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Westerbeke Diesel W 10 Two Parts Manual


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                1oTWO & 128-TWO


            WMD 3 KW - 60 HERTZ

           WMD 2.4 KW - 50 HERTZ


                     PUBLICATION #33403
                       EDITION TWO

j   r-.v- 'WESTERBEKE
       j    150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319 U.S.A.
       ·   TEL: (508)823-7677· FAX: (508)884-9688 · WEBSITE: www.WESTERBEKE.COM

                   PRODUCT SOFTWARE NOTICE

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and parts price lists, and other information, instructions
and   specifications   provided   from  sources   other  than
Westerbeke, is not wi thin Westerbeke' s control and, accor-
dingly, is provided to Westerbeke customers only as a cour-
For example, components and sub-assemblies incorporated in
Westerbeke's products and supplied by others (such as engine
blocks, fuel systems and components, transmissions, electri-
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Westerbeke must depend on such software for the design of
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dated and no longer accurate.       Routine changes made by
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Westerbeke customers should also keep in mind the time span
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unavoidable existence of earlier, non-current Westerbeke
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In sum, product software provided wi th Westerbeke products,
whether from Westerbeke or other suppliers, must not and can-
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the respective product. It not only makes good sense, but is
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by the customer.
  Introduction   Operation
  Installation   Maintenance


  Marine Engine Electrical System
  Cooling System (External)
  Transm iss ions


         READ IT

     The diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine inasmuch
as the mechanism is essentially the same.   Its cylinders are arranged
above its closed crankcase; its crankshaft is of the same general type
as that of a gasoline engine; it has the same sort of valves,
camshaft, pistons, connecting rods, lubricating system and reverse and
reduction gear.
     Therefore, it follows to a great extent that a diesel engine
requires the same preventative maintenance as that which any intelli-
gent operator would give to a gasoline engine.      The most important
factors are proper maintenance of the fuel, lubr icating and cooling
systems.   Replacement of fuel and lubricating filter elements at the
time periods specified is a must, and frequent checking for con-
tamination (i. e. water, sediment, etc. ) in the fuel system is also
essential.   Another important factor is the use of the same brand of
nhigh detergent" diesel lubricating oil designed specifically for
diesel engines.
     The diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine, however,
in the method of handling and fir ing its fuel.     The carburetor and
igni tion systems are done away wi th and in their place is a single
component - the Fuel Injection Pump - which performs the function of
     Unremitting care and attention at the factory have resulted in a
Westerbeke engine capable of many thousands of hours of dependable
service. What the manufacturer cannot control, however, is the treat-
ment it receives in service. This part rests with you!

    Whenever replacement parts are needed, always include the complete
part description and part number (see separate Parts List).    Be sure
to include the engine I s model and ser ial number.  Also, be sure to
insist upon Westerbeke factory packaged parts, because nwill fit"
parts are frequently not made to the same specifications as original

    Westerbeke diesels are used for both the propulsion of boats and
for generating electrical power.  For generator set applications, all
details of this Manual apply, except in regard to certain portions of
the Installation, Operation and Maintenance sections.      Additional
information is provided in the section titled Generator Sets,
Section T.

          Since the boats in which these engines and generators
    are used are many and varied, details of engine installation
    are equally so.    It is not the purpose of this section to
    advise boatyards and engine installers on the generally well
    understood and well developed procedures for installation of
    engines. However, the following outline of general procedure
    is included because it is valuable in explaining the func-
    tions of each component, the reasons why, the precautions to
    be watched and the relationship of the installation to the
    operation of the engine.   There are details of the installa-
    tion which should have a per iodic check and of which the
    operator should have a thorough understanding to insure good
    operating conditions for the engine and correct procedure for
    its servicing.

    The engine is shipped from the factory mounted securely and pro-
perly crated. Accessory equipment is shipped in a separate small box,
usually packed with the engine crate.
    Before accepting shipment from the transportation company, the
crate should be opened and an inspection made for concealed damage.
If either visible or concealed damage is noted, you should require the
delivering agent to sign "Received in damaged condition". Also check
contents of the shipment against the packing list and make sure note
is made of any discrepancies. This is your protection against loss or
damage. Claims for loss or damage must be made to the carrier, not to
J. H. Westerbeke Corporation.
     The engine is fitted with lifting rings.
     Rope or chain slings should be attached to the rings and the
engine lifted by means of tackle attached to this sling. The lifting
rings have been designed to carry the full weight of the engine~
therefore, auxiliary slings are not required or desired.
     CAUTION:   Slings must not be so short as to place the engine
lifting eyes in significant sheer stress.        Strain on the engine
lifting eyes must not be in excess of 10· from the vertical. A spacer
bar must be placed between the two lifting eyes, if supported by valve
cover studs.
     The general rule in moving engines is to see that all equipment
used is amply strong and firmly fixed in place.      Move the engine a
little at a time and see that it is firmly supported.         Eliminate
possibility of accidents by avoiding haste. Do not lift from the pro-
peller coupling, or pry against this with crowbar, as you may distort
the coupling.
     In some cases it may be necessary to lift the engine in other than
the regular horizontal position.     It may be that the engine must be
lowered endwise through a small hatchway which cannot be made larger.
If the opening is extremely restricted, it is possible to reduce, to
some extent, the outside clearances such as generator, cooling piping,
water tank, filters, mounting lugs, etc.      This accessory equipment
should be removed by a competent mechanic and special care should be

taken to avoid damage to any exposed parts and to avoid dirt entering
openings.   The parts which have been removed should be returned to
position as soon as the restriction has been passed.
    In case it is necessary to hoist the engine either front end
upwards or reverse gear end upwards, the attachment of slings must be
done very carefully to avoid the possibility of damage to the parts on
which the weight may bear. It is best if special rigging work be done
by someone experienced and competent in the handling of heavy machi-

    It is recommended that bronze or stainless hanger bolts of
appropr iate size be used through the engine flexible mounts.     Lag
screws are less preferred because their hold on the wood is weakened
every time they are moved, whereas the lag bolt stays in position and
the nut on top is used to tighten the engine down or is removed to
permit the engine to be lifted. The bolt itself stays in position at
all times, as a stud, and the bond between the bolt and the wood is
not weakened by its removal.

     A good engine bed contributes much toward the satisfactory opera-
tion of the engine. The engine bed
must be of rigid construction and
neither deflect nor twist when sub-
jected to the engine weight or the
position the boat may have to take
under the effects of rough seas.
The bed must keep the engine within
one or two thousandths of an inch
of this position at all times.    It
has to withstand the forward push                               A
of the propeller which is applied
to the propeller shaft, to the
thrust washer bearing in the engine
and finally to the engine bolts and
eng ine "bed.
     In fiberglas hulls, we recom-
mend that similar wooden str ingers
as in wooden hulls be formed and
fitted, then glassed to the hull
securely. This allows hanger bolts
to be installed firmly in wood,
thus reducing noise and transmitted
vibration.                                                     B
     Preformed fiberglas engine beds
when used should be of sufficient
thickness to properly support the engine and should be well glassed to
the hull when installed.
     The temptation to install the engine on a pair of fiberglas "angle
irons· should be resisted. Such construction will allow engine vibra-
tions to pass through to the hull.      Flexible mounts require a firm
foundation against which to react if they are to do their job. When
possible, follow bed design "An and avoid bed design "Sn.

    Supports between the bed stringer and extending out from the
stringers out to the hull may be required for proper support and to
aid in the absorption of vibrations.

    Each Westerbeke Diesel engine is regularly fitted with a suitable
coupling connecting the propeller shaft to the engine.
    The coupling must not only tr ansmi t the power of the eng ine to
turn the shaft, but must also transmi t the thrust ei ther ahead or
astern from the shaft to the thrust bear ing which is built into the
reduction gear housing of the engine. This coupling is very carefully
machined for accurate fit.
    For all engine models, a propeller half-coupling, bored to shaft
size for the specific order, is supplied.   The coupling either has a
keyway with set screws or is of the clamping type.
    The forward end of the propeller shaft has a long straight keyway.
Any burrs should be removed from the shaft end.    The coupling should
be a light drive fit on the shaft and the shaft should not have to be
scraped down or filed in order to get a fit.     It is important that
the key be properly fitted both to the shaft and the coupling.     The
key should fit the side of the keyway very closely, but should not
touch the top of the keyway in the hub of the coupling.
    If it seems difficult to drive the coupling over the shaft, the
coupling can be expanded by heating in a pail of boiling water.    The
face of the propeller coupling must be exactly perpendicular to the
centerline or axis of the propeller shaft.

    The type and size of propeller varies with the gear ratio and must
be selected to fit the application based upon boat tests. To utilize
the full power of the engine, and to achieve ideal loading conditions,
it is desirable to use a propeller which will permit the engine to
reach its full rated RPM at full throttle under normal load.

    The engine must be properly and exactly aligned with the propeller
shaft.   No matter what material is used to build a boat it will be
found to be flexible to some extent and the boat hull will change its
shape to a greater extent than is usually realized when it is launched
and operated in the water.    It is therefore very important to check
the engine alignment at frequent intervals and to correct any errors
when they may appear.
    Misalignment between the engine and the propeller shaft is the
cause of troubles which are blamed often on other causes.      It will
create excessive bearing wear, rapid shaft wear and will, in many
cases, reduce the life of the hull by loosening the hull fastenings.
A bent propeller shaft will have exactly the same effect and it is
therefore necessary that the propeller shaft itself be perfectly
    One particularly annoying result of misalignment may be leakage of
transmission oil through the rear oil seal.    Check to make sure that
alignment is within the limits prescribed.
    The engine should be moved around on the bed and supported on the
screw-jacks or shims until the two halves of the couplings can be
brought together without using force and so that the flanges meet

evenly all around.    It is best not to drill the foundation for the
foundation bolts until the approximate alignment has been accurately
    Never attempt a final alignment with the boat on land. The boat
should be in the water and have had an opportunity to assume its final
water form.   I t is best to do the alignment wi th the fuel and water
tanks about half full and all the usual equipment on board and after
the main mast has been stepped and final rigging has been
    Take plenty of time in making this alignment and do not be
satisfied with anything less than perfect results.
    The alignment is correct when the shaft
can be slipped backward and forward into the
counterbore very easily and when a feeler
gauge indicates that the flanges come exactly
together at all points.     The two halves of
the propeller coupling should be parallel
within 0.001 inches per.inch diameter of
coupling (A).
    In making the final check for alignment,
the engine half coupling should be held in
one position and the alignment with the pro-
peller coupling tested with the propeller
coupling in each of four posi tions, rotated
90· between each position. This test will also check whether the pro-
peller half coupling is in exact alignment on its shaft.         Then,
keeping the propeller coupling in one position, the alignment should
be checked rotating the engine half coupling to full position each 90·
from the next one.
    The engine alignment should be rechecked after the boat has been
in service for one to three weeks and, if necessary, the alignment
remade.   It will usually be found that the engine is no longer in
alignment. This is not because the work was improperly done at first
but because the boat has taken some time to take its final shape, and
the engine bed and engine stringers have probably absorbed some
moisture.· It may even be necessary to re-align at a further period.
    The coupling should always be opened up and the bolts removed whe-
never the boat is hauled out or moved from the land to the water, and
during storage in a cradle. The flexibility of the boat often puts a
very severe strain on the shaft or the coupling or both when it is
being moved. In some cases the shaft has actually been bent by these
strains.   This does not apply to small boats that are hauled out of
the water when not in use, unless they are dry for a considerable
    Exhaust line installations vary considerably and each must be
designed for the particular installation. The prime requirements are
to provide an outlet line with a minimum of restrictions and arranged
so that sea water, rain water and condensation cannot get back into
the cylinders of the engine.
    The sea water supply line feeding raw cooling water into the
system must be routed so as to prevent a siphoning of raw water
through this line into the exhaust system filling the muffler and
engine cylinders. This line should be routed at least 12 inches above

the water line and an anti-siphon break installed at the top of its
loop.   This loop should be high enough above the water line so as not
to be below it at various angles of heel when under sail.
    Lines feeding raw cooling water to stuffing boxes, if installed,
must be installed so as to prevent siphoning of water back into the
engine exhaust and engine cylinders as above.
    Most exhaust systems today use a water lift type muffler such as
the Westerbeke "Hydro-Hush".     In most installations there is a dry,
insulated high loop after the engine manifold and before the muffler
to prevent water flowing backwards into the engine during cranking.
      It is essential not to hang too much weight in the form of
exhaust   system   components  rigidly    from  the   engine  manifold.
Generally, it is permissible to directiy connect a pipe nipple and a
                                       water jacketed exhaust elbow,
                                       which two components weigh about
                                       8 pounds (4 kg).    If there are
                                       more components to be rigidly
                                       connected to each other than
                                       will weigh 8 pounds, then a
                                       flexible exhaust section must be
                                I      installed between the manifold
                        ~~~~           outlet and these exhaust system
                              -~       components.




    The exhaust system must be supported or suspended independently of
the engine manifold, usually using simple metal hangers secured to the
    All dry portions of the exhaust system can be constructed of com-
mon black iron pipe and should be wrapped in sui table insulation
material to keep surface temperatures as low as possible.
    Many installations use flexible rubber exhaust hose for the water

cooled section of the exhaust line because of the ease of installation
and flexibility. Provide adequate support for the rubber hose to pre-
vent sagging, bending and formation of water pockets.      The exhaust
line must be at least as large an I.D. as the O.D. of the exhaust
elbow hose attachment nipple.     It should be increased in size by
1/2" I.D. for every 10 feet beyond the first 10 feet.
    Always arrange the rubber hose section so that water cannot
possibly flow back into the engine. Also make sure that entering sea
water cannot spray directly against the inside of the exhaust piping.
Otherwise, excessive erosion will occur.   The use of brass or copper
is not acceptable for wet exhaust systems, as the combination of salt
water and diesel exhaust gasses will cause rapid deterioration of this

    Back pressure must be measured on a straight section of the
exhaust line and as near as possible to the engine exhaust manifold.
The engine should be run at maximum load during the measurement
period. Set-up should be as shown below.
1. For normally aspirated engines:
         Pressure Test       Mercury Test     Water Column
         1-1/2" Max PSI      3" Mercury         = 39"
2.   For turbo-charged engines:
          Pressure Test       Mercury Test     Water Column
          0.75 Max PSI        1-1/2" Mercury    = 19-1/2"

Checking The Back Pressure
1. Exhaust elbow
2. Exhaust line
3. Transparent plastic hose, part-                          Exhaust
ly filled with water.
Measurement "A" may not exceed 39"
for normally aspirated engines and
19.5" for turbo-charged engines.

     Seacocks and strainers should be of the full flow type at least
one size greater than the inlet thread of the sea water pump.      The
str ainer should be of the type which may be wi thdr awn for cleaning
while the vessel is at sea.    Mount the strainer below the water line
to insure self-priming.
     Water lines can be copper tubing or wire-wound, reinforced rubber
hose.    In any case, use a section of flexible hose that will not
collapse under suction, between the hull inlet and engine and between
the outlet and the exhaust system.    This takes up vibration and per-

mits the engine to be moved slightly when it is being re-aligned. Do
not use street elbows in suction piping. All pipe and fittings should
be of bronze.  Use sealing compound at all connections to prevent air
leaks. The neoprene impeller in the sea (raw) water pump should never
be run dry.
    Your   Westerbeke diesel    is
designed for and supplied wi th a        COOLANT
                                                   FILL CAP

remote coolant    recovery   tank.                               COCKPIT
Once the engine has been ini-             TANK     j;
                                         RECOVERY __

tially filled via its pressure                   ALTERNATE
cap, occasional topping off can                    STRAP
be done    through the recovery
tank.     Coolant level can be
easily and frequently monitored.           CABIN
    Mount the recovery tank above
the engine and inside the cabin
where it will always be visible.
    Take care that the plastic
tubing between the engine and the
recovery tank is led    so that it
will not chafe or kink.
     Fuel tanks may be of fiberglas, monel, aluminum, plain steel or
terne plate.    If made of fiberglas, be certain that the interior is
gel coated to prevent fibers from contaminating the fuel system.
Copper or galvanized fuel tanks should not be used.          It is not
necessary to mount the tank above the engine level as the fuel lift
pump provided will raise the fuel from the tank.     The amount of lift
should be kept minimum (6 feet being maximum).     If a tank is already
installed above the engine level, it can be utilized in this position.
Great care should be taken to ensure that the fuel system is correctly
installed so that airlocks are eliminated and precautions taken
against dirt and water entering the fuel.
     A primary fuel filter of the water collecting type should be
installed between the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. A recommended
type is available from the list of accessor ies.     The secondary fuel
fil ter is fitted on the engine between the fuel lift pump and the
injection pump and has a replaceable element.
     As the fuel lift pump has a capacity in excess of that required by
the injection pump, the return is piped to the fuel tank and should be
connected to the top of the tank and the return extended down into the
     To insure satisfactory operation, a diesel engine must have a
dependable supply of clean diesel fuel.    For this reason, cleanliness
and care are especially important at the time when the fuel tank is
installed, because dirt left anywhere in the fuel lines or tank will
certainly cause fouling of the injector nozzles when the engine is
started for the first time.

     We recommend fuel hose or copper tubing together with sui table
fittings, both for the supply line and the return line.    Run the

tubing in the longest pieces obtainable to avoid the use of unne-
cessary fittings and connectors. The shut off valve in the line bet-
ween the fuel tank and engine should be of the fuel oil type, and it
is important that all joints be free of pressure leaks.
    Keep fuel lines as far as possible from exhaust pipe for minimum
temperature, to eliminate "vapor locks".
    The fuel piping leading from the tank to the engine compartment
should always be securely anchored to prevent chafing.   Usually the
copper tubing is secured by means of copper straps.
    The final connection to the engine should be through flexible
rubber hoses.

    The Westerbeke all-electr ic panel utilizes an electronic tacho-
meter with a built-in hourmeter (hourmeter only on generators).
Mounted on the panel are a voltmeter, water temperature gauge and oil
pressure gauge.  Each instrument is lighted.   The all-electr ic panel
is isolated from ground and may be mounted where visible.  It is nor-
mally pre-wired.

    Most Westebeke engines are supplied pre-wired and with plug-in
connectors.    Never make or break connections while the engine is
running.    Carefully follow all instructions on the wir ing diagram
supplied, especially those relating to fuse/circuit breaker require-
    Starter batter ies should be located as close to the engine as
possible to avoid voltage drop through long leads. It is bad practice
to use the starter batter ies for other services unless they require
low amperage or are intermittent.   In cases where there are substan-
tial loads (from lights, refrigerators, radios, depth sounders, etc.),
it is essential to have a complete, separate system and to provide
charging current for this by means of a second alternator or
"alternator output splitter".
    Starter batteries must be of a type which permits a high rate of
discharge {Diesel starting).
    Carefully follow the recommended wire sizes shown in the wir ing
diagrams. Plan installation so the battery is close to the engine and
use the following cable sizes:
         II       for distances up to 8 feet
         11/0     for distances up to 10 feet
         #2/0     for distances up to 13 feet
         13/0     for distances up to 16 feet

    The recommended practice is to have the stop-run lever loaded to
the run position and controlled by a sheathed cable to a push-pull
knob at the pilot station. The throttle lever should be connected to
a Morse type lever at the pilot station by a sheathed cable.
    The transmission control lever may be connected to the pilot sta-
tion by a flexible, sheathed cable and controlled by a Morse type
lever.   The single-lever type gives clutch and throttle control with
full throttle range in neutral position. The two-lever type provides
clutch control with one lever and throttle control with the other.
    Any bends in the control cables should be gradual.    End sections

at engine and transmission must be securely mounted.    After linkages
are completed, check the installation for full tr avel, making sure
that, when the transmission control lever at the pilot station is in
forward, neutral and reverse, the control lever on the transmission
has moved into the respective position.
     Some models do not require a stop cable because they have a fuel
run solenoid.    Examples of such models are the WS8 and the WS2 (20KW
and ISKW generators).
     Check the throttle lever on the injection pump and insure that
full    movement   of    the  lever   is   provided  by   the   cable.

    The engine, for safety reasons, is shipped "dry" ··· with lubri-
cating oil drained from the crankcase and fluid from the transmission.
Therefore, be sure to follow these recommended procedures carefully
before starting the engine for the first time.

    1. Remove the oil filler cap and fill the sump with diesel oil
having an API spec. of CC or better. Refer to the technical data sec-
tion of this manual for the proper amount of oil the sump should

    2. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of antifreeze and fresh
water (50-50). The mixture should be strong enough to protect against
freezing.  Open bleed petcocks to allow air to bleed from the system
while it is being filled.
    3. Fill the reverse gear to the highest mark on the dipstick with
the proper lubricant for     the model gear as specified in the
Transmission Section of this manual. V-drives must be filled separa-

    4. Fill the fuel tank with clean #2 diesel fuel. The use of #1
is permissible but #2 is preferred because of its higher lubr icant

    5. Ensure that the battery is fully charged and the electrolyte
level is correct.

     The fuel injection system of a compression ignition engine depends
upon very high fuel pressure during the injection stroke to function
correctly.    Relatively tiny movements of the pumping plungers produce
this pressure and, if any air is present inside the high pressure
line, then this air acts as a cushion and prevents the correct
pressure, and therefore fuel injection, from being achieved.
     In consequence, it is essential that all air is bled from the
system whenever any part of the system has been opened for repair or
    Self-bleeding units need only have the fuel brought to the fuel
connection on the engine.      The system, when activated, will self-
bleed.    (The self-bleeding feature of the engine will not bleed the
vessel's fuel system from the tank to the engine in all cases.)

Initial Engine Start-up (Engine stoppage due to lack of fuel)
    a. Insure that the fuel tank(s) is filled with the proper grade
    of diesel fuel.
    b. Turn the fuel selector valve to "On". Systems with more than
    one tank insure that fuel returning is going to the tanks being

     c. Fill any large primary filter/water separator with clean
     diesel fuel fuel that is installed between the fuel tank and

The above procedures are basic for all initial engine start-ups or for
restarting engines stopping due to lack of fuel.

WESTERBEKE WIOTwo, 3KW, W13, 4.4KW, W21, 7.7KW, W27, llKW, W33, 12.SKW

These units are self-bleeding.
1. Turn the ignition to the ON position (Generators - PREHEAT)          and
    wait 20-30 seconds.
2. Start the engine following normal starting procedures.


1.   Open the bleed screw on the top inboard side of the engine-mounted
     secondary fuel filter one to two turns using a lOmm box wrench
     (Bleed Point A).     This fuel filter is equipped with a hand-
     operated priming pump.    with the palm of your hand, pump this
     primer with slow steady pumps until fuel free of air bubbles flows
     from this bleed screw.     Stop pumping and retighten the bleed
     NOTE: An electric fuel pump is incorporated in the fuel system on
     new model units which, when activated by turning the ignition on
     (Generator - Preheat), will bleed the filter of air through Bleed
     Point A.

2.   With bleed screw A tightened, continue to pump the hand primer
     (operate the electric fuel pump) several more times so as to bleed
     and prime the fuel injection pump.

3.   Loosen the four injector line attaching nuts at the base of each
     injector (Bleed Point B) one to two turns with a 16mm open end
     wrench.   Place the throttle in the full open position and crank
     the engine over with the the starter until fuel spurts by the nut
     and injector lines. Stop cranking and tighten
     each of the four nuts and proceed with normal
     starting procedure.

                                                   Electric Fuel Pump



1.   Check water level in expansion tank.    It should be 1/2 to 1 in.
     below the top of the tank when cold.    If remote plastic recovery
     tank is used, the level should be at the cold mark.

2.   Check the engine sump oil level.

3.   Check the transmission fluid level.

4.   See that there is fuel in the tank and the fuel shut-off is open.
5.   Check to see that the starting battery is fully charged, all
     electr ical connections are properly made, all circui ts in order
     and turn on the power at the battery disconnect.

6.   Check the seacock and ensure that it is open.

1.   Check to see that the ft stopft lever (if incorporated) is in the
     ftrunft position. Place the throttle in the full run position and
     the gear lever in the neutral position.
2.   Engines with keyswi tches:   Turn the swi tch to the ON posi tion.
     This energizes the instrument panel, electric fuel pump and injec-
     tion pump fuel solenoid.

3.   Preheat for 15 to 20 seconds.
     Panels with keyswitches:  Push in on the key to activate the pre-
     heat and hold in panels with pushbuttons.
     Panels with pushbuttons:   Push in on the preheat button to acti-
     vate preheat and hold it in.
     (Generators: Depress preheat switch and hold.)

4.   Start the engine.
     Panels with keyswitches: While continuing to hold the key pushed
     in for preheat, turn the key to the start position.
     Panels with pushbutton start: Continuing to hold the preheat but-
     ton in, press the start button.
     (Generators:  Continuing to hold preheat depressed, depress start
     swi tch.)

5.   Start:   Once the engine starts, release the keyswitch (push-
     buttons) and return the throttle immediately to near the idle
     position (1000 - 1500 RPM).
     Generators:   Release the start toggle switch only.   Continue to
     hold the preheat toggle switch depressed until oil pressure shows
     20 - 25 PSI, then release the preheat toggle.)

     Check for proper oil pressure and insure that there is raw water
     coolant discharge with the exhaust.

6.   If the engine fails to start in 20 to 30 seconds of cranking,
     discontinue the starting and allow the starter to cool for a

     preiod of time at least     twice   that   used   when cranking.    Then
     repeat steps 3 through 5.

     CAUTION: Excessive cranking can damage the starter as well as
     fill the exhaust muffler and that portion of the system between
     the muffler and engine with raw cooling water possibly getting it
     back into the engine.


If the engine is warm and has only been stopped for a short time,
place the throttle in the par tially open position and engage the
starter as above, eliminating the preheat step.

NOTE: preheat must be depressed on generator           units whenever   it is
being started.

NOTE:   Always be sure that the star ter pinion has stopped revolving
before again re-engaging the starter ~ otherwise, the flywheel ring
gear or starter pinion may be damaged.

Extended use of the cold starting aid beyond the time periods stated
should be avoided to prevent damage to the aid.

NEVER under any circumstances use or allow anyone to use ether to
start your engine.    If your engine will not start, then have a
qualified Westerbeke marine mechanic check it.


1.   Check for normal oil presure immediately upon engine starting. Do
     not continue to run engine if oil pressure is not present within
     15 seconds of starting the engine.
2.   Check Sea Water Flow.    Look for water discharge with the exhaust.
     Do this without delay.

3.   Recheck Crankcase Oil.   After the engine has run 3 or 4 minutes,
     subsequent to an oil change or new installation, stop the engine
     and check the crankcase oil level. This is important as it may be
     necessary to add oil to compensate for the oil that is required to
     fill the engine's internal oil passages and oil filter.    Add oil
     as necessary. Check oil level prior to each day's operation.

4.   Recheck Transmission Fluid level.    (This applies only subsequent
     to a fluid change or new installation.)   In such a case, stop the
     engine after running for several minutes at 800 RPM with one shift
     into forward and one into reverse, then add fluid as necessary.
     Check fluid level each day of operation.

5.   Check Expansion Tank Water Level.      This is done stopping the
     engine     and removing the fresh water       fill cap from the
     manifold/expansion tank.    (To remove the cap, press down on it
     with the palm of the hand and twist the cap counterclockwise until

     the resistance of the safety stops is felt.    Slowly release palm
     pressure from the cap and allow any pressure built up in the
     system to escape.     Take care not to be scalded or burned by
     escaping stearn or water. Leave the cap in this position until all
     pressure is released. Then press the cap firmly downward to clear
     the safety stops and continue turning it until it can be lifted

     Add coolant as needed to bring the level to within one half inch
     of the top of the fill neck.

     NOTE: Systems with metal remote expansion tanks:    Coolant level
     should be checked at this tank and the level maintained about one
     half to three quarters full.   The fill cap on the engine should
     not be removed to check the system as coolant will be lost when
     this cap is removed.

     NOTE: Engines equipped with the plastic coolant recovery tank:
     The level in the tank should be checked and coolant added as
     needed.  The engine fresh water cooling system is filledfull when
     this recovery tank is used and this tank collects coolant from the
     engine through expansion as the engine reaches operating tem-
     perature (170· - 190 ·F) and returns this coolant to the engine
     through contraction as the engine cools.

         WARNING: The cooling system is pressurized when the engine
         is at operating temperature or overheated and the pressure in
         the system must be released with caution as the filler cap is
         removed.    It is advisable to protect the pands against
         escaping stearn or water as the cap is turned.

6.   Warm-up Instructions. As soon as possible, get the boat underway,
     but at reduced speed, until water temperature gauge indicates
     l30-l50·F.    If necessary, engine can be warmed up with the
     transmission in neutral at 1000 - 1500 RPM.
7.   Reverse Operation.    Always reduce   engine to idle speed when
     shifting gears.   However, when the   transmission is engaged, it
     will carry full engine load.


1.   position shift lever in neutral.   (Remove load from generator.)

2.   Idle the engine for 2 to 4 minutes to avoid boiling and to dissi-
     pate some of the heat.
3.   Engines equipped with stop handles:  Pull the handle out and hold
     until the engine stops completely.
     Engines stopped by means of the throttle lever: Move the throttle
     to idle and apply added pressure to move the throttle below idle
     and in to shut off.
     Engines with keyswitch shut off: Just turn the key off.

     NOTE: Be sure to place the stop handles and throttle levers into
     the run position.

4.   Turn off the keyswitch.  Some models do not use the stop lever as
     they are equipped with a fuel solenoid or electric fuel pump which
     shuts off the fuel supply when the keyswitch is turned to the OFF

5.   Close the seacock.

6.   Disconnect power to system with battery switch.


1.   Never run engine for extended periods when excessive overheating
     occurs, as extensive internal damage can be caused.

2.   DO NOT put cold water in an overheated engine.    It can crack the
     cylinder head, block or manifold.

3.   Keep air intake silencer free from lint, etc.

4.   Never Race a Cold Engine as internal damage can occur due to ina-
     dequate oil circulation.

5.   Keep the engine and accessories clean.

6.   Keep the fuel clean.    Handle it with extreme care because water
     and dirt in fuel cause more trouble, and service life of the
     injection system is reduced dramatically.

7.   Do not allow fuel to run low, because fuel intake may be uncovered
     long enough to allow air to enter the injection system, resulting
     in engine stoppage requiring system bleeding.

B.   Do not be alarmed if temperature gauges show a high reading
     following a sudden stop after engine has been operating at full
     load.   This is caused by the release of residual heat from the
     heavy metal masses near the combustion chamber.     Prevention for
     this is to run engine at idle for a short period before stopping
     it.   High temperature reading after a stop does not necessar ily
     signal alarm against restarting.   If there is no functional dif-
     ficulty, temperatures will quickly return to normal when engine is

     NOTE: Oil and water temper ature instruments will remain at or
     near their last reading when the panel power is shut off with the

                       TEN MUST RULES
IMPORTANT                        IMPORTANT                      IMPORTANT
··· for your safety and your engine's dependability.

    1.      Keep this Manual handy and read it whenever in doubt.
    2.      Use only filtered diesel fuel and check lube oil level daily.
    3.      Check cooling water temperature frequently to make sure it is
            190· or less.
    4.      Check engine coolant prior to each day's use.
    5.      Investigate any oil leaks immediately.
    6.      Check transmission lubricant prior to each day's use.
    6.      Race the engine in neutral when cold.
    7.      Run the engine unless the gauge shows proper oil pressure.
    8.      Tamper with the injection pump.
    9.      Use cotton waste or fluffy cloth for cleaning or store fuel
            in a galvanized container ·.
   10.      Subject the engine to prolonged overloading or continue to
            run it if black smoke comes from the exhaust.

    After you have taken delivery of your engine, it is important that
you make the following checks right after the first fifty hours of its
    Note:   Transmissions generally require fluid change after the
first 25 to 30 hours of operation.   Refer to the Transmission Section
of this manual for details.

Do the following:
1. Retorque     the    cylinder     head
2. Retorque    the    rocker    br acket
nuts   and   adjust     valve    rocker
3. Change fuel filter elements.
4. Change engine lubricating oil
and oil filter.
5. Check for fuel and lubr icating
oil leaks. Correct if necessary.
6. Check cooling system for leaks
and inspect water level.
7. Check    for     loose    fittings,
clamps, connections, nuts, bolts,
vee belt tensions, etc.       Pay par-
ticular attention to loose engine
mounts and engine mount fittings.
These could cause mis-alignment.
8. Check conditions of zinc anode
in engine heat exchanger.

Do the fOllowing:
1. Check the sea water strainer, if one has been installed.
2. Check water level in cooling system.
3. Check lubricating oil level in sump.     Fill to highest mark on
4. Check fluid level in transmission.      Fill to highest mark on
dipstick with proper fluid.

Do the following:
1. Check generator, alternator and sea water pump "V" belts for
proper tension.
2. Check water level in battery.
3. Change oil in sump. See Note.
4. Replace lubricating oil filter, Figure 2. See Note.
5. Fill sump with diesel lubricating oil to highest mark on dipstick.
Refer to Specification page for proper quantity of oil.        Do Not
                                                              -   --
Overfill, but be sure the proper amount of oil is placed in the sump.
See Note.

    CAUTION:   The use of different brands of lubricating oils during
    oil changes has been known to cause extensive oil sludging and may
    in many instances cause complete oil starvation.

6. Start engine and run for 3 or 4 minutes.    Stop engine and check
oil filter gasket for leaks. Check oil sump level. This is important
as it may be necessary to add oil to compensate for the oil that is
required to fill the engine's internal oil passages and oil filter.
Add oil as necessary. See Note.


7. Clean Air Filter if supplied.     (Most models have an air silencer
that does not require cleaning.)
8. Check engine for loose bolts, nuts, etc.
9. Check sea water pump for leaks.
10. Clean pr imary filter bowl and screen.    If filter bowl contains
water or sediment, filter bowl and secondary fuel filter need be
cleaned more frequently.
11. Replace secondary fuel filter element.
12. Change the fluid in the transmission.    Refer to the Transmission
Section of this manual for details.

1. Fresh Water Cooling System: The use of a 50-50 solution of anti-
freeze and fresh water is recommended for use in the fresh water
cooling system year round.       This solution may require a higher
concentration of antifreeze, depending on the area's winter climate.
    Should more antifreeze be needed, drain an approximate amount from
the engine block and add a more concentrated mixture.      Operate the
engine to insure complete circulation throughout the system. Recheck.
2. Lubrication System:     With the engine warm, drain ALL the lubri-
cating oil from the oil sump.      Remove and replace the oil filter:
place some paper towels and a plastic bag around the filter to catch
the oil while removing it.
    When installing the new oil filter, be sure to apply a small
amount of oil on the sealing O-ring at the base of the filter.    Fill
the sump with the correct amount of oil for your engine model. Use an
oil wi th an API Spec. CC.    Run the engine and check for proper oil
pressure and insure that there are no leaks.
    Do not leave old eng ine lubr icating oil in the sump over the
winter lay-up period. Lubricating oil and combustion deposits combine
to produce harmful chemicals which can reduce the life of internal
engine parts.
3. Transmission:    Drain the lubricant from your transmission and/or
V-drive.   Refill with the proper lubricant to the full mark on the
transmission dipstick. Run the engine and shift the transmission into
forward and reverse one/two times.      Stop the engine and check the
transmission oil level: add lubricant as needed. Check for leaks.
4. Fuel System:    Top off your fuel tanks with #2 diesel fuel. Fuel
additives should be added at this time to control algae and condition
the fuel.   Care should be taken that additives used are compatible

with primary filter/separators used in the system. Change the element
in your primary fuel filter/separator if it contains one, and/or clean
the separator sediment bowl.
     Change the fuel filter elements on the engine and bleed the fuel
system as needed.      Start the engine and allow it to run for 5 to
10 minutes to insure that no air is left in the fuel system and check
for any leaks that may have been created in the fuel system dur ing
this servicing, and correct as needed.
5. Sea Water Circuit:      Close the thru hull sea cock.    Remove the raw
water intake hose from the sea cock.      Place the end of this hose into
a 5-gallon bucket of clean fresh water.       Before starting the engine,
check the z inc pencil found in the pr imary heat exchanger on the
engine and clean or replace it, if required. Clean your sea strainer,
if one is installed on the inside of the hull
     Start the engine and allow the raw water pump to draw the fresh
water through the system.       When the bucket empties, stop the engine
and ref ill the bucket wi th an antifreeze solution slightly stronger
than needed for winter freeze protection in your area.
     Start the engine and allow all of this mixture to be drawn through
the raw water system. Once the bucket empties, stop the engine. This
antifreeze mixture should protect your raw water circuit from freezing
during winter lay-up, as well as providing corrosion protection.
     Remove the impeller from your raw water pump (some antifreeze mix-
ture will accompany it, so catch it in a bucket).             Examine the
impeller.   Acquire a replacement if needed and cover gasket.       Do not
replace the impeller back into the pump until the Spring com-
6. with a clean cloth lightly soaked in oil, place it in the opening
of the intake manifold so as to block it closed.         DO NOT shove the
cloth out of sight into the intake manifold.         If you cannot see it
next Spring, and you attempt to start your engine, you may need the
assistance of a servicing dealer.       Make a note to remove this cloth
pr ior to star t-up.    The exhaust through hull can be closed in this
same manner.
7. Disconnect the propeller shaft coupling from the transmission.      (If
the boat remains in the water during winter storage, this need not be
done. )
     This is a good time to check the security of the coupling to the
propeller shaft.     Insure also that the coupling set screws are tight
and wired so as not to loosen.      The engine alignment to the propeller
shaft should be checked in the spring when the boat is placed back in
the water, and the mast stepped, and the rigging tuned.
8. Controls and Linkage:       Check the security of control connections
to the engine and transmission.       Lubricate these controls and insure
that they move freely.     Engines with pUll-type shut-off levers should
be left in the "run" position during winter storage.
9. Starter Motor:       Lubr ication and cleaning of the starter dr ive
plnlon is advisable if access to the starter permits its easy removal.
Insure that the battery connections are shut off before attempting to
remove the starter. Take care to properly replace any electrical con-
nections removed from the starter.
10. Removing the injectors from the cylinder head and squirting some
light lube oil down the injector hole into the cylinders is not
necessary for the few months the engine is laid up for the winter.
However, if you anticipate a longer lay-up period (12 months +),

please follow through with this procedure.        It will prevent the
adher ing of the piston rings to the cylinder walls.   Insure that you
have the proper hardware to replace the sealing washers for the injec-
tors and return line connections.
11. Spares: This is a good time to look over your engine and see if
external items such as belts or hoses may need replacing, come Spring
commissioning.   Check over your basic spares ki t and order i terns not
on hand, or replace those items used during the winter lay-up, such as
filters and zincs.
12. Batteries: If batteries are to be left on board during the winter
storage per iod, insure that they are in a state of full charge and
will remain that way, to prevent them from freezing. If not, it would
be wise to remove them.
    Lubricating oils are available for Westerbeke Diesel engines which
offer an improved standard of performance to meet the requirements of
modern oper ating conditions such as sustained high speeds and tern"::"
    Use a good brand of oil that has an API Service Spec of "CC" or
    Use the following chart to select the proper viscosity of oil for
your Westerbeke engine.
             Ambient Temperature          Viscosity
                Above 80· F             SAE 30 or 10-30
                30 - 80· F              SAE 20 or 10-30
                Below 30· F             SAE 10 or 10-30

The following sections contain detailed
information relating to the proper opera-
tion character istics of the major com-
ponents   and  systems  of   the   eng ine.
Included   are  disassembly,   rework   and
reassembly instructions for the guidance
of suitably equipped and staffed mar ine
engine service and rebuilding facilities.
The necessary procedures should be under-
taken only by such facilities.

Addi tional operating character istics are
included in the Operation Section of this

Any replacements should be made only with
genuine Westerbeke parts.

General Specifications .····.···..···..· 24

Troubleshooting ··.······.··.···.··.···· 32

Engine Cylinder Head ·..·.·········.···· 37

Engine Crankcase ·...·.·······.········· 47

Lubrication System .··.··..·.·······.·.. 60

Fuel System ·············.·.············ 65

Governor System .···.··...·.·····.·····. 77

Maintenance .··.··..··.........··.·····. 81

Technical Data .·...........·...·...·... 85


              Right Side

               Left Side


          Left Side

                                                   DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS

                                                   Westerbeke 10Two & 12B-Two

                 EXHAUST CONN. I~NPT           (          I

                 AW WATE!! OUT

                    fUEL 1 NLET
                    ~-27 FfMI'Lf


                                                                                    l .~

                                                   2.4 KW & 3 KW GENERATOR
                                                                                        1-------15.81 - - -

         FlAW   WATER OUT
         i,.D. HOSC
      .VEL INLET ~-27NPT.



      [                                20.00

                                                                   .1                            /6.25

                  Dimensions are subject to change.

                                  ENGINE NUMBER

1. The engine serial number is stamped on the I.D. plate attached to the exhaust manifold.

2. The engine serial number is stamped as shown below.

       Engine number 1001 - COOO

The engine block serial number will also be found stamped in the block on a flange just
below the number two injector.

The generator serial number is found stamped in the outside housing of the generator on
the left side when viewed from the front of the engine.

                              SECTIONAL VIEWS OF ENGINE

1.    Longitudinal cross section

                    1     2          3    4        S




                    20   21              23   24        2S

1.   Fresh water pump         10.   Push rod             19.   Crankshaft plate
2.   Water outlet fit.        II.   Tappet               20.   Front bearing housing
3.   Exhaust valve            12.   Camshaft             21.   Gear case
4.   Intake valve             13.   Oil pump             22.   Oil drain plug
5.   Oil filler cap           14.   Piston               23.   Oil pan
6.   Rocker arm shaft         15.   Connecting rod       24.   Oil screen
7.   Rocker cover             16.   Crankshaft pulley    25.   Rear plate
8.   Cylinder head            17.   Crankshaft           26.   Flywheel
9.   Cylinder block           18.   Crankshaft gear

2.    Lateral cross section


1.   Exhaust manifold     9.   Cylinder head      16.   Fuel filter
2.   Rocker cover        10.   Piston             17.   Ring gear
3.   Push rod            11.   Starter            18.   Oil level gauge
4.   Rocker arm          12.   Rear plate         19.   Oil filter
5.   Exhaust valve       13.   Water drain hose   20.   Oil screen
6.   Glow plug           14.   Crankshaft         21.   Oil pan
7.   Nozzle holder       15.   Cylinder block     22.   Oil drain plug
8.   Intake pipe

                           GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

Type                                           Vertical, 4 cycle, OH, water cooled.

Combustion Chamber                             Swirl type chamber

Number of Cylinders                            2

Bore x stroke                                  65 mm (2.56 in.) x 68 mm (2.68 in.)

Total Displacement                             451 cc (27.52 ci)

Compression Ratio                              25:1

Firing Order                                   1- 2

Engine Performance                             9.5 HP at 3000 RPM - 10 Two Model
                                               12.0 HP at 3600 RPM - 12B-Two Model
Dry Weight
      Propulsion                               205 Pounds
      Generator                                308 Pounds
Fuel                                           #2 Diesel Fuel

Fuel Injection Pump                            Bosch M. Type

Governor                                       Centrifugal weight type

Nozzle                                         Throttle type

Fuel Injection Pressure                        160 kglcm 2

Lubrication System                             Forced Lubrication (trochoid pump)

Oil Pump                                       Trochoid Type

Engine Oil Capacity Limit (upper-lower)        2.8 liters - l. 8 liters

Cooling Water Capacity                         Approx. 1.6 liters (in engine proper)

Starter                                        Solenoid operated, overrunning clutch
                                               cranking type. 12V - 0.9 KW

Alternator                                     12 Volt - 35 amp

Glow Plug                                      Sheathed plug (quick heat type)

                                        PERFORMANCE CURVES

This performance shows the values under standard ambient conditions (atmospheric
pressure 760 mmHg, temperature 20 0 C, humidity 65%).

                              10 Two and 12B-Two Propulsion Engine


                                                                                                          L B-FT

                                                          i   I     !    :
                                                          ! I !          I           I   !


                                         I     I     COINT!         I    1 ~_--I"'"
                                               ... ___ ,...._...;,_ ... -. -         I   I
                                                                                                0.50   F U E LeO N SUM P T ION
                                                          I   l-rl                   I          0.45
                                                                                                            LB PER HP-HR
                                     o ~~I=:=~~l=:i~l=:j=~~!=:~\0.40
                                      1400         2000                      3000            3600


                             WMD 3 KW Generator Model 60 Hertz
                             WMD 2.4 KW Generator Model 50 Hertz

Electrical Characteristics                          Ratings                                   Deratings             Engine
Model      Volts     Am!!S   Hertz     Phase        Wire          P.F.         KW                                   RPM      Start

3.0-612   120       25       60                     2             1.0          3.0            3.5% each 1000 ft.    1800     Remote
                                                                                              above sea level.
3.0-613   120/240   251125   60                     3             1.0          3.0            1% for each 100 F     1800     Remote
                                                                                              above 85°F ambient.
2.4-512   220       10       50                     2             1.0          2.4            10% for continuous    1500     Remote


Causes and remedies for general engine trouble are listed as follows.


Hard Starting

(1) Slow cranking
    (a) Viscosity of engine oil    Use oil of lower viscosity
    (b) Battery discharged         Charge battery
    (c) Battery is old             Replace battery
    (d) Poor connection of         Clean terminals and cable connectors
        battery terminal
    (e) Faulty starter             Overhaul or replace starter
    (f) Faulty starter Bendix      Check starter amperage draw. Replace
        drive                      or repair starter if necessary

(2) Injection system trouble
    (a) Air in fuel system         Allow system to self bleed
    (b) Fuel filter clogged        Replace fuel filter element
    (c) Injector pressure low      Adjust injector pressure
    (d) Nozzle injection failure   Clean or replace nozzle
    (e) Lack of pressure from      Overhaul or replace injection pump
        injection pump
    (f) Injection timing too       Check and adjust injection timing
        early                           propulsion 25· B.T.D.C.
                                        Generator 25· B.T.D.C.

(3) Engine
    (a) Lack of compression
        1) Improper valve          Adjust valve clearance
        2) Incorrect contact of    Lap valves to head
           valve seat
        3) Seizure of valve stem   Replace valve and valve guide
        4) Valve spring broken     Replace valve spring
        5) Leakage from cylinder   Replace gasket
           head gasket
        6) Piston ring sticking    Replace piston and piston ring
        7) Worn piston rings and   Repair as needed
    (b) Glow plug burned           Replace glow plug
    (c) Insufficient operating     Adjust time per temperature. Check
        time for glow plug         connections and solenoid
    (d) Incorrect setting of       Set to starting position full open
        throttle lever
    (e) Governor spring out of     Correct spring

Lack of Power
(1) Lack of compression                 See "Lack of Compression" under
                                        "Hard Starting"
(2 ) Improper adjustment of
     injection system
     (a) Improper injection timing Adjust injection timing
     (b) Injectors misfiring       Overhaul or replace injectors
     (c) Low injector pressure     Check injector nozzle, and adjust
                                   injector pressure
(3 ) Lack of fuel
     (a) Air in fuel system        Check connections and fuel tank
     (b) Filter clogged            Replace filter
     (c) Fuel tank contaminated    Clean tank and replace filters
(4) Lack of intake air             Check air intake for obstruction
(5 ) Overheating
     (a) Lack of cooling water     Replenish water (check for leaks)
     (b) V-belts loosened          Adjust or replace
     (c) Heat exchanger clogged    Clean
     (d) Improper injection timing Correct injection timing
     (e) Lack of engine oil        Replenish engine oil (check for
Excessive Oil Consumption
(1) Oil      leakage
    (a)      Faulty oil seals           Replace   oil seals
    (b)      Gear case gasket damaged   Replace   gasket
    (c)      Gear case bolts loosened   Tighten   bolts
    (d)      Drain plug loosened        Tighten   plug
    (e)      Oil pipe connector         Tighten   connector bolt
       (f)   Rocker cover gasket        Replace gasket
       (g)   Rocker cover bolts         Tighten bolts
(2) Oil      up
    (a)      Piston ring end gaps       Correct ring positions
             incorrectly positioned
       (b)   Connecting rod tilted or   Replace connecting rod
       (c)   Wear of piston ring        Replace ring
       (d)   Wear of piston and         Replace piston and rebore cylinder
(3) Oil      down
    (a)      Faulty stem seal           Replace stern seal
    (b)      Wear of valve and valve    Replace valve and valve guide

SYMPTOM                             REMEDY

Noise or Abnormal Sound

(1) Crankshaft or main bearing
    (a) Excessive wear of bearing   Replace bearing and grind crankshaft
    (b) Excessive wear of crank-    Grind to proper undersize
    (c) Bearing melted              Replace bearing and check oil line
(2) Connecting rod and connecting
    rod bearing
    (a) Wear of connecting rod      Replace bearing and grind crank pin
         big end bearing
    (b) Wear of crank pin           Grind crank pin
    (c) Connecting rod bent         Straighten or replace
(3) Piston, piston pin and piston
    (a) Wear of cylinder            Rebore cylinder to oversize, and
                                    replace piston
    (b) Wear of piston pin          Replace piston pin
    (c) Seizure of piston           Replace piston
    (d) Piston ring worn or         Replace piston ring
(4) Valve mechanism and other
    (a) Wear of camshaft            Replace camshaft
    (b) Excessive valve clearance   Adjust valve clearance
    (c) Wear of timing gear         Replace gear
    (d) Wear of water pump          Replace bearing

                      ADJUSTMENT OF VALVE CLEARANCE

(1)   Remove the rocker cover :In, loosen the rocker arm lock nut :fI:2,
      and, while turning the adjusting screw :fI:3, measure and adjust the
      valve clearance with a thickness gauge between the valve stem and
      rocker arm position A.

      1      3

(2)   With the No. 1 cylinder at TDC on compression stroke, adjust the
      clearance of the intake and exhaust valves of the No. 1 cylinder.
      Then, with the No. 2 cylinder at TDC on compression stroke,
      adjust the clearance of the intake and exhaust valves of the
      No.2 cylinder.

(3)   To posi tion the No. 1 cylinder for TDC of compression stroke,
      align the timing mark on the gear case with that on the
      crankshaft pulley.     position No. 2 cylinder at TDC of its
      compression stroke by rotating the crankshaft 170·.

(4)   After    the     adjustment,
      securely      tighten    the
      rocker    arm    nut   while
      holding     the    adjusting
      screw from rotating.

      Note: The cylinder head
      holddown bol ts should be
      torqued before the valve
      adjustment is made.

      Valve   Clearance    (both
      intake  and   exhaust)
      engine cold:



Note: The cylinder head bolts, when being torqued, should be broken free one-quarter to
one-half tum, then torqued to the value given and in the proper order as shown.

Tightening Torque:
                             25.3 - 28.9Ib-ft.
                             3.5 - 4.0 kg-m.


Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is made of a cast iron and has great rigidity and
excellent cooling property.  It is of the overhead valve type and the
intake port and exhaust port are of cross-flow type, and the valve
seats and guides are replaceable.

Swirl chamber and glow plug are provided at the left-hand side of the
head to insure complete fuel combustion and better engine starting.

Cylinder Head Gasket

The cylinder head gasket is
made of air-tight and durable
material and has stainless
steel grommets in the cylinder
bore area.     The gasket is
coated wi th sealant on both
sides except where the cylin-
der bore periphery is to pre-
vent oil and water leakage;
therefore, no gasket sealant
is needed during assembling.

An   engine  model   mark
stamped on the upper side of
                            is        c
                                      C   E
the   gasket  (cylinder   head            .~
side) to help insure proper

Valve and Valve Spring

The intake valve has a large diameter
head to increase the intake effi-
c iency.  Both the intake and exhaust
valves are steel and the exhaust valve
has a welded special heat-resistant
steel head to withstand a higher heat.                          Stem seal

The upper part of the valve guide is
provided with a valve stern seal to                           Valve guide
prevent oil leakage into the cylinder.

The valve spring is made of a high-
rigidity valve spring steel.       The
spr ing, spr ing retainer and retainer
lock of the intake valve are identical
to      those of   the exhaust valve.

Combustion Chamber

The combustion chamber is of a swirl chamber type.   The swirl chamber
is made of· a heat-resisting ste.el and is pressed into the cylinder
head.   The swir I chamber should not be disassembled because it is
machined w~th the head after being pressed into the cylinder head.

Rocker Arms and Rocker Shaft

Rocker arms are made of a special cast iron.   Rocker shaft is made of
bar steel and the surface is cemented.     Oil to the rocker arms and
rocker shaft is supplied through the rocker cover oil hole.

Rocker Cover

The rocker cover is made of aluminum die-cast and the upper part is
provided with an oil passage to supply oil to the rocker section via a
supply tube from the front cam bearing.

The cover is also provided with a fill port for engine oil.

Servicing the Cylinder Head


(a)   Remove the exhaust manifold.
(b)   Remove the oil pipe from the cylinder head.

(c)   Remove the fuel return line.

(d)   Remove the fuel injection lines from the injectors.

(e)   Remove the injectors.

(f)   After removing the glow plug lead wire, remove the glow plug.

(g)   Remove the rocker cover.

(h)   After removing the rocker shaft holddown bolts, remove the rocker
      arms, rocker shaft and rocker support assembly.    After removing
      the rocker assembly, pullout the push rods.

(i)   Loosen   and   remove   the   cylinder   head   bolts   in   the   illustrated

                                                        m       10
                                                    Q           9

                                            ~----..JO8 6                       @

                                                            o        0

(j)   Remove the head gasket, etc.

(k)   Using a valve spr ing compressor, compress the valve spr ing and
      remove the retainer, spring and valve.   Keep the removed valves
      and related parts in order by each cylinder.



1.    Check the cylinder   head   for     visible   water   leakage      or   damage
      before cleaning.

2.    Prior to inspection and repair, clean each part carefully and
      remove oil, scale, carbon and paint.

3.    Clean oil holes with compressed air and make sure they are not

Cylinder Head

Check   the cylinder   head  for
cracks, damage and water leakage
before cleaning.

Make sure the oil passage is not

Check the bottom of the cylinder
head for any warpage.   Check as
illustrated   using  a  straight
edge and thickness gauge.

Valve Guide

Check the clearance from valve stem to
valve guide and, if it exceeds the
service limit, replace the valve guide        14.5 -15.5
and valve.    When replacing a valve
wi th its stem worn, also replace the
valve guide.
                                                Valve guide
To replace the valve guide, use a
press and remove the worn guide by
pressing it out from the underside of
the head out through the top.

To install a new guide, press it into the cylinder head from the upper
side obtaining the illustrated dimension.  After installing the valve
guide, check the valve stem to guide clearance and, if the clearance
is less than the standard value, ream the guide to achieve the desired

Valve Seat

Check the valve seat for any damage and
incorrect contact, and, if defective,
correct    as   illustrated.      After
correcting, lap the valve and seat with
lapping compound.

If the valve seat surface recedes more
than the service limit, replace the
cylinder head.    The receding of the
valve seat surface can be checked by
measuring the installed height of the valve spring.

CAUTION:  Check the valve guide for any wear     before       cor recting   the
valve seat.  If necessary, replace the guide.

         Amm         Bmm        Cmm

         23.7       21.7        2.5                            A



If the thickness (T) of the valve head
exceeds the service limi t, replace the

If the top end (A) of the valve stem
(surface in contact with the rocker arm)
is worn or dented, repair or replace.                         -

Valve Spring

Check for cracks and damage.

Measure the free length and load of the spring; if defective, replace.

Check the squareness of     the spring;       if excessively tilted,             replace.

                                                svr/i1Ce gage
                                                  plate " \

Rocker Arms and Rocker Shaft

I f the rocker arm par t in con-
tact with the valve is exces-
sively worn or damaged, replace.
Also check the adjusting screw,
and if the surface in contact
with the push rod is excessively
worn, replace.

Check the I.D. of the rocker arm
bushing and the 0.0. of the
rocker    shaft    (rocker   arm
installation area), and if the
clearance is excessive, replace
the rocker arm assembly.

Push Rod

Check the push rod for    bending and wear at both ends,                and if defec-
tive, replace.

Assembly and Adjustment


1.   Clean thoroughly each assembly part prior to assembly.

2.   When   assembling,   apply   oil    to    sliding          and   rotating     parts.

Securely install the valve stern seal into the valve guide.

     Note:   The valve stern seal is not re-usable.

Coat the valve stern wi th eng ine oil and insert it into the valve
guide.   Then install the retainer wi th the red-painted end of the
valve spring at the retainer side, compress the spring with a spring
compressor, and install the retainer lock.

Install the rocker arm, rocker shaft and rocker bracket.          When
installing, apply engine oil to the bore of the rocker arm bushing.

The cylinder head gasket is
coated wi th sealant and there
is no need of applying any
additional sealant.

Tighten   the   cylinder  head
bolts in the illustrated order
to the specified torque.

Install the rocker arm and
shaft assembly on the top of
the cylinder head, and tighten
the bolts to the specified

Install    the   glow   plug  and
tighten     to    the   specified

Install the nozzle holder
gasket,  and  install and
tighten the nozzle holder
assembly to the specified


1.   Replace, the gaskets and washers with new ones, and apply ,sealant
     to specified areas.

2.   When installing the injectors, do not turn the body side but turn
     the retaining nut.

Install the glow plug lead wire.

Adjust    the   valve   clearance.
With the piston Gf each cylinder
at   the   top   dead   center  of
compression    stroke,   insert  a
feeler gauge between the valve
stem tip and the rocker arm face
and   adjust   to   the  specified
clear ance (cold) by use of the
adjusting screw.


Construction of Crankcase


The crankcase is of the full-jacket type, made of cast iron alloy and
formed integral with the cylinders.

The main bearing is of the bushing type, made of special copper alloy
with back metal and is flash-plated.        The crankshaft thrust is
received and maintained by the front bearing housing.


The crankshaft is a high
carbon     steel     precision
forging,    and     the   ma1n
bearings and connecting rod
journals     are    induction-
hardened   to    increase  the
wear    resistance.        The
balancer is formed integral
with the crankshaft.

Flywheel and Ring Gear

The flywheel is designed to provide a great inertial efficiency and to
minimize torque variation.    The ring gear is shrink-fitted to the
flywheel, and gear teeth are induction-hardened to increase their
resistance to wear.

Piston, Piston Pin and Piston Ring
The piston is made of special light alloy and is elliptic and tapered
(getting smaller upward) to provide the best contact with the cylinder

The piston pin is a hollow, special alloy steel pin and is carburized
throughout the surface. The piston pin is pressed into the connecting
rod and fixed by use of a special fitting tool.

Each piston is provided with four piston rings, three compression
rings and one oil ring.    No. 1 ring and oil ring are hard chrome-
plated on the surface in contact with the cylinder.

connecting Rod
The connecting rod is a high carbon steel forging, and the rod is of
I-section and the big end is of hor izontally split construction to
increase rigidity.
The piston pin is pressed into the small end of the rod.    The con-
necting rod bear ing is made of special copper alloy with back metal
and is flash-plated.

Timing Gears
All the timing gears are
spur gears.     The camshaft
gear   is   driven   by  the
crankshaft   gear   and  the
governor gear is dr i ven by
the camshaft gear.


The camshaft is a high carbon steel forging and is formed integral
wi th the cam for the injection pump, and the cam lobes and journals
are induction-hardened.

The camshaft is supported in machined holes in the crankcase.   The
front journal is provided wi th an oil hole to supply oil intermi t-
tently to the cylinder head and rocker arms.

Camshaft thrust is received by the front side of the crankcase and by
a surface provided in the timing gear front cover.

The rear end of the camshaft is provided with a slot to drive the oil

Tappet and Push Rod
The tappet is tubular and is surface-                                Tappet
treated on the bottom surface and the
rod receIvIng area.      The tappet is
installed offset from the cam center and
revolves as the cam rotates, thus pre-
venting uneven wear of the bottom of the

The push rod is made of bar steel and                ---1 - Offset
both ends are specially hardened.

Oil Pan

The oil pan is made of sheet metal and is provided with an oil drain
hose attached to the sump oil drain boss.


Electrical System

Remove engine electrical harness
complete.   Mar k leads for proper

Remove 35 amp       DC   alternator    and
drive belt.

Remove starter motor.

Remove the glow plugs.

Cooling System

Remove sea water pump, mounting bracket, thermostat housing,                              ther-
mostat, pump drive belt, hoses and primary heat exchanger.

Remove exhaust manifold with idle stop                ~ontrol   (fuel solenoid assembly
- generator model).

Fuel System

Remove electric fuel pump and engine mounted fuel filter assembly.

Remove high pressure liner from injection pump to injectors.

Remove fuel return line from injectors and to injection pump.

Remove injectors and sealing washers.

Cylinder Head

Remove rear lifting eye and rocker box cover with oil supply line.

Remove rocker arm assembly and push rods.

Remove   cylinder   head    hold    down   bolts       and   lift   cylinder   head       from

Lift tappets out of block with use of a magnetic pencil.

Remove the oil pan and gasket.

Remove transmission,       damper    plate      and    bellhousing    (generator      -    see
generator section).

Remove the flywheel and backplate.

Remove the oil pump.

Loosen the front crankshaft pulley nut, and remove the front pulley.
Remove the front gear case cover and gasket.

After removing the governor weight assembly, remove the snap ring, and
then the governor gear.

Draw the camshaft and gear from the crankcase.

Remove the sleeve, crankshaft gear and plate.

Remove the connecting rod caps, and draw the pistons and connecting
rod assembly through the top of the block.     Keep the rod caps and
bearings in order by cylinder so that there will be no mixing.  (Mark
the rod and cap on one side).

Remove the front bearing housing from the crankcase.
Draw out the crankshaft    from   the    crankcase   hole.   Be careful   not
damage the main bearing.

Disassembly of Piston and Connecting Rod

Set the piston and connecting rod assembly on the body of a special
tool as illustrated, insert the push rod of the tool into the piston
pin hole, and remove the piston pin by pressing it out with the aid of
a hydraulic press. Do not use the guide of the tool when removing the
piston pin.


1.   Be sure to use hydraulic press when removing the piston pin.         Do
     not attempt to hammer it out.   If an excessive pulling force        is
     required to remove the piston pin due to adhesion, replace           it
     wi th a new one.   Do not apply the load of more than 3,000          kg
     (6,600 lbs.) to the pin setting tool.

2.   When setting the piston and connecting rod on the tool body, be
     sure that the small end of the connecting rod is placed properly
     on the receiving area of the tool body.

                    a =92.5.

                                                     PuSh rod

                                                            Identification mark

                                                                Tool body
      1. Body
      3. Push rod



1.   Check the crankcase for signs of water leakage, oil leakage and
     damage before cleaning it.

2.   Pr ior to inspection and repair, clean each par t    and remove the
     dust, oil, carbon deposits and water scale.

3.   Clean the oil galler ies by applying compressed air and be sure
     that the holes are not clogged and are clean and unobstructed.


Check the crankcase for cracks
and   damage.    If    defective,
replace the crankcase.

Check the water jackets for pre-
sence of water scale and rust,
and clean as needed.

Using a cylinder gauge, measure the cylinder bore at three different
places  in X and Y directions, and if necessary, r~bore the cylinders
to   oversize   or   replace      the   block   if   beyond   repair.

                                              X-X/is th~ thrust direction

Piston, Piston Pin and Piston Ring

Check the piston for   evidence of seizure,   streaks and wear,             and if
defective, replace.
Measure the 0.0. of the piston, and if excessive wear is found,
replace.   If the piston to cylinder wall clearance is excessive,
rebore the cylinder to the next oversize or replace the piston.  The
piston 0.0. should be measured at the lower part of the skirt across
the thrust faces.

When an oversize piston is used,
finish the cylnder bore oversize as
well.    First, measure the outside
diameter of the oversize piston to be
used (diameter in the thrust direction
at the lower part of       the piston
skirt), rebore the cylinder so that
the clear ance between the piston and
the cylinder wall will be the value
specified in the data section, and
finally cross finish by honing.

Measure    the    piston   ring   side
clearance, and if necessary, replace
the ring.    If the clearance is still
excessive with a new ring, replace the

Measure piston ring end gap, and if
the end gap is excessive, replace the

To measure, push the ring with a piston into the least worn part
(skirt) of the cylinder as illustrated, and meas~re the end gap using
a feeler gauge.


                        _____      -::~   Piston

If the clearance between the piston pin and piston or the bore of the
small end of the connecting rod is excessive, replace the piston pin
assembly or connecting rod assembly.

Connecting Rod

Using a connecting rod aligner, measure the bend and distortion of the
rod, and if excessive bend or distortion is found, repair or replace.

After installing the connecting rod on the cr ankshaft, measure the
thrust clearance, and if the clearance is excessive, replace the rod

                                                   twist t:heak

       c .

        I J r'           '.



Check the crankshaft journals and pins for damage and seizure.    Also
measure the crankshaft 0.0., and if wear is exceSSlve, finish the
crankshaft to the next undersize and replace the main bearing and con-
necting  rod   bearing  with   new  parts   of  the   same  undersize.


     Correct the bend before grinding
     the crankshaft. Finish each fillet
     to the illustrated R.

Measure the crankshaft end play,
and if it exceeds the specified
value, replace the front main
bearing housing.      To measure
the   end   play,   install   the
crankshaft   and   main   bearing
housing,   install    the   gear,
sleeve and pulley, tighten the
nut, and then apply a dial gauge
to the end of the crankshaft.

Main bearing and connecting rod bearing

Check the bearing surface for flaking, melting, seizure and incorrect
contact, and if defective, replace.
With each main bearing and connecting
rod bearing· installed in the crank-
case, bear ing housing and connecting
rod, measure the 1.0. of the bearings.

Then,   measure   the   0.0.   of    the
crankshaft   journals  and   pins    and
calculate the oil clearance.

If the oil clearance    is not wi thin
the   specifications,    replace   the
I f the standard oil clear ance is not
obtained even with the new bearing,
grind the crankshaft undersize and
install a bear ing of the same under-

To replace the main bearing, use the special tool, Bearing Installer,
Part Number 33742.
(1)   To remove the main bearing, install
      the guide ring to the installer
      body as illustr ated.   To pull the
      main bearing out of the bearing
      housing, push it from the front

      side to the rear side.    To remove
      the main bearing at the rear of the                                                           Fo, fmnt b..ring
      crankcase, remove the oil seal, and
      then push the bear ing inward from
      the rear side of the crankcase.                                                 Bearing Installer

(2)  To install the main bearing, assemble the main bearing installer
body and guide ring as illustrated and press in the bearing in the
same direction of removal.

Since the front bearing is to installed 2.5mm inside from the refer-
ence surface at the bearing installation side, use the furnished tool
adapter ring.


      1. Guide ring          4. Bearing housing (front)
      2. Main bearing           or crankcase (rear)            I. Bearing installer             3. Guide ring
      3. Bearing installer                                     2. Main bearing

               Removing the Main Bearing                              Installing the Main Bearing

1.   Install the main bear ing so that the oil hole of the bear ing
     aligns with that of the crankcase.   Set the oil hole position of
     the main bearing to the mark line stamped on the collar of the
     installer body, and then press the bearing in while aligning the
     oil hole with that of the crankcase. After setting, do not turn
     the tool or bearing.   Be sure that the butting part of the main
     bearing is in the illustrated position.

2.    Before installing the bear ing, apply eng ine oil to the outside
      surface of the bearing.  Be sure to use a press to install the
      bearing. Install the bearing squarely.

Timing Gears

Check each gear for incor-
rect wear and damage, and if
defective replace.

Measure the clearance between the camshaft journals (both front and
rear) and the shaft hole in the crankcase, and if the clearance is
excessive, replace the camshaft or crankcase.

If the cam face is damaged or the cam lobe is worn in excess of the
service limit, replace the camshaft.

Check the slot for driving the oil pump for any wear, and if the wear
is excessive, replace.

Check the bottom of the tappet (the surface contacting the cam), and
replace the tappet if the bottom is excessively cracked, spalled or
Push Rod
Replace if the wear at both ends is

Place the push rod on a surface plate
and measure the bend in the center,
and if it is excessively bent over
the   standard   value,   repair   or

                       ASSEMBLY AND ADJUSTMENT


1.   Clean each part thoroughly.     Especially clean carefully oil
     holes, bearings, bearing lower holes and inner wall of cylinders.

2.   Be careful not to mix nuts and bolts.       Metric and S.A.E. bolts
     are used on various engine assemblies.

3.   During assembly, recheck clearances and insure parts are being
     assembled in their proper order and facing in the correct direc-
     tion in relation to the engine block, e.g., pistons, piston
     rings, bearings and bearing caps.
4.   Apply lubr icating oil to moving parts dur ing assembly.  Insure'
     that moving parts, when assembled on the engine, rotate or slide
     and are not subject to binding or excessive tension.

5.   If there are mating marks scr ibed dur ing disassembly,              reference
     them correctly for assembly.

6.   Use new gaskets, lockwashers, o-rings, etc.

7.   Tighten the bolts and nuts on important parts of engine to spe-
     cified torques using a reliable torque wrench.
8.   Use liquid sealants when required on nuts,               bolts and gaskets.
     Refrain from using tape sealants.

Assembling of Piston and Connecting Rod

Assemble the piston and connecting rod in the following manner using
the special tool Piston Pin Setting Tool, Part Number 33582.

1.   Insert the piston pin into the push rod of the tool and screw the
     guide fully into the push rod.

2.   Insert the push rod, piston ring and
     guide   assembled  in   the  preceding
                                                                     Push rod
     paragraph, into the piston pin hole of
     the piston and further into the small
     end of the connecting rod.   Make sure
     that the front mark (arrow) on the top   Arrow mark on
                                              piston head
     of the piston and the identif ication
     mark of the connecting rod face in the          Piston

     same direction. Apply engine oil suf-                                      Tool body

     ficiently to the piston pin surface
     and inside the small end of the con-
     necting rod.

3.   Set the piston, connecting rod and tool assembled in the pre-
     ceding paragraph, to the tool body.   To set, ?lign the notch of
     the guide with that of the body and insert the assembly into the
     tool body.   Then turn the guide 90 degrees.   After setting, be
     sure that the small end of the connecting rod securely rests on
     the receiving part of the tool body.   Also check that the front
     mark (arrow) on the top of the piston and the identification mark
     of the connecting rod are facing upward.

4.   With the piston set on a hydrau-
     lic press, press the piston pin
     into the piston.   The hydraulic
     pressure should be be-tween 500
     -1500 kg (1100 - 1300 Ibs).    If
     the pin requires a greater or
     lesser   pressure,  replace   the
     connecting rod or piston and pin
     assembly.    The pin is pressed
     into a prescribed position by
     the guide.   After the installa-
     tion is completed, turn the push
     rod 90 degrees, align the notch
     of the guide with that of the
     tool body, and remove the piston
     and connecting rod assembly from
     the tool body.


After installing the piston and connecting rod, verify that the piston
pin is equally pressed in against the center of the rod.    If the pin
has been installed unequally, correct it.   In such a case, check the

Installation of Piston Rings

Since piston rings differ in shape from
one another, they must be installed as                     ':L]No.l
illustrated paying attention to     the         ~
posi tion and direction.  They must be
installed so that the manufacturer's

mark and size mark face the top of the
Insert the crankshaft into the crank-
case.   Apply engine oil to the main                \I..
bearings and journals, and take care not                   ~Oilring
to damage the main bearing.

Install   the   front   bearing   housing.

                                                          Bearing housing
                                                    Pulley              "
    Install     the   crankshaft    plate,
    cr ankshaft gear and sleeve.   Install
    the cr ankshaft plate wi th the cham-
    fered side directed toward the rear of
    the eng ine, crankshaft gear wi th the                );
    stepped side directed toward the front       Nut /'        ,;          '_.-
                                                             rP Sleeve ,
    of the engine, and sleeve with the                     'nCranksh~ft
    chamfered square end toward the front            /              gear
    of the engine.                                                  Stopper plata

    Temporarily     install    the     sleeve
    stopper, washer and crankshaft pulley,
    and after tightening the nut, check
    the cr ankshaft end play.    I f the end
    play is exces-sively larger than the
    specified value, recheck the bearing
    housing.      Also   verify    that   the
    crankshaft gear and sleeve are pro-
    per ly installed.   After checking the
    end play, loosen the nut and remove
    the pulley and washer.

    Insert the piston and connecting rod
~   assembly into the cylinder, install
    the connecting rod cap, and tighten to
    the specified torque.        Insert the
    bol ts at the connecting rod side and
    tighten the nuts from the cap side.
    When   inserting   the piston,    use a                                              :"/
    piston ring compressor and be sure                                                  (j
    that the front mark (arrow) on the                                            ..·. h o.
                                                                                  .:/    'l
    piston head and the identification                                                         $
    mark    on  the   connecting   rod   are
    directed   toward   the front of the
    engine.    Also make sure that each
    piston ring end gap is not in the
    direction of thrust of the piston or
    in line with the piston pin and that
    the adjacent ring end gaps are at
    least 90 degrees apart.

    Key the camshaft gear to the camshaft
    and   insert  the camshaft into the
    crankcase.   Make sure that the mating
    mark of the crankshaft gear aligns
    with that of the camshaft gear as
    illustrated. Apply oil to the bearing
    surfaces when installing.

 Install the governor gear, and
install a snap ring onto the shaft.
Then install the governor weight
assembly and sliding shaft.

Install the gear case (with gover-
nor linkage assembled).     In this
case, attach a gasket coated with a        ~
good br and of sealant to the gear
case before installation.
Install the crankshaft pulley.   Do
not    forget    to   install   the
crankshaft spacer stopper washer
and   crankshaft    pulley  washer.
(Insure   these   washers  maintain
their positio~s when installing and tightening the front pulley nut.)
Torque the front pulley nut i6 the proper specification.

Install the oil pump assembly.

Install the backplate.
Install the flywheel and tighten
the bolts to the specified torque.

Install the oil screen and oil pan.
Insert the tappets.
                                               dll'" lObe
Insert the push rods into the tap-
pet hole center.

Install the cylinder head assembly.
(See "Cylinder Head Assembly".)

Install   the   injection     pump
assembly and fuel lines.      (See
"Fuel System".)

Install the oil filter.     I f the
oil pressure     swi tch and oil
pressure sender have not been
installed yet, apply sealant to
their threads and install them.
(Use    the proper     socket   for
installing   the    oil   pressure
swi tch. )

Install the fuel filter assembly
and    electric    fuel    pump.

Install the fresh water pump and drive pulley.

Install the starter and alternator.           (See "Electrical System".)
Install the alternator belt.             Adjust   the   tension   of   the   belt   by
adjusting the alternator.

Install   the   thermostat,   housing,    sea water     pump,   bracket and drive

Install the primary ·heat exchanger,
manifold and related hoses.

Attach   the  idle   stop  assembly
(generator - fuel run solenoid).

Reinstall wir ing harness.   Insure
harness is properly supported and
protected from chafing and heat.

Install the damper plate, adapter
and     transmission.       (Generator
uni ts:    refer to text on gener ator
removal and installation.)

                            LUBRICATION SYSTEM


The lubr icating system is of full-force type using a trochoid gear
pump with a full-flow oil filter.   The oil pump is driven through the
Oldham's coupling located at the rear end of the camshaft.     The oil
from the oil pump is regulated by a check valve, filtered by the
cartridge type oil filter and supplied to each part of the engine
through oil galleries in the engine block.

l-    Oil Filter                                 7
2.    Relief Valve                                   9
3.    Oil Pump
4.    Dipstick
5.    Pickup Line
6.    Oil Pressure Switch
7.    Oil Ffll Cap
B.    Rocker Arm                    13   t
9.    Rocker Shaft
10.   Camshaft
11.   Crankshaft
12.   Sump
13.   Oil Line to Rockers






Engine Oil

(1)   Engine oil to be used
      Use HD eng ine oil (heavy-duty oil, API spec of CC), and change
      the oil every 100 hours of operation (initially at 50 hours).

(2)   Changing of engine oil

      To change the engine oil, warm up the engine.    Shut it down and
      then remove the oil dr ain hose from its suppor t br acket at the
      front of the engine.   Two wrenches are needed to do this one to
      hold the fitting on the hose and the other to unscrew the
      securing cap.   Lower the hose into a container large enough to
      hold the oil and allow the sump to drain. A pump may be used to
      draw the oil out through this hose.   When the sump is completely
      drained, reposition the drain hose on its support bracket and
      replace the hose cap/plug and tighten securely.

      Refill the engine oil sump with the correct amount of oil as spe-
      cified in the data section of this manual.

      NOTE: Check the oil level reading on the oil sump dipstick.
      Allow a few minutes after adding the new oil for it to settle
      into the oil sump.

Oil Filter

The oil filter is an easy-to-handle cartr idge type    filter with the
filter body and element formed integral.

If the element has been contaminated or clogged and the oil pressure
difference before and after the element has become more than about
1 kg/cm 2 , the built-in relief valve opens to allow the oil to flow to
each part of the engine wi thout passing through the oil filter ele-
ment.   Therefor e, it is impor tant to check and change the oil regu-
larly. The filter interior requires no cleaning. The filter must be
replaced with a new one every 100 hours of operation (initally at
50 hours).

Removal and Replacement of Oil Filter
If it is difficult to remove the filter by hand, use a special tool
(commercially available) or wrap a V-belt around it.

To install, tighten the oil filter fully by hand.
             Tightening torque:   1.1 to 1.3 kg-m
Confirm that the O-ring is properly fitted in the O-ring groove.
Apply a thin coat of engine oil to the O-ring.    Prior to installing
the filter on the engine, run the engine after filling with oil and
check for pressure and leaks.  Check the oil level after shutting the
eng ine off and add oil to br ing the level up to the full mar k as

Oil Pump

The oil pump is of trochoid
type and is mounted at the
rear of the crankcase.  The
oil filter is attached to
this oil pump.

The oil pump incorporates a
relief valve which, when the
delivery   pressure  becomes
more    than   3.5   kg/cm 2 ,
relieves excess pressure by
passing oil back into the
oil sump.

When    disassembling     and
reassembling the oil pump,
pay attention to the following items.

(I)   Apply engine oil to the rotating parts before assembling.

(2)   After assembling, check that the pump shaft turns smoothly.
(3)   Measure the clearance between the outer rotor and the pump body
      using a feeler gauge, and if the clearance is excessive, replace
      the rotor assembly or the pump body or both.

(4)   Measure the clearance between the outer and inner rotors using a
      feeler gauge, and if the clear ance is excessive, replace the
      rotor assembly.

(5)   To check the clear ance between the rotor and cover, inser t the
      rotor into the pump body and apply a straight edge across the
      body face.   If the clearance does not conform to the standard,
      replace the rotor assembly or body.

(6)   Assembling the oil pump

      (a)   Install    the rotor
            assembly in the oil
            pump body.

      (b)   Install the oil pump
            shaft to the crankcase
            with its lug properly
            fi tted in the slot in
            the camshaft.

      (c)   Replace   the   O-ring
            with a new one and
            install    the    pump
            cover.   Apply oil to
            the O-ring and install
            it squarely on the 0-
            ring groove.

Oil Pressure Switch

The oil pressure swi tch is located at the rear right side of the
crankcase and, when the lubricating system pressure becomes lower than
18 to 23 PSI dur ing normal oper ation, this swi tch oper ates an alarm
buzzer. When the alarm sounds, check the oil pressure and water tem-
perature gauges on your instrument panel.

      NOTE: The alarm can also be activated by an overheat switch
      which will activate the alarm should the operating temperature of
      the engine reach 205· F.

      Should the oil pressure be low, stop the engine and investigate.

Check the oil pressure switches, and if they do not meet the specifi-
cations, replace them.

      NOTE: Generator units have a two-prong oil pressure and water
      temperature switch which interrupts the circuit for the fuel run
      solenoid when tripped, thus shutting down the generator automati-

Checking Oil Pressure

1.   Warm up the engine.
2.   Remove the oil pressure sender
     and connect a mechanical oil
     pressure gauge instead.
3.   Set the eng ine speed at 3000
     RPM   and   measure  the   oil
     pressure.  If the oil pressure
     is less than the specifica-
     tion, check the lubricating

     Oil pressure:

          Greater tnan 3.5 kg/cm 2
          (50 lb/in 2 ) at 3000 RPM

     NOTE:  Insure   proper oil   is being used   that meets temperature
     requirements     and  the    A.P.I.   Spec    of  CC   or   better.

                                FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel from the fuel tank is brought to the engine by the aid of an
engine-mounted electric fuel pump.    (Note:  A filter/water separator
is recommended to be installed in the fuel supply line between the
fuel tank and the connection to the electric fuel pump.)     Fuel passes
through the electr ic pump to the eng ine-mounted fuel f il ter and then
to the high pressure injection pump. The injection pump delivers the
fuel through high pressure lines to each inj ector.       The injectors
spray the fuel into the engine's combustion chambers where it ignites.
Fuel not used is returned to a fitting on the injection pump where it
combines with unused fuel from the injection pump and is returned to
the fuel tank.

Fuel Filters (Engine Mounted)

The fuel filters are easy to handle cartridge type and constructed of

One filter element is located in the base of the electr ic fuel pump
and the other is located in the filter housing adjoining the electric
pump.   (Note:   Both elements should be replaced after the ini tial
50 hours of engine operation and then every 200 hours or once a season
as needed.)

Changing the Fuel Filters

The fuel filter element located in the electr ic fuel pump can be
removed by undoing the base of the pump.    A 17 rom wrench 5 rom thick
should be used to undo the base.   Turn the base clockwise to replace.
(Fuel will spill from the pump when the base is removed so be prepared
to catch it.)   Remove the base and filter element.    Install the new
element, insure the sealing gasket in the base cover is in good con-
dition and the round magnet is in the center of the cover when

The filter element in the cartridge is a paper type and to remove it,
unscrew the knurled retainer ring and drop the ring and lower housing
off the filter bracket.     (Fuel will spill from the housing, so be
prepared to catch it.)   The filter element is then withdrawn from the
filter bracket. Two O-rings are located in this bracket and should be
replaced as needed.   One seals the lower housing and the other seals
and holds the filter element in place.

Replace the filter element and the lower housing and retainer ring and
tighten the retainer ring.

Caution: When threading the retainer ring onto the bracket, take care
not to cross thread it.    It should thread easily onto the bracket
until the lower housing contacts the sealing O-r ing.   Hand tighten

Bleed the air from the electric fuel pump and this filter cartridge by
simply turning on the keyswitch (generator - depress preheat switch)
for 30 to 40 seconds, then start the unit and check for leaks.

Fuel Pump

In a solenoid-operated (transistor type)
12 volt DC fuel pump, the reciprocating
motion of the pump plunger is controlled
by a transistorized circuit.

The   oscillator   section  incorporates
transistors, diodes and resistors.

When the transistor circuit is closed
and the solenoid coil is excited, a
sucking   force  acts  on   the  plunger
forcing it down against the spring force
and the fuel,· pushing up the deli very
valve, that leads into the plunger.
When the transistor circuit is opened,
the plunger is pushed back upward by the                   (1)  Diaphragm          (6) Plunger
                                                           (2)  Oscillator         (7)   Outlet valve
spr ing force, forcing the fuel out of                     (3)  Solenoid coil      (8) Spring
the outlet port, and at the same time,                      (4) Filter             (9)   Inlet valve
the inlet valve opens and the fuel                          (5) Filter cover
enters the lower chamber.                                               Fuel Pump

Disassembly and Reassembly of the Electric Fuel Pump for Cleaning

Since this tr ansistor ized fuel pump is of a totally enclosed type,
only the cover, filter and plunger assembly require cleaning.

Using a 17 rom wrench, remove the cover (1) as illustrated. Then, the
cover gasket (2), magnet (3) and filter (4) can be removed from the
pump body.

        (I) Cover             (4) Filter        (6)   Spring retainer    (10)   Plunger spring
        (2) Cover gasket      (13) Body         (7)   Washer             (11)   Plunger
        (3) Magnet                              (8)   D-ring             (12)   Plunger tube
                Removal of Filter               (9)   Valve              (13)   Body
                                                            Removal of Plunger

Replace the filter as needed.

Check the cover gasket, and if damaged, replace it.         Clean the magnet
and cover thoroughly.

To remove the plunger, first remove the spring retainer (6) from the
plunger tube (12).    Then remove the washer (7), O-ring seal (8),
valve (9), plunger spring (10) and plunger (11) from inside the tube.
Wash these parts in clean diesel oil and remove the oil and other con-
taminants using compressed air.



(1)   To assemble, install the plunger, plunger spring, valve, O-ring
      and washer in that order, and finally secure them with the
      retainer so that they will not come out.
(2)   Install the filter element, and then the magnet and gasket in the
      base cover and tighten the cover with a 17 mm wrench to the ends
      of the slotted stop.

Servicing and Checking the Electric Fuel Pump
(1)   Changing the Filter

After the first 50 hours of operation and thereafter every 200 hours,
remove the lower cap of the pump using a 17 mm wrench and replace the
filter element.

(2)   Checking the Electric Fuel Pump Operation

Turn on the ignition switch (generator - preheat).     The pump should
produce a clicking sound.   If the pump does not produce any operating
sound, check with a DC voltmeter to determine that 12 volts is being
supplied to the pump.   If 12 volts is being supplied to the pump and
the pump still does not make any operating sound, replace the fuel
pump assembly. If 12 volts is not present at the pump, check the unit
circuit breaker, electrical connections and switch.

(3)   Checking the Discharge Rate of the
      Fuel Pump
Check the discharge rate as illustrated.
The pump must deliver over 200 cc (.422
pints)    of    fuel    in   15 seconds.

Fuel Injection Pump

This fuel injection pump is a double-barrel pump installed in the
cylinder block and consists of pump element (plunger assembly), deli-
very valve, tappet and smoke set device.  The pump is mounted at the
front right side of the cylinder block and delivers the fuel under
pressure when the pump cam rotation pushes the plunger up which
reciprocates through a fixed stroke.

(1)   Control of Injection Rate

The fuel injection rate is increased or decreased by chang ing the
relative position of the plunger lead and plunger barrel. The plunger
is rotated by the control pinion installed on the outer periphery of
the plunger barrel.
 The lower flange of the plunger fits in the slit of this plnlon, and
the rotation of the pinion is transmitted directly to the plunger.
This control pinion is driven by engine power through the camshaft,
governor weights operated through centr ifugal force, governor sleeve
and throttle linkage.    Therefore, when the fuel rack moves to the
right, the amount of fuel injected decreases, and when the fuel rack
moves to the left, the fuel increases.

                                                          1. Delivery valve holder
                                                          2. Delivery valve seat
      Q)                                                  3. Control rack
                                                          4. Pump body
      (j)                                                 5. Tappet
      ®                                                   6. Stopper
                                                          7. Delivery valve spring
                                                   @      8. Delivery valve
                                                          9. Air vent screw
      @                                                  10. Plunger barrel
                                                   iJ)   11. Lock pin
      iJ)                                                12. Control pinion
                                                          13. Plunger
      ®                                            ®     14. Union bolt
      @                                                   15. Upper seat
                                                         16. Spring
      ®                                                  17. Lower seat
                                                         18. Return spring

(2)   Smoke Set
A smoke set is installed to control the maximum-fuel injection rate.
The stopper is held by a spring in the illustrated position.      This
position is the smoke set position.      To start a cold engine, the
throttle lever is pulled fully toward the maximum number of rotation
and the control rack is moved by the governor lever in the direction
of the arrow overcoming the spr ing force of the stopper thus causing
excessive injection.  The fuel injection rate between the two barrels
is adjusted by the plunger barrel which rotates on the adjusting plate
with cam mechanism located on the opposite side of the control rack.


        Adjusting plate   Plunger barrel

(3)   Delivery Valve
In addition to the function                to deliver the fuel into the injector line
after the fuel pressure has                 increased sufficiently high, the delivery
valve has another important                 function to prevent nafter-dripn from the
nozzle tip after completion                of injection.

When the fuel pressure above the plun-
ger has dropped at the completion of
injecting, the delivery valve piston
moves to close the delivery valve seat,
but at that time, the compressed fuel
still remains in the line which results
in the after-drip from the nozzle tip.
To prevent this after-dripping, the
delivery valve piston sucks back the
fuel remaining in the injection line
before the delivery valve is seated,
                                                           During injection   End of injection
thus reducing the fuel pressure in the
injector line almost to zero.

Disassembly of the Fuel Injection Pump
(1)   Remove the fuel injec-
      tion lines and return

(2)   Loosen    the    injection
      pump mounting bolts and
      lift the pump assembly
      out    of    the    engine
      block.      position the
      throttle arm about half
      open to position the
      fuel rack ball joint at
      the notch in the block
      for removal.
(3)   Record the thickness and quantity of pump adjusting shims      in
      order to facilitate adjustment at the time of reassembly.
(4)   Disassembly of the Fuel Pump

      Do not recklessly try to disassemble the fuel injection pump.
      Pump adjustment requires a test bench and acquired skill. Avoid
      disassembly and adjustment of the pump when this equipment and
      knowledge are not available.
      Before disassembling, close the fuel inlet and outlet and clean
      the exterior of the pump.

      Fill a container with clean diesel oil and put disassembled parts
      in it.

      Keep in order the disassembled parts except those to be replaced
      so that they may be reassembled in their original positions and
      that no mixing with other parts will occur.

      (a)   Remove the deli-
            very valve
            holder.      Take
            out   the   valve
            spring,     valve
            and O-ring.

      (b)   Take   out   the
            gasket and valve

      (c)   Straighten the tappet guide pin lock plate, push in the tap-
            pet slightly, pull off the guide pin _ using a needle nose
            pliers and take out the tappet.

      (d)   Remove the spring and upper seat.
      (e)   Remove the pinion.
      (f)   Draw out the plunger barrel upward from the pump housing.
            Keep the removed plunger barrels and plungers in sets.
            (Never mix plunger and barrel assemblies.)

      (g)   Remove the cotter pin, washer, return spring and smoke set,
            and pullout the control rack.


(1)   Delivery Valve Seat
                                                             Delivery VIIlve
Check the contact surface of the deli-
very valve seat, and if not showing
good contact, replace the delivery
valve. The delivery valve should show
a   slight   resistance   when   being
withdrawn from the valve body when the
other hole is closed off wi th one IS

(2)   Plunger Barrel

Check the plunger for seizure, damage
and rust. Also check that the plunger
slides smoothly when it is lubricated
with diesel fuel and inserted into the
barrel.   If the plunger is found not           Ba,rel
to slide smoothly into the barrel,
replace the assembly.   The repair of
the plunger is not permitted: it must
be replaced.

(3)   Control Rack and Pinion
Replace the rack and pinion         whose
teeth are worn or damaged.

(4)   Tappet

Check the outer periphery of tappet,
roller and shaft for wear and damage,
and if defective, replace.


(I)   Partial Assembly of Fuel Injection Pump Assembly

      (a)    Insert the plunger barrel with the notch properly aligned
             with the dowel pin of the pump housing.

      (b)    Install the O-ring to the delivery valve holder.
      (c)    Install the spring seat gasket and valve assembly to the
             valve holder, and temporarily install this to the pump
             housing. Be sure to install the O-ring properly.
      (d)    Install the control rack.

      (e)   Assemble    pinions   to   the                               Pinion
            control rack with their center
            deep teeth properly aligned                                     bottoms
            with the aligning marks on the
            control rack respectively.
      (f)    Install the spring upper seat
             and spring.
                                                Control rack       Aligning marks
      (g)   Assemble   the   plunger   and
            spring lower seat, and install
            the assembly with the mark nL n
            on the plunger     flange  facing   the      control   rack       side.

      (h)   Insert the tappet (pay attention to
            the shim inserted), align the tappet-
            guide hole with the dowel pin hole of
            the housing and insert the tappet
            guide pin.  Before inserting the tap-
            pet guide pin, attach the lock plate
            and bend it to lock after the guide
            pin is installed.

      (i)   Install the smoke set stopper, return
            spring and washer,    and install a
            cotter pin.

      (j)   Tighten the delivery valve holder     to
            30 1b/ft.
(2)   Installation and Adjustment of Fuel Injection Pump
      (a)   To install the pump assembly,
            use     the  same    thickness
            adjusting shim under the pump
            as removed.   Confirm that the
            projection of the control rack
            fits properly in the forked                        Control rack
            end of the governor lever.
            The shim is available in nine                      Pump
            types from 0.2 mm (thickness)
            to 1.0 mm in increments of
            0.1 mm.
      (b)   Connect the fuel feed hose and             ~                shim

            bleed the injection pump by
            turning on the keyswitch or
            depressing the preheat switch (generators).

      (c)   Confirm the injection timing.        First remove the deli very
            valve holder, and after pulling out the delivery valve and
            spr ing, install the deli very valve holder only.     Tur n the
            crankshaft so as to bring 11 piston coming up on its
            compression stroke.      The injection time is the moment when
            the fuel flowing from the outlet port of the valve holder
            stops flowing.     Compare this moment to the timing mark on
            the crankshaft pulley on the front cover mark. If the stan-
            dard    injection   timing   cannot be obtained,    adjust by
            increasing or decreasing the thickness of the adjusting
            shim.    As the shim thickness changes 0.1 mm, the inj ection
            timing changes about 1·.      Where the above operation cannot
            be done, the adjustment may be made without removing the
            valve and spring. In this case, remove injection line *1 at
            the injector side and slowly turn the crankshaft pulley nut
            with a wrench. The injection timing is the moment when the
            fuel appears and swells at the end of the pipe, and this is
            about 1· later than the normal injection timing. The injec-
            tion timing must be checked when the plunger is in the smoke
            set      position,     that    is,    full    open   throttle.

Injector Nozzle

The fuel from the fuel injection pump
passes through the fuel passage in the
nozzle holder body and is injected
through the nozzle into the combustion
chamber. The excess fuel at the nozzle
flows through the nozzle holder, the
upper nipple and the return line and
returns to the fuel tank.                       I   Hexagon nut     7 Pressure pin
                                                2   Packing ring    8 Distance piece
                                                3   Washer          9 Retaining nut
                                                4   Body           10 Nozzle
                                                5   Shim washer    II Flange
                                                6   Spring

Disassembly of the Injector

(1)   Remove the return line from
      the injector upper attach-

(2)   Remove the fuel injection
      line from the injector.

(3)   Loosen the injector nut and
      remove the assembly.

(4)   Disassemble    the         nozzle
      holder   assembly     in      the
      following manner.

      (a)   With the retaining
            nut   held   in   a
            vice, remove the
            nozzle holder
            using a wrench on
            the nozzle holder
            body. When
            holding the
            retaining nut in
            the vice, use an
            aluminum or copper
            plate between the
            nut and the vice.

      (b)   Remove the shim,
            pressure ring,
            flange, pressure pin and distance piece.

      (c)    Take out the nozzle from the retaining nut.    If the nozzle
             is too hard to remove, lightly tap i t- wi th a wooden piece
             and remove, taking care not to damage the needle valve.


Check the nozzle for incorrect contact and damage, and if defective,
replace the nozzle assembly.

Check the pressure spring for damage.
Assembly of Nozzle and Injector Assembly
      CAUTION:   Before assembling, put the parts in diesel oil and
      clean them well. DO NOT wipe the cleaned parts with cloth.
      When installing the nozzle holder body and retaining nut, be sure
      to tighten them to the specified torque.      Inusfficient torque
      will cause poor compression.   If torqued excessively, the nozzle
      needle will drag, affecting injection performance.

(1)   Install the nozzle     assembly,     spacer   and   pressure   pin   to   the
      retaining nut.

(2)   Install the shim, spring and flange in the body and install them
      to the above-mentioned retaining nut and torque the retaining nut
      to the specification.
(3)   Tighten the nipple gasket and nipple.

Injection Test
(1)   Injection Start Pressure Test

      (a)   Measure the injection
            start pressure using a
            nozzle tester, and if
            out of standard, make
            adjustment   to  obtain
            the specified pressure
            by increasing or
            decreasing the
            adjusting shims.
            Adding shims increases
            the pressure and
            reducing shims
            decreases the pressure.

      (b)   As the thickness of the
            adjusting shim changes
            0.1 mm, the pressure changes about 10 kg/cm 2 · To change the
            shim, hold the retaining nut with a vice and remove the pump
            body with a wrench.   Tighten the retaining nut to the spe-
            cified torque.

(2)   Injection Test

      The chattering test (intermittent
      small amount injection test)     is
      considered as passed if intermi t-
      tent clear cut injection with sound
      is obtained when the tester lever
      is slowly oper ated.   In this case
      the injection must be straight in
      the same direction as the nozzle       Good                 8ad
      axis.   Spray in different direc-
      tions or in sever al lines is not
      acceptable. Also a large coarse spray is not acceptable.

(3)   After-drip Test
      In the preceding chattering test,
      if the fuel collects on the tip of
      the nozzle and dripping occurs
      after injection, the nozzle must be
      replaced because it is defective.
      A very small amount of fuel may
                                             u u        ~
      collect on the nozzle tip. This is     Good      8ad        Bad
      caused by chattering and, therefore
      is not a defect.

(4)   Spray Condition Test
      When the tester lever is operated fast (abour 200 strokes per
      minute), the fuel must be sprayed in fine mist straight in the
      direction of the nozzle axis. Coarse spray is not acceptable.

Installation of the Nozzle Holder Assembly

Install the nozzle holder assembly to the cylinder head and tighten to
the specified torque.    Replace the nozzle holder gasket wi th a new

                                 GOVERNOR SYSTEM


The governor functions to keep the engine running at a constant speed
by balancing the centrifugal force acting on the governor weights and
the governor spring tension.     As the engine speed increases, the
governor weights (8) open to move the sliding shaft (6) forward and
the control rack of the injection pump is moved by the governor
lever (5) in the direction of reducing the fuel injection rate.    At
the same time the governor spring (3) is pulled by the governor
lever (5) until the spring force is balanced with the centrifugal
force of the governor weights, thus maintaining the constant engine

If the speed control lever (1) is pulled toward HIGH SPEED, the
governor spr ing (3) is pulled and the governor control rack is moved
by the governor lever (5) toward increasing fuel injection rate to
increase the engine speed which is kept constant when the centrifugal
force of the governor weight is balanced wi th the governor spr ing





            1.   Speed control lever
            2.   Camshaft               8.   Governor weight breather
            3.   Governor spring        9.   Injection pump
            4.   Cam gear              10.   Gear case
            5.   Governor lever        11.   Air breather pump
            6.   Sliding shaft         12.   Crankshaft gear
            7.   Idle gear             13.   Crankshaft
Governor Lever
Construction of the Governor
The governor lever is built
inside the gear case, one
end of the lever in contact
with . the   injection  pump
control rack and the other
end with the governor weight
sliding shaft.

The lever is held at the
center by a shaft which is
fitted to connect the shaft
with the control lever.


(1)    Remove the alternator
       bel t.     (See nCooling
       Systemn. )

(2)    Remove the crankshaft
       pulley nut, then the

(3)    Remove the fuel injec-
       tion pump.   (See nFuel
       Injection pumpn.)

(4 )   Remove    the gear   case
       bolts,    then the   gear
(5)    Remove    the   governor

(6)    Remove the nu t , washer
       and spring lever, and
       remove   the     throttle
       control lever from the
       gear case.

(7)    Remove the nu t , washer
       and spr ing lever, then
       the governor lever set
       bolt, and remove the
       governor lever.

(8)    Remove   the   governor
       weight   assembly   and
       sliding shaft from the
       pump camshaft.


(l)   Governor Lever

      Check the connections
      of the governor lever
      wi th the sliding shaft
      and with the control
      rack and, if defective,

(2)   Governor Spring

      Check the spring for
      deterioration and
      breakage, and if defec-
      ti ve, replace.  Do not
      stretch the spring.

Governor Weight

The governor weight is installed on the governor gear in mesh with the
cam gear.   In order to improve the governor regulation, the sliding
shaft is provided with a stopper.

The governor gear is fi tted in the gear shaft on the crankcase side
and is retained by a snap ring.

The    shaft   is   made   hollow   to   receive   the   sliding   shaft.


      The governor weight can be disassembled by the same procedures as
      for the governor lever.


(1)   Governor Assembly

      (a)    Check the   weight   for   wear   and   damage,   and   if   defective,

      (b)    Check the operating part of the sliding shaft for damage and
             see if the operation is smooth. If defective, replace.


      For reassembling, reverse the order of disassembly, and after the
      reassembly is completed, check that the operation is smooth.


Special Tools

Tool No.        Tool Name                                 Use

 33582          Piston pin                       For drawing out or
                setting tool                     press-fitting piston

 33742          Bearing                          For drawing out or
                installer                        press-fitting main
                                                 bearing, with ring
                                                 adapter for front

 33584          Compression                      For testing com-
                gauge adapter
                (Straight type)
                without check
                                         ;?      pression. Mounts in
                                                 place of glowplug.

                valve (5/8-18 UNF
                thread for gauge)   /
 33781          Compression gauge                For testing
                with built-in                    compression.
                check valve

In addition to the above, the following are needed:     Common service
tools, bearings, puller, valve seat cutter, valve guide installer, oil
filter wrench and other measuring instruments.

                        OVERHAULING PROCEDURE

Judging When to Overhaul the Engine

Usually   the overhauling time of the engine is determined by reduced
engine power, decreased compression pressure and increased fuel and
engine oil comsumption.
But the reduced engine power may be caused not only by the trouble of
the engine itself but also by damaged nozzle or improper adjustment of
the injection pump.   For this reason, it will be most advisable to
take a compression check of the engine before undertaking major

However, the decrease in compression pressure is caused by many fctors
and it is not so easy to find which factor is the cause. Therefore,
the cause for trouble should be determined on the basis of records of
regular inspection and maintenance.
If the trouble is caused by the wear of the cylinder and piston, the
following symptoms will appear.
    1)   Reduced engine power and decreased compression pressure

    2)   Increased fuel consumption

    3)   Increased consumption of lubricating oil

    4)   Poor engine starting

    5)   Increased noise from engine parts
Usually, two or more of the above symptoms appear at the same time.
Symptoms 2) and 4) are caused by excessive fuel injection, improper
injection timing and plunger and nozzle wear, and they are also
ser iously affected by electr ical system trouble such as faulty bat-
tery, alternator, starter and glow plug.      Therefore, in order to
determine the overhauling time of the engine, it is recommended to use
as a guide the decrease of the compression pressure due to the wear of
the cylinder and piston aand at the same time to take into con-
sideration the oil consumption and other items.

The compression pressure is the source of the explosive power of the
diesel engine, and without sufficient compression pressure, complete
combustion cannot be achieved even if other parts of the engine are
In order to determine the overhauling time of the diesel engine, it is
important to measure the engine compression pressure regularly. Since
the compression pressure varies with engine RPM, check the speed also.
The engine RPM can be measured at the front end of the crankshaft.

Measuring Compression Pressure

(1) Remove the glow plug from.·
    the   cylinder whose  com-
    pression pressure is to be

(2) Install a pressure gauge
    adapter in the screw hole
    of the glow plug and con-
    nect a pressure gauge.

(3) Turn the engine over wi th
    the starter and when the
    eng ine  speed  has   become
    stabili zed,   record    the
    engine speed and pressure

(4) Measure the compression pressure of other cylinders in the carne

    CAUTION: It is wrong to judge the status of the other cylinder by
    measuring only one cylinder. Be sure to measure both cylinders.

Judgement of Engine Condition by Compression Pressure

(1) When the engine is new, the compression pressure is a little high
    because of the close fit between mating parts, but after that, the
    pressure decreases gradually as the parts get worn.

(2) When the compression pressure has decreased below the acceptable
    limits, the engine should be overhauled.

Judgement by Increased Consumption of Engine Oil

    If the engine oil comsumption has increased by about 50% more than
    the  standard consumption    (as 100%),    the  engine should   be

Cautions in Overhauling

Disassemble the engine taking the following  precautions.  The order
of disassembling and reassembling may be different depending on the
change of specifications.

(1) Carefully check for visible problems prior to disasembling or
    cleaning because some faults may not be found after disassembling
    or cleaning.

(2) Drain all water, oil and fuel before disassembling.

(3) Clean or wash the exterior of the engine.

(4) Use proper tools and observe the order of disassembling.      Keep
    disassembled parts in proper order and protect as necessary. Also
    take special care to prevent the fuel system parts from being con-
    taminated by dirt or dust.

(5) Do not disassemble or remove the parts that require no disassem-

Assemble the engine taking the following precautions.

(1) Prepare all necessary parts for reassembling.

(2) Clean or wash the parts and apply oil as needed.

(3) Check all gaskets, washers and oil seals and replace them with new

(4) Be sure to install in proper directions and positions (see dowel
    pins, mating marks and specified directions).    When tightening
    torque is not specified, tighten evenly to an ordinary torque.
    Apply a sealant where specified.

(5) After completion of reassembly, re-check for abnormality. Prepare
    for starting the engine.   Run the engine at idle sufficiently for
    test run.


                                           STANDARD             SERVICE
                                             VALUE               LIMIT

1.   Compression pressure (320 RPM)        32kg/cm 2      Approx. 26kg/cm 2
2.   Difference of compression
     pressure between cylinders
     (max. )                               2.Skg/cm 2

3.   Order of fuel injection                 1 - 2

4.   Fuel injection timing    (BTDC of compression stroke when started at
     smoke set position)                    25·

5.   Cylinder Head

     a.   Bottom surface distortion        O.OSmm/less
     b.   Valve guide I.D.                    6.6rnm
     c.   Valve seat angle                      45·
     d.   Valve seat width                  1.5 -   1.8
     e.   Valve seat sinkage                                     -1 rnrn

6.   Valve Clearance (engine cold)            0.2Smm

7.   Valve

     a. Stern O.D.                            6.6rnm
     b. Clearance between stern and
        guide (intake)                                          O.lOmm
     c. Clearance between stern and
        guide (exhaust)                                         O.lSrnm
     d. Seat face angle                        45'
     e. Valve head thickness (margin
        width                                  Imm

8.   Valve Spring

     a. Free length                           44rnm
     b. Installed load/height              10.0±0.Skg/37.6rnm     -15%
     c. Squareness                            2.0·                   3·

9.   Rocker Arm

     a. Clearance between rocker arm
        and shaft                            0.04mm              -0.2rnm

10. Crankcase

     a. Cylinder I.D.                    6Smm                +0.9Srnm
     b. Tolerance on oversize cylinder
        bore                           o - 0.03rnm for each oversize
     c. Taper of cylinder bore         within O.Olrnm

                                               STANDARD            SERVICE
                                                 VALUE              LIMIT
11. Piston

    a. Type                                 Solid type
    b. Material                             Aluminum Alloy
    c. O.D. (skirt end)                        64.95mm
    d. Piston to cylinder wall
       clearance                                                     0.3mm
    e. Oversize  available                  0.25, 0.50, 0.75mm

12. Piston Pin

    a. Type                                 Semi-floating
    b. Piston to pin clearance                                       0.08mm
    c. Press-in load with connecting
       rod                                  500 - l500kg
13. Piston Ring

    a. No. of rings:  Compression           3 (No. 1 chrome-plated)
                      Oil                   1 (chrome-plated)
    b. Ring side clearance
         Compression No. 1                                         0.3mm
                     No.2                   0.03   -   0.08mm      0.2mm
                     No. 3                  0.03   -   0.08mm      0.2mm
         Oil ring                           0.03   -   0.07mm      0.2mm
    c. Ring end gap                         0.20   -   0.50mm      1.5mm
14. Connecting Rod

    a. Type                                 Forged, I-beam
    b. Bend and distortion                                      0.l5mm or less
    c. Big end thrust clearance             0.1 - 0.35mm             0.5mm

15. Connecting Rod Bearing

    a. Type                                 Kelmet metal with back metal
    b. Oil clearance                        0.035 - 0.050mm       0.15mm
    c. Undersize                            0.25, 0.50, 0.75mm
16. Crankshaft

    a.   Type                               Fully counterbalanced
    b.   Bend                                               0.05 mm or less
    c.   End play                             0.1 - 0.3mm
    d.   Journal O.D.                            54mm           -0.95mm
    e.   Pin 0.0.                                42mm           -0.95mm
    f.   Undersize finish dimensions
           Journal U.S. 0.25                (standard value - 0.25) -0.040
                   U.S. 0.50                (standard value - 0.50) -0.040
                   U.S. 0.75                (standard value - 0.75) -0.040

                                             STANDARD         SERVICE
                                               VALUE           LIMIT

     g. Pin         u.s.   0.25          (standard - 0.25) -0.035
                    U.S. 0.50            (standard - 0.50) -0.035
                    U.S. 0.75            (standard - 0.75) -0.035

17. Main Bearing

     a. Type                             Kelmet metal with back metal
     b. Oil clearance                    0.029 - 0.090mm       0.15mm
     c. Undersize                        0.25, 0.50, 0.7Smm

18. Crankshaft Plate

     a. Thickness                           4 + O.lmm

19. Camshaft

     a. Drive method                   Gear
     b. Clearance between journal and
        cylinder block hole                                     0.15mm
     c. Cam lobe diameter (both intake
        and exhaust)                      25.S9mm              -l.Ornm
     d. Cam lobe diameter (pump cam)      44.00mm              -l.Omm

20. Tappet

     a. Clearance between tappet and
        cylinder block hole                                     0.15mm

21. Push Rod

     a. Bend                                                0.3mm or less


1.   Quantity of Engine Oil       2.8 liters (upper limit)     excluding
                                  1.8 liters (lower limit)    .3 liters in
                                                              oil filter

2.   API Service SEec.                   API spec. CC or better

3.   Viscosity

     a. Summer: 20·C or higher           SAE 30 or 10W-30
     b. Spring, fall: 5· - 20·C          SAE 20 or 10W-30
     c. Winter: S·C or lower             SAE 10W-30

                                               STANDARD          SERVICE
                                                 VALUE            LIMIT

4.   Oil pump

     a. Type                               Trochoid type
     b. Check valve opening ~ressure          3.Skg/cm2
     c. Clearance between ou er rotor
        and body                                                 0.30mm
     d. Clearance between outer rotor
        and inner rotor                                          0.2Smm
     e. Clearance between rotor and
        cover                                                    0.2Smm

S.   Oil Pressure Switch

     a. Generator: normally open           18 - 23 PSI (to close)
     b. Propulsion: normally closed        18 - 23 PSI (to open)


1.   Fuel                                  #2 diesel fuel

2.   Fuel Filter TYEe                      Filter paper type cartridge

3.   Fuel PumE

     a. Type                               Electromagnetic type
     b. Delivery rate                      200cc or more (15 sec., 12V)
                                           free flow

4.   Fuel Injection Pump

     a. Model                              ND-PFR2M
     b. Fuel injection rate
          Smoke set (SS)                   1800 RPM 17+1mrn 3/st
          At start set (MS)                150 RPM 27+Srnrn 3 /st
          Difference between cylinders     2mm 3 /rev. cyl. or less standard

S.   Nozzle

     a. Type                               Throttle
     b. Model                              ND-DN4SD24
     c. Injection start pressure           160 +10 kg/cm 2 lSOkg/cm 2 or less


1.   Type                                  Centrifugal weight type

                                              STANDARD          SERVICE
                                                VALUE-           LIMIT


1.   Fresh Water Pump

     a. Type                              Centrifugal impeller type
     b. Water Temperature Switch
        (normally closed)                 20S·F +S·   (to operate)

2.   Sea Water Pump

     a. Type                              positive displacement
                                          G.P.M. at 3000 RPM
                                          G.P.M. at 1800 RPM (at discharge
                                                           from exchanger)


1.   Starter

     a. Type                              Solenoid-operated overrunning
     b. Output-voltage                    0.9KW - l2VDC
     c. Direction of rotation             Clockwise as viewed from pinion
     d.   No-load terminal voltage        11.SVDC
     e.   No-load current                 60A or less
     f.   No-load speed                   6S00 RPM or more
     g.   Pinion gap                      O.S - 2.0mm

2.   Alternator

     a. voltage                           l2VDC
     b. Current                           3S amp
     c. Regulator (Internal IC type)      l4.4VDC +0.3V
     d. No-load output
          Terminal voltage                l3.SVDC
          Current                         7 amp
          Speed                           1300 RPM or less
     e. Load output
          Terminal voltage                l3.SVDC
          Current                         30 amp or greater
          Speed                           2S00 RPM or less

3.   Glow Plug

     a. Type                              Sheathed quick heating type
     b. Rated current                     10.SV
     c. Resistance                        0.16 ohms (at normal

                        TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES

                                                      Kg-m          Ib-ft

Cylinder head bolt (M8)                           3.5 -      4.0    25 -    29

Rocker cover nut (MB)                             0.5 -      0.7     4 -     5

Connecting rod cap nut                            3.2 -      3.5    23 -    25

Flywheel bolt (MIO)                               6.5 -      7.0    46 -    51

Crankshaft pulley nut (M24)                      15.0 - 20.0       lOB - 144

Oil filter                                        1.1 -      1.3     8 -     9
Nozzle holder                                     5.0 -      6.0    36 -    43

Nozzle holder and retaining nut                   6.0 -      8.0    43 -    58

Glowplug                                          1.5 -      2.0   11 -     15

Grade 6T
     6mm bolt/nut                                 0.7   - 1.0       5   -    7
     8mm bolt/nut                                 1.6   -  2.3     12   -   17
    10mm bolt/nut                                 3.2   -  4.7     23   -   24
    12mm bolt/nut                                 5.6   -  B.2     41   -   59
    14mm bolt/nut                                 7.7   - 10.5     56   -   76
Grade 8T and 8.8
     6mm bolt/nut                                  .B   - 1.2       6   -   9
     8mm bolt/nut                                 1.8   -  2.7     13   -  20
    10mm bolt/nut                                 3.7   -  5.5     27   -  40
    12mm bolt/nut                                 6.4   -  9.5     46   -  69
    14mm bolt/nut                                10.4   - 14.0     75   - 101
Grade 5 cap~crew
    1/4 UNC                                       1.2- 1.5          9   -   11
    1/4 UNF                                       1.5 - 1.8        11   -   13
    5/16 UNC                                      2.5 -  2.8       18   -   20
    5/16 UNF                                      2.9 -  3.2       21   -   23
    3/8 UNC                                       3.7 -  4.6       28   -   33
    3/8 UNF                                       4.1 -  4.8       30   -   35
    7/16 UNC                                      6.1 -  6.8       44   -   49
    7/16 UNF                                      6.9 -  7.6       50   -   55
    1/2 UNC                                       9.4 - 10.1       68   -   73
    1/2 UNF                                      10.1 - 11.1       73   -   80

           CONTENTS                               PAGE


 Activation by Keyswitch (1980 onwards) ·········· 92

  Starter Motor ··································· 95

 A1ternator ······································ 99

COOLING SYSTEM EXTERNAL                            107


 Type HBW Short Profile Sailing Gear ············ 114

  Type BW Transmission ··························· 122

                                                                    ACTIVATION BY KEYS WITCH

                                                                                                                         SCHEMATIC   DIAG~AM

                                                                                                              +   IZVOC eAiT[It.,      eAT'T!A" R(TUJt,..

                                                   WIRI NG     DIAGRAM

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                                         w" SENOEA           _---!!":!"!!.N-I'T-----

                    rUEL   SOL. w~e. wt:J2. w 70. WIOO

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                               "').z.""~6. ~?O.WIOO
                                IF CQUI" .. t!).

                                                                          " ~ ~   .

                                                                                             F'RE-HE:AT SOL

           @SCEt.- --
                                  .' Y
                                ~' ..     ~/            ..


(a)   Remove the pump from the mounting bracket and remove the dr ive

(b)   Remove the front cover and impeller as above.          Remove the cam and
      inner wear plate.

(c)   Remove the plastic bearing shield from the pulley shaft end of
      the pump with the aid of a small screwdriver.   Push through the
      small recess in the outer circumference of the shield and pry it
      out.   With snap ring pliers, remove the large outer snap ring
      positioned in the pump body.

(d)   Support the pump and with a soft dowel that fits into the slot of
      the shaft.   Carefully press the shaft out of the pump.     (Press
      away from the impeller bore.)    In most instances the bear ings,
      plastic spacer and O-ring will come out with the shaft.    If the
      bearings remain in the pump when pressing out the shaft, be sure
      to support the bearings by the inner race.

(e)   Reach in from the impeller bore side and withdraw the seal with
      needle nose pliers. Clean the seal area.

(f)   Apply a liberal amount of    petroleum jelly to the seal lip and
      then dip the seal in water   and press the seal squarely into the
      seal bore, lip facing the     impeller bore.  Use the inner wear
      plate to position the seal     flush with the impeller bore inner

(g)   Apply lubricant to pump shaft and bearings outer surface.
      position plastic spacer and O-ring on shaft. Press bearings and
      shaft assembly on outer race of bearings. Take care to see that
      the shaft passes through the seal without damaging it. Press the
      shaft assembly in until it bottoms in the pump body. Rotate the
      shaft to insure it is free.
(h)   Replace the large outer snap ring and plastic bearing shield.

(i)   Replace the inner wear plate and cam.    Apply a small amount of
      sealant to the cam inner surface and the screw holding screw.
      The inner wear plate, if worn or grooved, can be reversed.
(j)   Replace the impeller as described in #5.


If shaft and bearing replacement become necessary, it is recommended
that the pump be replaced.


The water pump is a centrifugal
impeller type and is installed at
the front top of the crankcase. The
pump    shaft   is    supported   on
maintenance-free double-row radial
ball bear ings which are greased and


(a)   Drain the cooling water.     (The drain plug              is    located on      the
      right-hand side of the crankcase.)

(b)   Remove the water hose.

(c)   Remove the alternator and sea water pump belts.

(d)   Remove the. pulley.

(e)   Remove the water pump assembly.

(a)   Check the parts for      cracks,    damage   and      water    leakage,   and    if
      defective, replace.

(b)   Check the rotating condition of the impeller and shaft. If they
      make noise or do not rotate smoothly, replace them as an

(c)    Check the fan (if equipped) for cracks and damage, and if defec-
      tive, replace.
(d)   Check the belts for elongation and cracks due to deterioration,
      and if defective, replace.


For reassembling, rever se the order of disassembly.                  The alternator
belt adjustment can be made in the following manner.

(a)   Adjustment of Alternator Belt

      The     al ternator    bel t    should
      deflect 10 to 12 rom deep when
      pressed at the center point bet-
      ween the water pump pulley and
      the    alternator     or    alternator
      pulley.      Adjust the alternator
      belt tension by moving the alter-
      nator.          After    adjustment,
      securely tighten the pivot bolt          Crankshaft
      and adjusting arm bolt.


It is preferable to fill your engine with a 50% antifreeze-water mix-
ture. This precludes the necessity of draining coolant in the winter.
Since most antifreezes contain preservative agents of one kind or
another, rusting within the engine is minimized. Also, the antifreeze
mixture boils at a higher temperature than water, giving cooling
system "head room".

When draining the engine, open the pressure cap first to relieve the
vacuum created by draining.


It is very important to completely fill the fresh water system before
starting the engine.     It is normal for air to become trapped in
var ious passages so all high points must be opened to atmosphere to
bleed entrapped air.    When an engine is started after filling wi th
coolant, the system may look deceptively full until the thermostat
opens.   At this time when water flows through the external cooling
circuit for the first time, pockets of air can be exposed and rise to
the fill point. Be sure to add coolant at this time.

After a number of seasons' use of the engine, water scale and rust may
occur in the block water jacket and exchanger, resulting in con-
siderable reduction of cooling efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary
to flush the cooling system once every two or three years.

      CAUTION: Adhere to the manufacturer's instructions when using
      the additive. Do not mix different brand products.
      Be sure to put the proper amount of antifreeze in water and agi-
      tate well before adding it to the cooling system.  Du not use a
      concentrated antifreeze solution.


Generally, thermostats are of two types.      One is simply a choking
device which opens and closes as the engine temperature rises and
falls.   The second type has a by-pass mechanism.    Usually this is a
disc on the bottom of the thermostat which moves downward to close off
an internal by-pass passage wi thin the head.     Both types of ther-
mostats, from 1980 onwards, have a hole punched through them to serve
as a by-pass while the engine is warming up.            This prevents
overheating   in   the  exhaust   manifold   during   engine  warm-up.
Replacement thermostats must be equal in this design characteristic.
When replacing a thermostat, be sure that it is rotated so as to not
strike the thermostat housing, projections inside the head, tem-
perature senders or temperature switches which may be installed close
to the thermostat. Also insure the by-pass hole is not blocked by any
part of the housing.

A thermostat can be checked for proper operation by placing it in a
pan of cold water and then raising the temperature of the water to a
boil. The thermostat should open noticeably (with travel on the order
of 1/4 n - 1/2 n ) and be fully opened when the water is boiling.


The water temperature switch is located in the thermostat housing at
the front of the cylinder head.    This switch will close on a pro-
pulsion at 205· F to activate an alarm buzzer and on a generator
engine it will open to de-energize the fuel run solenoid to shut the
engine off.

The water temperature sender is located in the thermostat housing at
the front of the cylinder head.     It senses the temperature of the
water flowing through the thermostat and electr ically transmits this
reading to a water temperature gauge in the engine instrument panel.
Certain transmissions require oil cooling.       In these         cases,    the
transmission oil cooler is usually cooled by sea water.
Normally, sea water enters     this    cooler   after   exiting    the     heat
exchanger, but not always.





The Type HBW Short Profile Sailing Gears are equipped with a positive-
ly driven, mechanically operated helical gearing system.    The servo-
operated multiple-disc clutch requires only minimum effort for gear
changing, making the transmission suitable for single-lever remote
control via a rod linkage, Morse or Bowden cable.

The torque transmission capacity of the clutch is exactly rated, pre-
venting shock loads from exceeding a predetermined value and thus
ensuring maximum protection of the engine.

The transmission units are characterized by low weight and small
overall dimensions. The gearbox castings are made of a high-strength,
corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy, chromized for improved sea water
resistance and optimum adhesion of paint.

The transmissions are immersion-lubricated.   Maintenance is restricted
to oil level checks (see "Maintenance").


The rotating parts of the HBW transmission are accomodated in an oil-
tight casing divided into two halves in the plane of the vertical
axis. Amply dimensioned cooling ribs ensure good heat dissipation and
mechanical rigidity.

An oil filler screw wi th dipstick and an oil drain plug are screwed
into the gear casing.   The filler screw is provided wi th a breather
The shaft for actuating the multiple-disc clutch extends     through   a
cover on the side of the gear casing.


The transmission is equipped with shaved, casehardened helical gears
made of forged low-carbon alloy steel. The mUlti-spline driving shaft
connecting the transmission with the engine is hardened as well.

The driven shaft (propeller side) of the transmission is fitted with a
forged coupling flange, except on the V-drive model.


The engine torque is applied to the input shaft (36) in the specified
direction of rotation and, IN SHIFTING POSITION A (forward), via
gear (44), the frictionally engaged clutch discs (51 and 52) to the
external disc carrier (57) and from there via the guide sleeve (59)
to the output shaft (66).

IN SHIFTING POSITION B (reverse), the torque is transmitted from the
input  shaft (36)   via  intermediate gear (26),  gear (65),   clutch
discs (51 and 52)    to the external disc carrier (57), the guide
sleeve (59) and the output shaft (66).

The transmission uses a positively driven, mechanically       operated
multiple-disc clutch system mounted on the output shaft.

The thrust force required for obtaining positive frictional engagement
between the clutch discs is provided by a servo system.    This essen-
tially compr ises a number of balls which, by the rotary movement of
the external disc carrier, are urged against inclined surfaces pro-
vided in pockets between the guide sleeve and the external disc
carrier and in this manner exert axial pressure.      The thrust force
and, as a result, the transmittable friction torque are thus propor-
tional to the input torque applied.   Due to the cup springs (48) sup-
porting the clutch disc stack and a limitation of the range of axial
travel of the external disc carrier (57), the thrust force cannot
exceed a predetermined value.

The actuating sleeve (60) is held in the middle position by spring-
loaded pins.     To initiate the shifting operation, the actuating
sleeve (60) need merely be displaced axially by a shifting fork until
the arresting force has been overcome. Then the actuating sleeve (60)
is moved automatically by the spring-loaded pins, while the external
disc carr ier, which follows this movement, is rotated by the fr ic-
tional forces exerted by the clutch discs, and the shifting operation
is completed as described above.

                                                     Power flow in lever position
                                                          _    A

                                                 --~ 8

Both the input and the output shafts are carried in amply dimensioned
taper roll bearings.

The intermediate gear and    the   movable   gears     are     carried       in     sturdy
needle roller bearings.

External sealing of the input and output shafts is provided by radial
sealing rings. The running surface on the shafts is casehardened.

The  transmissions   are   immersion-lubricated.              The     bear ings  are
generously    supplied     with   splash     oil              and      oil      mist.



For safety reasons, the gearbox is NOT filled with oil for shipment.
The actuating lever is mounted on the actuating shaft.

Before leaving the factory, each transmission is subjected to a test
run with the prescribed ATF oil~    The residual oil remaining in the
transmission after draining acts as a preservative and provides
reliable protection against corrosion for at least 1 year if the units
are properly stored.


breather hole on the oil f iller screw is not closed by the paint.
Indicating plates should remain clearly legible.


A torsio-elastic damping plate between the engine and the transmission
is to compensate for minor alignment errors and to protect the input
shaft from external forces and loads.   Radial play should be at least
0.5 mm.


To protect the gearbox from detrimental stresses and loads, provision
should be made for elastic suspension of the engine-gearbox assembly
in the boat or craft.

The oil drain plug of the gearbox should be conveniently accessible.


The inclination of the gearbox
unit in the direction of the
shafts should not permanently
exceed an angle of 20 degrees
(15 degrees for    the V-drive
model) · (See illustration.)

The gearbox can also be mounted
with the output shaft in the
UPWARD position.    Interchange
the oil dipstick and the oil
drain plug in this case.


The adjustment of the shift lever on the transmissjon when attaching
the shift control cable to it, is of prime importance to ensure proper
clutch engagement and long service life for the transmission.

The control cable, when attached to the transmission shift arm ball
joint connector, should be attached so as to be at a 90· angle wi th
the   lever  and  transmission  in  the  neutral posi tion.    (Ref.
Illustration. )

The transmission shift arm can be rotated on the transmission side
cover shifting shaft by loosening the securing bolt (13mm) and
rotating the shift arm to produce the 90· angle between the arm and
the shift cable when the transmission is in neutral.    Insure that
there is at least .020 inch clearance between the shift arm and the
shift cover before retightening the securing bolt.

The shift cable and pedestal control must allow the transmission shift
arm to move from the neutral posi tion into the forward or reverse
engagement a MINIMUM of 1. 37 inches (35mm) when the outermost ball
joint attachment hole is used on the shift arm, or 1.18 inches (30mm)
when the inner is used.      Use of the inner attachment hole is pre-
ferred.   (Ref. Illustration.)
                                                     Minimum Travel (inner hole used)

                                                                                \       .-I
                                                                         30mm I

                                                                               /1       \,.         /

                                                                          ,/                    ,
                  Shift Cable Attachment from Rear


                                                     o                  Shift Arm Securing Bolt

Failure to properly adjust the shift arm and cable to produce the
MINIMUM shift arm travel required for clutch engagement will result in
clutch slippage and eventual failure.

Adjusting the shift arm and shift cable to produce shift lever move-
ment greater than the minimum is recommended.

Movement at the shift arm preferably should be 1.S to 2 inches of arm
movement into the forward and reverse position. Cockpit controls must
be of a design that will allow for this desired cable travel.

This shift lever travel should be verified at initial commissioning,
and periodically thereafter (at least once a year).

When shifting the transmission from the controls in the vessel's cock-
pit, it should be done smoothly and without hesitation (dump it into
gear) ·

The position of the shift cover plate underneath the actuating lever
is factory adjusted to ensure proper operation of the transmission and
is sealed with Loc-Tite (orange).     Therefore, do not loosen the 4
capscrews. Removal or disturbing of this cover will void all warranty
responsibilities by Westerbeke.
When installing the gearbox, make certain that shifting is not impeded
e.g. by restricted movability of the cable or rod linkage, by
unsuitably positioned guide sheaves, too small bending radius, etc.


Care should be taken that the engine-gearbox compartment is properly


Fill the gearbox with automatic transmission fluid.    The fluid level
should be the index mark on the dipstick (see illustration).
                                                 To check !luld level              Transmission on Operation
            Vent ---4Ii~"'"
            Hole      ~~--Sea"ng Washer
                                                                        TransmisSion Casing


                    , ,
                    I   I
                    I   ,                                     11----Dlpstlck--oooll

                                          Full Mark

                                                      Do not screw In lor
                                                      !luld level checks

To check the fluid level, just insert the dipstick; DO NOT SCREW IN.
Retighten the hex screw with the dipstick after the fluid level check.
Do not omit the o-ring seal.


The maximum permissible temperature of the transmission fluid is
130·C.  If this temperature is to be exceeded, an optional oil cooler
is available.


The zero position of the operating lever on the control console must
coincide with the zero position of the ~ctuating lever on the
transmission. Shifting is initiated by a cable or rod linkage via the
actuating lever and an actuating cam.     The completion of the gear
changing operation is servo-automatically controlled.

Gear changing should be smooth, not too slow, and continuous (without
interruption).    Direct changes from forward to reverse are per-
missible, since the multiple-disc clutch permits gear changing at high
RPM, including sudden reversing at top speeds in the event of danger.


Rotation of the propeller without load (freewheeling), e.g. while the
boat is sailing, being towed, or anchored in a river, as well as
idling of the engine with the propeller stopped, will have no detri-
mental effects on the gearbox.

Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not required,
since locking is possible by engaging the reverse gear.   DO NOT sail
while engaged in forward.


If the transmission is not used for periods of more than 1 year, it
should be COMPLETELY filled with fluid of the same grade to prevent
corrosion.  Protect the input shaft and the output flange by means of
an anticorrosive coating if required.


Drain the transmission of all fluid and refill to the proper level
with the prescribed fluid.



To ensure trouble-free operation of    the clutch,   use only automatic
transmission fluid (ATF).

Under no circumstances should the fluid contain any additives such as
molybdenum sulphite.

We recommend commercial Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) , Type A or
Dexron II.


HBW   5 approximately 0.4 liter
HBW   10 approximately 0.6 liter
HBW   20 approximately 0.8 liter
HBW   50 approximately 0.3 liter
HBW   100 approximately 0.35 liter
HBW   150 approximately 0.55 liter
HBW   150V approximately 1.0 liter
HBW   220 approximately 0.75 liter
HBW   250 approximately 0.75 liter
HBW   360 approximately 1.40 liter
HBW   360A approximately 1.50 liter
HBW   400 approximately 2.00 liter
HBW   450 approximately 1.80 liter

Use the index mark on the dipstick as a reference.


Check the fluid level in the transmission daily. Correct fluid level
is the index mark on the dipstick (see item 1 under OPERATION).  Al-
ways use the same fluid type when topping up.


Change the fluid for the first time after about 25 hours of operation,
then at intervals of at least once per year.


The cable or rod linkage should be checked at shorter time intervals.
Check the zero position of the operating lever (on the control
console) and of the actuating lever (on the gearbox) on this occasion.
The minimum lever travel from the neutral posi tion to the operating
positions (O-A = O-B) should be 35 mm for the outer and 30 rnrn for the
inner pivot point. Make certain that these minimum values are safely
reached.   Check the cable or rod linkage for easy movabili ty (see
item 6 under INSTALLATION).


Disassembly of the transmission in the field is not recommended.    If
an overhaul or repair is needed, the work should be done by Westerbeke
or an authorized Westerbeke service center.

                           BW TRANSMISSIONS

These manual transmissions rotate opposite to the engine when in for-
ward gear.   Shifting effort is very low.   The input power on the BW3
is transmitted to the output shaft by helical spur gears when in for-
ward. In reverse this task is taken over by a high performance roller
chain. The unit also incorporates a servi cone-type clutch. The BW7
and BW12 transmit their power with casehardened helical gears and in
reverse there is an intermediate gear. The reversing process on these
is carried out by a servo double disc system.


1.   Fill the transmission with 20 to 40 SAE weight engine oil, the
     same as is used in the engine.
2.   Oil capacity
     BW3 approximately 0.35 liter
     BW7 approximately 1.0 liter
     BW12 approximately 1.0 liter
3.   Check the oil level daily with the engine stopped. The level must
     be between the upper and lower dipstick marks when the dipstick is
     completely screwed/inserted into the housing.
4.   Change the oil initially after the first 30 hours, thereafter
     every 250 hours, once per year minimum.   The BW7 and BW12 have a
     dr ain plug for oil removal.   Oil may also be removed by suction
     through the dipstick tube, where oil is added.
5.   Operating oil temperature must not exceed l20·C (250·F).

1.   Normal shifting should be done below 1500 RPM.
2.   The BW3 may be locked in reverse when sailing or freewheeled in
3.   The BW7 and BW12 may be locked in either forward or reverse when
     sailing or freewheeled in neutral.


1.   Never loosen the shift lever cover screws, except in the course of
     qualified servicing, as this upsets a critical adjustment.
2.   Disassembly of the transmission in the field is not recommended.
     If an overhaul or repair is needed, the work should be done by
     Westerbeke or an authorized Westerbeke service center.

            GENERATOR SETS
CONTENTS                                        PAGE

Manual Starter Disconnect (Toggle Switches) ····· 124

Generator - 3KW (60 Hz) and 2.4KW (50 Hz) ······· 130

                                                       MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (TOGGLE SWITCHES)

                                                                                                                          SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

                                WIRING DIAGFIAM.

                                      Sit lIIOI'e-.

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                           IZVOl.T !IoO""",




This manually controlled series of Westerbeke marine diesel generators
is equipped wi th toggle swi tches on the eng ine control panel and,
optionally, at remote panels.   The following instructions and methods
of correcting minor problems apply only to such toggle switch

All three switches are momentary contact type and serve the following

    1.     Preheat:  The PREHEAT/DEFEAT toggle switch is a double pole,
           single throw swi tch.    The swi tch serves two purposes: pre-
           heating the engine for easy starting and defeating or
           bypassing the engine protective oil pressure switch.       The
           defeat function acti va tes the fuel run solenoid, instrumen-
           tation,  alternator   excitation,    electric  fuel  pump and
           supplies DC voltage to the start switch.

    2.     Start:   The START toggle switch is a double pole, single
           throw swi tch.  The swi tch, when depressed, supplies 12 volt
           DC power to the starter solenoid, energizing the starter to
           start the engine.

    3.     Stop: The STOP toggle switch is a single pole, single throw,
           normally closed swi tch.  This swi tch provides power to the
           fuel run solenoid, instrument cluster and alternator excita-
           tion, after the oil pressure switch has closed upon starting.
           Opening of this swi tch opens the power circui t to the fuel
           run solenoid, thus stopping the flow of fuel to the engine
           and stopping the engine.


    1.     Preheat: Depress the PREHEAT switch. This will activate the
           instrument panel gauges and lights.    The fuel run solenoid
           will be activated, drawing the throttle arm into the run
           position. The preheat solenoid will close and supply voltage
           to the glow plugs. The electric fuel pump will be activated.
           Hold the preheat switch depressed 15 to 60 seconds, depending
           on ambient temperature.

    2.     Start:    Continuing to hold the PREHEAT switch depressed,
           depress the START switch.    This will energize the starter
           solenoid, engag ing the star t.   Once the eng ine f ires and
           star ts to run, release the START swi tch only.   Continue to
           hold the PREHEAT switch depressed until the engine oil
           pressure reaches 25 PSI, then release it.

    3.     Stop:  Depress the STOP switch and hold it until the engine
           stops completely.  (Remove any load from the generator before

         stopping it.)  The STOP switch opens the circuit to the fuel
         run solenoid, de-energizing it, moving the throttle arm into
         the shut off position, stopping the engine._


For remote operation of the generator system, the same three switches
are used.    The PREHEAT and START swi tches are connected in parallel
with the local panel switches and serve the same functions as in the
local panel.   The STOP switch is in series with the local panel STOP
swi tch, and serves the same functions as in the local panel. The
gener ator may be stopped from local or remote posi tions.   The green
indicator light in the remote panel signals that the engine has
started and to release the START swi tch only.       Hold the PREHEAT
depressed for a few more seconds to allow oil pressure to rise.


Once the diesel generator sets have been placed in operation, there is
little or no control adjustment required by the A.C. Generator.   When
starting the generator, it is always a good plan to switch off all
A.C. loads, especially large motors, until the engine has come up to
speed and, in cold climates, starts to warm up.     These precautions
will prevent damage by unanticipated operation of A.C. machinery and
prevent a cold engine from being stalled.




The engine control system is protected by a 20 amp manual reset cir-
cuit breaker located on the engine as close as possible to the power

Manual Control (toggle switch) troubleshooting.

Problem                 Probable Cause          Verification

Preheat depressed,      Battery switch or       Check switch and/or bat-
no panel indications,   power not on            tery connections.
fuel solenoid,
electric fuel pump      20 amp circuit          Reset breaker if opens
and preheat solenoid    breaker tripped         again, check preheat
not energized.                                  solenoid circuit and
                                                "run" circuit for shorts
                                                to ground.

Start switch            Connection to           Check connection.
depressed, no           solenoid faulty
starter engagement.
                        Faulty switch           Check switch with ohm-

                        Faulty solenoid         Check that 12 volts
                                                present at solenoid

                        Loose battery           Check battery
                        connection              connection.

                        Low batteries           Check battery charge

Start depressed,        Poor connections to     1. Check mechanical
panel indications OK.   fuel solenoid.          positioning of fuel
Start solenoid OK.      Defective fuel run      solenoid for plunger
Fuel solenoid not       solenoid. (P/N 23041)   bottoming.
functioning.                                    2. Manually check
                                                movement of fuel run
                                                solenoid plunger and
                                                throttle arm.

No ignition, cranks,    Faulty fueling system   1. Check for fuel to
does not start. Fuel                            generator system.
solenoid energized.                             2. Check for air in
                                                fuel system. Allow
                                                system to self-bleed.
                                                3. Fuel lift pump

No ignition, cranks,   Faulty fueling system   4. Filters clogged.
does not start. Fuel                            (Replace filters and
solenoid energized.                            allow system to self-
                                               bleed by depressing
                                               PREHEAT switch only.

Failure to stop.       Fuel solenoid           Stop engine by manually
                       (PiN 23041) return      moving the throttle
                       spring                  lever to shut off. That
                                               failing, shut off fuel
                                               and air. Check fuel
                                               solenoid linkage and
                                               repair for free move-

                       Stop switch failure     Stop engine by depres-
                                               sing emergency stop
                                               switch on engine or
                                               manually moving throttle
                                               to shut off. Test
                                               switch with ohmmeter.

                       Fuel injection pump     Depress emergency shut-
                       failure                 off switch on engine.
                                               Stop engine by opening
                                               the high pressure injec-
                                               tor lines at the injec-
                                               tors & stop air intake.

Engine stops.          Low oil pressure or     Check oil, fresh water
                       overheated              and sea water cooling.

                       Low oil pressure        Check for satisfactory
                       switch fails to close   operation with switch
                                               bypassed. Check with

                       High water tempera-     Same as above.
                       temperature switch
                       opens at too low a

                       20 amp circuit breaker Same as above.

                       High exhaust tempera-   Same as above.
                       ture switch open at
                       too low a temperature

                       Emergency stop switch   Check operation of
                       or stop switch in       switch with an ohmmeter.
                       panel defective and
                       opening fuel run
                       solenoid circuit.

Engine stops.           Switch and wiring      Inspect all wiring for
                                               loose connections and
                                               short circuits.

Not charging battery.   Alternator drive       Check drive belt and its
                                               tension. Be sure alter-
                                               nator turns freely.
                                               Check for loose connec-
                                               tions. Check output with
                                               voltmeter. Insure 12 V
                                               present at regulator

Battery runs down       Oil pressure switch    Observe if gauges and
                                               panel lights are acti-
                                               vated when engine is not
                                               running. Test the oil
                                               pressure switch.

Battery runs down       High resistance leak   Check wiring. Insert
                        to ground              sensitive (O-.2S amp)
                                               meter in battery lines.
                                               (Do not start engine.)
                                               Remove connections and
                                               replace after short is

                        Low resistance leak    Check all wires for tem-
                        to ground              perature rise to locate

                        Alternator             Disconnect alternator at
                                               output, after a good
                                               battery charging. If
                                               leakage stops. Remove
                                               alternator and bench
                                               test. Repair or

                             TECHNICAL DATA

3.0 KW                    115 VAC                     25.0 AMP at 115 VAC

4.4 KW                    115 VAC                     34.7 AMP at 115 VAC

6.0 KW                    115 or 115/230 VAC          25.7 AMP at 230 VAC

6.5 KW                    115 or 115/230 VAC          27.0 AMP at 230 VAC

7.7 KW                    115 or 115/230 VAC          33.5 AMP at 230 VAC

8.0 KW                    115 or 115/230 VAC          34.0 AMP at 230 VAC

11.0KW                    115 or 115/230 VAC          46.0 AMP at 230 VAC

12.5KW                    115 or 115/230 VAC          52.0 AMP at 230 VAC

Frequency                           60 Hertz Standard

                                    (50 Hertz available at reduced

RPM                                 1800 - 60 Hertz

                                    1500 - 50 Hertz

    Normal                          115 VAC           230 VAC
    Maximum - No load               132 VAC           264 VAC
    Minimum - Full load             108 VAC           216 VAC

Excitation Voltage        115 VAC (output voltage)

    r-   230V
                      Internal Wiring Diagram                                     Internal Wiring Diagram
                        3 and 4.4 KW 3 Wire                                         3 and 4.4 KW 2 Wire
                            115/230 Volt                                                   115 Volt

                                AC                                                         AC
                                           Field                                                  Field
                                        Excitation                                              Excitation

     Armature                                                         Armature
                           AC                                                         AC

                                     Internal Wiring Diagrams
                                          6 - 12.5 KW
                                        115v and 115/23Ov
                                                                  r       l15V

4                2
                                              AC       Field

                                                                                            Field Excitation
                                                                                            Rectifier Wiring
                                                                                           Same as for 230v

                           GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING

                   MODELS 3 KW - l2.5KW                         60 Hertz

                         2.4 KW -       9.4KW                   50 Hertz

No Electrical Output

1.   Remove load from generator and verify                        no      output         directly            at
     generator output leads with voltmeter.

2.   Check for proper electrical connections.                    Refer to Internal Wiring

     NOTE: Gener ator armature slip rings and brush rigs are numbered
     from inboard at the windings or flywheel end outward toward the
     rear support bearing.

2A. Residual Voltage Check

     Disconnect field leads from                5VoitsAC                  2.5 Volts AC    2.5 Volts AC
     bridge rectifier.          (Note
     posi tion of leads on rec-
     t i fie r (+ ) to (+ ) and ( - )
     to     (-).)       Operate   the
     generator and check AC out-
     put (no load on generator).                                    Hot                                  H
     Measure       voltage   between
     neutral       lead    and    hot
     lead(s).                              Hot        Neutral                        Neutral

                                                 2 Wire
                                                  Unit                          3 + 4 Wire Units

          2-wire unit         5 Volts AC (Hot lead to neutral)
          3 and 4 wire unit   2.5 volts AC (each hot lead to neutral

     Residual Voltage checks O.K. You can assume the rotating armature
     and brush rig are O.K.     The generator problem lies in the rec-
     tifier and/or field coils.

     Residual voltage not present.  Check brush rig and static capaci-
     tors.   Check rotating armature resistance values and continuity
     check found elsewhere in this manual.
3.   Test operation of generator by by-passing bridge rectifier. Apply
     12 volts DC to field leads on bridge rectifier (+) to (+) and (-)
     to (-).    Run generator (no load).     Measure voltage output at
     generator leads.  Generator output with 12 volts DC excitation to
     the field coils should be 50 to 70 Volts AC. If 50 to 70 volts AC
     is produced, this should indicate that the generator is O.K., and
     that the bridge rectifier is defective.
4.   If no voltage is produced, check the static capacitor(s) that it
     is not shorted to ground. If found faulty, remove connection from
     output terminal at brush rig and repeat Step #3.
5.   Flash Field Coils
     units may lose their
     residual    magnetism    1-4---23Ov -----1-.1
     from extended stor-
     age, rough handling
     during installation
     or disassembly and                                        Internal Wiring Diagram
     assembly for instal-                                            Basic 4 Wire
     lation,   etc. ,   re-
     quiring   the    field
     coils to be excited
     wi th 6 to 12 volts
     DC to restore the                                                          6-12 Volt
     magnetism    to    the                                                    DC Battery
     generator.    This is
     done in the follow-
     ing manner:

     Stop the engine and
     remove the generator
     end bell cover. This
     will    expose    the
     cooling fan, brush
     rig   assembly    and
     rectifier.      Check
     internal wiring~
     refer    to   figure.
     The   positive    (+)
     lead from the field
     coils is connected

     to the positive marked terminal on the rectifier and the negative
     (-) lead from the field coils is connected to the opposite
     UNMARKED terminal on the rectifier. Using jumpe~ leads with insu-
     lated alligator clips, connect 6 to 12 volts DC battery positive
     to the positive of the rectifier and negative to the UNMARKED ter-
     minal of the rectifier for approximately 10 seconds. This should
     restore magnetism to the stationary field coils.   (Be careful not
     to connect DC voltage to the AC terminals on the rectifier, as
     this will damage the rectifier.)
     Remove the alligator clip connections; replace the end bell cover
     and operate the generator and check AC output voltage.

6.   Check for a short or open in the rotating armature or in the sta-
     tionary field coils.


     3.0 & 4.4KW (2-wire)      1 ohm or less slip ring to slip ring

     3.0 & 4.4KW (3-wire)      1 ohm or less between slip rings 1 and 3

     NOTE: No continuity should be found between slip rings (1 & 2)
     and (2 & 3) on the 3-wire unit.  (If so, an internal short in the
     armature winding exists.) Replace the armature.

     6.5, 7.7, 8.0, 11.0       1 ohm or less between slip rings (1 & 3)
     and l2.5KW                and (2 & 4).

     NOTE:  3- and 4-wire units: There should be no continuity found
     between slip rings (1 & 2), (2 & 3) and (3 & 4). If continuity is
     found, an internal short exists between these windings and the
     armature should be replaced.

     NOTE: All units: There should be no continuity found between any
     of the slip rings and the armature's central steel shaft. If con-
     tinui ty is found, the windings are shorted to the shaft and the
     armature should be replaced.

     Rotating armature slip rings are numbered from inboard of the
     generator flywheel end outward to the rear support bearing.
     When referring to 2, 3 and 4-wire units, these are the number of
     generator output leads being connected to the load. You will find
     on the 11.0 and 12. 5KW units that there are 8 leads corning from
     the brush rig and are combined for a total of 4 output leads. The
     number of wires can also be related to the number of slip rings on
     the rotating armature.

                    FIELD COIL RESISTANCE    (TOTAL)

          3.0 & 4.4KW            32.5 ohms               +5%

          6.5, 7,7 & 8.0KW       22.2 ohms               +5%

          11.0 & l2.5KW          14.2 ohms               +5%

     NOTE: There should be no continuity found between the field coils
     and the generator body.

7.   Replacement of Field Coil(s)
     Field coils are connected in series and the reisitance   value given
     above in this text is the total of the four field        coils.   To
     determine the resistance value of one, divide by four.    Each field
     coil has a mounting position on the generator housing     and cannot
     be interchanged with another field coil.

     When installing a replacement field coil (s), the installer must
     insure that the coil is correct for the mounting position in the
     housing and will have the correct polarity when excited with 9 -
     12 volts DC.

     The field coil shoes that hold the coil securely to the generator
     housing are held in palce by bolts that must be properly tightened
     when the coil and shoe are installed to the generator housing.
     When connecting the coils in series insure the butt connections
     are good and secure and positioned away from rotating parts.

     To insure the field coils have been posi tioned properly in the
     generator housing and will have the correct polarity,           the
     following test must be made before reassembly of the generator.

     (1)   Connect a 9 - 12 volt DC battery
           to the leads off the coils that
           would normally be connected to
           the (+) and (-) connectors of
           the bridge rectifier.       These
           leads   are    unmarked and   the
           polarity in their connection to
           the DC battery is not important.
           NOTE: When removing the leads
           from   the battery and recon-
           necting them to the bridge rec-
           tifier, you should maintain the
           same polar i ty as used in this
           test, plus lead to (+) on rec-
           tifier and negative to unmarked
           (-) connection on rectifier.

     (2)   Wi th a 3 inch iron bolt or its
           equivalent, place this bolt bet-
           ween each adjoining field coil                    9-12
           shoe.    It should be held in               Volt Battery DC

           place by the magnetic attraction
           set up between the coil/shoes by
           the 9 - 12 volts excitation of the field coils. Should this
           fail to happen between any of the four adjoining coils/shoes,
           then an incorrect coil is installed and must be removed and
           the correct one installed: otherwise the generator when
           assembled will not produce proper voltage.

Low Voltage Output

1.   Verify voltage output at generator output leads_with load applied
     to generator; check no load condition also.   Check voltage at the
     load.   Check rating for generator and verify load with amp probe
     at output leads.   Check all connections to insure they are clean
     and secure. Insure that the wire size carrying the voltage to the
     load is of sufficient size so as not to produce a voltage drop.

     NOTE: Beware of motor starting loads and the amperage draw placed
     on the generator from these types of loads.       Generally, the
     amperage draw of a motor at start up will be 3 - 5 times the
     amperage needed when running.

2.   Check generator with Hertz meter:

           No Load Hertz         61 - 61.5 (51 - 51.5)

           No Load Voltage       131 - 135 Volts (Generator Cold)

           No Load Voltage       126 - 130 Volts (Generator Hot)

3.   Test Bridge Rectifier:

     Bridge rectifier may be faulty and should be checked as follows.

     (1)   Set ohmmeter
           scale   on      Rxl
           (+DC)  zero     the
                                                                    Point #5
     (2)   Connect the     (+)                             (Rectifier Mounting Hole)
           lead    from    the
           meter    to   Point
           i4,    with     the                                     ' - - _ - Point #3
           (-) lead from the
           meter momentarily
           contact      points
           iI, #2, #3 and
           #5.    No deflec-
           tion      of    the
           needle should
           occur showing

     (3)   Remove   the  (+)
           lead from Point
           #4 and connect the (-)      lead to Point #4 and with the (+)
           lead, momentarily touch    Points iI, i2 and #3.   Points #1 and
           #3 should show an a-ohm    resistance +2 ohms.   Point #2 shoudl
           show a 40-ohm resistance   +5 ohms.

     (4)   Touch Point #5 with the (+) lead, no deflection of the needle

4.   Check field coil resistance as per specification given in A-6.
5.   Insufficient cooling of the generator.    Ambient air enter ing the
     generator should not exceed 104·F (40·C).
     Operating efficeincy of the generator decreases as the ambient air
     temperature entering the generator end bell increases above 104·F.
     Generators in confined areas may require the ducting of cool
     outside air into the compartment and directed toward the inlet at
     the generator end bell.

6.   Check condition of brushes for wear and contact with slip rings on
     armature. Insure brushes are not sticking in holders.

High Voltage Output

1.   Verify voltage at generator output leads.

     No load voltage   126 - 130 volts (Generator Hot)

                       61 - 61.6 Hertz

                       (51 - 51.5 Hertz)

2.   Check internal wiring of generator leads attached to brush rig and
     leads from brush rig feeding AC to br idge rectifier.     Refer to
     Internal wiring schematics.    These internal wiring diagrams are
     applicable to related 50 Hertz units as well.


The following Bulletins contain supplementary and
updated information about various components and
service procedures which are important to the
proper functioning of your eng ine and its suppor t

You should familiar ize yourself wi th the subjects
and make sure that you consult the appropriate
Bulletin (s) whenever your engine requires service
or overhaul.

              SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:     6/15/79                                                BULLETIN NUMBER: 20

MODEL:    All engines

SUBJEC~   Connecting Pressure Sensing Devices to Oil Galleries

     Oil pressure sensing devices, such as senders and switches, must
never be connected directly to any oil gallery of an eng ine.      The
reason is simply that continued engine vibration causes fatigue of the
fittings used to make such a connection.   If these fittings fail, the
engine loses its oil pressure and very quickly seizes.

    Such pressure sensing devices must be bulkhead mounted and con-
nected to the oil gallery using an appropr iate grade of lubr icating
oil hose.  Any fittings used to connect the hose to the gallery must
be of steel or malleable iron.  Brass must not be used for this pur-

                              J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                               AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617/ 588-7700
                                          CA8LE: WESTCORP, AVON' TELEX: 92-4444

             SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:    5/6/74                                                   BULLETIN NUMBER: 69

MODEL:   All Marine Generators and Marine Engines

SUBJECT: Exhaust System Failures

    When engine sea water is fed into an exhaust system so that the
full stream strikes a surface, erosion may cause premature failures.

    Proper design of either a water jacketed or a water injected
(nwetn) exhaust system to prevent this problem requires that the sea
water inlet be positioned so that the enter ing stream of water does
not strike a surface directly. Also, the velocity of the entering sea
water stream should be as low as possible which is achieved by having
inlet fittings as big in diameter as possible.

In addition to the above design considerations, it is usually advan-
tageous to divide the sea water flow at the point of entry to the
exhaust system so that only a portion of it enters the exhaust system.
The remainder is normally piped directly over the side.     The proper
proportion of the sea water flow to pass through the exhaust system
can only be determined by tr ial and error.    The goal is to prevent
excessive exhaust temperatures with the least amount of sea water.

                             J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                              AIION INDUSTRIAL PARK, AIION, MASS. 02322· (617) 588-7700
                                          CA8LE: WESTCORP, AIION·TELEX: 92-4444

                  SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:       4/4/83                                                BULLETIN NUMBER: 82

MODEL:      All

SUBJECT: Battery Recommendations

MODEL                      BATTERY AMPERE HOURS                                            VOLTAGE

W7, WPD4                             60-90                                                12 V.D.C.

WI0Two, 3KW                          90-125                                               12 V.D.C.

W13, 4KW                             90-125                                               12 V.D.C.

W21, 7.7KW                           90-125                                               12 V.D.C.

W27, llKW                            90-125                                               12 V.D.C.

W33, 12.5KW                          90-125                                               12 V.D.C.

W30                                125-150                                                12 V.D.C.

W40, WPDI0-15                      125-150                                                12 V.D.C.

W50                                125-150                                                12 V.D.C.

W52, 15KW                          125-150                                                12 V.D.C.

W58, 20KW                          125-150                                                12 V.D.C.

W60, WBO-20KW                      150-170                                                12 V.D.C.

W70, 25KW                          170-200                                                12 V.D.C.

W80, 30KW                          170-200                                                12 V.D.C.

WI00, 32KW                         200 minimum                                            12 V.D.C.

W120, 45KW                         200 minimum                                            12 V.D.C.

The ampere hour range shown is minimum.           There is no real maximum.

                              J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                              AVON INDUSTRIAL PARI<, AVON, MASS. 02322· (tSfT) 588-7700
                                         CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: $12-4444

                 SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:       September 18, 1975                                       BULLETIN NUMBER: 87

MODEL:      All Mar ine Engines

SUBJECT: Alternator Output Spli tter

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:    The spli tter is a solid state device which
allows two batteries to be recharged and brought to the same ultimate
voltage from a single alternator as large as 120 amp and, at the same
time, isolates each battery so that discharg ing one will have no
effect on the other.    Charging rates are in proportion to the bat-
teries' voltage (state of discharge).      This method precludes the
necessity, and even the desirability, of a rotary switch for selecting
which battery is to be charged.    It also assures that ships services
cannot drain the engine starting battery.


1.     Mount splitter on a metal surface other than the engine, pre-
       ferably in an air stream if available. Do not install near engine
       exhaust system. Install with cooling fins aligned vertically.
2.     Be sure to use a wire size appropriate to the output of the asso-
       ciated alternator.   In full power systems number 4 wire is recom-
       mended from the alternator to the spli tter and from the spli t ter
       to the batteries.
3.     Connect the alternator output terminal to the center splitter ter-
4.     Connect one splitter side terminal to one battery (s).
5.     Connect the other splitter side terminal to the other battery (s).
6.     When the splitter is installed, both batteries will see a charging
       voltage 8/10 volts less than usual. This voltage can be regained,
       if desired, by connecting the regulator wire directly to the
       alternator output terminal instead of the regulator terminal.

TEST INFORMATION:  When the engine is not running, the side splitter
terminals should read the vol tage of the respective battery.    The
center splitter should read zero voltage.

With the engine running and alternator charging, the side splitter
terminals should read the same voltage which should be the voltage of
the regulator or somewhat less.   The center splitter terminal should
read .82 volts higher than the readings of the side terminals.

                                                                      Continued ···········

                                  J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                  AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617) 588-7700
                                             CA8LE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112-4444

                     SERVICE BULLETIN #87 (Continued)
                       (Alternator Output Splitter)

This unit is sealed for maximum life and is not repairable.

BYPASSING SPLITTER: In the event of failure, batteries may be charged
directly from alternator by connecting either splitter terminal #1 or
#2 to terminal A, bypassing the splitter itself.   This should not be
done simultaneously for both batteries unless they are, and will
remain at, the same voltage (state of charge) ·

                       .sPLITTER                          .sTARTER
                                        POWER DISC. SW.


                                         BATTERY(S)       -
                                    POWER DISCONNECT

                        PN20.6S4                              SHI P'5
                          20-           a+                    LOt.OS
                               -+--+O,sERVI CE
                        '--_......     BAiTERY(S)


 DRVJG .ti 2070 I

NOTE: On Alternators which have an isolation diode between their out-
put and regulator terminals, such as the Motorola units used with most
WESTERBEKE engines, the regulator wire should be removed from the REG
terminal and reconnected to the OUTPUT terminal as shown.    The diode
in the splitter will provide an equivalent voltage drop.
                  SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:       April 28, 1976                                        BULLETIN NUMBER:" 92

MODEL:      All

SUBJECT: Troubleshooting Water Temperature and Oil Pressure Gauges

Given a presumably faulty gauge indication with the instrument panel
energized, the first step is to check for 12 VDC between the ign. (B+)
and neg. (B-) terminals of the gauge.

Assuming there are 12 volts as required,                leave the instrument panel
energized and perform the following steps.

       1.   Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if
            the gauge reads zero, the normal reading for this

       2.   Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground
            and see if the gauge reads full scale, the normal
            reading for this situation.

If both of the above gauge tests are positive, the gauge is undoubted-
ly O.K. and the problem lies either with the conductor from the sender
to the gauge, or with the sender.

If either of the above gauge tests is negative, the gauge is probably
defective and should be replaced.

Assuming the gauge is O.K., proceed as follows.    Check the conductor
from the sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for continuity.

Check that the engine block is connected to ground.     Some starters
have isolated ground terminals and if the battery is connected to the
starter (both plus and minus) the ground side will not necessarily be
connected to the block.

If the sender to gauge conductor is O.K. and the engine block                             is
grounded, the sender is probably defective and should be replaced.

                                J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVDN, MASS. 02322' (617j 588-7700
                                           CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444

                SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:     May 20, 1980                                               BULLETIN NUMBER: 110

MODEL:    All

SUBJECT: Ammeter Wire Sizes

Ammeters may be installed in conjunction wi th any Westerbeke mar ine
diesel engine or diesel generator set.   The range of the ammeter must
be appropriate for the maximum output of the alternator.

Additionally,  the wire size for      the alternator output circuit,
including the ammeter, var ies wi th the total length of that circui t.
The table below shows the maximum current that can be carried various
total distances by various wire sizes, to and from source to load.

                              WIRE SIZE TABLE

         Total Length                             MAXIMUM CURRENT
System    of wire in
 Volts       feet        35       40            55           60            70           85    120
  12        1 to   5     12       12            12             8             8            8     6
  12        5 to 10      10       10              8            6             6            6     4
  12       10 to 20       6         6             6            6             3            3     1
  12       20 to 30       6         4             4            2             1            1     1
  12       30 to 40       4         2             2            1             1            o     o

   24       1 to   5     14       14            12           12            10           10      8
  24        5 to 10      12       12            10           10              8            8     6
  24       10 to 20      10         8             8           6              6            4     4

  24       20 to 30       8         6             6            4             4            4     2
  24       30 to 40       6         6             4            4             2            2     o

  32        1 to   5     14       14            12           12            10           10      8
  32       5 to 10       12       12            10           10              8            8     6
  32      10 to 20       10         8             8            6             6            4     4

  32       20 to 30       8         6             6            4             4            4     2
  32       30 to 40       6         6             4            4             2            2     o

                                J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                AIION INOUSTRIAL PARK, A liON , MASS. 02322· {617} 588-7700
                                            CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92 -4444

                 SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:        May 6, 1982                                             BULLETIN NUMBER: 114

MODEL:       All Mar ine Engines

SUBJECT:     Domestic Water Heater Installation
             Using Westerbeke FLOWCONTROLLER

Principle: There are two 7/8" hose connections at the end of the manifold
which provide a parallel flow of engine cooling water to and from the
heater.   These connections are part of the FLOWCONTROLLER which assures a
flow of hot water through the heater at all times and yet precludes
excessive restriction of engine cooling water flow caused by the heater -
all simply and automatically.

Installation:  Remove the returnbend which normally connects the 7/8" hose
spuds on engines as shipped from the factory.    Connect these spuds to the
heater with 7/8" ID wire inserted hose.    The spud marked "out" indicates
the flow from the engine and the spud marked "in" indicates the flow retur-
ning to the engine.
Hoses should rise continuously from their low point at the heater and to
the engine so that trapped air will rise naturally from the heater to the
engine.   If trapped air can rise to the heater, then an air bleed petcock
~ust be installed at the higher fitting at the heater for bleeding the air
Nhile filling the system. Avoid loops in hose runs which will trap air.

If any portion of the engine cooling water circuit to or from the heater
rises above the engine's own pressure cap, then the pressurized remote
expansion tank must be installed in the circui t to be the highest point.
The tank kit Part Number is 24177.  Install the remote expansion tank in a
convenient location such as a sail locker for ease of checking fresh water
coolant level.

The cap on the engine mounted expansion tank/manifold should not be opened
once the system is installed and filled.

The hose connection from the heater to the remote expansion tank should be
routed and supported so as to rise continuously from the heater to the tank
enabling any air in the system to rise.

FLOWCONTROLLER kits are available for retro-fit to late 1980, 1981 and 1982
Westerbeke mar ine eng ines which employ the "two-pass" exhaust mani fold.
The kit numbers are:

       Kit #32276 for engines whose exhaust manifold is on the left side of
       the cylinder head (W21, RD60, W27, RD80, W33).

       Kit #32274 for W13 and Kit #32275 for W52 and W58 engines                             whose
       exhaust manifold is on the right side of the cylinder head.

                                   J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                   AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322 '/6'7} 588-7700
                                              CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112 -4444



S\JppL\EO ~rn" e.l'lG\l'''~
                SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:       August 14, 1983                                        BULLETIN NUMBER: 125

MODEL:      All (Propulsion & Generators)
SUBJECT: Oil Pressure Switches

 When removing and installing oil pressure switches of the type
 illustrated below, care should be taken to use the correct type socket
 specifically designed to correctly fit the metal circumference of
 these switches.

 The correct socket can be acquired through well-known tool manufac-
 turers such as Snap-On, New Britain, Cromwell, Proto and others. The
 use of channel lock pliers, vise-grips or pipe wrenches is not
 advised, in that they may cause damage to the seal between the metal
 body and the plastic center insert, resulting in a leak and/or switch

       DUAL PRONG                                                          SINGLE PRONG

                                J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322' (tSf7J 588-7700
                                           CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112- ........

                                 SERVICE BULLETIN
 DATE:                    August 25, 1983                                                        BULLETIN NUMBER: 127

 MODEL:                   3.0, 4.4, 7.7, 11.0                 &   l2.5KW Generators

 SUBJECT:                 Fuel Shut-Off solenoid #23041 - Adjustment

   Should it be necessary to disturb the mounting of a fuel shut-off
   solenoid for unit maintenance or repair, or to replace a failed sole-
   noid, the following procedure must be observed when replacing the
   solenoid on the generator:
  with the solenoid de-energized and attached to its mounting bracket,
  (4.,4 - Mounting Clamp), the solenoid plunger should be manually bot-
  tomed in the solenoid and the throttle arm manually moved to the run
  position so as to be within .010 - .020 inches of contacting the
  throttle stop screw.    The linkage connecting the throttle arm and
  solenoid plunger should then be connected and adjusted to maintain
  these positions when the solenoid is electr ically energ ized with the
  preheat switch on the instrument panel.
                          (NOTE: On 4.4KW generators the solenoid's position
                          may have to be changed by moving it fore or aft
                          under the mounting clamp that holds it against the
                          air intake silencer to properly install and adjust
                          the connecting linkage to the throttle arm.)
   (Figure                A)                                                               MANUAL CHECK
                                     Ter,.,...ina! (-)   Check the operation and bottoming of the fuel
                                                         solenoid,    plunger  manually  by   doing the
'Te,.,.""al             ~
 1:+)         SYNCHRO                    Terr"lin~1      1. Connect an ohmmeter across the + terminal
                 STARr '                                     and vacant auxiliary terminal on the back
                \                                           of the fuel solenoid.   (Figure A.)
                                                         2. Wi th the fuel solenoid in the stop posi-
        r;::)-~~                                             tion, 0-1 ohms resistance should be found
                                                            across these two terminals.
        I     I N'T'f:RN"L       '
                                                         3. Manually moving the throttle arm into the
        I     /'C.C.5wITcN                                  run position and bottoming the fuel sole-
        I                        I
                                         Ohm                noid plunger, a resistance of about 15 to
        I                        I     Meter'                30 ohms should them register on the meter
                                                             indicating that the plunger has bottomed
                                                            against the internal swi tch de-energ izing
                                                             the pull in windings.

  Failure to insure manually that the fuel solenoid operates as
  described above will result in the failure of the solenoid when
  operated electrically. (The fuel solenoid may fail within 30 seconds
  if  the plunger   does not bot tom when electr ically energ i zed. )

                                                              J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                                              AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK., AVON, MASS. 02322· (5171 S88-7700
                                                                         CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX.: 82-4444

When operated electrically by use of the preheat switch on the
instrument panel, the fuel solenoid plunger should move smoothly and
rapidly into the solenoid with no binding or hesitation, drawing the
throttle arm into the run position .010 - .020 inches off the throttle
stop screw as the plunger bottoms in the fuel solenoid.

(NOTE: The throttle arm stop screw is adj usted and wired/sealed at
the factory to allow the throttle arm to move to the proper no load
speed and voltage for the generator. Further adjustment should not be
needed.    Tampering with this stop screw without proper written
authorization may affect the generator's warranty.)
              SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:     December 6, 1983                                          BULLETIN NUMBER: 133

MODEL:   W10Two, W13, W2l, W27, W30, W33, W40, W50,                             W52, W58, W70,
         W80, W100, W120 (All Related Generators)
SUBJECT: Z inc Pencil - #11885

 A zinc pencil PN 11885 is located in the sea water cooling circuit of
 all primary heat echangers on the above models.      The purpose of the
 zinc pencil is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking place
 in the salt water cooling circuit.         This zinc pencil should be
 per iodically checked by unscrewing it from its mounting boss on the
 exchanger.   For the lcoation of the zinc on your model, refer to the
 cooling system section of your parts manual.    Replace the zinc pencil
 as inspection dictates.   (Refer to Illustration A.)

 Should material be flaking off the zinc, it should be scraped clean,
 or be replaced by a good solid zinc pencil.

 If it appears that a lot of material has been flaking off the zinc,
 then it is advised that the end cap of the exchanger be removed, and
 the flaked material be cleaned from that area of the exchanger. A new
 end cap gasket should be on hand in case it is needed when replacing
 the end cap.

 Refer to Service Bulleting #84 when removing end caps made of rubber.

                             ILLUSTRATION A

           ZINC #11885             REPLACE                         CLEAN/REPLACE

                               J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                               AIION INDUSTRIAL PARK, AIION, MASS. 0232:1· (8171 588-7700
                                           CABLE: WESTCORP, AIION· TELEX: 82-4444

              SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:     December 28, 1983                                       BULLETIN NUMBER: 134
MODEL:    3KW, 4.4KW, 7.7KW, llKW & l2.sKW (Related to 50 Hertz Units)
SUBJECT: Fuel Solenoid - PN 23041

 Fuel solenoid adjustment and operation as outlined in Service Bulletin
 #127 should be verified as part of the pre-start-up inspection
 (commissioning) of the generator.

 During installation, the adjustment of the fuel solenoid may be
 affected, due to handling and positioning of the unit in the vessel's

 Periodic inspection of the solenoid's operation is also recommended at
 the initial 50-hour servicing and every 200 hours thereafter.

              NOTE: The flexible rubber boot cover ing
                    the solenoid must not be removed,
                    as this helps protect the plunger
                    from   contaminants  and  aids  in
                    withdrawal of the plunger when the
                    solenoid is de-energized.

                    periodically examine the plunger to
                    ensure that it is clean. Generally
                    no lubrication is needed on this

                    Per iodic lubr ication is needed on
                    the ball joint connection between
                    the plunger and the throttle arm.

                              J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                              AIION INDUSTRIAL PARK, AIION, MASS. 02322 ·/5'71 588-7700
                                          CABLE: WESTCORP, AIION·TELEX: 92- · · · ·

              SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:      April 3, 1984                                           BULLETIN NUMBER: 137

MODEL:     3KW, 4. 4KW, 7. 7KW, 8KW, llKW, 12. 5KW (Also related 50 Her tz
SUBJECT:   Cooling Fan Secur ing Nut
 Generator units must have proper air circulation while running to pro-
 vide for combustion air for use by the engine and for cooling the
 generator unit (minimum 250 C.F.M. all units through l2.5KW for gener-
 ator end cooling).
 The fan on the back end of the above model generators plays an impor-
 tant part in moving air through the generator for cooling. In instal-
 lations where surrounding air is limited, outside air should be ducted
 to the area of the screened end bell inlet to provide this needed air
 for cooling and combustion as well.
 The secur i ty of the generator fan hold down nut should be checked at
 installation (commissioning), at the initial 50-hour servicing of the
 generator unit and periodically thereafter (200-300 hours). (FIGURE A)


                    Cooling Fan
                    Securing Nut                    FIGURE A
                        Securing Nut Torque - 25 lb/ft.                                     over ······
                                J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
                                AIION INDUSTRIAL PARK, AIION, MASS. 02322 ·(6171 588-7700
                                            CABLE: WESTCORP, AIION·TELEX: 112-4444

The cooling fan securing nut should be tight enough so that when force
is applied to rotate the fan by pushing on the outer edge and blades
with the palm of your hand (protect the hand with a cloth or glove),
you should be able to turn the generator and engine without the fan
slipping on the shaft.     If properly torqued and fan still slips,
replace the lockwashers.

Recirculation of generator cooling air through the generator must be
avoided.  The generator compartment ventilation must be sufficient to
prevent generator air recirculation.

Insure that the screened endbell inlet and the screened discharge
slots at the flywheel are not obstructed, preventing good air cir-
culation through the generator while it is running.

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