collar and the idler gear When Reassemblillg 1 Install the idler gear aligning the marks on the three gears that mesh with it see GEAR Fuel Camshaft 1 Remove the screws and draw out the camshaft with the gear on it 2 Remove the retaining plate 3 Remove the screws then pull out the injection pump gear and fuel camshaft with the governor fork assembly When Reassembling 1 Hook the spring to the fork lever 2 see installing the fork lever assembly to the crankcase 27 INJECTION PUMP GEAR FUEL CAMSHAFT Oil Pump and Crankshaft Gears 1 Unscrew the flange nut and remove the oil pump gear 2 Unscrew the mounting screws and remove the oil pump 3 Remove the collar Oring and oil slinger 4 Remove the crankshaft gear with a puller When Reassembling 1 Install the collar after aligning the marks on the gears see illustration at Idle Gear PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD Oil Pan and Oil Strainer 1 Unscrew the oil pan mounting screws and remove the oil pan 2 Unscrew the oil strainer mounting screw and remove the oil strainer When Reassembling 1 Install the oil strainer taking care not to damage the 0nng 2 Using the hole numbered 3 install the oil strainer using the mounting screw AdobeUCSENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY When Reassembling 1 Hook the spring to the lever first then install the speed control plate 2 Be sure to place the copper washers underneath the two screws see illustration3 Position the slot on the fork lever just under the slot on the crankcase 4 Insert the injection pump so that the control rod is pushed by the spring at its end and the pin on the rod engages with the slot on the fork lever see PUMP AND SPEED CONTROL PLATE S Install the shims as follows Engine Serial Numbers up to 489290 1 Insert the same number of shims as used before between the crankcase and the injection pump 2 The addition or subtraction of a shim 00059 in 015 mmdelays or advances the injection timing by approx IS 0026 rad3 Apply a liquidtype gasket HIGH TACK or both sides of the injection pump shim before reassembling Engine Serial Numbers 489291 and up 1 Apply sealant to both sides of the soft metal gasket shim Liquid gasket is not required 2 The addition or subtraction of a shim 00020 in 005 mm273 delays or advances the injection timing by approx OS 00087 rad3 In disassembling and replacing shims be sure to use the same number of new gasket shims having the same thickness Tightening Injection pump 723 732 ftIbs torque retaining screws and nuts Drive Pulley and Gear Case 1 Remove the fuel lift pump 10 15 kgfm981 113 Nm26 2 Unscrew the drive pulley mounting bolt and remove the drive pulley 3 Unscrew the screw and disconnect the start spring in the speed control plate mounting hole 4 Unscrew the mounting screws and remove the gear case DRIVE PULLEY When Reassembling 1 Apply a liquidtype gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalentto both sides of the gear case gasket 2 Be sure to set the three Orings inside the gear case 3 Install the drive pulley to the crankshaft aligning the marks on them see pulley 8680 9403 ftIbs mounting screw 120 130 kgfmTightening torque 1177 1275 NmGear case 723 832 ftIbs screws 10 115 kgfm981 113 Nmtap the AdobeUCSENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY 4 Loosen the fuel injectors and unscrew them from the cylinder head 5 Remove the COPI gaskets on the 111 CLAMPS RETURN LINE FUEL OVERFLOW LINES 6 Remove the nozzle heat seals applies only to engines having Serial No 489291 or higherNOTE Use a Phillips screwdriver that has a diameter larger than the heat seal hole 025 in 6 mmRocker Arm Assembly and Push Rods 1 Remove the rocker arm bracket mounting nuts 2 Detach the rocker arm as an assembly 3 Remove the push rods When Reassembling 1 When installing the push rods onto the tappets make sure their ends are properly engaged with the grooves Tightening torque Rocker arm 72 83 ftIbs bracket nut 100115 kgfm98113 NmSTANDARD VALUE Valve clearance 0005 0007 in 0145 0185 mmNOTE After reassembling the rocker arm assembly be sure to adjust the valve clearances a Insert the screwdriver lightly into the heat seal hole b Tum the screwdriver three or four times in each direction While turning the screwdriver slowly pull the heat seal out together with the injection nozzle copper washer c If the heat seal drops repeat the above procedure The heat seal and injection nozzle copper washer must be changed when the injection nozzle is removed for cleaning or for service PHILLIPS SCREWDRIVER When Reassembling Tightening torque FUEL INJECTOR Injection line 181 253 ft Ibs retaining nuts 25 35 kgfm245 343 NmFuel injector 362 506 ftIbs 50 70 kgfm490 686 NmROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY AND PUSH RODS Cylinder Head 1 Remove the crankcase breather hose 2 Remove the cylinder head screws in a descending sequence from 14 to 1 see remove the cylinder head 3 Remove the cylinder head gasket and Oring When Reassembling 1 Replace the head gasket with a new one 2 Install the cylinder head using care not to damage the Oring 3 After applying engine oil tighten the cylinder head screws gradually in an ascending sequence from 1 to 14 see illustration4 Retighten the cylinder head screws after running the engine for 30 minutes 4 Unlvarsal MARINE POWER 24 AdobeUCSfilter and filter and servicing informationnew ones The journal AdobeUCSrod converts PULLEY CYLINDER BLOCK ENGINE DESCRIPTION PISTON CONNECTING ROD CYLINDER HEAD The engine has a high durability tunneltype cylinder block in which the crank bearing component is a constructed body The crossflow type intake and exhaust ports in this engine have their openings at both sides of the cylinder head Because the overlaps of the intake and exhaust ports are smaller than in the ports of other types of engines which have their openings on one side the intake air is protected from being heated and expanded by the heated exhaust air The cool highdensity intake air has high volume efficiency267 and increases the power of the engine Distortion of the cylinder head by heated exhaust gas is reduced because the intake ports are arranged alternately INTAKE PORTS CRINDER BLOCK 225225 Unlvarsal MARINE POWER EXHAUST PORTS 18 SYSTEM Oil Pump DESCRIPTION Engine Oil Pressure At Idle Speed At Rated Speed Clearance between Inner Rotor and Outer Rotor Clearance between Outer Rotor and Pump Body End Clearance between Inner Rotor and Cover COOLING SYSTEM Thermostat Thermostats Valve Opening Temperature Temperature at which Thermostat Completely Opens FUEL SYSTEM Injection Pump Injection Timing Fuel TIghtness of Pump Element Fuel Tightness of Delivery Valve Injection Nozzle Fuel Injection Pressure Fuel TIghtness of Nozzle Valve Seat STANDARD VALUE 14 psi 10 kgfcm298 kPa28 64 psi 20 45 kgfcm2196441 kPa0012 0005 in 003 014 mm0002 0005 in 007 015 mm0002 0005 in 0075 0135 mm1571 1625260F 695 725260C185260F 85260C2022260 BTDC 035 038 rad1991 2133 psi 150 kgfcrn2 373 1471 MPaWhen the pressure is 1849 psi 130 kgfcrn21275 MPathe valve seat must be fuel tight SERVICE STANDARDS LIMIT 14 psi 10 kgfcm298 kPa2133 psi 150 kgfcm2 1471 MPa 5 seconds 2133 1990 psi 140 kgfIcm2147 137 MPaELECTRICAL SYSTEM Starter DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE Commutator 00 1102 in 280 mmMica Undercut 0020 0031 in 05 08 mmBrush Length 0630 in 160 mmAlternator LIMIT 1063 in 270 mm0008 in 02 mm0413 in 105 mmNoload Voltage 137 141 Vat 1500 2000 rpm Stator Resistance 41 47 Q at 70 80260F 21 27260CBrush Length minimum025 in 6 mmGlow Plug I Glow Plug Resistance I Approx 09 Q Unlvarsal 17 AdobeUCSTiming Gear DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE Timing Gear Backlash Crank Gear0001 0004 in Oil Pump Drive Gear 00410123 mmIdler Gear0001 0004 in Cam Gear 0047 0123 mmIdler Gear0001 0004 in Injection Pump Gear 0046 0124 mmIdler Gear0001 0004 in Crank Gear 0043 0124 mmIdler Gear Side 0007 0020 in Clearance 0020 051 mmClearance between 00007 00033 in Idler Gear Shaft and 0020 0084 mmIdler Gear Bushing Idler Gear 0786 0786 in Shaft 00 19967 19980 mmIdler Gear 0787 0789 in Bushing 10 20000 20051 mmCylinder Liner Cylinder Liner 10 2637 2638 in 67000 67019 mmOversized Cylinder 2647 2648 in Liner 10 67250 67269 mmPiston Piston Ring Piston Pin Hole 10 07874 07879 in 20000 20013 mmPiston Ring Clearance Second 0003 0004 in Compression Ring No2 0085 0115 mmOil Ring 00008 00024 in 002 006 mmRing Gap Top Compression 0005 0011 in Ring and 015 030 mmOil Ring Second 0011 0017 in Compression Ring 030 045 mmOversize of 0009 in Piston Rings 025 mmSERVICE STANDARDS Crankshaft LIMIT DESCRIPTION Crankshaft Alignment 0005 in Oil Clearance between 015 mmCrankshaft and Crankshaft Bearing No1 0005 in Crankshaft 00 015 mm0005 in Crankshaft 015 mmBearing No1 10 Oil Clearance between 0005 in Crankshaft and 015 mmCrankshaft Bearing No2 10023 in 060 mmCrankshaft 00 00039 in Crankshaft 010 mmBearing No2 10 Oil Clearance between Crankshaft and Crankshaft Bearing No3 Crankshaft 00 Crankshaft Bearing No3 10 Oil Clearance between 2644 in 67169 mmCrank Pin and Crank Pin Bearing 2654 in Crankshaft 00 67419mmCrank Pin Bearing 10 Crankshaft Side 07894 in Clearance 2005 mmConnecting Rod 0005 in 015 mmConnecting Rod Alignment Clearance between 00059 in 015mmPiston Pin and Small End Bushing Piston Pin 00 0047 in 12 mmSmall End Bushing 10 0047 in 12 mm225225 Unlvarsal 16 STANDARD VALUE LIMIT 0003 in 002 mm0001 0004 in 0007 in 0034 0106 mm020 mm15722 15728 in 39934 39950 mm1574 1576 in 39984 40040 mm0001 0003 in 0007 in 0034 0092 mm020 mm17291730 in 43934 43950 mm1731 1733 in 43984 44026 mm0001 0003 in 0007 in 0034 0092 mm020 mm15722 15728 in 39934 39950 mm1574 1575 in 39984 40026 mm00007 00031 in 00059 in 0019 0081 mm015 mm1336 1337 in 33959 33975 mm1338 1340 in 33994 34040 mm0005 0012 in 0019 in 015 031 mm050 mm0002 in 005 mm00005 00015 in 00039 in 0014 0038 mm010 mm07874 07878 in 2000220011 mm07883 07889 in 20025 20040 mmSERVICE STANDARDS These service standards specify the values at which the engine components will require adjustment repair or replacement It is important to observe these standards for your engine and to take action when necessary to maintain a high level of safety dependability and performance ENGINE COMPONENTS Cylinder Head DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE Cylinder Head Surface Flatness Top Clearance 0019 0027 in 050 070 mmCylinder Head Gasket Thickness Grommet SectionFree 0041 0051 in 0041 0045 in 105 115 mmCompression 412 469 psi Pressure 29 33 284 324 MPa Valves Valve Clearance 0005 0007 in Cold0145 0185 mmValve Seat Width 0083 in 212 mmValve Seat Angle 45260 0785 radValve Face Angle 45260 0785 radValve Recessing 0003 0003 in 010 010 mmClearance between 0001 0002 in Valve Stem and 0030 0057 mmValve Guide Valve Stem 00 0234 0235 in 5968 5980 mmValve Guide 10 0236 0237 in 6010 6025 mmValve Timing Intake Valve Open 20260 035 radBTDC Intake Valve Closed 45260 079 radABDC Exhaust Valve Open 50260 087 radBBDC Exhaust Valve Closed 15260 026 radATDC LIMIT 0002 in 005 mm327 psi 23 kgfcm2226 MPa0011 in 030 mm0003 in 010 mmValve Spring DESCRIPTION Free Length Setting Loadl Setting Length Tilt Rocker Arm Clearance between Rocker Arm Shaft and Shaft Hole Rocker Arm Shaft 00 Rocker Arm Shaft Hole 10 Tappet Clearance between Tappet and Guide Tappet 00 Tappet Guide 10 Camshaft Camshaft Side Clearance Camshaft Alignment Cam Height I ntake Oil Clearance camshaft JoumaIOD Camshaft Bearing 10 Unlvarsal 15 STANDARD VALUE LIMIT 1244 in 1118 in 316 mm284 mm146 Ibs I 1063 in 123 Ibs I 1063 in kgf 127 647N27mm kgf I 27 549N27mm 0047 in 12 mm00006 00017 in 00059 in 0016 0045 in 10473 10484 mm04130414 in 1050010518 mm00006 00020 in 00039 in 0016 0052 mm010 mm0707 0708 in 1796617984 mm0708 0709 in 1800018018 mm0005 0012 in 0020 in 015 031 mm05 mm00004 in 001 mm1058 in 1056 in 2688mm2683 mm0002 0003 in 0005 in 0050 0091 mm015 mm1296 1297 in 3293432950 mm1299 1300 in 33000 33025 ENGINE OVERHEATS SHUTS DOWN contdENGINE PROBABLE CAUSE 7 Coolant not circulating 225 225 Unlvarsal 14 7 Check a through d a Thermostat remove and test in hot water Replace thermostat b Loss of cpolant check hoses hose clamps drain plug etc for leaks c Broken or loose belt tightenreplace d Air leak in system run engine and open the pressure cap to bleed air Add coolant as needed PROBLEM EXCESSIVE OIL CONSUMPTION contdLOW OIL PRESSURE HIGH OIL PRESSURE FUEL MIXED INTO LUBE OIL COOLANT MIXED INTO LUBE OIL ENGINE OVERHEATS SHUTS DOWN ENGINE PROBABLE CAUSE OIL LEVEl RISING 1 Incorrectly positioned piston ring gaps 2 Displaced or twisted connecting rod 3 Worn piston ring or piston ring groove 4 Oil ring worn or stuck 5 Worn piston or cylinder liner 6 Worn crankshaft bearing and crankpin bearing OIL LEVEL FALLING 1 Defective stem seal 2 Worn valve and valve guide 1 Worn main or connecting rod bearings 2 Relief valve malfunction 3 Diesel fuel is diluting the oil 4 Oil strainer clogged 5 Excessive oil clearance of crankshaft bearing 6 Excessive oil clearance of crankpin bearing 7 Excessive oil clearance of rocker arm bearing 8 Oil passage clogged 9 Improper grade of oil 10 Oil filter cartridge clogged 11 Oil pump defective 1 Relief valve defective 2 Improper grade of oil 1 Injection pump plunger worn 2 Deficient nozzle injection 3 Injection pump malfunction 1 Defective cylinder head gasket 2 Defective cylinder head or cylinder block 1 Vbelt slackening or slippery with oil 2 Low oil level or poor oil quality 3 Knocking 4 Moving parts seized or damaged 5 Lack of coolant 6 Raw water not Circulating 225225 Unlvarsal 13 1 Correct ring gap positions 2 Replace connecting rod 3 Replace ring or piston 4 Replace oil ring 5 Repair or replace 6 Replace 1 Replace stem seal 2 Replace valve and valve guide 1 Replace bearings 2 Overhaul oil pump 3 Injection pump repair 4 Clean oil strainer 5 Replace crankshaft bearing 6 Replace crankpin bearing 7 Replace rocker arm bearing 8 Clean oil passage 9 Replace with specified grade of oil 10 Replace 11 Repair or replace 1 Overhaul oil pump 2 Replace with specified grade of oil 1 Replace pump element or injection pump 2 Repair or replace nozzle 3 Replace injection pump 1 Replace cylinder head gasket 2 Replace cylinder head or cylinder block 1 Adjust replace or clean belt 2 Add or change oil 3 See KNOCKING 4 Replace 5 Add coolant 6 Check a and b a Raw water pump failure Check impeller replace if necessary b Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water filter INTERMITTENT EXHAUST SOUND EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION EXCESSIVE OIL CONSUMPTION ENGINE PROBABLE CAUSE 1 Fuel filter clogged 2 Fuel line sucks air 3 Water mixed in fuel ENGINE PROBLEMS 1 Noisy knocking 2 Smoky exhaust 3 Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn 4 Poor compression 5 Improper valve timing 6 Improper valve clearance INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR 1 Air intake obstructed FUEL INJECTION PROBLEMS 1 Injection timing incorrect 2 Faulty injection starting pressure 3 Seized nozzle 4 Worn nozzle 5 Nozzle leaking 6 Injector not operating properly 7 Clogged fuel filter 8 High idling speed FUEL PROBLEMS 1 Improper fuel 2 Fuel leaks ENGINE OVERLOADED 1 Propeller size OIL LEAKAGE 1 Defective oil seals 2 Broken gear case gasket 3 Loose gear case attaching bolts 4 Loose drain plug 5 Loose oil line connector 6 Broken rocker cover gasket 7 Loose rocker cover attaching bolts 225225 Unlvarsal 12 1 Clean or replace filter 2 Retighten fuel line joints or replace fuel line 3 Replace fuel 1 See KNOCKING 2 See SMOKY EXHAUST 3 Repair or replace 4 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING 5 Adjust timing 6 Adjust clearance 1 Remove obstruction 1 Adjust timing 2 Adjust starting pressure 3 Replace nozzle 4 Replace nozzle 5 Tighten nozzle or replace sealing gasket 6 Adjust nozzle spray pressure 7 Replace filter 8 Adjust idling speed 1 Replace with proper fuel 2 Find fuel leaks 1 Check propeller size and engine performance at rated rpm 1 Replace oil seals 2 Replace gasket 3 Retighten bolts 4 Retighten plug 5 Retighten oil line connections 6 Replace gasket 7 Retighten attaching bolts PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE SMOKY EXHAUST WHITISH OR PURPLISH 1 Engine is running cold 1 Warmup engine 2 Excessive engine oil 2 Correct oil level 3 Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber 3 Check 3 through f 3 Poor piston contact 3 Check b Piston ring or liner worn or seized b Clean or replace c Excessive clearance c Correct or replace d Worn valve stem and valve guide d Replace valve stem and guide e Low engine oil viscosity e Replace engine oil f Excessive oil pressure f I nspect the lubrication system See LUBRICATION SYSTEM 4 Injection timing is too late 4 Adjust timing 5 Insufficient compression 5 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING BLUE 1 Incorrect grade of engine oil 1 Use the correct grade of oil see Oil Grade under SPECIFICATIONS 2 Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil oil is blow2 Decrease oil level ing out through the OR DARK GRAYISH 1 Poor compression 1 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING 2 Improper valve clearance 2 Adjust valve clearance 3 Improper injection timing 3 Adjust injection timing 4 Improper fuel 4 Replace with proper fuel 5 High backpressure in exhaust 5 Check for restrictions in exhaust system 6 Insufficient intake air 6 Increase engine compartment air supply 7 Overload 7 Reduce load BLACK LARGE AMOUNT 1 Clogged fuel filter 1 Replace fuel filter and bleed system 2 Restricted air intake 2 Remove air obstruction 3 Engine overloaded 3 Check engine propeller size and engine performance noload through fully loaded 4 Injection timing 4 Check the injection pump timing and adjust as needed 5 Fuel injectors not operating properly 5 Check nozzle spray pressure setting 6 Improper grade of fuel 6 Use specified grade of fuel EXCESSIVE EXHAUST SMOKE 1 Faulty injection timing 1 Adjust timing 2 Water in injection pump fuel filter or fuel filterwater 2 Drain fuel system separator 3 Faulty injection starting pressure 3 Adjust starting pressure 4 Injection pump malfunctioning 4 Replace injection pump continued11 PROBLEM ABNORMAL SOUND OR NOISE ContdROUGH OPERATION HUNTINGENGINE PROBABLE CAUSE CONNECTING ROD AND CONNECTING ROD BEARING 1 Worn connecting rod big end bearing 2 Worn crankpin 3 Bent connecting rod 4 Excessive connecting rod bearing oil clearance 5 Connecting rod bearing seized or heatdamaged PISTON PISTON PIN PISTON RING CYLINDER LINER 1 Worn cylinder liner 2 Worn piston or piston pin 3 Piston seized 4 Piston seized and ring worn or damaged VALVES OR TIMINGRELATED PARTS 1 Worn camshaft 2 Excessive valve clearance 3 Worn timing gear 4 Broken valve spring 5 Excessive clearance between rocker arm and bushing 6 Excessive clearance between idler gear bushing and spindle FUEL SYSTEM 1 Poor quality andor incorrect fuel 2 Incorrect injection timing Timing too advanced 3 Fuel injector stuck open OTHER 1 Coolant pump bearing worn or seized 2 Improper drivebelt tension 3 Malfunction of alternator bearing 4 Exhaust gas leakage INJECTION PUMP 1 Uneven injection 2 Inadequate injection nozzle spray GOVERNING SYSTEM 1 Governor lever malfunctioning 2 Fatigued governor spring 225225 Unlvanal 10 1 Replace bearing 2 Grind crankshaft 3 Correct bend or replace 4 Repair or replace bearing 5 Replace bearing 1 Repair or replace liner 2 Replace piston 3 Replace piston and rebore cylinder 4 Replace piston and rings 1 Replace camshaft 2 Adjust valve clearance 3 Replace timing gear 4 Replace valve spring 5 Replace bushing 6 Replace bushing 1 Use No2 diesel fuel 2 Check and correct injection timing 3 Locate and remove faulty injector Rebuild or replace 1 See Coolant Pump under COOLING SYSTEM 2 Adjust 3 See Alternator under DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 4 Repair 1 Adjust injection or replace parts 2 Replace injection nozzle 1 Check governor shaft and adjust 2 Replace spring PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE LOW OUTPUT LOW COMPRESSION See Low Compression under HARD STARTING INJECTION SYSTEM OUT OF ADJUSTMENT 1 Incorrect injection timing 1 Adjust injection timing 2 Insufficient injection 2 Repair or replace injection pump 3 Low injection pressure 3 Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure INSUFFICIENT FUEL 1 Air trapped in fuel system 1 Bleed and check for source 2 Clogged filter 2 Clean or replace filter element 3 Contaminated or inferior fuel 3 Purge fuel system and replace with quality fuel 4 Contaminated fuel tank 4 Clean fuel tank OVERHEATING 1 Low coolant level 1 Add coolant 2 Loose Vbelt 2 Adjust or replace Vbelt 3 Incorrect injection timing 3 Adjust injection timing 4 Low engine oil level 4 Add engine oil OTHER 1 Insufficient intake air 1 Increase engine compartment air supply KNOCKING ENGINE KNOCKS WITHOUT MUCH SMOKE 1 Main engine troubles 1 Check a and b a Overheated cylinder a See ENGINE OVERHEATSSHUTS DOWN LOW OUTPUT b Carbon deposits in cylinder b Clean 2 Injection timing too early 2 Correct the timing 3 Injection pressure too high 3 Correct the pressure 4 Improper fuel 4 Replace with proper fuel KNOCKING WITH DARK SMOKE 1 Poor compression 1 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING 2 Injection pump malfunctioning 2 AdjusVRepair 3 Nozzle malfunctioning 3 Check a through d a Poor spray a Clean or replace nozzle b Chattering b Repair or replace nozzle c Afterinjection drip c Repair or replace nozzle d Nozzle needle valve seized d Replace needle valve ABNORMAL SOUND CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARING OR NOISE 1 Badly worn main bearing 1 Replace bearing and grind crankshaft 2 Badly worn crankshaft 2 Grind crankshaft 3 Melted bearing 3 Replace bearing and check lubrication system 4 Excessive crankshaft end play 4 Repair or replace crankshaft continued9 ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE ENGINE IDLING 1 Idle speed too low 1 Adjust idle stop as needed TOO LOW 2 Fuel filter clogged 2 Replace filter and bleed fuel system 3 Incorrect injection pump timing 3 Check timing and adjust as needed 4 High pressure injection line leaking 4 Slacken attaching nut and retighten 5 Fuel injector leaking at sealing gasket in head 5 Retighten injector andor replace sealing washer 6 Injection nozzle not operating properly 6 Check nozzle and adjust as needed 7 Engine air intake obstructed 7 Check air intake silencer and air flow into engine compartment ROUGH IDLING MALFUNCTION OF ENGINERELATED COMPONENTS 1 Improper valve clearance 1 Adjust clearance 2 Poor valve to valve seat contact 2 Repair or replace valve 3 Failure of cylinder head gasket 3 Replace gasket 4 Governor malfunctioning 4 Repair governor FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEM 1 Faulty idling speed 1 Adjust idling speed 2 Faulty injection timing 2 Adjust injection timing 3 Clogged fuel line or fuel filter 3 Clean fuel line or replace fuel filter 4 Leak in fuel line or fuel filter 4 Repair fuel line or replace fuel filter 5 Air in injector fuel line injection pump fuel filter or fuel filterwater separator 5 Bleed air 6 Seized or leaky delivery valve 6 Clean or replace delivery valve 7 Faulty injection starting pressure 7 Adjust starting pressure 8 Injection nozzle malfunction 8 Clean or replace injection nozzle 9 Feed pump malfunction 9 Clean or replace feed pump 10 Injection pump malfunction 10 Take to a fuel injection pump service facility or replace the pump ENGINE SLOWS 1 Fuel lift pump failure 1 Check fuel lift pump operation AND STOPS 2 Switches andor wiring loose or disconnected 2 Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose connections Inspect switches for proper operation 3 Fuel starvation 3 Check fuel supply fuel valves fuel lift pump 4 20 amp circuit breaker tripping 4 Check for high DC amperage draw during operation Ensure breaker is not overly sensitive to heat which would cause tripping 5 Exhaust system is restricted 5 Check for blockage collapsed hose carbon buildup at exhaust elbow 6 Water in fuel 6 Pump water from fuel tankschange filters and bleed fuel system continued8 ENGINE The following table describes certain problems relating to engine service the probable causes of these prob255lems and the to overcome these problems NOTE The engineV electrical system is protected by a 20 ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on a bracket The preheat solenoid is mounted on the same bracket PROBLEM HARD STARTING PROBABLE CAUSE LOW CRANKING SPEED 1 Engine oil viscosity too high 2 Rundown battery 3 Worn battery 4 Battery terminals loosely connected 5 Defective starter DEFECTIVE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM 1 No fuel at injectors a No fuel in fuel tank andor fuel shutoff b Fuel filter or fuel line clogged c Injection pump faulty d Loose injection line retaining nut 2 Fuel injectors faulty inadequate spray 3 Low injection pressure 4 Injection timing incorrect 5 Poor quality fuel 6 Water andor air in fuel system MAIN ENGINE TROUBLES 1 Low compression a Leaking compression from fuel injector gasket b I ncorrect valve clearance c Inadequate contact of valve seat d Valve stem seized e Weak or broken valve spring f Bent push rod g Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket h Cracked or worn piston i Piston ring seized j Worn piston ring or cylinder liner It Cracked or distorted cylinder head I Fuel camshaft worn 2 Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber UnlvQIsal 7 1 Replace engine oil with less viscous oil 2 Recharge battery 3 Replace battery 4 Clean terminals and tighten cables 5 Repair or replace starter 1 Check a through e a Fill fuel tank Open shutoff and bleed system b Replace filter and bleed Clean fuel line c Inspect pump Repair or replace pump as needed d Tighten nut 2 Remove and test nozzles Repair nozzles as needed 3 Adjust injection pressure 4 Check and adjust timing 5 Drain and replace with proper fuel 6 Remove water andor bleed air from fuel system Check fuel system for leaks and fuel tank for water contamination 1 Check a through k a Tighten fuel injector or replace gasket b Adjust valve clearance c Lap valve d Replace valve and valve guide e Replace valve spring f Replace push rod g Replace gasket h Replace piston i Replace piston and piston ring j Replace piston ring or cylinder liner It Replace cylinder head I Replace fuel camshaft 2 Clean FOR OVERHAUL HOW TO DETERMINE WHEN TO OVERHAUL THE ENGINE Cause of Low Compression Generally the time at which an engine should be overhauled is determined by various conditions such as lowered engine power output decreased compression pressure and increased fuel and oil consumption The lowered engine power output in the case of diesel engines is not necessarily due to trouble with the engine itself but is sometimes caused by injector nozzle wear or injection pump wear It is most reasonable to judge by a decrease in compression pressure The decrease in compression pressure is caused by many factors It is there255fore necessary to determine a cause or causes on the basis of data produced by periodic inspection and maintenance Oil analysis on a seasonal basis is a good means of monitoring engine internal wear When caused by worn cylinders or pis255ton rings the following symptoms will occur 225 Low engine power output 225 Increased fuel consumption 225 Increased oil consumption 225 Hard engine starting 225 Noisy engine operation These symptoms often appear together Increased fuel con255sumption and hard engine starting can also result from exces255sive fuel injection improper injection timing and wear of the injection pump and nozzles They are also caused by defec255tive electrical components such as the battery alternator starter and glow plugs Therefore it is desirable to judge the optimum engine overhaul time by the lowered compression pressure caused by worn cylinders and piston rings plus increased oil consumption In diesel engines satisfactory combustion is obtained only under sufficient compression pressure If an engine lacks compression pressure incomplete combustion of fuel will take place even if other parts of the engine are operating properly To determine the period of engine overhaul it is important to measure the engine com255pression pressure regularly At the same time the engine speed at which the measurement of compression pressure is made should be checked because the compression pressure varies with engine rpm The engine rpm can be measured at the front end of the crankshaft 6 Measuring Compression Pressure To check the compression pressure see ENGINE COMPRES255SION TEST under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS NOTE Do not guess the conditions of other cylinders from a result of testing one cylinder Be sure to measure the com255pression pressure for each cylinder Look for cylinders with dramatically at least 20lower compression than the aver255age of the other cylinders If the weak cylinder is flanked by healthy cylinders the problem is either valveor headgasket related Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder indi255cates gasket failure Abnormally high readings on all cylin255ders indicate heavy carbon accumulations a condition that might be accompanied by high pressures and noise NOTE In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise have the injectors overhauled by an authorized fuel injection service center Poor fuel quality contaminants and loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection pump will result in injector faults OVERHAUL CONDITIONS Compression pressure tends to increase a little in a new engine until the piston rings and valve seats have been bro255ken in Thereafter it decreases gradually with the progressive wear of these parts When the decrease of compression pressure reaches its limit see SERVICE STANDARDSthe engine must be over255hauled The engine also requires an overhaul when oil con255sumption is high when blowby is evident and when compression values are at a minimum or below NOTE Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS chart during an engine overhaul It gives the measurements and values for the repair or replacement of the engine components NOTE The ENGINE section may be helpful in determining the need for an engine overhaul SPECIFICATIONS UNIVERSAL MODEL M320B COOLING SYSTEM Type of System Fresh water cooled block controlled with raw water heat exchanger and centrifugal fresh water pump Operating Temperature 170260 190260 F 77260 88260CCoolant Pump Centrifugal type metal impeller beltdriven Coolant Capacity 375 quarts 350 litersRaw Water Pump Positive displacement neoprene impeller gear driven Raw Water Flow 3000 rpm before discharge into exhaust elbow 70 galmin 265 SYSTEM Starting Battery 12 volt DC negative ground Battery Capacity 400 600 cold cranking amps Mando 51 amp 12 volt beltdriven with internal regulator Starter Motor 12 volt reduction gear actuated shift with solenoid Starting Aid 12 volt sheathed type glow plugs TRANSMISSION Model HURTH HBW502R Type of Transmission Casehardened helical gears with a servooperated multiple disc clutch Gear Ratio Forward Std2051 Propeller Shaft Rotation Right hand standard transmission Lubrication Fluid ATF type A Dextron II or Dextron III Transmission Sump Capacity 037 qt 035 liter5 1 2 3 OIL FILTER PARTS IDENTIFICATION MODEL M320B STARTER SOLENOID FUEL LIFT PUMP 3 ALTERNATOR COOLANT PUMP SHEAVE parts AdobeUCSTABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 2 Parts Identification 3 Specifications 4 Testing for OverhauL 6 Engine 7 Service Standards 15 Engine Description 18 Engine Disassembly Reassembly 21 Engine Service 31 Engine Adjustments 44 Exhaust Manifold Service 48 Lubrication System Description 49 Lubrication System Service 52 Cooling System Description 54 Cooling System Service 56 Fuel System Description 58 Fuel System Disassembly Reassembly 63 Fuel System Service 64 Admiral Control PaneL 67 Captain Control PaneL 68 Control Panel 69 Glow Plug Service 71 Starter Service 72 Mando Alternator Service 78 Presto lite Alternator Service 88 Wiring Diagram 39144 100 Wiring Schematic 39144 101 Wiring Diagram 200360 Catalina yachts 102 Wiring Schematic 200360 Catalina yachts 103 Hurth HBW Transmissions 104 Transmission 107 Special Tools 108 Torques 110 Standard Hardware Sealants Lubricants 111 Metric Conversions 112 Standard and Metric Conversion Data 113 Index 114 1 INSTALLATION When installing UNIVERSAL engines it is important that strict attention be paid to the following information CODES AND REGULATIONS Federal regulations ABYC guidelines and safety codes must be complied with when installing engines and generators in a marine environment SIPHONBREAK For installations where the exhaust exhaust elbow is close to or will be below the vessels waterline provisions must be made to install a siphon255break in the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow This hose must be looped a minimum of 20 in 51 cmabove the vessels waterline Failure to use a siphon255break when the exhaust manifold injection port is at or below the load waterline will result in raw water damage to the engine and possible flooding of the boat If you have any doubt about the position of the waterinjected exhaust elbow relative to the vessels waterline under any of the vessels various operating conditions or when the vessel is not underway install a siphonbreak This precaution is necessary to protect your engine NOTE A siphonbreak requires periodic inspection and cleaning to ensure proper operation Failure to properly maintain a siphonbreak can result in catastrophic engine damage Consult the siphonbreak manufacturer for a proper maintenance schedule EXHAUST SYSTEM The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use The system must be designed to prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any angle of the vessels hull A detailed 40page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and diesel engines and generators is available from your UNIVERSAL dealer Unlvarsal 243 2 1ija267VN3iiv Preparations to and any will burn CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNING Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer birth defects and other reproductive harm A WARNING Exhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide an odorless and colorless gas Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can cause and death Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide exposure can include 225 Dizziness 225 Nausea 225 Headache 225 Throbbing in Temples 225 Muscular Twitching 225 Vomiting 225 Weakness and Sleepiness 225 Inability to Think Coherently IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS GET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY If symptoms persist seek medical attention Shut down the unit and do not restart until it has been inspected and repaired This WARNING DECAL is provided by UNIVERSAL and should be fixed to a bulkhead near your engine or generator UNIVERSAL also recommends installing CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the livingsleeping quarters of your vessel They are inexpensive and easily obtainable at your local marine store 243 Ril II 4 q D SERVICE MANUAL Univarsal MARINE DIESEL ENGINE M326720B PUBLICATION NO 200562 1 st EditionJuly 2001 WESTERBEKE CORPORATION MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK 150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319 USA TEL 508FAX 508WEBSITE IlIMMA Member National Marine Manufacturers Association AdobeUCS
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