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Westerbeke Diesel Apr 99 Parts Manual



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TECHNICAL MANUAL



        WESTERBEKE 40
   Marine Diesel Engine


   WESTERBEKE WPDS
 Marine Diesel Generators




               Publication #20502
                    Edition 8
                    July 1980




lr~ 'WESTERBEKE
    j   WESTERBEKE CORPORATION
   ·    MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
        150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
TECHNICAL MANUAL



        WESTERBEKE 40
   Marine Diesel Engine


   WESTERBEKE WPDS
 Marine Diesel Generators




               Publication #20502
                    Edition 8
                    July 1980




lr~ 'WESTERBEKE
    j   WESTERBEKE CORPORATION
   ·    MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
        150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
                              WESTERBEKE 40



This marine diese~ engine, previously designated WESTERBEKE Four-107,
incorporates a basic engine mode' known variously as 4-99, 4-107, and
4-108. You will notice continual references to the latter three eng-
ine mode: numbers throu90ut tre workshop portion of this manua~. They
are used to distinguish anlong the three major engineer1ng changes a~
ready made to the engine.
WITH 2:1 SHORT PROFILE SAILING GEAR
WITH SAO MANUAL VEE DRIVE TRANSMISSION
                                    3



SECTION INDEX
GENERAL
  Introduction   Operation
  Installation   Maintenance



ENGINE OVERHAUL




OTHER OVERHAUL
  Marine Engine Electrical System
  Cooling System (External)
  Transmissions

GENERATOR SETS




HYDRAULIC CRANKING SYSTEM




SERVICE BULLETINS
 4




                                          IMPORTANT
                               PRODUCT SOFTWARE NOnCE




Product software of all kinds, such as         product software. Such software may be
brochures, drawings, technical data,           outdated and no longer accurate. Routine
operator's and workshop manuals, parts         changes made by Westerbeke's suppliers.
lists and parts price lists, and other         of which Westerbeke rarely has notice
information, instructions and specifi-         in advance, are frequently not reflected
cations provided from sources other            in the supplier's software until after
than Westerbeke, is not within Wester-         such changes take place.
beke's control and, accordingly, is
provided to Westerbeke customers only          Westerbeke customers should also keep in
as a courtesy and service. WESTERBEKE          mind the time span between printings of
CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONTENT          Westerbeke product software, and the
OF SUCH SOFTHARE, MAKES NO I~ARRANn ES         unavoidable existence of earlier, non-
OR REPRESENTA nONS WITH RESPECT THERETO,       current l~esterbeke software editions in
INCLUDING THE ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR          the field. Additionally, most Wester-
COMPLETENESS THEREOF, AND WILL IN NO           beke products include customer-requested
EVENT BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES        special features that frequently do not
OR INJURY INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH,         include complete documentation.
OR ARISING OUT OF, THE FURNISHING OR
USE OF SUCH SOFTVJARE.                         In sum, product software provided with
                                               Westerbeke products, whether from Wester-
For example, components and sub-assemb-        beke or other suppliers, must not and
lies incorporated in Westerbeke's              cannot be relied upon exclusively as the
products and supplied by others (such          definitive authority on the respective
as engine blocks, fuel systems and com-        product. It not only makes good sense,
ponents, transmissions, electrical co~         but is imperative that appropriate
ponents, pumps, and other products)            representatives of Westerbeke or the
are generally supported by their manu-         supplier in question be consulted to
facturers with their own software, and         determine the accuracy and currency of
Westerbeke must depend on such software        the product software being consulted
for the design of Westerbeke's own             by the customer.
                                                                                    5

                           INTRODUCTION
    IMPORTANT
       THIS MANUAL IS A DETAILED GUIDE TO THE INSTALLATION, START-UP, OPERATION
       AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR WESTERBEKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE. THE INFORMA-
       TION IT CONTAINS IS VITAL TO THE ENGINE'S DEPENDABLE, LONG TERM OPERA-
       TION.
          READ IT
          KEEP IT IN A SAFE PLACE
          KEEP IT HANDY FOR REFERENCE AT ALL TIMES
       FAILURE TO DO SO WILL INVITE SERIOUS RISK, NOT ONLY TO YOUR INVESTMENT,
       BUT YOUR SAFETY AS WELL.



UNDERSTANDING THE DIESEL ....                ORDERING PARTS
   The diesel engine closely resembles the      Whenever replacement parts are needed,
gasoline engine inasmuch as the mechanism    always include the complete part descrip·-
is essentially the same. Its cylinders       tion and part number (see separate Parts
are arranged above its closed crankcase;     List furnished, if not part of this pub-
its crankshaft is of the same general type   lication). Be sure to include the
as that of a gasoline engine; it has the     engine's model and serial number. Also
same sort of valves, camshaft, pistons,      be sure to insist upon Westerbeke factory
connecting rods, lubricating system and      packaged parts, because "will fit" parts
reverse and reduction gear.                  are frequently not made to the same
   Therefore, it.follows to a great extent   specifications as original equipment.
that a diesel engine requires the same
preventative maintenance as that which any   GENERATOR SETS
intelligent operator would give to a gas-       Westerbeke diesels are used for both
oline engine. The most important factors     the propulsion of boats and for generating
are proper maintenance of the fuel, lub-     electrical power. For generator set app-
ricating and cooling systems. Replacement    lications, all details of this Manual
of fuel and lubricating filter elements at   apply, except in regard to certain por-
the time periods specified is a must, and    tions of the Installation, Operation and
frequent checking for contamination (i.e.    Maintenance sections. Additional infor-
water, sediment etc.) in the fuel system     mation is provided in the section titled
is also essential. Another important         Generator Sets, Section T.
factor is the use of the same brand of
"high detergent" diesel lubricating oil
designed specifically for diesel engines.
   The diesel engine does differ from the
gasoline engine, however, in the method of
handling and firing its fuel. The carbu-
retor and ignition systems are done away
with and in their place is a single com-
ponent - the Fuel Injection Pump - which
performs the function of both.
   Unremitting care and attention at the
factory have resulted in a Westerbeke
engine capable of many thousands of hours
of dependable service. What the manufact-
urer cannot control, however, is the
treatment it receives in service. This
part rests with you!
6

    YOUR NOTES
                                                                                  7
                             INSTALLATION
      FOREWORD
         Since the boats in which these engines are used are many and varied,
      details of engine installation are equally so. It is not the purpose of
      this section to advise boatyards and engine installers on the generally
      well understood and well developed procedures for installation of en-
      gines. However, the following outline of general procedure is included
      because it is valuable in explaining the functions of each component,
      the reasons why, the precautions to be watched and the relationship of
      the installation to the operation of the engine. There are details of
      the installation which should have a periodic check and of which the
      operator should have a thorough understanding to insure good operating
      conditions for the engine and correct procedure for its servicing.

INSPECTION OF EQUIPMENT                     pry against this with crowbar, as you may
   The engine is shipped from the factory   distort the coupling.
mounted securely and properly crated. Ac-      In some cases it may be necessary to
cessory equipment is shipped in a separate  lift the engine in other than the regular
small box, usually packed with the engine   horizontal position. It may be that the
crate.                                      engine must be lowered endwise through a
   Before accepting shipment from the       small hatchway which cannot be made larger.
transportation company, the crate should    If the opening is extremely restricted it
be opened and an inspection made for con-   is possible to reduce, to some extent, the
cealed damage. If either visible or con-    outside clearances such as generator,
cealed damage is noted, you should require  cooling piping, water tank, filters,
the delivering agent to sign "Received in   mounting lugs, etc. This accessory equip-
damaged condition". Also check contents     ment should be removed by a competent
of the shipment against the packing list    mechanic and special care should be taken
and make sure note is made of any discrep-  to avoid damage to any exposed parts and
ancies. This is your protection against     to avoid dirt entering openings. The parts
loss or damage. Claims for loss or damage   which have been removed should be returned
must be made to the carrier, not to J. H.   to position as soon as the restriction has
Westerbeke Corporation.                     been passed.
                                                In case it is necessary to hoist the
RIGGING AND LIFTING                         engine  either front end upwards or reverse
   The engine is fitted with lifting rings. gear end upwards, the attachment of slings
   Rope or chain slings should be at-       must be done very carefully to avoid the
tached to the rings and the engine lifted   possibility of damage to the parts on
by means of tackle attached to this sling. which the weight may bear. It is best if
The lifting rings have been designed to     special rigging work be done by someone
carry the full weight of the engine,        experienced and competent in the handling
therefore auxiliary slings are not re-      of heavy machinery.
quired or desired.
CAUTION: Slings must not be so short as     ENGINE BOLTS
to place the engine lifting eyes in sig-       It is recommended that bronze hanger
nificant sheer stress. Strain on the        bolts of appropriate size be used through
engine lifting eyes must not be in excess   the engine flexible mounts. Lag screws
of 100 from the vertical. A spacer bar      are less preferred because their hold on
must be placed between the two lifting      the wood is weakened every time they are
eyes, if supported by valve cover studs.    moved, whereas the lag bolt stays in pos-
   The general rule in moving engines is    ition and the nut on top is used to tight-
to see that all equipment used is amply     en the engine down or is removed to permit
strong and firmly fixed in place. Move the the engine to be lifted. The bolt itself
engine a little at a time and see that it   stays in position at all times, as a stud,
is firmly supported. Eliminate possibil-    and the bond between the bolt and the wood
ity of accidents by avoiding haste. Do      is not weakened by its removal.
not lift from the propeller coupling, or
 8
FOUNDATION FOR ENGINE                        PROPELLER COUPLING
   A good engine bed contributes much            Each Westerbeke Diesel engine is regu-
toward the satisfactory operation of the     larly fitted with a suitable coupling for
engine. The engine bed must be of rigid      connecting the propeller shaft to the
construction and neither deflect nor twist   engine.
when subjected to the engine weight or the      The coupling must not only transmit the
position the boat may have to take under     power of the engine to turn the shaft, but
the effects of rough seas. The bed must      must also transmit the thrust either ahead
keep the engine within one or two thous-     or astern from the shaft to the thrust
andths of an inch of this position at all    bearing which is built into the reduction
times. It has to withstand the forward       gear housing of the engine. This coupling
push of the propeller which is applied to    is very carefully machined for accurate
the propeller shaft, to the thrust washer    fit.
bearing in the engine and finally to the        For all engine models, a propeller half-
engine bolts and engine bed.                 coupling, bored to shaft size for the
   In fiberglas hulls, we recommend that     specific order, is supplied. The coupling
similar wooden stringers as in wooden        either has a keyway with set screws or is
hulls be formed and fitted, then glassed     of the clamping type.
to the hull securely. This allows hanger        The forward end of the propeller shaft
bolts to be installed firmly in wood, thus   has a long straight keyway. Any burrs
reducing noise and transmitted vibration.    should be removed from the shaft end. The
   The temptation to install the engine on   coupling should be a light drive fit on
a pair of fiberglas "angle irons" should     the shaft and the shaft should not have to
be resisted. Such construction will allow    be scraped down or filed in order to get a
engine vibrations to pass through to the     fit. It is important that the key be
hull. Flexible mounts require a firm         properly fitted both to the shaft and the
foundation against which to react if they    coupling. The key should fit the side of
are to do their job. When possible, follow   the keyway very closely, but should not
bed design "A" and avoid bed design "B".     touch the top of the keyway in the hub of
                                             the coupling.
                                                If it seems difficult to drive the
                                             coupling over the shaft, the coupling can
                                             be expanded by heating in a pail of boil-
                                             ing water. The face of the propeller
                                             coupling must be exactly perpendicular to
                                             the centerline or axis of the propeller
                                             shaft.

                                             PROPELLER
                              A                 The type and size of propeller varies
                                             with the gear ratio and must be selected
                                             to fit the application based upon boat
                                             tests. To utilize the full power of the
                                             engine, and to achieve ideal loading con-
                                             ditions, it is desirable to use a propel-
                                             ler which will permit the engine to reach
                                             its full rated speed at full throttle
                                             under normal load.

                                             ALIGNMENT OF ENGINE
                                                The engine must be properly and exactly
                                             aligned with the propeller shaft. No
                                             matter what material is used to build a
                                             boat it will be found to be flexible to
                                             some extent and the boat hull will change
                                             its shape to a greater extent than is
                                             usually realized when it is launched and
                                             operated in the water. It is therefore
                                             very important to check the engine align-
                                                                                      9
ment at frequent intervals and to correct          In making the final check for alignment,
any errors when they may appear.               the engine half coupling should be held in
    Misalignment between the engine and the    one position and the alignment with the
propeller shaft is the cause of troubles       propeller coupling tested with the propeller
which are blamed often on other causes.        coupling in each of four positions, rotated
It will create excessive bearing wear,         90 0 between each position. This test will
rapid shaft wear and will, in many cases,      also check whether the propeller half coup-
reduce the life of the hull by loosening       ling is in exact alignment on its shaft.
the hull fastenings. A bent propeller          Then, keeping the propeller coupling in one
shaft will have exactly the same effect        position the alignment should be checked
and it is therefore necessary that the         rotating the engine half coupling to full
propeller shaft itself be perfectly            position each 90 0 from the next one.
straight.                                          The engine alignment should be rechecked
    One particularly annoying result of mis-   after the boat has been in service for one
alignment may be leakage of transmission       to three weeks and, if necessary, the
oil through the rear oil seal. Check to        alignment remade. It will usually be
make sure that alignment is within the         found that the engine is no longer in
limits prescribed.                             alignment. This in not because the work
    The engine should be moved around on       was improperly done at first, but because
the bed and supported on the screw-jacks       the boat has taken some time to take its
or shims until the two halves of the coup-     final shape and the engine bed and engine
lings can be brought together without using    stringers have probably absorbed some
force and so that the flanges meet evenly      moisture. It may even be necessary to re-
all around. It is best not to drill the        align at a further period.
foundation for the foundation bolts until          The coupling should always be opened up
the approximate alignment has been accu-       and the bolts removed whenever the boat is
rately determined.                             hauled out or moved from the land to the
    Never attempt a final alignment with       water, and· during storage in a cradle.
the boat on land. The boat should be in        The flexibility of the boat often puts a
the water and have had an opportunity to       very severe strain on the shaft or the
assume its final water form. It is best        coupling or both when it is being moved.
to do the alignment with the fuel and          In some cases the shaft has actually been
water tank about half full and all the         bent by these strains. This does not apply
usual equipment on board and after the         to small boats that are hauled out of the
main mast has been stepped and final rig-      water when not in use, unless they are
ging has been accomplished.                    dry for a considerable time.
    Take plenty of time in making this
alignment and do not be satisfied with         EXHAUST SYSTEM
ariything less than perfect results.               Exhaust line installations vary consid-
    The alignment is correct when the shaft    erably and each must be designed for the
can be slipped backwards and forward into      particular job. The general requirements
the counterbore very easily and when a         are to provide an outlet line with a mini-
feeler gauge indicates that the flanges        mum of restrictions and arranged so that
come exactly together at all points. The       sea water, rain water, or condensation
two halves of the propeller coupling           cannot get back into the engine. There
should be parallel within 0.002 inches (A).    should be a considerable fall in the line
                                               between the exhaust manifold flange and
                                               the discharge end. This slope in the pipe
                                               makes it difficult for water to be driven
                                               in very far by a wave; and a steep drop
                                               followed by a long slope is better than a
                                               straight gradual slope. Avoid any depres-
      !                                        sion or trough to the line which would
      \                                        fill with water and obstruct the flow of
                                               exhaust gas. Also avoid any sharp bends.
                                                   Brass or copper is not acceptable for
                                               wet exhaust systems, as the combination of
                                               salt water and diesel exhaust gas will
   10
cause rapid deterioration. Galvanized                                                 If there are more components to be
iron fittings and galvanized iron pipe is                                             rigidly connected to each other than will
recommended for the exhaust line. The ex-                                             weigh 8 pounds, then a flexible exhaust
haust line must be at least as large as                                               section must be installed between the
the engine exhaust manifold flange and be                                             manifold outlet and the exhaust system.
increased in size if there is an especial-                                                 The exhaust system must be supported
ly long run and/or many elbows. It should                                             or suspended independently of the engine
be increased by 1/2" in LD. for every 10                                              manifold, usually using simple metal
feet beyond the first 10 feet.                                                        hangers secured to the overhead.
                                                                                           All dry portions of the exhaust sys-
                                                                                      tem should be wrapped in suitable insula-
                                                                                      tion material to keep surface temperatures
                                                                                      as low as possible.
                                                                                           Hany installations use flexible rubber
                                                                                      exhaust hose for the water cooled section
                                                                                      of the exhaust line because of the ease of
                                                                                      installation and flexibility. Provide
                                                                                      adequate support for the rubber hose to
                                                                                      prevent sagging, bending, and formation
                                                                                      of water pockets.
                                                                                           Always arrange the rubber hose section
                                                                                      so that water cannot possibly flow back
                                                                                      into the engine. Also make sure that enter-
                                                                                      ing sea water cannot spray directly against
EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH WATER JACKETED                                                    the inside of the exhaust piping. Otherwise
            STANDPIPE                                                                 excessive erosion will occur.
     Most exhaust systems today use a                                                 MEASURING EXHAUST GAS BACK PRESSURE
water lift type muffler such as the
Westerbeke "Hydro-Hush." In most                                                         Back pressure must be measured on a
installations there is a dry, insulated                                               straight section of the exhaust line and
high loop after the engine manifold and                                               as near as possible to the engine exhaust
before the muffler to prevent water                                                   manifold. The engine should be run at
flowing backwards into the engine during                                              maximum load during the measurement period.
cranking.                                                                             Set-up should be as shown below.
     It is essential not to hang too                                                  1. For normally asperated engines:
much weight in the form of exhaust system                                               Pressure Test Mercury Test Water Column
components rigidly from the engine mani-                                                1-1/2" Max PSI 3" Mercury          39"
fold. Generally it is permissible to                                                  2. For turbo-charged engines:
directly connect a pipe nipple and a                                                    Pressure Test Mercury Test Water Column
water jacketed exhaust elbow, which two                                                 0.75 Max PSI   1-1/2" Mercury   19-1/2"
components weigh about 8 pounds (4kg).

WAT(II OlSCIoIAIIGE




                                                  WAT(II LlrT   O"'lAUST   iVST[f"I

                                              :   WHH ':!.!Q!Q:!!.U~ JoIUHLP


                                      lJ"     :
                                     f"lAX,   ~




                      1-)/&." 0.0,




                                                                                      Checking The Back Pressure
                                                                                      1. Exhaust pipe flange
       WATER LIFT EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH                                                 2. Exhaust line
           "HYDRO-HUSH" MUFFLER                                                       3. Transparent plastic hose, partly filled
                                                                                                     11
   with water. Measurement "A" may not                       To insure satisfactory operation, a
   exceed 39" for normally asperated                   diesel engine must have a dependable sup-
   engines and 19.5" for turbo-charged                 ply of clean diesel fuel. For this reason,
   engines.                                            cleanliness and care are especially im-
                                                       portant at the time when the fuel tank is
WATER CONNECTIONS                                      installed, because dirt left anywhere in
     Seacocks and strainers should be of the the fuel lines or tank will certainly
full flow type at least one size greater               cause fouling of the injector nozzles when
than the inlet thread of the sea water                  the engine is started for the first time.
pump. The strainer should be of the type
which may be withdrawn for cleaning while FUEL PIPING
the vessel is at sea.                                        We recommended copper tubing together
     Water lines can be copper tubing or               with suitable fittings, both for the supply
wire-wound, reinforced rubber hose. In                 line and the return line. Run the tubing
any case, use a section of flexible hose                in the longest pieces obtainable to avoid
that will not collapse under suction, be-               the use of unnecessary fittings and con-
tween the hull inlet and engine and betweennectors. The shut off valve in the line
the outlet and the exhaust system. This                 between the fuel tank and engine should be
takes up vibration and permits the engine               of the fuel oil type, and it is important
to be moved slightly when it's being re-                that all joints be free of pressure leaks.
aligned. Do not use street elbows in                          Keep fuel lines as far as possible from
suction piping. All pipe and fittings                   exhaust pipe for minimum temperature, to
should be of bronze. Use sealing compound eliminate "vapor locks".
at all connections to prevent air leaks.                      The fuel piping leading from the tank
The neoprene impeller in the sea (raw)                  to the engine compartment should always be
water pump should never be run dry.                      securely anchored to prevent chafing.
                                                        Usually the copper tubing is secured by
FUEL TANK AND FILTERS                                   means of copper straps.
    Fuel tanks may be of fiberglass, monel,                   The final connection to the engine
aluminum, plain steel or terne plate. If                 should    be through flexible rubber hoses.
made of fiberglass, be certain that the
interior is gel coated to prevent fibers                 ELECTRIC PANEL
from contaminating the fuel system.
Copper or galvanized
                 .          fuel tanks should not Th e W         es t er be ke a11 -e 1ec tr1C
                                                                                            ' pane 1
be used. It 1S not     .   necessary   to mount      . U 1 lZes an e ec rom c ac horne t er
                                                   the     t'l'               1  t     .  t
tank above  . the  eng1ne
                   .        . level as  the
pump prov1ded Wlll ra1se the fuel from the
                                              fuel  11ft W1. th a b'l U1 t-In' hour me t er. Tac h0-
                                                                                                   .
t an.
    k    Th e amoun t 0 f l 1 ·ft h ld b k t             meter cables are no longer requ1red,
                                  S ou      e ep                    f      h Sk'             h' 1
   ..
m1n1mum
          (6 f ee t b e1ng
                       .         .)
                             maX1mum .
                                          If
                                               a tan
                                                     k except or t e l pper mec am ca
                                                                1     M     t  d     th        1
 .    1   d·         11 d b ·
1S a rea y 1nsta e a ove eng1ne eve 1t
                                            1    1·       pane. It t oun e t on t e pane     t are
can be utilized in this position. Great                  a vo meder?lwa er empera ure E h
           ld            '                               gauge an 01 pressure gauge. ac
care shou      be taken to ensure that the fuel·         1ns t rumen t '  1s l' 1ght e.
                                                                                      d Th e a11 -
system is correctly in~talled so that air- electric panel is isolated from
locks are eliminated and precautions taken
against dirt and water entering the fuel.                ground and may be mounted where
    A primary fuel filter of the water col- visible. It is normally pre-wired.
lecting type should be installed between
the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. A                   ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
recommended type is available from the                         Most Westerbeke engines are supplied
list of accessories. The secondary fuel                   pre-wired and with plug-in connectors.
filter is fitted on the engine between the Never make or break connections while the
fuel lift pump and the injection pump and                 engine is running. Carefully follow all
has a replaceable element.                                instructions on the wiring diagram sup-
    As the fuel lift pump has a capacity in               plied, especially those relating to fuse/
excess of that required by the injection                  cicuit breaker requirements.
pump, the overflow is piped to the fuel                        Starter batteries should be located as
tank and should be connected to the top of                close to the engine as possible to avoid
the tank or as near the top as possible.                   Toltage drop through long leads. It is
12

bad practice to use the starter batteries
for other services unless they require low
amperage or are intermittent. In cases
where there are substantial loads (from
lights, refrigerators, radios, depth
sounders, etc.) it is essential to have a
complete, separate system and to provide
charging current for this by means of a
second alternator or "alternator output
splitter".
    Starter batteries must be of a type
which permits a high rate of discharge
 (Diesel starting).
    Carefully follow the recommended wire
sizes shown in the wiring diagrams. Plan
installation so the battery is close to
engine and use the following cable sizes:

     ttl- for distances up to 8 feet
     ttl/O - for distances up to 10 feet
     112/0 - for distances up to 13 feet
     113/0 - for distances up to 16 feet

MECHANICAL CONTROLS
   The recommended practice is to have the
stop-run lever loaded to the run position
and controlled by a sheathed cable to a
push-pull knob at the pilot station. The
throttle lever should be connected to a
Morse type lever at the pilot station by
a sheathed cable.
   The transmission control lever may be
connected to the pilot station by a flex-
ible, sheathed cable and controlled by a
Morse type lever. The single-lever type
gives clutch and throttle control with
full throttle range in neutral position.
The two-lever type provides clutch control
with one lever and throttle control with
the other.
   Any bends in the control cables should
be gradual. End sections at engine and
transmission must be securely mounted.
After linkages are completed, check the
installation for full travel, making sure
that, when the transmission control lever
at the pilot station is in forward,
neutral and reverse, the control lever on
the transmission is on the respective
detent. Check the throttle control lever
and the stop-run lever on the fuel injec-
tion pump for full travel.
    Some models do not require a stop
cable because they have either a fuel
solenoid or an electric fuel pump.
Examples of such models are the W58
and W52.
                                                                                  13

                               OPERATION
PREPARATION FOR FIRST START                 5. Fill fuel tank with clean Diesel
                                            fuel oil; No.2 diesel fuel oil is
The engine is shipped IIdryll ... with      recommended. The use of No. 1 is
lubricating oil drained from the            permissible but No. 2 is preferred
crankcase and transmission. There-          because of its higher lubricant
fore, be sure to follow these recom-        content.
mended procedures carefully before
starting the engine for the first time.     NOTE: If there is no filter in the
                                            filler of the fuel tank, the recom-
1. Remove oil filler cap and fill oil       mended procedure is to pour the fuel
sump with heavy duty, diesel lubricat-      through a funnel of 200 mesh wire
ing oil to the highest mark on the dip-     screen.
stick. See table under Maintenance for
an approved lubricating oil. Do not         6. Fill grease cup on the sea water
overfill. Select an approved grade          pump, if present, with a good grade
from the listing and continue to use it.    of water pump grease.
2. Fill the reverse gear to the high-
est mark on the dipstick with TYPE A        FUEL SYSTEM
transmission fluid. Do not overfill.
Oil level for the Short Profile Sail-       The fue 1 i nj ect ion sys tem of a com-
ing Gear is measured before threading       pression ignition engine depends
the dipstick into the housing.              upon very high fuel pressure during
Engine oil is not recommended because       the injection stroke to function
it can foam and it can contain addi-        correctly. Relatively tiny move-
tives harmful to some transmissions.        ments of the pumping plungers pro-
                                            duce this pressure and if any air
If the englne is equipped with a V drive.   is present inside the high pressure
fill to the full mark on the dipstick       line, then this air acts as a cushion
with the recommended lubricant specified    and prevents the correct pressure,
on the data tag on the V drive housing.     and therefore fuel injection, from
                                            being achieved.
3. Fill fresh water cooling system with
a 50-50 anti-freeze solution only after     In consequence it is essential that
opening all petcocks and plugs until all    all air is bled from the system
entrapped air is expelled.                  whenever any part of the system has
                                            been opened for repair or servicing.
Fill surge tank to within one inch
of the top. Check this level after
engine has run for a few minutes.
If trapped air is released, the water       BLEEDING PROCEDURES BY MODEL
level may have dropped. If so, re-
fill tank to within one inch of top         1.   Initial Engine Start-up
and replace filler cap.                          (Engine stoppage due to lack
                                                  of fuel)
4. Ensure battery water level is
at least 3/8" above the battery                  a. Insure that the fuel tank(s)
plates and battery is fully charged                 is filled with the proper
so that it is capable of the extra                  grade of diesel fuel.
effort that may be required on the               b. Fill any large primary filterl
first start.                                        water separator with clean
                                                    diesel fuel that is installed
                                                    between the fuel tank and en-
                                                    gine. To attempt to fill any
                                                    large primary filter using the
                                                    manual priming lever on the en-
14
        gine mounted fuel lift pump may      2.   On the fuel injection pump body is a
        prove futile or require a con-            5/16 bleed screw (Bleed Point B).
        siderable amount of priming.              This may be mounted on a manifold
     c. Turn the fuel selector valve to           with a pressure switch. Open this
        "On." Systems wi th more than one         one to two turns (do not remove it)
        tank insure that fuel returning           and with the priming lever bleed
        is going to the tanks being used.         until fuel free of air bubbles
                                                  flows. Stop priming and tighten
     The above procedures are basic for           the bleed screw.
     all initial engine start-ups or for
     restarting engines stopping due to      3.   On the control cover of the injec-
     lack of fuel.                                tion pump (Bleed Point C) is a
                                                  5/16 bleed screw. Open this screw
WESTERBEKE W7 AND WPD4 GENERATOR (3600            one to two turns and proceed as in
R.P.M.) (Figyre 1)                                St~p 2.  (Note: Bypass this bleed
                                                  pOlnt on the W-30 injection pump.)
1.   With the use of a 5/16 box wrench
     or common screw driver, open the        4.   W50 injection urn onl    Open the
     bleed screw one to two turns on the          5/16 bleed screw Bleed Point D)
     outgoing side of the engine mounted          on the injector line banjo bolt
     secondary fuel filter    (Bleed              one to two turns and with the
     point A). With firm strokes on the           throttle full open and the engine
     lift pump priming lever, bleed until         stop lever in the run position.
     fuel free of air bubbles flows from          crank the engine over with the
     this point. Stop priming and gently          starter until clear fuel free
     tighten the bleed screw.                     of air flows from this point.
                                                  Stop cranking and tighten this
2.   With a 5/8 open end wrench loosen            bleed screw.
     one to two turns the nut securing
     the injector line to the injector       5. With a 5/8 wrench loosen one to two
     (Bleed Point B).                           turns the injector line attaching
                                                nuts at the base of each injector
     Decompress the engine with the lever       and with the throttle full open and
     on the top of the cylinder head.           the engine stop control in the run
     Crank the engine over with the             position, crank the engine over with
     starter (W7 ensure that the engine         the starter until fuel spurts by the
     stop lever is in the run position          nuts and injector line at each injec-
     and the throttle is full open).            tor. Stop cranking and tighten the
     (4KW use the defeat position while         nut and proceed with normal starting
     cranking). Crank the engine until          procedures.
     fuel spurts by the nut and line.
     Stop cranking and tighten the 5/8
     nut and proceed with normal starting     WESTERBEKE W13 & 4.4KW Fiaure 6
     procedures.                                         W2l & 7. 7KvJ "    "
                                                         ~~27 & 11 KW  "    "
WESTERBEKE W30. (Figyre 2)                                                "    ")
            W40 & I-JPO 10, 12~, 15. (Figure 3)
            W50 & WBO 15. (Figure 4)            These units are self-bleeding.
            wao & BR 30,(Figure 5)
            W120 & BR45, (Figure 5)             1. Turn the ignition to the ON position
                                                    and wait 15-20 seconds.
1. Open the banjo bolt on top of the
    engine mounted secondary fuel fil-          2. Start the engine following normal
    ter 1-2 turns (Bleed Point A).                  starting procedures.
    With firm stroke on the fuel lift
    pump priming lever bleed until fuel
    free of air bubbles flows from this
    point. Stop priming and tighten
    the bolt.
                                                     15
WESTERBEKE W58 &WTO 20 - (Figure 7)
1. Open the bleed screw on the top
   inboard side of the engine-mounted
   secondary fuel filter one to two
   turns using a 10mm box wrench
   (Bleed Point A). This fuel filter
   is equipped with a hand-operated
   priming pump. With the palm of
   your hand, pump this primer until
   fuel free of air flows from this
   point. Stop pumping and tighten
   the bleed screw.
2. With bleed screw A tightened, pump
   the hand primer several more times.
   This primes the injection pump which
   is self-bleeding. The injection pump   Figure 1
   incorporates a feed pump which keeps
   the fuel system primed when the en-
   gine is running, thus no external
   lift pump is required.
3. Loosen the four injector line at-
   taching nuts at the base of each
   injector (Bleed Point B) one to two
   turns with a l6mm open-end wrench.
   Place the throttle in the full open
   position and crank the engine over
   with the starter until fuel spurts
   by the nut and injector lines. Stop
   cranking and tighten each of the
   four nuts and proceed with normal
   starting procedure.


                                          Figure 2




                                          Figure 3
16




     Figure 4                 Fi gure 7




     Fi gure 5   Typical Mechanical Fuel Lift Pump




     Figure 6
                                                                                    17
PREPARATION FOR STARTING                       6.   As soon as the engine starts, re-
                                                    lease the start switch and the
1.   Check water level in expansion                 preheat button and return the
     tank. It should be l~ to 2 in.                 throttle to the "idle" position
     below the top of the tank when                 immediately.
     cold.
                                               CAUTION: Do not crank the engine more
2.   Check the engine sump oil level.          than 20 seconds when trying to start.
                                               Allow a rest period of at least twice
3.   Check the transmission oil level.         the cranking period between the start
                                               cycles. Starter damage may occur by
4.   See that there is fuel in the tank        overworking the starter motor and the
     and the fuel shut-off is open.            backfilling of the exhaust system is
                                               possible.
5.   Check to see that the starting
     battery is fully charged, all
     electrical connections are proper-        STARTING THE ENGINE (WARM)
     ly made, all circuits in order and
     turn on the power at the battery          If the engine is warm and    has only been
     disconnect.                               stopped for a short time,    place the
                                               throttle in the partially    open position
6.   Check the seacock and ensure that         and engage the starter as    above, elimin-
     it is open.                               ating the preheat step.
STARTING THE ENGINE (COLD)                     NOTE: Always be sure that the starter
                                               pinion has stopped revolving before
Most Westerbeke marine diesel engines          again re-engaging the starter, other-
are equipped with a cold starting aid          wise the flywheel ring gear or starter
to ease in the starting of your engine         pinion may be damaged.
when cold.
                                               Ensure that the electrical connection to
1.   Check to see that the "stop" lever        the cold starting aid is correct.
     (if installed) is in the "run"
     position.                                 Extended use of the cold starting aid
                                               beyond the time periods stated should
2.   Place the throttle in the fully           be avoided to prevent damage to the aid.
     open position.
                                               NEVER under any circumstances use or
3.   Press the IIPreheat" button in and        allow anyone to use ether to start your
     hold for 15 to 20 seconds.                engine. If your engine will not start,
                                               then have a qualified Westerbeke marine
4.   While holding the "Preheat button
                                   ll
                                               mechanic check your engine.
     in, turn the keyswitch to the liON"
     or IIRun" position. This activates
     the panel gauges, lights and fuel
     solenoid or electric fuel pump if         WHEN ENGINE STARTS
     so equipped. Continue to turn the
     keyswi tch to the II Sta rt" pos it ion   1.   Check for normal oil pressure
     and hold for no more than 20 sec-              immediately upon engine starting.
     onds. Some units may be equipped               Do not continue to run engine if
     with a pushbutton to start rather              oil pressure is not present within
     than the keyswitch and in these                15 seconds of starting the engine.
     cases the electrical system is
     activated by fuel pressure.               2.   Check Sea Water Flow. Look for
                                                    water at exhaust outlet. Do this
5.   If the engine fails to start in                without delay.
     20 seconds, release start switch
     and preheat for an additional             3.   Recheck Crankcase Oil. After the
     15-20 seconds, then repeat step 4.             engine has run for 3 or 4 minutes,
     18
          subsequent to an oil change or new      NOTE: The SAO transmission requires that
          installation, stop the engine and       when backing down, the shift lever must
          check the crankcase oil level. This     be held in the reverse position, since
          is important as it may be necessary     it has no positive overcenter locking
          to add oil to compensate for the        mechanism.
          oil that is required to fill the
          engine's internal oil passages and
          oil filter. Add oil as necessary.       STOPPING THE ENGINE
          Check oil level each day of opera-
          tion.                                   1.   Position shift lever in neutral.
4.        Recheck Transmission Oil Level.         2.   Idle the engine for 2 to 4 minutes
          (This applies only subsequent to an          to avoid boiling and to dissipate
          oil change or new installation.) In          some of the heat.
          such a case, stop the engine after
          running for several minutes at 800      3.   If equipped with a stop lever, pull
          RPM with one shift into forward and          the knob and hold in this position
          one into reverse, then add oil as            until the engine stops. This stops
          necessary. Check oil level each              the flow of fuel at the injection
          day of operation.                            pump. After the engine stops, re-
                                                       turn the control to the run position
S.        Recheck Expansion Tank Water Level,          to avoid difficulty when restarting
          if engine is fresh water cooled.             the engine.
          (This applies after cooling system
          has been drained or filled for the      4.   Turn off the keyswitch. Some models
          first time.) Stop engine after it            do not use the stop lever as they
          has reached operating temperature            are equipped with a fuel solenoid
          of 17S oF and add water to within            or electric fuel pump which shuts
          one inch of top of tank.                     off the fuel supply when the key-
                                                       switch is turned to the off position.
WARNING: The system is pressurized when           S.   Close the seacock.
overheated and the pressure must be
released gradually if the filler cap is           6.   Disconnect power to system with
to be removed. It is advisable to pro-                 battery switch.
tect the hands against escaping steam
and turn the cap slowly counter-clock-
wise until the resistance of the safety           OPERATING PRECAUTIONS
stops is felt. Leave the cap in this
position until all pressure is released.          1.   Never run engine for extended
Press the cap downward against the                     periods when excessive overheat-
spring to clear the safety stops, and                  ing occurs, as extensive internal
continue turning until it can be lifted                damage can be caused.
off.
                                                  2.   DO NOT put cold water in an over-
6.        Warm-up Instructions. As soon as             heated engine. It can crack the
          possible, get the boat underway,             cylinder head, block, or manifold.
          but at reduced speed, until water
          temp. gauge indicates 130-1S00 F.       3.   Keep intake silencer free from
          If necessary, engine can be warmed           lint, etc.
          up with the transmission in neutral
          at 1000 RPM. Warming up with the        4.   Do not run engine at high RPM with-
          transmission in neutral takes longer         out clutch engaged.
          and tends to overheat the transmission,
                                                  S.   Never Race a Cold Engine as internal
7.        Reverse Operation. Always reduce             damage can occur due to inadequate
          engine to idle speed when shifting           oil circulation.
          gears. However, when the transmission
          is engaged, it will carry full engine   6.   Keep the engine and accessories
          load.                                        clean.
                                               19
7.   Keep the fuel clean. Handle it with
     extreme care because water and dirt
     in fuel cause more trouble and ser-
     vice life of the injection system is
     reduced.
8.   Do not allow fuel to run low, because
     fuel intake may be uncovered long
     enough to allow air to enter the
     injection system, resulting in engine
     stoppage requiring system bleeding.
9.   Do not be alarmed if temperature
     gauges show a high reading following
     a sudden stop after engine has been
     operating at full load. This is
     caused by the release of residual heat
     from the heavy metal masses near the
     combustion chamber. Prevention for
     this is to run engine at idle for a
     short period before stopping it. High
     temperature reading after a stop does
     not necessarily signal alarm against
     restarting. If there is no functional
     difficulty, temperatures will quickly
     return to normal when engine is operat-
     ing.
20



                       TEN MUST RULES




     IMPORTANT                 IMPORTANT                    IMPORTANT

     ... for your safety and your engine's dependability.


     ALWAYS -
       1. Keep this Manual handy and read it whenever in doubt.
       2. Use only filtered fuel oil and check lube oil level daily.
       3. Check cooling water temperature frequently to make sure it is 1900
          or less.
       4. Close all drain cocks a~d refill with water before starting out.
       5. Investigate any oil leaks immediately.
     NEVER -
       6.Race the engine in neutral.
       7.Run the engine unless the gauge shows proper oil pressure.
       8.Break the fuel pump seals.
       9.Use cotton waste or fluffy cloth for cleaning or store fuel in a
         galvanized container.
     10. Subject the engine to prolonged overloading or continue to run it
         if black smoke comes from the exhaust.
                                                                                 21
                              MAINTENANCE
PERIODIC ATTENTION:
   After you have taken delivery of your
engine, it is important that you make the
following checks right after the first
fifty hours of its operation:
FIFTY HOUR CHECKOUT (INITIAL)
Do the following:
  1. Retorque the cylinder head bolts.
   2. Retorque the rocker bracket nuts and
      adjust valve rocker clearance.
   3. Check and adjust, if necessary, the
      forward drum assembly and the reverse
      band on manual SAO and SA-1 trans-
      missions.
   4. Change engine lubricating oil and oil
      filter.
   5. Check for fuel and lubricating oil
      leaks. Correct if necessary.
   6. Check cooling system for leaks and in-
      spect water level.
   7. Check for loose fittings, clamps,
      connections, nuts, bolts, vee belt
      tensions etc. Pay particular atten-
      tion to loose engine mount fittings.
      These could cause mis-alignment.
DAILY CHECKOUT
Do the following:                                             FIGURE 2
  1. Check sea water strainer, if one has
     been installed.                        CAUTION: The use of different brands of
  2. Check water level in cooling system.    lubricating oils during oil changes has
  3. Check lubricating oil level in sump.    been known to cause extensive oil sludg-
     Fill to highest mark on dipstick.       ing and may in many instances cause com-
  4. Turn down grease cup on water pump,     plete oil starvation.
     if used, one full turn.                 6. Start engine and run for 3 or 4
  5. Check lubricating oil level in trans-      minutes. Stop engine and check oil
     mission. Fill to highest mark on           filter gasket for leaks. Check oil
     dipstick.                                  sump level. This is important as it
                                                may be necessary to add oil to com-
SEASONAL CHECK-OUT (MORE OFTEN IF POSSIBLE)     pensate for the oil that is required
Do the following:                               to fill the engine's internal oil
  1. Check generator or alternator "V"          passages and oil filter. Add oil as
     belt for tension.                          necessary. Change oil in transmission.
  2. Check water level in battery.              Use SAE 30, High Detergent Lubricating
  3. Change oil in sump.                        Oil, Service DG, DM, or DS. Do not
  4. Replace lubricating oil filter.            overfill. See note below.
     Fig. 2. See Note.
  5. Fill sump with diesel lubricat-       IMPORTANT NOTE:
     ing oil to high mark on dipstick.        IT IS MANDATORY THAT THE CHECKS 3, 4, 5
     Refer to Specification page for       AND 6 BE ATTENDED TO WHEN TOTAL OPERATING
     proper quantity of oil. Do Not        TIME REACHES 150 HOURS. IN SOME INSTANCES,
     Overfill. See Note.                   THIS TOTAL IS REACHED BEFORE END OF SEASON.
 22
 7.   Clean Air Filter if supplied.         3. Fill fresh water cooling system with
      ~ost  models have an air silencer        antifreeze of a reputable make. (Refer
       that does not require filtering         to Cold Weather Precautions.)
      material and therefore does not       4. Start engine. When temperature gauge
       require cleaning.) The time             indicates l7s 0 F, shut engine down and
      period for replacing the air             drain lubricating oil. Remove and re-
       filter depends on operating con-        place filter. Fill sump with High De-
      ditions, therefore, under extreme-       tergent Lubricating Oil.
       ly dirty conditions, the seasonal    5. Remove air filter. Carefully seal air
       frequency should be increased.          intake opening with waterproofed adhes-
      The correct time periods for             ive tape or some other suitable medium.
      replacing the filter will greatly     6. Seal the exhaust outlet at the most ~c
      assist in reducing bore wear,            cessible location as close to the en-
       thereby extending the life of the       gine as possible.
      engine.                               7. Remove injectors and spray oil into
  8.  Check engine for loose bolts, nuts,      cylinders.
      etc.                                  8. Replace injectors with new sealing
  9.  Check sea water pump for leaks.          washer under each injector. Turn engine
 10.  Wash primary filter bowl and screen.     slowly over compression.
      If filter bowl contains water or sedi-9. Top off fuel tank completely so that no
      ment, filter bowl and secondary oil      air space remains, thereby preventing
      fuel filter need to be cleaned more      water formation by condensation.
      frequently.                          10. Leave fuel system full of fuel.
 11.  Replace secondary fuel filter element.
                                           11. Change fuel filters before putting the
 12.  Replace air filter.                      engine back in service.
                                           12. Wipe engine with a coat of oil or
END OF SEASON SERVICE                          grease.
1. Drain fresh water cooling system by re- 13. Change oil in transmission.
   moving the surge tank pressure cap and  14. Disconnect battery and store in fully
   opening all water system petcocks.          charged condition. Before storing the
2. Remove zinc rod (usually located in         battery, the battery terminals and
   heat exchanger) and see if it needs         cable connectors should be treated to
   replacing. The zinc rod will take           prevent corrosion. Recharge battery
   care of any electrolysis that may occur     every 30 days.
   between dissimilar metals. Insert new   15. Check alignment.
   zinc if necessary.
                                                                                        23
                                 LUBRICATING OILS

   Lubricating oils are available for Westerbeke Diesel engines which offer an improved
standard of performance to meet the requirements of modern operating conditions such as
sustained high speeds and temperatures.

   These oils meet the requirements of the U. S. Ordnance Specification MIL-L-2l04B
(API Service CC). Any other oils which also conform to these specifications, but are
not listed here are, of course, also suitable.

                                                                S.A.E. DESIGNATION
        COMPANY                        BRAND
                                                        OO/45 0 F     45 0 /80 0 F OVER 80 0 F

American Oil Co.         American Supermil Motor Oil      lOW          20W/20         30

BP Canada Limited        BP Vanellus                      lOW          20W/20         30
                         BP Vanellus                    10W/30         10W/30      10W/30

Chevron Oil Co.          RPM DELO Multi-Service Oil       lOW          20W/20         30

Cities Service Oil Co.   CITGO Extra Range                lOW          20W/20         30

Continental Oil Co.      CONOCO TRACON OIL                lOW          20W/20         30

Gulf Oil Corporation     Gulflube Motor Oil X.H.D.        lOW          20W/20         30

Mobile Oil Company       Delvac 1200 Series              1210           1220         1230

Shell Oil Company        Shell Rotella TOil               lOW          20W/20         30

Sun Oil Company          Subfleet MIL-B                   lOW          20W/20         30

Texaco, Inc.             Ursa Oil Extra Duty              lOW          20W/20         30
24

     YOUR NOTES
                 ENGINE OVERHAUL
            The following sections contain detailed
            information relating to the proper operation
            characteristics of the major components and
            systems in the engine. Included are
            disassembly, rework and reassembly instruc-
            tions for the guidance of suitably equipped
            ard staffed marine engine service and
            rebuilding facilities. The necessary
            procedures should be undertaken only by
            such facilities.                ----

            Additional operating characteristics are
            included in the Operation Section of this
            manual.

            Any replacements should be made only with
            genuine Westerbeke parts.




CONTENTS                                                                                    SECTION

ENGINE DESCRIPTION.................... . . . . . . . · . . . . . ·                            A
TECHNICAL DATA .····..........·..... , ....···...··.. "                                       B
FAULT DIAGNOS IS. . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . · · · . . . . . .     D
CYLINDER HEAD. · · · . · · . · . . . . . · . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ·     E
PISTON AND CONNECTING RODS......... .....·.....· ..··.                                        F
CYLINDER BLOCK LINERS...............................                                          G
CRANKSHAFT & MAIN BEARINGS............ .·..·...·.·...                                         H
FLYWHEEL AND HOUSING.,..............................                                          J
TIMING CASE AND DRIVE...............................                                          K
TIMING..............................................                                          L
LUBRICATION SySTEM..................................                                          M
COOLING SYSTEM (INTERNAL)...........................                                          N
FUEL SySTEM............... . . . . · . . . . . · . . . . . . . . · . . . . . .                P
                                                                               SECTION A
                                                            Eng i ne Descri ption

The 4.108, 4.107 and 4.99 Series Diesel Engines with          uniform heat distribution. Intimate mixing of the fuel
which this manual is concerned is an indirect injection,      and air over a wide speed range is ensured, which in-
four cylinder, four stroke power unit.                        creases the engines performance, efficiency and flexi-
The 4.108 and 4.107 has a bore of 3.125 in (79,4 mm)          bility. The upper part of the combustion chamber is
and a stroke of 3.5 in (88,9 mm), and the 4.99 has a          machined in the cylinder head and is hemispherical in
bore of 3.0 in (76,2 mm) and a stroke of 3.5 in (88.9         "hape: the lower part being formed by an insert in the
mm).                                                          form of an accurately machined plug located in the
                                                              cylinder head, this contains the throat connecting
Throughout this manual, whenever the "Ieft" or "'right"
                                                              the combustion chamber to the cylinder. Fuel is intro-
hand side of the engine is referred to, it is that side
                                                              duced into this chamber by means of pintle type
as viewed from the flywheel end of the engine.
                                                              atomiser nozzles.




Cylinder Block and Crankcase

The cylinder block is of monoblock construction. cast         Valve Mechanism
integrally with the crankcase, it is manufactured from
high duty cast iron alloy.
                                                              The valves are operated by cast iron, mushroom type
The 4.108 engine is fitted with "'dry" type. unshouldered     tappets, located in guides machined in the cylinder
thinwall liners. and the 4.107 and 4.99 engines are           block, through push rods to forged steel rocker levers
fitted with "wet"' liners. flanged at the top and sealed      with lead bronze lined, steel backed wrapped bushes.
at the bottom by two synthetic rubber rings located in        Valve clearances are adjusted by means. of a hardened
the cyl inder block.                                          ball ended screw and locknut at the push rod end of
Both liner types are centrifugally cast from high duty        the rocker lever.
alloy iron.




Cylinder Head and Valves
                                                              Crankshaft
The cylinder head is a specially toughened high duty
allow casting and is secured to the cylinder block by         The crankshaft is forged from chrome-molybdenum
studs and nuts, both are phosphated for increased             steel with four integral balance weights. The 4.108
torque characteristics. The joint between the cylinder        crankshaft is treated by "Tufftride" process. The rear
head and block is made from a black composite                 of the crankshaft is machined to accommodate the
material and is known as a 'Klinger' type gasket.             thrust' washers which are replaceable, copper lead
                                                              lined, steel backed, which control the crankshaft end
Two overhead valves are fitted to each cylinder. push         float and are positioned either side of the rear main
rod operated via the valve mechanism mounted on the           bearing. An oil thrower anrl flywheel location flange are
head and enclosed by a pressed steel cover. Each inlet        also machined at the rear end, while the front end is
valve has a synthetic rubber oil deflecting seal, both        keyed for a power take off.
inlet and exhaust valves are retained by two springs
located between a hardened steel seat and a hardened
spring cap secured by split conical collets. All valves
operate in unshouldered cast iron guides pressed into
the head.
                                                              Main Bearings

                                                              Three main bearings are provided for the crankshaft
Combustion System                                             and are of the replaceable pre-finished, thin wall,
                                                              steel backed, aluminium tin lined type. The high duty
The 'H' system of combustion is known as the pre-             cast iron bearing caps are dowel located and each is
combustion type, being formed completely in the               secured by two high tensile steel setscrews locked by
cylinder head. thus giving a flat topped piston with          tab washers.
ENGINE DESCRIPTION-A.2


Camshaft                                                        maintains an intermittent feed by drillings in the spigot
                                                                and idler gear to lubricate the timing gear arrangement.
                                                                and to the centre camshaft bearing where due to
The special cast iron alloy camshaft which has chill
                                                                special machining on the centre camshaft journal an
hardened cams. is mounted in a low position on the
right hand side of the cylinder block and supported by          adequate reduced pressure feed is maintained at the
                                                                rocker assembly. The oil pump incorporates a pressure
three bearings machined directly into the cylinder
                                                                relief valve which limits the maximum oil pressure.
block. These bearings are pressure lubricated by means
of internal drillings and the cams and tappets are              while the oil filter incorporates a by-pass valve which
splash lubricated.                                              prevents the engine being starved of oil should the
                                                                filter element become blocked.


Connecting Rods and Bearings
                                                                Fuel Injection Equipment
The connecting rods are molybdenum alloy steel
stampings with 'H' section shank. the big end parting           A distributor type fuel injection pump is flange mounted
face is incl ined at 45    to the axis of the rod and           on to a drive housing cast on the left hand side of the
serrated for cap location. The caps are each secured            cylinder block. It is mounted horizontally at the front
by two high tensile steel setscrews. The big end bear-          of the engine and gear driven via a splined drive shaft
ing bores are fitted with replaceable pre-finished thin         The majority of pumps incorporate a mechanical gov-
wall. aluminium-tin lined. steel backed bearings. The           ernor and an automatic advance and retard mechanism.
small end bores being fitted with bronze lined steel
backed bushings.

                                                                The fuel lift pump is of the diaphragm type mechanical-
                                                                ly operated by an eccentric on the engine camshaft.
Timing Gear Arrangement                                         via a small pushrod. It is located on the tappet in-
                                                                spection cover on the right hand side of the engine and
The camshaft and fuel injection pump are driven by              is equipped for hand priming
the crankshaft gear via an idler gear. This helical gear
train which makes provision for fuel pump timing
adjustments is located on the front face of the cylinder
                                                                Cooling System Fresh Water Circuit
block and enclosed by a pressed steel cover bolted to
a steel backplate.
                                                                A centrifugal type circulating water pump is fitted to
The camshaft and fuel injection pump drive gears are            the front face of the cylinder block. to assist the water
manufactured from spheroidal graphite cast iron. the            circulation through the cylinder block and head. The
crankshaft <1nd Idler gears being of steel treated by           water outlet is via a thermostat housing which is cast
the Sulfinuz or Tufftride process.                              integral with the cylinder head. the thermostat restricts
                                                                the flow of water when the engine is cold and brings
                                                                about a faster warm up. When the water temperature
                                                                reaches a pre-determined paint the thermostat opens
Pistons and Piston Pins
                                                                and allows normal coolant circulation. The water pump
                                                                is belt driven from the crankshaft pulley
The pistons are manufactured from special high silicon
aluminium alloy. fitted with three compression rings
and one oil control ring above the piston pin and one oil
control ring below. The upper oil control ring comprises
four laminated segments. The piston pins are of the fully
floating type. located axially in the piston by circlips. The
piston has a steel insert rolled into the top groove.




Lubrication System

The lubrication of the engine is by full pressure feed
from a rotor type oil pump. driven by spiral gears from
the camshaft. An oil strainer is fitted on the end of the
pump inlet pipe. the pump then delivers the oil via a
full flow filter. bolted on the fuel pump side of the
cylinder block to the main ali gallery. This gallery is
drilled lengthwise through !lie crankcase. drillings from
the main oil gallery to the main bearings and drillings
in the main crankshaft journals to the crankpin jour-
nals provide the lubrication for the crankshaft. Oil
feeds are also taken to Hle idler gear spigot which
                                                                             ENGINE DESCRIPTION-A.3


The injectors are located in an accessible position on   Starting Aid
the left hand side of the cylinder head.
The nozzles are of the pintle type.
                                                         To aid starting under cold conditions a'Thermostart"'
Provision is made for mounting a fuel filter on either
                                                         heater is fitted into the induction manifold.
side of the cylinder head. The filter should be of the
paper element type and of approved design.

                                                         Tachometer Drive

                                                         Provision is made, on the right hand side of the
                                                         engine, for a drive at half engine speed to be taken from
                                                         the oil pump spiral gear to a mechanical tachometer.
                                                                          SECTION B
                                                                       Technical data
Engine Data

Westerbeke                                                     4.108 and 4.107               4.99
Bore (nominal - See Page B.3)                                   3.125 in (79.37 mm)          3.00 in (76.2 mm)
Stroke ...                                                      3.5 in (88.9 mm)             3.5 in (88.9 mm)
No. of Cylinders                                                Four                         Four
Cubic Capacity                                                  107.4 in' (1.760 litre)      99 in' (1.621 litre)
Compression Ratio                                               22: 1                        20: 1
Firing Order                                                    1. 3. 4. 2.                  1.3. 4. 2.
Cycle ...                                                       Four·Stroke                  Four-Stroke
Combustion System                                               Indirect Injection           Indirect Injection


Rating Details

                           4.99                                 4.107                          4.108
Maximum Rated Output 34 bhp at 3000 rev/min.                    37 bhp at 3000 rev/min         37 bhp at 3000 rev/ min
Maximum Torque Output 731bf It (10,1 kgl m)                     79 Ibl (10,92 kgl m)           791bl It (10,92 kgl m)


Recommended Torque Tensions

The following torque figures will apply with the component s lightly oiled belore assembly:-

                                                               4.107 and 4.99                4.108
Cylinder Head Nuts                                              42 Ibl It ( 5.81   kgl m)     60lbfft( 8.3       kglm)
Connecting Rod Setscrews                                        42 Ibf ft ( 5.81   kgf m)     42 Ibf ft ( 5.81   kgf m)
· Main Bearing Setscrews                                        85 Ibf It (11.5    kgl m)     851bfft(11.5       kgfm)
Flywheel Setscrews                                              60 Ibf It ( 8.3    kgf m)     60 Ibl It ( 8.3    kgf m)
Idler Gear Hub Setscrews                                        36 Ibl It ( 4.98   kgl m)     32 Ibf ft ( 4.4    kgl m)
Crankshaft Pulley Setscrews                                    1501blft(20.5       kglm)     150 Ibfft (20.5     kgl m)
Injector Securing Nuts                                          12 Ibf It ( 1.7    kgl m )    121bllt( 1.7       kgfm)



 . The tab and shim washers may be discarded where used 0 n earlier engines. but the setscrews must be tightened to
the torque loading indicated.


Service Wear Limits

The following "wear limits" indicate the condition when it is recommended that the respective items should be serviced
or replaced.

Cylinder Head Warping                     Longitudinal         0.006 in (0.15 mm)
Cylinder Head Warping                      Transverse          0.003 in (0.08 mm) concave
                                                               0.005 in (0.13 mm) convex
Maximum Bore Wear (when new liners are necessary)              0.006 in (0.15 mm)
Crankshaft Main and Big End Journal          Wear              0.001 in (0.03 mm)
Crankshaft Main and Big End Journal         Ovality            0.0005 in (0.01 mm)
Maximum Crankshaft End Float                                   0.020 in (0.51 mm)
Valve Stem to Guide Clearance                 inlet            0.005 in (0.13 mm)
Valve Stem to Guide Clearance              exhaust             0.006 in (0.15 mm)
Valve Head Thickness at outer edge                             0.025 in (0.64 mm)
Rocker Clearance on Shalt                                      0.005 in (0.13 mm)
Camshaft Journals - Ovality and Wear                           0.002 in (0.05 mm)
Camshaft End Float                                             0.020 in (0.51 mm)
Idler Gear End Float                                           0.010 in (0.25 mm)
Valve Head Depth below Head Face inlet and exhaust             0.048 in (1.220 mm)
                                                                                        TECHNICAL DATA-B.3


                MANUFACTURING DATA AND DIMENSIONS
 The data regarding clearances and tolerances is given for personnel engaged upon major overhauls.




 CYLINDER BLOCK
 Total Height of Cylinder Block
   between Top & Bottom Faces           4.108,4.107,4.99       9.936/9.939 in (252,374/252.451 mm)
 Parent Bore Dia. for Cylinder Liner    4.108                  3.249/3.250 in (82,525/82,550 mm)
 Parent Bore Dia. for Cylinder Liner           4.107.4.99      Wet Liners
 Main Bearing Parent Bore               4.108,4107,4.99        2.3950/2.3955 in (60,833/60,846 mm)
 Camshaft Bore Dia. No.1                4.108,4.107,4.99       1.79411.7955 in (45,568/45,606 mm)
 Camshaft Bore Dia. No.2                4.108,4.107,4.99       1.784/1.787 in (45,314/45,390 mm)
 Camshaft Bore Dia. No.3                4.108, 4.107, 4.99     1.776/1.778 in (45,110/45.161 mm)
 Tappet Bore Dia.                       4.108,4.107,4.99       0.562/0.56325 in (14,275/14,307 mm)
 Fuel Pump Drive Hub Bearing
   Bore Dia.                            4.108,4.107,4.99       1.8125/1.8141 in (46,037/46,078 mm)

 Cylinder Liner      4.108                                     Cast Iron
 Type                                                          Dry - Interference Fit
 Interference Fit of Liners                                    0.003/0.005 in (0,076/0,127 mm)
 Inside Dia. of Liner after Finish Boring and Honing           3.12513.126 in (79,375179.40 mm)
 Height of Liner in relation to Cylinder Block Top Face        0.023/0.027 in (0,584/0,686 mm) above
 Overall Length of Liner                                       6.49516.505 in (164,973/165,227 mm)

 Cylinder Liner      4.107 and 4.99                            Cast Iron
 Type                                                          Wet - Push Fit
 Inside Dia. of Liner Pre-Finished                  4.99       3.00/3.001 in (76.20176,225 mm)
 Inside Dia. of Liner Pre-Finished                 4.107       3.125/3.126 in (79,374179.4 mm)
 Thickness of Top Flange.                           4.99       0.312510.3145 in (7.93717,988 mm)
 Depth of Recess in Block for Liner Flange          4.99       0.3115/0.3135 in (7,91217,963 mm)
 Thickness of Top Flange                           4.107       0.25010.252 in (6,35/6.4 mm)
 Depth of Recess in Block for Liner Flange         4.107       0.249/0.251 in (6,325/6,375 mm)
 Height of Liner in relation to
   Cylinder Block Top Face                4.107 and 4.99       0.003 in (0,076 mm) Above, 0.001 in (0.025 mm) below
 Liner Flange Outside Dia.                          4.99       3.618/3.621 in (91,898/91,973 mm)
 Cylinder Block Top Bore for Liner Flange           4.99       3.625/3.627 in (92.075/91,125 mm)
 Clearance Fit of Liner Flange
   to Block Bore                          4.107 and 4.99       0.00410.009 in (0,102/0,229 mm)

Pistons    4.108
Type                                                          Flat Topped
Overall Height (Skirt to Crown)                               3.147/3.150 in (79,934/80.010 mm)
Center Line of Piston Pin to Piston Skirt                     1.157 in (29,388 mm)
Piston Height in relation to Cylinder Block Top Face.         0.002/0.006 in (0,051/0,152 mm) Above
Bore Dia. for Piston Pin                                      1.06255/1.06275 in (26,989/26,994 mm)
Compression Ring Groove Width-Top                             0.0805/0.0815 in (2,045/2,070 mm)
Compression Ring Groove Width-2nd                             0.0645/0.0655 in (1,638/1,664 mm)
Compression Ring Groove Width-3rd                             0.0645/0.0655 in (1,638/1,664 mm)
Oil Control Ring Groove Width-4th                             0.12610.127 in (3,200/3,225 mm)
Oil Control Ring Groove Width-5th                             0.190/0.191 in (4,826/4,851 mm)


 Note: There is a Steel Insert fitted above the Top Groove.


 Pistons     4.107 and 4.99
 Type                                                          Flat Topped
 Overall Height (Skirt to Crown)                               3.146 in (79,91 mm)
 Center Line of Piston Pin to Piston Skirt                     1.344 in (34,14 mm)
 Piston Height in relation to Cylinder Block Top Face          0.0085/0.012 in (0,22/0,30 mm) Above
 Bore Dia. for Piston Pin
    later 4.99 and all 4.107 engines ..                        0.93755/0.93775 in (23,81/23,82 mm)
 Early 4.99 engines                                            0.87505/0.87525 in (22.22/22.23 mm)
 Compression Ring Groove Width-Top                             0.0801/0.0811 in (2,034/2,06 mm)
 Compression Ring Grooves Width 2nd and 3rd                    0.0645/0.0655 in (1,638/1,664 mm)
 Oil Control Ring Grooves Width 4th and 5th                    0.19010.191 in (4,826/4.851 mm)
TECHNICAL DATA-B.4


Piston Rings      4.108
Top-Compression                                                  Parallel Faced
Second and Third Compression                                     Internally Stepped
Fourth-Oil Control                                               Laminated Segment
Fifth-Oil Control                                                Slotted Scraper
Top Compression Ring Width                                       0.0771/0.0781 in (1,958/1,984 mm)
Ring Clearance in Groove                                         0.0024/0.0044 in (0,061/0,112 mm)
Second and Third Compression Ring Width ...                      0.0615/0.0625 in (1,562/1,587 mm)
Ring Clearance in Groove                                         0.00210.004 in (0,051/0,102 mm)
Fifth Scraper Ring Width                                         0.1865/0.1875 in (4,737/4,762 mm)
Ring Clearance in Groove                                         0.0025/0.0045 in (0,063/0,114 mm)
Ring Gap-Top Compression                                         0.00910.014 in (0,229/0,356 mm)
Ring Gap-Second and Third Compression ..                         0.009/0.014 in (0,229/0,356 mm)
Ring Gap-Fifth Scraper                                           0.009/0.014 in (0,229/0,356 mm)

Piston Ring Gaps quoted are measured in a ring gauge of 3.125 in (79,38 mm) bore. In practice lor every 0.001 in
(0,254 mm) difference in cylinder bore diameter Irom gauge size, 0.003 in (0,762 mm) should be allowed.




Piston Rings 4.107 and 4.99
Agricultural and Industrial Engines
Top Compression                                                  Parallel Cast Iron
'Second and Third Compression                                    Internally Stepped
Fourth-Oil Control                                               Chrome Plated Spring Loaded Scraper
Fifth-Oil Control                                                Slotted Scraper

· 4.99 Agricultural engines have taper faced cast iron compression rings fitted in the second and third ring grooves.

Top Compression Ring Width                                       0.0771/0.0781    in (1,96/1,984 mm)
Ring Clearance in Groove                                         0.002/0.004 in    (0,051/0,102 mm)
Second and Third Compression Ring Width                          0.0615/0.0625    in (1,562/1,587 mm)
Ring Clearance in Groove                                         0.00210.004 in    (0,051/0,102 mm)
Fourth and Fifth Scraper Ring Width                              0.1865/0.1875    in (4,737/4,762 mm)
Ring Clearance in Groove                                         0.0025/0.0045    in (0,064/0,114 mm)
Ring Gap-Compression Rings Chrome Vehicle                        0.012/0.017 in    (0,3010,43 mm)
Ring Gap-Oil Control Rings Cast Iron Vehicle                     0.009/0.014 in    (0,229/0,356 mm)
Ring Gap-Compression Rings Cast Iron
  Agricultural and Industrial                                    0.00910.014 in (0.229/0,356 mm)

Piston Ring Gaps quoted are measured in a ring gauge 01 3.000 in (76,20 mm) bore lor 4.99 engines and 3.125 in
(79,38 mm) bore for 4.107 engines. In practice, lor every 0.001 in (0,254 mm) difference in cylinder bore diameter
from gauge size, 0.003 in (0,762 mm) should be allowed.


Piston Pin     4.108
Type                                                             Fully Floating
Outside Dia. of Piston Pin                                       1.0625/1.0627 in (26,987/26,993 mm)
Length of Piston Pin                                             2.673/2.687 in (67,894/68,250 mm)
Fit in Piston Boss                                               Transition

Piston Pin     4.107 and 4.99
Type                                                             Fully Floating
Outside Dia. of Piston Pin                                       0.9375 in/0.9377 in (23,812/23,817 mm)
Earlier Engines                                                  0.875/0.8752 in (22.225/22.23 mm)
Fit in Piston Boss                                               Transition

Small End Bushing         4.108
Type                                                             Steel Backed, Lead Bronze Lined
Length of Small End Bushing                                      0.935/0.955 in (23,749/24,257 mm)
Outside Dia. of Small End Bushing ..                             1.221/1.222 in (31,013/31,039 mm)
Inside Dia. before Reaming                                       1.049511.0545 in (26,657/26,784 mm)
Inside Dia. alter Reaming                                        1.06315/1.0632 in (27,004/27,005 mm)
Clearance between Small End Bushing and Piston Pin               0.00045/0.0007 in (0,0114/0.0178 mm)
                                                                                                   TECHNICAL DATA-B.S


Small End Bushing        4.107 and 4.99
Type                                                                   Steel Backed, Lead Bronze Lined
Length of Small End Bushing                                            0.865/0.885 in (22,00/22,48 mm)
Outside Dia. of Small End Bushing
  on later 4.99 and all 4.107 engines                                  1.065/1.066 in (27,05/27,08 mm)
Early 4.99 engines                                                     1.0025/1.0035 in (25,46/25,49 mm)
Inside Dia. after Reaming on later
  4.99 and all 4.107 engines                                           0.9382/0.93875 in (23,83/23,84 mm)
Early 4.99 engines                                                     0.875710.87625 in (22,24/22,26 mm)
Clearance between Small End Bushing and Piston Pin                     0.0005/0.00125 in (0,01/0,03 mm)

Note. Bushings to be reamed to suit respective Piston Pins, and are provided with a reaming allowance.

Connecting Rod        4.108
Type                                                               'H' Section
Cap Location to Connecting Rod                                     Serrations, Offset 45° to the Horizontal
Big End Parent Bore Dia.                                           2.146/2.1465 in (54,508/54,521 mm)
Small End Parent Bore Dia.                                         1.21875/1.21975 in (30,956/30,981 mm)
Length from Centre Line of Big End
  to Centre Line of Small End                                      6.21716.219 in (157,912/157,963 mm)
Big End Setscrew                                                   0.375 in (.~ in) U.N.F.
Connecting Rod End Float                                           0.0065/0.0105 in (0,165/0,267 mm)


Connecting Rod        4.107 and 4.99
Type                                                               'H' Section
Cap Location to Connecting Rod                                     Serrations, Offset 45° to the horizontal
Big End Parent Bore Dia.                                           2.146/1.1465 in (54,508/54,521 mm)
Small End Parent Bore Dia.
   on later 4.99 and all 4.107 engines                             1.062511.0635 in (26,99/27,01 mm)
Early 4.99 engines                                                 1.0011.001 in (25,4/25,43 mm)
Length from Centre Line of Big End to Centre Line of
  Small End                                                        6.405/6.407 in (162,69/162,74 mm)
Big End Setscrew                                                   0.375 in (i in) U.N.F.
Connecting Rod End Float
  on later 4.99 and all 4.107 engines                              0.0065/0.0105 in (0,16/0,27 mm)
Early 4.99 engines                                                 0.0075/0.0105 in (0.1910,27 mm)


Connecting Rod Alignment 4.108,4.107,4.99
Large and small end bores must be square and parallel with each other within the limits of :::':0.010 in (0,25 mm) mea-
sured 5 in (127 mm) each side of the axis of the rod on test mandrel as shown in Fig. B.1. With the small end bush
fitted. the limit of =0.010 in (0,025 mm) is reduced to =0.0025 in (0,06 mm).




                                               ---
                                                        -i f.,..

                                                                                   -
                                    E'~                                                 r::: E
                              .:: E                                                    .- E
                              O~
                              ..... Lt)
                               . ..
                              ON
                              00
                              +1  +1
                                           -    Sin
                                               127mm
                                                       . .
                                                           I
                                                                          Sin
                                                                              C?N
                                                                              +1+-
                                                                              ..J
                                                                                  -~




                                                                        127mm o 0 ..
                                                                                       o~
                                                                                       ..... Lt)




                              ..J
                                                        "" r-.
                                          'J
                                                                   -                   "
                                                        --
                         81
TECHNICAL DATA-B.6


Crankshaft     4.108, 4.107, 4.99
Overall Length                                                  21.125 in (536,575 mm)
Main Journal Dia. Nos. 1 and 2                                  2.248/2.2485 in (57,099/57,112 mm)
Main Journal Dia. No.3                                          2.247512.248 in (57,086/57,099 mm)
Main Journal Length NO.1                                        1.40625 in (35,719 mm)
Main Journal Length No.2                                        1.496/1.504 in (37,998/38,202 mm)
Main Journal Length NO.3                                        1.499/1.502 in (38,075/38,151 mm)
Main Journal Fillet Radii                                       0.125/0.141 in (3,175/3,581 mm)
Crankpin Dia.                                                   1.9995/2.000 in (50,787/50,800 mm)
Crankpin Length                                                 1.1875/1.1895 in (30,162/30,213 mm)
Crankpin Fillet Radii                                           0.15625/0.17187 in (5/32/11/64 in)
                                                                   (3,96914,366 mm)
Surface Finish-All Journals                                     8·16 micro·in (0,2·0,4 micron)
Main Journal and Crankpin Regrind Undersizes                    0.010,0.020,0.030 in (0,25,0,51,0,76 mm)
Oil Seal Helix Dia.                                             2.21075/2.21175 in (56,153/56,178 mm)
Oil Seal Helix Width                                            0.05010.080 in (1,270/2,032 mm)
Oil Seal Helix Depth                                            0.004/0.008 in (0,102/0,203 mm)
Flange Dia.                                                     3.9985/3.9995 in (101,562/101,587 mm)
Flange Width                                                    0.500 in (12,700 mm)
Spigot Bearing Recess Depth                                     0.875 in (22,225 mm)
Spigot Bearing Recess Bore                                      1.250 in (31,750 mm)
Crankshaft End Float                                            0.002/0.015 in (0,0508/0,381 mm)



Special Note:

The crankshaft fitted to the 4.108 engine is hardened by the "Tufftride" process.
Special precautions are therefore necessary when regrinding. Only very light cuts should be taken, especially in the
region of the fillet radii and adequate cooling should be ensured during grinding operations.

After regrinding the crankshaft it should be crack·detected and de·magnetised, then retreated by the "Tufftride" process
after which the crankshaft should again be crack·detected and de·magnetised. Where facilities are not available to re-
harden the crankshaft by this process, a factory replacement crankshaft should be obtained.

Fillet radii and surface finish must be maintained during all crankshaft regrinding. Length of NO.3 main journal not to
exceed 1.516 in (38,506 mm) after regrinding. Where necessary use oversize thrust washers to bring crankshaft end
float within the correct limits.



Crankshaft Thrust Washers 4.108,4.107,4.99
Type                                                            Steel Backed-Lead Bronze Faced
Position in Engine                                              Rear Main Bearing
Thrust Washer Thickness (STD)                                   0.089/0.091 in (2,261/2,311 mm)
Thrust Washer Thickness (O/S)                                   0.0965/0.1005 in (2,45112,553 mm)
Thrust Washer Outside Dia.                                      3.245/3.255 in (82,423/82,677 mm)
Thrust Washer Inside Dia.                                       2.59012.600 in (65,786/66,040 mm)



Main Bearings       4.108,4.107,4.99
Type                                                            Pre-finished, Steel Backed, Aluminium Tin Lined
Shell Width                                                     1.245/1.255 in (31,623/31,877 mm)
Outside Dia. of Main Bearing                                    2.3955 in (60,846 mm)
Inside Dia. of Main Bearing                                     2.250512.2515 in (57,163/57,188 mm)
Running Clearance-Nos. 1 and 2                                  0.002/0.0035 in (0,051/0,089 mm)
Running Clearance-No. 3                                         0.0025/0.004 in (0,063/0,102 mm)
Steel Thickness                                                 0.060 in (1,524 mm) Max.
Aluminium Thickness                                             0.012/0.01225 in (0,305/0,311 mm)



Connecting Rod Bearings            4.108,4.107,4.99
Type                                                            Pre-finished, Steel Backed, Aluminium Tin Lined
Shell Width                                                     0.87010.880 in (22,098/22,325 mm)
Outside Dia. of Con. Rod Bearing                                2.1465 in (54,521 mm)
Inside Dia. of Con. Rod Bearing                                 2.0015/2.0025 in (50,838/50,863 mm)
Running Clearance                                               0.0015/0.003 in (0,038/0,076 mm)
Steel Thickness .. _                                            0.060 in (1,524 mm) Max.
Aluminium Thickness                                             0.012/0.01225 in (0,305/0,311 mm)
                                                                                    TECHNICAL DATA-B.7


Camshaft      4.108, 4.107, 4.99
NO.1 Journal Length                                      1.347/1.351 in (34,214/34,315 mm)
NO.1 Journal Dia.                                        1.791/1.792 in (45,491/45,517 mm)
No. 1 Cylinder Block Camshaft Bore Dia.                  1.79411.7955 in (45,568/45,606 mm)
No. 1 Journal Running Clearance                          0.00210.0045 in (0,051/0,114 mm)
No.2 Journal Length                                      1.250 in (31,750 mm)
NO.2 Journal Dia.                                        1.781/1.782 in (45,237/45,263 mm)
No.2 Cylinder Block Camshaft Bore Dia.                   1.784/1.787 in (45,314/45,390 mm)
No.2 Journal Running Clearance                           0.002/0.006 in (0,051/0,152 mm)
No.3 Journal Length                                      1.000 in (25,400 mm)
NO.3 Journal Dia.                                        1.773/1.774 in (45,034/45,060 mm)
No.3 Cylinder Block Camshaft Bore Dia.                   1.776/1.778 in (45,110/45,161 mm)
NO.3 Journal Running Clearance ...                       0.002/0.005 in (0,051/0,127 mm)
Cam Lift                                                 0.266 in (6,766 mm)
Oilways for Rocker Shaft Lubrication                     NO.2 Journal


Camshaft Thrust Plates        4.108, 4.107, 4.99
Type                                                     180 0 Oil Impregnated Sintered Iron
Thrust Plate Outside Dia.                                2.555/2.557 in (64,897/64,948 mm)
Cylinder Block Recess Dia. for Thrust Plate              2.5585/2.5685 in (64,986/65,240 mm)
Clearance Fit of Thrust Plate in Recess                  0.0015/0.013 in (0,038/0,330 mm)
Thrust Plate Inside Dia ....                             1.500 in (38,100 mm)
Thrust Plate Thickness                                   0.16010.162 in (4,060/4,115 mm)
Cylinder Block Recess Depth for Thrust Plate             0.158/0.164 in (4,009/4,166 mm)
Thrust Plate Height in relation to Cylinder Block Face   0.004 in (0,102 mm) above or below
Camshaft End Float                                       0.003/0.013 in (0,076/0,330 mm)


Valve and Fuel Pump Timing
Refer to later section on timing (page L.1).


CYLINDER HEAD           4.108,4.107,4.99
Overall Length of Cylinder Head                          20.000 in (508,000 mm)
Overall Depth of Cylinder Head                           2.617/2.633 in (66,472/66,878 mm)
Resurfacing Allowance on Cylinder Head Face              NIL-On no account can the cylinder head face be
                                                               resurfaced.
Pressure for Water Leakage Test                          20 Ibflin 2 (1.4 kgflcm2)
Valve Seat Angle                                         45'
Bore in Cylinder Head for Guide                          0.4995/0.5005 in (12,687/12,713 mm)
Bore in Cylinder Head for Combustion Chamber Inserts     1.250/1.252 in (31,750/31,801 mm)
Depth of Bore in Cylinder Head for
  Combustion Chamber Inserts                             0.373/0.376 in (9,474/9.550 mm)


Combustion Chamber Inserts 4.108, 4.107, 4.99
Outside Dia. of Insert                                   1.248/1.249 in (31,699/31.724 mm)
Depth of Insert                                          0.374/0.375 in (9,499/9,525 mm)
Height of Insert in relation to Cylinder Head Face       0.002 in (0,051 mm) above or below
Clearance Fit of Insert in Cylinder Head Bore            0.001/0.004 in (0,025/0,102 mm)
Method of Location in Cylinder Head                      By Cylinder Block Face and Expansion Washer


Valve Guides (Inlet)       4.108,4.107,4.99
Inside Dia.                                              0.3145/0.3155 in    (7,988/8,014 mm)
Outside Dia.                                             0.50125/0.50175    in (12.744/12,757 mm)
Interference fit of Guide in Cylinder Head Bore          0.00075/0.00225    in (0.019/0.057 mm)
Overall length of Guide                                  2.130 in (54.102    mm)
Guide Protrusion Above Top
   Face of Cylinder Head                                 0.80010.815 in (20.320/20.701 mm)


Valve Guides (Exhaust)         4.108,4.107,4.99
Inside Dia.                                              0.3145/0.3155 in (7,988/8,014 mm)
Outside Dia.                                             0.50125/0.50175 in (12,744/12,757 mm)
Interference fit of Guide in Cylinder Head Bore          0.00075/0.00225 in (0,019/0.057 mm)
Depth of Counterbore                                     0.380 in (9,650 mm)
Overall Length of Guide                                  2.440 in (61,980 mm)
Guide Protrusion above Top Face of Cylinder Head ..      0.80010.815 in (20.320/20,701 mm)
TECHNICAL DATA-B.8


Valves (Inlet)    4.108,4.107,4.99
Valve Stem Dia.                                      0.312/0.313 in (7.92517.950 mm)
Clearance fit of Valve Stem in Guide                 0.0015/0.0035 in (0.038/0.089 mm)
Valve Head Dia.                                      1.41011.414 in (35.814/35.916 mm)
Valve Face Angle                                     45°
Valve Head Depth Below Cylinder Head Face            0.028 in (0.711 mm) 10.039 in (0.991 mm)
Overall Length of Valve                              4.592/4.608 in (116.637/117.043 mm)
Sealing Arrangement                                  Rubber Oil Seal




Valves (Exhaust)        4.108,4.107,4.99
Valve Stem Dia.                                      0.3115/0.3125 in (7.91217.937 mm)
Clearance Fit of Valve Stem in Guide                 0.00210.004 in (0.051/0.102 mm)
Valve Head Dia.                                      1.191/1.195 in (30.251/30.353 mm)
Valve Face Angle                                     45°
Valve Head Depth Below Cylinder Head Face            0.021 in (0.53 mm) 10.032 in (0.813 mm)
Overall Length of Valve                              4.600/4.616 in (116.840/117.246 mm)
Sealing Arrangement                                  No Seal fitted to Exhaust Valve




Inner Valve Springs (where fitted)
Fitted Length                                        1.530 in (38.862 mm)
Load at Fitted Length                                28.6 I bf= 2 I bf (13.0 kgf ::+:: 0.91 kg!)
Fitted Position                                      Damper Coil to Cylinder Head



Outer Valve Springs       4.108,4.107,4.99
F;tted Length                                        1.780 in (45.212 mm)
Load at Fitted Length                                56.0 Ibf ~ 2.8 Ibf (25.4 kgf ~ 1.27 kgf)
Fitted Position                                      Damper Coil to Cylinder Head



Rocker Levers      4.108,4.107.4.99
Length between Center Line of Adjusting Screw and
  Center Line of Rocker Shaft                        1.042/1.058 in (26.467/26.873 mm)
Length between Center Line of Rocker Lever Pad and
  Center Line of Rocker Shaft                        1.567/1.583 in (39.802/40.208 mm)
Inside Dia. of Rocker Lever Bore                     0.71825/0.71950 in (18.243/18.275 mm)
Outside Dia. of Rocker Lever Bushing                 0.720510.7215 in (18.301/18.326 mm)
Interference Fit of Bushing in Rocker Lever          0.001/0.00325 in (0.025/0.082 mm)
Finished Inside Dia. of Rocker Lever Bushing         0.6245/0.62575 in (15.862/15.894 mm)
Clearance of Rocker Lever Bushing on Rocker Shaft    0.00075/0.0035 in (0.019/0.089 mm)



Valve Clearances 4.108,4.107,4.99
Clearance between Valve Stem Tip and Rocker Lever    0.012 in (0.30 mm) Cold



Rocker Shaft 4.108,4.107,4.99
Overall Length of Shaft                              14.5625 in (369.887 mm)
Outside Dia. of Shaft                                0.62225/0.62375 in (15.805/15.843 mm)
LubricCltion                                         Oil Feed from Cylinder Head through Central
                                                       Passage to Individual Rocker Levers



Push Rods 4.108,4.107,4.99
Overall Length                                       8.52718.560 in (216.58/217.42 mm)
Outside Dia.                                         0.250 in (6.350 mm)


Tappets 4.108,4.107,4.99
Overall Length                                       2.250 in (57.150 mm)
Outside Dia. of Tappet Shank                         0.56010.561 in (14.224/14.249 mm)
Cylinder Block Tappet Bore Dia.                      0.56210.56325 in (14.275/14.307 mm)
Tappet Running Clearance in Cylinder Block Bore      0.001/0.00325 in (0.025/0.082 mm)
Outside Dia. of Tappet Foot                          1.24511.255 in (31.623/31.877 mm)
                                                                                      TECHNICAL DATA-B.9


TIMING GEARS 4.108,4.107,4.99
Camshaft Gear
Number of Teeth                                             48
Inside Dia. of Gear Boss                                    1.750/1.7514 in (44,450/44,486 mm)
Outside Dia. of Camshaft Hub                                1.7496/1.7509 in (44,430/44,473 mm)
Transition Fit of Gear and Hub                              0.0009/0.0018 in (0,023/0,046 mm)


Fuel Pump Gear
Number of Teeth                                             48
Inside Dia. of Cylinder Block Bore for Fuel Pump
  Drive Hub Bearing                                         1.8125/1.8141 in (46,037/46,078 mm)
Outside Dia. of Fuel Pump Drive Hub Bearing                 1.8145/1.8152 in (46,088/46,106 mm)
Interference Fit of Drive Hub
  Bearing in Cylinder Block Bore ...                        0.0004/0.0027 in (0,010/0,069 mm)
Inside Dia. of Fuel Pump Drive Hub Bearing                  1.3125/1.3135 in (33,34/33,78 mm)
Outside Dia. of Fuel Pump Gear Drive Hub .. .               1.3105/1.3115 in (33,287/33,312 mm)
Running Clearance of Drive Hub in Bearing .. .              0.0031/0.0051 in (0,079/0,129 mm)
Drive Hub End Float                                         0.00210.010 in (0,051/0,254 mm)



Idler Gear and Hub
Number of Teeth                                             57
Inside Dia. of Gear Boss                                    1.7187/1.7197 in (43,655/43,680 mm)
Inside Dia. of Gear Boss with Bushing Fitted                1.5625/1.5641 in (39,687/39,728 mm)
Outside Dia. of Gear Hub                                    1.5612/1.5619 in (39,654/39,668 mm)
Running Clearance of Gear on Hub                            0.0003/0.0016 in (0,008/0,041 mm)
Idler Gear Width                                            1.3105/1.3135 in (33,287/33,363 mm)
Hub Width                                                   1.3165/1.3185 in (33,439/33,490 mm)
Idler Gear End Float                                        0.00210.007 in (0,051/0.178 mm)


Crankshaft Gear
Number of Teeth                                              24
Inside Dia. of Gear                                          1.250/1.2512 in (31,750/31,780 mm)
Crankshaft Dia. for Gear                                     1.250/1.2506 in (31.750/31,756 mm)
Transition Fit of Gear on Crankshaft                         0.0006/0.0012 in (0.015/0,030 mm)



Timing Gear Backlash
Clearance between    Crankshaft!ldler and      Camshaft!
  Idler Gear                                                 0.0015/0.003 in (0,038/0,076 mm)




LUBRICATJ~G         SYSTEM       4.108,4.107,4.99
Lubricating Oil Pressure                                     30/60 p.s.i. (2,1/4.2 kgf/cm2) at maximum engine
                                                               speed and normal working temperature.



Sump
Dipstick Position                                            Camshaft side of engine opposite No.2 cylinder
Strainer Location                                            End of suction pipe to lubricating oil pump.


Typical Sump Capacities
Refill Capacities-Engine Level                               Imp. pt            U.S. pt             Litre
Standard Sump ...                                              7.0                8,4               4.0




Note: The above sump capacities are intended to be used as a guide and actual capacities should be governed by the
level indicated on the dipstick.
TECHNICAL DATA-B.10


Lubricating Oil Pump
Type                                           Rotor Type
Number of Lobes-Inner Rotor                    Three or Four
Number of Lobes-Outer Rotor                    Four or Five
Method of Drive                                By Spiral Gears from the Camshaft



Pump Clearances
Inner Rotor to Outer Rotor                     0.0005/0.0025 in (0.013/0.063 mm)
Outer Rotor to Pump Body                       0.011/0.013 in (0.28/0.33 mm)
I nner Rotor End Clearance                     0.0015/0.0003 in (0.0380.076 mm)
Outer Rotor End Clearance                      0.0005/0.0025 in (0.013/0.063 mm)
Inside Dia. of Bore for Pump Shaft             0.50010.501 in (12.700/12.725 mm)
Outside Dia. of Pump Shaft                     0.498310.4986 in (12.655/12.664 mm)
Running Clearance. Shaft in Bore               0.0014/0.0027 in (0.036/0.069 mm)



Lubricating Oil Pump Drive Gear
Number of Teeth                                12
Inside Dia. of Gear Bore                       0.4965/0.4970 in (12.611/12.624 mm)
Outside Dia. of Oil Pump Drive Shaft           0.4983/0.4986 in (12.655/12.664 mm)
I nterference Fit of Gear on Shaft             0.0013/0.0021 in (0.033/0.053 mm)
Lubricating Oil Pump Drive Gear Backlash       0.0155/0.019 in (0.394/0.483 mm)


Relief Valve
Type                                           Spring Loaded Plunger
Pressure Setting                               50/65 Ibf/inl (3.5/4.6 kgf/cml)
Length of Plunger                              0.9375 in (23.813 mm)
Outside Dia. of Plunger                        0.5585/0.5595 in (14,19/14.21 mm)
Inside Dia. of Valve Housing Bore              0.5605/0.5625 in (14.24/14.29 mm)
Clearance of Plunger in Bore                   0.001/0.004 in (0.025/0,102 mm)
Outside Dia. of Spring                         0.368/0.377 in (9.347/9.576 mm)
Spring-Free Length                             1.5 in (38,10 mm)
Spring-Solid Length                            0.754 in (19.15 mm)



Lubricating Oil Filter
Type                                           Full Flow
Element Type                                   Paper
By-Pass Valve Setting                          Opens between 13-17 Ibf/in l
                                               (0.91-1,2 kgf/cm2) pressure differential
Type of Valve                                  Spring Loaded Ball



COOLING SYSTEM            4.108, 4.107, 4.99
Type                                           Water Cooled
Cylinder Block and Head                        Thermo-Syhpon Impeller Assisted
Engine Water Capacity                          Approx. 10 U.S. quarts



Thermostat
Type                                           Wax Capsule
Opening Temperature                            175-182'F (79,5-83,5'C)
Fully open at                                  200-205' F (93.5-96'C)
Minimum Travel at Fully Open Temp.             0.3125 in (7.94 mm)



Water Pump
Type                                           Centrifugal-Belt driven from Crankshaft
Outside Dia. of Shaft for Pulley               0.5905/0.5908 in (14,999/15,006 mm)
Inside Dia. of Pulley Bore                     0.58810.589 in (14,935/14,961 mm)
Interference Fit of Pulley on Shaft            0.0015/0.0028 in (0,038/0,071 mm)
Outside Dia. of Shaft for Impeller             0.49810.499 in (12.649/12,675 mm)
Inside Dia. of Impeller Bore                   0.49710.4975 in (12,624/12,636 mm
Interference Fit of Impeller on Shaft          0.0005/0.002 in (0,013/0,051 ;7lm'
                                                                                     TECHNICAL DATA-B.11


Outside Dia. of Impeller ...                                3.094/3.125 in (78.588179.375 mm)
Impeller to Body Clearance                                  0.00510.025 in (0.12710.635 mm)
Water Pump Seal Type ...                                    Synthetic Rubber-Carbon Faced
Inside Dia, of Seal for Impeller Shaft                      0.472 in (11,989 mm)
Outside Dia. of Seal                                        1.102 in (27,991 mm)
"Water Pump Insert Type                                     Phosphor Bronze-Surface Finish of Sealing
                                                               Face to be 12·20 micro-in (0,3-0.5 micron)
Outside Dia. of Insert                                      1.6241.6245 in (41,250/41,263 mm)
Inside Dia. of Insert Bore in Water Pump Housing   ...      1.625/1.626 in (41,275/41,300 mm)

"Later water pumps are fitted with ceramic faced inserts.




Fuel Lift Pump
Type                                                        AC Delco Diaphragm 'YJ' Series
Spring Colour Code                                          Green
Method of Drive                                             From Eccentric on Camshaft via Push rod
Total Stroke of Operating Lever                             0.192 in (4,877 mm)
Static Pressure-No Delivery                                 4·7 Ibflin2 (0,28-0.49 kgflcm2)
Pump to Distance Piece Gasket Thickness ...                 0.018/0.022 in (0.457/0,559 mm)
Distance Piece-Lift Pump to Tappet Inspection Cover         0.256 in (6,502 mm)




Fuel Injection Pump
Make                                                        C.A.V.
Type                                                        D.P.A.
Rotation                                                    Clockwise (Viewed from Drive End)
Plunger Dia.                                                6 mm




Hydraulically Governed                                                4.108              4.107              4.99
Timing Letter                                                          A                                     A
No. 1 Cylinder Outlet                                                  W                                     W




Mechanically Governed
Timing Letter                                                           C                 C                  C
No. 1 Cylinder Outlet                                                   W                 W                  W
TeCHNICAL DATA-B.12


Static Timing Position
The static timing position varies according to application, but cal, be obtained by referring to the first group of letters
and digits of the fuel pump setting code (stamped on the fuel pump identification plate). i.e ..



 First Group of            Static Timing            Piston Displacement                          Remarks
Fuel Pump Code                B.T.D.C.                    B.T.D.C.
    EH39
    MH26
             1
    MH27                        18°                  0.108 in (2,75 mm)
    PH28
    PH30
    CH35
             f                  19°                  0.120 in (3,05 mm)
    PH34                        20°                  0.134 in (3,40 mm)
    LH23                        20°                  0.134 in (3,40 mm)        4.107 engines rated up to and including
    LH29
    LH31     }                  22°                  0.160 in (4,06 mm)
                                                                               2.500 rev/min
                                                                               4.107 engines rated above 2,500 rev/min
    DH19     I                  26°                  0.226 in (5.74 mm)
    AH28
    BH26     J
Note: For 4.107 and 4.99 mechanically governed engines rated        above 3,000 and 2,500 rev/min respectively, the static
timing is altered to 22° B.T.D.C. - piston displacement 0.160 in    (4,06 mm). For 4.108 engines prior to engine numbers
108U15973 and 108UD20214, the static timing was 19° B.T.D.C.         - piston displacement 0.120 in (3,05 mm). When re-
setting these pumps, it is advisable to set at the figures quoted   in above table.

For 4.107 industrial engines having a fuel pump coding of PH30 and an idling speed of 1,000 rev/min, the static timing
is 21' B.T.D.C. and a piston displacement of 0.147 in (3,73 mm).



Injectors
4.108 Marine & Industrial
4.107 Marine & Industrial
Make ...                                                            C.A.V.
Holder Type                                                         BKB40SD5224
Nozzle Type                                                         BDN12SD6236
Code Letter                                                         BG
Min. Working Pressure                                               135 atm (2000 Ibf/in2 or 140 kgf/cm2)
Setting Pressure                                                    150 atm (2200 Ibf/in2 or 155 kgf/cm2)




Note: Earlier atomisers bearing the identification code lette r 'J' had a setting pressure of 140 atm. When servicing of
these atomisers is carried out, they should be reset in accordance with the settings quoted above.




Starting Aid
Make ...                                                            C.A.V.
Type                                                                Thermostart
Voltage                                                             12 Volt
Maximum Current Consumption                                         12.9 Amperes at 11.5 Volts
Fuel Flow Rate through Unit                                         4.3-4.9 cm 3 min at 70°F (21°C)
Height of Reservoir above Centre of Thermostart                     4.5-10 in (11,4-25,4 cm)
                                                                              SECTION D
                                                                           Fault Diagnosis
                 Fault                                               Possible Cause

Low cranking speed                      1. 2. 3. 4.

Will not start                          5.6.7.8.9.10.12.13.14.15.16.17. 18.19.20.22.31.32.33.

Difficu It starting                     5.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15,16,18.19.20.21.22.24,29. 31. 32. 33.

Lack of power                           8, 9, 10, 11. 12. 13. 14. 18. 19, 20. 21. 22. 23, 24. 25. 26, 27, 31. 32. 33.

Misfiring                               8,9, 10. 12, 13. 14. 16, 18. 19. 20. 25. 26, 28. 29, 30. 32.

Excessive fuel consumption              11.13.14.16.18.19.20.22,23.24. 25. 27. 28, 29, 31, 32. 33.

Black exhaust                           11. 13. 14. 16. 18, 19, 20. 22, 24. 25. 27. 28. 29. 31. 32, 33.

Blue/white exhaust                      4, 16. 18. 19. 20. 25. 27. 31. 33. 34. 35. 45. 56.

Low oil pressure                        4. 36. 37. 38. 39, 40, 42. 43. 44, 58.

Knockin g                               9.14.16.18 19 22 26 28, 29 . 3 1 . 33. 35. 36. 45. 46. 59.

Erratic running                         7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 20 21 23 26             28 29 30 33 35 45 59

Vibration                               13.14.20.23,25,26.29.30,33.45.47.48,49.

High oil pressure                       4,38.41.

Overheating                             11,13.14.16.18.19.24,25.45.50.51.52. 53. 54. 57.

Excessive crankcase pressure            25.31. 33.    3~   45. 55.

Poor compression                        11. 19, 25. 28, 29. 31. 32. 33. 34. 46. 59.

Starts and stops                        10. 11. 12.

Key to Fault Fmdmg Chart
 1.   Battery capacity low.                                          31.   Worn cylinder bores.
 2.   Bad electrical connections.                                    32.   Pitted valves and seats.
 3.   Faulty starter motor.                                          33.   Broken. worn or sticking piston ring/so
 4.   Incorrect grade of lubricating oil.                            34.   Worn valve stems and guides.
 5.   Low cranking speed.                                            35.   Overfull air cleaner or use of incorrect grade of
 6.   Fuel tank empty.                                                     oil.
 7.   Faulty stop control operation.                                 36.   Worn or damaged bearings.
 8.   Blocked fuel feed pipe.                                        37.   Insufficient oil if) sump.
 9.   Faulty fuel lift pump.                                         38.   Inaccurate gauge.
10.   Choked fuel filter.                                            39.   Oil pump worn.
11.   Restriction in air cleaner.                                    40.   Pressure relief valve sticking open.
12.   Air in fuel system.                                            41.   Pressure relief valve sticking closed.
13.   Faulty fuei injection pump.                                    42.   Broken relief valve spring.
14.   Faulty injectors or incorrect type.                            43.   Faulty suction pipe.
15.   Incorrect use of cold start equipment.                         44.   Choked oil filter.
16.   Faulty cold starting equipment.                                45.   Piston seizure/pick up.
17.   Broken fuel injection pump drive.                              46.   Incorrect piston height.
18.   Incorrect fuel pump timing.                                    47.   Damaged fan.
19.   Incorrect valve timing.                                        48.   Faulty engine mounting (Housing).
20.   Poor compression.                                              49.   Incorrect aligned flywheel housing. or flywheel.
21.   Blocked fuel tank vent.                                        50.   F au Ity thermostat.
22.    Incorrect type or grade of fuel.                              51.   Restriction in water jacket.
23.   Sticking throttle or restricted movement.                      52.   Loose fan belt.
24.   Exhaust pipe restriction.                                      53.   Choked radiator.
25.   Cylinder head gasket leaking.                                  54.   Faulty water pump.
26.   Overheating.                                                   55.    Choked breather pipe.
27.    Cold running.                                                 56.    Damaged valve stem oil deflectors (if fitted).
28.    Incorrect tappet adjustment.                                  57.    Coolant level too low.
29.    Sticking valves.                                              58.    Blocked sump strainer.
30.    Incorrect high pressure pipes.                                59.    Broken valve spring.
                                                                        SECTION E
                                                                     Cylinder Head




                                                            E2

E1                                                          To Remove the Cylinder Head
                                                            1.   Completely drain the cooling system.
Before commencing to overhaul the         cylinder head     2.   Disconnect the battery terminals.
ensure that all joints, gaskets and any   other parts ex-   3.   Remove the securing nuts and detach the exhaust
pected to be required are available.                             pipe from the exhaust manifold. Blank off the end
Remove any external components from       the vicinity of        of the exhaust pipe to prevent entry of any forei!:jn
the cylinder head cover. atomisers and    fu1 pump.              matter.




     E3
CYLINDER HEAD-E.2




                                                          E6
E4
                                                          7.   Remove the cylinder head cover together with the
4.   Uncouple the water outlet connection on the front         breather pipe.
     of the cylinder head.                                8.   Unscrew the oil feed pipe to the rocker shaft at
5.   Remove the air cleaner and place somewhere level          the cylinder head end. (Refer to Fig. E.2 for its
     ready for servicing.                                      location) .
6.   Disconnect the fuel pipe and electrical connection   9.   Remove the eight rocker shaft bracket securing
     to the starting aid located in the induction mani·        nuts evenly and remove the rocker shaft complete
     fold. (Refer to Fig. E.1).                                with the oil feed pipe. (Refer to Fig. E.3).




      E5
                                                                                       CYLINDER HEAD-E.3




E7

                                                            E9

10. Remove the eight push rods and place somewhere
    safe (possibly in the cylinder head cover) to           16. Remove the cylinder head securing nuts and lift
    avoid the possibility of any being accidentally bent.        off the cylinder head complete with inlet and ex-
11. Unscrew the small banjo bolts on the tops of the             haust manifolds. (Refer to Fig. E.5).
    atomisers and remove the leak-off pipe by unscrew-      NOTE: On 4.99 and 4.107 engines. to prevent liner
    ing the union on top of the fuel filter.                movement should the engine be turned with the
12. Remove the low pressure fuel pipes between the          cylinder head removed. it is suggested that the liners
    fuel filter and the fuel pump. remove the fuel filter   are held in position by suitable tubing placed over two
    after disconnecting the feed pipe from the lift         of the cylinder head studs and locked with nuts and
    pump. blank off all pipes and ports to prevent          washers.
    ingress of foreign particles.
13. Remove the four high pressure fuel pipes from the
    fuel pump to the injectors. Blank off fuel pump out-
    let ports.                                              To Remove the Valves
14. Remove the injector securing nuts and carefully
    remove the injector. (Refer to Fig. E.4).               All valves are numbered. The cylinder head is marked
    Blank off the exposed ports on the injectors.           with corresponding numbers. (Refer to Fig. E.6).
15. Uncouple the alternator adjusting link.                 1. Remove collets by compressing the valve springs
                                                                as shown in Fig. E.7.
                                                            2. Remove the spring caps. springs. seals (where
                                                                filted) and spring seats. Remove valves.




E8                                                          E10
CYLINDER HEAD-E.4




E11

COMBUSTION CHAMBER INSERTS
These can be gently tapped out of their locations by
means of a short length of curved bar through the
injector bore. When refitting they must be located by
means of expansion washers in the recesses provided.       E13
as shown in Figs E.B and E.g.


Cleaning
Remove any carbon from the cylinder head.
!f the water jacket within the cylinder head shows signs   VALVE GUIDES
of excessive scale. then a proprietary brand of de·
scaling solution may be used. if possible the cylinder       The worn guides should be removed either by
head should be tested for water leakage after such         means of a press and a suitable "dolly"' or the valve
treatment at the pressure given on Page B.7.               guide removal tool shown in Fig. E.10.
                                                           Before fitting the new guides remove any burrs from
VALVE SPRINGS                                              the cylinder head parent bores, then smear the bores
                                                           with clean oil and either press in the new guides or
It is advisable to fit new valve springs whenever the      pull them in by means of the tool shown in Fig. E.11,
engine undergoes a major overhaul. Where a top over-       until the guide protrusion above the head top face is
haul only is being carried out the springs should be       that quoted on Page B.7.
examined. paying particular attention to squareness of     NOTE: Special care should be exercised during this
ends and pressures developed at specific lengths. the      operation as the guides, being made of cast iron, are
details of which can be found on Page B.B.                 therefore comparatively brittle.




E12                                                        E14
                                                                                       CYLINDER HEAD-E.S


                       INLET            EXHAUST
                                         VALVE
                                                                                         K
                       VALVE

                                                                                                            -'


                                                                                          H
                                                                   c -
                                                                          I                        I
                                                                         ;1
                                                                        -*-.                       r""           GRAD.
6..11.-_ _


E15
                                                             A
Inlet                                                              B
A-1.530 in to 1.531 in
8-0.3125 in to 0.3175 in
C-0.015 in chamfer at 45° (Max.)

Exhaust
A-1.296 in to 1.297 in
8-0.3125 in to 0.3175 in
C-0.015 in chamfer at 45           (Max.)                                                                        F
                                                                           ---                         t
                                                                                                       ·I



VALVES AND VALVE SEATS
                                                             E16
The valves should be checked in their respective
guides for wear and replaced if wear has taken place.        Material EN32A Case Hardened and Ground
 (ensure that the wear is in fact on the valve stem and
not in the guide bore before replacing the valve).           Inlet Dimensions
The valve and valve seat faces should be reconditioned       A-2.75 in
in the normal way using specialised equipment or with
grinding compound, according to their condition. A
                                                             8-2 in
valve seat (hand operated) cutting tool is shown in          C-0.75 in
Fig. E.12. Valves should always be refitted to their         0-0.309 in to 0.310 in
original seats and any new valve fitted should be suit-      E-1/16inat45
ably marked to identify its position if removed at a later   F-1/16inat45
date. (Refer to Fig. E.6 for illustration of valve num-
                                                             G-1/32 in Radius
bering) .
Before refitting the valves it should be ascertained         H-1.238 in to 1.239 in
whether the valve head depth relative to the cylinder        J-0.222 in to 0.225 in
head face is within the limits given on Page B.8. This       K--1.523 in to 1.533 in
depth can be checked. as shown in Fig. E.13, by
placing a straight edge across the face of the cylinder
                                                             Exhaust Dimensions
head. then by careful selection of feeler gauges mea-
suring the distance between the straight edge and the
                                                             A-2.75 in
head of the valve.                                           8-2 in
Where this depth exceeds the maximum limit and even          C-0.75 in
the fitting of a new valve does not reduce this depth        0-0.309 in to 0.310 in
below the maximum limit. then the remedy is to fit a
                                                             E-1/16inat45
valve seat insert, the procedure for this is given in
detail commencing on this page.
                                                             F-1/16 in at 45
When refacing valves or valve seats care should be           G-1/32 in Radius
taken to see that only Ihe minimum amount of metal           H-1.018 in to 1.019 in
necessary to obtain a satisfactory seat is removed, and      J-0.222 in to 0.225 in
that as narrow a valve seat as possible is maintained.       K-1.287 in to 1.297 in

Hand Grinding                                                After all the valves have been lapped in the valve head
                                                             depths relative to the cylinder head face should be
When grinding or lapping-in valves make certain that all     checked to ensure that they are within the limits given
signs of pitting are removed from the seats.                 on Page B.8.
CYLINDER HEAD-E.6


                                                           To Dismantle the Rocker Shaft Assembly
                                                           1,    Remove the retaining circlips from each end of
                                                                the rocker shaft.
                                                           2, Withdraw the rocker levers. springs and support
                                                                 brackets from the rocker shaft.
                                                           3, Unscrew the oil feed pipe from the banjo and reo
                                                                 move the banjo. (When refitting this feed pipe it
                                                                should be noted that the end of the pipe locates
                                                                the banjo position on the shaft).
                                                           Examine the rocker bushings and shaft for wear. The
                                                           rocker levers should be an easy fit on the rocker shaft
                                                           without excessive side play,
E17                                                        New rocker levers are supplied complete with bushing
                                                           fitted and reamed to size,
                                                           NOTE: When fitting new bushes ensure that the oil
                                                           feed holes are in alignment before pressing home. and
                                                           when pressed fully home that the holes coincide.
VALVE SEAT INSERTS                                         (Refer to Fig, E,17),

Valve seat inserts are not fitted to production engines,
but may be fitted in service,                              To Re-Assemble the Rocker Shaft Assembly
When fitting inserts ensure that only genuine Westerbeke
parts are used,                                            1,   Refit the oil feed banjo and locate with the
In order to fit these inserts proceed as follows:               feed pipe,
1, Fit new valve guides as described on Page EA,           2,   Refit the rocker levers. springs and support
2, Using the new valve guide bore as a pilot. machine           brackets in the opposite order to which they were
    the insert recess in the cylinder head face to the          removed, Lightly oil the components during reo
    dimensions shown in Fig, E.15,                              assembly and ensure that each rocker lever does
3, Remove all machining swart and thoroughly clean              not bind on the shaft. The assembly should now be
    the insert recess (removing any burrs which may             as shown in Fig, E,18,
    be present).
4, Using the valve guide bore as a pilot once again
    press the insert home with the inserting tool. this    PUSH RODS
    tool is shown fully dimensioned in Fig. E,16,
                                                           Check the push rods for straightness. if any are bent
    NOTE: The insert must not under any circum·
                                                           then fit new replacements,
    stances be hammered in. neither should any lubri·
    cation be used.
5, Visually inspect to ensure that the insert has been     To Refit the Valves
    pressed fully home. i.e, is flush with the bottom of
    the recess.                                            Lightly oil the valve stems to provide the initial lubrica·
6. Recut the valve seat at an included angle of 90'        tion,
     (which will give the normal 45' seat) until the       Replace valves. springs. spring plates. washers. collars
    valve head depth reaches the minimum limit which       and collets. taking care that the numbers on the valves
    is given on Page B.8. Lightly lap the valve to its     correspond to the numbers stamped adjacent to the
    new seat.                                              valve seat (see Fig, E,6),




   E18
                                                                                      CYLINDER HEAD-E.7


NOTE: Valve springs incorporate a damper coil and
care should be taken to ensure that this damper coil
is to the bottom of the spring, i,e" nearest the cylinder
head when fitted.
Inner valve springs are not required for engines rated
at 3,000 rev/ min and below.
4.108 and 4.99 marine diesel engines are fitted with rub-
ber sealing rings on inlet valves only.
All latest 4.107 and 4.99 marine diesel engines incor-
porate oil deflectors on both inlet and exhaust valves.
In the case of earlier 4.107 and 4.99 marine diesel
engines which incorporate rubber sealing rings on the
inlet valves only, oil deflectors should be fitted to both
inlet and exhaust valves after the valve assembly has
been dismantled. With this arrangement, a different valve
spring seating washer is required for exhaust valves.
a different valve spring seating washer is required for
exhaust valves.
Where a groove is cut on the inlet valve stem, a rubber
sealing washer should be fitted in addition to the de·
flector to stop the latter from becoming canted on the
stem.
Oil deflectors should not be fitted to 4.99 vehicle and
4.108 engines.



CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
Always use a new cylinder head gasket. Ensure that
the correct type is used.



4.108 Engines
With this engine, the gasket is made of a black com·
posite material and is known as the Klinger type. It
MUST be fitted DRY and on no account should sealing
compound be used.
It is very important that the gasket is placed correctly,
otherwise the steel beading may be nipped between
the cyl inder head face and the top of the liner.

                                                                  ?           ·
4.107 and 4.99 Engines                                            6
These engines use a copper and asbestos or alter·                                 7    8
natively, a steel laminated gasket. The copper and
asbestos type should be fitted with a good quality
sealing compound but the laminated steel type should
be fitted DRY.



To Refit the Cylinder Head
1.   Place the cylinder head gasket carefully in posi·
     tion on the cylinder block top face (the gasket is
     marked "TOP FRONT" to indicate how it should
     be fitted). (Refer to Fig. E.22).                                                                   E19
                                                             1.   Retaining Collets
2.   Lower the cylinder head into position on top of the
     gasket ensuring that it lays perfectly level.           2.   Spring Caps
3.   Lightly lubricate both cylinder head studs and nuts     3.   Inner Valve Springs
     with engine oil, then tighten the nuts progressively    4.   Outer Valve Springs
     in three stages in the sequence shown in Fig. E.23      5.   Spring Seating Washers
     to the torque given on page B.2. This final torque
                                                             6.   '0' Sealing Ring (Inlet Valves only)
     tightening stage should be repeated to ensure that
     no loss of tension has taken place on any studs         7.   Inlet Valve
     earlier in the sequence.                                8.   Exhaust Valve
CYLINDER HEAD-E.8




E20
                                                               E21

4.    Fit the push rods in their locations then carefully      6.   Adjust the valve clearances to 0.012 in (0.3 mm)
      fit the rocker shaft assembly, noting that the valve          as follows:-
      adjusting screw ends locate in their respective               Turn the engine so that the valves of No.1 cylinder
      push rod cups and the oil feed to the rocker shaft            are in the position of 'valve overlap'. i.e .. the period
      is located correc\ly.                                         between the opening of the inlet valve and the
5.    Locate the oil feed pipe nut just finger tight at this        closing of the exhaust valve. In this position, adjust
      stage, then evenly tighten the rocker shaft bracket           the clearances of No. 4 cylinder valves: similarly.
      securing nuts to a torque of 12 - 15 Ibf It (1,7 -            with the valves of No. 3 cylinder in the overlap
      2 kgf m) now lighten the oil feed pipe nut.                   position. adjust the valves of No. 2 cylinder. With
      When correctly located the oil feed pipe will be              valves of No. 4 in the overlap position, adjust the
      as shown in Fig. E.2.                                         valves of No. 1 cylinder and finally with valves of
      NOTE: If the oil feed pipe nut is tightened before            NO.2 cylinder in overlap position, adjust valves on
      the rocker shaft bracket securing nuts, the pipe              NO.3 cylinder.
      will either be strained or the olive pulled off the      7.   Replace the alternator adjusting link and tension
     feed pipe.                                                     the "V" belt (Refer to Page N.1).




      E22
                                                                                          CYLINDER HEAD-E.g




E23



8.    Replace the injectors (Refer to Page' P.?) but do    Replace the rocker shaft as previously described and
      not tighten the securing nuts.                       set the valve clearances to 0.012 in (0,30 mm) COLD.
9.    Replace the leak oft pipe assembly and four high     Start engine and check oil flow to rocker levers, if
      pressure fuel pipes to the injectors. Tighten the    satisfactory refit cylinder head cover and air cleaner.
      injector securing nuts.                              Finally check for oil leaks and rectify immediately if
10.   Replace the fuel oil filter and the low pressure     any are visible.
      fuel pipes between filter and lift pump and filter
      and fuel pump.
11.   Reconnect the electrical and fuel supplies to the    NOTE for 4.108 Engines Only
      starting aid.
12.   Reconnect the exhaust pipe to the manifold.          It is essential that the cylinder head nuts are re-torqued to
13.   Reconnect the water outlet connection at the front   60 Ibfft (8,3 kgf m) after the first 6to 12 hours withtheengine
      of the cylinder head.                                hot and in the sequence shown in Fig. E.23.
14.   Fill the cooling system with clean water ensuring
      the drains are closed. Check for water leaks.
15.   Bleed the air from the fuel system as described on
      Page P.8 L
16.   Reconnect the battery.




Starting the Engine
Proceed as instructed on Page P.11. with the engine
running at a fast idle check that the oil pressure is
satisfactory and that the oil reaches the rocker assem-
bly and oozes gently from the rocker levers at this
speed.
After the engine has been thoroughly warmed up it
should be shut down, the rocker shaft removed and
the cylinder head nuts checked, so that any loss of
torque tension can be corrected by tightening the nuts
to the torque given on Page B.2 and in the order shown
in Fig. E.23.                                              E24
                                       SECTION F
                       Pistons and Connecting Rods




F1
                                                            F2

To Remove Pistons and Connecting Rods
1.   Remove the cylinder head assembly. (Refer (0                suitable piston ring tool. such a tool is shown in
     Page E.1).                                                  Fig. F.3.
2.   Remove the oil sump. (Refer to Page M.1).                   NOTE: The laminated segments or spring loaded
     NOTE: Any ridges or carbon deposits around the              rings fitted in the fourth ring groove should be
     top of the cylinder bores should be removed with            removed by hand.
     a suitable scraper before piston removal is                 With 4.108 pistons there is a steel insert rolled
     attempted.                                                  into the top ring groove during piston manufacture.
3.   Rotate the crankshaft until one pair of big ends are        It should be regarded as an integral part of the
     at bottom dead centre. then remove their respec-            piston and no attempt should be made to remove
     tive connecting rod cap securing bolts.
4.   Remove the connecting rod caps and bearing
     shells. (Refer to Fig. F.1).
     NOTE: If the bearing shells are serviceable. they
     should be suitably marked to identify them to their
     original locations.
5.   Push the pistons and connecting rods carefully
     out through the top of the block and remove as
     shown in Fig. F.2.
6.   Rotate the crankshaft through 180 0 to bring the
     remaining pair of big ends to bottom dead centre
     and repeat removal operations.
     When piston removal has been carried out keep
     each piston and rod assembly separate. each to
     each as marked. Mark the pistons on the crown
      (before removing the piston pin) to indicate the
      'FRONT' in relation to the 'FRONT' marking cast on
     the connecting rods.


To Remove Pistons and Rings from the
Connecting Rods
1.   Remove the piston rings from each piston, using a      F3
PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS-F.2


     it from its location.
2.   Remove the circlip retaining the piston pin and
     push out the piston pin to release the connecting
     rod.


     NOTE: Should difficulty be experienced in re-
     moving the piston pin, warm the piston in a suit-
     able clean liquid (usually water) to a temperature
     of 100-120°F, (40-S0°C). this will then enable
     the pin to be pushed out quite easily.




Inspection
1.    Examine the pistons for scoring and any signs of
      groove damage.
2.    Check the clearance of the piston rings in their
      respective grooves by placing the ring outer face
      into the groove and a suitable sized feeler between
      the ring and groove face.
      NOTE: All ring gaps. ring groove clearances etc"
      are given in the Technical Data Section on Pages
      A.S and A.6.
3.    Check the fitted gaps of the piston rings. bearing
      in mind that in worn cylinder bores these gaps
      should be checked at the bottom of the bore.
4.   Check the fit of the piston pin in the small end bush-
     ing, if excessive, replace the small end bushing.
S.   To renew the small end bushing remove the old one
      by means of a suitable press and 'dolly'. Press in
     the new bushing, ensuring that the oil holes coin-
     cide when fitted. Ream out the new bushing to suit
     the piston pin, then check the rod for parallelism
     and twist. (Refer to Page A.7).
6.   Examine the big end bearing shells for any signs
     of wear or pitting.
                                                              F4


To Refit the Pistons to the Connecting Rods                   1.   Warm the piston in a suitable clean liquid to a
                                                                   temperature of 100 - 120 0 F (40 - SO°C) which
If the original pistons are to be refitted they must be            will enable the piston pin to be easily pushed
re-assembled to the same connecting rods, i.e. No. 1               into the piston bore when the piston and rod have
piston to NO.1 connecting rod assembly. Refer to Figs.             been correctly aligned.
F.4 and F.S for location of piston and rod numbering.         2.   Place No. 1 piston onto its head, noting the posi-
Any new components fitted should be numbered the                   tion of the mark previously made to indicate the
same as those which they replace.                                  "FRONT".




     F5
                                                                    PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS-F.3


3.   Hold No. 1 connecting rod with the small end
      between the piston pin bores so that the word
     "FRONT"" cast on the rod is towards the same
     side.
4.   Push the piston pin into the piston thus locating
     the connecting rod in position.
5.   Fit the two retaining circlips ensuring that they
     locate correctly in their recesses. (Refer to Fig.
     F.6).
     NOTE: If the engine has been in service for some
     considerable time it is advisable to fit new circlips.
     even if the old ones do not appear to be strained
     or damaged.
6.   Repeat this procedure for the three remaining
     pistons and connecting rods.




Fitting the Piston Rings
   Fit piston rings to the piston. Rings vary according
to engine type and application as follows: reading
from the top of the piston.


4.108 Engines
1.   Plain parallel faced compression.
2.   Internally stepped compression.
3.   Internally stepped compression.
4.   Laminated segment oil control.
5.   Slotted scraper.




                                                              F7


                                                              4.107and 4.99 Marine and Industrial
                                                              Engines rated at 3000 r.p.m. or below.
                                                              1.   Plain parallel faced compression.
                                                              2.   Internally stepped compression.
                                                              3.   Internally stepped compression.
                                                              4.   Laminated segment oil control.
                                                              5.   Slotted scraper.




                                                              After an appropriate period of service. when indica-
                                                              tions of piston ring and/or cylinder bore wear may be·
                                                              come apparent, a replacement ring pack has been
                                                              made available for fitting exclusively to 4.99 service
                                                              engines and includes a taper faced ring for fitting in
                                                              NOTE: All the rings quoted above except the laminated
                                                              and spring loaded type may be fitted by means of an
                                                              expanding tool of the type shown in Fig. F.3. These
                                                              rings, being made of cast iron are therefore com-
                                                              paratively brittle, so when fitting care should be taken
                                                              not to expand any ring more than is necessary to just
                                                              clear the piston.
F6
PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS-F.4




                                                                                   PISTON CROWN




        SECOND AND FOURTH SEGMENTS




         FIRST AND THIRD SEGMENTS

        F8



Laminated Segment Rings                                      2.   Fit the second segment on top of the first, so that
                                                                  when compressed as described above the ends
The procedure for fitting the laminated type is different.
                                                                  point upwards. Position the gap at 180 to that of
                                                                                                          0

in as much as the ring comprises four separate seg-
                                                                  the first segment.
ments. these may be fitted by hand in the following
sequence with the piston crown uppermost:-
1. Fit the first segment to the piston so that when          3.   Fit the third segment as in (1) above with the gap
    held horizontally between the thumb and fingers               immediately above the gap of the first segment.
    and radially compressed the ring ends point
    downwards (see Fig. F.8).                                4.   Fit the fourth segment as in (2) above with the
    Place this ring on the bottom face of the fourth              gap immediately above the gap of the second seg-
    ring groove with the gap over the piston pin bore.            ment. If all the segments have been fitted correctly
                                                                  then they will be positioned as shown above.




               CD



   F9
                                                                 PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS-F.5


    The gaps of the remaining rings should De stag-
    gered alternately along the piston pin axis.
    Liberally lubricate the rings in their grooves and
    see that they can move freely in their locations.
    this does not apply to the laminated type in the
    fourth groove, which if correctly fitted should nol
    move freely due to the outward pressure of the top
    and bottom segments on the ring groove walls.
    When all the rings have been fitted. they should
    be as shown in Fig. F.8.


Always ensure that internally stepped or taper faced
rings are correctly fitted. They are marked TOP or
BTM (bottom) to ensure correct replacement.
The top compression and slotted oil control rings may
be fitted either way up.




Spring Loaded Scraper Ring
                                                            7.  Fit the two connecting rod securing bolts and
When fitting the chrome plated spring loaded scraper            lighten evenly to the torque quoted on Page B.2.
ring. (see Fig. F.9), the following procedure should be         NOTE: Locking tabs are not fitted to these bolts.
adopted:-                                                   8. Repeat this procedure for No. 4 piston and con-
1. Fit internal expander (1).                                   necting rod assembly.
2. Fit two rail rings (2) at the bottom of the groove.      9. Rotate the crankshaft to bring numbers 2 and 3
3. Fit spiral ring (3).                                         crankpins to bottom dead centre.
4. Fit two top rail rings (2).                              10. Repeat procedures 2 - 7 to fit the two remaining
When fitting rail rings. the gaps should be staggered.          assemblies.
                                                            11. Refit the lubricating oil sump. (Refer Page M.4).
                                                            12. Refit the cylinder head assembly. (Refer Page
                                                                E.7)



To Fit Piston and Connecting Rod Assemblies                 Fitting New Pistons
Before fitting the piston and connecting rod assemblies     With new 4.108 and 4.107 pistons a machining allow-
to their respective cylinder bores, thoroughly clean        ance is provided on the crown of the piston to enable
and liberally coat each bore with clean engine oil.         the necessary material to be removed by means of a
1. Turn the engine until the crankpins of say numbers       lathe so that when fitted the piston height above the
    1 and 4 cylinders are at bottom dead centre.            cylinder block top face will be within the limits quoted
2. Using a suitable ring clamp of the type shown in         on Page B.3.
    Fig. F.10, carefully compress the rings of No.1         To determine the exact amount to be removed from
    piston and hold in this position.                       the piston crown, the piston, connecting rod and bear-
3. With the word 'FRONT' on the connecting rod              ing assembly will have to be fitted to its respective
    facing the front of the engine. insert the rod care-    cylinder bore as previously described, and the piston
    fully into No.1 cylinder bore.                          height above the cylinder block top face measured
    NOTE: The cylinders are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4             with the particular piston at top dead centre. This
    starting from the front (water pump) end of the         piston height can be measured by means of a piston
    engine. It is extremely important that these com-       height gauge of the type shown in Fig. F.11. Repeat
    ponents (marked as shown in Figs. F.4 and F.5).         for each new piston to be fitted and mark each piston
    are returned to their original locations.               with the number of the cylinder bore it will belong to,
4. The piston head may be gently tapped with the            (not on the top as any marking here will be removed
    shaft of a hammer as shown in Fig. F.10 until all       by the machining). When each piston has been
    the rings have entered the cylinder bore.               skimmed it should be checked again when finally re-
5. Draw the rod towards the crankpin, place the top         fitted to ensure that any new piston fitted is now within
    half bearing shell in position locating the tag in      the limits quoted. Once the piston height is correct
    the machined slot and liberally oil, draw the rod       mark any such piston on the crown with the number
    onto the crankpin.                                      of its respective bore. (Refer to Fig. F.5).
6. Fit the lower half bearing shell to the connecting
    rod cap, locating the tag in the machined slot,
    liberally oil and fit the cap to the crankpin, ensur-
    ing that the numbers on the rod and cap coincide
    as shown in Fig. F.4.
PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS-F.6


It will of course be appreciated that grade F pistons
are suitable for topping to give other grades where
these are not to hand.
After fitting pre-topped pistons, the distance between
the cylinder block face and piston crowns should be
checked to ensure the limit is as already quoted (See
Fig. F.11).




                                                         F11
                                                  SECTION G
                                    Cylinder Block and Liners
CYLINDER LINERS (4.108 ENGINES)
The cylinder liners fitted to the 4.108 series engines
are centrifugally cast alloy iron, they are an interference
fit in the cylinder block parent bore and of the thinwall
dry type.
Reboring of these liners is not possible and new liners
should be fitted when a rebore would normally be con-
sidered necessary.
Dimensional checks of the cylinder bore are carried
out by means of the gauge tool shown in Fig. G.1.
When checking liners each one should be measured
in three positions - top, centre and bottom; the read-
ings being taken parallel and at right angles to the
centre line of the cylinder block giving six readings
for each cylinder bore.
When checking the fitted internal bore of a new thin-
wall liner it is advisable to allow a period of time to
elapse for the liner to settle.



To Renew Cylinder Liners
1.   Remove all the various comopents from the cylinder
     block. (Refer to the appropriate sections for details
     of their removal).
2.   Using a shouldered metal disc slightly smaller on
     the outside diameter than the parent bore dia-
                                                              G1
     meter and a suitable press, press the liners care-
     fully out through the top of the cylinder block.         the centrifugal cast iron wet type. They have flanges
                                                              at the top and are sealed at the bottom by means of
     NOTE: Support the block locally in the area of the       two rubber sealing rings which fit in machined re-
     top of the liner.                                        cesses in the cylinder block.
3.   Lightly lubricate the outside of the liner with clean
     engine oil ready for fitting.
4.   As the liner must protrude above the cylinder block
     top face and not be pressed fully home when fitted
     correctly, a solid stop washer should be available
     designed to give the correct liner protrusion.
     NOTE: The limits for liner protrusion are given on
     page B.3 and may be checked as shown in Fig.
     G.2.
5.   Press the liner into the bore progressively until it
     reaches the solid stop washer.
6.   Bore and finish hone the liners to the dimension
     quoted on Page B.3.
       NOTE: Where boring equipment is mounted on the
     top face of the cylinder block fit a parallel plate
     between the boring bar and cylinder block face.
     Such a plate should be thicker than 0.027 in
      (0,686 mm).
7.   Re-assemble the engine components to the cylinder
      block. (Refer to the appropriate sections lor
     assembly of these).


CYLINDER LINERS (4.107 and 4.99)
Cylinder liners fitted to 4.107 and 4.99 engines are of       G2
CYLINDER BLOCK AND LlNERS-G.2




83

Earlier 4.99 engines had only one sealing ring at the        All 4.107 and later 4.99 engines have four small holes
bottom of the liner.                                         drilled along the fuel pump side of the cylinder block.
4.107 and 4.99 cylinder liners have pre-finished bores.      each one breaking through into the area between the
Under normal circumstances, the liner would only             two sealing rings at the bottom of e~ch cylinder liner.
need to be renewed during major overhaul, but should         These holes permit any coolant which may have leaked
it be necessary to remove the liner for any other            past the upper sealing ring to escape thus relieving
reason, this can be carried out without removal of the       the bottom sealing ring of any pressure above it and
crankshaft.                                                  preventing coolant from entering the engine sump.
If at any time, the cylinder liners are removed and          In the case of a new engine, or where cylinder liners
these same liners are to be refitted, then before they       and/or sealing rings have been fitted. it is possible
are removed from the cylinder block, they should be          that a slight leakage of coolant could occur from these
suitably marked so that they may be refitted to their        holes. This should ease as the liners and sealing rings
original parent bore and in the same position in that        settle down after the initial period of running, but where
bore, that is, thrust side of the liner to the thrust side   difficulty is experienced. then the use of BARSEAL in
of the cylinder block.                                       the cooling system (in accordance with the manufac-
                                                             turers instructions) is approved.

To Renew Cylinder Liners
Remove all components from cylinder block.
Remove liners using a suitable liner removing tool (see
Fig. G.4).
Once the liner has cleared the rubber sealing rings in
the cylinder block, the liner can be removed by hand.
Remove any corrosion and burrs which may be present
at the inner ends of the landings.
Renew the rubber sealing rings in the grooves at the
bottom lands.
To ease fitting of the liners when the rings have been
placed in position, smear the liners with soft soap or
soapy water.
Place liner in position and press home by hand, ensur-
ing that the rubber sealing rings remain in their
grooves (see Fig. G.5).
The liners are a push fit and no force is required.
After fitting the liners, the cylinder block should be
water tested at a pressure of 20 Ibflin 2 (1,4 kgflcm2).
Re·assemble engine as required and to instructions
given for the various components.

Note: 'If engine is overheated, it could have an adverse
affect on the liner sealing rings.                           G5
                                    SECTION H
                   Crankshaft and Main Bearings
                                                          (0,19 mm oversize) thrust washers are available which
                                                          if used on one side of the rear main bearing only
                                                          will reduce crankshaft end float by 0.0075 in (0,19
                                                          mm) and by 0.Q15 in (0,38 mm) if used on both sides
                                                          The limits for the crankshaft end float are given on
                                                          Page B.6.
                                                          The main bearing caps are numbered and are not
                                                          interchangeable. The main bearing shells are located
                                                          by means of tabs which locate in slots in the bearing
                                                          housings.
                                                          NOTE:      Before renewal of the main bearings is
                                                          attempted make absolutely certain that the correct
                                                          replacements are available, reference to the relevant
                                                          parts list will ensure this, but for identification purposes
                                                          the ne\y bearings should have an annular groove
                                                          machined in the inner (bearing) face along the centre
                                                          line of the feed holes, when the bearings are correctly
                                                          located these feed holes will correspond exactly with
                                                          those machined in the cylinder block.


                                                          On later 4.107 and 4.99 engines, the annular oil
                                                          groove in the main bearing parent bore (cylinder
                                                          block and bearing cap) has been deleted. Adequate
                                                          lubrication is maintained by repositioning the oil feed
                                                          holes radially in the shell bearings and continuing to
                                                          machine the annular groove in the bearing on the
H1                                                        centre line of these feed holes.

Description
                                                          These later type shell bearings may be used on both
The crankshaft runs in three pre-finished replaceable     early and later type engines, whereas the early type
thinwall, steel backed, aluminium tin -lined bearings.    of shell bearings must NOT on any account, be fitted
Crankshaft end float is controlled by thrust washers      to later engines where the annular groove in the main
located either side of the rear main bearing. 0.0075 in   bearing parent bore has been deleted.




     H2
CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS-H.2




H3

                                                           H4
To Renew Main Bearings and Thrust Washers
Removal of the main bearings and thrust washers can        7.  Rotate the bearing shell on the crankshaft until it
be carried out without removing the crankshaft by the          locates correctly with the tag in the machined slot.
following procedure:-                                      8. Locate the lower half bearing shell in the main
1. Remove the engine from its application.                     bearing cap, liberally lubricate and refit.
2. Remove the sump and suction pipe assembly.              9. Tighten the two securing setscrews to positively
3. Slacken the setscrews which secure the main                 locate the bearing shells then slacken a turn or
     bearing caps.                                             two.
4. Remove completely one of the main bearing caps          10. Repeat items 3-8 for the remaining two bearings.
     and remove the bearing shell from the cap.                NOTE: To enable the rear main bearing cap to be
5. Remove the top half of the bearing shell by push-           removed, first remove the two oil seal housing
     ing it, on the opposite side to the one having the        setscrews as shown in Fig. H.3.
     locating tag, with a suitable strip of wood and       11. Finally tighten the main bearings to the torque
     rotating it on the crankshaft as shown in Fig. H.1.       given on Page B.2.
6. Inspect the bearing shells and if replacements are
     necessary continue by lightly lubricating and in-
     serting the new top half bearing shell, plain end
     first, into the side having the tag location.
                                                           Renewal of the thrust washers is accomplished by
                                                           carrying out the following procedure:-




                                                           1.   Remove the two setscrews securing the two rear
                                                                main bearing oil seal half housing as shown in
                                                                Fig. H.3.
                                                           2.   Remove the rear main bearing cap securing set-
                                                                screws.
                                                           3.   Remove the rear main bearing cap and from it the
                                                                two lower half thrust washers. (Refer Fig. H.4).
                                                           4.   The single upper half thrust washer is removed by
                                                                rotating it with a thin piece of wood until it can be
                                                                lifted out of its recess.
                                                                NOTE: The new thrust washers should be lightly
                                                                lubricated before fitting. The steel faces of the
                                                                lower thrust washers should face inwards towards
                                                                the bearing cap, (Refer Fig. H.S), the steel face
                                                                of the upper thrust washer should also face in-
                                                                wards.
                                                           5.   Locate the upper thrust washer half as shown in
                                                                Fig. H.6, place the lower halves either side of the
                                                                rear main bearing cap as described and refit the
                                                                cap.
                                                           6.   Tighten the setscrews evenly and finally to the
H5                                                              torque given on Page B.2.
                                                                CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS-H.3


7.   Check that the crankshaft end float is within the
     limits given on Page B.6 by means of feeler
     gauges as shown in Fig. H.7. If incorrect, oversize
     thrust washers are available to give an overall
     reduction of 0.D15 in (0,38 mm). (Refer to Page
     H.2).
8.   Refit the two setscrews securing the rear main oil
     seal half housing.
     NOTE: If any leakage of oil is apparent from this
     seal then new seals should be fitted to the half
     housings as described under the heading "Crank--
     shaft Rear End Oil Seal" or fit a new assembly.
9.   Refit the suction pipe assembly and sump.




To Remove the Crankshaft
To remove the crankshaft it will be necessary to remove
the engine.

                                                           H7
1.   Remove the starter motor, flywheel and flywheel
     housing.
2.   Remove the crankshaft front pulley, timing case
     cover, timing gears and fuel pump drive hUb.               NOTE: The rear seal half housing securing         set-
     (Refer to Page K.1 for details of their removal).          screws will require removal to enable the        rear
3.   Remove the securing setscrews (also any studs              main bearing cap to be removed. (Refer to        Fig.
     fitted) and remove the timing case back plate.             H.3).
4.   Remove the sump and lubricating oil pump com-         7.   Lift out the crankshaft and place where it is     not
     plete with suction and delivery pipes. (Refer to           likely to be damaged ready for inspection.
     Page M.1 for removal of these).                       8.   Remove the top half main bearing shells.
5.   Remove all the connecting rod setscrews, con-         9.   Finally, remove the top half oil seal housing.
     necting rod caps and bearing shells. (Refer to
     Page F.1).
     NOTE: All the bearing shells should be marked to
     indicate "top" or "bottom" and number of the rod      To Refit the Crankshaft
     assembly.
                                                           1.   First ensure that crankshaft oilways are clear.
6.   Unscrew the main bearing caps.
                                                           2.   Place the three top bearing shells in position then
                                                                oil liberally with clean engine oil.
                                                                NOTE: Unless a new set of main bearings is being
                                                                fitted, those removed must be returned to their
                                                                original locations.
                                                           3.   Place the crankshaft in position.
                                                           4.   Locate the upper thrust washer in position as
                                                                shown in Fig. H.6.
                                                           5.   Fit the three lower bearing shells, oil, and fit the
                                                                three main bearing caps in their respective loca-
                                                                tions.
                                                                NOTE: Ensure at this stage that the two lower
                                                                thrust washer halves are positioned correctly either
                                                                side of the rear main bearing cap when it is fitted.
                                                           6.   Check the main bearing setscrews prior to fitting
                                                                for signs of stretch or thread damage. Where
                                                                damage or any doubt exists fit new replacements.
                                                           7.   Fit the setscrews then tighten evenly to the torque
                                                                tension given on Page B.2.
                                                           8.   Check that the crankshaft can be rotated freely, if
                                                                satisfactory check the crankshaft end float by
                                                                means of feeler gauges as shown in Fig. H.7.
                                                                Should it not be within the limits quoted on Page
                                                                B.6, then oversize thrust washers are available to
                                                                give the necessary adjustment. (Refer to Page
H6                                                              H.2).
CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS-H.4


9.    Fit new sealing strips to the rear main bearing oil
      seal housings and refit the housings as described
      under the heading "Crankshaft Rear End Oil Seal"
      on Page HA.
10.   Liberally oil the crankpins, locate the connecting
      rod bearing shells, again ensuring their correct
      relative positions, then fit th8 connecting rod caps
      as described on Page F.5. The crankcase should
      now be as shown in Fig. H.2.
11.   Refit the lubricating oil pump complete with suc-
      tion and delivery pipes. (Refer to Page MA).
12.   Refit the sump using new seals and gaskets. (Refer
      to Page M.1).
13.   Refit the timing case back plate. fuel pump drive
      hub, timing gears, timing cover and crankshaft
      front pulley. (Refer to later text commencing on
      Page K.1 for their reassembly.
14.   Refit and correctly align the flywheel housing as
      described in Section J.
15.   Refit the flywheel and starter motor.


                                                             H8



CRANKSHAFT REAR END OIL SEAL                                 3.  With the thumb or finger press the remainder of
                                                                 the strip into the groove, working from the centre,
This sealing arrangement consists of two half housings           then use any convenient round bar to further bed
bolted around the rear of the crankshaft. The bore of            in the strip by rolling and pressing its inner dia-
these housings is machined to accommodate a rubber               meter as shown in Fig. H.B. This procedure takes
cored asbestos strip which. in conjunction with a right          advantage of the friction between the strip and the
hand helix machined between the thrust collar and the            groove at the ends to compact the rope, while
flywheel mounting flange to the dimensions given on              ensuring that the projections of the end faces of
Page B.6, acts to return the surplus oil reaching the            the rope remain as set.
seal. The two half housings fit over this helix and the      4. Fit the sealing strip to the other half housing in a
contact of the sealing strips with the crankshaft pre-           similar manner.
vents leakage beyond this pOint.                             5. Remove all traces of the old gasket from the cylinder
                                                                  block rear face and fit a new gasket treated with a
NOTE: When traces of oil become apparent from
                                                                 suitable sealing compund.
behind the flywheel and a faulty rear oil seal is sus-
                                                             6. Lightly coat the faces of the housing with a suitable
pected, first ensure that the crankcase is breathing
                                                                 sealing compound.
normally. Any build up in crankcase pressure could
                                                             7. Spread a film of graphite grease over the exposed
cause oil to be forced past the rear sealing arrange-
                                                                  inside diameter surface of the strip.
ment. If crankcase pressure is normal and new seals
                                                             B. Assemble the half housings around the crankshaft
require to be fitted the following procedure should be
                                                                 rear journal and fasten together by the two set-
adopted with the crankshaft in position.
                                                                 screws (See Fig. H.3).
1.    Set up a half housing in the vice with the seal        9. Swivel the complete seal housing on the shaft to
      recess uppermost.                                           bed in the strips, and to establish that the assembly
2.    Settle approximately 1 in (25 mm) of the strip, at         turns on the crankshaft.
      each end, into the ends of the groove ensuring         10. Bolt the seal housing in position on the block and
      that each end of the strip projects 0.010/0.020 in         the rear main bearing cap then finally tighten the
       (0,25/0,50 mm) beyond the half housing joint face.        securing setscrews.
                                                                SECTION J
                                                      Flywheel and Housing

Alignment of the Adaptor Plate, Flywheel
Housing and Flywheel.
It is most important that the adaptor plate, flywheel
housing and flywheel be correctly aligned with the
crankshaft. If the plate and housing have been removed
as is necessary for a complete overhaul. the greatest
care must be taken on replacement to insure accuracy
of alignment. The appropriate procedure is as follows:

See that the faces of both the rear of the cylinder block
and the adaptor plate are perfectly clean and free from
burrs.

Secure the adaptor plate to the cylinder block with set-
screws and spring washers.




Alignment of the Adaptor Plate Face.
Secure the base of an indicator gauge to the flange of
the crankshaft.

Set the needle of the gauge against the vertical face of
the adaptor plate (See Fig. J1).                            J2

Turn the crankshaft and check that this face is perpen-
dicular to the crankshaft axis.

Flywheel housing face should be within a limit of .006
total indicator reading of being truly at right angles to
the crankshaft axis.                                        All adjustments to bring the adaptor plate within the
                                                            limits must be on the adaptor plate and under NO
                                                            CONDITIONS must the rear of the cylinder block be
                                                            interfered with.

                                                            When the adaptor plate is properly aligned to the above
                                                            limits. tighten the setscrews evenly.

                                                            Ream the dowel holes and fit the correct length and
                                                            size of dowels.




                                                            Fitting Flywheel and Checking Alignment.

                                                            With the flywheel and crankshaft flange perfectly clean
                                                            and free from burrs, place the flywheel on the crank-
                                                            shaft flange.

                                                            Insert the setscrews complete with tab washers into the
                                                            flywheel holes and tighten evenly.

                                                            Secure the base of the indicator gauge to the adaptor
                                                            plate. With the flywheel at top center, set the needle of
                                                            the gauge on the periphery at T.D.C. See Fig. J2.

                                                            Turn the crankshaft and check the indicator, the flywheel
J1                                                          should run true within .012 in. total indicator reading.
FLYWHEEL AND HOUSING-J.2




                                                             See that the face of the housing is perfectly clean and
                                                             free from burrs.

                                                             Secu re the housing to the adaptor plate with setscrews
                                                             and spring washers, but not overtight so as to allow
                                                             adjustment.

                                                             Attach the indicator gauge to the flywheel centre and
                                                             set the needle of the gauge to the interior of the bored
                                                             hole in the flywheel housing (See Fig. J4).

                                                             Turn the crankshaft and check that this hole is truly
                                                             central. The housing is adjusted until the bored hole
                                                             is central.

                                                             The hole in the housing should be truly central with the
                                                             crankshaft within a limit of .006 (total indicator reading).




J3


With the base of the indicator gauge still bolted to the
adaptor plate adjust the indicator so as to set the needle
against the vertical machined face of the flywheel. See
Fig. J3.
Again turn the crankshaft and check the indicator, the
flywheel should be within .0005" per inch of flywheel
diameter (total indicator reading) of being truly at right
angles to the crankshaft axis.

When the flywheel is correctly aligned, lock the securing
setscrews by means of the tab washers.




                                                             J5




                                                             Alignment of the Flywheel Housing Face.

                                                             With the base of the indicator gauge still bolted to the
                                                             flywheel centre, adjust the indicator so as to set the
                                                             needle against the vertical machined face of the flywheel
                                                             housing, and again turning the crankshaft, check that
                                                             this face is perpendicular to the crankshaft axis (See
                                                             Fig. J5).

                                                             The limits for this facing are the same as those given
                                                             for the adaptor plate facing. When the housing is prop-
                                                             erly aligned to the above limits, tighten the securing
                                                             setscrews evenly.

                                                             Ream the dowel holes and fit the correct length and
J4                                                           size dowels.
                                                       SECTION K
                                             Timing Case and Drive

                                                                 tion taking care not to damage the rubber lip of
                                                                 the oil seal on the crankshaft pulley key.
                                                            2.   Loosely fit the front cover securing setscrews and
                                                                 nuts.
                                                            3.   Fit the crankshaft pulley to centralise the seal, then
                                                                 tighten the securing setscrews and nuts.
                                                            4.   Fit the crankshaft pulley retaining setscrew or dog·
                                                                 nut and tighten to the torque given on Page B.2.
                                                            5.    Refit the "V" belt and tension as described on Page
                                                                  N.1.




                                                            To Remove the Idler Gear and Hub
                                                            1.   Remove the timing case front cover as previously
                                                                 described in this section.
                                                            2.   Tap back the locking tabs and unscrew the two
                                                                 idler hub securing setscrews.
                                                            3.   The setscrews, idler gear and hub may now be
                                                                 removed together as shown in Fig. K.1.
K1
                                                            4.   Clean and thoroughly examine the gear and hub
                                                                 for signs of excessive wear, cracks, pitting, etc.
To carry out the following procedure it is assumed that
either working space exists with the engine 'in place' or
it is removed from the application.

                                                            To Refit the Idler Gear and Hub
To Remove the Timing Case Cover
                                                            1.   After ensuring that the oilways in the hub and gear
1.   Slacken alternator mounting bolts, release the              are clear, hold the gear in position with the
     adjusting arm setscrew and remove the alternator            timing marks correctly aligned.
     drive belt.
2.   Remove the crankshaft pulley retaining setscrew
     or dognut and withdraw the pulley which is a
     keyed fit on the crankshaft.
3.   Remove the securing setscrews and nuts from the
     timing case and carefully remove the cover, taking
     care not to catch the rubber lip of the oil seal on
     the crankshaft pulley locating key.




To Renew the Crankshaft Front Oil Seal
1.   Using a suitable dolly and press, remove the oil
     seal from the timing case cover by pushing out
     through the front.
2.   Locate the new seal in position so that the lip
     faces inwards.
3.   Press in the new seal from the front until it just
     butts against the seal retaining lip, giving local
     support to the cover as the seal is pressed home.


To Refit the Timing Case Cover
1.   Using a new gasket, lightly coated with a suitable
     sealing compound, place the front cover in posi-       K2
TIMING CASE AND DRIVE-K.2


     NOTE: If the cylinder head assembly has not been
     disturbed, then the cylinder head cover and rocker
     shaft should be removed in order to allow the
     camshaft to be turned to facilitate the aligning of
     the timing marks.

2.   Insert the hub as shown in Fig. K.2 so that the
     holes in the hub and the cylinder block are in
     alignment and secure with the two setscrews.

     NOTE: Clearance is provided in the setscrew holes
     of the idler gear hub, to provide the necessary
     backlash adjustment for the timing gears.

3.    Using the adjustable idler gear. backlash between
      both crankshaft gear/idler gear and camshaft
      gear/idler gear should be set within the range
      given on Page B.9 with the gears held together
     in order to take up the effect of bearing clear-
     ance. Backlash may be checked by the use of
     feeler gauges as shown in Fig. K.3.
4.   When the backlash has bam correctly set, finally
     tighten the idler gear hub securing setscrews to
     the torque given on Page B.2.
5.   Check the idler gear end float as shown in Fig. KA      K3
     the limits are given on Page B.9.
6.   Lock the idler gear hub securing setscrews with
     the tabwashers.

     NOTE: The timing gears when correctly set should
     appear as shown in Fig. l.1.
                                                             To Remove the Fuel Pump Gear
7.   Refit the timing case front cover. etc.. as pre-
     viously detailed in this section.                       1.   Remove the timing case front cover.
                                                             2.   Remove the idler gear and hub.
                                                             3.   Remove the three securing setscrews and ease
                                                                  the gear from its location on the fuel pump driv;ng
                                                                  hUb.
                                                             4.   Examine the gear for signs of excessive wear.
                                                                  cracks, pitting, etc.




To Remove the Camshaft Gear
1.   Remove the timing case front cover.
2.   Remove the three securing setscrews and ease the
     gear away from its location.
3.   Examine the gear for signs of excessive wear.
     cracks, pitting, etc.

To Refit the Camshaft Gear
1.   Remove the idler gear and hub, cylinder head
     cover and rocker shaft (if not previously removed).
2.   Refit the gear to the camshaft ensuring that the
     'D' marks on the gear and camshaft hub respec-
     tively align as shown in Fig. K.S.
3.   Refit the three securing setscrews and tighten to
     a torque of 19-21 Ibf ft (2,6-2,9 kgf m).
     NOTE: Only the plain (non-slotted) holes in the
     camshaft gear are to be used and these will align
     with the tapped holes on the camshaft hub when
     the 'D' marks are in alignment.
4.   Refit the idler hub and gear, timing case front
     cover, etc .. as previously detailed in this section.   K4
                                                                             TIMING CASE AND DRIVE-K_3




K5

                                                            K6



To Refit the Fuel Pump Gear                                 4.   Refit the low and high pressure fuel pipes to the
                                                                 fuel pump.
1.   Refit the fuel pump gear so that the timing marks
                                                            5.   Refit the fuel pump drive gear, idler gear and hub,
     on the gear and hub respectively are in alignment
                                                                 timing case front cover etc.
     as shown in Fig K.6.
2.   Refit the three securing setscrews and tighten to a
     torque of 19-21 Ibf It (2,6-2,9 kgf m).                To Remove the Timing Case Back Plate
3.   Refit the idler gear and hub. timing case front
                                                            1.   R2move the timing case front cover and timing
     cover, etc.
                                                                 gears.
                                                            2.   Remove the fuel pump and drive hub,
                                                            3,   Remove the securing setscrews and studs (where
To Remove the Fuel Pump Drive Hub                                fitted) ,
1.   Remove the timing case front cover and fuel pump
     gear.
2.   Remove the low and high pressure fuel pipes from
     the fuel (injection) pump.
3.   Remove the fuel pump securing setscrews and
     withdraw the pump.
4.   Remove the drive hub locating circlip and with-
     draw the drive hub from its bearing (Refer Fig.
     K.7),
5.   Examine the drive hub also the bearing in which
     it runs for signs of excessive wear, surface cracks,
     pitting etc.

     NOTE: The bearing is an interference fit in the
     cylinder block and replacement is carried out by
     means of a suitable dolly and puller or press if the
     block is completely stripped, the new one being
     fitted in the reverse manner.



To Refit the Fuel Pump Drive Hub
1.   Replace the drive hub in the bearing and locate
     with the circlip as shown in Fig. K.B.
2.   Check the drive hub end float by means of feeler
     gauges placed between the front face of the
     bearing and the rear face of the drive hUb. The end
     float limits are given on Page B.9.
3.   Refit the fuel pump as detailed on Page P.4.           K7
TIMING CASE AND DRIVE-K.4

                                                            4.  Remove the fuel lift pump. tappet inspection cover
                                                                and fuel lift pump operating push rod.
                                                            5. Turn the engine over so that the sump is now
                                                                uppermost.
                                                                NOTE: At this stage if it is not possible to turn the
                                                                engine over then the tappets should be lifted to
                                                                the top of their locations and secured with suitable
                                                                clips.
                                                            6. Remove the sump and lubricating oil pump assem-
                                                                bly. (Refer to Page M.1 for details of their re-
                                                                moval).
                                                            7. Remove the timing cover back plate as previously
                                                                detailed, this will show the camshaft and thrust
                                                                plates as illustrated in Fig. K.13.
                                                            8. Ease the camshaft out from the block and catch
                                                                the two thrust plates as they come out of their
                                                                recess in the cylinder block.
                                                            9. Withdraw the camshaft as shown in Fig. K.9 taking
                                                                care to ensure that the cams and journals are not
                                                                damaged during this operation.
K8                                                          10. The tappets may now be removed by lifting them
                                                                out of their locations (Refer to Fig. K.11) or by
                                                                removal of the retaining clips if the engine is still
                                                                the normal way up.
                                                            11. Examine camshaft and tappets for signs of exces-
4.   Lift the timing case back plate clear from the cam-        sive wear. surface cracks. pitting etc.
     shaft hub and crankshaft gear.
     NOTE: The crankshaft gear is an interference fit
     on the crankshaft. Should its removal become
     necessary. then this can be accomplished by the
     use of a suitable puller.

                                                            To Refit the Tappets and Camshaft
                                                            1.   If the tappets have been removed         liberally lubri-
                                                                 cate them with clean engine oil         and return to
                                                                 their respective locations. Secure      with clips (if
To Refit the Timing Case Back Plate                              applicable) .
1.   Fit the timing case back plate to the cylinder block   2.   Carefully refit the camshaft into the   cylinder block
     using a new gasket and suitable sealing compound.           exercising the same care as used        during its re-
2.   Refit any studs removed and secure with the set-            moval.
     screws.
3.   Refit the fuel pump drive hub and fuel pump.
4.   Refit the timing gears. timing case front cover etc.




To Remove the Camshaft and Tappets
To remove the camshaft it may be necessary to remove
the engine from the application and place in a suitable
dismantling stand where it can be turned upside down.
The purpose of this is to prevent the tappets from
falling out of their locations when the camshaft is re-
moved. If, however, it is not possible to turn the engine
over in this manner, then this problem may be over-
come by attaching suitable clips (when the tappet
inspection cover has been removed) to each tappet to
hold them in their locations when the camshaft is with-
drawn from the block.

1.   Remove the engine from the application and mount
     in a suitable dismantling stand (where available)
     correct way up.
2.   Remove the cylinder head cover. rocker shaft and
     push rods.
3.   Remove the timing case front cover and timing
     gears.                                                 Kg
                                             TIMING CASE AND DRIVE-K.S




 K10
       1.   Drive Hub
       2.   Lubricating Oil Pump Drive Gear
       3.   Groove for reduced oil pressure feed to
            Rocker Shaft
       4.   Bearing Journals




K11                             K12
TIMING CASE AND DRIVE-K.6




                                                            K14
K13

3.   Before the camshaft is pushed fully home locate        6.   Turn the engine over so that the cylinder block top
     the two thrust plates (Refer to Fig. K.12) (one of          face or cylinder head (if fitted) is uppermost.
     which locates on the dowel in the recess) in posi-     7.   Refit the timing gears, timing case front cover etc ..
     tion, either side of the camshaft hub, when correct-        as previously detailed.
     ly located the camshaft can be pushed fully home       8.   Refit the fuel lift pump operating push rod (Refer
     and will appear as in Fig. K.13.                            to Fig. K.14), tappet inspection cover, (after re-
4.   Refit the timing case back plate as previously des-         moving any retaining clips) and fuel lift pump.
     cribed.                                                     Refer to Fig. P.9.
5.   Refit the lubricating oil pump assembly and sump       9.   Re-assemble the remainder of the engine com-
     as described on Pages M.1 and M.4.                          ponents in accordance with the instructions given
                                                                 for each in the relevant part of this section.
                                                                                 SECTION L
                                                                                    Timing




                        L1


General                                                           crankshaft is uppermost as shown in Fig. L.1.
                                                                  (This will bring Nos. 1 and 4 pistons to T.O.C.)
As timing gears are employed, the factory setting
remains constant. It is also worth remembering that
                                                             2.   Fit the camshaft gear to its hub ensuring that the
the removal of the cylinder head in no way effects
                                                                  '0' marks are correctly aligned. (Refer to Fig. K.5).
either the fuel pump or the valve timing.
                                                                  Secure with the three setscrews.

                                                             3.   Similarly, fit the fuel pump gear to the fuel pump
TIMING MARKS
                                                                  drive hub ensuring that the stamped timing marks
When the engine is originally timed at the factory,               align as shown in Fig. K.6. Secure with the three
certain marks are stamped on the gears, so that if for            setscrews.
any reason the engine timing has to be disturbed, then
to reset to the original timing is quite straight forward.   4.   Replace the idler gear so that the double dots on
                                                                  the idler gear are matched to the single dot on the
                                                                  crankshaft gear and single line (or dot) on the
                                                                  camshaft gear, while the single dot on the idler
                                                                  gear matches with the double dots on the fuel
To Reset the Engine to the Original Timing                        pump gear. These timing marks when correctly
                                                                  positioned will appear as shown in Fig. L.1.
Before commencing the retiming procedure it is
assumed that (a) the camshaft, fuel pump and idler
gears have all been removed, and (b) the camshaft is         5.   Locate the idler gear with the hub and the two
free to turn by hand. (If the cylinder head assembly is           securing setscrews using a new tabwasher.
still in position, it is advisable to remove the injectors
and rocker shaft to facilitate the retiming operations).     6.   Backlash adjustment should be carried out as
                                                                  described under the heading 'To Refit the Idler
1.   Turn the engine until the keyway in the front of the         Gear and Hub,
TIMING-L.2




             Checking Fuel Pump Timing-See Page P.5


             Checking Valve Timing
             To check the valve timing proceed as follows:
             1. Turn the crankshaft until the valves of No.            4
                 cylinder are 'on overlap.

             2.   In this position set the valve clearance of No. 1
                  inlet valve to 0.039 in (1 mm).

             3.   Turn the engine slowly in the normal direction of
                  rotation until the clearance of No. 1 inlet valve is
                  just taken up. (In this condition it will just be poss-
                  ible to rotate No. 1 inlet valve push rod between
                  the thumb and the forefinger).

             4.   Nos. 1 and 4 pistons will now be at T.D.C. if the
                  timing has been correctly set.

                  NOTE: No adjustment is provided for valve timing.
                  should the timing be incorrect and the camshaft
                  gear has been correctly fitted to the camshaft hUb.
                  the error will probably be due to incorrect align-
                  ment of the original timing marks on the drive
                  gears. Recheck as detailed on Page L.1.

                  When valve timing is originally set and checked
                  during production a timing tolerance of plus or
                  minus 2~ (flywheel) degrees is allowed for item
                  (4) above. When the timing has been correctly
                  set, do nOl forget to reset No. 1 inlet valve clear-
                  ance to the correct figure.

                  check T.D.C.



                  NOTE: When the timing has been reset, great
                  care should be exercised when first turning the
                  engine, for should the timing be incorrectly set,
                  even by only one tooth. there is the possibility that
                  a valve head will strike the piston crown.
                                                                  SECTION M
                                                           Lubrication System

                                                             To Refit the Sump
                                                             1.   Lightly apply a coating of a suitable sealing com-
                                                                  pound to the crankcase and sump faces, position
                                                                  the gaskets so that all the holes align.
                                                                  NOTE: When the gaskets are being placed in posi-
                                                                  tion it is important that the mitred ends go right
                                                                  up into the recesses in the front and rear main
                                                                   bearing caps.

                                                             2.   Lightly apply a coating of sealing compound to the
                                                                  cork strips. then press these strips into the
                                                                  grooves provided in the main bearing caps.

                                                             3.   Place the sump in position and fit all the retaining
                                                                  setscrews, tighten evenly.

                                                             4.   Replace the dipstick and sump drain plug, then
                                                                  refill with clean new oil of an approved grade to
                                                                  the correct level. Do not overfill.




M1
                                                             To Remove the Oil Pump
The importance of correct and clean lubrication
                                                             1.   Drain the engine oil and remove sump.
cannot be stressed too highly and all references to
engine oil should be taken to mean lubricating oil           2.   Remove the strainer from the end of the lubricating
which falls within the specification given in the appen-          oil suction pipe. (Refer to Fig. M.1 ).
dix. Care should be taken to ensure that the 0~1 chosen
is that specified for the climatic conditions under          3.   Unscrew the delivery pipe securing nut"to·:the
                                                                  cylinder block and the setscrew securing the suc-
which the engine is operated.
                                                                  tion pipe assembly to the rear main bearing cap.



THE LUBRICATING OIL PUMP
The oil pump fits into a machined bore in the clyin-
der block and is located by means of a screw locked
 by a tab washer. (Refer to "Engine Photographs" for its
 location).
The oil pump is driven through spiral gears from
the camshaft, on the other end of the drive shaft is
pressed and pinned a four lobed rotor. This rotor
meshes with and drives a five lobed rotor which is free
to rotate within the cast iron pump body.
NOTE: Length of oil pump set screw is critical. If re-
placed by a longer unit, oil pump shaft will lock and
gear failure will result.



To Remove the Sump
1.   Remove the sump drain plug and drain the oil.
2.   Remove the dipstick, sump securing setscrews and
     remove the sump.                                        M2
s::
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                                                         MAIN                                           Oil                                                    GALLERY

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                                                                                LUBRICATION SYSTEM-M.3




M4
                                                           M5

1.    Relief Valve Housing
2.    Rotor Housing
                                                           2.    Install the drive shaft complete with inner rotor.
3.    Hole for Locating Screw                                    then the outer (driven) rotor ensuring that the face
4.    Pump Drive Gear                                            which carries the chamfered edge enters the pump
                                                                 body first (Refer Fig. M.5), now carry out the
                                                                 three following dimensional checks.

                                                                 (a) Check the clearance between the inner and
                                                                     outer rotors. (Refer Fig. M.6).
4.   Tap back the tab washer locking the location
     screw and support the lubricating oil pump assem-           (b) Check the clearance between the outer rotor
     bly (if the engine is the normal way up), while the             and the pump body (Refer Fig. M.7).
     locating screw is removed.
                                                                 (c) Check the clearance between the rotors and
5.   Remove the lubricating oil pump assembly from                   the end cover assembly using a straight edge
     the cylinder block as shown in Fig. M.2.                        and feeler gauges (Refer Fig. M.B).




To Dismantle the Oil Pump
1.   Remove the delivery and suction pipes. The pump
     will now be as shown in Fig. M.4.

2.   Withdraw the drive gear by means of a suitable
     puller.

3.   With the pump suitably held in a vice, (using
     protective clamps) remove the four securing set·
     screws and remove the end cover assembly.
     N.B. This end cover assembly also incorporates the
     pressure relief valve housing.

4.   Withdraw the drive shaft complete with inner rotor.
     N.B. It is advisable not to remove this inner rotor
     from the shaft as this item is not available as a
     separate part (See later note).

5.   Withdraw the outer rotor.




Inspection
1.   Inspect for signs of wear. cracks. pitting. etc.           M6
LUBRICATION SYSTEM-M.4




                                                            M9


                                                            1.   Outlet to Main Oil Filter
                                                            2.   Relief Valve Plunger
M7
                                                            3.   Plunger Spring
                                                            4.   Spring Cap
     NOTE: The relevant clearances for these dimen-         5_   Retaining Cotter Pin.
     sional checks are given on Page B.10, they are the
     clearances applicable to a new pump and are in-
     tended to be used as a guide. Should a lubricating
     oil pump be worn to such an extent that it ad-
     versely effects the working oil pressure, then a re-   2.   Insert the drive shaft complete with inner rotor
     placement pump should be obtained.                          into the pump body.

                                                            3.   Replace the end cover assembly and fit the four
                                                                 securing setscrews. Ensure correct positioning so
To Re-Assemble the Oil Pump                                      that the suction and delivery pipes will locate
                                                                 correctly.
1.   Insert the outer rotor ensuring that the face which
     carries the chamfered edge enters the pump body        4.   Press the oil pump drive gear onto the shaft.
     first. (Refer Fig. M.5).
                                                            5.   Finally rotate the pump by hand to ensure that it
                                                                 turns quite freely.



                                                            To Refit the Oil Pump
                                                            1.   Refit the suction and delivery pipes, do not tighten
                                                                 the pipes at this stage.

                                                            2.   Place the lubricating oil pump assembly in posi-
                                                                 tion. locate with the securing screw and lock it
                                                                 with the tab washer.

                                                            3.   Tighten the delivery pipe at both ends, refit the
                                                                 setscrew securing the suction pipe assembly.

                                                            4.   Tighten the suction pipe at the pump end then
                                                                 refit the strainer on the end of the suction pipe.
                                                                 NOTE: The strainer which fits on the end of the
                                                                 suction pipe should be thoroughly cleaned in suit-
                                                                 able cleaning fluid before being refitted. It is
                                                                 good practise to remove this strainer and clean it
                                                                 thoroughly on every occasion when the sump is
                                                                 removed.
                                                            5.   Replace the sump as previously        detailed   and
                                                                 secure with the setscrews.
                                                            6.   Fill the sump to the correct level with clean oil
M8                                                               of an approved grade.
                                                                                   LUBRICATION SYSTEM-M.S


     NOTE: Caution should be exercised when restart-          is given on Page B.9. The pressure will drop whilst
     ing the engine, as it will take a moment or two for      the engine is idling and also a slight drop will be ex-
     the oil pump and pipes to prime, therefore the           perienced when the oil is hot, this is quite normal. If.
     engine speed should be kept to a minimum until           however, the oil pressure is suspected of being too
     either the gauge shows satisfactory pressure (where      high or too low then reference to the possible faults
     fitted) or the oil pressure warning light is ex-         listed under these headings given on Page 0.1, may
     tinguished.                                              prove helpful.
                                                              NOTE: Whenever the oil pressure reading is question-
                                                              able, use a direct reading, mechanical oil pressure
The most satisfactory way to prime the lubricating oil        gauge attached directly to engine oil gallery on block.
pump is to motor the engine for approximately 10/20
seconds before any attempt is made to start the               LUBRICATING OIL FILTERS
engine.
                                                              To ensure cleanliness of the lubricating oil a sump
                                                              strainer and a main full flow type of oil filter are fitted.
                                                              The sump strainer consists of a gauze wire container
                                                              which is fitted over the end of the lubricating oil pump
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE                                     suction pipe. All oil must pass through this strainer
                                                              before it reaches the oil pump.
The oil pressure relief valve is contained in a housing
integral with the oil pump end cover, which is secured
to the rotor housing by four setscrews. This relief valve
controls the maximum oil pressure by allowing a spring
loaded plunger to move and by-pass excess oil back
to the sump when the pre-determined spring pressure
given on page 8.10 is exceeded.



To Dismantle the Oil Pressure Relief Valve
1.   Drain the engine oil from the sump.
2.   Remove the sump securing setscrews and carefully
     remove the sump.
3.   Continue as for removing the oil pump as pre-
     viously detailed.
4.   Remove suction and delivery pipes.
5.   Remove the four securing setscrews and remove
     the end cover assembly.
6.   Remove the cotter pin from the end of the housing
     and withdraw the spring cap, spring and plunger.
     An exploded view of the assembly is shown in Fig.
     M.9.
7.   Thoroughly clean the parts. inspect for wear or
     damage and renew if necessary.



To Re-Assemble the Oil Pressure Relief Valve
1.   Replace the plunger. spring and spring cap then
     secure with the cotter pin.
2.   Secure to the lubricating oil pump body by means
     of the four setscrews.
3.   Continue as detailed for refitting the lubricating oil
     pump.




OIL PRESSURE
Always ensure that with the engine running. oil
pressure is registering on the gauge or the oil pressure
warning light is extinguished.
Pressures do vary according to climatic conditions
and even between individual engines, but the oil pres-
sure range at normal working speed and temperature
                                                         SECTION N
                                             Internal Cooling System

                                                                              1


                                                                                                                  4




ALTERNATOR BELT                                                                                                   5




To Adjust the Alternator Belt
                                                                                                                  6
Alternator belt adjustment is achieved by altering the
position of the alternator as detailed below.
1. Slacken the alternator adjusting lever setscrew.
2. Slacken the two alternator-to-bracket mounting
    bolts.
3. Move the alternator either towards or away from
    the engine to either slacken or tighten the belt.      N2
4. Lock in the desired position by tightening the alter-
    nator adjusting lever setscrew.
5. Check the tension. if correct. the tension is such       1.     Pump Body
    that without undue pressure. the thumb applied          2.     Seal
    midway between the water pump and crankshafl            3.     Shaft Bearings
    pulleys can depress the belt approximately i in
                                                            4.     Retaining Circlip
     (10 mm) as shown in Fig. N.1.
                                                            5.     Pump Shaft
                                                            6.     Spacer
                                                            7.     Flange - Oil Seal Retaining
                                                            8.     Retainer - Oil Seal
                                                            9.     Flange - Water Pump Thrower
                                                           10.     Impeller
                                                           11.     Seal
                                                           12.     Insert

                                                           6.    If the tension is correct tighten the two alternator-
                                                                 to-bracket mounting bolts.

                                                                 NOTE: When a new belt is filted. it is advisable to
                                                                 recheck the adjustment after only a comparatively
                                                                 short running period. This is to allow for the initial
                                                                 stretch which is common to new belts. once this
                                                                 initial stretch has taken place the belt may be
                                                                 checked in accordance with Operator Instructions.




                                                           To Remove the Alternator Belt
                                                           1.    Slacken the alternator adjusting lever setscrew.
N1                                                         2.    Slacken the alternator-to-bracket mounting bolts.
COOLING SYSTEM-N.2


3.   Pivot the alternator towards the cylinder block.
4.   Turn the engine slowly by hand and work the alter-
     nator belt off the water pump pulley.
5.   The belt can now be lifted from the alternator and
     crankshaft pulleys and removed from the engine.
6.   Examine the belt for signs or fraying or cracks in
     the rubber and renew if necessary.




To Refit the Alternator Belt
     Refitting the belt is just a reversal of the removal
     operations. Adjust the belt tension as previously
     detailed under the heading "To Adjust the Alter-
     nator Belt".
     If a new belt has been fitted refer to the note given
     after the details on fan belt adjustment.
                                                             N4



To Remove the Water Pump
                                                             2.   Remove the water pump pulley by means of a
     Slacken generator securing setscrews and remove
                                                                  suitable puller, the holes in the pulley face may be
     driving belt.
                                                                  utilised for this purpose (Refer to Fig. N.3).
     Unscrew the four setscrews securing the water           3.   Press the shaft out of the pump body from the
     pump and backplate to cylinder block.                        pulley end complete with water pump thrower, in·
                                                                  sert, seal and impeller.
     Remove water pump and back plate.                       4.   Remove the impeller from the pump drive shaft
                                                                  by means of a suitable puller or press.
                                                             5.   Remove the bearing retaining circlip then using a
                                                                  suitable mandrel press the two shaft bearings
                                                                  complete with spacer out through the front of the
To Dismantle the Water Pump                                       pump body.
                                                             6.   Remove the felt seal and retaining flanges.
1.   Remove the pulley securing nut or circlip (where
     fitted) .


                                                             Inspection
                                                             1.   Examine the pump body for cracks, corrosion or
                                                                  any other damage. Renew where necessary.
                                                             2.   Examine the shaft and bearing assembly for wear
                                                                  or corrosion. Renew where necessary.
                                                             3.   Examine the water thrower flange for damage or
                                                                  corrosion. Renew where necessary.
                                                             4.   Examine the water pump seal and insert for ex-
                                                                  cessive wear, scoring or cracks on the sealing
                                                                  faces. Renew where necessary.
                                                             5.   Remove rust and scale from the impeller and ex·
                                                                  amine for excessive corrosion or other damage.
                                                                  Renew where necessary.
                                                             6.   Examine the pump pulley for signs of cracks.
                                                                  corrosion or any other damage. Renew where
                                                                  necessary.




                                                             To Re-Assemble the Water Pump
                                                             (Refer to Fig. N.2).

                                                             1.   Insert the oil seal retainer (8) and oil seal (2)
N3                                                                followed by the oil seal retaining flange (7).
                                                                                         COOLING SYSTEM-N.3


2.        Fit the two bearings (3) and spacer (6) onto the
          shaft (5) and pack the space between the two bear-
          ings approximately 3f4 full of high melting point
          grease.
3.        Press the bearings and shaft assembly into the
          pump body. impeller end first and locate with the
          circlip (4).
4.        Press the water thrower flange (9) into position on
          the drive shaft.
5.        Thoroughly clean the insert recess and drain hole
           in the pump body.

6.  lightly coat the inner diameter of the insert recess
    and outside diameter of the insert with grade
    "AVV' Loctite.
7. After removing any traces of oil or grease from the
    insert, press it fully home. Remove all traces of
    surplus Loctite.
    NOTE :-Special care must be taken during this
    operation not to mark the face upon which the seal
    registers.
8. Place the carbon-faced seal (11) on the drive
    shaft so that this face registers with the insert face.      N5
9. Press the impeller onto the shaft over this seal
    until the clearance given on Page A.13 exists be-
    tween the back face of the impeller and the pump
     body. This clearance can be checked as shown in
     Fig. N.4.
10. Press the pulley fully onto the shaft and fit the
     securing nut or circlip (where applicable).                 2.   Remove expansion tank or thermostat       housing
                                                                      (whichever is applicable).
          NOTE:- 4.108 Engines Only. When the pulley is
                                                                 3.   Lift out thermostat, as in Figure N5.
          originally pressed onto the shaft during production
          a pressure of 2~-3 ton/in 2 is required. Therefore
          it is recommended that if the pulley interference on
          the shaft is such that a substantially reduced
          pressure will press the pulley back onto the shaft,
          then a replacement pulley and/or shaft should be
          fitted.                                                To Test the Thermostat
                                                                 1.   Immerse the thermostat in a suitable container of
                                                                      water and slowly heat. An accurate thermometer
                                                                      should be available to check the temperature of
 To Refit the Water Pump                                              the water as it rises.
                                                                 2.   Note the temperature at which the valve in the
 1.       Fit the backplate followed by the water pump to             unit commences to open. This temperature should
          the cylinder block using new gaskets lightly coated         be as stamped on the unit by the manufacturers.
          with suitable sealing compound.                        3.   If the unit does not function properly then a re-
 2.       Secure the water pump assembly to the cylinder              placement thermostat will be required. as no
          block with the four setscrews.                              adjustment of these units is possible.
 3.       Refit the alternator belt and adjust to the correct
          tension.


                                                                 To Replace the Thermostat
 THERMOSTAT                                                      Replacing the thermostat is a reversal of the re-
                                                                 moval procedure. A new gasket should be fitted between
                                                                 the thermostat housing and the water outlet connection.
 To Remove the Thermostat
     1.    Drain the coolant from the engine block.
                                                                    SECTION P
                                                                   Fuel System
FUEL OIL FILTERS
The element in this filter is of the paper type and
therefore no attempt should be made to clean it. Its
life will be governed by the quality and condition of
the fuel passing through it. but under average con-
ditions the element should be renewed in accordance
 with the recommendations in Operator Section. This
 period would naturally be reduced if it was apparent
 from the condition of the element if removed and in-
 spected, that conditions warranted it.




To Renew the Filter Element
1.   Unscrew the filter bowl securing bolt in the centre
     of the headcasting. Refer to Fig. P.5.

2.   Lower the filter bowl clear as shown in Fig. P.6
     then discard the fuel therein together with the old
     element.

3.   Inspect the sealing rings and replace if damaged        P6
     in any way.
                                                             FUEL LIFT PUMP
4.   Place the new element in position inside the filter
     bowl and offer up the bowl firmly and squarely so
                                                             Testing the Pump in Position
     that the top rim of the filter bowl locates centrally   1.   Disconnect the outlet pipe (lilt pump to filter)
     against the sealing ring in the filter head casting.         leaving a free outlet from the pump.
5.   Hole! in this position while the securing bolt is       2.   Rotate the engine and note if there is a well
     located and screwed home.                                    defined spurt of fuel from the outlet port once
                                                                  every two engine revolutions.
     NOTE: If the sealing rings are in good order and
     the bowl is located correctly. no excessive tighten-         NOTE:     As an alternative the pump may be
     ing will be required to obtain a leak proof seal.            operated by means of the hand primer as shown
                                                                  in Fig. P.? which should give the same result
6.   Prime the fuel system as detailed on Page P.S.               every time the priming lever is operated. However
                                                                  should the engine happen to have stopped in such
     NOTE: Some filter bowls have a drain plug fitted.
                                                                  a position that the eccentric operating the lift
     in this case the relevant manufacturers service
                                                                  pump is in the maximum lilt position. then it will
     literature should be consulted.
                                                                  not be possible to operate the hand primer
                                                                  properly. If such a condition arises the remedy is
                                                                  to rotate the engine one complete revolution.




P5                                                           P7
FUEL SYSTEM-P.2


To Remove the Lift Pump                                    To Re·Assemble the Lift Pump

1.   Disconnect the pipes from the inlet and outlet        Examine the casting and ensure that there is
     ports. Seal the ends of the pipes to prevent the      sufficient material to provide a sound staking when
     entry of foreign matter.                              new valves are fitted.
2.   Remove the two nuts and washers holding the           Clean the valve recesses to allow the new valves
     Dump to the tappet inspection cover. Withdraw the     to be correctly fitted.
     pump, spacer and gaskets.
                                                           1.   Insert a new valve gasket in each valve recess.

                                                           2.   Place the new valves in the recesses. The valve
                                                                in the inlet port should be fitted with the spring
                                                                outwards (i.e .. towards the diaphragm flange) and
                                                                the valve in the outlet port fitted in the reverse
                                                                position.

                                                           3.   Press the valves home with a suitable piece of
                                                                tubing, approximately 9/16 in (14.29 mm) inside
To Dismantle the Lift Pump
                                                                diameter and 1 in (19.05 mm) outside diameter.

1.   Before dismantling, make a file mark across the
     two flanges for location purposes when the pump
     is being re-assembled.

2.   Remove the five cover screws and separate the
     two main castings. then remove the diaphragm
     assembly from the lower half by turning the dia-
     phragm through 90° in either direction.

     NOTE: The diaphragm and pull rod assembly is a
     permanent assembly and no attempt should be
     made to separate the parts.

3.   Remove the retaining clip from one side of the
     pump body and push out the rocker arm retaining
     pin. Withdraw the rocker arm, etc .. from the body.

4.   Prise out the valves with a screwdriver or other
     suitable tool.




Inspection

1.   Check the diaphragm assembly and renew if the
     material is split or checked, or if serious wear is
     apparent in the link engagement slot.

2.   The diaphragm spring should be replaced if faulty
     or corroded. A new spring should have the same
     color identification (Refer to Page B.ll).

3.   Replace the valves unless they appear to be in per-
     fect condition.

4.   Examine the rocker arm, operating lever, rocker
     arm retaining pin and rocker arm return spring
     for wear. Replace any parts where necessary.

5.   Replace all joints, seals and washers as routine
     procedure.

6.   Examine upper and lower castings for wear or
     distortion. Slight distortion of flanges can be
     remedied by grinding the flange face to restore
     flatness.                                             P8
                                                                                           FUEL SYSTEM-P.3


4.   Stake the casting in six places (between the
     original stakings) round each valve, with a suitable
     punch.

     NOTE:      Valves fitted to earlier lift pumps were
     held in    position with a retaining plate and two
     screws.    On no account should attempts be made
     to stake   the valves of this earlier type pump.

5.   Place the rocker arm retaining pin in the appro-
     priate hole in the lower casting and push through
     until it protrudes slightly inside.
6.   Fit one packing washer and link into the casting
     moving the pin in slightly to retain them.

7.   Fit the rocker arm and return spring and retain by
     moving the pin in further, ensuring that the spring
     seats correctly.

8.   Fit the remaining packing washer, then push the
     rocker arm retaining pin through the link, washer
     and casting until the ends protrude equally beyond
     the outside of the casting.

9.   Retain by securing with the two clips.                 pg
10. Insert the new rubber sealing washer followed by
    the steel seating washer and diaphragm return
    spring.

11. Place the diaphragm assembly over the spring
    with the pull rod downwards, locating the top of
    the spring in the diaphragm protector washer.

12. Now position the pull rod so that the flat notcheo
    blade has one of its thin edges facing the rocker
    arm. Press downwards on the diaphragm assembly
    and twist it through 90 0 in either direction, this
    action will engage and retain the pull rod in the
    fork of the link.

13. Operate the rocker arm against the diaphragm
    spring pressure until the diaphragm is level with
    the body flange.
                                                            FUEL INJECTION PUMP
14. Place the cover assembly in position and line up the
    file marks made on the flanges prior to dismantling
                                                            Description

15. Still holding the diaphragm level with the body         The fuel injection pump is of the D.P.A. distributor
    flanges, fit the five flange securing screws, tighten   type. It is a precision built unit incorporating a simple
    evenly and securely.                                    hydraulic governor or alternatively one of the mech-
                                                            anical flyweight type depending upon the application
                                                            to which the engine is fitted.


                                                            To Remove the Fuel Injection Pump

                                                            1.   Remove the four high pressure pipes between the
                                                                 pump and the injectors and blank off all ports to
                                                                 prevent the ingress of foreign particles.

                                                            2.   Remove the low pressure fuel pipes from the inlet
                                                                 and outlet connections and blank off all ports.
To Refit the Fuel Pump                                      3.   Disconnect the stop and throttle controls and their
                                                                 return springs.
1,   Fit the spacer using a gasket on either side.
                                                            4.   Remove the two nuts and the socket headed set-
2.   Enter the pump operating lever into the recess In           screw which secure the fuel pump to the mount-
     the tappet inspection cover as shown on Fig P.9             ing flange together with their spring and plain
     and secure with the two nuts and washers.                   washers.

3.   Reconnect the low pressure fuel pipes to the inlet     5.   Carefully withdraw the fuel pump from its mount-
     and outlet ports                                            Ing.
FUEL SYSTEM-P.4


To Refit the Fuel Injection Pump

1.    Replace the fuel pump mounting flange gasket
      (where necessary).
2.    Fit pump as shown in Fig. P.8 ensuring that the
      master spline on its quill shaft is correctly posi-
      tioned to engage with 'the female splines within the
      fuel pump drive hub.
      NOTE: This master spline ensures that the pump
      will only locate in the drive hub in one pOsition
      for timing purposes. Further, when fitting the me-
      chanically governed injection pump which uses a
      separate quill shaft, the noticeably shorter, splined
      end is fitted in the injection pump.

3.   When the splines are in correct alignment the
     pump can be pushed in until the mounting flanges
     meet and the securing nuts and setscrew with their
     washers can be fitted.

4.   Before tightening, align the timing marks scribed        P11
     on the fuel pump mounting flanges as shown in
     Fig. P.11. Tighten the setscrew and nuts.

5.   Refit the low pressure pipes to the inlet and outlet     FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING
     connections.                                             Reference should be made to the details given on
6.    Refit the high pressure fuel pipes.                     Page L.1 covering engine timing.       If this timing
                                                              sequence has been followed regarding the timing
7.    Reconnect the throttle and stop controls together       gears and the timing marks on the mounting flanges
      with their return springs.                              are correctly aligned as shown in Fig. P.11. then the
8.    Prime the fuel system with fuel oil as detailed on      fuel pump timing should be correct.
      Page P.8                                                A further check is possible and utilises the intrnal
9.   Fuel pump timing can be checked as detailed in           timing marks within the pump body. To be able to see
     the following text.                                      these marks necessitates the removal of the inspection
                                                              cover.

                                                              On the fuel pump rotor inside the fuel pump, are a
                                                              number of scribed lines, each one bearing an indi-
                                                              vidual letter. A timing circlip, one end of which has a
                                                              straight edge is positioned inside the pump body and
                                                              is preset so that when the appropriate scribed line on
                                                              the fuel pump rotor aligns with the straight end of the
                                                              circlip, it denotes commencement of injection (static
                                                              timing) see Fig. P.12.

                                                              NOTE:      On earlier pumps. the timing circlip had a
                                                              scribed     line on one end and on these pumps, the
                                                              scribed    line on the fuel pump rotor should be aligned
                                                              with the   scribed line on the circlip.




P10                                                           P12
                                                                                           FUEL SYSTEM-P.5


CHECKING FUEL PUMP TIMING
1.   Ensure that the fuel pump is correctly fitted with
     the scribed line on the mounting flange aligning
     with the adjacent mounting flange on the cylinder
     block (see Fig. P.ll).

2.   Position the crankshaft so that No. 1 piston is at
     T.D.C. on its compression stroke.
3.   Remove the cylinder head cover.

4.   Slacken the valve adjusting screw on No.1 exhaust
     valve sufficiently to allow the rocker lever to be
     moved to one side and the push rod removed,
     rotate the rocker lever on the shaft, so that the
     valve spring cap is accessible for using the valve
     spring compressor.

5.   Remove the collets, spring cap and springs from
     No. 1 exhaust valve and allow the valve to rest on
     the top of the piston.

6.   With the aid of a dial indicator in contact with the
     end of the valve now resting on No. 1 piston, it
     will be necessary to position the crankshaft so        P13
     that the piston will be 0.120 in (3,05 mm) B.T.D.C.
     this being the equivalent of 19' on the engine fly-
     wheel. Refer Fig. P.13.
     To do this. turn the crankshaft in the opposite
     direction to normal rotation, approximately an         NOTE!
     eighth of a turn and then forward until the required
     position is registered on the indicator, This en-
                                                            For mechanically driven Westerbeke
     ables the backlash in the timing gears to be           fuel injection pumps see Operations
     taken up.                                              pages 13-14 and Service Bulletin
     NOTE: The above setting is for 4,108 marine
                                                            pages V.3, V.7, V.9 and V.31 for
     engines. For other applications and engines see        information and disregard the
     Page B.12.                                             following hydraulic injection pump
7.   Remove the inspection plate on the fuel pump           material.
     enabling the rotor to be seen (Fig. P.12).

8.   With No. 1 piston at the static timing point on its    Maximum Speed Setting
     compression stroke, the scribed line on the rotor
                                                            (Refer to Figs. P.14 and P.15)
     marked 'A' (for hydraulically governed engines) or
     'C' (for mechanically governed engines) should
     align with the straight edge or scribed line on the    The maximum speed screw (5) is set and sealed by
     timing circlip.                                        the manufacturers and must not be altered or tam-
                                                            pered with in any way, unless factory authority is first
9.   If the timing is incorrect proceed by either : -       obtained and any adjustments necessary are carried
     (a) making any necessary adjustments by means          out by experienced personnel. As with all seals on the
          of the holes in the fuel pump gear, they are      pump unauthorised r.emoval may render the guarantee
           slotted enabling the drive shaft to be turned    void.
           relative to the gear when the securing set-
          screws are slackened. (Refer to Fig. K.6) or      The maximum no load speed may vary according to
     (b) by slackening the two nuts end socket headed       the application to which it is fitted, reference may be
         setscrew which secure the fuel pump to the         made to the code number stamped on the fuel pump
         mounting flange and turning the pump body          data plate, The last four numbers in the code indicate
         in the direction required.                         the maximum no load engine speed, therefore in the
                                                            case of the following example it would be 4480 rev/min,
10. When the fuel pump timing has been set. turn the        Code Example EH39/ 1200/0/4480.
    engine against the normal direction of rotation
                                                            NOTE: If the fuel pump data plate is damaged or de-
    once again to the appropriate piston displacement
                                                            faced so as to make it impossible to read accurately.
    to check that the squared end of the circlip is now
                                                            or if there is no code stamped on the plate you are
    aligned with the line on the rotor.
                                                            advised to contact your nearest C.A.V. Distributor, or
11. When the fuel pump timing has been correctly set,       Westerbeke,
    slowly turn the engine to T.D.C. in the normal
    direction of rotation, remove the indicator and refit
                                                            NOTE: The engine must not be allowed to operate at
    the valve springs,
                                                            a speed in excess of that specified or severe damage
12. Refit the push rod and reset the valve clearance.       may occur.
FUEL SYSTEM-P.6


IDLING SPEED ADJUSTMENT                                     (d) Accelerate the engine to maximum no load rev/
                                                                min and immediately return to idling.
This adjustment is carried out by means of the idling       Should the period of return from maximum rev/min
adjustment screw (4). it is carried out in conjunction      to idling exceed three seconds the device has been
with the setting of the anti-stall device with the engine   screwed in too far.
warmed through as detailed in the following text.


Anti·Stall Device                                           However should stalling occur. then the device has
                                                            not been screwed in far enough. Therefore the neces-
(Refer to Figs_ P.14 and P.1S)
                                                            sary adjustment should be made to suit whichever is
(a) Slacken the locknut (2) sufficiently to enable the      the case.
    anti-stall device body (1) to be unscrewed two
    complete turns.                                         *This idling speed may vary according to application.
                                                            refer to relevant manufacturers service literature.
(b) Adjust idling speed to 625 rev/min - with the idling
    adj ustment screw (4).

(c) Now screw down the anti-stall device body (1)
    until there is a very slight increase in engine
    speed. bring back half a turn and lock with the
    lock nut (2).




                                                                     1.   Anti-stall device body
                                                                     2.   Anti-stall device body locknut
                                                                     3.   Air vent screw
                                                                     4.   Idling adjustment screw
                                                                     5.   Maximum Speed Screw




P14
Earlier Fuel Pump
                                                                  AIR CLEANERS AND FUEL SYSTEM-P.7


INJECTORS

General
When replacing injectors in the cylinder head, it is
essential that a new, correct type copper washer is
fitted between the nozzle body and cylinder head.
The first symptoms of atomiser trouble usually come
under one or more of the following headings : -

1.   Misfiring.

2.   Knocking in one (or more) cylinders.

3.   Engine overheating.

4.   Loss of power.

5.   Smoky exhaust (black).

6.   Increased fuel consumption.




Testing for Faulty Injector
If an injector is suspected of being faulty, try this
method to isolate it.

Loosen the union nut at the injector end of the
high pressure fuel pipe. If each injector is isolated
in turn in this way, (with the engine running at approxi-
mately 1,000 rev/min) tightening each union nut
firmly before proceeding to the next, then the faulty
injector, when isolated in this manner, will have little
or no effect on the running.


Warning
Great care should be taken to prevent the hands or
face from getting into contact with the spray, as the
working pressure will cause the oil to penetrate the
skin with ease.




Injector Pressures
Details of holders and nozzle types together with
pressure settings are given on Page B.12.

NO ATTEMPT SHOULD BE MADE TO ADJUST THE                     P16
INJECTION PRESSURE WITHOUT AN INJECTOR
                                                             1.   Capnut
TESTING PUMP OF THE TYPE ILLUSTRATED. IT IS
QUITE IMPOSSIBLE TO ADJUST THE SETTING OF                    2.   Spring cap
INJECTORS WITH ANY DEGREE OF ACCURACY WITH-                  3.   Shim washer
OUT PROPER EQUIPMENT.                                        4.   Nozzle spring
                                                             5.   Identification tab washer
                                                             6.   Spindle
                                                             7.   Fuel inlet union
Injector Identification                                      8.   Nozzle holder body
                                                             9.   Securing flange
 Injectors can be identified by code letters stamped        10.   Nozzle needle
on a tab washer fitted under the spring cap nut (see
Fig. P.16) or alternatively. the code is stamped on the
                                                            11.   Nozzle body
injector body. Details of codings can be found on           12.   Nozzle capnut
Page B.12.                                                  13.   Copper sealing washer
FUEL SYSTEM-P.8


Fuel Pipes (High Pressure)                                     3.   Slacken the vent screw on the top of the fuel filter
                                                                    (Refer to Fig. P.20).
When replacing the fuel pipes it should be noted that          4.   Operate the priming lever on the fuel feed pump
no two pipes are the same, each is formed to suit an                (Refer to Fig. P.?) and when fuel, free from air
individual injector position. This is important when                bubbles, issues from each venting point, tighten
ordering a replacement pipe. as each one has a                      the screws in the following order
different part number.                                              1. Filter cover vent screw.
For standardization    purposes, high pressure fuel pipes           2. Head locking screw vent valve.
assemblies are now     supplied with olives fitted as shown         3. Governor cover vent valve.
in Fig. P.17. The      earlier type pipe assemblies with       5.   Slacken the pipe union nut at the pump inlet.
olives fitted in the   reversed position are still satisfac·        operate the priming lever and retighten when fuel
tory.                                                               oil. free from air bubbles issues from around the
                                                                    threads.
                                                               6.   Slacken the unions at the injector ends of two of
                                                                    the high pressure pipes.
                                                               7.   Set the throttle at the fully open position and
                                                                    ensure that the "stop" control is in the "run" posi-
                                                                    tion.
                                                               8.   Turn the engine until fuel oil. free from air bubbles.
                                                                    issues from both fuel pipes.
                                                               9.   Tighten the unions on both fuel pipes. and the
                                                                    engine is ready for starting.




P17


The pipes should be clean. (wash in clean fuel oil
and blow through the fine bore with compressed air if
there is any doubt). the olives at each end should not
be split or unduly compressed. otherwise leakage will
result and a new pipe will be needed.

Ensure when fitting. that the pipe fits squarely at both
ends and that the union nuts are tightened firm Iy but
not over-tightened.




Priming the Fuel System                                        P.18

The air must be vented from the fuel system whenever
                                                               Priming Procedure after Changing a Filter
any part of the system between the fuel tank and in-
jection pump has been disconnected for any reason.             Element
or when the system has been emptied of fuel.                   1.   With the vent screw on the filter cover removed.
No attempt must be made to start the engine until the               and the union at the filter end of the return pipe
injection pump has been filled and primed as serious                (filter to tank) slackened, operate the feed pump
damage can be caused to the pump due to lack of                     priming lever until oil. free from air bubbles, issues
lubrication.                                                        from the filter cover vent.
                                                               2.   Replace the vent plug. and continue to operate
The method of priming detailed below. ensures that                  the priming lever until oil. free from air bubbles.
only fuel which has passed through the paper filter                 issues from around the threads of the return pipe
element can reach the interior of the pump.                         union.
                                                               3.   Tighten the return pipe union.
1.   Slacken the air vent valve on the top of the control
                                                               4.   Slacken the union at the filter end of the filter to
     gear housing on hydraulically governed pumps
                                                                    injection pump feed pipe. and operate the priming
     (refer Fig. P.15) or on the front of the governor
                                                                    lever until oil. free from air bubbles, issues from
     housing on mechanically governed pumps (refer
                                                                    around the union threads.
     Fig. P.18).
                                                               5.   Tighten the feed pipe union. The pump and filter
2.   Slacken the vent valve fitted on one of the two                are now filled and primed and ready for further
     hydraulic head locking screws (Refer to Fig. P.19).            service.
            FUEL SYSTEM-P.9




P19   P20
                                                                                                     Q.l




                OTHER OVERHAUL

          CONTENTS                                                     SECTION              PAGE
MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ................ Q
   Activation by Keyswitch (1980 onwards} ............... Q.2
   Activation by Fuel Pressure .......................... Q.4
   Activation by Lube Oil Pressure ...................... Q.6
COOLING SYSTEM (EXTERNAL} ...................... R
TRANSr~   ISS IONS .................................. S
   Type SAl Manua 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. S. 2
   Type SAO Manua 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. S. 9
   SAl and SAO Clutch Adjustments ....................... S.21
   SAl and SAO Reduction Units .......................... S.23
   Type RB - Freewheeling ............................... S.25
   Paragon P-21 Series, Hydraulic ....................... S.29
   Warner Hydraulic ..................................... S.35
   Short Profile Sailing Gear ........................... S.41
Q.2
SECTION Q

            MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

                     ACTIVATION BY KEY SWITCH
               This system is supplied on most Wester-
               beke engines beginning May. 1980. Essen-
               tially activation of the circuit is
               accomplished by the ignition position of
               the key switch. No oil pressure switch
               is required. The engine is preheated
               by depressing the preheat push button.
               The engine is cranked by turning the
               key switch to the right-most momentary
               pos ition.
               Voltage is maintained to the instruments,
               fuel solenoid or fuel lift pump if sup-
               plied, and to other electrical devices via
               the ignition position of the key switch.
               Models which have a fuel solenoid or elec-
               tric fuel pump may be turned off via the
               key switch. Models with mechanical fuel
               lift pumps or no fuel solenoid are stopped
               by pulling a stop cable.
               The circuit is protected by a circuit
               breaker located near the starter. Any
               time excessive current flows, the circuit
               breaker will trip. This is a manually
               resettable breaker, and must be reset
               before the engine will operate electrically
               ag.ain.
               CAUTION - the builder/owner must ensure
               that the instrument panel, wiring and
               engine are installed so that electrical
               devices cannot come in contact with sea-
               water.
               The latest information regarding your
               engine's electrical system is included
               on the wiring diagram shipped with the
               engine. Be sure to study this wiring
               diagram and all the notes thereon.
                                                                                                                                                         Q.3
                                                       ACTIVATION BY KEYSWrrCH                                                     SECTION Q


                                                                                                                                  SCHEMATIC     DIAGRAM


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Q.4



      MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM




       ACTIVATION BY FUEL PRESSURE
       (Push Button Start)
              This system is supplied on all four and
           six cylinder Westerbeke engines beginning
           January 1975. Basically, the system is
           very simple and eliminates the need for a
           separate switch position to activate the
           engine alarm system, when supplied.
              Starting is accomplished by operation
           of the start push button which causes the
           starting motor to crank.
              Once the engine is running, fuel pres-
           sure developed in the low pressure side of
           the fuel injection pump operates a fuel
           pressure switch. Voltage is then applied
           to the alarm system (if supplied) and to
           the alternator for excitation and for all
           instruments.
              When the engine is stopped, fuel pres-
           sure drops and the fuel pressure switch
           removes voltage from these devices.
              When an engine is supplied with a pre-
           heating device, the device is energized by
           a separate push button.
           NOTE: It is important that your engine
           installation includes fuses or circuit
           breakers, as described under "Ownership
           Responsibility" on the wiring diagram
           supplied with your engine.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Q.5
                                    ACTIVATION BY FUEL PRESSURE
                                        (PUSH BUTTON STARn




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                                                                                                                  Drawing No. 15245
Q.8

      YOUR NOTES
                                                                 SECTION R
                           COOLING SYSTEM (EXTERNAL)
1. DESCRIPTION:                           charge of the sea water pump to the
Westerbeke marine diesel engines are      heat exchanger sea water inlet. After
equipped with fresh water cooling.        passing through the tubes of the heat
Transfer of heat from engine fresh        exchanger, the sea water may enter a
                                          tran~mission oil cooler if present
water to sea water is accomolished
in a heat exchanger, similar in func-     and 1f sea water cooled. Ultimately,
tion to an automotive radiator. Sea       the sea water enters a water injected,
water flows through the tubes of the      wet exhaust system, the most popular
heat exchanger while fresh water          type of exhaust system in use. In
flows around the tubes. The sea           the case of larger engines the sea
                                          ~ater flow is divided prior to enter-
water and fresh water never mix
with the result that the cooling          1ng the exhaust systems so that a
water passages in the engine stay         portion is dumped directly overboard
clean.                                    and a portion is used to cool the
                                          exhaust system. Full sea water flow
2.     FRESH   \~ATER   CIRCUIT:          entering the exhaust system would
                                          create unnecessary exhaust back
Heat rejected during combustion. as       pressure.
~ell  as heat developed by friction.
1S absorbed by the fresh water whose      4.   SEA WATER PUMP:
flow is created by a fresh water cir-
                                          The.s~a wa~er pump is self priming and
culating pump. The fresh water flows
from the engine through a fresh water     pos1t1~e d1splacement. It is a rotary
cooled exhaust manifold, a heat ex-       pump w1th a nonferrous housing and a
changer, in most cases an oil cooler,     neoprene impeller. The impeller has
and returns to the suction side of        flexible vanes which wipe against a
                                          curved cam plate within the impeller
the fresh water circulating pump.         housing, producing the pumping action.
The flow is not necessarily in this       On no account should this pump be run
order in every model. When starting       ~ry.  There should always be a spare
a cold engine, most of the external       1mpeller and impeller cover gasket
flow to the heat exchanger is pre-        aboard.
vented by the closed thermostat.
Some amount of by-pass is maintained      5. SEA WATER PUMP IMPELLER REPLACEMENT:
to prevent overheating in the exhaust
manifold. As the engine warms up, the     The following instructions are general
thermostat begins to open up allowing     and indicative only. Specific instruc-
full flow of engine fresh water thru      t~ons where applicable may be packaged
the external cooling system.              w1th your replacement impeller.
3. SEA WATER CIRCUIT:                     a. Remove the front cover taking care
The sea water flow is created by a           to salvage the gasket.
positive displacement neoprene lnpeller
pump (gear pump in certain special        b. Remove the impeller by pulling
cases). Normally the pump draws sea          straight outwards, parallel to
water directly from the ocean via the        the pump shaft. This is best
sea cock and sea water strainer. Some-       done with a pair of pliers ap-
times a transmission oil cooler, or          plied to the impeller hub.
pehaps a V drive will be piped on the     c. Coat the replacement impeller
suction side of the sea water pump.          and the chamber into which it
Generally it is better to have as few        mounts with grease.
devices on the suction side of the sea
water pump as possible to preclude        d. Carefully align the impeller key
priming difficulties. Usually sea            way, or other locking mechanism,
water flows directly from the dis-
R.2
           with the shaft. Take care that      8.   THERMOSTAT:
           all the impeller blades bend in
           the same direction and trailing.    Generally thermostats are of two types.
                                               One is simply a choking device which
     e.    Inspect the front cover for wear.   opens and closes as the engine tempera-
           A worn front cover should ulti-     ture rises and falls. The second type
           mately be replaced.   Sometimes     has a by-pass mechanism. Usually this
           it can be reversed as an emer-      is a disc on the bottom of the thermo-
           gency measure, but not when         stat which moves downward to close off
           stamped markings would break the    an internal by-pass passage within the
           seal between the cover and the      head. Both types of thermostats, from
           impeller blades.                    1980 onwards, have two 3/16" diameter
                                               holes punched through them to serve as
     f.    Reinstall the end cover with a      a by-pass while the engine is warming
           new gasket.                         up. This prevents overheating in the
                                               exhaust manifold during engine warm-up.
     g.    Be doubly sure to check quickly     These two holes total approximately
           for sea water flow when starting    0.06 square inches of area and replace-
           the engine. The absence of flow     ment thermostats must be equal in this
           indicates that the pump may not     design characteristic.
           be priming itself properly.         When replacing a thermostat, be sure
           This situation must be investi-     that it is rotated so as to not
           gated immediately or damage to      strike the thermostat housing, pro-
           the new impeller will result        jections inside the head, temperature
           from overheating.                   senders or temperature switches
                                               which may be installed close to the
6.        ENGINE FRESH HATER:                  thermostat.
It is preferable to fill your engine           A thermostat can be checked for prop-
with a 50% antifreeze-water mixture.           er operation by placing it in a pan
This precludes the necessity of drain-         of cold water and then raising the
ing coolant in the winter. Since most          temperature of the water to a boil.
antifreezes contain preservative agents        The thermostat should open notice-
of one kind or another, rusting within         ably (with travel on the order of
the engine is minimized. Also the anti-        1/4" - 1/2") and be fully opened when
freeze mixture boils at a higher tem-          the water is boiling.
perature than water, giving cooling
system Ilhead room. II                         9.   ENGINE LUBE OIL COOLER:
When draining the engine, open the
pressure cap first to relieve the              Lubricating oil carries heat away from
vacuum created by draining.                    the engine bearings and other friction
                                               surfaces. The oil circulates from the
                                               lube oil pump, through the engine,
7.        FILLING THE FRESH WATER SYSTEM:      through the engine oil cooler, and back
                                               to the oil pump.
It is very important to completely fill
the fresh water system before starting         The oil cooler may be cooled either by
the engine. It is normal for air to            engine fresh water or by sea water.
become trapped in various passages so
all high points must be opened to atmos-       10. TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER:
phere to bleed entrapped air. When an
engine is started after filling with           Certain transmissions require oil cool-
coolant, the system may look deceptively       ing. In these cases, the transmission
full until the thermostat opens. At this       oil cooler is usually cooled by sea
time when water flows through the exter-       water.
al cooling circuit for the first time,
pockets of air can be exposed and rise         Normally sea water enters this cooler
to the fill point. Be sure to add cool-        after exiting the heat exchanger, but
ant at this time.                              not always.
                                                                                   R.3




                     TWO PASS MANIFOLD


  Note:   Drawing is indicative only.   Specific models may vary in detail.




                                                             ,----, TO EXHAUST
                                                                      5'y"STEIv1




STRAIN~




SEA WAtER
PUMP
                                              CAP
R.4




                       SINGLE PASS MANIFOLD


      Note:   Drawing is indicative only.   Specific models may vary in detail.




      SURGE                    EXHAUST
       TANK                    MANIFOLD
                                                            ~
                                                                 \/ER
                                                     - - BOARD
                                                           H :r
                                                           EXCHANGER
              FRESH                                         _,                   FROM
              WATER                                        ( )=

> FRESH WATER ~- - , . - ENGINE OIL r-~ IUSED ON HYD- HYDRAULIC GEAI?/'lt"cx,p t:J RAULIC GEAR QLb COOLER)1 ONLY SECTION S TRANSMISSIONS S.2 TYPE SA 1 MANUAL Desc ri pti on The Westerbeke-Paragon manua Ily operated re- The number of hours that can be run between verse gear unitsconsistofa multiple disc clutch oi I changes varies with the operati ng con- and a planetary reverse gear train. These units ditions. Under normal conditions, the oil are self contained and are independent of the should be changed every 100 hours or each engine lubrication system. season, whichever is shorter. Operation Mode I and Seria I Numbers and Part Numbers On the forward drive, the reverse gear case and The model numbers and serial numbers are on multiple disc clutch are locked together as a the name plate on the cover of the transmission. solid coupling. The multiple disc clutch is The parts lists accompanying the exploded views locked or clamped by the pressure produced are intended on Iy to identify the parts in regards when the shift lever is moved to the forward to disassembly and assembly and are not intend- position. Thus the propeller shaft turns in the ed to be used to identify parts by number. To same direction as the engine. order parts, refer to the part numbers and names as given in the above mentioned parts lists. The reverse drive is obtained by clamping the re verse band around the re verse gear ca~e whi c h contains the planetary reverse gear train. The reverse band is clamped when the shift lever is TROUBLE-SHOOTING moved to the reverse position. The reverse mot- ion is then obtained by driving through the The accompanying 'trouble-shooting ' charts gears thus turning the propeller shaft opposite should be studied and the suggestions carried to the engine rotation. out prior to any disassembly to determine as bestaspossiblewhatthetrouble may be. Also, With the shift lever in the neutral position the the exploded views and the accompanying dis- multiple disc clutch and the reverse band are cussions should be carefully read and under- unc lamped and the planet gears run idle and stood so that any or all of the service work as the prope lIer shaft remains stationary. indicated from the trouble-shooting charts may be carried out properly. It is desi rable to start the engi ne wi th the trans- mission in neutral, thus avoiding moving the boat in either direction. It is recommended DISASSEMBLY OF TRANSMISSION that the shifting be done at speeds be low 1000 RPM and preferably in the 800 RPM range or As in any servicing operation, cleanliness is a lower to prolong the life of the engine, trans- must and a II ru les for good workmanship apply. mission and of the boat. Some of these rules are as follows: Lubri cation 1. Use only clean fluid In any cleaning or It is recommended that SAE 30 oi I be used for washing of parts. lubrication. The quantity of oi I depends upon the ang Ie of i nsta lIati on as we II as the reduct- 2. Use only clean oil for lubrication when ion model. The level should be maintained at pressing parts together thehighmarkonthedipstick. The level should be checked periodically to ensure proper oper- 3. Never use a hammer to drive ball bearings ation. in place. S.3 4. Never press a ba II bearing so that the force 3. Slide entire reverse gear housing straight is carried through the ba lis. backapproximately 3 inches unti I housing is c lear of engine gear (92) and lift re- 5. Use only properly sized wrenches in re- verse gear housing assembly c lear of en- moving or securing nuts and capscrews. gine. 6. Replace gaskets and "0" rings with ne'v" 4. Remove pi lot roller bearing (95) from materia I. engine gear (92) if it remains on engine gear. 7. Work on a c lean bench and protect gear teeth and oi I sea I surfaces from nicks and 5. Remove front end plate (93) from trans- sc ratc hes . sion. REMOVAL OF REDUCTION GEAR ASSEMBLY 6. Remove engine gear (92) from engine, FROM REVERSE GEAR HOUSING following engine manufacturer1s recom- mendation, only if necessary to replace. NOTE: To facilitate removal of the transmis- sion from the engine, it is simpler to remove 7. If necessary to replace, remove oil seal the reduction gear assembly first. Make cer- (94) from front end plate tain that all of the oil is removed from the re- verse and reduction unit before removal is at- REMOVAL OF GEAR CASE ASSEMBLY FROM tempted. REVERSE GEAR HOUSING 1. Remove capscrews and lockwashers around RE DUCTI ON MO DE L flange of reduction gear housing. 1. Re-move screw (81) from arm of yoke (79) 2. Strike gear half coupling flange with soft and remove ba II joint (80) and lockwash- mallet to break reduction gear unit from er (82) from eye of link on reverse band reduction adapter plate . Slide entire re- assembly. duction unit straight back approximately 3 inches unti I reduction unit clears reduct- 2. Loosen capscrews in yoke and remove cross- ion drive gear and lift reduction unit clear shafts (78) from sides of housing being of reverse gear housing assembly. careful not to damage oil seals (68) in housing. NOTE: Refer to reduction gearservice manual for disassembly and assembly of reduction 3. Remove yoke (2) from operating sleeve unit. assembly (40) through cover opening in housi ng. REMOVAL OF REVERSE GEAR HOUSING AS- SEMBLY FROM ENGINE 4. Remove reverse band assembly from gear case assembly from front of housing. 1. Remove capscrews and lockwashers from flange of cover (4) and remove cover. NOTE: On older reverse bands using the drag link, it wi II be necessary to remove the 2. Remove capscrews and lockwashers that pins that anchor the reverse band to the secure reverse gear housing (6'J) to front housing before removing reverse band from end plate (58) or timing gear cover. housing. 8.4 5. Remove eotter pin from reverse gear 16. Press gear half coupling (68) from ball tai Ishaft and remove reverse gear tai Ishaft bearing (63) and press ball bearing from nut (69). direct drive plate (61). 6. Support reverse gear housi ng face down so 17. If necessary to replace, remove oil seal that gear case may drop free approximate Iy (47) from direct drive plate (61). 2 inches. 7. Press on reverse gear t.:Ji Ishaft unti I tai 1- shaft is free of reduction drive gear (76). 8. Lift reverse gear housing straight up unti I housing clears tai Ishaft. 10. Remove capscrews that secure reduction adapter plate (79) to reverse gear housing and remove reduction adapter plate, ba II bearing (72) and reduction drive gear (76) from reverse gear housing. 11. Press ball bearing (72) and reduction drive ~ear (76) from reduction adapter plate (79) and press ba II bearing from reduction drive gear. NOTE: When disassembling direct drive units, use the following procedure. 12. Bend tang of lockwasher (66) away from locknut (96) and remove hom reverse gear tailshaft by holding gear half coupling (68) with spanner wrench. 13. Support reverse gear housi ng face down so that gear case may drop free approx- imately 2 inches. 14. Press on reverse gear tailshaft until tail- shaft is free of gear ha If coupli ng. Lift reverse gear housing straight up from gear case assembly unti I housing clears tai 1- shaft. 15. Remove capscrews and lockwashers that secure direct drive plate (6') to reverse gear housing (60) and remove direct drive plate (61) be II bearing (63) and gear ha If coupling (68) from reverse gear hous- ing (60). S.5 Early models: ~ 1/4" th i ck - rTr7"-'--',"",- 4 1/8" long - - f+- 4 1/2" long 5/8" th i ck - - - - Late models DISASSEMBLY OF THE REVERSE BAND-TOG- DISASSEMBLY OF GEAR CASE GLE OPERATED TYPE 1. Remove. thrust washer (73) from end of 1. Remove screw (55), nut (58) and lock- reverse gear tai Ishaft on reduction units washer (57) that secures brace (56) to and Woodruff key (74) sea I washer ear of reverse band (51) . and thrust washer (64) from end of tatl- s haft on di rect dri ve un i ts . 2. Remove cotter pin (54) fromearofreverse bandand remove pin (53) that holds short 2. Remove lockscrew (42) and lockwasher lever (52) in forked ear of reverse band. (41) from screw collar (37) and remove Remove short lever. screw collar from gear case by unscrewing. Lift operating sleeve assembly (40) from 3. Removelocknut (50) from adjusting screw tai Ishaft when removing screw collar. (44) and remove adjusting screw and assem- bled levers from reverse band. 3. If finger assembly (36) seems loose or worn, remove from screw collar (37) by 4. Remove adjusting nut (50) from adjusting removing cotter pins (39) and finger pins screw. (38) . 5. Remove cotter pins (47) from ends of pins 4. Lift pressure plate (35) andclutch plates in assembled levers and disassemble link (34) and (33) from end of gear case. (48), adjusting bolt (44) and pins (46) . 5. Bend tang of lockwasher (30) away from CAUTION: Do not disassemble link (48) or sidesoflocknut (31) insidepropellergear (61) or disturb setting of jam nut. (24) and remove locknut and lockwasher whi Ie clamping reverse gear tai Ishaft. 6. If necessary to re-line reverse band, re- move rivets holding reverse band lining to reverse band. S.6 6. Properly support gear case on clutch plate disassembly. However, do not disassemble carrier (27) and press tai Ishaft (29) or unless required. (28) frompropellergear (24) and clutch plate carrier (27). Lift clutch plate car- 11. Drive pinion shaft (6) of one of the short rier from gear case. pinions (11) from threaded end of gear case approximately 1/2 inch. Push pin- 7. Remove case ba II bearing retaining ring ion shaft on through with dummy shaft. (26) from groove in gear case. Push dummy shaft unti I centered in short pinion (11) and short pinion spacer (7). 8. Remove capscrews (14) and lockwashers Remove short pinion and dummy shaft from (13) from case roller bearing race (12) inside of gear case. 12. Remove remaining short pinions from gear 9. Remove case roller bearing retaining rings case. (15) from case roller bearing race (12) and remove case roller bearing (16) from The prope Iler gear (24) can be pressed race. from the case ba" beari ng (25) at this time. 10. Before removal of the short or long pin- ions is attempted, first inspect the gear 13. Remove long pinions (5) using dummy teeth for indication of wear. Also, rotate shaft as in removing short pinions. each pinion to c heck for rough spots dur- ing rotation. If further inspection or re- 14. Remove thrust pads (2) from inside gear placement is necessary, proceed with the case (1). GEAR CASE ASSEMBLY 25 S.7 ASSEMBLY OF REVERSE BAND AND YOKE TO GEAR CASE ASSEMBLY 92 \ TOGGLE OPERATED REVERSE BAND ASSEMBLY STANDARD 47 5.8 YOUR NOTES S.9 TYPE SAO MANUAL DESCRIPTION The Westerbeke Paragon manually operated reverse gear units consist of a multiple disc clutch and a planetary reverse gear train. The units are self con- tained and are independent of the engine lubrication system. OPERATION On the forward drive, the reverse gear case and multiple disc clutch are locked together as a solid coupling. The multiple disc clutch is locked or clamped by the pressure produced when the shift lever is moved to the forward position. Thus the propeller shaft turns in the same direction as the engine. The reverse drive is obtained by clamping the reverse band around the reverse gear case which contains the planetary reverse gear train. The reverse band is clamped when the shift lever is moved and held in the reverse position. The reverse motion is then obtained by driving through the gears thus turning the pro- peller shaft opposite to the engine rotation. With the shift lever in the neutral position the multiple disc clutch and the reverse band are unclamped and the planet gears run idle and the propeller shaft remains stationary. It is desirable to start the engine with the transmission in neutral, thus avoiding moving the boat in either direction. It is recommended that the shifting be done at speeds below 1000 RPM and prefer- ably in the 800 RPM range or lower to prolong the life of the engine, transmission and of the boat. TROUBLE SHOOTING The trouble shooting charts below and on the next page should be studied and the suggestions carried out prior to any disassembly to determine as well as possible what the trouble may be. Also, the exploded views and the accompanying discus- sions should be carefully read and understood so that any or all of the service work as indicated from the trouble shooting charts may be carried out properly. DISASSEMBL Y As in any servicing operation, cleanliness is a must and all rules for good work- manship apply. Some of these rules are as follows: 1. Use only clean fluid in any cleaning or washing of parts. 2. Use only clean oil for lubrication when pressing parts together. 3. Never use a hammer to drive ball bearings in place. 4. Never press a ball bearing so that the force is carried through the balls. 5. Use only properly sized wrenches in removing or securing nuts and cap- screws. 6. Replace gaskets and "0" rings with new material. 7. Work on a clean bench and protect gear teeth and oil seal surfaces from nicks and scratches. NOTE: Remove the reverse and reduction gear as a complete unit before removing the oil to avoid fouling the bilges. S.10 TROUBLE SHOOTING CHARTS Chart 1 GEAR DRAGGING DRIVE SHAFT ROT ATES EITHE R FORWARD OR REVERSE WITH SHI FT LEVER IN NEUTRAL I l Check For I I I I 1. DEFECTIVE FORWARD CLUTCH PLATES J 3. BINDING IN PLANET ARY ASSEMBLY 1 4. OVER ADJUSTMENT ON I 2. REVERSE BAND ENGAGING GEAR CASE I FORWARD AND REVERSE -------------------------------REMEDy-------------------------------- I. I· or 1.\ ard cl utch 1'1 ate warped and stick ing. h. Lngine gear hearings worn excessivel\', Hemove and replace clutch plates. causing misalignment of engine shaft. He' place necessary parts. Check misalignment 2. InlpfOper reverse hand adjustment. Adjust of engine gear. reverse band as outlined under adjustment. ~. Check the following items: 4. Over·adjustment of either forward and reverse a. Hearings ann gears worn excessively in gear or both will result in loss of neutral. Check case. Replace neces sary parts. and readjust as outlined under adjustment. Chart 2 GEAR SLIPPING OR SLOW TO ENGAGE WITH SHIFT LEVER IN FORWARD OR REVERSE 1 I Check For I I 1. WORN CLUTCH PLATES I I 3. WORN REVERSE BAND I I 2. FORWARD CLUTCH NOT ENGAGING I I 4. REVERSE BAND NOT ENGAGING j -- REMEDY I. I{erllove fnrward clurch 1,lares and check f(lr .~. Remov(' reverse band and check for wear. R.e- \\ car. I{eplace if I.\orn exce~sivel\'. place lining if worn he low rivets. .~. Improper re\'erse band adjustment. Adjust as 2. lmprol'er forward clutch adjusrment. AdJusr as outlined under adjustment. outlined under adJustmenr. S.l1 TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART Chart 3 GEAR INOPERATIVE DRIVE SHAFT OOES NOT ROTATE WITH SHIFT LEVER IN FORWARD OR REVERSE I I Ch.",.k For I I I 1 I 1. FAILURE OF PLANETARY ASSEMBLY I 4. REVERSE BAND NOT ENGAGING GEAR CASE I I I 1 , 2. FAILURE OF REDUCTION GEAR 5. BROKEN OUTPUT SHAFT I 3.. FORWARD CLUTCH NOT ENGAGING I REMEDY ------------------------------- 1. Remon: ge'ar case assemoly and check for b. Forward clutch plates worn. Replace clutch defective or damaJ!cd pans. Replace defective plate. or d arnaJ!ed parrs. 4. Check the following items: 2. Remove reduction ge.u assemhly and check for a. Improper reverse band adjustments. :\djust defective or damaJ!ed parts. Replace defective reverse band as outlined under adjlJ"!lllent. or dama~ed parts. Refer to reduction gear h. Reverse hand lining worn. Replan' linin,l!. serv ice manual. c. Cracked ears or hent or damaged linkage 5. Check the follo\\ ing items: parrs. Rcplace defective 1I1,lIerial. a. Iml'rol't·! fOf\\,ud cllJtch adjustment. :\djust . 5. Check for hroken output shaft. l{el'l,lc(" ,k- for\\ ,Ird clutch as outlined untkr adjustment. f("ctin: shafr. NOTE: Disassembly need be carried out only as far as is necessary to correct those difficulties which interfere with proper marine gear operation. REMOVAL OF REDUCTION GEAR ASSEMBLY FROM REVERSE GEAR HOUSING IF INSTALLED NOTE: Remove the reverse gear with reduction gear attached as a complete unit before draining oil, to avoid fouling the bilges. 1. Remove starter motor 2. Disconnect propeller half coupling and slide back approximately 4 inches. 3. Remove capscrews securing reverse gear to bel1housing. 4. Strike gear half coupling flange with soft mallet to break reverse gear from bellhousing. Slide entire reverse and reduction gear streight back approxim- ately 3 inches until reverse gear clears bellhousing and lift units clear of en~ine. (Refer to "Reduction Gear" section of manual for disassembly and assembly of reduction unit.) S.12 32 5 63 18-2 37 1 22 I 35 78 42 47 46 41 75 88 54 49 45 7 85 62 56 48 71 44 72 SAO MANUAL TRANSMISSION s. 13 6S 94 62 + 67 62· 66-~~ SAO MANUAL 25 TRANSMISSION 25 S.14 REMOVAL OF REVERSE GEAR HOUSING ASSEMBLY FROM ENGINE 1. Remove capscrews and lockwashers that secure reverse gear housing (3) to front end plate (5). 2. Slide entire reverse gear housing (3) straight back approximately 3 inches until housing is clear of front plate engine gear (1) and lift reverse gear housing assembly clear of front plate (5). 3. Remove pilot roller bearing (60) from front plate engine gear (1) if it remains on gear. 4. If necessary to replace front end plate (5), oil seal (22), or bearing (37) proceed as follows: a. Remove capscrews and lockwashers securing front end plate (5) to engine flywheel housing. b. Slide front end plate (5) straight back approximately two inches until front plate engine gear (1) is clear of flywheel housing, and lift clear of engine. c. Remove retaining ring (36), bearing (37), retaining ring (35) and oil seal (22). d. Replace new oil seal and bearing if required. REMOVAL OF GEAR CASE ASSEMBLY FROM REVERSE GEAR HOUSING REDUCTION MODEL 1. Remove four capscrews, cover seals (33), cover (10), and gasket (4) from reverse gear housing (3). 2. Through cover opening in reverse gear housing (3), rem0ve nut (70), lock- washer and screw, securing adjustment nut lockspring (68) to ear of brake band assembly (62). Remove lock spring. 3. Remove adjustment nut (66) from reverse cam (65). Remove reverse cam (65) from eye in yoke (34) and slide out reverse cam (65) from reverse cam slide assembly (63). 4. Remove cross shaft (13) from reverse gear housing (3) as follows: a. Loosen the two capscrews securing the yoke (34) to the cross shaft (13). b. With small end of housing toward mechanic, slide cross shaft (13) from left to right being careful cross shaft doesn It come in contact with operating sleeve bearing (50), or Woodruff key (26) in cross shaft under yoke arm (34) isnlt forced against cross shaft oil seal (20) in right side of housing. Remove the two Woodruff keys from cross shaft. c. Slide cross shaft out of housing and remove brace (67) and lift yoke (34) from operating sleeve (50). 5. On dipstick side of housing remove roll pin (24) securing brake band lock- ing pin (12) that secures brake band to housing. Remove locking pin and inspect "0" ring (23) and replace if damaged. 6. Slide brake band (62) from gear case assembly (41) and remove band from front of housing. 7. Remove cotter pin and nut (18 - 2) from reverse gear tailshaft (2- 2). 8. Support reverse gear housing (3) with front end down so that gear case (41) may drop free approximately two inches. 9. Press on reverse gear tailshaft (2 - 2) until tailshaft is free of reduction drive gear (87). 10. Lift reverse gear housing (3) straight up until· housing clears tailshaft (2- 2). S.IS 11. Remove capscrews and lockwashers that secure reduction adapter plate (85) to reverse gear housing (3). a. Remove reduction adapter plate with attached bearing (88) and reduc- tion drive gear (87). b. Press bearing with drive gear from adapter plate. c. Press bearing from drive gear. DIRECT DRIVE UNIT (perform procedl.res 1 through 6 above) 12. Bend tang of lockwasher (19) away from locknut (18-1) and remove nut from reverse gear tailshaft (2-1). by holding gear half coupling (14) with spanner wrench. Remove lockwasher. 13. Support reverse gear housing (3) face down so that gear case may drop free approximately 2 inches. 14. Press on reverse gear tailshaft (2-1) until tailshaft is free of gear half coupling (14). Lift reverse gear housing (3) straight up from gear case assembly (41) until housing clears tailshaft (2-1). 15. Remove capscrews and lockwashers that secure direct drive plate (15) to reverse gear housing (3). a. Remove direct drive plate (15) with attached bearing (25) and gear half coupling (14) from reverse gear housing (3). b. Press gear half coupling from bearing. c. Press bearing from drive plate. d. If necessary to replace. remove oil seal (21) from direct drive plate. DISASSEMBLY OF GEAR CASE 1. Remove thrust washer (16-2) and retainer ring (6) from end of reverse gear tailshaft on reduction units. and Woodruff key (27), seal washer (6) and thrust washer (16-1) from end of tails haft on direct drive units. 2. Remove lockscrew (55) and lockwasher from screw collar (53) and remove screw collar from gear case by unscrewing. Lift operating sleeve assembly (50) from tailshaft when removing screw collar. 3. Lift pressure plate (49) and clutch plates (48) and (54) from end of gear case. 4. Properly support gear case on clutch plate carrier and press tailshaft (2-1) or (2- 2) from propeller gear (43) and clutch plate carrier. Lift clutch plate carrier from gear case. 5. Remove case ball bearing retaining ring (59) from groove in gear case. 6. Remove capscrews (14) and lockwashers (13) and case bushing (23) from gear case. 7. Before removal of the short or lon~ pinions is attempted. first inspect the gear teeth for indication of wear. Also. rotate each pinion to check for rough spots during rotation. If further inspection or replacement is necessary. proceed with the disassembly. However. do not disassemble unless required. 8. Drive pinion shaft (20) of one of the short pinions (22) from threaded end of gear case approximately 1/2 inch. Push pinion shaft on through with a dummy shaft. 9. Push dummy shaft until centerec in short pinion (46) and short pinion spacer (56). Remove pinion shaft (42) from front end of gear case. 10. Remove remaining short pinions (46) from gear case. 11. Press propeller gear (43) from the case ball bearing (58). 12. Remove long pinions (44) using dummy shaft as in removing short pinions. NOTE: Bushings are pressed into the long and short pinions. S.16 INSPECTION All parts should be thoroughly cleaned before inspection. Parts showing excessive wear should be replaced. 1. Ball and roller bearings should be examined for indication of corrosion and pitting on balls or rollers and races. 2. Long and short pinion bushings should be examined for wear. 3. Pinion shafts should be examined for wear or "brinelling". 4. Long and short pinion spacers should be examined for wear. 5. Long and short pinion bore diameters should be examined for wear. 6. All gear teeth should be examined for "pitch line pitting", unever wear pattern or excessive wear. 7. All shafts should be examined for wear on splines and shoulders. 8. Clutch plates should be examined for flatness, roughness, indicating of excessive heating and wear or peening of driving lugs. 9. Clutch plate carrier should be examined for wear and peening of lugs and splines. 10. Examine all oil seals for rough or charred lips. 11. Reverse band links, pins, etc. should be examined for wear or bending. 12. Reverse band lining should be examined for wear. NOTE: Lining should be replaced before rivets come in contact with gear case. 13. Gear case should be examined for wear from reverse band linking, short or long pinions wearing into inside faces or wear in clutch plate slots on threaded end. 14. Screw collar and finger assembly should be examined for wear. 15. Pressure plate should be examined for wear. 16. All old gaskets should be replaced. 17. Operating sleeve assembly should be examined for wear. 18. Engine gear should be examined for wear on oil seal surfaces, case roller bearing race, pilot bearing race and gear teeth for "pitch line pitting", uneven wear or excessive wear. NOTE: When uneven gear teeth wear has been noticed, check engine gear for eccentricity. Maximum eccentricity at pilot bearing race is .005 inches. 19. Where special vibration dampers are used as flexible couplings, check springs and splines for wear. ASSEMBL Y OF GEAR CASE 1. If pinion gears (45) and (46) bushings (21), and pmlOn shafts (42) were removed from gear case (41), assembled as follows: a. Insert dummy shaft into long pinion (44). NOTE: Use same dummy shaft as used in disassembly. b. Insert four bushings (21) equally spaced around dummy shaft to center shaft in gear; then assemble remaining bushings. NOTE: Smear dummy shaft with cup grease to prevent bushings from dropping out. Install bushing spacer (56) in gear next to first row of bushings. c. Lay gear case (41) on side and insert long pinion (44) in case to align with hole in outer row. S.17 d. Insert pmlOn shaft (42) plain end first, into unthreaded end of gear case and push through pinion as far as rear wall of gear case, forcing out the dummy shaft. e. Remove dummy shaft, and start pinion shaft into rear wall of case. Do not drive pinion shaft all the way into gear case until all shafts are inserted. f. Assemble remaining long pinions in gear case. g. Using dummy shaft, insert short bushings (47) into short pinion (46) in same manner covered in paragraphs a and b above. With short pinion, use pinion spacer (56). h. Insert short pinion (46) into gear case, pinion toward front of case, to line up with hole in inner row and insert pinion shaft (20) as described in d above. i. Assemble remaining short pinions in gear case. 2. Assemble case bushing (23) to gear case with edges of race in line with flats on pinion shafts. Replace lockwashers (13) and capscrews (14). 3. Insert propeller gear (24) through rear of gear case in mesh with long pinions. 4. Press case ball bearing (58) into gear case and onto propeller gear by supporting entire assembly on propeller gear inside front end of gear case. Make certain that case ball bearing is seated properly on propeller gear and into gear case. Install case ball bearing retaining ring (59) in groove in gear case next to case ball bearing. 5. Press clutch plate carrier (27) onto reverse gear tailshaft (2-1) or (2- 2). 6. Align splines on reverse gear tailshaft and press tailshaft through pro- peller gear until propeller gear is seated against the clutch plate carrier already on tailshaft. Support the entire assembly on propeller gear inside front end of gear case during pressing operation. 7. Place Woodruff key (61) on end of tailshaft inside propeller gear. 8. Install clutch plates in clutch plate cavity in rear of gear case starting first with bronze clutch plate (54) and alternating steel plate (34) and bronze clutch plate. 9. Install pressure plate (49) on top of last bronze clutch plate in clutch plate cavity. NOTE: Make certain that all plates ride freely and that no binding is apparent during assembly. 10. Assemble finger assembly (52) to screw collar (53) using finger pins (51) and securing with cotter pins. 11. Thread screw collar (53) onto gear case assembly (41) approximately half of the thread length. 12. Place operating sleeve assembly (50) onto tailshaft. Position ball ends of finger assembly over sleeve assembly. 13. Continue screwing screw collar onto gear case (41) until finger assembly will snap over center and lock into position against the shoulder of the pressure plate (49). 14. Push operating sleeve assembly (50) forward until finger assemblies are free. 15. Place lockwasher over end of lockscrew (55) and thread lockscrew into one hole near edge of screw collar (53). Rotate screw collar until dog on end of lockscrew lines up with closest hole in pressure plate. 16. On reduction tailshafts, install retaining ring on reverse gear tailshaft making certain that retaining ring is seated properly in groove in reverse gear tailshaft. S.18 CAUTION: The forward clutch is not properly adjusted at the end of this assembly. Proper adjustment is made after installation in boat is complete. Follow instruc- tions as outlined under section on adjustments. ASSEMBL Y OF REVERSE GEAR CASE IN REVERSE GEAR HOUSING REDUCTION MODEL 1. Place new gaskets (8), (7), and (4) on front, rear, and top of reverse gear housing (3). 2. If removed for replacement, install new oil seals (20) in cross shaft holes in housing. 3. Support gear case assembly (41) on propeller gear (43) inside front end of gear case so that reverse gear housing (3) will not rest on face when lowered over gear case assembly. 4. Lower reverse gear housing (3.) over gear case assembly with reverse gear tailshaft (2- 2) protruding thll~)Ugh bore in rear of housing. 5. Place thrust washer (16- 2) with counter-bored side down over reverse gear tailshaft (2- 2). (Make certain that thrust washer seats properly on shoulder of retaining ring (6) on tailshaft (2-2.) 6. Press reduction drive gear (87) into ball bearing (88). 7. PI&ce new gasket (8) on reverse gear housing (3) and press reduction drive gear (87) and ball bearing (88) on reverse gear tailshaft (2-2) until ball bearing is seated against thrust washer (16- 2). Thread on reverse gear tailshaft nut (18-2). 8. Press reduction gear adapter plate (85) over ball bearing and secure with necessary bolts. 9. Install reduction gear crescent (74). 10. Tighten all capscrews. Tighten reverse gear tailshaft nut (18-2) until cotter pin can be installed through castellation in nut and hole in reverse gear tailshaft. 11. Install cotter pin and bedn ends over nut. 12. Place new gasket (72) on reduction adapter plate (85). 13. Install brake band assembly (62) onto gear case assembly (41) in reverse gear housing. 14. With reduction adapter plate (85) facing mechanic, insert yoke (34) through cover opening in housing placing forked arms of yoke over pins of oper- ating sleeve assembly (50). Ensure part number of yoke is facing mechanic. 15. Align and hold hole in brace (67) on inside right hole in yoke and push cross shaft through yoke and brace to left side of housing. 16. Pull cross shaft out from right side of housing approximately one inch and insert Woodruff key in cross' shaft to the right of each yoke hole to posi- tion yoke to cross shaft. 17. Secure yoke to cross shaft by tightening the two cap screws in yoke. 18. Slide reverse cam (65) through reverse cam slide assembly (63) and in hole in arm of yoke (34). 19. Position pin in brake band (62) in hole in brace (67). 20. Replace and tighten adjustment nut (66) to reverse cam slide assembly (63). 21. Secure lock spring (68) over adjustment nut (66) with screw, lockwasher and nut (70). DIRECT DRIVE UNIT 22. After paragraph 4 above place thrust washer (16-1) over reverse gear tailshaft. Place seal washer (6) over reverse gear tailshaft against thrust S.19 washer and install Woodruff key (27) in keyway in tailshaft. 23. If removed for replacement. press new oil seal (21) into direct drive plate (15). Press ball bearing (25) into direct drive plate. 24. Place direct drive plate, oil seal and ball bearing assembly on suitable support and press gear half coupling (14) into oil seal (21) and ball bear- ing (25) until gear half coupling is seated against ball bearing. Care must be taken not to damage oil seal during assembly. 25. Align direct drive plate and gear half coupling up with key in reverse gear tailshaft and press together until ball bearing is seated against thrust washer (16-1). 26. Place lockwasher (19) over reverse gear tailshaft with tang in keyway in gear half coupling and thread locknut (18-1) on reverse gear tailshaft. 27. Install lockwashers and capscrews in holes in direct drive plate and bolt to reverse gear housing. 28. Tighten all capscrews. Tighten locknut (18-1) and bend up one tang on lockwasher (19) over locknut. 29. Continue with paragraphs 13 through 20. ASSEMBLE TRANSMISSION TO ENGINE 1. If front end plate (5) was removed from reverse gear housing (3) or engine flywheel housing proceed as follows: a. Replace oil seal (22) or bearing (37) if necessary. b. Slide engine gear (1) into flywheel housing damper spline. c. Align mounting holes in front end plate (5) with holes in flywheel housing and secure with lockwashers and capscrews. d. After installing on engine. check engine gear for runout. Maximum eccentricity is . 005 inches at pilot roller bearing. 2. Insert two studs three inches long in two opposite bolt holes in front end plate (5). 3. Check to be certain that pilot roller bearing (60) is properly installed in propeller gear inside gear cas e. 4. Start reverse gear housing (3) over the two studs and slide housing over engine gear (1) right up against flywheel housing. It may be necessary to rotate gear case slightly to properly mesh teeth on engine gear and short pinions in gear case. 5. Install lockwashers and caps crews in holes around flange of housing. 6. Remove the two studs and install remaining lockwashers and capscrews. Tighten all capscrews. ASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION GEAR ASSEMBLY TO REVERSE GEAR HOUSING ASSEMBLY NOTE: Refer to reduction gear assembly and disassembly procedures. 1. Install two studs 3 1/2 inches long in two opposite holes in reduction adapter plate. 2. Position reduction gear assembly over studs with oil drain plug at bottom and slide onto reduction drive gear. It may be necessary to rotate reduc- tion ring gear slightly to properly mesh gear teeth. 3. Install lockwashers and capscrews around flange of reduction gear housing and tighten uniformly. S.20 YOUR NOTES S.21 SA1 AND SAO MANUAL CLUTCH ADJUSTMENTS With the transmission secured to the engine, I. Back out the lockscrew (42) unti I the dog replace all water lines, etc. However, do on the end of the lockscrew is clear of the not connect the shifting linkage until all the hole in the pressure plate (35). adjustments have been made and are satis- factori Iy tested:. 2. Rotate the screw Coli ar (37) to the righ t until the lockscrew (42) is opposite the Before securing the propeller half coupling to next hole in the pressure plate (35). the gear half coupling, check to make certain that the coupl ings do not run out more than 3. Tighten the lockscrew making certain that .002 inches wi th respect to each other. Study the dog on the end properly enters the hole section "AI ignment to Engine II on Pages in the pressure plate. 14 and 15 of Technical Manual. 4. Continue this until a decided effort is re-' The transmission should be filled with new oil qui red to shift into forward (approximately as specified under lubrication. 26 foot pounds). The transmission can be parti ally adjusted be- 48 fore the engine has been run. However, a complete running test is necessary to satisfact- ori Iy determine whether the adjustments have been properly made. The preliminary adjustments for the forward drive are. made as follows: remove reverse cover plate, rotate pressure finger assembly and screw coli ar (37) until lock screw (42) is up and facing you. Then, working care- b::::l0"",=4---- 50 fully to avoid dropping either screw or tools into clutch housing -- SAl Reverse Adjustment (Top View) The prel iminary adjustments for the reverse drive are made as follows: 1. Loosen the locknut (50) on the inside of the upright ear at the top of the reverse band. 2. Tighten the adjusting nut (50) on the outside of the ear until both nuts are again tight against the ear of the reverse band. 3. Repeat until a decided snap is required to Typical Forward shift into reverse. Clutch Adjust- ment (SAl & SAO) 4. Do not tamper with adjustment of Iink (48). 5. For Four-99s and early Four-107s there was a cam operoted reverse adjustment. Simply turn screw head (103) clockwise one flat at a time until satisfactory reverse engagement is obtained (see Figure 3). S.22 If further adjustments are necessary, continue the adjustments as outl ined above unti I satis- factory operation is reached. It should be noted however that the adjustments should be carried out only unti I satisfactory operation is reached since it is possible to over-adjust the transmission. If the transmission is over-ad- SAO Reverse justed it will be more difficult to shift into Adjustment forward and reverse and the parts wi II be heav- (Top View) 103 ily stressed and subject to early fatigue fail- ure. Therefore, once the preliminary adjust- ments have been made, only a very small am- ount of adjustment will be necessary for either forward or reverse. Usually, an adjustment of Replace the cover on the reverse gearhousing. a half a step on the forward, or at the most, a The transmission is ready for a preliminary test full step is required for full adjustment. Only which may be done at dockside, a very small adjustment is required for the re- verse drive. Check all of the mooring Iines before continu- ing the test, On the forward drive, a full step of adjustment is as outlined above or is made by loosening With the engine running at i,dle speed, shift the lockscrew (42) and rotating the screw the transmission into forward and reverse not- coil ar (37) to the right unti I the next hole in ing how well the transmission responds. the pressure plate (35) can be lined up under the lockscrew. A half a step is made by tak- If the transmission does not engage in one or ing the lockscrew out of the hole that it is in both of the forward or reverse positions further and placing it in the hole adjoining it in the dockside adjustments are necessary. Continue screw coil ar. Then rotate the screw coil ar to the adjustments as outlined above untit· the the right until the next hole in the pressure transmission will engage in both forward and plate is lined up under the dog of the lock- reverse drives. screw. Make certai n th at the lockscrew en ters the hole properly or it will bind up the forward A complete running test is necessary to deter- cI utch. mine that the transmission is properly adjusted. The transmission should not sl ip or "break" When the transmission is properly adjusted, away under full power conditions in the forward repl ace the cover and secure all external bol ts drive and should hold in reverse under all nor- and fasteners. Before replacing the shifting mal reversing conditions. linkage, check to make certain that it oper- ates freely ol'ld does not bind or drag. Repl ace the linkage on the transmission shift lever and secure properly. WHEN CLUTCH SLIPPING IS NOTICED, STOP AND ADJUST AT ONCE. P~OPER ADJUSTMENT WILL MAINTAIN YOUR CLUTCH FOR YEARS, BUT A SLIPPING CLUTCH MAY DESTROY ITSELF, CAUSING COSTLY REPAIRS. S.23 SA1 AND SAO REDUCTION UNITS DESCRIPTION The Westerbeke/Paragon reduction gears consist of an internal ring gear and a drive gear that offers a variety of reduction ratios. ADJUSTMENTS There are no adjustments necessary to maintain the reduction gears in proper running condition. DISASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION UNIT NOTE: Disassembly need be carried out only as far as necessary to correct those difficulties which interfere with proper marine gear operation. Remove reverse and reduction gear as a complete unit before removing the oil to avoid fouling the bilges. 1. Remove oil drain plug from bottom of reduction gear housing (86) and drain oil from unit. Make certain that all lubricating oil is removed from reverse gear unit. 2. Remove capscrews and lockwashers from flange of reduction gear housing and slide entire reduction unit straight back approximately 3 inches until reduction unit clears reduction drive pinion. 3. Bend tang of lockwasher (78) away from locknut (77). Remove locknut using suitable wrench and lift lockwasher from shaft. 4. Remove gear half coupling (75) with gear type puller or by supporting entire assembly under flange of gear half coupling and press agamst shaft to force coupling from assembly. 5. Support reduction gear housing so that flanged shaft assembly can drop free approximately 2 inches and press flanged shaft assembly from reduction gear housing. 6. Remove retaining ring (76) from groove next to ball bearing (84) in3ide reduction gear housing and press ball bearing from housing. 7. If necessary to replace, remove oil seal (79). 8. Remove Woodruff key (80) from flanged shaft and remove seal washer (74) and spacer (73). 9. Press ball bearing (84) from flanged shaft using two holes in flange. 10. Remove capscrews and lockwashers from rim of flanged shaft and remove ring gear (71) from flanged shaft. INSPECTION All parts should be thoroughly cleaned before inspection. Parts showing excessive wear should be replaced. 1. Ball bearings should be examined for indications of corrosion and pitting on balls and races. 2. All gear teeth should be examined for "pitch line pitting", uneven wear pattern or excessive wear. 3. Examine oil seal for rough or charred lips. 4. Retaining rings should be checked for burrs or deformities. 5. All gaskets should be replaced. ASS.EMBL Y OF REDUCTION UNIT 1. Replace oil drain plug into reduction gear housing (86). 2. Press ball bearing (84) into reduction gear housing (86) and install retain- ing ring (76) into groove next to ball bearing. S.24 3. If removed for replacement, press new oil seal (79) into reduction gear housing. 4. Place flanged shaft over ring gear (71) and line up holes in flange with those in ring gear. 5. Place lockwasher over capscrew and insert capscrew into hole in flanged shaft and secure flanged shaft to ring gear. 6. Press ball bearing (84) onto flanged shaft. Place spacer (73) over shaft next to ball bearing and place seal washer (74) over shaft next to spacer. 7. Install Woodruff key (80) into keyway in flanged shaft. 8. Place reduction gear housing over small end of flanged shaft and start ball bearing (84) on flanged shaft into bore in housing by tapping housing with a soft mallet. 9. Turn unit over with small end of housing down and press on center of flanged shaft until spacer (73) is seated against ball bearing (84) in reduc- tion housing. 10. Support unit on inside of flanged shaft with large end of unit down and press gear half coupling (75) onto shaft end and into ball bearing until coupling is seated against ball bearing. Care must be taken to line up keyway in coupling and key in shaft before pressing together. 11. Place lockwasher (78) over end of flanged shaft with tang on inside of lockwasher in slot on flanged shaft. Place locknut (77) onto shaft and secure using suitable wrench. 12. Bend one tang of lockwasher into slot on locknut. 13. Install two studs 3 1/2 inches long into two opposite holes in reduction adapter plate. 14. Position reduction gear assembly over studs with oil drain plug at bottom of housing and slide onto reduction drive ge8.r. It may be necessary to rotate reduction gear slightly to properly mesh gear teeth. 15. Install lockwashers and cClpscrews around flange of reduction gear hous- ing and tighten uniformly. S.25 TYPE RS - FREEWHEELING The Volvo Penta reduction-reverse gear, type 2. Remove the bolts holding the reverse gear RB, has abuilt-in reduction gear, with reduct- to the engine and pull the reverse gear ion ratio 1.91:1. Engagement IIAhead li or IIAs- carefully aft, withoutbreaking, so that it tern II takes place by means of se If-adjusting cones is re leased from the engine. which are held in the engaged position partly with the he Ip of the prope IIer thrust. 3. Remove the bolt (12) and pull off the coup- ling flange (10). Also lift off the rubber When engaging IIAhead ll , the output shaft is protector (18). The key (15) need not be moved with its cone so that it meshes with the removed. front cone. When IIAstern li is engaged, the output shaft is moved backwards and meshes 4. Remove the reverse gear lever from the with the inner cone which operates via an inter- cont rol shaft (1). Then remove the cover mediate gear. The direction of rotation of the (2). Pull out the control shaft (1) and the output shaft wi II therefore be reversed. In the eccentric stud (9) (note the position of the neutral position the cone is held by the locking stud which has marked sides. plunger insi.Jch a potition that there isclearance between the cone and the gear whee I. 5. Remove the bolts which secure the reverse Reduction-reverse gear with ratio 1 .9 :1 has a gear housing (32) to the casing (33). Part separate oi I changer and is watercooled. the casing from the housing by means of light blows with a mallet. 6. Remove the bolts (22) and take out the shaft (17) with the sleeve (20). 8. Remove the bolts (23) and the washer (24). P lace one of the bolts (23) in the center ho Ie of the support beari ng (27) and pu II off the gear wheel (30). If the ball bear- ing (29) is to be removed from the gear wheel, remove the bolts (25) and the ring (26) after which the ball bearing is press- ed out. Fig. 1. RB type reduction-reverse gear, ratio 1.9 :1 1. Plug for oil filling 9. Lift out the cone (28). 2. Oil dipstick 3. Plug for draining oil 4. Drain plug for cooling water 10. Remove the gear wheel (31) with bearing (34) from the housing (33). Forthe reduct- ion-reverse gear with ratio 1 .9 : 11 remov- REPAIR INSTRUCTIONS - REMOVING ing is made easier by tapping carefu IIy on the bevelled side of the gear wheel (31), The repair instructions refer to Fig. 2 for ratio 1.9 :1. 11. See Fig. 2. Remove the bo Its (38). The 1. Disconnect the cooling water connections flange (44) need not be removed from the (rQti 0 1 .9 : 1). Remove the prope lIer shaft shaft. Press out the shaft (42) together with and push it aft. the cover (43) and the ba II bearing. Pres- 8.26 Fig. 2. Cross-section of reduction-reverse gear,ratio 1.9 :1 sure is applied to the shaft journal for the ponentsshouldbecarefully cleaned. At the same bearing (35). Take care to ensure that the time inspect the parts and replace those that are needle bearing (35) is not damaged. Pro- worn. Fit new gaskets, O-ring and spring wash- tect the bearing from dirt and place it so ers. Check carefully to see that allsealing ring! that it will take up the same position again are undamaged. when being fitted. See Fig. 2. Friction lining wear on the gear 12. Drive out the shaft (40) withthegearwheel wheel (31), which is most subjected to wear, is (37) and the bearing (36). With regard to compensated for by increasing the thickness of taking care of the bearings, see point 11. the shim (21) as follows: Place the cone (28) in the gear wheel (31) and measure the distance 13. See Fig. 2. Removal of flange (44) and IIX II shown in Fig.4 The amount by which the bearing (3) from the shaft (42) should be measurement IIX II is less than 85mm (3.35 11 ) de- done in a press after the locking flange has termines how much the thickness of the shim (21) been removed. Pressure must not be applied shall be increased. For example, if the distance to the outer circumference of the flange measures 83mm (3. 29 11 ) , then a 2mm (0.08 11 ) thick (44). shim should be fitted. If the wear is so great that the measurement IIXII is less than 81mm (3.19 11 ) , INSPECTION then the worn parts must be replaced. The frict- ion linings in the gear whee I and cone are not Before the reverse gear is refitted, all its com- interchangeable. S.27 1. Fit the bearing (36) and the gear wheel 12. Fit the flange (9), shaft (1), locking plung- (37), a Iso press the shaft into the housing. er (8), sleeve (4), spring (5) and the plung- er housing (6). Oil the parts liberally be- 2. Fit the gear wheel (31) with bearing (34) fore fitting. The flange (9) is fitted so that i 11 to the housi ng (33). its sides marked "0" follow the longitudin- a I di rec ti on of the engi ne. Fi t the reverse 3. See Fig. 2. Fit together the shaft (42), gear lever and check the movements of the bearing (39), cover (43) end the flange lever from neutra I to "Ahead" and" Astern" (44) into one unit. Thp. t-a II bearing (39) positions respectively, which should be is fitted so that the recess on one side of equi-distant. If the movement in one dir- the bearing (Fig.7) faces opposite the ection is appreciably more than in the other teeth on the shaft (42). If the sea ling ri ng direction, this is to be adjusted by turning in the cover (43) shows the least sign of the flange (9). This is shaped such that the damage or if it has been removed from the center of the rectangu lar portion is offset cover, itshould be replaced bya new one. in relation to the center of the cylindrical A protecting sleeve should be used to pre- portion (guide). If the flange is fitted so vent damage to the sea Ii ng ri ng by the pas- that the projecting side faces forwards, the sage of the keyway in the shaft (42). movement of the reverse gear lever from the "Ahead" position to "Neutra I" is de- 4. See Fig. 2. Fit the shaft unit into the creased. If theflange is turned half a turn housing (33). Take care to ensure that the so that the projecting side faces aft, the gear whee I on the shaft (42) meshes with movement of the lever from "I'Jeutral" to both gear wheels (37 and 31). the "Astern" position is decreased. 5. See Fig. 2. Fit the needle bearing (35). Then check that the reverse gear engages in both the "Ahead" and "Astern" posi tions. 6. Fit the cone (28) in the gear whee I (31). 13. Fit the reverse gearto the engine. Regard- 7. Fit together the bearing support (27), bear- ingthe reverse gear withratio 1.9 :1, fit- ing support (27), bearing (29), cover (24) ting is faci litated if the rubber bushings on and the gear wheel (30) into one unit and the dri vi ng studs (45) as we II as the ho les and tig hten on the cover (24). The ba II for these in the engine flywhee I, are care- bearing is fitted so that the recess one side fu II y coated wi th ta Ic . of the bearing faces away from the teeth on the gear whee I (30). The bearing sup- port (27) and the washer are fitted so that the middle throu~h hole comes upwards. 8. Place the unit in the cone (28). 9. Fit the shaft (17) and the sleeve (20) onto 1. Spr ing hous ing the cone (28). 2. Interlock pin 3. Control shaft 4. Cover 10. Fit the reverse gear housing (32) over the 5. Flange assembled parts and tighten it onto the 6. Bearing housing 7. I{"verse gear housi ng (33). h0'.1 sing 11. Fit the rubberprotector(l8) and the coup- ling flange (10). Before fitting c heck that the bolt (12) is well tightened and that the key (15) is properly bedded down in its key- way in the shaft (17). Fig. 3. Rear section of reverse gear S.28 1. Set the reverse gear lever in the neutral the lever retainer and the shaft must be position. turned. 2. Remove the bolts which hold the bearing a. Remove the spring housing (1, Fig. 3) housing (6, Fig. 3) to the housing (7). and lift out the locking plunger (2). Pull the bearing housing aft several milli- meters (this is faci litated by carefully en- b. Remove the cover (4) without pulling it gaging the lever), insert a knife between off the shaft. the sea ling surfaces and loosen the basket carefu IIy so that it remains in contact with c. lift the shaft (3) with cover (4) from the only one of the sealing surfaces. housi ng and turn the shaft 1800 (ha If a· turn). Turn also the flange (5) half a turn and fit the shaft. 4. Refit the parts. 3. Turn the bearing housing to the desi red If the remote control for the RB reduction-re- position and tighten down the housing. verse gear is fitted, it may not be done in such a way that a constant pressure operates on the If the keyway on the shaft is in such a po- reverse gear control components. In both sition after being moved round that the re- "Ahead" and "Astern" positions the remote con- verse gear lever cannot be fitted, the shaft trol devicemustbe completelyunloaded so that and flange are turned as follows: On the the propeller thrust can maintain the cones in shaft there is only one keyway so that both the reverse gear in the engaged position. DATA Type ..................................... Volvo Penta RB 1.9 : 1 Ratio "Ahead" ............................ 1.9 :1 Ratio "Astern" ............................ 1.73: 1 Lubricating system ......................... Circulation type Oil capacity, approx ..............·........ 0.5 liter (1 quart) Oi I grade ................................ Service DS Oi I viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. SAE 20 Oi I change ............................... Every 100 hours Prope IIer type ............................. Left-hand thread Weight, approx ............................ 28 kg (61 lb.) S.29 PARAGON P-21 SERIES HYDRAULIC I. SPECIFICATIONS A. Description Chart MODEL REDUCTION RATIO DIREC TION OF ROTATION P21L DIRECT ALL LEFT HAND P22L 1. 5: 1 AS VIEWED FROM P23L 2:1 THE OUTPUT END P24L 2.5: 1 OF THE TRANS- P25L 3:1 MISSION B. Model and Serial Numbers Each reverse gear has a model number and a serial number. These numbers are on the name plate, located on the housing of the transmission. MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER CHART DIRECT DRIVE MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS P2· Gear. Size 1. Direct Drive 5J.1234· Transmission Serial No. L· Left Hand Rotation Unit REDUCTION GEAR MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS P 23 L 5J-5678 .------------~ P2 · I Gear Size------====== -----~- ~ ~ 1.5: 1 J 5J·5678· Trans· Reduction 2. 0: 1 f Reduction Gear L. Left Hand Rotation Unit mission Serial Gear ~ , Si z e 2.5: 1 \ Ratio No. 3.0: 1 S.30 II. INTRODUCTION ward drive is through a multiple disc clutch arrangement, while the reverse drive utilizes a reverse clamp band and planetary gear Tlansmissions have been designed for smooth train. The transmission oil is Circulated ~j(Jd operation and dependability in marine use. The· cooled through a separate external oil cooler transmission is self- contained, having an oil core, which is in turn cooled by the engine pressure system and oil supply completely water. Paragon transmissions are fUIlli::;hed separated from engine lubricating oil systems. with either direct drive or reduction gear::;. Gear reduction ratios and correspondlng Translllission oil under pressure is used to model identification numbers are listed in engage a forward or reverse drive. The for- Section I, under "SPECIFICATIONS". III. INSTALLATION 4. Install and tighten four bolts with lock- washers through the transm!ssion A. The installation instructions below are for housing flange into the engine adnpteI use when the original transmission has been plate. Remove the 3-1/2" studs. Install removed for servicing and must be re- and tighten the two remaini.ng bolts installed, or when the transmission unit with lockwashers through the t rans- is to be adapted as non-original eqUip- mission housing flange. ment to a marine engine. D. The transmission and propeller shall Cl)U- B. It is important that the engine and trans- pling must be carefully aligned before the mission rotatio!1s are matched. The direc- propeller shaft is connected to the trans- tion of rotation of an engine is defined in mission, in order to avoid vibration dnd this manual as the direction of rotation consequent damage to the transmission, of the engine crankshaft as viewed from the engine, and boat hull during operation. output end of the transmission. A clock- To align the coupling, move the propt:;lier wise rotation of the engine is a right hand shaft, with attached coupling flange, \()v.ard rotation and a counterclockwise rotation of the transmission so that the faces ,)f the the engine is a left hand rotation. propeller shaft coupling flange ::tnd Lrans- miSSion shaft coupling fhnge are in con- A letter "R" or "L" appearing on the tact. The coupling flange faces should be transmisSion serial number plate illus- in contact throughout their entire circum- trated in Section I, "SPECIFICA TIO:';S", ference. The total runout or gap hetweell indicates whether the transmission is for the faces should not exceed .002" at any use with a right or left hand rotating point. If the runout exceeds .002", repOSi- engine. tion the engine and attached transmission by loosening the engine support bolts and C. The hydraulic transmission is attached to adding or removing shims to raise or !c)\'JON1T CRANK, PUT B (POS.) ON CONTACT THAT LEADS INTO STARTER. IF ENGINE CRANKS, TROUBLE IS IN START SOL- ENOl D. I F ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK STARTER IS DEFECTIVE. T.IO 16619 DEFECTIVE CR RELAY CHECK CRl NC, CONTACTS FOR OPEN CIRCUIT. DEFECTIVE AIR SWITCH CHECK AIR SWITCHES FOR OPEN IN THE NC POSITION. 2. SET RUNS FOR LESS CR2 NO, DOESN'T CLOSE CHECK TO SEE IF CONTACT CLOSES. THAN 30 SECOr..j OS AIR St~ITCHES DEFEC- CHECK BOTH TO SEE IF THEY CLOSE. AND SHUTS Dm~N TIVE \In SI'iITCH DEFECTI VE CHECK FOR OPEN. OP SWITCH DEFECTIVE CHECK FOR OPEN. RESISTOR Rl DEFECTIVE CHECK RESIST~~CE 4 OHMS. 3. SET SHUTS DO\'JN SAME AS STEP 2 OR, CHECK SPRING TENSION. INTERMITTENTL Y FUEL SOLENOID DEFECT CHECK ALIGNMENT. CHECK SOLENOID. ~" ,ll,LTERNATOR ':'!I)N'T DEFECTIVE REGULATOR l~ITH GEN. OFF CHECK FOR VOLTAGE. CHARGE DEFECTIVE ALTERNATOR AT AUXILIARY TERM'L TO GROUND. IF YOU HAVE VOLTAGE THE ISOLATION DIODES ARE SHORTED. REPLACE. PLACE JUMPER FROM FIELD TERM'L TO AUX. IF JUMPER PROVIDES COR- RECT OUTPUT, REG. IS DEFECTIVE. IF NOT BRUSHES OR ROTOR CIRCUIT DEFECTIVE. ItJITH ENGINE RUNNING AT FAST IDLE, CONNECT VOLTMETER FROM AUX. TO GROUND. WITH READING OF 15.0 TO 15. 7 VOLTS. r~OVE VOL TMETE R POS. LEAD TO OUTPUT. THIS SHOULD BE .8 TO 1.2 VOLTS LOWER THAN VOLTAGE NOTED AT THE AUX. TERM'L. 5. j.T.G. DEFECTIVE GAUGE AND/OR SENDER CHECK GAUGE AGAINST A TEST THERMO- METER IN SURGE TANK. GAUGE SHOULD BE SAME TO 10° F HIGHER. CHECK SENDER. ~. O.P.G. DEFECTIVE SAME CHECK O.P. ~HTH TEST GAUGE AT SENDER TAP. 7. FUEL SOLENOID TO DEFECTIVE CHECK FOR SHUT DOWN WITH WIRE OVERHEATS REMOVED FROM O.P. OR W.T. SWITCH. IF NO SHUT DOWN, REPLACE TO AND CHECK ITS WIRING FOR BREAKS. CR DEFECTIVE CHECK FOR OPEN COIL AND LOW RESISTANCE OF N.O. CONTACTS \lJHEN CLOSED. T .11 B+ BATT. B- ~--------+~II ~--------...., 551 ,-, BLK 0 I I I I I I ® I I I I GRN ~ I I 0::: FU I I RED I I I I YEL REMOTE ON SWI® @/ ON INST LAMPS@ 0 SW2 \ OFF o AUTO ® OP5 @ ~------- ~------~ GENERATOR CONTROL @ T i .1 tin 9 Pan e 1 ~--------~HM~--------~ Starter disconnect by two, open construction time delay relays. a__----; 1----' @ @ ® .---~ RI ~--~ OP ~WT CR2 CR2 DRAWING NO. l33l3E ~~---.-----. 1---0_ '-_ @ / @ TTD2 CR-I @ t-~--------DTLTu~I~----~ T.12 13313E OPERATION 1. To start generator from the local posi- tion throw switch #6 to "On". To start it from the remote position throw switch #7 to "On" (Switch #6 must then be in the "Auto" position). This applies B (Pos.) to the instruments, the time delay coil TD through CR-l (NC), the Start Solenoid coil through CR-l (NC), the air switches in series, normally closed, and also the Fuel Solenoid through CR-2 (NC). ASSUME SET STARTS 1. When the set starts and runs both air switches operate, immediately discon- necting the start solenoid (even if only one operates, the solenoid would dis- connect) . 2. After 30 seconds cranking limiter TD times out and closes, energizing relay CR which locks itself up thr~ugh con- tacts CR-l (NO). ~fuen CR operates the fuel solenoid then gets holding current through resistor R-l, the oil pressure and water temperature switches, the normally open contacts of both air switches which are closed while the set is operating, and through contacts CR-2 (NO). An oil pressure or water temper- ature failure will shut the set down and it will not restart since CR is locked up. To restart set, throw switch #6 or In to the "Off" position momentarily which releases relay CR and then back to the "On" position. ASSUME SET DOES NOT START 1. After 30 seconds cranking limiter TD times out and closes, energizing and locking up relay CR as above. CR-l (NC) opens, immediately dropping out the start solenoid. Since the air switches have not closed, the fuel solenoid is de-energized by the opening of contact CR-2 (NC). To restart the generator after it has been shut down by the cranking limiter turn switch #6 momen- tarily to the "Off" position thereby dropping out relay CR and then back to the "On" position. T.13 TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS 13313E NATURE OF TROUBLE PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION 1. ENGINE WON'T CRANK. DEFECTIVE START SOL- PLACE 12 VOLTS ON COIL OR SOL- ENOID. ENOID. IF ENGINE CRANKS, TROUBLE IS IN CONTROL PANEL. IF IT WON'T CRANK, PUT B(POS.) ON CONTACT THAT LEADS INTO STARTER. IF ENGINE CRANKS, TROUBLE IS IN START SOL- ENOID. IF ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK STARTER IS DEFECTIVE. DEFECTIVE CR RELAY. CHECK CRI NC, CONTACTS FOR OPEN CIRCUIT. DEFECTIVE AIR SWITCH. CHECK AIR SWITCHES FOR OPEN CIR- CUITS. TTD-2 NC, OPEN CIRCUIT. CHECK FOR OPEN. 2. SET RUNS FOR TWO CR DEFECTIVE. CHECK FOR OPEN COIL OR SHORTED MINUTES AND SHUTS CONTACT CR2-NC. DOWN. TTD-l DEFECTIVE. CHECK TTD-I. 3. SET RUNS FOR 30 SECS. CR2 NO, DOESN'T CLOSE. CHECK TO SEE IF CONTACT CLOSES. THEN STOPS. AIR SWITCHES DEFECT- CHECK BOTH TO SEE IF THEY CLOSE. IVE. WT. SWITCH DEFECTIVE CHECK FOR OPEN. OP. SWITCH DEFECTIVE CHECK FOR OPEN. RESISTOR Rl DEFECTIVE CHECK RESISTANCE 4 OHMS. 4. SET SHUTS DOWN IN- SAME AS STEP 3, OR, CHECK SPRING TENSION. TERMITTENTLY. FUEL SOLENOID DEFECT. CHECK ALIGNMENT. CHECK SOLENOID. 5. ALTERNATOR WON'T DEFECTIVE REGULATOR. WITH GEN. OFF CHECK FOR VOLTAGE CHARGE. DEFECTIVE ALTERNATOR. AT AUXILIARY TERMINAL TO GROUND. IF YOU HAVE VOLTAGE THE ISOLATION DIODES ARE SHORTED. REPLACE. PLACE JUMPER FROM FIELD TERMINAL TO AUX. IF JUMPER PROVIDES COR- RECT OUTPUT, REG. IS DEFECTIVE. IF NOT BRUSHES OR ROTOR CIRCUIT DEFECTIVE. WITH ENGINE RUNNING AT FAST IDLE, CONNECT VOLTMETER FROM AUX. TO GROUND. WITH READING OF 15.0 TO 15.7 VOLTS. MOVE VOLTMETER POS. LEAD TO OUTPUT. THIS SHOULD BE .8 TO 1.2 VOLTS LOWER THAN VOLT- AGE NOTED AT THE AUX. TERMINAL. 6. W.T.G. DEFECTIVE. GAUGE. CHECK GAUGE. SENDER. CHECK SENDER. 7. O.P.G. DEFECTIVE. SAME AS STEP (6). T.14 8+ B- 551 CR2 502 CD CL ® RI 3...n... sor CRI R2 4..n. NOTECD ®ope; CD WTG ON SWI@ PR2 CLl OFF I AUTO REMOTE ON @ SW2 @ PR PRI W,T.@ @AS @ @ NOTE CD R2 WAS 10 OHMS WITH OLD FUEL SOLENOID. @ REG 10-15 KW WPDS GENERATOR WITH STARTER DISCONNECTED BY AIR SWITCH OR ALTERNATOR OUTPUT DRAWING NO. 12868C T.15 12868 SBlUBNCE OF OPBRATIONS 1. THROW CONrROL SWITCH TO RUN. 2. CR ENERGIZES. 3. CR-2 N.O. CLOSES - FS AND SS ARE ENERGIZED. 4. STARTER (S) IS ENERGIZED. 5. ENGINE STARTS. 6. AIR SWITCH CLOSES AT APPROXIMATELY 400-rpm. A. IF ALTERNATOR VOLTAGE AT AUX. TERMINAL BUILDS UP BEFORE AIR SWITCH CLOSES, SO AND TD ARE ENERGIZED VIA ALT. AUX. OUTPUT. B. IF AIR SWITCH CLOSES BEFORE ALT. VOLTAGE BUILDS UP SO AND TD ARE BNERGIZED BY B(POS.) THRU AIR SWITCH. 7. SD-1 N .0. OPENS. NOW FS IS HELD IN AT REDUCED CURRENr VIA RESISTOR R-2. SO-2 N.C. OPENS, DE-ENERGIZING SS AND DISENGAGING STARTER. 8. OIL PRESSURE BUILDS UP AND OP OPENS. 9. TD HEATS AND TD-1 CLOSES. PR CANNOT DE-BNERGIZE CR SO ENGINE CONrlNUES TO RUN. 10. IF ENGINE FAILS TO START IN APPROXIMATELY 40 SECONDS CRANKING LIMIT HEATS AND CONrACTS OPEN, THUS DE-ENERGIZING CR. CR-1-N.0. OPENS AND FUEL SOLBNOID DROPS OOT, STOPPING ENGINE. (RESET CL AFTER APPROX. ONE MINUTE IF DESIRED) 11. LOW OIL PRESSURB OR HIGH WATER TEMP. AFTER TD ACroATES (APPROX. 15 SECONDS) ENERGIZES PR, THUS DRCPPING OUT CR AND STOPPING ENGINE. T.16 TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS 12868 NATURE CF TROOBLE PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION 1. ENGINE WON'T CRANK. DEFECTIVE START SOLENOID. PLACE 12-VOLTS ON COIL. IF DEFECTIVE REPLACE. 2. ENGINE WON'T CRANK AIR SWITCH DEFECTIVE. DISCONNECT BATTERY AND MAKE BUT S.D. RELAY PULLS CONrINUITY TEST ACROSS SWITm. IN. aJTPUT TERM. AT ALTER- CHECK TWO OUTPUT DIODES FOR NATOR SHORTED TO AUX. SHORT. PRIMARY RELAY SHORTED. mECK PR-N.O. FOR SHORT. CRANKING LIMITER POPPED PUSH RESET. OPEN. CRANKING LIMITER DEFECT- CHECK FOR OPEN CIRCUIT. IVE. CRANKING RELAY DEFECT- CHECK COIL. IVE. 3. ENGINE CRANKS BUT FUEL SOLENOID DEFECTIVE. CHECK LINKAGE FOR PROPER ALIGN- WON'T START. MENT. THROW SWITCH TO ON AND SEE IF PLUNGER PULLS IN; IF NOT CHECK SD-l FOR OPEN. CHECK FUEL SYSTEM. AFTER 30 SECS. C.L. POPS RESET AFTER 1 MIN. OUT. 4. STARTER KICKS IN AND AIR SWITCH NOT PULLING mECK VANE. OUT. IN. START DI SCONNECT RELAY CHECK RSLA Y · IS DEFECTIVE. 5. ENGINE RUNS FOR 15 PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ENGAG- CHECK FOR LOW OIL. SEC. APPROX., THEN ING. ENGINE WATER TEMP.TOO HIGH. SHUTS DOWN. DEFECTIVE WATER TEMP. SWITCH · DEFECTIVE OIL SWITCH. PR-l RELAY CONTACTS SHORTED. CHECK FOR LOW WATER. 6. ENGINE RUNS, STOPS DEFECTIVE FUEL SOLENOID. MAY CHECK 0000 BUT WON'T BUILD INTERMITTENTLY FOR UP ENOOGH MAGNETISM. NO APPARENr REASON, THEN ENGINE RESTARTS DEFECTIVE 4-00M RESIS- CHECK RESISTAJICE. ITSELF. TOR. CRAN'KING RELAY. CHECK CONTACT CR-I-N.O. 7. AMMETER NOT CHARGING DEFECTIVE ALT. OR REG- CHBCK OUTPUT AT AUX.TERM'L. ULATOR. PLACE JUMPER FROM AUX.TERM' L TO FI ELD TERMINAL. A) IF THERE IS AN OOTPUT, SHUT SET DOWN · RESTART AND IF STILL CHARGI NG IT I S ALRIGHT. IF NOT, REGULATOR IS DEFECTIVE. B) IF THERE IS NO OUTPUT ALTER- NATOR IS PROBABLY DEFECTIVE. T .17 8+ B- PRI W.T@ @~....., ~----~----------------~~--~~ ~------~ ALT @ &~ BL K ,4-lilUU-iI---J-3.l~ @ REG 10-15 KW WPDS GENERATOR WITH STARTER DISCONNECTED BY ALTERNATOR OUTPUT ONL Y DRAWING·NO. 13795B T.18 !.E.22.. SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 1. Control SW to ON. 2. CR energizes. 3. CR2 NO, closes - FS and 55 are energized, cranking limiter is energized. Alternator field is energized thru the 75 OHM resistor. 4. Starter is energized. s. Engine starts. 6. SO and TO are energized via Alternator auxiliary output. 7. 50-1 NC, opens. Now FS is held in at reduced current via 10 OHM resistor. 50-2 NC, opens, de-energizing 55 and disengaging the starter. 8. Oil pressure builds up and OP opens. 9. TO heats and TO-NO, closes. PR cannot de-energize CR so engine continues to run. 10. If engine fails to start in approx. 40 seconds, cranking limiter heats and contacts open, thus de-energizing CR. CRl-NO, opens and fuel solenoid drops out, stopping engine. (Reset CL after approx. 1 minute if desired). 11. Low oil pressure or high water temp. after TO actuates (approx. 15 sees.) energizes PR, thus dropping out CR and stopping engine. T .19 TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS NATURE OF TROUBLE PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION 1. ENGINE RUNS FOR APPROX PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT A) CHECK FOR LOW OIL. 15 SECS. THEN SHUTS ENGAGING. B) ENGINE WATER TEMP. TOO DOWN HIGH. C) DEFECTIVE WATER TEMP. SWITCH. D) DEFECTIVE OIL SWITCH. E) TIME DELAY RELAY SHORTED. 2. ENGINE RUNS, STOPS IN- DEFECTIVE FUEL SOLEN- MAY CHECK GOOD BUT \\UN'T TERMITTENTLY FOR NO AP- OlD. BUILD UP ENOUGI RESIDUAL PARENT REASON THEN RE- MAGNETISM. STARTS ITSELF. DEFECTIVE 10 (EM RE- CHECK RESISTANCE. SISTOR. CRANKING RELAY. CHECK CONTACT CRl-NO. 3· AMMET ER NOT CHARGING. DEFECTIVE ALTERNATOR CHECK OUTPUT AT AUXILIARY. OR REGULATOR. PLACE JUMPER FROM AUXILIARY TERMINAL TO FIELD TBRM'L. A) IF THERE IS AN OUTPUT, SHUT SET DOWN. RESTART AND IF STILL CHARGING IT'S ALRIGHT, IF NOT, DEFECTIVE REGULATOR. B) IF THERE IS NO OUTPUT YOU PROBABLY HAVE A DEFECTIVE ALTERNATOR. T.20 B B 55! CD G) CR2 5D2. CL RI 0 AMP SOl CR I o.P.s.® @ PRo CL @ SW-I SW-2 ON @ REMOTE G . AUTO ® @ PRI PRE-HEAT wr@) SW-3 @ S @ TO REG @ 10-15 KW WPDS GENERATOR WITH STARTER DISCONNECTED BY D.C. BATTERY CHARGING GENERATOR DRAWING NO. 13742 T.21 13742 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 1. Control SW to ON. 2. CR energizes. 3. CR2-NO, closes. FS and 55 are energized. CL is energized. 4. Starter is energized. 5. Epqine starts. 6. SD and TD are energized via D.C. generators output. 7. SD1-NC, opens. Now FS is held in at reduced current via 10 OHM resistor. SD2-NC, opens, de-energizing 55 and disengaging the starter. 8. Oil pressure builds up and OP opens. 9. TD heats and TD-NO, closes. PR cannot de-energize CR so engine continues to run. 10. If engine fails to start in approx. 40 seconds, cranking limiter heats and contacts open, thus de-energizing CR. CR1-NO, opens and fuel solenoid drops out, stopping engine. (Reset CR after approx. 1 minute if desired). 11. Low oil pressure or high water temp. after TD actuates (approxo 15 sees.) energizes PR, thus dropping out CR and stopping engine. T.22 TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS NATURE OF TROOBLE PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION 1. ENGINE RUNS FOR APPROXo PROrBCTIVE CIRCUIT. A) CHECK FOR LOW OIL. 15 SECS. THEN SHUTS ENGAGING. B) ENGINE WATER TEMP. TOO DOWN. HIGH. C) DEFECTIVE WATER TEMP. SWITCH. D) DEFECTIVE OIL SWITCH. E) TIME DELAY RELAY SHORTED. 2. ENGINE RUNS, STOPS IN- DEFECTIVE FUEL S)LEN- MAY CHECK GOOD BUT ~N'T TERMITTENfLY FOR NO AP- 010. BUILD UP ENOOGH RESlLUAL PARENT REASON THBN RE- MAGNETISM. STARTS ITSELF. DBFB:TIVE 10 (J{M RE- CHECK RESISTANCE. SISTOR. CRANKING RELAY. CHECK CONfACT CR1-NO. 3. AMMETER NOT CHARGING DEFECTIVE GENERATOR OR CHECK OOTPUT AT AI. REGULATOR. A) IF THERE IS AN OUTPUT, REGULATOR IS PROBABLY DEFECTIVE. B) IF THERE IS NO OUTPUT YOO PROBABLY HAVE A DEFECTIVE GENERATOR. T.23 B+ B- SSI 0 ® CR 2 S02 CL RI N. O. N. C. SOl GEN. I~ CD :~~, I CD 01 R3 AI CRt ® R2 N.O. IOn @ @ @ @ S SW3 @ SWI® TO ® SW2 @) REMOTE Sw. G ON AUTO P PRI CLI @ N.C. N.C. 10-15 KW WPDS GENERATOR WITH AUXILIARY CHARGING WINDING AND STARTER DISCONNECTED BY CENTRIFUGAL SPEED SWITCH DRAWING NO. 13743 T.24 13743 SEQUENCE OF OPERATION 1. SW-l switch to on position, CR energizes. 2. SS and FS energize - cranking limiter is energized. Starter is en- ergized. Voltage is fed to meters. 3. Engine starts. 4. At 400 r.p.m. overspeed switch SW-3 closes energizing SD and TD. SD-2 opens removing voltage from cranking limiter and start solenoid. Start- er drops out. SD-1 opens putting a 10-ohm resistor in series with the fuel solenoid. 5. Generator builds up voltage and charging current is taken from auxiliary winding A-I, thru diode D-l. 6. The TD relay is energized after 15 seconds by which time the oil pres- sure has built up, opening the low oil pressure switch. If oil pres-- sure becomes low or the water temp. too hi~, the respective switches will close, thereby placing a ground on PR which opens PR-l removing voltage from CR which opens CR-1 & CR-2, removing voltage from FS. PR-2 gives PR a permanent ground for shutdown. 7. To restart turn control switch to off and start engine. If problem has not beea corrected, engine will shut off again in 15 seconds. e. If engine fails to start in approx. 40 seconds, cranking limiter heats up and contacts open, thus de-energizing CR. CR-1, NO, opens and fuel solenoid drops out, stopping engine. (Reset CL after approx. one min- ute if desired). T.25 TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS NATURE OF TROUBLE PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION 1. ENGINE WON'T CRANK. DEFECTIVE STARTER OR PLACE 12 VOLTS ON COIL OF START SOLENOID. SSG IF SOLENOID ENERGIZES, STARTER IS DEFECTIVE. IF SOLENOID DOES NOT ENERGIZE, SOLENOID IS DEFECTIVE. 2. ENGINE WON'T START. DEFECTIVE FS CHECK FUEL SOLENOID & LINKAGE. DEFECTIVE SD RELAY. CHECK SD1 NC. 3. ENGINE STARTS BY IT- CR2 NO, DEFECTIVE. CHECK CR2 NO, FOR SHORT. SELF. 4. ENG IN E CRANKS & START DISCONNECT RELAY CHECK COIL OR SD-NC. STARTS BUT STARTER DEFECTIVE. DOES NOT DISENGAGE. SPEED SWITCH DEFECTIVE. SEE IF IT CLOSES \\liEN ENGINE STARTS. 5. ENGINE CRANKS & CR1 NO, DEFECTIVE. CHECK C~nACT. STARtS BUT STOPS 10 OHM RESISTOR DEFECT- MEASURE RESISTANCE. AND RESTARTS IT- IVE. SBLF. FUEL SOLENOID TOO WEAK. CHECK SPRING TENSION ON SOL- TO PULL ITSELF IN. ENOID ARM. 6. ENGINE RUNS & SHUTS PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ENER- CHECK FOR LOW OIL OR HIGH DOWN AFTER 15 SECS. GIZED. WATER TEl-IP. OIL PRESSURE SWITCH REPLACE. SHORTED. WATER TEMP. SWITCH REPLACE. SHORTED. PROTECTION RELAY DE- CHECK CONTACT PR2 NO. FECTIVE. 7. BATTERY RUNS DOWN IN D1 SHORTED. REPLACE. A DAY BUT TAKING GOOD CHARGE. T.26 B-t _5 12 VDC ~EN.. ~--3Jl 5'5 I 01<4 0 ~ ~~_J __ \~ CD SWI 204 SD o"-l oFF" ® CL Iii) AUTOL TO eSC. wtf~,e @ ~Mo7e" Pi? 5W2 C51 01'- @ (2) WT5 @ SI> I 55 10·15 KW WPD GENERATOR WITH AUXILIARY CHARGING AND CRANKING WINDINGS DRAWING NO. 12970 T.27 S~UEI'CE OF OPERATIONS 1. WITH SWITCH IN ON POSITION, THE FUEL SOLE1'iOID AND START SOLENOID ARE ENER- GIZED PUTTING BATTERY VOLTAGE TO THE GENERATOR STARTER. 2. ENGINE STARTS. 3. WHEN THE VOLTAGE BUILDS UP, IT'S TAPPED OFF AT TERMINAL "A" AND ENERGIZES THE START-DISC- 13912-40 3 60 V-4 · oJ w T7 TI T2 TIO AAA oJ T5 518 110/190 3 SO VI oJ T6 - 2 2771-480 3 60 V-4 · III T7 TIO T)iT TI2 !!! LO 518 2201380 3 50 VI II: JT9 230/-400 3 SO V2 w III T~ 2-40/-416 3 SO V3 T~r TIO Til TI2 TI T~ T7 T2 TS T8 T3 T6 T9 25-4/-4-40 3 SO, V-4 L3 LI LO L2 L3 LI A~ A A A A 18 120/2-40 3 60 VI - TO · ~ LO ( n( TI T2 T3 TO 112oc:. L3 FIGURE 6. GENERATOR WIRING AND RECONNECTION DIAGRAMS 1.49 VOLTAGE RECONNECTION WITH OP- TIONAL INSTRUMENTS The optional AC instruments on the control panel (such as voltmeters, ammeters, transformers, and running time meters) are intended for use with specific nameplate voltages. Control components may have to be changed to match new current ratings when field reconnection for other voltage codes or voltages are made. Under no circumstances shall the generator be connected in any other manner than shown in Figure 6. Severe damage will result if leads are incorrectly connected or improperly insulated. Use extreme care In checking leads to assure proper connections. T.SO ADJUSTMENTS AND TESTS GENERAL The adjustment and test procedures herein are referenced in the generator troubleshooting tables, [0] pages 18-20. The following information is needed by VOLTAGE REGULATOR CHECKOUT servicemen to effectively service or repair J-series generators beginning with Spec AA. The solid state voltage regulators (VR21) can be checked out on the bench for proper operation or location of faulty components. The following test [A] equipment (one-each) is required for a proper checkout. VOLTAGE CALIBRATION ADJUSTMENT TEST EQUIPMENT REF. DESIGNATION The calibration adjustment is made using an accurate S ......................................... Switch AC voltmeter to observe generator output voltage and CMR21 ................................... Reactor to set the correct no load voltage. If voltage regulator F .................................. Fuse, S Amps VR21 printed circuit board has been replaced, it may be necessary to make a calibration adjustment. To T1 ........... Transformer, Variable 2 Amp 0-1S0V obtai n the correct output voltage, proceed as follows: V2 ............. Voltmeter, DC ± 2% of Full Scale 3, Scale O-SO and 0-1S0V and 0-10V 1. If set has a voltage adjust potentiometer (R22) on the meter panel, set pointer halfway between V1 ...... Voltmeter, AC ± 2% @ 10VAC, 1% @ 1S0V minimum and maximum positions. R1 ...................... Resistor, 100-0hm 400 W T21 .................. Transformer, Input 31S-0386 2. With unit running at no load, turn generator voltage potentiometer R26 on VR21 (Figure 4) clockwise to increase output voltage; turn R26 counterclockwise to decrease output voltage. Bench Check: 1. Remove voltage regulator from unit according to [8] procedure given for voltage regulator replace- ment. 2. Referring to Figure 7 and Table 1, connect test VOLTAGE STABILITY ADJUSTMENT equipment to the printed circuit board VR21 Voltage stability is set at the factory, but if printed terminals as follows: circuit board VR21 has been replaced or if damping potentiometer R27 has been unnecessarily adjusted it may be necessary to reset stability. Set stability as follows: 1. With generator set running at no load, turn potentiometer R27 (Figure 4) to a position where voltage tends to be unstable or hunt. 2. Turn R27 clockwise slowly until voltage first stabilizes. This setting will result in stable voltage under all conditions in maximum voltage regulator response time. T.51 CONNECT FROM TO [E] Jumper VR21-V1 VR21-V4 Jumper VR21-1 VR21-2 FLASHING THE FIELD Lead CMR21-1 VR21-10 The following procedure is used for momentarily Lead CMR21-4 VR21-9 Lead T21-X1 flashing the exciter field with a low voltage which VR21-6 Lead T21-X2 VR21-4 restores the residual magnetism in the alternator AC Voltmeter Across T21-H1 & H2 rotor. Flashing the field is usually necessary when DC Voltmeter Across CR21-7 & 8 installing a new brush less exciter stator wound VARIAC Across T21-H1 (fused) assembly, but seldom is necessary under other and H2 circumstances. Always check generator residual voltage at terminals 1 and 2 to be certain whether or 3. Open switch in 120 VAC supply to VARIAC. not flashing the field is necessary. Generator residual 4. Plug VARIAC into 120 VAC source. voltage should be at least 20 VAC at rated speed. If 5. Proceed with checkout according to steps in residual is too low and the output voltage will not Table 1. build up, flash the field as follows: 1. Locate terminals 7(-) and 8(+) on voltage TABLE 1. VOLTAGE REGULATOR CHECKOUT Y1 AC 1NPUT VOL UGE (> = LESS THAN) Y2 OC OUTPUT VOL UGE «= MORE THAN) STEP TES r NAIIE PROCEDURE REQU 1RElENTS NO. 1 BUILO UP SET Y, TO 25 VAC Y2 SHALL BE > 12 YOC SET PDT R26 TO HOLO 2 CA 1I BRAT I ON SET Y, TO 120 VAC Y2 BETIEEN 50-70 YDC 3 RANGE A. SET Y, TO 123 VAC Y2 SHALL BE < 3D YOC B. SET Y, TO 125 VAC Y2 SHALL BE < 10 YOC 4 RANGE A. SET Y, TO 115 VAC V2 SHALL BE > 15 VDC B. SET V, TO 117 VAC V2 SHALL BE > 10 VOC lAX 5 va LUGE SET V, TO 150 V V2 < 10 VOLTS SET V, SO Vz I S NEAR lAX I lUll Va SHOULD DROP TO < 50 VOLTS 6 DAIPING RAPIDLY TURN POT R27 FRUII FULL THEN RISE TO ORIGINAL VALUE. COUNTER CLOCKIISE POSITION TO FULL S~~f~!~Epmm2"\FTW¥~~ii27 TO VR21 r-----l ® tP r-------~'O I ~~! .,"JUMPER XI I I INCREASE VI I ~ WIOJUMPER vcj----J COMM. ~----~9 DAMPING W a 7 l I I I RI 'IZ + DC OUTPUT VOLTMETER _ REACTOR-COM. L _____ -1 FIGURE 7. VOLTAGE REGULATOR CHECKOUT TEST EQUIPMENT CONNECTIONS T.52 + 12 AMP. D.C. 300 VOLT DIODE 6VOLT DRY CELL BATTERY FIGURE 8. FLASHING THE FIELD regulator printed circuit board (VR2'). other lead to CR1, CR2, and CR3 in turn; record 2. Use a six volt dry cell battery with two clip leads, a resistance value of each rectifier. 12 amp DC, 300 volt avalanche diode, and a 10- 3. Connect one lead to F2- stud and connect other ohm resistor as shown in Figure 8. If a six volt lead to CR3, CR4 and CRs in turn; record battery is not available, a 12 volt automotive resistance value of each rectifier. battery can be used by increasing the 10-ohm 4. Reverse ohmmeter leads from step 2 and record resistance to 20-ohms; or a 24 volt automotive resistance value of each rectifier F'+ to CR', CR2, battery can be used by increasing the resistance and CR3 and FL to CR4, CRs, and CR6. to 40-ohms. 5. All three resistance readings should be high in one test and low in the other test. If any reading is ~ A series resi~tor MUST be used to protect the meter. Polarity must be observed. high or low in both tests, rectifier assembly is defective. 3. After starting engine, touch positive (+) battery 6. Replace defective rectifier assembly with new, lead to VR2U and negative (-) lead to VR2'_7, identical part. contact terminals just long enough until voltage starts to build up ordamage mayoccurtoexciter- regulator system. Use 24Ibs-ln. torque when replacing nuts on F'+ and F>-, CR', CR', CR', CR', CRs, and CR'. WARNING ~ Be cautious when working on a _ _ _ _ _ _... generator that Is running to ayold elec- trical shocks. TEST PROCEDURES All of the following tests can be performed without disassembly of the generator as shown in the il- lustrations herein. Use the following test procedures for testing generator components in conjunction with the troubleshooting tables. [F] TESTING ROTATING RECTIFIERS Two different rectifier assemblies make up the rotating rectifier bridge assembly, Figure 9. Using an accurate ohmmeter, test each CR using negative and positive polarities. Test rectifiers as follows: 1. Disconnect all leads from assembly to be tested. 2. Connect one test lead to F'+ stud and connect FIGURE 9. TESTING ROTATING RECTIFIERS T. 53 10 AC OHMMETER R17 LEAD R15 FIGURE 11. TESTING DIODES AC as shown in Figure 12. The resistance reading should be one megohm or greater. Reverse 9 ohmmeter leads to anode and cathode; resistance should again be one megohm or greater. FIGURE 10. SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER BRIDGE 3. Using a 6-volt dry cell battery and a 200-ohm series resistor, observe correct polarity and con- nect battery leads to anode and cathode as shown [G] in Figure 13. Observe polarity and connect a DC voltmeter across the 200 ohm resistor. The voltmeter should now read zero. Jumper anode to TESTING OUTPUT BRIDGE DIODES gate; voltmeter should now read 6-volts. Remove The output bridge rectifier diodes (Figure 10), CR12, jumper; voltmeter should still read 6-volts CR14, and CR1S, are located on the voltage regulator because the SCR remains turned on until voltage printed circuit board. Using an accurate ohmmeter, is removed from anode to cathode. test diodes CR12, CR14, and CR1S as follows: 1. Disconnect at least one lead of diode. 2. ·Connect one lead to each end of diode and observe resistance reading, Figure 11. OHMMETER 3. Reverse ohmmeter leads and again observe resistance readings. A good diode has a higher reading in one direction than the other. If both readings are high, or low, diode is defective. 4. Replace defective diodes with new, identical parts. [H] TESTING SeR'S Two identical silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR'S), CR13 and CR16, control the DC output voltage to the exciter field. These SCR'S are mounted in heat sinks on the voltage regulator and are tested as follows: 1. Unsolder leads from CR13 and CR16. 2. Using high scale on ohmmeter, connect ohmmeter leads to anode and cathode of the SCR FIGURE 12. SCR RESISTANCE TEST T. 54 [J] TESTING REFERENCE TRANSFORMER The transformer. T2' has four leads marked H" H2, X" and X2. H'-H2 are the primary leads. X'-X2 are the secondary leads. VOLTS H1 lA-A) H2 T21 DRY CELL X1 ('V"V"l X2 BATTERY 1. Resistance between H'-H2 should be 122 to 150- ohms. 2. Resistance between X'-X2 should be 157 to 192- ohms. 3. Resistance between H'-X" H'-X2, H2_X' and H2_X2 should be infinity. 4. Resistance from any terminal to transformer frame should be infinity. 5. If any of the above conditions are not met, install a new reference transformer. 8212 [K] TESTING BRUSHLESS EXCITER STATOR FIGURE 13. SCR VOLTAGE TEST Like the generator, the brushless exciter stator (Figure 14) can be tested for open or shorted windings and grounds. because the SCR remains turned on until voltage is removed from anode to cathode. Testing for Open or Shorted Windings: 4. If the SCR does not pass either test, it is defective. Disconnect F'+ and FL exciter field leads from Replace defective SCR with a new, identical part. terminal block in generator end bell. The resistance between field leads should be 12.2 ± 10% at 20 C (68 [I] F.). Testing for Grounds: TESTING REACTOR Connect ohmmeter between either field lead and The reactor assembly CMR2' leads are marked 1, 2, 3 exciter stator laminations. Use ohmmeter set at RX and 4. Wires 1-2 and 3-4 are wound on the same iron 100 scale. An ohmmeter reading of Jess than infinity core. ( oc ) indicates defective ground insulation. 1 2 LAN CMR21 ("VY1 3 4 1. Resistance between 1-2 and 3-4 should be about 0.4-ohms. 2. Resistance between 1-3,2-3, 1-4, or 2-4 should be OHMMETER RESISTANCE BETWEEN infinity ( 00 ). F1 AND F2 SHOULD BE 12.2 OHMS (±. 10%) 3. Resistance from any terminal to reactor frame should be infinity. 4. If any of the above conditions are not met, install a new reactor. FIGURE 14. TESTING EXCITER FIELD T.55 4. Replace grounded rotor with new, identical part. OHMMETE CONTACT ONE PROD TO EACH OF THE FIELD LEADS AND OTHER PROD TO ROTOR SHAFT. CR5 IF ROTOR IS GOOD, THERE WILL BE NO 8215 READING ON OHMMETER. FIGURE 15. TESTING EXCITER ARMATURE FIGURE 16. TESTING ROTOR FOR GROUNDS [L] TESTING BRUSHLESS EXCITER ROTOR Testing for Open or Shorted Winding:' (ARMATURE) All resistance values should be within ± 10% of The brushless exciter rotor (Figure 15), can be tested values specified in Table 2 at 20° C. (68° F). Perform for open or shorted windings or grounds. tests as follows: 1. Remove rotor leads F'+ and FL from rotating rectifier assemblies. Testing for Open or Shorted Windings: 2. Using ohmmeter, check resistance between F' Use a Wheatstone Bridge for this test. Disconnect and F2 leads, Figure 17. See Table 2 for proper main rotor field leads which connect to rotating resistance values. rectifier assemblies at F'+ and P-. Disconnect lead wires from diodes CR1, CR2, CR3, CR4, CRs and CR6. If resistance is low, there are shorted turns. If resistance is Test between exciter lead pairs T'-P, P-P and T'-P. high, rotor winding is open. In either case, rotor must be replaced. Resistance should be 0.5 to 0.6 ohms at 20 C (68 F.). 3. Replace defective rotor with new, identical part. Testing for Grounds: Connect leads of ohmmeter between each CR lead and exciter rotor laminations; use RX 100 scale on ohmmeter. An ohmmeter reading less than infinity (NO) indicates defective ground insulation. OHMMETER [M] TESTING GENERATOR ROTOR For these tests, use an ohmmeter on RX 100 scale. Testing for Grounds: On brushless type generators, check for grounds between each rotor lead and the rotor shaft, Figure 16 . Perform tests as follows: CONTACT ONE PROD TO ONE FIELD LEAD AND 1. Remove rotor leads F'+ and FL from rotating OTHER PROD TO OTHER FIELD LEAD. 8213 RESISTANCE VALUES ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 2. rectifier assemblies. 2. Connect ohmmeter leads between F'+ and rotor shaft and between FL and rotor shaft. Meter should not register. FIGURE 17. TESTING ROTOR FOR AN OPEN CIRCUIT 3. If meter registers, rotor is grounded. T.56 TABLE 2. RESISTANCE VALUES FOR ROTORS FROM KELVIN BRIDGE Resistance in Ohms at 25C (77F) THREE PHASE MODELS TEST BETWEEN WIRE PAIRS 10 KW 60 HZ 2.05-2.09 TI-T<4 T7-TIO T3-T6 T9-T 12 T2-TS T8-T II 15 KW 60 HZ 2.50-2.55 SINGLE PHASE MODELS TEST BETWEEN WIRE PAIRS TI-T2 T3-T<4 FIGURE 18. TESTING STATOR WINDINGS accurate instrument for this test such as a Kelvin [N] Bridge. The proper resistance values are given in Table 3 according to KW ratings and voltage codes. TESTING GENERATOR STATOR All resistances should be ± 10% of value shown at Using proper test equipment, check the stator for 20°C. (68°F). grounds, opens, and shorts in the windings. If any windings are shorted, open or grounded, Testing for Grounds: replace the stator assembly. Before replacing the assembly, check the leads for broken wires or insula- Some generators have ground connections to the frame. Check tion. wiring diagram. Using an ohmmeter set at RX 100, test each stator [0] winding for shorts to laminations. A reading less than one megohm indicates a ground. WIRING HARNESS CHECK Carefully check wiring harnesses as follows: Testing for Open or Shorted Windings: 1. Inspect all wires for breaks, loose connections, Testforcontinuity between coil leads shown in Figure and reversed connections. Refer to applicable 18; all pairs should have equal resistance. Use an wiring diagram. TABLE 3. RESISTANCE VALUES FOR STATORS 10 KW 60 HZ 1 PH .172 10 KW 60 HZ 3 PH .340 15 KH 60 HZ 1 PH .087 15 KW 60 HZ 3 PH .220 T. 57 2. Remove wires from terminals at each end and using an ohmmeter, check each wire end to end for continuity or opens. 3. Using an ohmmeter, check each wire against each of the other wires for possible shorts or insulation breaks under areas covered by wrap- REMOVE JUMPER WHEN VOLTAGE ping material. ADJUST R22 IS USED FOR REFERENCE VOLTAGE REGULATION. 4. Reconnect or replace wires according to applicable wiring diagram. \ WID o [P] VR21 REPLACEMENT VR22 Use the following procedu re for replacing the voltage regulator PC board. 1. Stop engine. VR21 2. Disconnect and if necessary, label the following wires: 3, 4, 5 or 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. 3. Remove four screws at corners. 4. Remove used PC board. 5. Install new PC board; secure with four screws. 6. Reconnect wires removed in step 2 at the proper terminals. 7. Place jumper W10 at proper terminals for your particular voltage code and voltage connection. See Figure 6. NOTE: FIELD BREAKER IS 8. Perform voltage calibration and stability adjust- MOUNTED ON ment procedures to obtain the correct generator REFERENCE PANEL VOLTAGE COMMUTATING outp_ut voltage and stability with new PC board in TRANSFORMER REACTOR set. T. 58 GENERATOR DISASSEMBLY Disconnect battery to prevent accidental starting After disassembly, all parts should be wiped clean of engine. and visually inspected. Remove end bell cover to reveal rotor-th rough- SuPpOR·r ROTOR stud nut. WITH HO'ST AND S LING TO AVOID BENDING THROUGH· Remove stator-through-stud nuts, end bell, and STUD--_~ stator assembly, Figure 20. Screwdriver slots in adapter provide a means for prying stator loose. INSERT PRY BEHIND .01'> C R Vd-E" L THROUGH Be careful not to let stator touch or drag on rotor. AI R CiUTLET OPENI~JG Remove baffle ring from adapter. Turn rotor- through-stud nut to end of stud. While pulling rotor outward with one hand, strike nut a sharp TURN NUT OUT TO blow. Support rotor with hoist and sling to avoid END OF GENERATOR bending rotor-through-stud, Figure 21. Use a THROUGH·STuD STRIKE WITH SOFT heavy, soft faced hammer to loosen the rotor from ',AMMER 'NHILE its tapered shaft fit If rotor does not come loose PRYING strike it a sharp downward blow in center of lamination stack. Rotate rotor and repeat until it comes loose. Be careful not to hit bearing or FIGURE 21. ROTOR REMOVAL windings. HOUSING BRUSH LESS EXCITER BLOWER ROTOR ROTOR " '\ \ I ~~~~~L I / / STATOR- / ROTOR THROUGH-STUD THROUGH-STUD .- COVER FIGURE 20. GENERATOR DISASSEMBLY GENERATOR ASSEMBLY Install stator through-studs in adapter. Clean and inspect all mating surfaces. Install stator and end bell. Torque nuts on through-studs to 35 to 38 ft-Ibs. Coat mating area between generator bearing and end bell bearing hole with a thin film of Molykote Torque down rotor-through-stud nut (55-60 ft. or equal. lb.). The rotor and stator are automatically align- Install rotor-through-stud in engine crankshaft. ed because stator and bearing support were Install key in the crankshaft. tightened in step 8. Tap end bell to align at horizontal and verti( Slide rotor over through-stud and onto plane; use a lead hammer to relieve stresses <- crankshaft. Be carefu.l not to let weight of rotor rest on or bend the through-stud. components (recheck torque). Install end cover. Install baffle ring. T.59 GENERATOR TROUBLESHOOTING PREPARATION D. AC output voltage builds up, but field breaker A few simple checks and a proper troubleshooting trips. procedure can locate the probable source of trouble and cut down troubleshooting time. To correct a problem, answer the question of the step either YES or NO. Then refer to the step number in the 1. Check all modifications, repairs, replacements answer column and proceed to that step next. performed since last satisfactory operation of set to be sure that connection of generator leads are Letters A through P in the Test Procedure column correct. A loose wire connection, overlooked refer to detailed procedures in the Adjustments and when installing a replacement part could cause Tests section, pages 8-15. problems. An incorrect connection, an opened circuit breaker, or a loose plug-in printed circuit board are all potential malfunction areas to be eliminated by a visual check. TABLE A. No Build Up of AC Output Voltage j Yes I No Test Proc. 2. Unless absolutely sure that panel instruments are 1. Is Field Brea ker CB21 accurate, use portable test meters for on control panel ON? 2 3 troubleshooting. 3. Visually inspect components on VR2'. Look for 2. Connect jumper wire across dirt, dust, or moisture and cracks in the printed terminals of Field Breaker, solder conductors. Burned resistors, arcing CB21. Does AC output tracks are all identifiable. Do not mark on printed voltage build up? - 4 circuit boards with a pencil. Graphite lines are If voltage builds up conductive and can cause short circuits between REPLACE FIELD BREAKER. components. The question and answer troubleshooting guide 3. Push to reset Field Breaker. Does AC output voltage which follows, gives a step-by-step procedure for build up? - 4 checking the generator components. Refer to Figure If voltage builds up but 22 for an electrical schematic of the generator and voltage regulator connections. is high, low, unstable, or causes tripping of Field Breaker, refer to Tables B, C, or D. TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES This troubleshooting information is divided into 4. Disconnect alternator stator tables, A, B, C, and D as follows: leads 1 & 2 from TB21-1 and A. No build up of AC output voltage. TB21-2 on VR22. Is reference B. AC output voltage builds up, but is unstable. voltage across 1 & 2 20 VAC C. AC output voltage builds up, but is high or low. or more? 14 13 DC CRI2. CRI3. CRI4 EXCITER F2- W9 OUTPUT CRIS. AND CRI6 FIELD FI+ VOLTAGE ARE ON VR21 ~f++~r-+7 VOLT. REG. '--t+<--t:-............ B P.e. BOARD BRUSHLESS VR21 EXCITER CRS CMR21 T21 ROTATING RECTIFIER CB21 D 0 ASSEMBLIES REFERENCE VOLTAGE T I THROUGH VOLTAGE REGULATOR T40RTI2 ASSEMBLY FIGURE 22. GENERATOR-REGULATOR ELECTRICAL SCHEMATIC T.60 TABLE A. (continued) Yes No Test Proc. TABLE B. AC Output Voltage Builds UP. But Is Yes No Test Proc. I Unstable 5. Is exciter field voltage across F1 + and F2- on end bell 1. Are there any loose or broken terminal block 7.0 VDC or wires or connections on more? 6 - voltage regulator assembly If not, check wiring harness VR22? - 2 W9 from end bell to VR22 terminals 3 and 4. 2. Is W9 (exciter field) wiring harness from VR22 to End 6. Is brush less exciter stator bell OK? 3 - (field) winding OK? 7 - K 3. Does adjustment of Damping 7. Are diodes CRl,.CR2, CR3, Control R27 potentiometer CR4, CR5, CR6 in rotating on VR21 result in stable rectifier assemblies OK? 8 - F voltage? - 4 A Check all diodes· more than one may be 4. Replace PC Board VR21. - - P defective. 8. Are brush less exciter rotor ~ Do not replace the printed circuit board until windings OK? 9 - L t...~.;>oJo"""""-.Aoo""""'~ the trouble not on the PC board has been located and corrected to avoid damage to new PC board. 9. Is generator rotor field winding OK? 10 - M TABLE C. AC Output Voltage Yes No Test 10. Are generator stator Builds UP. But is Proc. windings OK? 11 - N High or Low 11. Is commutating reactor 1. Is set running at correct RPM? CMR21 OK? 12 - I (See appropriate engine manual to set RPM) 2 - 12. Is reference transformer T21 OK? 18 - J 2. Does adjustment of Voltage Adjusting knob for R22 13. Flash exciter field. Is on VR22 result in correct reference voltage across output voltage? - 3 A 1 and 2 now 20 VAC or more? 14 5 E 3. Does adjustment of potentiometer R26 on VR21 14. Reconnect generator leads result in correct output 1 & 2 to TB21-1 and voltage? - 4 A TB21-2 on VR22. Does reference voltage build up? - 15 4. Is correct voltage reference V4 to VI, V2, or V3 on 15. Is regulator DC output VR21 being used? voltage across VR21-7 and Refer to Figure 6. 5 - VR21-8 7 VDC or more? See Figure 22. 5 16 5. Are generator output leads properly connected? Refer 16. Are SCR's CR13 and to Figure 6. 6 - . CR16 OK? 17 - H 6. Replace voltage regulator, 17. Are diodes CR12, CR14, PC board VR21 - - P and CR15 OK? 18 - G 18. Replace voltage regulator PC board (VR21) - - P ~ : ~:U':'e~ttho~P~:":cCI=:c.b::S:=:: toeated and corrected to avoid damage to new PC board. T. 61 TABLE D. AC Output Voltage Yes No Test Builds Up, But Field Proc. Breaker Trips 1. Does AC output voltage build up to 140% or more of rated voltage before Field Breaker trips? 2 7 - ADJUSTMENTS AND TESTS - REFERENCE 2. Are there any loose or LIST broken wires or con· A. VOLTAGE CALIBRATION ADJUSTMENT nections on VR22? - 3 B. VOLTAGE STABILITY ADJUSTMENT C. BATTERY CHARGE RATE ADJUSTMENT 3. Is diode CR15 on VR21 OK? 4 - G D. VOLTAGE REGULATOR CHECKOUT E. FLASHING THE FIELD 4. Are T21 windings and F. TESTING ROTATING RECTIFIERS connections OK? 5 - J G. TESTING OUTPUT BRIDGE DIODES H. TESTING SCR'S 5. Are generator stator I. TESTING REACTOR leads properly connected? J. TESTING REFERENCE TRANSFORMER Refer to Figure 6. 6 - - K. TESTING EXCITER STATOR L TESTING BRUSHLESS EXCITER ROTOR 6. Replace VR21. - - P (ARMATURE) M. TESTING GENERATOR ROTOR 7. Are diodes CR1, CR2, CR3, N. TESTING GENERATOR STATOR CR4, CR5, CR6 in rotating O. WIRING HARNESS CHECK rectifier assemblies OK? 8 - F P. VR21 REPLACEMENT Check all diodes· more than one may be defective. 8. Is brush less exciter stator winding OK? 9 - K 9. Is generator rotor field winding OK? 10 - M 10. Is brushless exciter rotor OK? 11 - L 11. Are generator stator windings OK? 6 - N SECTION U HYDRAULIC CRANKING SYSTEM CONTENTS PAGE DESCRIPTION. . . . . · · . . · . · · . · . · · · . . . · . . · . . . · . . . . . . · . · · · . . U. 3 ILLUSTRATIONS. · . . · · · . . · · . . . . . . . · · . · . . . · . . . . . . · · · · · . . . · U. 4 SERVICE INSTRUCTIONS.................................. U. 6 Hydraulic Cranking............................... U. 6 Hydraulic Hand Pump.............................. U.S HYDRAULIC PUMP........................ . · . · · . . · . . . . . . . · U .10 SERVICE INSTRUCTIONS ACB SAFETY SEAL ACCUMULATORS............ ........ ...... U.13 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (LIFE SPHERE)....................... U.21 u. z D.3 DESCRIPTION The Hydraulic Cranking System {below} pro- E. Accumul ator - a th i ck wall, piston type vides positive instant starting for internal com- cyl inder where fluid energy is stored bustion engines regardless of temperature ex- under pressure to actuate the cranking tremes, adverse weather or long shut downs. motor. Various capacities are avail able Independent of energy sources such as batter- depending upon application. Pre-load- ies, this self containing hydraulic cranking ed with non-combustible nitrogen which system is well adapted to operations requiring it maintains indefinitely. extreme precautions against fire or explosions. F. Unloading Valve - a ball check valve The principal components of the hydraulic which by-passes the hydraulic fluid cranking system are as follows: back into the reservoir atfer system reaches required operating pressure. A. Reservoir - contains supply of hydraulic fluid for system at atmospheric pressure. G. Filter - keeps fluid in system free from contaminants .. B. H and Pump - recharges the system in hand pump installations and for emergency re- H. Engine Pump {Life Sphere} - a power charging in engine pump systems. Also pump which automatically recharges the provides slow cranking for timing and system for subsequent starts; thereafter engine tune-up. diverts fluid back into reservoir. C. Control Val ve - controls flowofhydraul- I. Pressure Gauge - indi cates accumul ator i c fl ui d for sys tem at atmosph eri c press- pressure. ure to cranking motor. Integral with Model CM2 and CMC cranking motors. J· Star Val ve - prevents hydrau Ii c CIIccumu,- lator from energizing system when in D. Cranking Motor - a positive displace- closed position. ment high torque, hydraulic motor. Rotor is splined to output shaft which carries drive pinion and an overrunning cI utch. U.4 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR BLEED PETCOCK / lIFESPHERE - STARBOARD AND PORT VIEWS u.s WATER FILL CAP DIPSTICK AND SUMP PETCOCK SUCTION TUBE OIL FILL CAP LUBE OIL FILTER LIFEBOAT - STARBOARD AND PORT VIEWS U.6 SERVICE INSTRUCTIONS FOR HYDRAULIC CRANKING MOTOR DISASSEMBLY 1. Clamp motor housing (2) in a vise. Remove pinion gear housing (25) and mounting flange (29) which are fastened to motor housing (2) by four screws (27). 2. Remove inspection plate (22) and its two fastening screws with lockwashers (23 & 23A). With a screwdriver, move anchor plate of starting drive (26) toward the pinion gear to uncover set screw locking drive assembly (26) on motor shaft (9). Back set screw out of shaft (9) and slide starting drive assembly (26) off shaft. Remove key or keys (26A) from shaft. 3. Before removing port plate (3) put indexing mark between port plate and motor housing (2) to enable proper positioning of port plate at reassembly. Remove eight cap screws (5) that hold port plate (3) to housing (2). 4. Remove barrel assembly (13) from motor shaft (9). Take pistons (14) out of barrel (13). 5. To remove shaft (9) from housing {2) remove seal holder retaming ring (21). Press shaft out of housing from port plate end. Shaft bearing (16) and seal holder (20) will come out on shaft (9). 6. To remove thrust bearing (15) apply even heat to motor housing (2). Bearing will fall out when housing is jarred against wooden block or bench. CAUTION: DO NOT APPLY EXCESSIVE HEAT. Do not remove thrust bearing (15) unless it is to be replaced. EXAMINATION OF PARTS Pinion Gear Housing (25): Visually check housing for cracks or other damage. Check needle bearing (24) for damage or wear. Replace if necessary. Starting Drive Assembly (26): Examine pinion gear to be sure that teeth are not worn excessively or chipped from interference with ring gear. Check anchor plate that holds the starting drive spring to be sure it has not split or spread where spring anchors. Port Plate (3): The port plate face, where barrel rides, must be smooth and free of scoring. Slight scuff marks can be removed by lapping on surface plate. Check needle bearing (8) for wear or damage. Replace if necessary. To remove bearing (8) apply even heat to port plate (3). CAUTION: DO NOT APPLY EXCES- SIVE HEAT. Bearing will fall out when port plate (3) is jarred against wooden block or bench. Do not remove bearing (8) unless it is to be replaced. Check threads on inlet and outlet ports. Motor Barrel (13) and Pistons (14): Examine ported face of barrel for scratching or scoring. Slight scuff marks can be removed by lapping on surfac~'1>la teo Bores in barrel (13) as well as diameters of pistons (14) should be smooth and free of scoring. Closed ends of pistons may show brinnelling where they contact thrust bearing (15), but no burrs or flat spots on surface. ~10tor Shaft (9): Check ends of shaft for wear or scoring. Check bearing (16): Replace if necessary. Motor Housing (2): Visually check housing for cracks or other damage. Be sure that thrust bearing (15) rolls free and smooth. Inspect tapped holes for thread damage. Seal Holder (20) and "0" Rings (18 & 19): Examine holder for cracks or damage. Replace "0" rings with new ones. U.7 REASSEMBLY 1. Be sure all parts are clean and free of burrs before starting reassembly: 2. Install ball bearing (16) and retaining ring (17) on shaft (9). Press shaft (9) am.. ball bearing (16) into housing (2). Install seal holder (20) and "0" rings (18 & 19) on shaft (9) .. The recessed side of seal holder (20) should be next to ball bearing (16). Install retaining ring (21). 3. With pistons (14) in barrel (13), line up splines and install barrel (13) on shaft (9). Using pinion gear housing (25) to help position shaft, put port plate (3) on, being sure to line up indexing marks. There should be slight precompression of spring (12) with port plate (3) against barrel (13). If not replace spring (12). Tighten cap screws (5) alternately and pull port plate (3) down evenly. Torque to 150 in. Ilbs. TEST PROCEDURE ·1. Mount hydrotor in suitable holding fixture and connect all hoses to appropriate fittings as illustrated in System Schematic Section. 2. Remove pinion gear housing (25). Open control valve. Start engine pump to circulate oil through com- plete system with control valve remaining open, thus purging system of air. Examine hydrotor and all fittings for possible leaks before releasing control \·alve. ). Allow system pressure to build up to 3000 psi at which pressure the unloading valve by-passes oil back into reservoir. Again examine for leaks in system. Should pressure fail to rise instantly to 1500 psi and then build up gradually to 3000 psi, it would indicate system was not purged completely. Purge again if necessary. Note: If at any time leaking occurs externally, the unit must be disassembled to correct leakage before proceeding \vith test. CAUTION: ALWAYS RELEASE ALL HYDRACLIC PRESSURE BEFORE DISCONNECTING ANY LINES. 4. After it has been determined that unit is not leaking, open control valve. Permit unit to operate until accumulator hydraulic charge has been exhausted. Release control valve. The system will now recharge to 3000 psi. 5. \ltach TSE 8606 Lock Testing Tool (see Service Tool Section) to motor housing (2) at same location as pro\'ided for pinion gear housing, previously removed in step two. Align keyway in TSE 8606 with key (26A) in shaft (9). Fasten TSE 8606 to motor housing (2) by inserting two pinion gear housing fastening screws hand tight 180 apart. 0 6. ~rO\'e control valve slowly to full open position. Hold open for approximately 3 to 4 seconds before closing. \\'hik control \'alve is in full open position the pressure drop from 3000 psi to 2500 psi must not occur in less rl'll1 3 seconds. 7. Proceed to test each of the pistons inside hydrotor in like manner as described above by rotating lock test tool in increments as provided until all seven pistons have been tested. Should pressure drop faster than specified when testing one particular piston, it will of course indicate internal leakage. This could be a piston which would require replacement. Note: Turn lock test tool and shaft one full turn and retest before replacing any one particular piston. A Pfl"':'lf-c drop at all positions indicate that port plate fastening screws (5) are not proper! y torqued or that there is imufficient spring tension to keep motor cylinder (13) against port plate (3). It may be necessary to lap port plate (3) and motor cylinder (13) on a lapping plate or replace spring (12) tC' eliminate leakage if they do not seal properly. 8, Mter preceding test is completed sLop engine pump. Remove lock testing tool. Grease motor shaft (9). Install key or keys (26A) and starting drive assembly (26) on shaft (9). Tighten set screw into shaft (9) by holding anchor plate out of the way with screwdriver. Install pinion gear housing (25) and tighten fastening screws (27). Torque to 175 in. fIbs. 9. Move control valve to full open position. Allow system to discharge completely. (Hydraulic pressure ~auge should now read 0 psi.) CAUTION: DO NOT DISCONNECT ANY LINES UNTIL HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IS COMPLETELY EXHAUSTED. 10. Remove hydrotor from test circuit. Drain remaining quantity of oil from hydrotor and close all openings with a suitable plug to prevent entrance of foreign matter during storage or shipment. u.s SERVICE INSTRUCTIONS FOR HYDRAULIC HAND PUMP 2 \ 30 A-438 DISASSEMBLY 1. Disconnect operating lever (30) from pump hous- 3. Remove discharge check valve seat (12) from end ing (1) and plunger (22). Remove retaining ring (23) of plunger (22 ) . Discharge check valve ( 16) and and clevis pin (24) before removing link assembly (27). spring (17) will drop out of plunger. 2. Remove plunger gland retaining ring (28) from 4. Remove oil inlet fitting (6) from end of pump pump housing (1). Gland (29) will come out on housing. Inlet check valve (10) and spring (11) will plunger (22) when plunger is pulled from housing (1). drop out of housing (1). Remove gland (29) from plunger. 5. Back out bleeder screw (4) and remove ball (2). U.9 EXAMINATION OF PARTS Pump Housing (1): Check for cracks and other visible plunger gland (29). A wear pattern may be evident damage. Bore of C\'lindcr must be smooth with no but no scores or scratches should be present. Replace pItting or scoring.' All threads should be checked. seals (13-15) and back-up ring (H) with np.w ones. (It is not necessary to remove plug (7) unless there has Examine discharge check valve (16), spring (17) and been leakage at threads). Bleed ball valve (2) and its check valve seat (12). Replace any damaged parts. seat in housing must be checked. Replace ball valve (2) if damaged. Replace "0" ring (3) on bleed screw with new one. Operating Lever (30): Check roller chain link (27) for wear or damage. Replace if necessary. Inlet Fitting (6): Examine internal and external threads. Inspect inlet check valve seat for nicks or Plunger Gland (29): With "0" ring (20) and back- scratches. Replace "0" rings (5 & 9) and back-up up ring (21) removed, check gland on plunger shank ring (8) with new ones. Examine inlet check valve to be sure it does not bind. "0" rings (18 & 20) ball (10) and spring (11). Replace if damaged. and back-up rings (19 & 21) should be replaced with Plunger (22): Check plunger for scoring on large new ones. diameter and on plunger shank where it rides in ASSEMBLY Note: Make sure that all parts are clean before as- 3. Imert plunger (22) into housing, bottoming 5embling. To facilitate asocmbly use light plunger in pump bore. Install plunger gland (29) 011 or grca~c on "0" rings and back-up rings. being sure that external "0" ring (18) is closest to leading edge. Press gland (29) in until groove for I. Install inlet check valve spring (11) and ball (10) retaining ring is uncovered, then insert ring (28). into housing (1). With "0" rings (5 & 9) and back- up ring (8) on inlet fitting (6), install fitting into -4. Drop bleed ball valve (2) into place and with housing. Tighten fitting securely being sure that "0" ring (3) in position insert bleed screw (4). inlet check valve (10) seats properly in end of inlet Tighten bleed screw securely. fitting (6). 5. Install link assembly (27) to plunger (22) and 2. Install discharge check valve spring (17) and ball operating lever (30). Place operating lever (30) in (16) into plunger (22). With "0" ring (13) in place, position and insert clevis pin (24) and retaining ring thread valve seat (12) into plunger and tighten (23). Put other side of link on and secure with clip. securely. TEST PROCEDURE 1. ~'. ,nt hand pump in suitable holding fixture and in prenure gauge reading). connect all hoses to appropriate fittings as illustrated in Test Circuit Schematic leaving discharge connec- 5. Move plunger in the full extent of its travel until tion loose. Slowly operate hand pump until all air plunger bottoms in housing. Disconnect inlet line is expelled. Retighten connection. This operation from pump. Holding plunger in this position, pres- will also assure that plunger is free in housing. With sure in pump chamber at 3000 psi, cautiously trip high pressure valve open, operate hand pump long inlet check valve ball with probe. (Phenol or similar enough to sufficiently purge system. rna terial to be used as probe). A steady pressure reading of 3000 psi indicates that discharge check 2. Close high pressure vah·e. start engine pump and valve plunger "0" rings and bleed valve are sealing charge system to approximately 2800 psi. While system properly. If leakage occurs at this point it will be is being charged inspect for leakage. If a leak is necessary to correct and retest as required. discovered, stop engine pump and correct leak before proceeding with test. 6. Open high pressure valve slowly and release pres- sure to 0 psi. CAUTION: DO NOT DISCON- 3. Operate hand pump to charge system to 3000 psi. NECT ANY HIGH PRESSURE LINES UNTIL Observe pressure gauge closely to determine that unit HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IS COMPLETELY EX- is pumping on each stroke. (Pump is double acting). HAUSTED. ... Locate pump plunger in mid-position and release 7. Remove hand pump from test circuit. Drain operating handle. Any movement of handle indicates remaining quantity of oil from hand pump and close leabge past inlet check valve or "0"· rings on inlet all openings with a suitable plug to prevent eQtrance fitting. (There should not be any perceptable drop of foreign matter during shipment or storage. V.10 SERVICE INSTRUCTIONS FOR HYDRAULIC PUMP TYPE: - Fixed Displacement Piston Type ROTATlON: - Clockwise or Counter-Clockwise SPEED: - 600 RPM to 3600 RPM" UNLOADING VALVE: - Integral and Pressure Adjustable PRESSURE ADJUSTMENT RANGE: - 1500-3000 PSI NORMAL PRESSURE CUT-OUT: - 3000 PSI NORlv1AL PRESSURE CUT-IN: - 2500 PSI SELF PRIMING AND SELF BLEEDING MAXIMUM SUCTION HEAD: - 3 Ft. HOUSING: - Cast Aluminum WEIGHT: - 5-1/2 lbs. DRIVE TORQUE: - 9 in. lbs. @ O-PSI 28 in. lbs. @ 3000 PSI "Operation at speeds above 3600 RPM may result in pump damage. Consult the factory on high speed a pplica tions. INSTALLATION INFORMATION The pump may be mounted radially in any position, how- ever the return port located in the flange portion of the pump must be located above the horizontal centerline to insure adequate internal lubrication. Failure to do so may result in serious damage to the pump. If unusual interference problems are encountered, it is permissable to rotate the flange 180 0 · Caution is re- commended not to separate the two parts more than 1/4 ". Further separation will cause camshaft seal damage when reassembling. RECOMMENDED PULLEY 4.000" Diameter for "A" or "B" Size Belt. -. 625" Bore .7 t >-t" j. + t ~- 11 - 1.1. ~ FtI Ii: 1.~tJ:;c" 11.1 , 11 .6 :41 ~!t ~TC ~ rift7,+ ps, * 't!!QOO I L j ·· " .5 >- a: .4 III > ~ .3 Q .2 .1 -+-t- '-t-. 4 .-t:t _.. +- ., C.'i'j. 5( 20)0 2 10 301 ~UMP S~ · · D - RPM H .......~OUT\£T .· 2.50 Mf'TT .2501 , 4 HDL£.S ·· IZ-.a -l ~~- l Ltr. ,-, .ot81 0"7 ...;., WOODR.Uff ~~ t 1,188 3,312 6.188 f)DnmJ ~ 4.906 3.250 1 __ .J" NPTT 'NUT ( _ _ RE5£IIWIR) 'r'r 11'LJ I t=2.~~;;J UMLDADlPfG y, PRLSSUR£ ~ SCMW 1---4,250~ I'ROTtt TIOM CI!# SK 200815 UOUHTING BRACKET (DRD£R S£PARATELY) l 1.250 -r HU .... t r 5,688 .sOO-20U"'f-2A - f 1.750 DIA. l __ 2.500 .J75R 1 .'41-..141 OIA - 4 HOLES HYDRAULIC PUMP e f-' f-' U.12 HYDRAULIC OIL MIL-H-5606 Hydraulic Oil for Use with Hydraulic Cranking System The use of this hydraulic oil wi16 afford 0stimum performance of the system in the temperature range from 130 F. to -40 F. This oil has good viscosity and temperature characteristbcs and contains no pour point depressant mater- ials. The pour point is -65 0F. and the flash point is 200 0F. The weight is 7.25 pounds per gallon at 60 F. It is compatable with Buna N Seals. The following brand name oils, obtainable in most localities, are also suit- able. Name - - Brand Supplier UNIVIS J-43, Code WS 2997 Esso Standard Oil Co. Mobile Aero-Hydraulic Oil HFA, RL 102A Socony-Mobile Oil Co. ,Inc. RPM Aviation Hydraulic Oil No.2 Standard Oil Of California Aircraft Hydraulic Oil AA or A Texaco, Inc. Brayco 756, Code P-190 Bray Oil Co. Hydraulic Oil, Code 566 Golden Bear Oil Co. Royco 756 Royal Lubricant Co. Aero Shell Fluid #4 (ASF 4) She 11 Oil Co. If temperatures below 100F. will not be encountered, a reputable brand of quality non-detergent SAE 5W engine oil may be utilized. Texaco Regal Oil A (R and 0) is also acceptable. D.13 SERVICE INSTRUCTIONS FOR ACe SAFETY ACCUMULATORS U .14 OISASSEMBL Y 1. Prior to any liisasselllhly work. the Ilitrogell gas must he hied frolll the accumillator. Remove cap (118) and loosen lock Ilut until gas escapes. 2. Remove valve (11). Where accull1ulator includes a safety fuse holder (4). do not remove it unless the "0" ring (4A) or fuse holder (4) are to he replaced hecause of leakage. 3. Secure cylinder (1) in a pipe vise and reillove screw (10). lockwasher (9). rctaining plate (8) Screw 1/2"-20 fitting into air valve port and push end cap (7) away from ring segments (12 and 13). Remove ring segments and pull out end cap (7). Leave fitting in cap for re-assemhLy. 4. Repeat same procedure for removing the oil end cap (2) as for removing the air end cap (7) being sure to use the proper fitting for the oil port size. Leave fitting in cap for re-assemhly. 5. With a wooden dowel. push piston (6) out of cylinder (1). 6. Remove the "0" rings (3) and teflon rings (5) from piston (6) and end caps (2 and 7). EXAMINATION OF PARTS Cylinder (1) : Use a drop light to examine the bore of the cylinder. The bore must be smooth and free of scra tches. Check segment ring grooves. Caps (2 and 7) : Examine for damage, check fitting threads, valve threads and fuse holder thread if holder has been removed. Piston (6) : Examine for scra tches or scoring on o. d. The piston must be checked in cylinder to be sure it moves freely throughout the entire length of cylinder. Air Valve (11): Examine threads and replace if damaged. Check for damaged valve seat. Teflon Rings (5) : Replace if damaged. "0" Rings (3) : Replace all "0" rings with new ones. REASSEMBLY Thoroughly clean all parts before assembly. dirt particles larger than 40 microns cannot be tolerated. 1. Use oil or grease to lubricate the "0" rings (3) and install them and teflon rings (5) on piston (6). Install teflon rings before installing "0" rings. Refer to illustration for positioning of teflon rings. 2. Coat J.D. of cylinder with light oil. Use loading sleeve. covering the split ring groove. carefully insert the piston (6) including its "0" ring and teflon rings into the housing bore with the closed end first. Observe that back up rings are correctly installed and "0" rings are coated with BM 1546 grease. "0" rings must not be twisted or otherwise damaged. Once piston has entered cylinder. push it half way down in cylinder. 3. Install "0" rings (3) and teflon rings (5) to cap ends (2 and 7) with "0" ring toward the fluid end. Install teflon rings before installing "0" rings. Apply light grease to "0" rings (3) to insure that it remains in plal.:e. Using loading sleeve, slide end cap (2) into the housing beyond the normal position. Be sure oil end cap is on the side with the head of the piston (6). 4. Install retainer ring segments (12 and 13) and hold in place. Push piston (6) against oil end cap to position end cap (2) against the retainer plate (8), lockwasher and screw (9 and 10). 5. Using loading sleeve, slide end cap (7) into the housing beyond the normal position. Install retaining rings (12 & 13) and hold in place. Push end cap (7) into position (same as gas end cap above) by using a wooden dowel from the oil end. Release pressure and remove assembly fittings. 6. Install valve (11) with "0" ring (llA) torque valve (11) to 45-50 ft. lbs. DO NOT tighten the lock nut. Where safety fuse holder (4) with "0" ring (4A) was removed. install with new "0" ring (4A) and torque to 20-25 ft. lbs. 7. The accumulator is now ready to be charged with nitrogen gas. Read instructions pgs. 3 & 4. Continue to charge accumulator until desired pressure is attained. Close valve on nitrogen tank and tighten lock nut on air valve to 140-160 in. lbs. Remove charging hose and install protection cap (118). U .15 INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF CHARGING AND GAGING ASSEMBLY CGA 300389 CHECKING PRECHARGE ADDING PRECHARGE 1. Before attaching chuck (9) to air valve, VA ~0093~, 1. Connect nut (8) to nitrogen tank and tighten. be sure valve (5) is in the do~ed WARNING: DO NOT USE OX YGEN NOR SIMILAR COM- position. Valve is dosed when BusTIBLE TYPE GASES. handle is turned 90 degrees from ~. IMPORTANT position shown in 1llustra tion . ( See Note) Valve (5) on the CGA assembly ~ be in the open poqtion beforc opening the nitrogen tank valve. Valve 2. Hand tighten chllck (9) suffi- (fi) is not designed to withstand pressure in the oppOSite ciently to compress gasket in order Jirection of the arrow, stamped on the body, when in to prevent gas leakage. the closcd position. :3. After completing step (2) above, slowly open the 3. Place a 3/4" wrench on upper nitrogen tank valve to allow tank prcssure into the ac- nut of air valve and tmn in a cumulator, closing it occasionally to allow needle on counter clock-wise direcrion until ga ge (1) to se nle in position. If more pressure than precharge pressure on ga uge ( 1) is desired is allowed to enter the accumulator, close the indicated. VA ~OOU:l~ air valve on the accumulator and nitrogen tank valve and disconnect the CGA assembly from the nitrogen !:!Q.II:Upper nut on air valve will stop tllrnmg after tank. Repeat the steps for reducing precharge previ- approXimately 3 to 4 turns. ollsly described. REDUCING PRECHARGE CAUTION: NEVER DISCONNECT THE eGA ASSEM- 1. With charging and gaging assembly connected to BLY FROM THE ACCUMULATOR AIR VALVE AND/OR air valve per the above instructions, carefully open and close valve (5) until the desired precharge prcssure is NITROGEN TANK VALVE UNTIL EACH IS FULLY LOCK- indicated on gage (1). Lock upper nut and disconnect the "CGA" asscmbly. E I) IN THE OFF POSITION. NOTE : Use this charging and gaging assembly with VA 200932 Valve (MS 28889-1). Do not use with inner tube type needle valves. (!) ~,C" '='~F:l~ ((:;/ ' .312-)2 lINEr THREAD, " , 'I I : .QOH-14 N(:0-L.H. , I (CGHA·550) I( \\ \\~ ,. ! r-~i l-"IYXllllJ.llt}SL ""'."" , H,',' ""',/ fLt" A-2!588 o 6) 0 U .16 TEST PROCEDURE FOR ACCUMULATORS 1. After the accumulator has been charged to the desired close the valve. Allow pump to charge the accumu- preslure, it should be immersed in a tank containing lator to 3000 PSI. Open the hydraulic valve to allow a non-corroaive liquid (Stoddard solvents, Varsol by stored oil in the aecumulator to flow back into the EIIO, etc.) and checked for proper sealingof the "0" reservoir. Repeat this charge and discharge cycle rings on accumulator piston. The oil inlet port of the several times to insure the piston is not sticking or accumulator must be left open during this teat. Also binding. check for possible leaks of the Air Valve Assembly (11) (cap 11B removed). Air bubbles in the liquid indicate 6. During the CYCling test, inspect for possible oil leaks nitrogen leakage. at caps and discharge fitting of accumulator. 2. Drain dry and allow the accumula tor to set undisturbed 7. When the test cycle has been completed, remove the for a minimum period of one hour. With Service Tool accl:mula tor from the test circuit. CGA 300389 recheck the gas pressure in the accum- ulator. See Note 1. CAUTION: Always release all hydraulic pressure in the system before disconnecting any lines. 3. If the pressure is lower by more than 5,,/0, the accumu- lator must again be connected to Service Tool CGA Close the oil port with a suitable plug to prevent en- 300389 and additional nitrogen added. Repeat steps 1 trance of foreign matter during storage and shipping. and 2. NOTE 1: With Service Tool CGA300389 fastened securely 4. A CYCling test should be performed to assure that ac- to the Air Valve Assembly (11). loosen nut on cumulator is functioning properly. The accumulator air valve. The gauge will indicate the amount may be connected to any simple test circuit, consist- of nitrogen gas pre charge pressure in the accu- ing of a reservoir, pump, accumulator and a valve. mula tor. Before removing gauge. tighten lock- nuton air valve. When using this tool, the hy- 5. The hydraulic valve should remain in the open position draulic pressure in the accumulator should be until the pump has run a sufficient period to bleed all zero before attaching the gauge device to the air from the line. With the pump still operating, accumulator. U .17 TROUBLE SHOOTING THE CRANKING SYSTEM CAUTION: Before serVlcmg any part of the Hydrator system, the accumulator pressure must be released to prevent possible injury to personnel. TROUBLE REMEDY A. NO SYSTEM PRESSURE 1. Air In Engine Driven Pump All RPA model pumps are self bleeding. Check for dirt in pum p piston bleed hole. See that bleed hole is facing the inlet port. To assist pump in expelling air, fill the pump with oil through the return port. 2. Hand Pump l3leed Valve Open Check to insure hand pump bleed screw (located above the inlet port) is tight. Sec B. 2 :3. Drive Belt Slipping (Belt Driven Pump) Adjust belt for proper tension. 4. Drive Gear Loose (Direct Driven Pump) Secure gear to drive shaft. s. Unlo~lding Valve By-PaSSing Oil to the Reser- Oil will be passing through the return port indicating the unload- voir ing valve spindle in the RPA model pumps is stuck in the open position or the pressure :Idjusting screw is backed off. Check to insure the unloading v c::::> 2/74 PIN 19055 V.16 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: 5/6/74 BULLETIN NUMBER: 69 MODEL: All marine generators and marine engines SUBJECT: Exhaust system failures When engine sea water is fed into an exhaust system so that the full stream strikes a surface, erosion may cause premature failures. Proper design of either a water jacketed or a water injected ("wet)" exhaust system to prevent this problem requires that the sea water inlet be positioned so that the entering stream of sea water does not strike a surface directly. Also, the velocity of the entering sea water stream should be as low as possible which is achieved by having inlet fittings as big in diameter as possible. In addition to the above design considerations, it ;s usually advan- tageous to divide the sea water flow at the point of entry to the exhaust system so that only a portion of it enters the exhaust system. The remainder is normally piped directly over the side. The proper proportion of the sea water flow to pass through the exhaust system can only be determined by trial and error. The goal is to prevent excessive exhaust temperatures with the least amount of sea water. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322' (817) 588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: "2-4444 PIN: 19149 V.17 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: May 29, 1974 BULLETIN NUMBER: 72 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Non-Interchangeabil ity between Manufacturers of Gauges and Senders In recent years we have purchased gauges and senders from four different manufacturers. In no case may the gauge of one manufacturer be used with the sender of another manufacturer. In some cases the wiring of either or both the gauge and the sender varies by manufacturer. Thus it becomes important, when ordering a replacement gauge or ordering a replacement sender, to order a matched set or to know conclusively who the manufacturer is. Ammeters are electrically interchangeable. STEWART-WARNER VOO FARIA NOVOX 2" OrA CASE 2 3/8" OIA CASE 2" OIA CASE 2" orA CASE Ammeter 11581 11931 16550 19165 Oil pressure gauge 11544 11914 16548 19166 Oil pressure sender 11542 11916 16551 19167 Water temp. gauge 11545 11913 16549 19168 Water temp. sender 11543 11915 16552 19169 Adapter ring to in- 16023 LAMP + 16023 16023 stall 2" dia gauge in and and and 2 3/8" dia panel S8 #44 .,......,'""" __ AM P - S8 #44 S8 #44 cut-out GND B+ SND LAMP + ~Jiring diagram ~ SND~B+ LAMP-+- SND~B+ ~SN GND B+ Also see GND S8 #36 GND J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322' (617) 588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELE}(: 112 - 4444 PIN: 19190 V.IB SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: June 19, 1974 BULLETIN NUMBER: 73 MODEL: Four-I07 SUBJECT: Lube Oi 1 Sump Di psti ck There have been some reports that a very few Four-107 engines have been shipped with an incorrect oil sump dipstick. To insure that you have the correct dipstick, place yours alongside the drawing. If it is not iden- tical regarding the part number stamped. and the II max ll- IIminll marks shown, report it to Service Dept. at the J.H. Westerbeke Corp. for immediate replacement - No Charge. If you prefer, you may re-m~rk your present dipstick to correspond with the marks on the drawing. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, fIIASS. 02322· (5171588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112- ........ PIN: 19200 V.19 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: March 15, 1975 BULLETIN NUMBER: 80 MODEL: Westerbeke 40LB, 40LS, LB-49 SUBJECT: Westerbeke Lue-Cel DESCRIPTION The Westerbeke Lub-ce1 improves diesel engine cold starting and perfonnance, typically a11~~ing starts at 20° F. within 5 seconds in conjunction with hydraulic starting sys- tems. It delivers a pre-detennined quantity of lubricating oil, at a pre-detennined rate, directly above the engine's intake valves during cranking and, when the engine has started, reloads itself from the engine oil gallery. Pressure to deliver this oil is taken from the hydraulic starter return line. (Lub- cel is designed for use with American Bosch hydraulic starters.) OPERATING PRESSURES Delivery Pressure Due to the high flow rate in the Bosch hydraulic system the return line builds up between 50 and 100 PSI. Close to the starter, this pressure is used to energise the Lub-ce 1. Engine Oil Pressure The Lub-ce1 requires 20-30 seconds to reload at 30 PSI lube oil pressure. The engine should never be run for less than a minute or two if the Lub-ce1 is to be kept fully charged \'11 th oi 1. SERVICE 1 · Engi ne Oil The Lub-ce1 unit is not sensitive to tYr>es of oil used. With Hesterbeke Four-107, Pilot 20 and LB-49, cold starting in be1Q111 freezing temperatures it is imperative to use a good brand of S.A.E. 5W20 oil. 2. lIydrau 1i c F1 ui d l':e use 'Esso EP9' hydraulic fluid in our tests but any good grade equivalent hyd- raulic or te1emotor oil may be used. In no case should oils be mixed. 3. Repai r and Overhaul All Lub-ce1 units should be overhauled every two years. A Factory exchange program is J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617) 588-7700 CA8LE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92 - 4444 PIN: 19473 V.20 Service Bulletin 80 Con It. available to facilitate this. Spare parts are available thru our parts department. 4. Bleeding air from Lub-cel :'Ii til engine running and oi 1 pressure more than 30 PSI. Back off the two top screws in tile diaphram housing to expel air. Vlhen oil is seen secure the bilo screws. Bring engi ne to idle. If the engine shows a short burst of power when idled there is more ai r in the diaphram housing. Repeat step 9. To flood delivery lines, start and stop engine about 4 or 5 times. Engine should be run at least 30 seconds each time. TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART Fault Cause Remedy ,lo oil de'livery Failure to re-load Check engine oil pressure, must be over 30 PSI. Check piston action. Should require less than 25 PSI to house. Needle valve closed Open valve (see table below) r-1ode1 Turns counterclockwise from closed position Pilot 20 2 1/2 4-107LB 2 1/2 4- lOlLS 2 1/2 LB-49 4 Engine will not shut down Piston 0 rings damaged Close needle valve to stop oil flow . Check for rough or worn bore and replace 0 rings. Engine speeds up briefly Air in diaphram Bleed air from Lub-ce1 (see SERVICE) (1 second) when idled Hydraulic fluid discolored Diaphram ruptured Replace diaphram and change or contaminated by motor oil hydraulic and lubricating oil. Persistant oil leaks Hydrau-1ic or engine Pressures should not be above 100 PSI. oi 1 pressure too hi gh Refer to workshop manual for lube oil system and hydraulic starting system details. PN #19473 conlt. Page 2 3/11 /75 V.21 WESTERBEKE lUB - eEL LUBRICATING 01 L SYSTEM LUB-CEL DELIVERY RATE ~=I'/~~.~.- ADJUSTING SCREW. (FACTORY SET - DO NOT ADJUST) 6 ENGI NE ,-,,-~LUBRICATI NG HYDRAULIC SYSTEM HYDRAULIC FLUID TANK OUTLET HYDRAULIC INLET STARTER HYDRAULIC PUMP STARTER VALVE ACCUMULATOR DRWG 19457 P~I ~19473 con It. Page 3 3/11/75 V.22 WESTERBEKE lUB-CEl ITE~ P~ NAME REMARKS QUAN 19371 HOUSING Diaphragm (Hyd. Side) 2 19268 DIAPHRAGM 3 lCl274 HOUSING Diaohragm (Piston Side) 4 19279 GASKET 5 19278 ~ANIFOlD 6 19280 PISTI)N 7 19342 O-RING 2 8 15618 BAll 9 19352 SPRING 1') 19313 SCRE1~ Ass'y. 14 19428 PLATE 15 19429 PLATE 4 17 1931)5 NAMEPUHE 18- 1 19331 LINE Delivery Ass'y. Pil ot-20lB. 18-2 19453 LI~E De 1i very As s "y. Four-l07lB. 18- 3 19290 LINE Delivery Ass'y. lB-49 19-1 19470 KIT Field Installation Four-107lB. 19-2 19471 KIT Field Installation Four-l07lS. PN JJ19473 can't. Page 4 3/11/75 SERVICE BULLETIN V.23 DATE: October 3, 1975 BULLETIN NUMBER: 81 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Hydro-Hush Muffler Installation The diagram on the reverse side shows a proper installation of the Hydro- Hush stainless steel muffler. Make sure installation is such that water cannot enter engine at any angle of heel or pitch. Muffler remains approximately twenty-five percent full of water after engine is shut down with maximum thirty-three inch lift used. Muffler must be installed as close to fore-aft centerline of boat as possible. There must be an unblocked vent to atmosphere at the high point of the sea water circuit (where it passes above the waterline) to break the vacuum which would encourage siphoning through the sea water circuit upon engine shutdown. Such siphoning would fill the engine with sea water through its exhaust. Pipe the air vent with approximately 3/16 copper tubing to discourage water flow through it when the engine is running. If water flows through the air vent when the engine is running, pipe it over the side or into the transom exhaust outlet. But be sure it will drain upon engine shutdown and function properly as a siphon break by venting the sea water circuit to atmosphere. Use as few right angle fittings as possible. If there is any question as to back pressure, check your engine manual. Exhaust line diameters indicated are minimums. Refer to engine manual for specifics regarding run lengths and sizes greater than indicated. The installation tips given are to be used as a guide only. We cannot be responsible in any way for muffler installation. We presume basic understanding of good marine practice on the part of the installer. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (#l17} 588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON·TElEJC: 112- ........ PIN: 19468 V.24 HYDRO-HUSH BELOW ENGINE. AIR VENT . · E)(H"'UST ~ 7 ~--.. -*- PN.IJI7.04 HYDRO- HU!lH AIR VENT * /'---.. . ,' \ i.. . n 1 6 "'IN. '1 '-It/. i·MIN. '/ ,~ . It~ -,=-- ....... ..... " ~ , A A/ ./ , .......... Z"l.D. HOSE "'IN. I //,,- ,''''' I I '\ "'l"~ ), '..... - ~- l~r- ,.I .Ji L - " . - -- ~ -.-~~it-""T11-:-:-=-::::n:4r'4"'~ - - - -: : - -- - - - --- '\ \ , I 33" '-A"'lI.. SEE W...TER PU"'P 'I ", E)(HAUST II 3''''11'1. ',' OUTLET. II , II ·.".. "'~v.: 'I :r.:r.:: I II r--<;; ::==:-- :; :1 ! l ' - I NSUL ... TlON . ~ trl/ Il?!J.,..-~~ /.~. -J, A /':,-r'?-==:_ . ' '--...,..." ,\" I ~-- -,'l \ ;I "-i. r ~l 'vr-rr ~ L~ 7 01 .... itT---~(-j\~1o PN 13174 HYDRO-HUSH ~~'~\I ~~ f II~\~'-~(h- .. ( . I AIR VENT MUST ~E INST ... LLED AT HIGHEST J..;;:\, ~ ,r J "r r ~\ J\'. l~ \L] r I:~EA \ AfTER ENGINE SHUT DOWN, PREVENTING POINT AND ASOVE W...TER LINE IN W...TER CIRCUIT TO 8RE ... K VACUUM L \\ \. \ I · \ \ \ \~~ SIPHONING Of' SI!'" W"'TI!R INTO [""INI!. Drwg 15294 -.. __.~ HYDRO-HUSH ABOVE ENGINE. Page 2/2 V.25 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: May 19, 1980 BULLETIN NUMBER: 82 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Battery Recommendations BATTERY RECOMMENDATIONS MODEL BATTERY AMPERE HOURS VOLTAGE W-7, & WPD4 60-90 12 V.D.C. W-13 & 4.4 KW 90-125 12 V.D.C. W-21 & 7.7 KW 90-125 12 V.D.C. W-27 &11 KW 90-125 12 V.D.C. W-33 90-125 12 V.D.C. W-30 125-150 12 V.D.C. W-40, &WPD-10-15 KW 125-150 12 V.D.C. W-50 125-150 12 V.D.C. W-58 &WTO-20 KW 125-150 12 V.D.C. W-60 & WBO-20 KW 150-170 12 V.D.C. W-80 & 30KW 170-200 12 V.D.C. ~~- 120 &45 KW 200 minimum 12 V.D.C. The ampere hour range shown is minimum. There is nn real maximum· J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617) 588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444 PIN: 20442 V.26 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: September 4, 1975 BULLETIN NUMBER: 84 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Heat Exchanger Rubber End Cap Many heat exchangers supplied on our various products incorporate a molded rubber end cap to facilitate inspection of the tubes. There have been occasions on which engine overheating has been caused by the improper positioning of this rubber end cap. It is absolutely essential that the molded channel running across the inside of the cap be positioned over the baffle of the heat exchanger, according to the drawing below. In any cases of engine overheating where such a rubber end cap is used, it should be checked for proper positioning along with other routine troubleshooting. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (tJ'7J 588-7700 CA8LE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112-4444 PIN: 20684 SERVICE BULLETIN V.27 DATE: September 18, 1975 BULLETIN NUMBER: 87 MODEL: All Marine Engines SUBJECT: Alternator Output Spl itter GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The splitter is a solid state device which allows two batteries to be recharged and brought to the same ultimate voltage from a single alternator as large as 120 amp and, at the same time, iso- lates each battery so that discharging one will have no effect on the other. Charging rates are in proportion to the batteries' voltage (state of discharge). This method precludes the necessity, and even the desira- bility of a rotary switch for selecting which battery is to be charged. It also assures that ships services cannot drain the engine starting battery. INSTALLATION: 1. Mount splitter on a metal surface other than the engine, preferably in an air stream if available. Do not install near engine exhaust system. Install with cooling fins aligned vertically. 2. Be sure to use a wire size appropriate to the output of the associated alternator. In full power systems number 4 wire is recommended from the alternator to the splitter and from the splitter to the batteries. 3. Connect the alternator output terminal to the center splitter terminal. 4. Connect one splitter side terminal to one battery (s). 5. Connect the other splitter side terminal to the other battery(s). 6. When the splitter is installed, both batteries will see a charging voltage 8/10 volts less than usual. This voltage drop can be regained, if desired, by connecting the regulator wire directly to the alternator output terminal instead of the regulator terminal. TEST INFORMATION: When the engine is not running, the side splitter ter- minals should read the voltage of the respective battery. The center splitter should read zero voltage. With the engine running and alternator charging, the side splitter ter- minals should read the same voltage which should be the voltage of the regulator or somewhat less. The center splitter terminal should read .82 volts higher than the readings of the side terminals. Conti nued ... J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (fJ17} 588-7700 CA8LE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEJC; 112- ···· PIN: 20745 V.28 BY-PASSING SPLITTER: In the event of failure, batteries may be charged directly from alternator by connecting either splitter terminal #1 or #2 to terminal A, bypassing the splitter itself. This should not be done simultaneously for both batteries unless they are, and will remain at, the same voltaqe (state of charge). ,SPLITTER ,STARTER e.+ ALTERNATOR )--+----1<) STARTING BATTERY (5) - FUSE PNZ0654 5HI P',5 SERVICE B+ LOADS Z 0 - - + - - - + 0 .5 E RV ICE BATTERY(S) - POWER DISCONNECT DRWG ·20701 SWITCH - 9/75 V.29 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: Apri 1 28, 1976 BULLETIN NUMBER: 92 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Troubleshooting Water Temperature and Oil Pressure Gauges Given a presumably faulty gauge indication with the instrument panel ener- gized, the first step is to check for 12 VDC between the ign. (8+) and neg. (8-) terminals of the gauge. Assuming there is 12 volts as required, leave the instrument panel ener- gized and perform the following steps: 1. Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the gauge reads zero, the normal reading for this situation. 2. Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and see if the gauge reads full scale, the normal reading for this situation. If both of the above gauge tests are positive, the gauge is undoubtedly O.K. and the problem lies either with the conductor from the sender to the gauge, or with the sender. If either of the above gauge tests is negative, the gauge is probably defective and should be replaced. Assuming the gauge is O.K., preoceed as follows. Check the conductor from the sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for continuity. Check that the engine block is connected to ground. Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the battery is connected to the starter (both plus and minus) the ground side will not necessarily be connected to the block. If the sender to gauge conductor is O.K. and the engine block is grounded, the sender is probably defective and should be replaced. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MAS5. 02322· (8'71588-7700 CABLE: WE5TCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444 PIN: 21616 V.30 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: June 22, 1976 BULLETIN NUMBER: 93 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Adjusting Paragon P200 Series Reverse Band If the boat moves forward when the gear is in neutral at proper idle speed, the reverse band may be out of adjustment. When adjusting, be very careful not to get reverse band too tight or it will burn out. If the boat goes backwards when in neutral, it may be too tight. The following adjustment procedure should only be carried out when it is not possible to obtain the service of an authorized Paragon trans- mission service dealer. To Adjust: On the outside left side of the gear there is a bolt in the mounting pad. Under its head are'l to 3 washers. Remove one washer. This should stop forward boat movement. But under NO circumstances use fewer than one washer nor more than three. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, IIfASS. 02322· (tJ17} 588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112- ........ PIN: 21683 V.31 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: September 9, 1976 BULLETIN NUMBER:94 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Fuel Pressure Switch Insta 11 ati on Overleaf is a parts list and an illustration showing the proper installation of the fuel pressure switch used on most of our engine products. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARI<, AVON, MASS. OZ3ZZ· (617/588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELE)(: 9Z - ........ PIN: 21564 <: w N R'l:VISIOH RKCO"D ~UTH lOR I eM FUEL I NJECTION PUMP. (ON ENG.I NE) :3 I 19187 I flE-r' H£). SCREW 8 /9442. ,cL/lT WASHER I 7 / e 320 "0" RlrlG If" O.D. I ~ 111383 I FUEL PReSSURe SWITCH 5 II/GIS I PLUG 4 /9321 '0" RING 9/t" 0. D. f-- I 3 /9185" ADAPTER I 2 /926/ COPPER W,4SHR I I Ig204 SCREW ASs'y' (BiccO DESCRIPTiON QT'f ORAW"'.V B. J. S, ~ ALL ENG I N ES I/yONE ~IA'='~=ov"""'.o"..-,.';'y:"':"""""---=----., TOTL'INSTALLATION DWG, FUEL PRES ~ .swITCH TO A FUEL I NJECTION PUMP ~ E?J~~-7~ 21743 MAOK IN U_S_A. t<.E :~::NN:~N,:.~.~:~4:!"D I'D"" SERVICE BULLETIN V.33 DATE: 7 July 80 Rei ssued BULLETIN NUMBER: 95 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Domesti c Hot Water Heaters PRINCIPLE The heater is connected in series with the engine's freshwater circuit. This allows full water flow for maximum heat transfer to the heater. The series installation also avoids several potential pitfalls of installations in which the heater is in parallel with either the engine's by-pass or its internal freshwater circuit. The only potential disadvantage of a series installation is flow restriction due either to a restrictive heater design, a large engine water flow (such as models W58, W80, W120), or a combination of both. Installation The shorter the length of plplng to and from the heater, the better. The elevation of the heater should assure that the top of its internal coil is no higher than the engine pressure cap. If the heater must be higher than this at any heel angle, then the optional remote fill tank must be installed to be the highest point of the circuit. Piping between the engine and heater should rise continuously from the heater to the engine so that trapped air will rise automatically from the heater to the engine. If trapped air can rise to the heater, then a petcock or other convenient method of bleeding that air is a necessity. Study the attached sketches. A convenient place to interrupt the engine cool- ing circuit is between the thermostat housing outlet and the exhaust manifold inlet. This is also the hottest water available. CAUTION: While most owners want the hottest water available, it is possible for scalding water or even steam to come from the faucets. Since the heater is in series with the engine cooling water, any other conven- ient point of the circuit can also be interrupted for heater installation. Some engi ne/heater combinations requi re that a "by-pass" ni ppl e be ins ta 11 ed in parallel with the heater. This is required to maintain an adequate fresh water flow for cooling capability. The table below shows the minimum diameter of "by-pass" nipples in these situations: HEATER MODEL SENDURE ALLCRAFT RARITAN 3/8" NPT - W 30 W40 3/8" NPT W 50 1/2" NPT \'158 1/2" NPT 1/2" NPT 3/4" NPT --- ~180 1j 2" .1!P.L_ 1/2" NPT 3!t NPT ____ W.1W ___ fJPT 1/2" NPT - 3/4" ~JPT --- --- ~'; - .. --.- ------ Please see sketches on overleaf. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK. AVON, MASS. 02322 - (tJf7} 588-7700 CA8LE: WESTCORP, AVON-TELEX: 112- ........ PIN: 21814 V.34 ENGI NE THERMOSTAT HOUSING DUAL PASS MANIFOLD * I..tITf.RRUPT !,-LTERNATE p; A __ CES TO ~ONNECT~IRUrT AN D IN HEATER SERIES - ENGINE THERMOSTAT HOUSING PR SINGLE PA ESSURE CAP (M MANIFOLD So. PRESSURE THAU~TENGINE BE HIGHER CAP). fiLL WATER ALTERN HEATER _~ __ AlE IN HIGHER -- ST. THEN If HE ATER ENGINE -- COIL IS PRESSURE CAP~- BYPASS NIPPLE UNPRE.5SURIZED .-...~~CAP OPTIONAL COOLANT SERVICE BULLETIN V.35 DATE: May 1, 1980 BULLETIN NUMBER: 107 MODEL: All Model s SUBJECT: Thermostats Beginning approximately May, 1980, thermostats supplied by the factory have a by-pass hole sufficient to allow adequate water flow through the exhaust manifold, head, and block, during engine warm-up. This flow is mandatory, especially in the case of marine engines and generator sets which have significant load applied soon after start-up. We strongly recommend that only genuine WESTERBEKE thermostats be used in WESTERBEKE products to assure proper design in this regard. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INOUSTRIAl PARI<, AVON, MASS, 02322 (6111 588 7700 CASlE, WESTCORP, AVON TElE,)(' 92 44014 PiN: 24707 V.36 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: May 5, 1980 BULLETIN NUMBER: 108 MODEL: ALL SUBJECT: Circuitry Change for Marine Propulsion Engines With the W58 we introduce a new electrical circui~ which will eventually be used on most models. Some features of the new circuit are as follows: 1. A voltmeter is substituted for an ammeter. Naturally an ammeter can still be installed separately. 2. All wires between the engine and the instrument panel need not be heavier than 14 AWG. 3. The panel contains -controls for preheating and starting the engine, eliminating the necessity for a separate control panel. Of course the controls can be installed remotely from the panel by the builder if desired. 4. The circuit allows commonization of the instrument panel across the broadest possible range of engine models, simplifying the distribution of spare parts. 5. The circuit allows commonization of engine wiring harnesses across the broadest range of engine models, simplifying the distribution of spare parts. The same connectors and color coding of the connector poles are used on both new and old harnesses and cables. Functional color codesare not necessarily the same in new and old circuits. The new panel will not operate with an older engine, and new engines will not operate with an older panel. Because the connectors are the same, a physical mating of old and new components is possible, but neither the panel nor the engine will operate and no harm can be done by accidental mismatching. Please see diagram on overleaf. J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS_ 02322· 1617/588-7700 CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON-TELEX: g2-4444 PIN: 24720 V.37 SCHEMATIC OIAGFlAM WIRING DIAGP.AM ,"UEL e 50l.. (W!o! ONLY) ® PRE-H(AT SOL. @r.a""'l't-fl 0l'.5ENO£R V.38 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: May 5, 1980 BULLETIN NUMBER: 109 MODEL: W58 SUBJECT: Two Pass Manifold The W58 employs a two pass manifold. It is a key feature of a new cooling system first appearing on the W58. The system ;s vented by the pressure cap at the return side of the fresh water circulating pump. the point of the lowest pressure within the system. This has the advantage of increasing cooling capacity by preventing cavitation at the fresh Idater pump under higher temperature conditions. This system will ultimately be incorporated on most models. The schematic on the overleaf shows the water flow. Operation of the circuit is as follows: 1. The thermostat has a permanent by~pass port of .06 square inches to assure water flow through the manifold while the engine is warming up. Replacement thermostats must have this permanent by-pass port. 2. Hot water leaving the engine thermostat housing passes through the inside half of the water jacketed exhaust manifold to the heat exc:langer inlet. 3. Water leaving the heat exchanger enters a fresh water cooled oil cooler, if used. 4. Water leaving the oil cooler or heat exchanger enters the outside half of the water jacketed manifold. 5. The outside half of the manifold is comprised of two sections: a cooling path adjacent to the exhaust passage and an air removal path which allows entrained air to rise to the top of the manifold. 6. The pressure cap is located at the top of the air removal path. 7. From the manifold, coolant returns to the suction side of the fresh water pump. The system is designed to accept an optional coolant recovery tank. This useful accessory offers several advantages, including: 1. A remote fill point for the circuit, in which case it should be located slightly higher than the engine's pressure cap. Conti nued ..... . J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAl. PARI(. AVON. MASS. 02322 . (617) 588· 7700 CABI.E: WESTCORP. AVON· TEI.EX: 92-4444 24721 PIN: V.39 2. A means of conveniently observing the water level in the ci rcuit. 3. A means of assuring that the circuit is always completely full of cooling water. 4. The coolant recovery system operates without diverting engine cooling water. It is a one-way connection to the system which provides a place for expanding water to go while the engine is warming up and, conversely, a source of water to refill the system as the engine cools down. TO EXHAUST SySTEM Ef/6INE FR£,fH ,VArE~ STRAINER a- OIL t!MP S£A WATER PUMP V.40 SERVICE BULLETIN DATE: May 20, 1980 BULLETIN NUMBER: 110 MODEL: All SUBJECT: Ammeter vJi re Si zes Ammeters may be installed in conjunction with any ~4esterbeke marine diesel engine or diesel generator set. The range of the ammeter must be appropriate for the maximum output of the alternator. Additionally, the wire size for the alternator output circuit, including the ammeter, varies with the total length of that circuit. The table below shows the maximum current that can be carried various total distances by various wire sizes, to and from source to load. HIRE SIZE TABLE Total Length MAXIMUM CURRENT(AMPS) System of wire in I Volts feet 35 40 55 60 70 85 120 12 to 5 12 12 12 8 8 8 6 12 5 to 10 10 10 8 6 6 6 4 12 10 to 20 6 6 6 6 3 2 1 12 20 to 30 6 4 4 2 12 30 to 40 4 2 2 1 0 0 24 to 5 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 24 5 to 10 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 24 10 to 20 10 8 3 6 6 4 4 24 20 to 30 8 6 6 4 4 4 2 24 30 to 40 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 32 to 5 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 32 5 to 10 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 32 10 to 20 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 32 20 to 30 8 6 6 4 4 4 2 32 30 to 40 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP. AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· {617} 588-7700 CA8LE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444 PIN: 24737


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