Westerbeke Diesel W 21a Technical Manual
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R II I II t q D OPERATORS MANUALMARINE DIESEL ENGINESW13 W21 W27 W33 PUBLICATION NO 32363 t rWESTERBEKE WESTERBEKE CORPORA TlON 150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD I MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK TAUNTON MA 02780 WEBSITE NAMIA Member National Marine Manufacturers Association z e CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNING Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer birth defects and other reproductive harm A WARNINGExhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide an odorless andcolorless gas Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can and death Symptoms of Carbon can include Dizziness Throbbing in TemplesNausea Muscular Vomiting Weakness and Sleepiness Inability to Think CoherentlyIF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS6ET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY If symptoms persistseek medical attention Shut down the unit and do not restartuntil it has been inspected and repaired This WARNING DECAL is provided by WESTERBEKE and should be fixed to a bulkhead near your engine or generator WESTERBEKE also recommends installing CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the livingsleeping quatters of your vessel They are inexpensive and easily obtainable at your local marine store FOREWORD Thank you for having selected a Westerbeke Diesel Engine for youruse This manual describes the procedures for proper handling and maintenance of the Engine Models W13 W21 W27 and W33 To maintain your engine always in its best operating condition andto enable it to perform best it is important to handle it properlyand carry out complete maintenance according to this manual If you have any questions about your engine or in the event of afailure please contact your nearest distributor or dealer We look forward to your continued patronage LEFT SIDE W21 WITH 21 HBW50 TRANSMISSION I TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEGENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 3CAUTIONS IN HANDLING ENGINE 41 BREAKING IN 52 PREPARATIONS 63 STARTING PROCEDURES 74 STOPPING PROCEDURES 105 CAUTIONS ON STARTING AND OPERATION 106 REQUIREMENTS FOR PROPER OPERATION 61 Lubrication System 12 62 Fuel System 13 63 Cooling Systern 15 64 Wiring diagrarn 1S7 RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE SERVICE19S TRANSMISSIONS 229 2310 SERVICE DATA 2511 TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES 26 2 GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC W13 W2l W27 W33 Type Vert4 cyclewater cooled diesel enine Combustion chamber Swirl chamber type CIl z No of cylinders 2 3 4 4 0 HrxIEZ Bore stroke inches 276x307 287x307 287x307 Cu In displacement 37 60 80 91rxIH CJ rxI Compression ratio 23 23 23 23 CIl Firing order 12 132 1342 1342 Dry weight std lbs 298 374 434 498 Fuel 2 diesel fuel only 1 Injection pump Bosch Nozzle Throttling typeIlt fl Injection pressure All models 1707 lbs Governor Centrifugal weight typeZ0H Lubrication system Pressure Oil filter FilterpQer typeHCIltflt Engine oil capacity 25 qts I 40 qts I 40 qts 42 qts I For accuracy depend on dipstick markings Ejcooling system Forced circulation water cooling byHrxl1 heat exchangertEou8 Coolant capacity 6 qts I 5 qts I 8 qts 8 qts Always fill to top of filler neck It Starter VHP 122 122 122 122CJEHrxItXE Alternator VA 1250 1250 1250 Glow plug Sheathed trpe all modelst rxI I lBattery capacity 60 AH 75 AH 90 AH 90 AH 3 CAUTIONS IN HANDLING ENGINE Always use proper engine oil and watch oil pressure during opera tion Use clean fuel free from impurities and water content Prevent entry of air and water into the fuel system In case the starter motor pinion fails to engage wi th the ring gear at the time of starting turn on the starter swi tch again after the starter motor has come to a complete stop Prevent the temperature of cooling water from falling too low Pay attention to the color of exhaust gas Clean or replace the fuel filter and oil filter periodically Replenish or replace oil as PRECAUTIONS Never put the engine in oeration in improperly ventilated places Do not touch moving parts during operation Do not touch hot parts such as exhaust pipe and do not place com bustible materials there Inspect and adjust parts of the engine only after it is stopped Check and refill engine oil cooling water and fuel after the engine is brought to a stop In checking the level of and refilling cooling water remove thie pressure cap after the temperature of the water has fallen enough Always use tools of proper sizes and full caution during sel vicing 4 BREAKING INService life of your engine is dependent upon how your engine isoperated and serviced during the initial 50 hours of operation Your new engine needs 50 hours of conditioning operation for breaking each moving part in and maximizing performance and life of engine Perform this conditioning carefully bearing the following points in mindCAUTION Idle and warm up your engine from 3 to 5 minutes Avoid hasty acceleration Use caution not to overload the engine Inspect maintain and service your engine in accordance wi th the instructions in this in a new engine is basically a seating of the piston ringsto the cylinder walls This is not accomplished by long periods ofrunning idle nor by early running under full load nor by varyingloads with intervals of fast acceleration andor excessive speedIdle running may glaze the cylinder walls causing oil consumption andsmoky operation Excessive speeds and loads may score cylinder wallswith similar resultsAs indicated above use a short warm up at idle and put engine undermoderate load and speed for the first ten hours of operation Forthe next forty hours use approximately 70 load This kind of careful operation will result in best results from your engine 5 steps as shown below in starting your engine for the first timeor after a prolonged shutdown1 Fill your engine with oil up to or near the upper limit on the dipstick Use a good grade of oil wi th API specification of CC or better For quantity of oil you may refer to the General Specifications page However it is best always to be guided by dipstick measure ment as angle of installation has some effect2 Your eng ine is suppl ied wi th a coolant recovery system to which the following instruc andilerpDrt tions apply a Fill engine completely to the neck of the manifold cap b Then fill the recovery tank to the bottom level line Need for adding coolant is indicated when a cold engine has coolant level below the bottom level line c In winter add antifreeze as described on page 16 Anti freeze may be used year round if changed annually3 Fill the fuel tank with Diesel fuel The interior of the fuel tank must be maintained clean Be careful not to allow intro duction of dirt when filling fuel4 Engine oil coolant and transmission levels should be checked at least once a day prior to engine use 6 STARTING panel description and use ofNote 1 When engine is stopped after use the water temperature and oil pressure gauges may stay at their running readingsNote 2 When engine is next to be used turn start switch to ON The temperature and pressure gauges will ZERO and the volt meter will register battery voltage The electric fuel pump mounted on the engine will also begin to operate purging any air accumulated in the systemNote 3 The engine is now prepared for starting 7 STARTING PROCEDURES1 Turn the starter swi tch to the ON position If making an ini tial star t after layup fuel filter servicing or repairs allow fuel pump to work 1525 seconds to purge the system of any air Check that clutch is in neutral and that throttle is in full forward2 Glow plug preheating with key in ON position push in about 14 inch or enough so that voltmeter indicates dis charge Hold key in depressed posi tion until glow plugs are sufficiently hot Follow Table below for preheating time Quickheat type Yl14T Atmospheric temperature Preheating time sc 4lF or higher Approx 10 sec SC 4lF to SC 23F Arox 20 sec SoC 23F or lower Approx 30 sec Limit of continuous use 1 minute3 Proper glow plug function is indicated by voltmeter drop when key is depressed This drop will be slight but dis cernible If no voltage drop is noted it may indicate defective glow plugs or a faulty preheat circuit check for loose connection 84 Starting Continuing to hold the key depressed turn to the START position The starter motor will run ther eby cr ank ing the engine Hold throttle open until engine runs and then reduce throttleShould the eng ine not star t even when the star ter swi tch is left at5 position for 10 seconds take your hand off the starter switch for30 seconds and then attempt to start the engine again by the glow plug The starter motor should never be allowedto run for more than 30 seconds at a time5 Operation As soon as the engine has started release the key The key will automatically return to the ON position Leave the key at ON dur ing oper a tion Check that with engine running oil pressure and bat tery charge voltage are registering and that raw water is discharging with the exhaustDuring engine operation do not turn the key to 5 11 position Thismay damage the starter motor6 Warmup operation Run a few minutes at II IDLE position to assure that all functions are operating Then operate under reduced load until water temperature rises into the 140150 range 9 STOPPING PROCEDURE1 Stop To stop the engine move the throttle control through the idle position to stop As the throttle is moved past idle there will be increased resistance to movement because a spring loading must be over come Hold the throttle firmly against the pressure until the W13 W212733 engine comes to a complete stop2 Starter switch off Wi th the eng ine stopped turn the star ter key back to OFF position The battery will be discharged if the key is left at ON position An engine alarm buzzer is provided to warn the operator of this possibili ty Best precaution is always to remove the key CAUTIONS ON STARTING AND OPERATION1 Normal starting Follow the procedures below for routine starting of your engine 1 Check the engine and transmission oil levels and refill if necessary 2 Insure that you have sufficient fuel Keep tank as full as possible 3 Check coong water level and refill if necessary Note Check for leaks of water or oil particularly when signs of such leak are found on the bottom of the engine or in the drip tray 4 Start the engine in accordance with the procedures given on the preceding pages 5 Allow the engine to warm up to 140150 F before placing the engine under heavy load2 Starting under cold conditions The following three adverse condi tions concur as the atmospher ic temper ature drops exceedingly and the engine must under such conditions be started by taking steps described below 10 LUBRICATING OIL TURNS VISCOUS Make certain that oil used is adequate for the prevailing atmospheric temperature Check the oil also for deterioration VOLTAGE ACROSS BATTERY TERMINALS DROPS Check that the battery is fully charged THE TEMPERATURE OF INTAKE AIR IS LOW AND COMPRESSION TEMPERATURE DOES NOT RISE ENOUGH Allow the glow plug to operate sufficiently to aid starting See table on page 83 Cautions during operation Confirm that the oil pressure is normal during normal operation Confirm that exhaust gas is as follows While engine is cold White smoke When the engine grows warm Almost smokeless When the engine is overloaded Some black smoke Check for abnormal noise such as knocking fr iction or leaking sounds and vibration and blowback sounds Check for leaks of fuel and engine oil A knocking sound is heard while the engine is cold during quick acceleration and at idle Confirm that no knocking sound is heard in other cases LEFT SIDE W33 WITH 21 VEE DRIVE 11 REQUIREMENTS FOR PROPER SYSTEM1 Engine oil For engine lubrication use diesel engine oil Diesel engine oils are classified according to the API Specifications into grades CA CB CC and CD Anyone of them is usable but use of CC or higher grades prepared by wellknown makers is recommended2 Engine oil viscosity Use oil having viscosity best suited to the atmospheric tem perature Use of an allseason oil SAEIOW30 with minimum visco sity change under different temperatures is suggested Atmospheric temperature Viscosity 20C 6aF or higher SAE 30 or lOW30 SAE 20 or 10W30 SC 41F or lower SAE 10W30 3 Oil pressure The oil pressure dur ing operation of the engine is indicated by the oil pressure gauge During normal operation Oil pressure will range between 50 and 70 PSI At the time of cranking Pressure will rise proportion ately with speed4 Engine oil change To renew engine oil discharge old oil through the sump drain hose attached at front of engine while engine is still warm Drain old oil completely replace the hose plug the end securely and add fresh oil through the oil inlet port on the valve cover After refilling oil idle the engine for several minutes and stop Then check the quanti ty of oil by the oil level gauge F ill to but not over the high mark on the dipstick 125 Replacement of oil filter Being a replaceable cartridge type the oil filter requires no cleaning inside In installing the oil filter apply engine oil thinly on to the Oring and then tighten it by hand firmly When removing the used filter cover over with a plastic bag This will allow both filter element and spilled oil to be collected cleanly without spilling oil in the bilge Note A After market filters are not recommended since the material standard or diameters of important items might be entirely different from genuine parts Note B Immediately after filter change and oil fill run engine to ensure that oil pressure is normal and that there are no oil leaksFUEL SYSTEM1 Diesel fuel USE 2 DIESEL FUEL NEVER USE KEROSENE OR HEAVY OIL In cold weather particularly much water vapor is produced when much air is present in the fuel tank The tank therefore should be kept full as much as possible The fuel tank furthermore needs to be kept completely free of dirt and water2 To this end it is most desirable that a primary fuel filter of the water entrapment type be installed between the fuel tank and engine Such a filter is available under part 32974 See your local dealer Water entrapment filter 32974 is shown opposite Inspect frequently for presence of water in the clear bowl Drain it off by loosening the air vent and opening the drain 133 Notes on fuel system See below a typical exploded view of a fuel system The one shown is for the W13 Those for the W21 W27 and W33 are similar except for the number of cylinders The Westerbeke selfbleeding fuel system is automatic in opera tion Therefore it is unlikely that the operator will be forced to service the system at sea For that unlikely possibility however it is recommended that the following parts be carried onboard Banjo washers 11 30 31 33 34 45 Injector seat washers 42 Lift pump filter and gaskets 6 7 8 Fuel filter element and gaskets 13 14 15 14 If a leak should develop at a banjo or washer that cannot be remedied by a simple tightening of the screw renew the washers The engine can be started by taking the steps described on pages 8 and 9 In cases where the engine cannot be started easily loosen two injection nuts on the nozzle side turn the speed control lever to full open position turn the starter motor and then tighten the nuts firmly4 Cleaning fuel filter and replacing filter element After the first 50 hours of operation loosen the retainer ring 16 and discard filter element 15 Clean bowl 17 and reinstall new filter using new gasket 13 and 14 This same treatment is required of the filter element 6 in the fuel lift pump Similarly replace new filter element 6 using new gasket 7 and 8 After the first 50 hour change the change period may be increased to 200 hours or once per season5 Fuel injection pump The fuel injection pump is one of the most important components of the diesel engine and thus it calls for the utmost caution in handling Furthermore the fuel injection pump has been thoroughly shopadjusted and should never be readjusted care lessly Such adjustment whenever necessary should be performed at an author i zed service station as a precision pump tester and skills are required To obtain long and satisfactory use of your injection pump Always use fuel which is free from impurities Clean and renew the fuel filter periodically Inspect water entrapment filter SYSTEM1 Cooling water As cooling water use soft water with least impurity content such as tap water potable water or rainwater and never use hard water or foul water Use of hard water or water containing much impurity will lead to collection of scale in the engine and heat exchanger with resultant decline in cooling effects2 Antifreeze In cold districts care should be takeri to prevent cooling water from freezing Cooling water when frozen expands to break the 15 heat exchanger and the cylinder block and it is essential that antifreeze be added to cooling water in a quantity being propor tional to the lowest temperature of the dstr ict It is recom mended that the antifreeze mixture be used throughout the year Antifreeze of poor quality will cause corrosion of the cooling system and thus always use antifreeze prepared by a reliable maker and never use it mixed with antifreeze of a different brand Make sure that the cooling system of the engine is cleaned well before adding antifreeze Recommended antifreeze for year round use is ZEREX Long Life Coolant antirust contained ANTIFREEZE ADDITION DATA Antifreeze Concentration 13 23 30 35 45 50 60 Freezing C 5 1 IS 20 30 40 50 temperature F 23 14 5 4 22 40 58 Note It is advisable that antifreeze concentration be selected on the basis of a temperature which is about 5C lOF lower than the actual atmospheric tem perature3 Alternator belt tension The alternator belt is properly tense if it deflects 10 to 12 mm 039 to 047 in as it is depressed with a finger be tween the pulley and pulley of the long distance side Excess i ve tens ion can cause quick wear of the belt and bearings of the water pump and the alternator Excessive slackness or presence of oil on the belt on the other hand can lead to engine overheating and insufficient charging due to a slipping belt CAUTION Never attempt to adjust tension of the fan belt while the engine is in operation 164 Fresh water cooling system See Note 5 on page 6 The system consists of a sea water pump which pumps raw sea water through a heat exchanger to remove heat from the coolant The raw water is discharged overboard through the exhaust line The engine coolant fresh water with or without antifreeze is circulated by the fresh water pump in continuous circuit Pumped through the cylinder block cylinder head heat exchanger and back to the fresh water pump The total system is very reliable and requires only a daily check of the water level in the system plus routine check of hose clamps and fittings It is likely that zinc electrodes will waste away from contact wi th sea water It is also possible for the raw water pump impeller to fail due to lack of sea water or deterioration An early sign of impeller failure is less water and more steam at the exhaust through hull fitting I t is recommended therefore that zinc electrodes an impeller kit a pump belt and a thermostat with gasket be kept onboard at all times These parts should be ordered from your nearest stocking dealer and used as inspection dictates 17 WIRING DIAGRAM Your engine is of l2V system and its electric circuit is as shown in the diagram below For installing electrical parts connect them correctly by referring to the diagram and at the same time check for damaged wire sheathing and confirm that grounding is provided properly Care must always be taken while working on the electrica system Never shut the engine battery switch off while the engine is running Damage to the alternator will result should this be done CYEMAnc DIAGRAM IZVDe fI iTf SToRT 500L STArtA tt 11 IIitNTOA WIP NG DIAGRAM OUTPUT Cjw1 f 11 ioU NOTE CIoQ l SoO WTcNOER IHI RH 1 I CI JIHj 0 ALrERNATOR 0 PRHAT SOL SIOTEa oP5ENCER I5 1 OT 150 RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE SERVICECheck and service your engine at specified intervals to maintain it inits best conditions and permit it to perform as it should As forthose asterisked items it is suggested that you have them performedby an authorized distributor or dealer1 Daily inspection before use A Checkup of engine oil level and refilling No refill is required if the level is near the upper limit line of the gauge B Checkup of cooling water and refilling Refill up to the filler cap neck C Check your fuel supply D Checkup of gauges and meters After starting your eng ine check oil pressure water tem perature and voltage reading E Checkup for loose parts fan belt or bolt etc damage and leaks F Checkup for abnormality with exhaust gas noise and vibration2 Servicing following initial 50 hours of operation A Renewal of engine oil B Replacement of oil filter C Renewal of cooling water D Adjustment of valve clearance See SERVICE DATA E Tightening of bolts and nuts F Adjustment of engine idle3 Servicing at every 100 hours of operation A Renewal of engine oil B Replacement of oil filter 19 C Cleaning of fuel filter D Adjustment of engine idle4 Servicing at every 200 hours of operation A Replacement of engine mounted fuel filter elements B Replacement of fuel filter cartridge type5 Servicing at every 400 hours of operation A Cleaning of fuel tank B Adjustment of valve clearance C Checkup of starter motor alternator and regulator Check the brush and surface of commutator for the degree of wear Replace the brush if it is worn beyond the limits of wear D Checkup of glow plugs Check the glow plugs for blowout E Removal of cooling water and flushing is suggested6 Servicing at every 800 hours of operation A Checkup of nozzles Set the injection starting 142 pressure to 1707 0 psi and eliminate undesirable injection conditions in cluding after dr ipping GOOD 20B Checkup of compression pressure Remove each glow plug and check cylinders one by one using a compression pressure gauge If the pressure differs by more than 25 kgcm 2 356 psi between cylinders or if the cylinder pressure is less than 26 kgcm 2 3698 psi at 320 RPM for the W13 and at 280 RPM for the W21 W27 and W33 correct itC Fuel injection adjustment In case of severe vibration during idling have it repaired at an authorized distributor or dealer which is equipped with a pump testerD Checkup of alternator and regulator Regulate the voltage and current by use of a circuit testerE Checkup of starter motor pinion and flywheel ring gear Rectify the chamfered area that has been severely damaged by use of an oil stone or some pencil grinder and replace the part if it is damaged alloverF Tightening of bolts and nuts RIGHT FRONT QUARTER 1 W21 WITH 21 REDUCTION GEAR 21 engine model may be fitted with a variety of For ratio andor type see table below VDrive Model 11 151 21 251 21 BW3 W13 SlOOO HBW100 HBW50 HBW50 HBW150V BW7 W21 SlOOO HBW100 HBW50 HBW100 HBW150V BW7 RD60 SlOOO HBW100 HBW50 HBW100 HBW150V BW7 W27 SlOOO HBW100 HBW100 HBW150 HBW150V BW7 RD80 SlOOO HBW100 HBW100 HBW150 HBW150V BW7 W33 SlOOO HBW100 HBW100 HBW150 HBW150V Left Rotation Hand Right HandThese transmissions have their own oil sumps and dipsticks s andHBW units use ATF lubricant while BW units may use either ATF or30 weight engine oilThe transmissions their dipsticks and markings are illustrated in thesketches below For dipsticks that are threaded in the case measureoil by dropping dipstick on the case Do not screw in 51000 HBW100 VORIVE BW3 BW7 22 ENGINE DOES NOT START PROBLEM REMEDYa Starting switch is defective Correct connections and contactsb Deficient drive torque f The battery is exhausted trouble the starter motor with the starter motor or dirty or loose wiringc Improper viscosity of engine Check the viscosity and renew oil oil if necessaryd Engine too cold Use glowplug starting aide Seizure of moving parts Rectifyf Air present in fuel system Purge thoroughly with electric fuel pumpg No fuel in fuel tank Refillh Fuel filter clogged Clean or renew2 ENGINE STALLS WHILE IN OPERATION PROBLEM REMEDYa Fuel tank is empty Refillb Fuel filter clogged Clean or renewc Air present in fuel system Retighten fuel line connections to allow electric fuel pump to run long enough to purge air thoroughly3 IMPROPER OIL PRESSURE PROBLEM REMEDYa Oil shortage Refillb Oil leak through connections Repairc Oil pressure switch Replace defective 234 ENGINE OVERHEATINGr PROBLEM REMEDYa Cooling water shortage Refillb Water leaks Repairc Belt loose or smeared with Clean or renew oild Raw water QumQ defective ReQair or renew5 BATTERY IS UNDERCHARGEDr PROBLEM REMEDYa Belt tension improper Rectifyb Faulty wiring circuit Rectifyc Alternator not functioning Replace observe voltmeterd Battery faulty Replacee Faulty voltage or renew RIGHT SIDE W27 WITH 21 VEE DRIVE 24 SERVICE DATA1 Valve clearance engine cold 025 rom 0010 in both intake and exhaust2 Compression pressure W13 32 kgcm 2 at 320 RPM W21 W27 W33 32 kgcm 2 at 280 RPM3 Engine oil capacity including oil filter W13 28 liters 074 U S gal W21 35 liters 093 U S gal W27 45 liters 119 U S gal W33 50 liters 132 U S gal4 Firing order W13 12 W21 132 W27 W33 13425 Injection timing BTDC of compression stroke when started at smoke set position Marine Engine 23 15 19 15 Generator6 Injection starting pressure 142 1707 0 psi7 Cooling water capacity in engine body alone W13 21 liters 056 U S gal W21 30 liters 079 U S gal W27 35 liters 092 U S gal W33 37 liters 098 U S gal 25 TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES IbftCylinder head bolt MI0 W21 W27 W33 78 SO7S79 M12 W21 1112 796868 W13 W27 1213 868940 M14 W33 lS16 108S11S7Crank pulley nut W13 lS20 10851446 W21 W27 W33 2025 108S1808Main bearing cap bolt W21 W27 W33 SOSS rod cap nut W13 W21 W27 323S rod cap bolt W33 11S12S 832904Flywheel bolt 11S125 832904Oil pan drain plug S6 362434Oil filter 1113 8094Delivery valve holder injection pump 4S 289362Holder mounting bolt nozzle 1S20 10814SHolder body and retaining nut nozzle 68 434S79Glow plug 1S20 10814SGeneral screw tightening torque M6 07 51 M8 17 123 MI0 3S 253 M12 64 463 M14 9S 687 26 WESTERBEKE GENUINE PARTS WESTERBEKE GENUINE PARTS II are super ior andreliable because they have been produced under anexcellent quali ty control system and have passedthe standard after strict inspection After market parts are not recommended fromthe viewpoint of their material standard and manufacturing method which may be entirely differentfrom those of genuine parts WESTERBEKE GENUINE PARTS II are available fromour authorized distributors and dealers Pleaseorder your spare parts from your nearest distributor or dealer LEFT SIDE W13 WITH 21 BW3 TRANSMISSION 27
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