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Westerbeke Diesel W 46 Parts Manual



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  TECHNICAL MANUAL



             WESTERBEKE 46
         Marine Diesel Engine




                     Publication # 34907
                        Edition One
                           May 1987




~ r-.v- 'WESTERBEKE
    J   WESTERBEKECORPORATION
    I   MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
        150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
      TECHNICAL MANUAL



                WESTERBEKE 46
             Marine Diesel Engine




                         Publication # 34907
                            Edition One
                              May 1987




j'   -.y"   'WESTERBEKE
            WESTERBEKE CORPORATION
            MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
            150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
                          IMPORTANT

                PRODUCT SOFTWARE DISCLAIMER


Product software of all kinds, such as brochures, dr awings,
technical data, operator's and workshop manuals, parts lists
and parts price lists      (and other related information),
instructions and specifications provided from sources other
than Westerbeke, is not within Westerbeke's control and,
accordingly, is provided to Westerbeke customers only as a
courtesy and service.   WESTERBEKE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR
THE CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE, MAKES NO WARRANTIES OR
REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT THERETO, INCLUDING THE ACCURACY,
TIMELINESS OR COMPLETENESS THEREOF, AND WILL IN NO EVENT BE
LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES OR INJURY INCURRED IN
CONNECTION WITH, OR ARISING OUT OF, THE FURNISHING OR USE OF
SUCH SOFTWARE.

For example, components and sub-assemblies incorporated into
Westerbeke's products and supplied by others (such as engine
blocks, fuel systems and components, transmissions, electri-
cal components, pumps and other products) are generally sup-
ported by their manufacturers with their own software, and
Westerbeke must depend on such software for the design of
Westerbeke's own product software.   Such softwar e, however,
may be outdated and no longer accurate. Routine changes made
by Westerbeke' s suppliers, of which Westerbeke rarely has
notice in advance, are frequently not reflected in the
supplier's software until after such changes take place.

Westerbeke customers should also keep in mind the time span
between pr intings of Westerbeke product software, and the
unavoidable existence of earlier, non-current Westerbeke
software   editions   in   the   field.     Additionally,   most
Westerbeke   products    include    customer-requested   special
features that frequently do not include complete documen-
tation.

In summation, product software provided with Westerbeke pro-
ducts, whether from Westerbeke or other suppliers, must not
and cannot be relied upon exclusively as the definitive
authority on the respective product.   It not only makes good
sense, but is imperative that appropriate representatives of
Westerbeke or the supplier in question be consulted to deter-
mine the accuracy and currency of the product software being
consulted by the customer.
1
                            INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANT

THIS MANUAL IS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE INSTALLATION, START-UP,
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR WESTERBEKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE.
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL IS VITAL TO YOUR ENGINE'S
DEPENDABLE, LONG TERM OPERATION.
         READ IT
         KEEP IT IN A SAFE DRY PLACE
         KEEP IT HANDY FOR REFERENCE AT ALL TIMES !

FAILURE TO DO SO WILL INVITE SERIOUS       RISK,   NOT   ONLY   TO   YOUR
INVESTMENT BUT YOUR SAFETY AS WELL.
UNDERSTANDING THE DIESEL ..·.

The diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine in as much
as the mechanism is essentially the same.   Its cylinders are arranged
above its closed crankcase; its crankshaft is of the same general type
as that of a gasoline engine; it has the same type of valves,
camshaft, pistons, connecting rods, lubricating system and reverse and
reduction gear.
Therefore,   it follows to a great extent that a diesel engine
requires the same preventive maintenance as that which any intelligent
operator would give to a gasoline engine.   The most important factors
are proper maintenance of the fuel, lubricating and cooling systems.
Replacement of fuel and lubricating filter elements at the time
periods specified is a must, and frequent checking for contamination
(i. e. water,  sediment, etc. ) in the fuel system is also essent ial.
Another important factor is the use of the same brand of high
detergent   diesel lubr icating oil developed specifically for diesel
engines.

The diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine, however,
in the method of handling and fir ing its fuel.    The carburetor and
ignition systems are done away with and in their place are the fuel
injection pump and fuel injectors which perform the functions of both.

Continuous care and attention at the factory have resulted in a
Westerbeke eng ine capable of many thousands of hour s of dependable
service. What the manufacturer cannot control, however, is the treat-
ment it receives in service. This part rests with the Owner/Operator.




                                   2
ORDERING PARTS

Whenever replacement parts are needed, always include the complete
part description and part number (see separate Parts List).    Be sure
to include the eng ine' s model and ser ial number.  Also, be sure to
insist upon Westerbeke factory-packaged parts, because will-fit parts
frequently are not made to the same specifications as original factory
equipment.

GENERATOR SETS

Westerbeke diesels are used for both the propulsion of boats and
for generating electrical power.   For generator set applications, all
details of this Manual apply, except in regard to certain portions of
the Installation, Operation and Maintenance sections.       Additional
information is provided in the section titled Generator Sets.




                                  3
                            INSTALLATION
FOREWORD

Since the boats in which Westerbeke engines and generators are used
are many and varied, details of engine installation are equally so.
It is not the purpose of this section to advise boatyards and engine
installers on the generally well-understood and well-developed proce-
dures for installation of engines.    However, the following outline of
general procedure is included because it is valuable in explaining the
functions of each component, the reasons why, the precautions to be
watched and the relationship of the installation to the operation of
the engine.   There are details of the installation which should have
per iodic checks and of which the operator should have a thorough
understanding to ensure good operating conditions for the engine and
correct procedures for its servicing.

INSPECTION OF EQUIPMENT

The engine is shipped from the factory mounted securely and pro-
perly crated. Accessory equipment is shipped in a separate small box,
usually packed with the engine crate.

Before accepting shipment from the       transportation company,   the
crate should be opened and an inspection made for concealed damage.
If either visible or concealed damage is noted, you should require the
delivering agent to sign "Received in damaged condition".   Also check
contents of the shipment against the packing list and make sure proper
notation is made of any discrepancies.       This is your protection
against loss or damage. Claims for loss or damage must be made to the
carrier, not to Westerbeke Corporation.            ----

RIGGING AND LIFTING

The engine is fitted with lifting eyes.

Rope or chain slings should be attached to the eyes and the engine
lifted by means of tackle attached to this sling.   The lifting eyes
have been designed to carry the full weight of the engine; therefore,
auxiliary slings are not required or desired.

                               CAUTION

    Slings must not be so short as to place the engine lifting
    eyes in significant sheer stress.     Strain on the engine
    lifting eyes must not be in excess of 10· from the vertical.
    A spacer bar must be placed between the two lifting eyes,
    if supported by valve cover studs.




                                  4
The general rule in moving engines is to see that all equipment used
is amply strong and firmly fixed in place.    Move the engine a little
at a time and see that it is firmly supported. Eliminate the possibi-
lity of accidents by avoiding haste.  Do not lift using the propeller
coupling, or pry against this with a crowbar, as you may distort the
coupling.

In some cases it may be necessary to lift the engine in other than the
regular horizontal position.     It may be that the engine must be
lowered endwise through a small hatchway which cannot be made larger.
If the opening is extremely restricted, it is possible to reduce, to
some extent, the outside clearances by removing components such as
generator, cooling piping, water tank, filters, mounting lugs, etc.
This accessory equipment should be removed by a competent mechanic and
special care should be taken to avoid damage to any exposed parts and
to avoid dirt entering these openings.     The parts which have been
removed should be returned to position as soon as the restriction has
been passed.

In case it is necessary to hoist the engine either front end
upwards or reverse gear end upwards, the attachment of slings must be
done very carefully to avoid the possibility of damage to the parts on
which the weight may bear. It is best if special rigging work be done
by someone experienced and competent in the handling of heavy machi-
nery.
ENGINE BOLTS
It   is  recommended  that   bronze or   stainless  hanger   bolts  of
appropriate size be used through the engine flexible mounts.       Lag
screws are less preferred because their hold on the wood is weakened
every time they are moved, whereas the hanger bolt stays in position
and the nut on top is used to tighten the engine down or is removed to
permit the engine to be lifted. The bolt itself stays in position at
all times, as a stud, and the bond between the bolt and the wood is
not weakened by its removal.
FOUNDATION FOR ENGINE

A good engine bed contributes much toward the satisfactory operation
of the engine.    The engine bed must be of rigid construction and
neither deflect nor twist when subjected to the engine weight or the
position the boat may have to take under the effects of rough seas.
The bed must keep the engine within one or two thousandths of an inch
of this position at all times.   It has to withstand the forward push
of the propeller which is applied to the propeller shaft, to the
thrust washer bear ing in the eng ine and finally to the eng ine bolts
and engine bed.




                                  5
In   fiberglas    hulls,  we   recom-
mend that similar wooden stringers
as in wooden hulls be formed and
fitted,   then glassed to the hull
securely.    This allows hanger bolts
to be installed firmly in the wood,
thus reducing noise and transmitted
vibration.

The engine support stringers must be
wide enough and have a good flat sur-
face to properly carry the full width
of   the  engine mounting    isolator.
Isolator   overhang   and/or   rounded
stringer surface is very detrimental
to the ability of the engine-mounting
isolator to retain vibration within
the isolator.

Preformed   fiberglas   engine beds,
when used, should be of sufficient
thickness to properly support the
engine and should be well glassed to
the hull when installed.                 Note:   Avoid excessive height, use
                                                 solid stringer construction (A).
The temptation to install the engine
on   a   pair    of  fiberglas   angle
irons should be avoided.    Such construction will allow engine vibra-
tions to pass through to the hull.     Flexible mounts require a firm
foundation against which to react if they are to do their job.    When
possible,   follow  bed   design A and     avoid  bed design B    (see
illustration) ·

Supports between the bed stringers, and extending from the stringers
to the hull, may be required for proper support and to aid in the
absorption of vibrations.

PROPELLER COUPLING

The propeller shaft coupling fitted to the Westerbeke engine's trans-
mission output flange must transmit not only the power of the engine
to turn the propeller shaft and propeller, but must also transmit the
thrust of the engine/transmission either ahead or astern.

The coupling should be carefully machined for a slight force fit onto
the shaft and an accurate mating surface for coupling to the output
flange of the transmission.

For all engine models, a propeller half-coupling, bored to shaft size
for the specific order, is supplied. The coupling either has a keyway
with set screws or is of the clamping type.




                                   6
The forward end of the propeller shaft has a long str aignt keyway.
Any burrs should be removed from the shaft end.    The coupling should
be a light drive fit on the shaft and the shaft should not have to be
scraped down or filed in order to get a fit.  It is important that the
key be properly fitted both to the shaft and the coupling.     The key
should fit the side of the keyway very closely, but should not touch
the top of the keyway in the hub of the coupling.

If it seems difficult to drive the coupling over the shaft, the
coupling can be expanded by heating in a pail of boiling water. The
face of the propeller coupling must be exactly perpendicular to the
centerline or axis of the propeller shaft.

PROPELLER

The type and size of propeller varies with the gear ratio and must be
selected to fit the application, based upon boat tests.     To utilize
the full power of the engine, and to achieve ideal loading conditions,
it is des ir able to use a propeller wh ich will permit the eng ine to
reach its full rated RPM at full throttle under normal load, underway.

ALIGNMENT OF ENGINE
The eng ine must be proper ly and exactly aligned with the propeller
shaft.   No matter what material is used to build a boat it will be
found to be flexible to some extent and the boat hull will change its
shape to a greater extent than is usually realized when it is launched
and operated in the water.   It is, therefore, very important to check
the engine alignment at frequent intervals and to correct any errors
when they may appear.

Misalignment between the engine and the propeller shaft is the cause
of troubles which are often blamed on other causes.     It will create
excessive bearing wear, rapid shaft wear and will, in many cases,
reduce the life of the hull by loosening the hull fastenings.    A bent
propeller shaft will have exactly the same effect and it is therefore
necessary that the propeller shaft itself be perfectly straight.

One particularly annoying result of misalignment may be leakage of
transmission oil through the rear oil seal. Check to make sure that
alignment is within the limits prescribed.

The engine should be moved around on the bed and supported on the iso-
lator adjusting nuts until the two halves of the couplings can be
brought together without using force so that the flanges meet evenly
all around. It is best not to drill the foundation for the foundation
bolts until the approximate alignment has been accurately determined.

Never attempt a final alignment with the boat on land.       The boat
should be in the water and have had an opportunity to assume its final
water form.   It is best to do the alignment with the fuel and water
tanks about half full and all the usual equipment on board, after the
mainmast has been stepped and final rigging has been accomplished.




                                  7
Take plenty of time in making this alignment and do not be satisfied
with anything less than perfect results.


The alignment is correct when the
shaft can be slipped backward and
forward into the counterbore very
easily and when a feeler guage
indicates that the flanges come
exactly together at all points.
The two halves of the propeller
coupling should be parallel with
0.001 inch per inch diameter of
coupling (A).
In mak ing   the  final check   for
alignment, the engine half-coupling
should be held in one position and
the alignment with the propeller
coupling tested with the propeller
coupling in each of four positions
(A), rotated 90' between each posi-
tion.   This test will also check
whether the propeller half-coupling is in exact alignment on its
shaft.   Then, keeping the propeller coupling in one position, the
alignment should be checked by rotating the eng ine half-coupling in
90' increments, checking dimension (A) of each 90' position until the
half-coupling has been rotated full circle.

The eng ine alignment should be rechecked after the boat has been in
serv ice for one to three week sand, if necessary, per forming the
alignment again.    It usually will be found that the engine is no
longer in alignment. This is not because the work was improperly done
at first but because the boat has taken some time to take its final
shape, and the engine bed and engine stringers have probably absorbed
some moisture.   It may even be necessary to realign once again at a
later time.

The coupling should always be opened up and the bolts removed whenever
the boat is hauled out or moved from the land to the water, and during
storage in a cradle.   The flexibility of the boat often puts a very
severe strain on the shaft or the coupling, or both, when it is being
moved.   In some cases, the shaft has actually been bent by these
strains.   This does not apply to small boats that are hauled out of
the water when not in use, unless they have been dry for a con-
siderable time.




                                  8
EXHAUST SYSTEM

Exhaust line    installations vary considerably and each must be
designed for the particular installation. The prime requirement is to
provide an outlet line with a minimum of restrictions, arranged so
that sea water, rain water and condensation cannot get back into the
cylinders of the engine.

The sea water supply line feeding raw cooling water into the
system must be routed to prevent siphoning of raw water through this
line into the exhaust system, filling the muffler and eng ine cylin-
ders.  This line should be routed at least 12 inches above the water
line and an anti-siphon break installed at the top of its loop. This
loop should be high enough above the water line so as not to go below
it at various angles of heel when under sail.
Lines feeding raw cooling water to stuffing boxes, if installed,
must be located to prevent siphoning of water back into the engine
exhaust and engine cylinders as above.

Most exhaust systems today use a water lift type muffler such as
the Westerbeke Hydro-Hush.   In some installations there is a dry,
insulated high riser located after the engine manifold and before the
muffler to prevent water flowing backwards into the engine during
cranking.

It is essential not to hang too much weight, in the form of
exhaust   system  components,  rigidly    from   the engine   manifold.
Generally, it is permissible to directly connect a pipe nipple and a
water-jacketed exhaust elbow.   Both components weigh approximately 8
pounds (4 kilograms). If there are more components to be rigidly con-
                                       nected to each other and they
                                    ~ weigh more than 8 pounds, then a
                                       flexible exhaust section must be
                                   min



                                    6
                                       installed between the manifold
                                       outlet and the exhaust system
                                                                             I
                                   min componen ts.
                                                                        J--
                                                                     ~Water Line
                                                                      -"~
                                                                       ~ ~ :----'-.' \:.-""""
                                                                                 '----'-   ....   ~




  SY.Phon Break
      <33327
     (Teenol
    Included)
                  (ill
                    ..
                     .

                         .'
                                   ENGINE INSTALLATIONS WITH EXHAUST MANI-
                                   FOLD /WATER INJECTED ELBOW MINIMUM OF 6
                                   INCHES ABOVE VESSEL WATER LINE.
                                                                                                                                     12" min




                   ,                   6"

    ~""':~~-                            1 Water Line
            , -=---::--~
      lnsulate·-~ "-'~\.!
                              ~
                              ~




                                                                                                      CAUTION: Vented loop must be
                                                                                                      in a locatIon where it will remain
     ENCINE INSTALLATIONS WITH EXHAUST MANI-
                                                                                                      above the waterline durIng all
     FOLD/WATER INJECTED ELBOW AT OR BELOW                                                            attitudes of the vessel's operation.
     VESSEL WATER LINE




                                                                       9
The exhaust system must be supported or suspended independently of
the engine manifold, usually using simple metal hangers secured to the
overhead.

All dry portions of the exhaust system can be constructed of com-
mon black iron pipe and should be wrapped in suitable insulation
material to keep surface temperatures as low as possible.

Seasonal  inspection of    the  exhaust  system   iron  components  is
advised.   This is to allow for the removal of any carbon or scale
buildup on the inside of the exhaust that will create back-pressure
problems, reducing engine performance and cylinder head service life.

Many installations use flexible rubber exhaust hose for the water-
cooled section of the exhaust line because of the ease of installation
and flexibility. Provide adequate support for the rubber hose to pre-
vent sagg ing, bending and formation of water pockets.     The exhaust
line must be at least as large an I. D. as the O. D. of the exhaust
elbow hose attachment nipple.     It should be increased in size by
1/2" 1.0. for every 10 feet beyond the first 20 feet.

Always  arrange   the  rubber  hose  section   so that water    cannot
possibly flow back into the engine.   Also make sure that entering sea
water cannot spray directly against the inside of the exhaust piping.
Otherwise, excessive erosion will occur.   The use of brass or copper
is not acceptable for wet exhaust systems, as the combination of salt
water and diesel exhaust gas will cause rapid deter ioration of this
material.   Again, seasonal inspection of the interiors of the metal
portion of the exhaust system is advised, in order to remove scale and
carbon deposits.

MEASURING EXHAUST GAS BACK PRESSURE

Back pressure must be measured on a       straight section of the
exhaust line and as near as possible to the engine exhaust manifold.
The engine should be run at maximum load during the measurement
period. Set-up should be as shown below.

1.   For normally aspirated engines:
          Pressure Test       Mercury Test      Water Column
          1.5 Max PSI          3" Mercury          = 39"
2.   For turbo-charged engines:
          Pressure Test       Mercury Test      Water Column
          0.75 Max PSI        1-1/2" Mercury     = 19-1/2"
                                                     ~,
WATER CONNECTIONS
                                                               From Heal
Seacocks and strainers should be of the                        Excnanger

full-flow type, at least one size greater
than the inlet thread of the sea water
pump.   The strainer should be of the type                        Exnau,1
                                                                  Elbow

which may be withdrawn for cleaning while
the vessel is at sea.   Mount the strainer
below the water line to ensure self-priming




                                   10
Water lines can be copper tubing or wire-wound, reinforced rubber
hose.   In any case, use a section of flexible hose that will not
collapse under suction, between the hull inlet and engine, as well as
between the raw water cooling system outlet and the exhaust system.
This takes up vibration and permits the engine to be moved slightly
when it is being re-aligned.     Do not use street elbows in suction
piping or discharge piping to t6e exhaust system.    All pipe and fit-
tings should be made of bronze.    Use sealing compound at all connec-
tions to pre..vent air leaks.  The neoprene impeller in the sea (raw)
water pump never should be run dry.

COOLANT RECOVERY TANK

Your    Westerbeke     diesel    is
designed for and supplied with a
remote   coolant   recovery   tank.
                                                   FILL CAP
Once the eng ine has been f i lIe d        COOLANT
                                                              COCKPIT
initially via its pressure cap,
occasional topping off can be                      .fr
                                           RECOVERY __
                                            TANK

done through the recovery tank.
Coolant level can be easily and
frequently monitored.

Mount the recovery tank above                CABIN
the eng ine and inside the cabin,
sail locker or engine compartment
where it will always be visible.

Take   care   that   the  plastic
tubing between the engine and the
recovery tank is run so that it
will not chafe or kink.

FUEL TANK AND FILTERS

Fuel tanks may be constructed of fiberglas, monel, aluminum, plain
steel or ternepla te.     I f made of f iberg las, be cer tain that the
in ter ior is gel-coated to prevent fiber s fr om con tamina ting the fuel
system.    Copper or galvanized fuel tanks should not be used.       Great
care should be taken to ensure that the fuel system is correctly
installed so that airlocks are eliminated and precautions taken to
filter contaminants from the fuel.

A primary    fuel  filter  of the water-collecting     type should be
installed between the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. A recommended
type is available from the list of accessories.     The secondary fuel
filter is fitted on the engine between the fuel lift pump and the
injection pump and has a replaceable filter element.

The fuel supply to the engine should be such, that it will allow
the engine-mounted fuel lift pump to maintain a positive inlet
pressure to the injection pump under all operating conditions of the
engine. Minimum fuel supply line size is 1/4-inch I.D ··




                                      II
Fuel return should be plumbed back to the tank using a minimum of
1/4-inch LD. hose.    The fuel return at the tank should extend down
into the tank as if it were a pick-up. This is particularly important
when the top of the fuel tank is below the top of the engine.
Extending the return down into the tank as if it were a pick-up pre-
vents fuel from syphoning out of the engine fuel system via the return
line and allowing air to enter the eng ine' s fuel system when the
return terminates at the top of the tank.

To ensure satisfactory operation, a diesel engine must have a
dependable supply of clean diesel fuel.  For this reason, cleanliness
and care are especially important at the time when the fuel tank is
installed, because dirt left anywhere in the fuel lines or tank will
certainly cause fouling of the injection equipment when the engine is
started for the first time.

FUEL PIPING

We recommend fuel hose or copper tUbing together with              suitable
fittings, both for the supply line and the return line.

Run the tubing, or hose, in the longest pieces obtainable          to avoid
the use of unnecessary fittings and connectors.   The shutoff      valve in
the line between the fuel tank and engine should be of the         fuel oil
type, and it is important that all joints be free of pressure      leaks.

Keep fuel lines as far as possible from     exhaust   pipe   for    minimum
temperature, to eliminate "vapor locks".

The fuel piping leading from the tank to the engine compartment
should always be securely anchored to prevent chafing. Usually the
copper tubing is secured by means of copper straps.

Do not use spr ing-loaded check valves in the fuel supply line as
alternatives to good quali ty manual fuel shutoff valves.     Spr ing-
loaded check valves tax the engine-mounted fuel lift pump's ability to
draw fuel from the fuel tank through the check valve. This can result
in fuel starvation and engine stoppage.

Do not use fuel tanks with fuel pick-up tubes having gauze filter
screens in them.   These screens can clog easily, stopping fuel flow,
result ing in eng ine stoppage.   pick-up tubes should be open and
unobstructed.

The final connection to the engine should be through flexible
rubber hoses.  This will absorb vibration from between the engine and
metal fuel line when used.

ELECTRIC INSTRUMENT PANELS

Standard - This panel is pre-wired, with 15 feet of harness and a
6-prong plug,   into the engine harness.       The panel contains a
tachometer/hourmeter,   ignition key,   pushbuttons for PREHEAT and
START, indicator lamps for low oil pressure, high coolant temperature
and low DC charging. Also mounted in the panel are lamps to illuminate
the panel and a sonic alarm buzzer.



                                  12
Deluxe Panel - This panel is pre-wired, with 15 feet of harness and a
6-prong plug,   into the engine harness.      The panel contains a
tachometer/hourmeter, oil pressure guage, water temperature guage, DC
voltmeter, ignition switch, pushbuttons for PREHEAT and START and a
sonic alarm buzzer.

   (NOTE: Alarm Buzzer - An engine alarm system is standard with
    each propuls ion unit.   Two switches are installed on the
    engine, one to sense oil pressure and one to sense cooling
    water temperature.   Should a loss of oil pressure or high
    cooling water temperature occur, the respective switch will
    trip, activating the alarm buzzer and alerting the operator.
    Operator should note that the alarm buzzer will sound when
    the ignition key is turned on.   After the engine is started
    and oil pressure rises above 20-25 PSI, the alarm buzzer will
    turn off.)

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

All   Westerbeke  diesel   engines  are  supplied pre-wired with     a
6-prong plug to accept either the standard or deluxe instrument
panels.   Two additional plug-in connectors are adjacent to this plug
for connecting to the alarm buzzer leads adjacent to the panel plug.

Carefully   follow  all  instructions   on   the  DC  wir ing diagram
supplied with each unit, especially those relating to fuse/c ir cui t
breaker requirements (Generators) and DC battery switches.
Starter batteries should be located as close to the engine as
possible to avoid voltage drop through long leads. It is bad practice
to use the starter batter ies for other services unless they require
low current or are intermittent.    In cases where there are substan-
tial loads (from lights, refrigerators, radios, depth sounders, etc.),
it is essential to have a complete, separate system and to provide
charg ing current for this system by means of a second alternator or
alternator output splitter.

Starter batteries must be of        a    type which permits    a   high   rate   of
discharge (Diesel starting) ·

Carefully utilize the recommended wire sizes shown in the wiring
diagrams. Plan installation so the battery is close to the engine and
use the following cable sizes:

         #1       for   distances   up    to   8 feet
         #1/0     for   distances   up    to   10 feet        Multi-strand
         #2/0     for   distances   up    to   13 feet        Copper Cable
         #3/0     for   distances   up    to   16 feet




                                         13
MECHANICAL CONTROLS

Depending on the engine model,      those with mechanical shut-down
levers on the injection pump should be operated with a sheathed push/
pull cable located in the cockpit area. These mechanical shut-down
levers are generally spring-loaded to the run position.


   (NOTE:   On earlier W-46 models, the mechanical shut-off lever
    was   a standard feature.  La ter models had an electr ic fuel
    shut-off solenoid in the injection pump as a standard feature
    and the option of a mechanical shut-off lever, or both.)

Control    cable   attachment    brackets   are   provided    on   the
engine/transmission for the attachment of throttle, shift and shut-off
cables (when used). These brackets are designed to accept Morse style
contol cables. Single-lever or dual-lever controls can be used.

   (NOTE:   Single-lever controls should not be used with models
    that already have throttle and engine shut-offs as a combined
    lever on the engine.)

Control cables should be installed in accordance with the manufac-
turer's installation instructions. After control cables are properly-
connected and secured, check for full travel of the cable, making
certain    that the transmission shift lever moves fully into the
selected mode, Forward or Reverse, that it positions the lever pro-
perly in Neutral, and that these positions correspond with the posi-
tion of the control lever in the cockpit.

Check the throttle lever on the injection pump and ensure that
full movement of the throttle lever is allowed by the cable, from the
idle stop screw to the full throttle stop.      On models having the
mechanical shut-down lever, check that the lever moves fully into the
shut-off position and returns to its full run position.




                                  l4
                              OPERATION

PREPARATION FOR FIRST START

The engine, for safety reasons,      is shipped "DRY" ··· with lubri-
cating oil drained from the crankcase and fluid drained from the
transmission.   Therefore, be sure to follow these recommended proce-
dures carefully before starting the engine for the first time.

    1. Remove the oil filler cap and fill the sump with diesel oil
having an API spec. of CC or better. Refer to the technical data Sb~
tion of this manual for the proper amount of oil the sump should
receive; do not neglect to include filter quantity.

    2. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of antifreeze and fresh
water (50-50). The mixture should be strong enough to protect against
freezing.   Open air bleed petcocks on the exhaust manifold or ther-
mostat housing, when installed, to allow air to bleed from the system
while it is being filled.

    3. Fill the reverse gear to the highest mark on the dipstick with
the proper lubricant for    the model gear, as specified in the
Transmission Section of this manual.  V-drives must be filled separ-
ately.

    4. Fill the fuel tank with clean # 2 diesel fuel,   with a Cetane
rating of 45 or better.

    5. Ensure that the battery is fully charged and the electrolyte
level is correct.

FUEL SYSTEM

The   fuel  injection   system  of   a  compression   ignition  engine
(diesel) depends upon very high fuel pressure dur ing the injection
stroke to function correctly.       Minute movements of the pumping
plungers produce this high fuel pressure. However, if any air is pre-
sent inside the high-pressure line, this air will act as a cushion and
prevent the correct pressure, as well as fuel injection, from being
achieved.

Therefore, it is essential that all air is bled from the system
whenever any part of the system has been opened for repair or ser-
vicing.

The Westerbeke self-bleeding fuel system on the Model W-46 is
semi-automatic.   If you run out of fuel, make a filter change, or in
any other way disassemble the fuel system, the system will then con-
tain air which may prevent the engine from starting.    If this should
occur, turn the keyswitch on, allow the electric pump to run for two
minutes, and crank the engine for approximately seven seconds. If the
engine has not started, wait for approximately thirty seconds more of
electric pump action and crank engine again.   (These time periods may
vary from engine to engine.)




                                  15
      (NOTE:  The self-bleeding feature on the Model W-46 relates
       to the engine's fuel system only.
       Fill any large pr imary filter /water separator with clean
       diesel fuel.)

The previous procedures are basic for all initial engine start-ups or
for restarting engines that have stopped due to lack of fuel.

PREPARATION FOR STARTING

1.   Check the coolant level in plastic remote recovery tank.                       The
     level should be roughly half way between Full and Add.

     (NOTE:   In installations using metal remote expansion tank
     #24177 for domestic water heater locations, the plastic
     remote recovery tank is not needed.     Maintain metal tank
     half full when system is cold.)

2.   Check the engine oil level in sump.

3.   Check transmission lubricant level.
     (NOTE:    In Transmission/V-Drive Combinations,             V-Drive      has
      separate lubrication. Check separately.)

4.   See that there   is   fuel   in   the   tank   and   that   the   fuel   shut-off
     valve is open.

5.   Ensure the engine starting battery is fully charged, and all
     electr ical connections have been proper ly made.   Pay par t icular
     attention to the battery ground connection to the engine and that
     the instrument panel harness is fully plugged into the engine har-
     ness plug. Turn the battery selector switch to ON.

6.   Check that the seacock is open and all hose connections are tight.
     Hose material used between seacock, strainer and engine raw water
     pump should be of good wall construction and/or wire-reinforced.

7.   Check the exhaust connections to engine and make certain that all
     clamps holding hoses to engine and muffler are tight. Ensure that
     the raw water supply to exhaust elbow is plumbed through good
     hose, preferably wire-reinforced, and that this hose is properly
     routed to prevent syphoning.

STARTING THE ENGINE (COLD)

1.   Check to make certain that the PULL-TO-STOP lever is pushed back
     into the RUN position.  This was used on earlier models and was
     later replaced by an electric shut-off solenoid incorporated into
     the fuel injection pump, that functioned by turning the ignition
     key ON or OFF. The manual shut-off was retained as an option.




                                        16
2.   Place the transmission shift lever in the neutral position.  This
     is   particularly   important   with  engines   having  hydraulic
     transmissions.   A neutral safety switch on the transmission pre-
     vents starter energizing, should the shift lever on the hydraulic
     transmission be other than in neutral start.

3.   Open the throttle halfway.   Turn the ignition key ON.   This will
     energ ize the instrument panel, cause the sonic alarm buzzer to
     sound (engine not running, no oil pressure), electric fuel pump to
     function and the electric run solenoid innthe injection pump to be
     energized to run.

4.   Preheat for 15 - 20 seconds.
     Panels with keyswitches: Push in on the key to activate the pre-
     heat and hold it in.
     Panels with pushbuttons:   Push in on the PREHEAT button to acti-
     vate preheat and hold it in.
     (Generators: Depress PREHEAT switch and hold.)

5.   Start the engine.
     Panels with keyswitches:  While continuing to hold the key pushed
     in   for   preheat,  turn   the  key   to  the   start  position.
     Panels with pushbutton start: Continuing to hold the PREHEAT but-
     ton in, press the START button.

          (NOTE:   PREHEAT must be depressed to energize START)

     Generators:   Continuing to hold PREHEAT depressed, press the START
                   switch.

6.   Star t:  Once the eng ine starts, release the keyswitch (push-
     buttons)   and return the throttle immedia tely to near the idle
     position (1000 - 1500 RPM).

     Generators:   Release the START toggle switch only.  (Continue to
     hold the PREHEAT toggle switch depressed until oil pressure shows
     20 - 25 PSI, then release the PREHEAT toggle.)

     Check for proper oil pressure and ensure that there is raw water
     coolant discharge with the exhaust.

7.   If the engine fails to start in 20 to 30 seconds of cranking,
     discon tinue the   start ing and allow the starter to cool for a
     period of time, at least twice that used when cranking.     Then
     repeat steps 4 through 6.
                                   CAUTION

     Excessive cranking can damage the starter as well as fill
     the exhaust system between the muffler and engine with raw
     cooling water, possibly allowing raw water into the engine.
     Shut the thru-hull sea cock and open it once engine starts.
     Investigate a hard-starting problem and correct it.




                                    17
STARTING THE ENGINE (WARM)

If the engine is warm and has been stopped for a short period of time,
place the throttle in a partially-open position, the transmission in
NEUTRAL, then depress the PREHEAT and START buttons.       Once engine
starts release both buttons and place the throttle in idle position.

     (NOTE:  PREHEAT button must be pushed in order     to energize
      START button.)

     (NOTE:    Always make certain that the starter pinion has
      stopped revolving before re-engaging the starter; other-
      wise, the flywheel ring gear or starter pinion may be
      damaged. )

Extended use of the preheat beyond the time periods stated should also
be avoided to prevent damage to the preheat elements.

NEVER under any circumstances use, or allow anyone else to use,
starting ether to start your engine.   If your engine will not start,
then have a qualified Westerbeke marine mechanic check it.


WHEN THE ENGINE STARTS

1.   Check for normal oil pr essure immed ia tely upon eng ine start ing.
     Do not continue to run engine if oil pressure is not present
     within 15 seconds of starting the engine.

2.   Check sea water flow.    Look for water discharge with the exhaust.
     Do this without delay.

3.   Recheck cr ankcase oil.   After the eng ine has run 3 or 4 minutes,
     subsequent to an oil change or new installation, stop the engine
     and check the crankcase oil level. This is important as it may be
     necessary to add oil to compensate for the oil that is required to
     fill the eng ine' s internal oil passages and the oil filter.   Add
     oil as necessary. Check oil level prior to each day's operation.

4.   Recheck transmission fluid level.    (This applies only subsequent
     to a fluid change or new installation.)   In such a case, stop the
     engine after running for several minutes at 800 RPM with one shift
     in to forward and one into rever se, then add fluid as necessary.
     Check     fluid   level   before    each    day    of   operation.

                                 WARNING

      The cooling system is pressurized when the engine is at or
      above operating temperature.   The pressure in the system
      must be released with caution as the filler cap is removed.
      It is advisable to protect the hands against escaping stearn
      or water as the cap is turned.



                                    18
5.   Check expansion tank water level.    This is done by stopping the
     engine   and removing the fresh water fill cap from the manifold/
     expansion tank.    (To remove the cap, press down on it with the
     palm of the hand and twist the cap counterclockwise until the
     resistance of the safety stops is felt.       Slowly release palm
     pressure from the cap and allow any pressure built up in the
     system to escape.    Take care not to be scalded or burned by es-
     caping steam or water. Leave the cap in this position until all
     pressure has been released. Then press the cap firmly downward
     to clear the safety stops and continue turning until it can be
     lifted off).

      (NOTE: Systems with metal remote expansion tanks:   coolant
      level should be checked at this tank and the level main-
      tained at about      half full.  The fill cap on the engine
      should not be removed while checking the system, as coolant
      will be lost when this cap is removed.)

       (NOTE: Engines equipped with the plastic coolant recovery
      tank:   The level in the tank should be checked and coolant
      added as needed.   The engine fresh water cooling system is
      full when recovery tank is used; the tank collects coolant
      from the eng ine through expansion as the eng ine reaches
      operating temperature (170· - 190·F), returning coolant to
      the engine through contraction as the engine cools.)

6.   Warm-up instructions.  As soon as possible, get the boat underway
     but at reduced speed, until water temperature gauge indicates
     130-150·F.    If necessary, engine can be warmed up with the
     transmission in neutral at 1000 - 1500 RPM.

7.   Transmission operation.   Always reduce engine speed to idle when
     shifting gears.   However, when the transmission is engaged, it
     will carry full engine load.

STOPPING THE ENGINE

1.   position shift lever in neutral.   (Remove load from generator.)

2.   Idle the engine for 2 to 4 minutes to avoid boiling and to dissi-
     pate some of the heat.  (Generator - run at no-load)

3.   Engines equipped with stop handles: Pull the handle out and hold
     until the eng ine stops completely.  The sonic alarm buzzer will
     sound when oil pressure drops. Turn off keyswitch.

     Engines with keyswitch shut-off:   Just turn the key OFF.

     (NOTE:  Oil pressure gauge and water temperature gauge will
     remain   close   to normal   readings  shown  while  engine
     was running,   when  instrument panel   is de-energized by
     turning key OFF.)



                                   19
4.   Turn off the keyswi tch.  Some models do not use the stop lever;
     they are equipped instead with a fuel solenoid which shuts off the
     fuel supply when the keyswitch is turned to the OFF position.

5.   Close the seacock (at operator's discretion).

6.   Disconnect power   to   system   with   battery   switch     (at   operator's
     discretion) ·

OPERATING PRECAUTIONS

1.   Never run engine for extended periods when excessive overheating
     occurs, as extensive internal damage can be caused.

2.   DO NOT put cold water in an overheated engine.             It can crack the
     cylinder head, block or manifold.

3.   Keep air intake silencer free from lint, etc.

4.   Never Race a Cold Engine;    internal damage can occur due to ina-
     dequate oil circulation.

5.   Keep the engine and accessories clean.

6.   Keep the fuel clean.    Handle it with extreme care as water and
     dirt in fuel can cause additional trouble, resulting in service
     life of the injection system being reduced dramatically.

7.   Do not allow fuel to run low, because fuel intake may be uncovered
     long enough to allow air to enter the injection system, resulting
     in engine stoppage, and requiring system bleeding.

8.   Do not be alarmed if the temperature gauge shows a high reading
     following a sudden stop after eng ine has been oper ating at full
     load.   This is caused by the release of residual heat from the
     heavy metal masses near the combustion chambers. To prevent this,
     run engine at idle for a short period before stopping it.   A high
     temperature reading after a stop does not necessarily signal alarm
     against restarting.   If there is no functional difficulty, tem-
     peratures will quickly return to normal when engine is operating.




                                      20
                             TWELVE   ~      RULES



IMPORTANT                        IMPORTANT                      IMPORTANT

.·· for your safety and your engine's dependability.


ALWAYS -

    1.      Keep this Manual handy and read it whenever in doubt.
    2.      Use only filtered diesel fuel and keep fuel tank full.
    3.      Check cooling water temperature frequently to make sure it is
            in the 170· - 190· F. range during operation.
    4.      Check engine coolant prior to each day's use.
    5.      Investigate any oil leaks immediately.
    6.      Check transmission lubricant prior to each day's use.
    7.      Check engine lube oil level in sump prior to each day's use.

NEVER -
    8.      Race the engine in neutral when cold.
    9.      Run the engine unless the gauge shows proper oil pressure.
   10.      Tamper with the injection pump.
   11.      Use cotton waste or fluffy cloth for cleaning or store fuel
            in a galvanized container.
   12.      Subject the engine to prolonged overloading or continue to
            run it if black smoke comes from the exhaust as this is an
            indication of an overload condition.




                                      21
                                MAINTENANCE

PERIODIC ATTENTION:

When you have taken delivery of your engine, it is important that
you make the following checks immediately after the first 50 hours of
its operation.

     (NOTE:   Transmissions generally require fluid change after
      the first 25 to 30 hours of operation.   Refer to the Trans-
      mission Section of this manual for details.)
FIFTY HOUR CHECKOUT (INITIAL)
Do the following:

1.  Retorque     the    cylinder     head
    bolts.
2. Retorque     the    rocker    br acket
    nuts and adjust valve rocker
    clearance.
3. Change fuel filter elements.
4. Change engine lubricating oil
    and oil filter.
S. Check for fuel and lubr ica t ing
    oil    leaks.         Correct      if
    necessary.
6. Check cooling system for leak s
    and inspect water level.
7. Check     for     loose    fittings,
    clamps,     connections,        nuts,
    bolts, V-belt tensions, etc.
    Pay particular       attention     to
    loose engine mounts and engine mount fittings.  These could cause
    mis-alignment.
8. Check condition of zinc anode in engine heat exchanger.
9. Adjust engine idle speed, if needed.
10. Check for proper movement and security of throttle and shift
    linkage.

DAILY CHECK
1.   Check sea water     strainer.     Clear  any accumulated debris.
2.   Check primary fuel filter/water separator.    Drain any water pre-
     sent in the separator.
3.   Check coolant level in recovery tank.    Maintain half full   when
     cold.
4.   Check lubricating oil level in sump. Maintain level at full mark.
5.   Check lubricant level in transmission and/or V-Drives.    Maintain
     at full mark on dipstick.
6.   Visually check over engine for any noticeable abnormalities i.e. -
     loose belts, brackets, leaks etc.




                                     22
SEASONAL CHECK
1.   Every 100 hours of engine operation or at the end of the season,
     (even if 100 hours is not reached), change the engine's lubri-
     cating oil and oil filter.  Use correct spec. oil and Westerbeke
     oil filter.

2.  Check coolant level. Add if necessary.
3.  Check zinc anode. Clean or replace as needed.
4.  Check security of nuts and bolts and electrical connections.
5.  Check belt(s) tension and condition of belt(s) and hoses. Replace
    as needed.
6. Clean and replace fuel filter element in primary filter/water
    separator.
7. Check starting battery condition of charge and electrolyte level.
    Add distilled water as needed.
8. Check that air       intake silencer is clean and unobstructed.
9. Check sea water pump to ensure there are no leaks, the impeller is
    in good condition, and the cam and front cover are not showing
    signs of wear. Replace as required.
10. Replace secondary fuel filter element and filter element in base
    of electric fuel pump.
11. Change   lubr icant   in  transmission/V-Dr ive.   Refer  to  the
    Transmission Section of this manual for details.

      (IMPORTANT NOTE:     It is mandatory that the check *1 be
       performed when total operating time reaches 150 hours.
        In some instances, this total may be reached before the
       end of your sailing season.)

WINTERIZATION

1. Fresh Water Cooling System:   The use of a 50-50 solution of anti-
freeze and fresh water is recommended for use in the fresh water
cooling system year round.      This solution may require a higher
concentration of antifreeze, depending on the area's winter climate.

Should more antifreeze be needed, drain an approximate amount from
the engine block and add a more concentrated mixture.     Operate the
engine to insure complete circulation throughout the system.  Recheck
coolant level.
2. Lubrication System:   With the engine warm, drain the lubricating
oil from the oil sump.    Remove and replace the oil filter.     (Place
some paper towels and a plastic bag around the filter to catch the oil
while removing it. You may find it advantageous to punch a couple of
holes in the lower and upper portion of the filter to allow oil to
drain off into the plastic bag with paper towels before attempting to
remove the filter.




                                  23
When installing the new oil filter, be sure to apply a small amount of
oil on the sealing O-r ing a the base of the filter.    Fill the sump
with the correct amount of oil for your engine model. Use an oil with
an API Spec. CC.   Run the engine and check for proper oil level and
pressure and ensure that there are no leaks.

Do not leave old engine lubricating oil in the sump over the winter
lay-up per iod.  Lubr icating oil and combustion deposits combine to
produce harmful chemicals which can reduce the life of internal engine
parts.

3.   Transmission:  Drain the lubricant from your transmission and/or
V-dr ive.  Refill with the proper lubr icant to the full mark on the
transmission dipstick. Run the engine and shift the transmission into
forward and reverse one/two times.    Stop the engine and check the
transmission oil level; add lubricant as needed. Check for leaks.

4.  Fuel System:   Top off your fuel tanks with #2 diesel fuel.   Fuel
additives should be added at this time to control algae and condition
the fuel. Care should be taken that additives useed are compatible
with primary filter/separators used in the system. Change the element
in your primary fuel filter/separator if it contains one, and/or clean
the separator sediment bowl.

Change the fuel filter elements on the engine and bleed the fuel
system as needed.   Start the eng ine and allow it to run for 5 to 10
minutes to ensure that no air is left in the fuel system and check for
any leaks that may have been created in the fuel system during this
servicing. Correct as needed.

5.  Sea Water Circuit:   Close the thru hull sea cock. Remove the raw
water intake hose from the sea cock. Place the end of this hose into
a 5-gallon bucket of clean fresh water.   Before starting the engine,
check the z inc pencil found in the pr imary heat exchanger on the
engine and clean or replace it, if required. Clean your sea strainer,
if one is installed on the inside of the hull.

Start the engine and allow the raw water pump to draw the fresh water
through the system.    When the bucket empties, stop the engine and
refill the bucket with an antifreeze solution slightly stronger than
needed for winter freeze protection in your area.

Start the engine and allow all of this mixture to be drawn through the
raw water system.   Once the bucket empties, stop the engine.     This
antifreeze mixture should protect your raw water circuit from freezing
during winter lay-up, as well as providing corrosion protection.

Remove the impeller from the raw water pump (some antifreeeze mixture
will spill, so use a container to catch it).     Examine the impeller.
If impeller needs to be replaced, acquire a new impelller and a cover
gasket, place in a plast ic bag, and retain for later installation
(tape plastic bag to pump to avoid misplacing the parts) ·




                                  24
6. Place a clean cloth, lightly soaked in oil, in the opening of the
intake manifold so as to block it closed.   DO NOT shove the cloth out
of sight into the intake manifold.   If you - - - see it next Spring,
                                            cannot
and you attempt to start your engine, you may need the assistance of a
servicing dealer. Make a note to remove this cloth prior to start-up.
The exhaust thru-hull sea cock can be closed in this same manner.

7. Disconnect the propeller shaft coupling from the transmission. (If
the boat remains in the water during winter storage, this need not be
done. )

Th is is a good time to check the secur i ty of the coupling to the
propeller shaft.   Ensure also that the coupling set screws are tight
and wired so as not to loosen.   The engine alignment to the propeller
shaft should be checked in the Spring when the boat is placed back in
the water, the mast stepped, and the rigging tuned.

8. Controls and Linkage:    Check the secur ity of control connections
to the engine and transmission.   Lubricate these controls and ensure
that they move freely.   Engines with pUll-type shut-off levers should
be left in the run position during winter storage.

9. Starter Motor:     Lubrication and cleaning of the starter drive
pinion is advisable, if access to the starter permits its easy remo-
val. Disconnect the starter battery before attempting to remove the
starter.   Take care to replace proper ly any electr ical connections
removed from the starter.

10. Removing the injector s from the cylinder head and squir ting some
light lube oil down the injector hole into the cylinders is not
necessary for the few months the engine is laid up for the winter.
However, if you anticipate a longer lay-up period (12 months or more),
perform this procedure.    It will prevent the adhering of the piston
rings to the cylinder walls. Ensure that you have the proper hardware
to replace the sealing washers for the injectors and return line
connections.

11.  Spares:   This is a good time to look over your engine and see if
external items such as belts or hoses may need replacing, come spring
commissioning.   Check over your basic spares kit and order items not
on hand, or replace those items used during the Winter lay-up, such as
filters and zinc pencils.

12.   Batteries:   If batteries are to be left on board dur ing the
winter storage period, ensure that they are in a state of full charge
and will remain that way, to prevent them from freezing.   If not, it
would be wise to remove them.




                                  25
LUBRICATING OILS

Lubr icating oils are available for Westerbeke Diesel eng ines which
offer an improved standard of performance to meet the requirements of
modern operating conditions such as sustained high speeds and tem-
peratures.

Use a good   brand    of   oil    that   has   an   API   Service   Spec.   of CC    or
better.

Use the following chart          to   select   the proper    viscosity of oil       for
your Westerbeke engine.

             Ambient Temperature                    Viscosity

                   Above 80' F                 SAE 30 or 10-30
                   30 - 80' F                  SAE 20 or 10-30
                   Below 30' F                       SAE 10 or      10-30




                                          26
                       MAJOR DATA AND SPECIFICATIONS


                       Engine Model W-46 Propulsion

                                 GENERAL


Type                                       Fresh water cooled with
                                           exchanger system, 4-stroke,
                                           inline, vertical, indirect
                                           injected type diesel

Number of Cylinders                        Four - Inline, vertical

Bore & Stroke, in mm(in.)                  84 x 94 (3.307 x 3.701)

Piston Displacement, in cc(cu.in.)         2084 (127.1)

Compression Ratio                          20:1

Compression Pressure
at 150 - 200 RPM, in kg/cm2 (psi)          31 (440) Normal
                                           25 (355.5) Mininum

Rotating Horse Power                       46 HP at 3000 RPM (max. )

                                           42 HP at 3000 RPM (cont. )
Idle Speed, in RPM                         700 - 850 (neutr al)
No Load Maximum Speed, in RPM              3220

Cruise Speed, in RPM                       2000 - 2500

Firing Order                               1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Direction of Rotation                      Counterclockwise    (as      viewed
                                           from flywheel end).

Fuel                                       #2 Diesel     (Cetane rating 45 or
                                           better. )

Engine Lubricating Oil                     Class A.P.I. - CC or better

Dimensions, in inches (mm)                 Length 36.72 (932.6)
(Standard Unit)                            Width 18.13 (460.5)
                                           Height 23.99 (609.3)

Weight Dry, in Ibs.(kg)                    535 (242.6)
(Standard Unit)

Cylinder Sleeves                           Dry type made of special cast
                                           iron.




                                     27
Number of Piston Rings                     Two compression rings, one oil
                                           scraper with spring expander.

Valve Arrangement                          Overhead

Valve Timing                               Intake -     Open 30· BTDC
                                                        Close 50· ABDC

                                           Exhaust - Open 74· BBDC
                                                     Close 30· ATDC

valve Clearance (Intake and
Exhaust - Cold), in inches (rom)           0.009 - 0.010 (0.25)

Starter                                    l2-Volt reduction type
                                           1.6 KW

                                 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Lift Pump                             l2-Volt plunger type,           replace-
                                           able filter element.

Capacity, in qts. (cc)                     0.23 (225) free flow every fif-
                                           teen seconds or better.

Fuel Lift Capacity, in ft. (m)             4   (1.2)

Fuel Injection Timing                      23· +1 BTDC

Fuel Injection Pump                        DPA Injection pump
                                           J3942F580 (late)
                                           J3942F490 (early)

Type                                       Distributor type, automatic
                                           advance with mechanical gover-
                                           nor. Self bleeding.

Fuel Injectors                             Bosch type, spray angle
                                           o degrees
                                                +      142          +10
Injection Pressure, in psi (kg/cm2)        1706 -        0   (120   - O)

Fuel Filter                                Spin-on replaceable paper
                                           element type *24363.

                          LUBRICATION SYSTEM

Oil Pump                                   Trochoid type

Oil Pressure, in psi (kg/cm2)              Idle 20-30 (1.75 - 2.46)
                                           Idle-rated rpm 30-60(2.46-4.2l}
(continued)




                                      28
                             LUBRICATION SYSTEM
                                (continued)


Relief Valve                               Externally-mounted on oil
                                           filter adapter.

Oil Filter                                 Spin-On, Full-flow,
                                           replaceable, #35828

Oil Sump Capacity, in qts (ltrs)           7     (6.6)

Filter Capacity, in qts (ltrs)             1     (.94)

Oil Cooler                                 Fresh water cooled, full flow.


                       FRESH WATER COOLING SYSTEM


Circulating Pump                           Centr ifugal type   with           metal
                                           impeller, belt driven.

Capacity, in qts. (ltrs)
per minute at 3000 RPM pump speed          81. 6       (81)
Thermostat, in ·F.   ('C)                  180'       (82') wax type

Cooling System Capacity, in qts (ltrs)         10.0     (9.5) approximate

                       COOLING SYSTEM - RAW WATER

Raw Wa ter Pump                            Positive displacement neoprene
                                           type impeller. Gear driven, 1/2
                                           npt inlet-outlet.

Flow Rate, in gal. (ltrs) per minute
at 3000 rpm engine speed, measured
at discharge into exhaust elbow            9.5 - 10.0         (35.9 - 37.8)
Heat Exchanger                             Copper - tube type with
                                           removable end caps and              zinc
                                           anode.

                            DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

System                                     12-Volt, DC, negative ground

DC Alternator                              50-Amp, 12-Volt, internal
                                           voltage regulator

Glow plugs                                 Sheathed type, one per
                                           cylinder, 10.5 Volts, 8.3 Amps.
(continued)




                                      29
                         DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
                              (continued)


Starter                                l2-Volt, 1.6 KW, reduction type

Starter Current Draw                   Cranking Cold 225-250 Amps

Transmission                           Mechanical, 1.88:1
(standard)

Optional                               Variety   of   transmission  and
                                       reduction    ratios   available;
                                       consult Master Distributor.

Propeller Recommendation               18-inch diameter x 10 pitch,
(using standard transmission           two blade; or l8-inch diameter
(1.88:1)                               x 8 pitch, three blade.
                                       Propeller should allow engine
                                       to reach its rated speed
                                       (3000 RPM + 100) at full open
                                       throttle underway.




                                  30
                     ENGINE OVERHAUL

The following sections contain detailed
information relating to the proper opera-
tion character istics of the major com-
ponen ts  and  systems   of  the   eng ine.
Included   are  disassembly,   rework   and
reassembly instructions for the guidance
of suitably-equipped and staffed mar ine
engine service and rebuilding facilities.
The necessary procedures should be under-
taken only by such facilities.

Additional operating character istics are
included in the Operation Section of this
manual.

Any replacements should be made only with
genuine Westerbeke parts.


Section
----
Major Data and Specifications .·····.··· 27
Engine Disassembly ·..·················· 32
Engine Inspection and Repair ..········. 42
Reassembly ·········.·...···.·····...·.· 63
Fuel Injection Pump ·····.·············. 74
Lubricating System ··.··...····.·.·.···· 77
Oil Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Fresh Water Pump .··..·.····.·····..···· 82
Ra w Wa t e r Pump ························· 85
Fuel Injector Nozzles .················· 91




          Serial Number Location on Engine Block



                                    31
                          ENGINE DISASSEMBLY


PREPARATION FOR DISASSEMBLY

A.   Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt and oil.
B.   Be careful not to damage each disassembled component part.
C.   Arrange parts in the order of disassembly. Mark or label parts as
     needed to ensure proper mating and reassembly. Keep parts clean.
D.   Drain all fluids and oil from engine block and transmission prior
     to engine disassembly.
E.   Place the engine on a suitable stand or bench for disassembly.
F.   Remove the engine electrical harness in its entirety.      Tag ter-
     minal ends to help ensure proper refitting.




     Oil Sump Drain                                 Heat Exchanger Drains

                            Coolant Drain
                           On Engine Block


REMOVING ENGINE EQUIPMENT AND PARTS

Remove parts in the following order:

1.   Remove the engine starting motor.

2.   Remove    the   tr ansmiss ion and
     related hardware.
     (Transmission overhaul should be
     accomplished by the manufacturer's
     authorized service facility.)

3.   Remove  the transmission damper
     plate from the engine flywheel.




                                     32
4.   Remove oil cooler and oil hoses. Note location of oil hoses on oil
     filter bracket for correct reattachment.

     (NOTE:   Reversing of lube oil cooler hoses           on       the   oil   filter
     bracket will prevent proper oil circulation.

5.   Remove engine heat exchanger and related hoses.

     (NOTE: Lube oi 1 cooler and heat exchanger can be cleaned                     and
     pressure-tested by a conventional automotive radiator shop.)

6.   Remove the engine bellhousing,     circuit    breaker-preheat          solenoid
     mounting plate/lifting eye.

7.   Remove the engine flywheel.

     (NOTE: Loosen the front
     crankshaft pulley nut before
     removing the flywheel.)


8.   Remove engine backplate.

9.   Remove the engine alternator,
     drive belt, support bracket and
     adjusting strap.
                                                                I
                                                  Flywheel Bolt Pattern
10. Remove the engine-mounted sea
    water pump.   Set aside for ex-         Disconnect wire,
    amination and possible                  leave sender unit
                                            in the elbow
    rebuilding.

II. Remove the hose from the elbow
     on the thermostat cover; remove
     the   wire   from    the  over-
     temperature     sending   unit;
     remove the thermostat cover,
     gasket, and thermostat.

12. Remove the fresh water cir-
    culating pump with connecting
    hoses. Remove     by-pass   hose
    between tee fitting below ther-
    mostat and upper front portion
    of exhaust manifold.    (By-pass
    installed on production units
    C609 and on.)

13. Remove the exhaust manifold/
    expansion tank in its entirety.
    Disassemble separately, clean
    all   surfaces,   install   new
    gaskets when assembling.    Use
    good quality gasket cement.




                                   33
14. Remove the air intake silencer.

15. Remove the high-pressure injec-
    tion lines between injection
    pump and injectors.

16. Remove the air intake manifold
    and breather hose.

17. Remove the engine oil filter
    and mounting bracket from the
    engine block.

18. Remove the eng ine-moun ted fuel
    filter with electr ic fuel lift
    pump and related lines.      Note    Scribe

    the    positions    of    sealing
    washer s that a ttach fuel lines
    to the fuel filter, the injec-
    tion pump,    and the electric
    fuel pump.

19. Remove the fuel injection pump:

    (NOTE:   Scr ibe rna ting marks on pump body flange and   the   timing
    gear case before removal.)

    A. Early Models DPAJ3942F580

       Early model injection pumps had tapered drive shafts, each with
       a woodruff key that fit into the injection pump drive gear and
       was held in place in the drive gear by a threaded tang used to
       drive the raw water pump.

       Pump Removal Procedure:

       1. Remove drive tang locking plate and unscrew drive tang.

       2. Manually rotate engine to position keyway in injection pump
          drive gear/shaft at 12:00.   This is important so that when
          the injection pump is removed the woodruff key will not drop
          down into the front cover.

       3. Remove fuel supply and return line from the injection pump.

       4. Loosen the three bolts holding injection pump to front cover
          plate.

          ~OTE:    Inner hold-down bolt for injection pump is removed
          with the aid of a 10-mm, flexible, 1/4-inch drive socket.

       5. Place a soft metal drift punch against the threaded drive-
          shaft end of the injection pump protruding through the drive
          gear.   With a hammer give the drift punch a sharp blow.
          This should dislodge the pump from the drive gear.




                                    34
           6. Remove the injection pump hold-down bolts and carefully (so
              as not to drop the drive shaft woodruff key into the cover)
              withdraw the injection pump.

   (NOTE: Although the drive gear will appear very loose in its
   position it will not change mesh with its drive idle gear.)

   B. Later Models DPAJ3942F49D

           Later style injection pumps each have a splined dr ive shaft
           with a master spline.   The drive gear has a dash mark on the
           front indicating which splines must engage the master spline on
           the drive shaft, ensuring the injection pump is in the correct
           timing sequence with the engine.

           Pump Removal Procedure:

           1. Remove the fuel supply and return lines from the injection
              pump.

           2. Remove the three bolts that hold the injection pump onto the
              front cover plate and withdraw the pump from the engine.

   (NOTE: When reinstalling the injection pump, the drive tang
   plate bolted to the front of the drive gear must be removed
   to expose the dash mark that indicates the splines which mate
   with the master spline on the inject ion pump dr ive shaft,
   when reinstalling the shaft in the drive gear.)

21. Removal of the fuel injectors:

    (a)      Remove the fuel return line from the top of the injectors by
             removing the four 25-mm attaching nuts.

    (NOTE:   There are sealing washers between the injector
     return banjos and the injector s.    These sealing washers
     should be replaced upon reassembly.)

    (b)      With a suitable 3D-mm deep    socket,   unscrew   the   injectors
              from the cylinder head.

    (c)      Remove the copper injector sealing washers from the head once
             the injectors are removed.

    (NOTE: These sealing washers should be replaced upon reassembly.)

    ( d)    Put injectors aside for cleaning   and rebuilding in shop or
            by   an   authorized  CAV/BOSCH    Injection   Repair  Shop.




                                      35
DISASSEMBLING ENGINE

Disassemble in the following order:

1.   Remove     cylinder    head     rocker
     cover.

2.   Remove    the    rocker          shaft
     assembly as follows:

     a. Loosen and remove union nut.
        (1)

     b. Loosen   and    remove        short
        bolts  (2)   and long         bolts
        (3) ·

     c. Remove rocker shaft assembly
        (4) ·

     d. Remove oil pipe (5) and 0-
        rings (2 pcs-to be replaced
        with new ones).

     e. Remove valve       push    rods    and
        valve caps.

     f. Remove intake manifold.
                                                                                8        7        5        3
3.   Remove   the    cylinder             head           2    4        6
                                                                                0        0        0        0
                                                         0    0        0
     assembly as follows:
                                                                  14                                  13
     a. Loosen cylinder head bolts                       0                          0                               0
                                                         10   @J                    17            @)                9
        in    reverse    order  of
        tightening and remove.                                                                                 11
                                                         12                16                15

     b. Remove the cylinder head and
                                                  Cylinder Head Bolt Tightening Sequence
        gasket.

4.   Remove the oil pan and oil pump
     assembly as follows:

     a. Loosen and remove attaching
        bolts and remove oil pan and
        gasket.

     b. Loosen and remove attaching
        bolts and remove oil pump
        assembly.




                                             36
5.   Removal of front gear train.

     a. Remove     front    crankshaft
        pulley    retaining   nut  and
        pUlley.

     b. Remove timing gear cover.
        (Early models: Remove injec-
        tion pump drive gear with
        cover. )

     c. Remove idler gear retaining
        bolt (1),
        thrust plate (2),
        idle gear (3), and bushing.

     d. Remove   camshaft    retaining
        nut (4), thrust     plate and
        gear (5).

6.   Remove the camshaft assembly as
     follows:

     a. position   engine   block   so
        that   the    cylinder    head
        mounting surface is down.

     b. Carefully    withdraw    the
        camshaft (1) from the engine
        block.

     c. Remove all push rod solid
        lifters from engine block.

7.   Remove   the   front    plate   and
     injection    pump    assembly    as
     follows:

     a. Loosen attaching bolts (1).

     b. Remove front plate.

     c. Late models: injection pump
        drive gear is retained on
        bear ing on fr on t plate; use
        suitable puller to remove.




                                       37
8.   Remove   the    flywheel     and    back
     plate.




9.   Remove     the    connecting   rod
     bearing     caps    and   bearings
     (lower    shells)    by  loosening
     and    removing    the   attaching
     bolts.       Keep each cap and
     bearing with respective
     rod.




10. Remove the main bearing caps by loosen-
    ing and removing the attaching bolts.




 11. Remove the crankshaft.


      a. Withdraw each rod and piston as-
         sembly from the bottom of the block.

      b. Loosely replace the bearing and rod
         caps. Make sure that each bearing
         and rod cap is replaced in the exact
          location from which it was originally
          removed. Also make sure that the
          caps are not turned 1800 when
          replaced.


       Revised January of 1988                             ,   7\   .11
                                                                    II
                                                  ""':".


                                             38
12. Remove the main bearing shells.




13. Disassembly   piston  and     con-
    necting rod as follows:

    a. Remove compression rings (1)
       and oil ring by using piston
       ring tool (A).

    b. Remove oil scraper   expander
       spr ing. (2)




    c. Remove  snap   ring  (3)  by
       using snap ring tool (B).

                                              3




   d. Remove piston pin     (4)     by
      using drift punch (C).             f'
    e. Remove piston pin    bushing
       and connecting rod   bearing
       (upper) ·

      (NOTE:   Heating the piston
      by resting the piston crown
      down on an electric      hot
      plate will allow for easier
      removal of the piston pin.)
14. Disassemble the rocker          shaft
    assembly as follows:

    a. Remove snap rings (1) on
       both ends of each rocker
       shaft.

    b. Remove rocker assembly (2).

    c. Remove rocker     shaft bracket
       (3) ·

    d. Remove rocker assembly (4).

    e. Remove   rocker    shaft   spring
       (5) ·

15. Disassemble   the    cylinder   head
    as follows:

    a. Remove glow plugs.

    b. Loosen   and  remove   bolts
       securing exhaust manifold.
                                                                            5
    c. Remove exhaust manifold.                                  ,~--6

                                                           ~     ........- - 7
                                                 """'-;:-==--~
    d. Loosen and remove thermostat
                                                                            6
       cover capscrews and washer s
       (1,2,3)  and   remove  ther-
       mostat cover (4).

    e. Remove    thermostat   (5) ,
       gaskets (6), and spacer (7 )         8            ®,e
       from cylinder head.
                                            9
                                                 ~I



                                            10-1
    f. Remove valve cotters     (8) ·
       (depress   valve spr ing   by
       valve Ii fter. )

   g. Remove retainer (9).
                                                             I
    h. Remove valve spring (10).

    i. Take out valve (11).
                                            11




                                       40
j. Remove valve guide (12) from
   cylinder head (13) by using
   remover (A).

                                                                   ·
                                   ~c/
                                                              A
                                                                   o
                                                              12
    Valve guide
    remover       ~ Z5C                              /C
                                             10
                        1--                        --I 12.~
                                             /I

                  I~~         30            158               13
                                                     b
                                      188
                              (Dimensions in mm)

                                   Par t #36519




                                                   41
                                        INSPECTION AND REPAIR
CYLINDER HEAD
                                                                           5trt?light·edge
1.   Inspection

     Check the gasketed sur face of
     the cylinder head for flatness
     by using a straightedge and
     thickness gauge as in the case
     of checking the crankcase sur-
     faces.    (Refer to page 54,
     Crankcase, paragraph 2.)   This
     check is to be made with the
     precombustion   chamber    jets
     removed.

     Use a surface grinder to reface
     the cylinder head, as
     necessary,   to  the  specified
     flatness.

                                                                      I              I           I
                      Specifications
                                         Unit: mm (in.)              C              D            E
             Item           Standard     Repair limit
                                                               Checking cylinder head gasketed surface
      Warpage of gasketed                                      for flatness
                            0.05, max         0.2
      surface of cylinder
                            (0.0020)       (0.008)
      head




2.   Precombustion              Chamber              Jet
     Replacement

     Do not remove the precombustion
     chamber   jets   unless    their
     replacement is necessary.     To
     remove the jet (if cracks are
     noted in it, or if head must be
     machined   to   specifications)
     ease it out by driving with a
     flat-faced drift pin inserted                              Removing precombustion chamber jet
     through the glow plug hole, as
     shown.

     Before installing the jet, wash                                                                 D
     the     precombustion   chamber
     cavity clean, and drive the jet                                                                 C
     into position, with its orifice
     poin ting to the center of the
     cylinder.     Calk one portion
     with a punch.
                              A-Intake port
                              B-Exhaust port
                              C-Jet
                              D-Caulking position                          A                 B

                                                          42
Valve Guides and Valve Seats

1.   Check each valve for carboning,
     burning, wear or other defects
     on the head; also check cap end                         Valve guide            ~
     and stem for cracks.    Replace                         remove~
     the valve if damaged.
                                                                                                           -J
2.   Check each valve guide        for                     o.se                                                                         (
     wear. Remember, the guide wears
     more   rapidly    at   the  ends.                 i\t-.      -                   )Il
                                                                                                     ;'P ---\                           .
                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                 '-112~
     Measure the inside diameter of
                                                                                      /I
                                                                                                                         ,
                                                       ~f\         30     I         158
     the guide at each end and at
     the middle from both direc-
     tions.     Measure the outside
                                                             t
                                                                              188
                                                                    (Dimensions in rom)
                                                                                                     ·
                                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                                        )               ..
                                                                                                                                        :~
                                                                                                                         :
     diameter of each valve stem.
     If the measurement exceeds the
                                                                     Material:         S53C
                                                                                                           ~
     repair 1 imi t given in the table                     Valve guide removal tool                                Wear on valve guide
     below, replace the valve guide.

3.   Valve face and valve seat.
     Check valve face and valve seat for wear and contact.                                                                       If the
     valve face is worn excessively, reface it by using                                                                      a     valve
     refacer. To reface the valve, proceed as follows:
                                                Specifications
                                                                              Unit: mm (in.)
                                                                                    Service
                                  Item                       Standard
                                                                                     limit

                        Clearance      Intake
                                                      0.055 -0.085      0.15
                        of valve                  (0.00217 - 0.00335) (0.0059)
                        stem in                      0.070-0.100      0.20
                        valve guide    Exhaust
                                                  (0.00276-0.00394) (0.0079)

                        Valve guide                       18 ± 0.3
                        length out·                   (0.709 ± 0.012)
                        side hole

                                                             8 -0.045
                                                                 -0.060           -0.1
                                       Intake                                   (-0.004)
                                                   (0315 -0.00177)
                                                       .         -0.00236
                        Valve stem
                        diameter                             8 -0.060
                                       Exhaust
                                                                 -0.080           -0.15
                                                   (0315 -0.00236)              (-0.0059)
                                                       .         -0.00315

                                                Specifications                                                               Unit: mm (in.1
                          Nominal                                   Repair
                 Item                      Standard                                                      Service limit
                           value                                     limit



                                                                                                                        n".m.'.,
              Angle         30°

      Valve   Sinkage    0.8 (0.031)
                                             ±0.2
                                           (±0.008)
                                                                     1.3                                  ~~
                                                                                                     .~ I- ' 0 , "
                                                                   (0.051)
      seat

              Width      1.4 (0.055)
                                             ±O.l4                   1.6                      ~rz,'I>~         ~   A             Face
                                           (±0.0055)               (0.063)
                                                                 Reface up to angle
                                                                                    Valve seatVJ
                                                                                                                   t~~~age
      Valve margin      1.7 (0.067)          ±O.1                    1.2                                       Counterbore         Valve
                                           (±O.004)                (0.047)                                                         margin



                                                 43
Valve Refacer

    a. Set the valve refacer to an                                                       36.6 (exhaust)
       angle of 45 degrees.                                                              44.6 (intake)
                                                      Installing       1
    b. When gr inding     the   valve,                intake valve
                                                      inserts                               5
       remove the least amount of
       rna ter ial to proper ly reface                                 2-iJj~~~~ Cylinder head
                                                                                 gasketed
       the valve and, if the margin                                              surface
       is less than 1.2 rom (0.047
       in.), replace the valve.                                        3
       Valve seat cutter.
       Repair an excessively worn                     Installing 4
       valve seat by using a valve                    exhaust
                                                      valve inserts
       grinder   or    valve  seat
       cutter.
                                                                    I-Caulking body
    c. When using     a  valve seat                                 2-Valve insert
       cutter, carefully apply a                                    3-Cylinder head
                                                                    4-Valve guide
       uniform    pressure   to  the                                S-Caulking ring
       valve seat to prevent uneven
       cutting.      After  cutting,
       reface the seat by rotating
       the cutter with No.400 sand-
       paper   placed   between  the
       cutter and seat.

    d. If valve seat width is over-
       cut,   repair    it   using    a
       30 degree cutter.     I f valve
       seat width exceeds 1.6 rom
       (0.063 in.)    due to wear,
       replace   the   seat.      Also
       replace the seat when valve
       sinkage    exceeds    1.3    rom
       (0.051 in.).
                                                                  Exhaust                Intake
Valve Seat Installation

Heat cylinder head to a temperature of 80·C to 100·C (176·F to 2l2·F),
and cool the valve seat sufficiently in ether or alcohol containing
dry ice. Valve seat may be cooled in liquid nitrogen.

Press the valve seat into cylinder head and leave the head and seat
until they cool down to room temperature.

                                         Specifications                         Unit: mm (in.)
                               A                  8                C                 D


                           33 +0.02          41 +0.025
          Valve seat
                               0                  0              7.8 ± 0.1      2.8 ± 0.1
          dimensions     (1.30 ~.0008)     (1.61 ~.0009 8)   (0.307 ± 0.004)   (0.11 ± 0.004)




                                             44
        Intake valve                                              Exhaust
        insert caulking                                           valve insert
        tool                                                      caulking tool




                                      part if365l6                                      Par t if 36517


Valve Springs

Inspect each spr ing for cr acks, and check it for squareness,                                           fr ee
length and as-installed length against these specifications.


                               s(parelfess !tIm!
                                                                  valve spring tester




    slIrjiKe gage
      plate ' \
                                                                           f

                     Specifications
                                            Unit: mm (in.)
                                                  Repair
           Item               Standard
                                                   limit
                               48.85               47.6
 Valve spring free length
                              (1.9232)           (1.874)
                                0.4/25
 Valve spring squareness    (0.016/0.98),
                                max
 Load compress spring to
 initial working lenfth        19 ± 1              15
 [43 mm (1.69 in.)          (41.9 ± 2.21)        (33.08)
 kg(Ib)


Exhaust manifold

To check exhaust manifold,
disassemble the end plates. Clean
the gasket surfaces and remove any
carbon buildup inside the manifold.

Reassemble using new end plate
gaskets and good quality gasket
cement.




                                                             45
Cylinder Sleeves

1.   Using a cylinder gauge, take ID
     measurements in two directions
     (parallel and transverse to the
     crankshaft    axis)   on   each
     cylinder sleeve at the three
     locations indicated below.

     If wear    reaches  the  repair
     limit, rebore the sleeve to the
     next specified oversize.
                          Specifications
                                                   Unit: mm (in.)
                                               Repair   Service
              Item         Standard
                                                limit    limit


                            84 +0.035                               Crankcase gasketed surface
                                   0            +0.20    0.7                           I
     Cylinder sleeve ID (3 .307   +g.oo   138) (+0.008) (0.028)




     Out of                 O.OIS                                       ~:.                ~.
                          (0.00059),
     roundness
                             max                                    ~-iiH-ooE--2--+_~ ~(
                             0.05
      Taper                (0.0020),
                             max

2.   Two    over sizes are   provided
     for: +0.25 and +0.5 rnm(0.00984                                               I

     and     0.01969   in.}.    After
     rebor ing, be sure to hone the                                 positions for checking sleeve bore diameter
     bore to the specified oversize
     accurately within plus 0.035mm
     (0.00138 in.) or minus 0 mm.
     Machining the bores of all four
     sleeves to the same oversize is
     recommended (Pistons and piston
     rings are available for the two
     oversizes) ·

3.   I f any sleeve bor e is unevenly
     worn, determine the oversize
     which   the  sleeve is to be
     rebored on the basis of the
     maximum wear noted.    This will                                         Removing ridge with ridge reamer
     ensure perfect roundness in the
     oversize bore.

     (NOTE: If the cylinder sleeves are found in good condition
     with the wear far less than the repair limit, it 1S per-
     missible to rebuild the engine with replacement piston rings.
     In these cases, be sure to ream off the ridge and, as
     necessary, hone the bore to remove any glossy surface.)


                                                              46
Pistons and Piston Rings

1-      Pistons
        Inspect each piston for any
        abnormal wear of its sliding
        surface; cracks at the crown
        and  evidence of melting     or
        fusion.     Examine   the  ring
        grooves for stepped wear and
        sloped wear.     Replace those
        pistons found in bad condition.

2.      Piston clearance in the bore.
        Using   a micrometer,   measure
        each piston at the positions
        listed below and compute the
        radial clearance at each posi-
        tion by referr ing to the bore
        diameter of its sleeve deter-
        mined in the previous text.

                                      Specifications
                                                                Unit: mm (in.)           B
                    Item                                               Service
                                                 Standard
                                                                        limit
                    Standard                   83.90 (3.3031)
                    0.25 (0.0098)                                                A~f----If---~A
                    oversize                   84.15 (3.3130)
     Diameter                                                          -0.2
     (at skirt A)   0.50 (0.0197)                                   (--0.008)
                                               84.40 (3.3228)
                    oversize
                                               0.545 - 0.610                             B
                    Top                     (0.02146 - 0.02402)
                    Top of 2nd ring           0.425 - 0.490
                                                                                 ~+t----:----t-i~A
                    land                   (0.01673 - 0.01929)
      Fit in                                                                         --""i====--.J.-- B
      cylinders     Bottom of 3rd             0.245 - 0.310
                    ring land              (0.00965 -0.01220)
                                              0.085 - 0.150
                    Skirt                  (0.00335 - 0.0059 I)




                                                                  47
3.   Replacing pistons.
     Replace the piston with a new
                                                                              Front of engine
     one if the measurement exceeds
     the serv ice limit.    When any
     pistons have to be replaced,
     the variance in weight among
                                                                                   t
     the pistons must not exceed the
     limit.   It is recommended that
     the cylinder number be stamped
     on the pis ton selected for use
     in a particular cylinder for
     convenient identification.

     When the cylinder sleeves are
                                                                                         Piston weight
     bored   to  the oversize,   the
     pistons and piston rings of the                                    Piston weight marking
     same oversize dimension should
     be used.   There are two over-
     sizes for pistons and piston
     rings: +0.25 mm(0.00984in.} and
     + 0.50mm (0.01969 in.).     The
     variance in weight among the
     pistons per engine should be +3
     grams (~O.loz) max.
4.   Piston ring gaps.
     Always check piston ring gaps
     before   assembling   rings  on                                Piston ring
     piston.   Insert rings into the
     cylinder squarely by using a                                   Checking piston ring gap
     piston. Check gaps with feeler
     gauge.
                                         Specifications
                                                                          Unit: mm (in)
                                                                               Service
                                Item                         Standard          limit
                                                            0.30 - 0.50          1.5
              Piston ring gap
                                                        (0.0118 - 0.0197)      (0.059)



5.   Piston ring grooves.
     Insert the compression and oil
     rings of known thicknesses into
     the grooves; measure the side
     clearance with a feeler gauge
     (A) ·




                                            Specifications
                                                                            Unit· mm (in)
                                                                                  Repair
                                  Item                         Standard
                                                                                  limit
                           No.1 compression                 0.050 - 0.080        0.20
               Fit in ring ring                         (0.00197 - 0.00315)    (0.0079)
               grooves
                           No.2 compression ring           0.025 - 0.060         0.15
                            Oil ring                    (0.00098 - 0.00236)    (0.0059)

                                                   48
6.   Replacing piston rings.
     If the rings are replaced, the
     gap width will exceed the stan-
     dard value, but this is not
     important, provided that the
     service limit is not exceeded.

7.   Piston pin bosses.
     Check the piston pin bosses by
     referring to the text which
     follows.

Piston Pins, Piston Pin Bosses and
Piston Pin Bushings

1.   Check the pin clearance in the
     pin boss of the piston by com-
     puting the difference between
     the two diameter readings, one
     taken on the pin and the other
     in the boss.   I f the compu ted
     difference (clearance) exceeds
     the repair 1 imi t , replace the
     piston pin with a new one.                                  Use a micrometer to measure piston
                                                                 pin bushing and piston pin
                     Specifications
                                          Unit: mm (in.)
                                              Repair
              Item             Standard
                                               limit
                                 0
                             25 -0.006
     Piston pin
     diameter
                          (0.984 J.00024 )


2.   Check the clearance of the pin in the bushing fitted to the small
     end of the connecting rod by computing the difference between the
     two diameter readings.    If the computed difference (clearance)
     exceeds the repair limit, replace the pin or the bushing,
     whichever is badly worn.
                                                                                Specifications
                                                                                                          Unit· mm (in)
                                                                      Item                   Standard         Repair
                                                                                                               limit
                                                                                            25 +{l.OlO
                                                            Piston pin boss                      0
                                                            ID
                                                                                      (0.984 ~.00039 )


                                                            Piston pin clear-           0-0.016                0.05
                                                            ance in piston             (0 - 0.00063)         (0.0020)
                                                            pin boss

                                                                                            25 +{l.045
                                                            Piston pin                         -0.020
                                                            bushingID                 (0 984 +{l.00 177 )
                                                                                        ·      -0.00079

                                                                                        0.020 - 0.051
                                                            Piston pin clearance
                                                                                        (0.00079 -             0.08
                                                            in piston pin bushing                            (0.0031)
                                                                                            0.00201)


                                                       49
         hend check        tWist cheolc


       (I 'C~
       O,~




                                                            Checking connecting rod for bend
connecting        Rod   Alignment         and
Bearings

1.   Check the connecting rod for
     evidence of cracks, especially
     cr acks in the fillets of its
     small and large ends.  Replace
     the rod if any crack is noted
     in the fillets.

2.   Mount each connecting rod             in
     the connecting rod aligner           and
     check for bend and twist,             as
     shown in the illustrations.           In
     a twisted connecting rod,            the
     bearing is not trued to              the
     small end bushing.   Such a          rod
     must be corrected with the           use
     of a press.                                         Checking connecting rod for twist

3.   If a connecting rod aligner is
     not available, the rod may be
     checked as follows:

     a. To check the rod for bend,
                                                                      0.05
        measure C and i as shown in                                   IOil
        figure a above.       I f the
        measurement at C is greater
        than    O. 05rnm -per    100rnm
        (0.00197in. per 3.937 in.)
        of i, straighten the rod                 a.   Checking the connect-   b.   Checking the connect-
        with-the use of a press.                      ing rod for bend             ing rod for twist


                                                           Checking connecting rod




                                            50
     b. To check the rod for twist,
         measure C as shown in figure
         b.
        ...-
              If the measurement at C
         1S greater  than O.05mm per
         lOOmm (O.00197in. per
         3.937in.) of t, correct the
         rod.          -

4.   To check the rod with a piston,
     place the rod on the sur face
     plate as shown below, insert a
     round   bar  of   the   cr ankpin
     diameter into and through its
     large   end   bore    and    take
     measurements at A and B.      The
     difference   between   the    two
     measurements tells the straight-
     ness of the rod.

     When one or more connecting
     rods are to be replaced, select
     new rods so that the var iance
     in weight among the rods is
     within the value given in the
     specification.                                                  Checking connecting rod on surface plate


                       Specification
                                       Unit: gram (ozl
                 Variance in weight           ±5
                 among connecting rods      (±0.18)




5.   Check the connecting rod end                                           /
     playas follows:
     Tighten     the     capscrews      to
     5.5kg-m (39.8 Ib-ft).          Use a
     feeler. Gauge to measure the
     end     play end       play      (the
     clearance between the large end
     and   cr ank    arm) ·      If    the
     clearance measured exceeds the                                             o
     service limit, replace the con-                                        _ _ _ _ _ _0
     necting rod or bearing.
                         Specifications
                                               Unit: mm (in.)

                                                      Service
          Item                Standard
                                                       limit
      Connecting rod         0.l5-0.35               0.50
      end play            (0.0059 - 0.0138)        (0.0197)




                                                                51
6.   Check the bearings as follows:

     a. Inspect each bearing for evidence of wiping or fatigue failure,
        scratches by imbedded dirt particles and improper seating on
        the bore.   Determine by inspection whether the bear ing should
        be repaired or replaced.

     b. Check the radial clearance between crankpin and bearing;     if
        the repair limi t specified below is exceeded by the checked
        clearance, replace the bearing.    Where the crankpin is to be
        ground to the next undersize, use a replacement bearing of that
        undersize.

       The two bearing undersizes are O.25mm                            (O.00984in.)   and O.50mm
       (O.01969in.) ·


                                          Specifications
                                                                Unit: mm (in.)
                                                                    Repair
                          Item                    Standard
                                                                    limit

                                                58 ·...{}.035
                                                   -0.055             0.20
                    Crankpin diameter
                                            (2283 -0.00138)         (0.008)
                                              .    -0.0::>217
                    Radial clearance
                                              0.035 - 0.100          0.200
                    between bearing
                    and crankpin          (0.00138 -0.00394)       (0.00787)




                                       D= Dl + D2
                                              2




                    positions for measuring connecting rod
                    bearing with a micrometer




                                                  52
c. Check the contact pattern of
   the connecting-rod bearing
   on the crankpin by placing
   the   large   end   into  its
   operating position with the
   crankshaft laid out on a
   bench, and by applying a
   paste    of   red    lead  or
   Prussian blue to visualize
   the contact.      Be sure to
   tighten   the   capscrews  to
   the specified torque,
   5.5kg-m (39.8Ib-ft).      The
   contact should occur over
   75% of the entire surface;
   if not, replace the bearing.

(NOTE:  The above job of checking the contact pattern may be
eliminated where the crankpin is ground to the specified
tolerance and the bearing has been replaced. This is because
a replacement bear ing is precis ion-finished to ensure the
specified extent of contact).

d. Check each bearing shell for
   crush.     Shells found to be
   loose in the bore or have an                                                                                 Crush:O to 0.04 rnrn
   excessive      crush    must    be                                                                                 (0.0016 in.)
   replaced. A crush of up to           ....·;
   O.04mm      (.OOIGin.),     which     '.o'


   will yield to a load of
   350kg     (772Ib.) ,    is   pre-                                                  ..   ~ :~,\:~: :.'.~~:'
                                            ....~. ::;.:.<: .:.>.~:: .·:X;~!~:T.:f:m·::.::::·:~":'. .
   scr ibed.    As in the case of
   the   main     bear ing   shells,
   some crush is needed for
   securing      a   proper      fit,
                                                       connecting rod bearing crush
   without which the bearing
   might roll or jump in place,
   resulting in localized over-
   loading and consequent flak-
   ing,    burning      or   fatigue
   failure.

   Check to be sure that the
   crush disappears to allow
   the bear ing cap to mate the
   large end positively when
   the capscrews are tightened
   to 5.5kg-m (39.8 lb-ft).




                                   53
Crankcase

1.   Inspect the outside and inside
     surfaces     for    evidence   of
     cracking. Visually examine the
     cylinder bores for scuffing,
     rusting,      erosion    or   any
     abnormal     wear.      Using   a
     str aigh tedge,   check  the  top
     face (for rna t ing with cylinder
     head), front face (for mating
     with front plate) and rear face
     (for mating with rear plate)
     for flatness.

2.   Make sure that the top face of
     the crankcase is flat within
     the standard specified below.                             Checking crankcase top for flatness
     If the standard is exceeded,
     reface the top by using a sur-
     face grinder to make it flat
     within the specified standard.

                        Specifications       Unit: mm (in.)    A-
                                                 Repair
               Item             Standard
                                                  limit
       Warpage of crankcase     0.05, max.      0.2mm          8-    I           I
       gasketed surface         (0.0020)        (0.008)              I           I
                                                                    C           D

                                                               Checking crankcase top for flatness
Crankshaft

1.   Journals

     a. Inspect   each    journal for
        surface     flaws    such  as
        roughing, scratches, pitting
        and burns, and, as neces-
        sary, repair the journals by
        grinding to the next under-
        size    or      replace   the
        cr ankshaft.

     b. Measure each journal with a
        micrometer (take a total of
        four readings) to determine
        the wear, out-of-round and
        taper (cylindr icali ty) ·  If
        any   of   the   limits    are
        exceeded, repair by grinding
        to the next undersize or
        replace the crankshaft.                                     positions for measuring journal
                                                                    with a micrometer



                                                          54
     (NOTE: If the fit or clearance
     of main bearings on journals is
     still    in  excess   of   O.2rnrn
     (O.008in.) even if new bearings
     are used, or if the taper or out
     of roundness is not less than
     O.03rnrn (O.OOI2in.), grind the
     journals to the next undersize).

2.   Crankpins

     a. Inspect   each     crankpin for
        surface      flaws     such  as
        roughing, scratches, pitting
        and burrs; repair the crank-
        pins,    as     necessary,   by
        grinding to the next under-
        size or replace the
        cr ankshaft.
     b. Using a micrometer, measure each crankpin (take a total of four
        readings) to determine the wear, out-of-round and taper.     If
        any of the limits is exceeded, repair by grinding to the next
        undersize or replace the crankshaft.


                                         Specifications
                                                                Unit: mm (in)
                                                          Repair     Service
                           Item         Standard
                                                           limit      limit



                                          65- 0.015
                      Diameter of           -0.035     -0.15     -0.9
                      journal
                                      (2 559-0.00059 (-0.0059) (-0.035)
                                        .   -0.00138


                     Out of round-
                     ness of crank-
                     pins and journals om (0.0004),         0.03
                                         max              (0.0012)
                     Taper of crank-
                     pins and journals
                                          58 -0.035
                     Diameter of             -0.055   -0.20
                     crankpin         (228rO.00138) (-0.008)
                                        .    -0.00217
                                                            0.2
                                                          (0.0079)
                                       0.03 - 0.089
                      Fit of journals                      Uneven
                                       (0.0012 -
                      in main bearings                     wear:
                                            0.00350)
                                                            0.03
                                                          (0.0012)




                                              55
     c. Grinding the crankshaft.
        The crankshaft journals and crankpins must be refinished to a
        dimension smaller by 0.100 to 0.120mm (0.00394 to 0.00472in.)
        than the undersize of bearings to be used.

            Example:       If 0.50mm          (0.01969in.)      undersize bearings are        to
                          be used:

                          The journals must be refinished to
                          65-0.5-(0.100 to 0.120)
                          [2.55905-0.01969-(0.00394 to 0.00472in.)]

                          The crankpins must be refinished to
                          58-0.5-(0.100 to 0.120)
                          [2.28346-0.01969-(0.00394 to 0.00472in.)]

        When grinding the crankpins and journals, be sure to reproduce
        the same fillet radius (shoulder radius) as the original one.
        Too small a radius of fillet will result in fatigue/failure of
        crankshaft while too large a fillet radius will cause the
        bearing to ride on the radius and thereby result in a bearing
        failure.

                                              CAUTION

     Be extremely careful not to grind off the radius part beyond
     the desired dimension.       An over-ground radius part can be
     cor r ected only by gr ind ing off the shoulder face.   If thi s
     occur s, it will pr esen t problems in obtain ing a proper end
     clearance.

        Also check the crankpin and journals for hardness. They should
        have a hardness of 620 or more according to the Vickers Hard-
        ness Number.    I f necessary,
        r e-harden the cr ankpins and                Specifications      Unit: mm (in.)
        journals, and check them for     Undersize      Journals to be refinished to
        cracks    by   conducting    a        0.25    64 75 -0.0]5 (2 54921-0.00059)
        magnaflux (magnetic                 (0.0098)    . -0.035'            -0.00138
        particle) test.                       0.50          -0.015 (2 5393rO.00059)
                                                                        64.5 -0.035'   -0.00138
                                                             (0.0197)
3.   End Play.

     Check the crankshaft for end
     play,   as shown, by using a
     thickness guage at the thrust
     bearing.     If   the   limi t is
     reached   replace    the   thrust
     plate.
                     Specifications      Unit: mm (in.)
                                              Repair
             Item             Standard
                                               limit

     Journal width          0.100-0.189        0.3
     for thrust          (0.00394 - 0.00744) (0.012)
     bearing


                                                              Checking crankshaft end play



                                                    56
The end play is due to the differ-
ence between the width of thrust
bear ing and the dimens ion (A) indi-
cated below:




4.   Runout
     Support the crankshaft as shown
     and   roll    it to measure its
     deflection with a dial gauge.
     Distortion is one-half on the
     deflection (dial gauge reading;)
     if  it   exceeds   the  standard,
     reduce     it   by  bending   the
     crankshaft in a press.
                                                            Journal width for thrust bearing
                       Specifications
                                           Unit: mm (in.)
                                              Repair
              Item              Standard
                                               limit
                                  0.02          0.5
       Crankshaft runout
                               (0.0008)       (0.020)




5.   Main Bearing
     Inspect each main bearing for
     evidence of wiping or fatigue
     failure,    scratches    from im-
     bedded     dirt    particles  and                      Checking crankshaft for runout
     improper seating on the bore
     (bearing cap).       Upon inspec-
     tion,    determine   whether  the
     bearing should be replaced or
     not.

     Check each main bearing that
     will be installed during engine
     reassembly  to   determine   the
     specified   radial    clearance.
     The checking procedure is as
     follows:




                                                              Measuring main bearing ID




                                                       57
     Install the main bearings in
     the    crankcase,   without   the
     crankshaft,      securing    each
     bear ing cap by tightening the
     bolts to 8.5 kg-m (61.5 Ib-ft)
     and measure the diameter from
     two positions, (A) and (B), as
     indicated in the illustration.
     Measure the     journal with a
     micrometer.         From    these
     readings, compute the radial
     clearance.

                    Specifications     Unit: mm (in.)
                                                                  positions for measuring main bearing
                                            Repair
            Item           Standard
                                             limit

      Fit of main
                          0.03 -0.089    0.2
      bearings on
                      (0.0012 -0.0035) (0.008)
      journals
                                                                                                 Crush:
                                                                                                 0-0.04 mm


     Check each main-bearing shell
     for crush.     Shells that are
     loose in the bor e or have an
                                                             /;                          iW
                                                             .. ;.':}::<:':?? \'\~:H;;~':;~;1:
     excessive    crush     must    be
     replaced.   A crush of up to
     O.04mm (O.0016in.) ,- which will
     yield    a   load     of    500kg
     (11031b), is recommended.
                                                                            Main bearing crush


Camshaft

1.   Check the camshaft end playas outlined for the timing gears.
     Where the end play exceeds the repair limit, replace the thrust
     plate.
                                                Specifications          Unit: mm (in.)
                                               Nominal                       Repair
                                     Item                    Standard
                                                value                         limit

                                                  5.0   0.05 - 0.112
                             Camshaft end
                                                        (0.00197 -             0.3
                             play               (0.197)     0.00441)         (0.012)


2.   Inspect the camshaft journals for abnormal wear and damage; the
     camshaft must be replaced if any of the three journals is found in
     disrepair.

3.   Using a micrometer, measure each cam of the camshaft to read Dl
     (cam height) and D2 (diameter), then compute the difference bet-
     ween Dl and D2.     If this difference is less than the service
     limit, replace the camshaft.



                                                        58
                                 Specifications
                                                          Unit: mm (in.)
               Item                      Standard          Repair limit
                                              +0.1
                                 01: 46.916 -0.3
     Intake                                                01 - 02 =
                                   (I 84708 +0.00394)
     cam                             .       -0.01181   6.184
     profde    (0,    - O2   )
                                   01 .- [h = 6.684     (0.24346)
                                              (0.26315)



     Exhaust
     cam
     profde
                f¥'
                 O2
                                             +0 I
                                 01: 45.944 -0:3
                                            +0.00394
                                   (1.80882 -0.01181)
                                  Dt - D2 = 7.344
                                                           01 - 02 =
                                                           6.844
                                                           (0.26945 )
                                              (0.28913)


                                                                              Checking camshaft runout
4.   Check the camshaft for runout.
     Straighten the camshaft in a
     press   or   replace  it,   as
     necessary.

                                 Specifications
                                                      Unit: mm {in.'
                                                            Service
                 Item                     Standard
                                                             limit
                                     0.02 (0.0008),          0.05
       Camshaft runout                                     (0.0020)
                                     max.



5.   Measure the diameter of each
     journal in two directions to
     compute the   fit or clearance
     in the camshaft hole.


                                                                             Measuring camshaft journals



6.   Use a micrometer to measure the
     ID   of    respective   camshaft
     bosses and compute the fit on
     each   journal.     If  the  fit
     exceeds    the   repair   limit,
     machine the holes and install
     bushings.
                                  SpecifICations          Unit: mm {in.'
                                                                Repair
               Item                        Standard
                                                                 limit
      Fit of camshaft                 0.040 - 0.090             0.15
      holes on journals           (0.00157 -0.00354)          (0.0059)


                                                                             Measuring camshaft hole to




                                                                        59
Tappets and Tappet Holes.

1.   Inspect the riding face of each tappet for wear, contact pattern
     and cracks. Replace defective tappets.

2.   Check the fit of the tappet in the hole and confirm with the
     repair limi t in the char t ind ica ted below.   I f the limit is
     exceeded, replace the tappet.   I f the hole is wor n, r esul t ing in
     an excessive radial clearance, even with a new tappet, the crank-
     case must be replaced.


                                          Specifications        Unit: mm (in.)

                                                       Repair       Service
                           Item        Standard
                                                        limit        limit
                                     0.035 - 0.098
                      Fit of holes                       0.13 +0.10 (hole)
                      on tappets     (0.00138 -
                                                      (0.0051 ) (+0.0039)
                                         0.00386 )
                      Tappet hole                                    +0.10
                      diameter        22(0.87)                     (+0.0039)




Flywheel and Ring Gear

1.   Check the flywheel      for     cracks and            the crankshaft        flywheel dowel
     pin for proper fit.


2.   Check the threads of the flywheel retaining bolts for stretch and
     other defects. Replace the bolts as needed.


3.   Check the ring gear for broken or excessively worn teeth.   If the
     teeth are defective, remove the gear from the flywheel and replace
     it with a new one.

Timing   Gear Case and Oil Seal.

1.   Check the timing gear case for signs of cracks and                             inspect the
     condition of the dowel pin holes.

2.   Check the oil seal for excessive wear and defects;      replace it
     when stated conditions are present.   Closely inspect the oil seal
     when excessive oil leaks from the crankshaft end.




                                             60
Timing Gears.

1.   It    is   important     that  the
     backlash in each mesh is within
     the repair limit.     If the limit
     is     exceeded,     r educe   the
     backlash by replacing the worn
     gear.     To measure backlash,
     place a feeler gauge squarely
     between two gear teeth.
                           Specifications        Unit: mm (in.)
                                                      Repair
                Item              Standard
                                                       limit


      Backlash                  0.12 -0.24             0.3
                             (0.0047 - 0.0095)       (0.012)


2.   Check the r ad ial clear ance be-
     tween the idler bushing and
     shaft    by  measur ing   with    a
     micrometer.        Compute     the
     clear ance  fr om  the   read ing s
     taken and, if the repair limit
     is    exceeded,    replace     the
     bushing.
                            Specifications
                                                  Unit: mm (in.)
                                                        Repair
         Item          Nominal        Standard
                                                         limit

      Fit of shaft                 0.025 -0.075
                          36                          0.1
      in idler
                       (1.417) (0.00098 - 0.0029 5) (0.004)
      bushing



3.   Check the idler end play with a
     thickness gauge.     Replace the
     thrust plate      to reduce the
     play if the thickness gauge
     reading   exceeds    the   repair
     limit.
                          Specifications       Unit: mm (in.)
                                                   Repair
             Item                Standard
                                                    limit
                                  0-0.1             0.35
      Idler end play
                                 (0 - 0.004)      (0.0138)



                                                                     Checking idler end play




                                                                61
4.   If the idler shaft must be
     replaced, use the idler shaft
     puller    for    removal,    as
     illustrated.   When installing
     the replacement shaft, the oil
     holes must be properly aligned.

5.   Inspect       the       timing        gear     as
     follows:

     a. Camshaft gear.                                          Idler shaft puller
        Replace the gear if      teeth
                                                                  Part #36515
        show ev idence of flak ing or
        excessive wear, or if the
        keyway is galled, worn or
        disfigured.     Make certain
        that the camshaft gear, when
                                                            Removing idler shaft
        mounted on the camshaft, has                        I-Crankcase
        no more end play than O.4mm                         2-Puller
                                                            3-Stud (~!lO)
         (O.Ol57in.)  To   check   the                      4-Idler shaft
        end play, use a dial gauge.                         5-Nut
        I f the reading exceeds the
        repair limit,    replace the
        thrust    plate   (Important:
        this gear is shrink-fitted
        to the camshaft).
                          Specifications
                                           Unit: mm (in.)

            Item                Standard        Repair
                                                 limit

      Camshaft end play
                                0.05 - 0.112      0.3
                           (0.00197 - 0.00441) (0.012)

     b. Injection pump drive gear.
        Inspect the gear teeth for damage and condition of the mounting
        bolt holes. Replace the gear if observed to be damaged.

     c. Crankshaft gear.
        Replace the gear if teeth show signs of defective tooth con-
        tact, excessive wear or other defects.

     d. Idler gear.
        Inspect the idler gear teeth and, when necessary, replace the
        gear.

6.   Inspect the gear case for cracks and for evidence of oil leakage
     at the part ahead of the crankshaft.      A cracked case must be
     replaced.   Inspect the cr ankshaft pulley.  Examine condition of
     the surface in contact with the oil seal and check the keyway
     and key for wear. Replace the pulley if found defective.




                                                      62
                                 REASSEMBLY

1.   Reassemble the connecting     rod
     and piston as follows:

     a. Press bushing into small end
        of   the   connecting   rod.
        Ensure that the oil holes in
        bushing and rod are aligned.




     b. Heat piston on a hot plate                       ~-------

        to between 100·C and 120·C
        (212·F and 248·F).   Install
        small end of connecting rod       Combustion
                                          chamber side
        into boss and connect piston
        and piston pin by slowly                                       . . . Camshaft
                                                                             side
        inserting piston pin into
        piston.

     (NOTE:   Insert snap ring    into
      one end in advance.)

       Install the connecting rod
       to the p is ton so tha t the
       cylinder number side will
       face the camshaft and the                                       Stamped
       combustion chamber side of                                      cylinder
                                                                       number side
       the piston will face away
       from the camshaft when the
       assembly is installed on the
       cr ank shaft.




                                              Piston and connecting rod assembly




                                    63
     c. Install   compression    rings
        and oil control      ring   as
        shown in illustration at top
        right, using standard piston                                                     1
        ring expanding tool.


     (NOTE: No. 2 ring has an R
     marked on its top side.      Be
     sure that this side faces the
     piston crown when installed in
     its   groove,   as   shown    in
     illustration at center right.)



     d. Install No. 3 oil control                                                        2
        ring and expander as shown
        in illustration at bottom
        right.                                                 I-Compression rings
                                                               2-0il control ring




                                                      This mark faces the piston crown




2.   Reassemble   the    cr ankcase     as
     follows:

     a. Press three camshaft bush-
        ings (1) into camshaft holes
        in   crankcase    by   using
        adapter (A).    (If the fit
        exceeds the repair limit,
        machine    the   holes   and                       connecting part
        install new bushings.)

        Make certain the oil holes
        in cam bush ings align with



       Driving

                                                       1


          Driving in camshaft bushing         Oil control ring and expander installed



                                         64
     b. Drive idler shaft (2) into
        crankcase by using installer
         (B) ·




     c. Lightly apply engine oil to
        the crankpins and install
        main    bearings    (upper) ·
        Securely engage the bearings
        with the crankpins.




3.   Install the piston assembly as
     follows:
                                                                       No.1 ring gap
     Install     upper    connecting-rod
     bearing (1) into the large end
     of    connecting      rod.      Apply
     engine oil to the internal sur-
     face of bearing and on the
     ex ternal per iphery of piston.
     Posi t ion piston ring s so that
     ring gaps are located 90· in            No.2
     relation     to each other,        as
     shown.       Then    insert piston
     assembly     (2)   into crankcase.             Precombustion chamber side
     Alignment marks on the con-
     necting     rod    must    face   the
     camshaft side.        Put attaching
     capscrews      (3)    into   rod   in
     advance.           Insert      piston
     assembly into its cylinder with
     the     aid   of    a    piston/ring
     installing tool.

     (NOTE:   Piston/rod assembly is
     installed from crankshaft side
     of engine block.)




                                        65
4.   Install    the       crankshaft        as
     follows:

     a. Install thrust plate (1) and
        two woodruff keys (2) to the
        crankshaft   and   drive   on
        crankshaft gear (3) by using
        suitable hollow drift (A).

     b. Install crankshaft           to    the
        crankcase.

5.   Install the      rna in   bear ing   caps
     as follows:

     a. Apply   eng ine oi 1   to   the
        crankshaft     journals     and
        pins,    and    install     the
        crankshaft into the crank-
        case securely. Attach lower
        main bearing     (1)  to main
        bearing    cap    (2)   (front,
        center and rear) and install
        the cap in place by aligning
        it with dowel pin (A) on
        crankcase.



     b. Measure the crankshaft end
        play with a thickness gauge.
        Replace No.1 main bearing if
        the end play is out of spe-
        cification.    Tighten main
        bearing capscrews (3) to a
        torque of 8.5 kg-m   (61. 463
        Ib-ft)

        (NOTE: Rotate crankshaft to
        ensure no unusual binding or
        resistance occurs.)



6.   Install   the  connecting             rod
     bearing caps as follows:

     a. Install lower connecting-rod
        bearing (2) into cap (1) and
        apply   eng ine oi 1  to  the
        internal     surface  of  the
        bear ing.    Then install the
        cap with the matching mark
        on the cap aligned with mark
        (A) on the rod.




                                             66
     b. Tighten    connecting    rod
        clamping nuts to a torque of
        5.5 kg-m (39.771 Ib-ft)

      (NOTE: Rotate the crankshaft.)




7.   Install   the   retainers   and
     gaskets as follows:

     a. Install retainers (1) to the
        external peripheries of main
        bear ing caps No.1 and No.3,
        with the flange facing the
        inside of the case.




     b. Apply good quality gasket
        cement on both sides of oil
        pan gasket (2) and attach it
        to crankcase.     Make sure
        tha t the gasket is comple-
        tely attached in the grooves
        (A) in the caps.




     c. Apply gasket cement to both
        ends of rubber packing (3)
        and insert the packing into
        cap.




                                   67
     d. Install sleeve onto the rear
        end of cr ank sha ft.  Apply
        clean eng ine oi 1 to    the
        internal surface of oil seal
        (1) and secure it with bolts
        (2) by using an oil seal
        aligner.

     e. Apply gasket cement to the
        tip of bolts (3) as they fit
        into the four through-bolt
        holes in the bearing cap.
        Tighten   the  bolts   to   a
        torque   of   O.4kg-m    (2.9
        lb-ft) ·
8.   Install    the   front   plate   as
     follows:
     a. Apply gasket cement to both
        sides of the front plate
        packing    and    attach   the
        packing to the front face of
        crankcase.      Secure   front
        plate (1)      with injection
        pump fastened by two bolts
        (2).   The tightening torque
        of the bolts is 2.1 kg-m
        (15.2 lb-ft).

     b. Heat camshaft gear on a hot
        plate to between l50·C and
        l80·C and fit gear to shaft.




     c. Apply a light film of oil to
        the camshaft journals and
        bushings.     Then carefully
        install the camshaft into
        engine block.




                                       68
     d. Tighten   camshaft   thrust
        plate to crankcase, gaining
        access to the thrust plate
        and securing bolts through
        machined holes in camshaft
        gear.




9.   Install    the     idler     gear   as
     follows:

     a. Install     idler   gear   by
        rna tching the timing mark on
        each gear.




10. Install the       oi 1 pump   assembly
    as follows:                               Timing gear match marks meeting
                                              each other
     a. Install oil pump (1) into                  I-Camshaft gear
        the oil pump installation                  2-Crankshaft gear
        hole in the crankcase and                  3-Idler gear
        mesh the pump drive gear                   4-Injection pump gear
        with the camshaft pump drive
        gear.

     b. Install one end of the oil
        strainer stay (2) to No. 2
        bearing cap with distance
        piece (3) inserted between
        both. Install the other end
        of the stay to oil strainer
        (4) by bolts (5).

11. Install the oil pan and torque
    pan bolts to 0.7 kg-m (5.1
    lb-ft) ·




                                         69
12. Install   the    backplate                       and
    flywheel as follows:

    a. Install   dowel                 pins  in
       crankshaft end                and engine
       block.

    b. position    back   plate to
       engine block fitting over
       dowel   pins   and  bolt to
       block.

    c. position flywheel on crank-
       shaft using aligning dowel
       pin.
                                Unit: kg-m (llrft)
           Flywheel bolt              8.5 ± 0.5
           tightening torque        (61.5 ± 3.6)

13. Reassemble the cylinder head as
    follows:
                                                                                              B
    a. Press valve guide (2) into
       cylinder head (1) as shown
       in illustration on right.

                  lC

                                                              l-Cylinder head
                                                              2-Valve guide

                                                              A-Valve guide installer
                                                              B-As installed length: 18 rnm (0.709 in,)

    Part #36518
                               55
        Valve guide installation tool


   Install stem seal (3) to                          the
   valve guide.    Completely                        fit
   the breast of the seal in                         the
   guide groove.

   b. Install   valve  (4) , valve
      spring (5) and retainer (6)
      in this order. Compress the
      spring with a valve lifter
      to install valve cotter (7)
      securely.   Install caps (8)
      when installing rocker shaft
      assembly.                                                1                    9
   c. Install thermostat,    nozzle                                   Cylinder head asembly
      holders,   glow   plugs   and                         l-Cylinder head 2-valve guide 3-stem seal
      exhaust   manifold   to   the                         4-valve 5-valve spring 6-Retainer 7-valve
      cylinder head.                                        cotter 8-valve cap 9-combustion chamber jet




                                                       70
14. Install   the    cylinder     head
    assembly as follows:
    a. Apply liquid packing to both
       sur faces of the new gasket
       (1) with a brush or spray
       gun.    After waiting 3 or 4
       minutes, place the gasket on
       the    crankcase    (2)  and
       install cylinder head (3).
       Use two guide bolts (4) to
       prevent    the   gasket from
       moving when placing cylinder
       head on the crankcase.

    b. Tighten the cylinder head
       bolts to a torque of 12 kg-m                  14   12       10       11
       (86.8 Ib-ft) at exhaust side                  o    0        o        0
       and 10.5 kg-m (76 Ib-ft) at
       intake side in the sequence                                      o
       shown in the cylinder head                                       1
       bolt   tightening  illustra-
       tion.                                                   2                 3   7


15. Install  the   push   rods     and    Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence
    rocker shafts as follows:

    a. Insert the push     rods    (1)
       into the tappets.
    b. Install  rocker    shaft    as-
       sembly as follows:

    c. Insert O-rings (3) into oil
       pipe (2) and connect the oil
       pipe to the front and rear
       rocker shafts.     Then tem-
       porarily install each
       bracket   to   the   cylinder
       head.

    d. Temporarily tighten two or
       three threads on the oil
       pipe union nut and connec-
       tor.

    e. Secure   tne    preinstalled
       brackets by tightening four
       bolts at the front and rear
       sides uniformly to a torque
       of 1.5 kg-m (10.85 Ib-ft)
       Tighten the long bolts (4)
       fir st.




                                     71
    f. Connect oil pipe to connector securely. Then adjust the valve
       clearance to 0.2Smm (O.Olin.) for both intake and exhaust
       valves in cold setting.


16. Adjust valve clearance as follows:

    The valve clearance specification for this engine is 0.2Smm
    (0.0098 in. ) for both in take and exhaust valves. Th is value assu-
    mes that the engine is at normal temperature, there being no tem-
    perature difference throughout the body of the engine.           The
    checking      and    adjusting     procedure    is    as    follows:




    a. Rotate the crankshaft slowly
       to bring the piston in No.1
       cylinder to Top Dead Center
       (TDC) .       This     can    be
       accomplished     by   observing
       rocker     arms      of     No.4
       cylinder. As you turn the
       crankshaft,     the     exhaust-
       valve rocker arm of this
       cylinder rises: stop turning
       the   crankshaft    just when
       intake-valve      rocker     arm
       beg ins  to go down after
       exhaust-valve rocker arm has
       come up all the way.           Under this condition, adjust valve
       clearance in the usual manner on the intake and exhaust valves
       of No.1 cylinder, intake valve of No.2 cylinder, and exhaust
       valve of No. 3 cylinder.

    b. Turn the crankshaft one complete rotation (360') and hold it
       there.   Adjust the clearance on intake and exhaust valves of
       No. 4 cylinder, exhaust valve of No. 2 cylinder, and intake
       valve of No. 3 cylinder.
                                                        Coolant by-pass hose
17. Install   the   rocker   cover    and
    gasket.

18. Install the fresh water          pump
    assembly as follows:

    a. Install water pump assembly.

    b. Install the bypass hose bet-
       ween the manifold and tee
       below the thermostat.




                                        72
19. Install the timing gear case
    (1) to the front plate pro-
    perly.    Use sealing washers
    behind the head of bolt (2) to
    prevent oil leaks.




20. Install front crankshaft pull-
    ey.   Take care not to damage
    front   crankshaft  seal    when
    slipping pulley onto crankshaft
    and through the front seal.

21. Install    the   DC    charging
    alternator mounting bracket and
    mount the alternator.

22. Install alternator         drive   belt
    as follows:

    a. Attach    fan     belt     to    the
       pulley.

    b. Adjust the fan belt tension
       to a slack of 12mm (1/2in.)

23. Install the starting motor.

24. Install the oil filter mounting adaptor,             filter,      oil lines and
    lube oil cooler with all related hoses.

25. Install transmission drive damper to the flywheel.

26. Install   the       bellhousing,      transmission     adaptor      plate     and
    transmission.

27. Install all four mounting brackets and mounting isolators.

28. Install flow control and heat exchanger              with   related plumbing.
    Replace hoses and clamps, as needed.

29. Install rear lifting eye with preheat solenoid and main DC circuit
    breaker.

30. Install   senders    and    switches.      Make   certain   all    contacts   are
    clean.

31. Reinstall engine electrical harness.




                                          73
                     FUEL INJECTION PUMP


Two styles of injection pumps were used with this engine.

Early - DPA #J3942F490
   This type had a tapered/keyed drive shaft.

Later - DPA #J3942F580
   This type had a splined drive shaft with a master spline.

The injection pump is mounted to the engine front plate.    It is
secured to the front plate by three studs with Il-mm hex nuts and
washers.

Installing Early Model Injection pump

   a. Rotate engine so as to position keyway in pump drive gear
      at 12:00 o'clock.

   b. Rotate injection pump drive shaft to position     keyway        at
      12:00 o'clock. Insert woodruff key in keyway.

   c. Carefully slide pump onto the engine mounting flange and
      guide the tapered drive shaft with woodruff key into the
      drive gear.

   d When drive shaft is positioned in the drive      gear, secure
     in drive gear by threading raw water pump drive tang onto the
     pump drive shaft protruding from the drive gear.

   e. Snug the injection pump     up to the front plate with the
      three securing nuts and washers.    position the 23· scribe
      mark on the pump flange in line with the scribe on the front
      cover. Tighten the three securing nuts.

          12:00
            I



                                                            Injection pump
                                                            side marks
                              Flange plate
                              sIde mark




                              74
Installing Late Model Injection Pump

    a. Remove drive tang plate from front of injection pump drive gear
       and locate scribe mark on face of gear that designates mating
       splines for master spline on injection pump drive shaft.

    b. Locate master spline on injection pump drive shaft and position
       to correspond to scribe mark on drive gear by rotating
       injection pump drive shaft.

    c. Carefully slide the injection pump onto the engine mounting
       flange, centering the master spline with the scribe mark on the
       drive gear, and engage the two.

    d. Snug up on the injection pump's three securing nuts and rotate
       the injection pump so as to align the 23· scribe on the injec-
       tion pump flange with the timing scr ibe on the front cover.
       Tighten the 3 securing nuts.




       b~
                                                                              Injection PUi!';l
                                                Flange plate                  side marks
                           Master spline        side mark
                           scribe

       o          0



   VIEWED FROM SEA WATER
   PUMP SIDE.




Verifying Injection Pump Timing

    a. Locate timing pointer on
       front gear cover.      This
       pointer is located at about
       the 10: OO-o'clock position
       when   viewing   the  front
       crank shaft pulley.


                                                Timing pointer


                                                               Front pulley




                                           75
b.   The front crankshaft pulley has timing marks embossed on its cir-
     cumference from O· top dead center (TDC) to 40· before top dead
     center (BTD) in five-degree     increments. Locate the 20· and 25·
     marks and place a visible mark halfway between the two points to
     represent 23·.
c.   Rotate the eng ine by hand to
     position the number one piston
     on   its   compression    stroke.
     Continue rotating the engine to
     align the    23·  mark on the
     crankshaft   pulley    with   the
     timing pointer and stop.


d.   On the side of the injection
     pump body is an oval cover
     plate, mounted to the pump body
     by two screws that are wir ed
     together.   Cut the connecting
     lock wire, remove the screws
     and cover plate, inc Iud ing the
     gasket.
     (NOTE: Some fuel will be lost
     from inside the pump when this
     cover is removed.  Be prepared
     to catch it in a container.)

e.   Inside the opening in the injection pump is a circlip and the
     rotor body of the pump.     The rotor body has a scr ibe mark on it
     with the Letter E stamped above it.        The scribe mark should
     align with the top-flat surface of the circlip.    If the mark does
     not    align, loosen the injection pump secur ing nuts and gently
     rotate the injection pump body up or down to align the scribe mark
     with the circlip flat.     The pump is now statically timed to the
     engine.    Secure the pump to its mounting flange, replace the pump
     side cover and gasket and lock wire the side cover attaching
     bolts.

     (NOTE:   Do not over-tighten the side cover attaching bolts.)

     Reattach fuel supply and return lines to and from injection pump.
     Connect high-pressure injector lines between the injection pump
     and injectors. Do not cross or mix up these lines.




                                  "E" Scribe mark

                                    76
                            LUBRICATING SYSTEM

1.   Lube Oil Circulation

     A trochoid rotary pump draws oil from the oil pan through the oil
     strainer and delivers it under pressure to a full-flow oil filter,
     then the cleaned oil is forwarded into the oil gallery inside the
     crankcase.   From   the gallery, the oil is distr ibuted to the
     various parts of the engine.       The pump is driven from the
     camshaft.  The oil filter is a replacable cartridge-type element,
     through which the oil is forced.

2.   Oil pump

     The pump is loca ted ins ide the right-hand rear por t ion of the
     crankcase.     Its main shaft is driven from the skew gear formed to
     the camsha ft.


2.1 Disassembly

     a. Loosen and remove the four capscrews and washers         (9,lO)
        securing oil strainer (II), gasket (12), and oil pump cover (8)
        to the oil pump (3), and separate the strainer, gasket, and
        cover from oil pump case.

     b. To   facilitate  removal   of
        outer rotor (5), turn the
        oil pump case upside down.

     c. Drive out the oil pump drive
        gear   taper   pin  (2)  and                           3
        remove drive gear (I) from
        main shaft (4) · Pullout the
        main shaft from pump case.


     d. Drive out inner rotor pin
        (7) and separate inner rotor
        (6) and outer rotor (5) from




                                                  8




                                                 11-
                                                                   9

                                                                       10




                                     77
2.2 Inspection

   a. Running   clear ance between
      outer rotor and inner rotor.

        Using a feeler gauge, check
        the   clearance  at  var ious
        positions.   If  the reading
        exceeds the service limit,
        replace both rotors.
                          Specifications
                                            Unit: mm (in.)
                                                   Service
          Item                   Standard                         Checking rotor-to-rotor clearance
                                                    limit
     Clearance between
                               0.013 -0.15          0.25
     inner rotor and
                           (0.00051 - 0.0059)     (0.0098)
     outer rotor



    b. Sliding   clearance                      between
       rotors and cover.

        This clearance is required
        not   to  be    gr ea ter than
        O.lSmm    (O.OOOS9lin.)     If
        this limit is exceeded grind
        off the rna ting face of the
        body to reduce the clear-
        ance.
                          Specifications    Unit: mm (in.)
                                                   Repair
          Item                  Standard
                                                    limit
                                                                  Checking rotor-to cover clearance
    Clearance between          0.04-0.09            0.15
    rotors and cover       (0.0016 -0.0035)       (0.0059)



   c. Radial   clearance   between
      outer rotor and pump body.

        Insert a feeler gauge be-
        tween the outer rotor and
        the body.   If the clearance
        checked is gr ea ter than the
        limit,   replace    the  worn
        part.

                          Specifications      Unit: mm (in..)
                                                   Repair
            Item                Standard
                                                    limit
                                                                  Checking rotor-to-body clearance
     Clearance of outer           0.2-0.28          0.5
     rotor in body           (0.0079 -0.0110)     (0.020)




                                                             78
    d. Rotor Shaft Diameter.
                                                       Specifications       Unit: mm (in.)
       Inspect    the   shaft    for                                           Service
       damage, and check it for                 Item           Standard
                                                                                limit
       wear by measuring with a
       micrometer.    Determine the       Rotor            12.6:g:~
                                          shaft
       available clearance of the         diameter       (0496 +{).OO24)
                                                           .     +{).OO16
       shaft in the pump body from
       the micrometer readings; if        Shaft to
       the serv ice limit in terms                       O.040~0.085
                                          body
       of   clearance     value   is      clearance
                                                       (0.00157 ~O.OO335)
       exceeded or if the shaft is
       in badly-damaged condition,
       replacement is necessary.




2.3 Reassembly

    a. Install inner rotor     to pump
       shaft with pin.

   b. Place pump shaft in pump
      case.    Install pump drive
      gear to the shaft with pin.

   c. Place outer rotor in pump
      case, and install pump case
      cover complete with gasket
      and oil strainer.

    (NOTE: If pump shaft or drive
     gear has been replaced, a new
     pin hole must be made by dril-
     ling through the gear mounted
     on the shaft.)

   d. After replacing the cover,
      check to be certain that the
      match marks are correctly
      indexed. If the cover is in
      the wrong position relative
      to the case, the pump will
      not draw in oil.     Tighten
      the bolts after check ing to
      be sure that the marks are
      correctly matched.                 Fitting cover-to-case by matching marks




                                    79
     e. After reassembling the pump complete with its strainer, immerse
        the strainer in a pool of oil and run the drive gear by hand to
        make certain that the pump is capable of sucking oil in.


3.   Oil Filter

     The filter is mounted on the right-hand side of the crankcase at
     its center part.   The oil bypass valve for letting the oil bypass
     the filter is actually a relief valve located in the center por-
     tion of the element. This valve is set to open when the differen-
     tial   pressure   across   the   filter  rises   to  1.0+0.2kg/cm2
     (14.2+2.8psi); when the valve opens, the oil flows directly from
     the inlet side to the outlet side.           The filter must be
     serviced regularly or before the filter becomes so dirty that it
     actuates the bypass valve.

     The oil filter has a built-in
     relief   valve     operating   in
     response   to    the   oil   pump
     discharge pressure. This valve
     starts   relieving     when   the
     pressure rises to 3+0.3kg/cm2
     (43+4.3psi),   thereby- bleeding
     the-excess oi 1 to the oi 1 pan
     and limiting the pressure of
     oil reaching the engine oil
     gallery to a constant level.

3.1 Disassembly
     1. Remove filter   (1) and relief
        valve    (2)     from   filter
        bracket (3).

3.2 Inspection

     The filter should be replaced
     after each 100 hours of opera-
     tion or whenever its filter-
     ing per formance has not iceably
     deter ior ated.    Inspect   the
     filter to notice any signs of
     rupture or fissure;      if so,
     replace filter.   Visually exa-
     mine examine the filter bracket
     for any distortion and cracks.




                                     80
                                                                      COOLING SYSTEM
                                                                   (FRESH AND RAW WATER)




                   /DI                      WATER INJECTED ELBOW



                  (~
                  ~>/~ V'                                                  MANIFOLD


                         r \
                         r
                                        ~' '-
                         ~                       'I

                         I     ,~           .t        l\     l.J
                         \"                  !
                              ' .                          \.~.
     COOLANT RECOVERY TANK/f'.        ~. ~       '.         .. ,




                                    HEAT EXCHANGER
                                                                                           THERMOSTAT




                              TO HOT WATER TANK


                                                            OIL LINES




1.      Fresh Water Circuit
                                                                                                        INCOMING RAW WATER


       Refer to the illustration above.     Fresh water coolant is                                                           cir-
       culated through the circuit by the belt-driven fresh water                                                            pump
       mounted on the front of the engine block.

       The circulating pump draws coolant from the discharge side of the
       hea t exchanger and moves it through the eng ine block/head.   The
       thermostat, located in a housing at the top forward part of the
       cylinder head, controls the operating temperature of the engine by
       opening and closing to regulate coolant flow through the engine
       block/head.

       The coolant passes through the opened thermostat and the exhaust
       manifold to the lower discharge of the manifold through the lube
       oil cooler.   The coolant then passes through the domestic water
       heater flow controller and into the engine's heat exchanger, where
       it is finally cooled by the raw water circuit.




                                                                             81
2.   Raw Water Circuit

     Raw water is drawn into the raw water pump (positive displacement-
     neoprene impeller type) by the suction action of the impeller in
     the pump.  This raw water is pumped to the raw water inlet of the
     heat exchanger where it passes through the tubes inside the
     exchanger and removes heat from the fr esh water coolant flowing
     around the outside of the tubes.     (Refer to the cooling system
     illustration. )

     The raw water is then discharged from the exchanger and then may
     be dir ected to the tr ansmiss ion oi 1 cooler. I t then passes in to
     the exhaust injection elbow to be mixed with the exhaust gases,
     cooling them as this mix falls into the exhaust muffler and is
     pushed overboard by exhaust gas

3.   Thermostat

     The thermostat is a wax type,
     designed  to  maintain engine
     operating temperature between
     170·-190·F. (7r-88·C).

3.1 Disassembly
                                                        3
     a. Remove thermostat cover (2)                     4
                                                        5                                      1
        by loosening and removing
                                                                                               ~
                                                        4                       2
        bolts (1) and washer.

     b. Remove    thermostat   (3),
        gaskets (4) and spacer (5)                               ~                     .~  ~~ I
        from engine block (6).                                                         o




                                                9
4.   Fresh Water Pump

     The water pump is the centrifu-                                                       3
     gal type.     Its bearings are
     lubr icated   by   water   pump                                     10
     bearing grease applied thru the                        ~.



     zerk fitting on the side of the                8   ~
                                                                 l-Bolt              6-Snap ring
     pump.                                                       2-Cover             7-Bearing
                                                                 3-lmpeller           8-Shaft
                                           5
                                                                 4-{Jnit seal         9-Bearing
                                                                 5-Spacer           1 a-Housing
4.1 Disassembly

     a. Loosen and remove water pump
        shaft nut and lock washer;
        remove  water   pump  pulley
        and woodruff key.

        Remove pump cover     (2) by
        loosening and removing cover
        attaching bolts (1).




                                    82
      c. To remove impeller (3), sup-
         port the shaft with a stand
         and unscrew impeller.

       (NOTE: The impeller is thread-
        mounted on the shaft.     The
        thread is right-handed.)

      d. Remove spacer (5) from the
         shaft at the pulley side of
         the pump case.




      e. Remove snap ring (6) from
         the pulley side of the pump
         case.




      f. Pull   shaft  (8)   off  the
         pulley side of the pump case
         and remove bearings (7) and
         (9) from the shaft.




4.2    Inspection

      a. Examine the pump operation
         by slowly rotating it.    If
         the pump is erratic in rota-
         tion,    replace   bearings.
         bearings.
      b. Visually check the impeller for corrosion or breakage. Replace
         a defective impeller.   Also check for signs of rubbing.    If
         such rubbing is evident, check the cause.     The impeller and
         case or cover, if found damaged due to rubbing, must be
         replaced with new ones.

      c. Check the condition of the unit seal.   Replace the seal if it
         is badly worn or damaged.




                                    83
   d. Check the pump shaft bearing journals for     wear.    Replace the
      shaft if the journals are excessively worn.

   e. Check the sur faces of the pump case where the bear ings are
      fitted for excessive wear or damage.   Replace the case (or the
      pump assembly) if those sur faces on the case are found in bad
      condition.

    (NOTE:   Upon assembling the water pump, tur n i t by means of the
     pulley, making certain that the pump rotation is smooth without any
     signs of binding.)

4.3 Reassembly

    a. Install bearings ( 2) on pump
       shaft (l) and install the
       shaft in pump case (4) ·

   b. Install snap ring    (5)  in
      pump case on pulley side.
                                   S
   c. Install larger half of unit
      seal (7 ) in the pump case
      and smaller half of seal in
      the impeller (8) ; screw the 1
      impeller onto the shaft.

   d. Install cover (9 )                3
    e. Install spacer (3 ) onto the
       pulley side of the shaft, 2
       position the woodruff key in
       the    shaft   keyway,   and
       install the pulley onto the
       shaft;    fasten the pulley
       to the shaft with the lock-
       washer and water pump shaft
       nut.

    f. Rotate  the shaft to check
       that the impeller does not
       interfere with cover.

   g. Apply water pump grease thru the Zerk fitting.        Capacity-20cc
      (1.2 cubic inches). Do not overfill.




                                   84
5.   Raw Water Pump

     The pump is a positive replacement type pump, engine driven, with
     a replaceable neoprene impeller.

5.1 Disassembly
                                                                                 7"


     a. Remove front cover scr ews
        and washers (13) & (14) and
        front cover (12) with gasket                            5, ,
        (11. )

     b. with a pair of screw drivers                                                               /
        positioned 180· apart on the
        impeller (10), carefully pry                 "

                                                         "
        the impeller from the shaft
        and out of the pump body.
                                                                                           14"
                                                                                      13"".    "

     c. Remove screw (7 ) and take                                               12         ''''''~
        cam (8 ) out of the pump.                                          11
                                                                                      "',   ~      '\)j)
     d. Remove  key   (3 )   from       the                          10

        impeller shaft (2) ·

     e. Support the pump base in an
                                                    (8
        arbor press or similar press                     .    .,.\
        and push the impeller shaft
        (2) and bearings (4 ) out of
        the pump housing (6) ·
                                                         '\;4
     f. Properly support bearings (4) and remove from shaft (2).                                           In
        some disassembly, bear ings may remain in pump housing.                                            In
        those cases, support the housing and push bearings out.

     g. Push seal (9)   from inner housing.

        (Note placement    of    seal    in    housing       (seal        lip)   to      reinstall
        correctly) ·

5.2 Inspection

     a. Visually examine impeller (10).    Look for any cr acked or wor n
        impeller blades.   Ma ter ial should be flex ible.    Replace if
        suspected.

     b. Visually examine cover (12) inner surface. Replace if there is
        any indication of wear or grooving from the impeller turning on
        the inner surface.

     c. Check cam (8)   for wear.       Replace as needed.

     d. Check bearings (4)      and rotate.      Look for binding and any indi-
        cations of damage.




                                          85
     e. Visually examine shaft (2) for wear in the areas of the bearing
        journals and the area of seal (9) contact.    Replace if badly
        worn or damaged.

     f. Visually examine pump housing (8) for any wear or damage in the
        areas of the shaft bearing outer journals and housing area
        where the impeller turns in.
                                                               Sea Water Pump
                                                                Mounting Stud
6.   Raw Water Pump Engine Mounting

     a. Care must     be  taken when
        mounting the raw water pump
        to   the   mounting    flange.
        The slotted drive in the
        shaft of the sea water pump        Lock Washer
        should fit onto the drive
        tang fr om the eng ine.    The
        slotted dr i ve and the tang
        should not be forced against
        each other when the raw water
        pump is secured. This would
                                         ,·JiFlat Washer

        cause undue stress on the
        pump bearings and the drive
                                                    SeaWater
        tang gear.                                    Pump



     b. Alignment is just as critical as the drive clearance.   The raw
        water pump intentionally has no pilot because the location of
        the timing cover and the mounting flange vary when bolted to
        the engine.   To assure that the pump shaft is axial (centered)
        with the driving tang, install the pump with its gasket(s) just
        snuggly. With the fuel lever on the injection pump in the OFF
        position, crank the engine for a few seconds, so the raw water
        pump will align with the drive tang. Visually verify movement
        of the pump, as it aligns during cranking.   Secure the pump by
        tightening up on its four hold-down nuts.

     (NOTE:    This   procedure must be followed any time the raw
      water   pump    is  removed  or  loosened for  any  reason. )




                                      86
                                     FUEL SYSTEM

1.   Fuel Injection Pump (DPA).

     Descr iption

     The DPA injection pump is a
     distributor   type   pump   con-
     sisting of a transfer pump,
     fuel pumping plunger, distri-
     buting device, automatic ad-
     vance, mechanical governor and
     control   linkage,   which   are
     built into a compact, light-
     weight pump housing. Function-
     ally, this pump features a pair
     of pumping plunger s for me ter-                       DPA Fuel Injection Pump
     ing and delivering fuel.
                              21   20   19   18   17   16   15   14   13   12    11




              3     1          2         4    5   6    7    8              9    10
       I-Drive hub seal        8-Head locating stud              IS-Metering valve
       2-Governor weight       9-Shut-off solenoid valve         16-Plunger
       3-Drive shaft          IO-End plate (regulating valve)    17-Cam roller
       4-Thrust sleeve        II-Transfer pump                   18-Governor spring
       S-Pump housing         12-Head & rotor assembly           19-Governor arm bracket
       6-Automatic advance    13-Hydraulic head                  20-Governor arm
       7-Cam advance screw    14-Rotor                           21-Shut-off shaft
                        DPA Fuel Injection pump   - Sectional View

       (NOTE: Ref
       drive shaft;
                        *
                    3 Dr ive Shaft
                       later pumps
                                              - earlier pumps had a
                                              had a splined drive
                                                                                     keyed
                                                                                     shaft
       with master spline.)




                                             87
2.   Fuel Filter

           The fuel fi lter is a sp in-on type.               Its mounting housing has
           a manual priming pump.

      a.     Servicing

             Remove the filter element by unscrewing it from the filter
             housing with the aid of a small filter wrench.   Care should
             be taken to catch any fuel that may be spilled while removing
             the filter.

     (NOTE:  In installations with fuel tanks located above engine
     height,  to prevent fuel     syphoning when the filter     is
     removed, shut the fuel OFF at the tank shut-off during this
     servicing. Turn the fuel back ON, once a new filter has been
     installed.   Install the new filter simply by applying some
     fuel to the sealing gasket of the filter and screwing it
     carefully onto the filter housing. Tighten approximately 3/4
     of a turn once the sealing gasket contacts the housing. Turn
     the ignition key ON to activate the fuel pump.      This will
     prime the filter and vent any air from it.)

     (NOTE:  The manual priming pump on the filter housing may be
     used to accomplish this same function without having to turn
     the ignition key ON.    (It takes approximately 20 pumps to
     prime the filter.)




                                                                                              FUEL
                                                                                              RETURN




             ElECTRIC LIFT   PUMP_~




                                                       FUEL FILTER
                                                       ASSEMBLY



                                                                                     THROTTLE CONNECTION



                     INCOMING FUEL

                                 ~,




                                      CARTRIDGE
                                                                     INJECTOR PUMP




                                                  88
3.   Fuel pump

     This  is    a  solenoid-operated
     (transistor   type)   12-Volt DC                      1--
     fuel pump.    The reciprocating
     motion of the pump plunger is
     controlled by a transistorized
     circuit.

     The osc illator section incor-                        2                                      6
     porates transistors, diodes and
     resistors.

     When the transistor circuit is
     closed and the solenoid coil is
     excited, a sucking force acts
     on the plunger.        This forces
     it   down against      the   spring
     force and the fuel, pushing up
     the deli very valve that leads
     in to the plunger.        When the                    II)   Diaphragm          (6)  Plun)!er
                                                           (2)   Oscillator         17 ) Outlet vain'
     transistor circuit is opened,                         (3)   Solenoid coil      IR) Spring
     the plunger      is   pushed back                     (4)   I ilter            19, Inkt valve
     upward by the spring force,                           IS)   hltL'r l'\ IVL'r
     forcing the fuel out of the                                           Fuel Pump
     ou tlet por t, and at the same
     time, the inlet valve opens and
     the    fuel   enter s   the   lower
     chamber.
Disassembly and Reassembly of the Electric Fuel pump for Cleaning

Because this transistorized fuel pump is totally enclosed,                                              only
the cover, filter and plunger assembly require cleaning.

Using a 17-mm wrench, remove the cover (1). (See illustration below).
Then, the cover gasket (2), magnet (3) and filter (4) can be removed
from the pump body (5).


                           II)      Cover
                           (2)      Cover gasket
                           (3)      Magnet
                           (4)      hlter
                           (5)      Body
                           ( 6)     Spring retainer
                           ( 7)     Washer
                           ( 8)     O-ring
                           ( 9)     Valve
                           (10)     Plunger spring
                           ( I I)   Plunger
                           (12)     Plunger tube
                                                                  Removing Plunger

         Removing Filter




                                                      89
Replace the filter as needed.

Check the cover gasket, and if damaged, replace it.      Clean the magnet
and cover thoroughly.

To remove the plunger, first remove the spring retainer (6) from the
plunger tube (12).    Then remove the washer (7), O-r ing seal (8),
valve (9), plunger spring (10) and plunger (11) from inside the tube.
Wash these parts in clean diesel oil and remove the oil and other con-
taminants using compressed air.

                                 CAUTION

      The plunger tube (12) has very small wall thickness.      Be
      careful not to deform the tube during removal of the plunger
      parts.    Carefully handle the plunger to prevent it from
      being dented or otherwise damaged.

Assembling

(1)   To assemble, install the plunger, plunger spring, valve, O-ring
      and washer, in that order, and secure assembled parts with the
      retainer.
(2)   Install the filter element, and then the magnet and gasket in the
      cover and tighten the cover with a 17-mm wrench to the ends
      of the slotted stop.


Servicing and Checking the Electric Fuel Pump

(1)   Changing the Filter

After the first 50 hours of operation, and thereafter every 200 hours,
remove the lower cap of the pump, using a 17-mm wrench, and replace the
filter element.

(2)   Checking the Electric Fuel pump Operation

Turn on the ignition switch (for a generator, use PREHEAT). The pump should
produce a clicking sound.     If the pump does not produce any operating
sound, check with a DC voltmeter to determine that 12 Volts is being
supplied to the pump.     If 12 Volts is being supplied to the pump and
the pump still does not make any operating sound, replace the fuel
pump assembly. If 12 Volts is not present at the pump, check the unit
circuit breaker, electr ical connections and switch.         Fuel delivery
(free flow)    is 225cc (.48 pints) every 15 seconds.       The electrical
fuel pump should maintain a positive fuel inlet pressure to the injec-
tion pump during engine operation.




                                    90
4.   Idling and Maximum No-Load Speed Adjustments

     These adjustments are initially made at the factory during engine
     testing. To adjust idle speed, loosen the 8-mm locknut and adjust
     the   stop   screw (1)   clockwise  to  increase  idle speed,   or
     counterclockwise to lower idle speed; normal idle speed is between
     out,    to lower (8 rnrn stop screw) normal idle speed is between
     700-850 RPM.

     This may vary with install-
     ations   and   reduction     gears               1
     used.       No-load    speed    is
     adjusted   and   sealed at     the
     factory with 8-mm stop screw
     (2). RPM full open throttle in
     neutral is 3220 RPM.       Do not
     tamper with this adjustment.

     (NOTE:    Propeller load should
      hold   engine    speed    between
      2900-3000   RPM,     full    open
      throttle, underway, and in for-
      ward gear.
     Any time RPM is questionable, ensure    that tachometer calibration
     is correct with engine speed before attempting other adjustments.

5.   Fuel Injection Nozzles

     a. Description

        The injection nozzle pro-                     9 ------+.'If
                                                                                7
        vides a means of spraying
        fuel, delivered under
        pressure from the injection                   8
        pump, into the precombustion                                            6
        chamber.   The noz zle spr ays
        oil in a conical pattern
        of finely-atomized droplets.                  5
        The mating surfaces of the                                              4
        nozzle   holder  body,   dis-
        tance piece and nozzle are
        precision-finished to                          1---r~···

        be oil tight.
                                           l-Retaining nut
        The injection pressure is          2-Nozzle tip
        adjusted  by   an  adjusting       3-Distance piece
        washer. Increasing the             4-Pressure pin                       2
                                           S-Spring
        thickness of the washer will       6-Washer
        increase the spr ing tension       7-Nozzle holder
        and,  hence,  the injection        8-Gasket
        pressure, and vice versa.          9-Nut

                                           Inspection Nozzle - Sectional view




                                      91
b.   Removal and Installation

     1. Removal Sequence

       a. Connectors (1) (4 Pcs)
       b. Fuel Feed pipes (2)
       c. Fuel return pipe (3)
       d. Fuel leak-off pipe (4)
          (nuts (5) 4 pcs)
       e. Fuel injection nozzle
          assemblies

     2. Installation Sequence
                                                                          Unit: kg-m (lb-ft)

        Follow the reverse of remo-              Fuel injection nozzle        5 ± 0.5
        val sequence.                            tightening torque         (36_2 ± 3.6)

                                    CAUTION

     After removing injection nozzles, be certain to cover dis-
     connected ends of injection pipes and nozzle holes in
     cylinder head to prevent entry of dirt.

c.   Disassembly and Reassembly

     (NOTE:    Before disassembly, collect data on the nozzle
      by testing it for injection pressure (beginning of in-
      jection), spray pattern and internal oil-tightness, all in
      the manner already descr ibed. Throughout the   disassembly,
      cleaning, and reassembly work, handle each nozzle assembly
      with care to protect, in particular, the nozzle tip.)

     1. Disassembly Sequence

        a.   Retaining nut (1) (hold                                     @--8
             it in a vise).
        b.
        c.
             Nozzle holder (2)
             Nozzle tip (3)
                                                                         ©----g
                                                                         ~2
        d.   Distance piece (4)
        e.   Pressure pin (5)
        f.   Spring (6)
        g.   Washer (7)
                                                               t-----7
                                                             5~~6
                                       l-Retaining nut
                                       2-Nozzle holder
                                                             4------9
                                                             3~
                                       3-Nozzle tip
                                       4-Distance piece
                                       5-Pressure pin
                                       6-Spring

                                                             1~
                                       7-Washer
                                       8-Nut
                                       9-Gasket

      Disassembling Nozzle Holder
                                       Injection Nozzle Assembly - Disassembled View




                                       92
   2. Reassembly Sequence

      Follow the reverse of disassembly sequence.

 (NOTE:  If the needle valve and nozzle proper have to be re-
  placed, be sure to wash the replacement parts in a pool
  of kerosene  after   removing  their  protective  films of
  plastic:  wash off the rust preventive oil from the nozzle
  proper by strok ing the needle valve back and for th in the
  needle valve stem bore.)

d. Inspection

  Needle valve and nozzle body

   1. Immerse needle valve and nozzle body in a pool of clean kero-
      sene, insert the valve into the body, and move the valve
      back and forth to be sure that the sliding contact is smooth
      without evidencing any excessive clearance.       The entire
      injection nozzle must be replaced if the fit is found
      defective.

   2. Visually examine the nozzle         body       with   a   magnifying   glass
      having a power of 4 or 5.

   3. Inspect the needle valve for distortion or damage at its
      seating part and for wear of its end face in contact with
      the pressure pin.

   4. Poor sea ting contact may be corrected, if the defective
      condition has not advanced too far, by lapping the valve
      against the seat with a coat of clean lube oil applied to
      the sea ting faces.  If this does  not help, the injection
      nozzle must be replaced.

  Nozzle holder and distance piece.

  Check the fit between nozzle holder and distance piece.
  Determine the quality of the fit from contact patterns obtained
  with the use of red lead paste:   defective fit will be obvious
  by an abnormally high rate of return oil (leak-off) flow.

  Pressure spring and pressure pin.

  1. Replace any pressure spring that is                    broken, cracked or
     otherwise defective, and out of square.                Inspect each spring
     carefully for these defects.

  2. Inspect each pressure pin for wear at its end faces, one for
     pressure spring and the other for needle valve.

  Leak-off pipe packing

  If the packing   is   found   to   be   in     a    deteriorated    condition,
  replace it.




                                93
4. Testing and Adjustment
   Injection Pressure

  The pressure at which the needle valve unseats itself against
  the force of the pressure spring is referred to as valve
  opening    pressure   or    beginning-of-injection   pressure,
  however, it will be referred to as injection EE,essure in this
  manual. The value of this pressure is specified; it is checked
  and adjusted as follows:

   a. Install the injection nozzle in the nozzle tester, and
      operate the manual pumping handle of the tester several
      times to prime the nozzle.


   b. Move the lever in an up-and-down cycle of one per second to
      pressurize the injection nozzle, while observing the indica-
      tion of the test pressure gauge.   As the nozzle begins to
      spray, the     deflected gauge needle will indicate the
      injection pressure.
                                      Specifications
                                                            Unit: kg/cm 2 (psi)
                                                                    Repair
                        Item           Standard
                                                                     limit
                     Injection
                     pressure
                                                       6.
                                 I20+1~ (I 706.4+ 14 2 )
                                                                110(1564.2).
                                                                 max

   c. If the indicator reading is below the limit, increase the
      thickness of the washer used on the pressure spring.
      Increasing the washer thickness by lmm (0.04in.) increases
      the injection pressure by about lOkg/cm2 (l42psi). Washer
      stock for adjustment purposes is available in 20 sizes,
      ranging from 1.0mm (0.0394in.) up to l.9Smm (0.0768in.),
      in increments of O.OSmm (0.0020in.) each.

  Spray Pattern
  The injection nozzles used in the present engine are the
  throttle type.   Some throttling action takes place when the
  needle valve begins to unseat, limiting the amount of sprayed
  fuel during the initial stage of each fuel injection.     Thus,
  each slug of sprayed fuel may be regarded as comprised of two
  portions;  initial throttled spray and terminating main spray.
                                             1              2       3        4        5            6
                                             UlI        Ill.I      llilJ     lWJ     llilJ         lliI
                                                                                   II~\             t(),
                                                                                   / IfI     \\    i\ II)
                                                                                                  {!!v

      Checking injection pressure          l-Good                    4-After-dribble
      on nozzle tester                     2-Spray cone too large    5-fissured spray
                                           3-0ff center spray        6-~~hirling spray
                                                   possible patterns of spray
                                      94
When tested on the nozzle tester, the injection nozzle can reproduce
these two spray types for visual inspection.   Initial throttled spray
occurs when the tester lever is operated at a rate of 60 cycles-per-
minute (up and down in one second);     terminating main spray occurs
when   the  lever  is  operated  rapidly   at   a  rate  of   4  to 6
cycles-per-second.

a.   Initial Throttle Spray

     When the nozzle is producing this spray only, the atomization is
     generally poor and the pattern is straight then conical. Evidence
     of after-dribble, fuel dribbling after injection, is also present.
     All these are due to the injected fuel being throttled by the
     pintle protruding from the valve.

     While the nozzle is producing this spray, check the needle valve
     for chattering in synchronism with the cyclic motion of the lever;
     if so, then the needle valve is free from any sticking or hitching
     tendency.   If not, the nozzle and needle valve must be cleaned by
     washing and then re-tested.

     Evidence of off-center spray or directionally-erratic spray, indi-
     cates that the injection nozzle needs thorough cleaning.

b.   Terminating Main Spray

     With the tester lever operated at a rate of 4 to 6 cycles-per-
     second, the initial throttle spray is minimally visible.       The
     spray under this condition may be regarded as main spray.
     The main spray should be a good straight cone, consisting of
     finely-atomized fuel particles without any large droplets, finely-
     atomized fuel particles without any large droplets, and should
     terminate with no dribble or dripping fuel at the tip.

Seating Tightness
An injection nozzle, tested and adjusted as above, and found to pro-
duce a good spray pattern, may be re-used in the engine, provided that
it passes this final test: seating tightness test.

With the injection nozzle mounted on the nozzle tester, raise the
pressure slowly to 100 or 110kg/cm2 (1422 or 1564psi), without
exceeding the set pressure of 120kg/cm2 (1706psi), so that the needle
valve will not unseat.  Hold the pressure and observe the nozzle tip;
there should be no evidence of fuel oozing out to form a dribble. If
such evidence is noted, the contacting faces of the needle valve and
seat must be repaired by lapping in the manner previously suggested or
the entire injection nozzle must be replaced.

     (NOTE:   Check injection nozzle for spray pattern every 1200
      hours and remove carbon deposits around nozzle tip.   Over-
      haul or replace as needed.)




                                   95
NOTES:




         96
TRANSMISSIONS




      97
                    HBW SHORT PROFILE SAILING GEAR

DESCRIP'rION

1.   BRIEF DESCRIPTION

The Type HBW Short Profile Sailing Gears are equipped with a positive-
ly-dr iven, mechanically-operated helical gear ing system.  The servo-
operated multiple-disc clutch requir es only minimum effort for gear
changing, making the transmission suitable for single-lever remote
control via a rod linkage, Morse or Bowden cable.

The torque transmission capacity of the clutch is exactly rated, pre-
venting shock loads from exceeding a predetermined value and thus
ensuring maximum protection of the engine.

The transmission units are characterized by low weight and small
overall dimensions. The gearbox castings are made of a high-strength,
corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy, chromized for improved sea water
resistance and optimum adhesion of paint.

The transmissions are immersion-lubricated.   Maintenance is restricted
to fluid level checks (see Maintenance).


2.   GEAR CASING

The rotating parts of the HBW transmission are accommodated in an oil-
tight casing, divided into two halves in the plane of the vertical
axis. Amply-dimensioned cooling ribs ensure good heat dissipation and
mechanical rigidity.

A fluid filler screw with dipstick and a fluid drain plug are screwed
into the gear casing.   The filler screw is provided with a breather
hole.

The shaft for actuating the multiple-disc     clutch extends through   a
cover on the side of the gear casing.

3.   GEAR SETS

The transmission is equipped with shaved, case-hardened helical gears
made of forged low-carbon alloy steel. The mUlti-spline driving shaft
connecting the transmission with the engine is hardened as well.

The driven shaft (propeller side) of the transmission is fitted with a
forged coupling flange, except on the V-drive model.




                                   98
4.   MULTIPLE-DISC CLUTCH INCLUDING OPERATION - POWER TRAIN
The engine torque is applied to the input shaft (36) in the specified
direction of rotation and, in shifting position A (forward), via
gear (44), the frictionally-engaged clutch discs (51 and 52) to the
external disc carr ier (57), and from there via the guide sleeve (59)
to the output shaft (66).
In shifting position B (reverse), the torque is transmitted from the
input shaft (36) via the in termedia te gear (not shown in cross-sec-
tion), gear (65), clutch discs (51 and 52) to the external disc
carrier (57), the guide sleeve (59) and the output shaft (66).




                                   99
FUNCTION

The  transmission   uses a positively-driven,    mechanically-operated
multiple-disc clutch system mounted on the output shaft.

The thrust force required for obtaining positive frictional engagement
between the clutch discs is provided by a servo system.    This essen-
tially comprises a number of balls which, by the rotary movement of
the external disc carr ier, are urged against inclined sur faces pro-
vided in pockets between the guide sleeve and the external disc
carrier and in this manner exert axial pressure.      The thrust force
and, as a result, the transmittable friction torque are thus propor-
tional to the input torque applied.   Due to the cup springs (48) sup-
porting the clutch disc stack and a limitation of the range of axial
travel of the external disc carrier (57), the thrust force cannot
exceed a predetermined value.

The actuating sleeve (60) is held in the middle position by spring-
loaded pins.     To initiate the shifting operation, the actuating
sleeve (60) need merely be displaced axially by a shifting fork until
the arresting force has been overcome. Then the actuating sleeve (60)
is moved automa tically by the spr ing-loaded pins, while the external
disc carr ier, which follows this movement, is rotated by the fr ic-
tional forces exerted by the clutch discs, and the shifting operation
is completed as described above.




           Input




                                              Power flow in lever position
                                                  __ A

                                             --~         B




                                  100
5.   SHAFT BEARINGS

Both the input and the output shafts are carried in amply-dimensioned
taper roll bearings.
The in termedia te gear and   the movable   gear s   are   carr ied   in   sturdy
needle roller bearings.




6.   SHAFT SEALS

External sealing of the input and output shafts is provided by radial
sealing rings. The running surface on the shafts is case-hardened.

7.   LUBRICATION
The  transmissions  are   immersion-lubricated.    The          bearings      are
generously supplied with splash fluid and fluid mist.


INSTALLATION

1.   DELIVERY CONDITION

For safety reasons, the gearbox is NOT filled with fluid for shipment.
The actuating lever is mounted on the actuating shaft.

Before leaving the factory, each transmission is subjected to a test
run with the prescribed ATF fluid.  The residual oil remaining in the
transmission after draining acts as a preservative and provides


                                   101
reliable protection against corrosion    for   at least one year   if the
units are properly stored.


2.   PAINTING THE GEARBOX

ALWAYS COVER THE RUNNING SURFACES AND SEALING LIPS OF THE RADIAL
SEALING RINGS ON BOTH SHAFTS BEFORE PAINTING.    Make certain that the
breather hole on the oil filler screw is not closed by the paint.
Indicating plates should remain clearly legible.

3.   CONNECTION OF GEARBOX WITH ENGINE

A torsio-elastic damping plate between the engine and the transmission
is to compensate for minor alignment errors and to protect the input
shaft from external forces and loads.   Radial play should be at least
0.5mm.

4.   SUSPENSION OF ENGINE-GEARBOX ASSEMBLY IN THE BOAT

To protect the gearbox from detrimental stresses and loads, provision
should be made for elastic suspension of the engine-gearbox assembly
in the boat or craft.

The fluid drain plug of the gearbox should be conveniently accessible.

5.   POSITION OF GEARBOX IN THE BOAT

The inclination of the gearbox unit in the direction of the shafts
should not permanently exceed an angle of 20 degrees (15 degrees for
the V-dr ive model) · (See illustration.)

The gearbox also can be mounted with the output shaft in the upward
position.  Interchange the fluid dipstick and the fluid drain plug in
this case.




                                   102
6.   OPERATION OF GEARBOX.

Gear chang ing r equir es min imal effor t.  The gearbox is su it able for
single-lever remote control.      Upon loosening the retaining screw, the
actuating lever (see illustration) can be moved to any position
required for the control elements (cable or rod linkage).       Make cer-
tain that the lever does not contact the actuating lever cover
plate;   the minimum distance between the lever and cover should be
0.5mm.

The control cable or rod should be arranged at right angles to the
actuating lever in the neutral position of the lever.

A larger amount of lever travel is not detrimental.

However, if the lever travel is shorter, proper gear engagement might
be impeded which will result in damage from premature wear and
excessive heat generation.



                                                                 Minimum Travel (inner hole used)




                                                \
                                                     \
                                                                                     1.18"

                                                                                     30mm
                                                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                                                   /
                                                         \

                                                             \
                                                                                                                           /
                                                                                                                                   ~-I-.-
                                                                                                                                       /   \                  -HV'-....
                                                                                                                                                       >-i ....
                                                                                                   - ---/                          I-}     /
                                                                                             --'


                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                           /   /(, ':J             ,
                                                                                                                                       /




                                                                     \
                                                                                               /
                                                                                                                           ,   /



                                                                         \                             I               '
                                                                             \                     I               ,
                                                                                 \                             I
                  Shift Cable Attachment from Rear




                                                                 o                           Shift Arm Securing Bolt




                                              103
The position of the cover plate underneath the actuating lever is
factory-adjusted to ensure equal lever travel from neutral to position
A or B.
                               CAUTION

     Do not loosen the capscrews mounting this assembly.  Removal
     or disturbing of the shift cover will void all warranty res-
     ponsibilities by Westerbeke.

When installing the gearbox, make certain that shifting is not
impeded (e.g., by restricted movability of the cable or rod linkage; by
unsuitably positioned guide sheaves; too small bending radius, etc.)

7.   ENGINE-GEARBOX COMPARTMENT.

Care should be taken that the engine-gearbox compartment is properly
ventilated.


OPERATION

1.   INITIAL OPERATION.

Fill the gearbox with automatic transmission fluid.    The fluid level
is indicated by the index mark on the dipstick (see illustration).
                             To check lIulCllevel                TransmiSSion   In   Operation


                                                    TransmiSSion Casing
                                                    Surlace




                                                        VenT




                      Full Mark

                                                        FlUid Level




                                  Do nOI screw In tor                 .. ':,0--·.____ _
                                  fluid level checks

To check the fluid level, just insert the dipstick.   Do not screw in.
Retighten the hex screw with the dipstick after the fluid level check.
Do not omit the O-ring seal.

2.   OPERATING TEMPERATURE

The maximum permissible temperature of the transmission fluid is
130·C(266·F). If this temperature is to be exceeded, an optional fluid
cooler is available.




                                                           104
3.   OPERATION OF GEARBOX

The zero position of the operating lever on the control console must
coincide with the zero position of the actuating lever on the
transmission.  Shifting is initiated by a cable or rod linkage via the
actuating lever and an actuating cam.     The completion of the gear
changing operation is servo-automatically controlled.

Gear changing should be smooth, not too slow, and continuous (without
interruption) ·   Direct changes from forward to reverse are per-
missible, since the multiple-disc clutch permits gear changing at high
RPM, including sudden reversing at top speeds in the event of danger.

4.   OPERATION WITHOUT LOAD.

Rotation of the propeller without load (e.g., while the boat is
sailing, being towed or anchored in a river), and idling the engine
with the propeller stopped, will have no detrimental effects on the
gearbox.

Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not required,
as locking is possible by engaging the reverse gear.      Do NOT sail
while engaged in forward.

5.   LAY-UP PERIODS.

If the transmission is not used for periods of more than 1 year, it
should be filled completely with fluid of the same grade to prevent
corrosion.  Protect the input shaft and the output flange by means of
an anticorrosive coating,if required.

6.   PREPARATION FOR RE-USE.

Drain the transmission of      all   fluid   and   refill    to the proper        level
with the prescribed fluid.


MAINTENANCE

1.   TRANSMISSION FLUID

To ensure trouble-free operation of the            clutch,    use   only    automatic
transmission fluid (ATF).

Under no circumstances should        the   fluid   contain any additives,         such
as molybdenum sulphite.

Commercial   Automatic   Transmission          Fluid     (ATF) ,     Type     A      or
Dexron II, is recommended.




                                       105
2.    OIL QUANTITY

HBW     5    approximately   0.4    liter
HBW    10    approximately   0.6    liter
HBW    20    approximately   0.8    liter
HBW    50    approximately   0.3    liter
HBW   100    approximately   0.35   liter
HBW   150    approximately   0.55   liter
HBW   150V   approximately   1.0    liter
HBW   220    approximately   0.75   liter
HBW   250    approximately   0.75   liters
HBW   360    approximately   1.40   liters
HBW   360A   approximately   1.50   liters
HBW   400    approximately   2.00   liters
HBW   450    approximately   1.80   liters

3.    FLUID LEVEL CHECKS

Check the fluid level in the transmission daily.  Correct fluid level
is indicated by the index mark on the dipstick. (See item 1 under
OPERATION.) Always use the same fluid grade when topping off.

4.    FLUID CHANGE

Change the fluid for the fir st time after     25   hours of operation,
then at intervals of at least once per year.

5.    CHECKING THE CABLE OR ROD LINKAGE

The cable or rod linkage should be checked at fr equent in tervals.
Also, check the zero position of the operating lever (on the control
console) and of the actuating lever (on the gearbox) at this time.
The minimum lever travel from the neutral position to the operating
positions (O-A = O-B) should be 35mm for the outer and 30mm for the
inner pivot point.  Make certain that these minimum values are safely
reached.   Check the cable or rod linkage for easy movability (see
item 6 under INSTALLATION).

6.    OVERHAUL.
Disassembly of the transmission in the field is not recommended.    If
an overhaul or repair is needed, the work should be done by Westerbeke
or an authorized Westerbeke service center.




                                         106
                           WARNER HYDRAULIC



1.   DESCRIPTION.

Westerbeke eng ines are furnished   with Warner hydraulic direct dr ive
and reduction gear assemblies.

The direct drive transmission consists of a planetary gear set, a for-
ward clutch, a reverse clutch, an oil pump, a pressure regulator and
rotary control valve. All parts are contained in a cast iron housing,
along with the necessary shafts and connectors, to provide forward,
reverse and neutral operation.   A direct drive ratio is used for all
forward operation.  In reverse, the speed of the output shaft is equal
to the input shaft speed, but in the opposite dir ection.      Helical
gearing is used to provide a quieter operation that can be obtained
with spur gearing.

Oil pressure is provided by the crescent type pump. The drive gear is
keyed to the drive shaft and operates at transmission input speed to
provide screened oil to the pressure regulator.

From the regulator valve, the oil is directed through the proper cir-
cuits to the bushings and anti-friction bearings requiring lubrica-
tion.  A flow of lubricant is present at the required parts whenever
the front pump is turning and the supplied lubricant is positive in
forward, neutral and reverse conditions.

The unit has seals to prevent the escape of oil.

Both the input and output shafts are coaxial.      The input shaft is
splined for the installation of a drive damper and the output shaft
is provided with a flange for connecting to the propeller shaft.


2.   CONTROL LEVER POSITION.

The position of the control lever on the transmission, when in
forward, should be shifted to the point where it covers the letter F
on the case casting and is located in its proper position by the pop-
pet ball.

                               CAUTION

      The Warranty is cancelled if the shift lever poppet spring
      and/or ball is permanently removed;   the control lever is
      changed in any manner or repositioned; the linkage between
      remote control and transmission lever shift lever does not
      have sufficient travel in both directions.   (This does not
      apply to transmissions equipped with Warner Gear electrical
      shift control.)




                                    107
3.   LUBRICATION

The properties of the oil used in the transmission are extremely
impqrtant to the proper function of the hydraulic system. Therefore,
it is imperative that the recommended oil, automatic transmission
fluid (ATF) Type A, be used.

                                CAUTION

     Be certain the cooler is properly installed and the trans-
     mission contains oil before cranking or starting the engine.

4.   CHECKING OIL LEVEL.

The oil level should be maintained at the full mark on the dipstick.
Check oil level prior to starting engine.


5.   FILLING AND CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Check daily before starting the engine.   The hydraulic circuit inclu-
des the transmission, oil cooler, cooler lines and any gauge lines
connected to the circuit.     The complete hydraulic circuit must be
filled when filling the transmission and this requires purging the
system of air before the oil level check can be made. The air will be
purged from the system if the oil level is maintained above the pump
suction opening while the engine is running at approximately 1500 RPM.
The presence of air bubbles on the dipstick indicates that the system
has not been purged of air.

New applications or a problem installation should be checked to ensure
that the oil does not drain back into the transmission from the cooler
and cooler lines.  To inspect for oil drain back, check the oil level
immediately after the eng ine has been shut off and again after the
engine has been stopped for more than one hour           (overnight is
excellent). A noticeable increase in the oil level after this waiting
period indicates that the oil is draining from the cooler and cooler
lines.   The external plumbing should be changed to prevent any drain
back.


6.   STARTING ENGINE.

place transmission selector in neutral before starting the engine.
Shifts from any selector position to any other selector position may
be made at any time and in any order if the engine speed is below 1000
RPM; it is recommended that all shifts be made at the lowest feasible
engine speed.




                                   108
7.   NEUTRAL

Move the shift lever to center position;   the spring-loaded bail will
enter the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever, and will pro-
perly locate the lever in neutral position. with shift lever so posi-
tionned, flow of oil to clutches is blocked at the control valve. The
interruption of power transmission is ensured.

8.   FORWARD

Move the shift lever to extreme forward position; the spring-loaded
ball will enter the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever and
will properly locate lever in forward position.

9.   REVERSE

Move the transmission shift lever to extreme rearward position; the
spring-loaded ball will enter the chamfered hole in the side of the
shift lever and will properly locate it in the reverse position.

10. FREEWHEELING.

Under sail with the propeller turning, or at trolling speeds with one
of two engines shut down, the gear maintains adequate cooling and
lubrication.

11. COOLING PROBLEMS

Water passages inside the cooler will sometimes become clogged; this
will reduce cooling capacity and cause overpressuring.  Back flushing
of the cooler will sometimes help to flush the foreign material from
the cooler passages. The cooler and hose should be thoroughly flushed
or replaced in the event a failure has occurred.   Metallic particles
from the failure tend to collect in the case of the cooler and gra-
dually flow back into the lube system.  Replace oil cooler to prevent
contamination of the new transmission.

Water hoses may collapse and reduce, or completely shut off, flow
to the cooler.    Collapsed hoses are usually caused by ag ing of the
hoses or improper hose installation. Hose installation should be made
with no sharp bends.     Hoses should be routed so there is no possibi-
Ii ty for eng ine sh i ft ing to cause hoses to pull loose or become'
pinched.  A visual inspection of hoses while under way will sometimes
allow detection of faulty hoses.

Reduction, or complete loss, of water flow can be caused by a faulty
water pump.   A rubber water pump impeller will sometimes fail and,
after such a failure, the cooler passages may be restr icted by the
particles of rubber from the failed impeller.   Water pump cavitation
may be caused by improper or faulty plumbing, or an air leak on the
inlet side of the pump.   The water pump may not prime itself, or may
lose its prime, when inlet plumbing is not properly installed.

It is possible for cross leaks to occur inside the cooler, permitting
oil to flow into the water or water flow into the oil.




                                  109
                     ROUTINE CHECKS AND MAINTENANCE

ANNUAL CHECKS

1.  PROPELLER AND OUTPUT SHAFT ALIGNMENT:   This check also should be
made any time the propeller strikes a heavy object and after any acci-
dent where the boat has stopped suddenly. Shaft alignment should also
be checked after the boat has been lifted by a hoist or moved onto a
trailer.

2.    SHIFT LEVER POSITIONING: The selector controls must position the
sh i ft lever exactly in F, Nand R selection pos it ions with the ball
poppet centered in the shift lever hole for each position.

3.   BOLT TORQUE:   Check all bolts for tightness.

4.   COOLER CONNECTIONS: Check water lines, oil lines and connections
for leakage.     Make sure lines are securely fastened to prevent
shi ft ing.

5.  CHANGING OIL:  A seasonal oil change is recommended in pleasure
boats. Work boats require more frequent changes. Change oil any time
the oil becomes contaminated, changes color or becomes rancid
smelling.

6. TRANSMISSION FLUID: Automatic transmission fluids are recommended
for use in all transmissions.


DAILY CHECKS

1.   Check transmission oil level.

2. Check for any signs of oil leakage in the bellhousing, at gasket
sealing surfaces or at the output shaft oil seal.
3. A quick visual check of the general condition of the equipment may
detect any faulty equipment.

4. Listen for any unusual noises and       investigate to determine   the
cause of any such noises.


WINTER STORAGE

Drain water      from transmission oil cooler.     This will prevent
freez ing in     cooler clima tes, and prevent harmful deposits from
collecting.




                                     110
GENERAL CHECKS

1.  Check coupling alignment each time a transmission is replaced in
the boat.

2. Check shift linkage adjustment to ensure that the          transmission
shift lever is positioned so that the spring-loaded           ball enters
the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever.

3. Connect an oil cooler into the cooler circuit before cranking or
starting the engine.     Various cooler circuits have been used and
the correct cooler connections should be located from service
literature prior to making the cooler installation.

4.   Use a cooler of sufficient size to ensure proper cooling.

5. Check engine rotation, transmission pump setting, and the              pro-
peller rotation prior to assembling the transmission to engine.

6.  Check oil pressure and temperature      when   transmission    function
indicates that a problem exists.
7.   Use the recommended fluid for filling the transmission
8.   Fll the transmission prior to starting the engine.

9.   Check oil level immediatly after the engine has been shut off.

10. Use a clean container for handling transmission fluid.

11. Replace cooler line after a transmission         failure,     prior     to
installing a new or rebuilt transmission.

12. Check fluid level at operating temperature.




                                   III
                             WALTER V-DRIVES


FLANGE ALIGNMENT - DIRECT COUPLED MODELS

Install the propeller shaft flange onto
the propeller shaft and tighten the two
clamping bolts on the spli t hub (none on GEAR SHAFT
RV-IOD). A self-locking set screw is pro- FLANGE
vided for    the propeller shaft flange.
spot dr ill the propeller shaft and then
securely tighten the set screw. Many good
installations are ruined by improper shaft FEELER
                                              GAGE
flange alignment. Accurate alignment will
ensure a smooth operating drive train and
eliminate many problems that arise due to
misalignment.   Final alignment should not
be attempted until the boat has been
allowed to settle in the water.       After        FLANGE
the engine has been installed, adjust the
mounts   per   manufacturer's  instructions          FLANGE ALIGN MENT
until the pilot diameters of the gear
shaft   flange and the propeller shaft
flange engage freely.     Butt the flange
faces together.   Without rotating either flange, check with a feeler
gauge in at least four places as shown in the illustration.            If the
max imum feeler gauge that can slip between the flange faces at any
point is .003", the unit is properly aligned.       If a thicker gauge can
be inserted at any point, the engine must be readjusted until proper
alignment is obtained.    Turn the propeller shaft flange one quarter
of a turn without moving the gear shaft flange.           Try inserting the
.003" feeler gauge as described above.      The gap will not change if
the propeller shaft is straight. If it increases, the shaft or flange
is bent and must be removed and straightened.          Rotate the propeller
shaft flange in two more quarter-turn increments and repeat the pro-
cedure.    The pilot diameters must be rechecked to ensure that they
still engage freely.   Secure the two flanges together with the heat-
treated bolts and special high-collared lockwashers supplied.


ENGINE ALIGNMENT - INDEPENDENT MODELS
The engine must be adjusted so that the alignment of the flexible
joint is within 3·.    An accurate steel rule should be used for this
purpose, as shown in the illustration. On short installations using a
flexible joint assembly, the faces of the flexible joint must be
parallel within 1/8". Measure this in at least four places around the
diameter without rotating the assembly. With long installations using
the #36 tubular drive shaft (also on all RV-IOD's) the distance from
the #33A spool adapter to the bores in the universal joint, which is
welded to the tubular shaft, must be measured on both s ides of the
joint.   Rotate the shaft exactly one quarter turn and measure to the
same joint.   The four distances must be equal within 1/8".   (Do not
measure to the joint end that is on the spool adapter. This distance




                                     112
                                   will not vary with mis-
                                   alignmen t as the join t
                                   is bolted and cannot
                                                                                             ZERK FITTING
                                   move.)       Put   the   :JI: 31A
                                   alignment gauge on the
                                   machined       diameter        of
                      '24ASEAl     the :JI: 24 cover and slide
                     . · JIA ALIGNMENT GAul:

                 ROTA~~OCUO::lEIE" it   comple tely around.
                                   It will indicate how
                /·w      27 SPLINEO
                       CONNECTING
                                   the       engine    must       be     SHORT INSTALLATION
                         SHAF I
                                   moved       to center         the                    REMOVE SCREW TO GET
                                   splined shaft in the                               AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT
                                                                                         WRONG

                                   oil seal.         Re-measur e                             r
                                                                                             ZERK FITTING
                                                                                           /

                                   the joints to see if
                                   they are still parallel
                                   within 1/8".           It is
                                   important        that     both
                                   alignments be checked
thoroughly.    It is poss ible for the splined                         LONG INSTALLATION
                                                                          RV-20 & RV-30
shaft to be perfectly centered and the flexible
joint to be out more than 3·.                         Premature
failure of the :JI: 26 self-aligning bear ing and
seals may occur due to misalignment.                   The zerk
fitting (located on the cross of the universal
joint) should be greased with a light alemite
lubricant.     The above procedure should be
repeated after the boat has been placed in
operation.   It is possible for the eng ine to                         LONG INSTALLATION
                                                                          RV-l0, RV-40& 48
slightly shift and settle, especially if it has
rubber mounts.

FLANGE ALIGNMENT - INDEPENDENT MODELS

Install the propeller shaft flange onto the
propeller shaft and tighten the two clamping
bolts on the split hub (none on RV-IO).        A                                   ADJUSTING SCREW
                                                                                   LOCKING NUT
self-locking set screw is provided for the pro-
                                                                                     LOOSEN SLIGHTLY TO
peller shaft flange.   Spot dr ill the propeller                                      ADJUST BRACKETS
shaft and securely tighten the set screws.

All V-drives are supplied with 3-way adjustable
mounting brackets    (2-way on the RV-IO and
RV-20) as standard equipment.      The brackets
must face downward to properly absorb propeller
thrust. The mounting plates can be removed and
reversed to fit wider engine bed centers.              RV-10 & RV-20
Before installing the V-dr ive, loosen all the
nuts on the mounting brackets and check to see
that the studs are in the center of the slots.
center of the slots.    Retighten the nuts.  Place the V-dr ive on the
engine bed, lining it up by eye with the propeller shaft flange, as
closely as possible.   Firmly bolt down the V-drive through the holes
provided in the mounting plates.




                                                 113
Loosen the locking nuts on the adjusting screws. Slightly loosen the
nuts on the mounting brackets just enough to be able to move the
V-drive.

Many good installations are ruined by improper propeller shaft flange
alignment.    Accurate alignment will ensure a smooth-operating dr ive
train and eliminate many problems that ar ise due to misalignment.
Final alignment should not be attempted until the boat has been
allowed to settle in the water.     Adjust the V-dr ive until the pilot
diameters of the gear shaft flange and the propeller shaft flange
engage freely. Butt the flange faces together.         without rotating
either flange, check with a feeler guage in at least four places, as
shown in the illustration.    If the maximum feeler guage that can slip
between the flange faces at any point is .003", the unit is properly
aligned.   If a thicker guage can be inserted at any point, the V-drive
must be readjusted until proper alignment is obtained.     Turn the pro-
peller shaft flange one quarter turn without moving the gear shaft
flange. Try inserting the .003" feeler guage as described above. The
gap will not change if the propeller shaft is straight.            If it
increases, the shaft or flange is bent and must be removed and
straightened.   Rotate the propeller shaft flange in two more quarter-
turn increments and repeat the procedure. The pilot diameters must be
rechecked to ensure that they still engage freely.     Tighten the nuts
on the mounting brackets and the locking nuts on the adjusting screws.
Remove the set screws from the brackets (none on RV-lO or RV-20), spot
drill and securely tighten. Recheck the flange alignment to make sure
the V-dr ive did not move out of alignment.     Secure the two flanges
together with the heat-treated bolts and special high-collared lock-
washers supplied.
                                                         ADJUSTING SCREW

                                                         LOCKING NUT
   GEAR SHAFT
     FLANGE
                                                                LOOSEN SLIGHTLY
                                                                 TO ADJUST
                                                                  BRACKETS


    FEELER
    GAGE




                                         1

             FLANGE ALIGNMENT
                                                                       MOUNTING PLATE


                                              RV- 30, RV-40 & RV- 48

WATER AND SWITCH CONNECTIONS

Hook up the water lines to the two pipe connections on the V-dr ive
(intake and exhaust lines are interchangeable).    Generally, one line
from the seacock to the V-drive and another from the V-drive to the
intake of the engine water circulating pump are utilized. In some




                                   114
cases, scuppers through the hull are connected to and from the V-drive
to provide independent water cooling and are actuated by the movement
of the water.    With closed cooling systems, the V-drive should be
incorporated into the system between the cooler and the suction side
of the water pump.    Proper operating temperatures are from 140' to
l80'F, although safe operating temperatures may be as high as 2l0·F.
On the models equipped with an oil circulating pump, the oil pressure
drop switch and the l2-Volt warning light should be hooked up per the
wiring diagram. The switch may be grounded to any part of the V-drive
or engine (either terminal may be used for the ground.

OIL FILL
Pullout the oil level gauge.
screw the breather cap and fill the
V-drive with SAE       30 motor
through the breather elbow. On the
                                   Un-

                                   oil
                                                j"
                                                 12 BREATHER CAP WATER DRAIN
                                                 (UNSCREW FOR
                                                    OIL FILL)
                                                    WATER LINE
                                                                           OIL LEVEL
                                                                             GAGE
                                                                          (PULL UP TO
RV-lO only, the oil may be added by    ~ ,,'                                 REMOVE)

r emov ing the plug in the         top
cover.       See  table    below   for
approximate oil capacities.        The
amount varies with the angle of
installation. The oil level should
be checked with the oil level gauge
fully inserted in the unit.        The                            I
proper level is between the Hand L     "12A BREATHER J
                                                                  \
                                                            ~.      \    WATER LINE
marks on the gauge.     Add a 2-ounce      ELBOW
                                                             ~WATER DRAIN
tube      of  Molykote     (molybdenum
disulfide), which is supplied with
each V-drive for extra lubrication and break-in.              It provides protec-
tion against scoring or galling of gears, bearings and other moving
parts. Additional Molykote after break-in is not required. Reinstall
the breather cap.    The oil level should be rechecked after the unit
has been run and allowed to sit for about a minute.                       Add oil if
necessary.
                           RV-lO       RV-20       RV-30       RV-40       RV-48
Oil capacity               1 pint     2 pints     3 pints     4 pints     4 pints
(Approx. )

DEALER PREPARATION
The propeller shaft and engine alignment must be checked and
cor r ected, if necessary, befor e the boat is delivered.    Final align-
ment should not be attempted until the boat is allowed to settle in
the water.    The oil level must be checked and oil added if required.
While the boat is being run, the water connections should be checked
for leak s.    The oi 1 pr essur e drop switch and warning ligh t (i f the
V-dr ive is equipped with an oil circulating pump) should be checked
for proper operation.       Do not transport the boat with the propeller
shaft coupling connected.      Damage to the shaft, shaft log and V-drive
can result.




                                         115
OPERATION

A pressure drop warning        light  is
mounted on the instrument panel on
V-drives equipped with an oil cir-               OIL LEVEL     LINE~
                                                             WATER
                                                   GAGE
culating pump. The warning light will            (PULL UP TO
                                                    REMOVE)
stay on until the boat gets under way
and the engine speed increases to suf-
ficient RPM for the pump to maintain
pressure.    This normally occurs at
approximately 1200 RPM, but the actual
speed may vary by as much as 400 RPM.
Extended cruising at low RPM, such as
when trolling, is not harmful to the
V-drive, even though the warning light
may stay Ii t.     Normal operation is
between 6 to 12P 81 .   The ligh t will
go on when the oil pressure drops
below 2P8I.      Loss of oil and/or       ;'49 PRESSURE
insufficient oil level are the major        DROP SWITCH
causes of pressure drop.        The oil
level should immediately be restored,
and while running the boat, the unit should be checked for leaks.    If
the oil level is normal and the light stays lit when the boat reaches
normal cruising speed, the wir ing should be checked for loose and/or
corroded connections.    If the wiring is correct and the light remains
lit, the #49 pressure drop switch, which is mounted on the side of the
V-dr ive (see illustration), should be checked for proper operation.
The switch can easily be removed and an accurate oil pressure gauge
installed in its place.    If the pressure is normal, the switch should
be replaced.   If the pressure is below normal, the oil lines should be
checked for blockage.     The pump should be inspected and replaced if
necessary.   The pump is standard on the RV-48 and an optional feature
on other models (not available on the RV-IO).

The oil level should be checked several times dur ing        the   season,
especially on V-drives without pumps (see OIL FILL).

A clatter or rattle in the V-drive at low RPM is due to the over-
riding of the propeller during the compression stroke of the engine.
Although annoying, it is not harmful.   It may be reduced by adjusting
the idle speed and/or tuning up the engine for smoother operation.


MAINTENANCE

1.   OIL CHANGE AND JOINT LUBE

After the first 100 hours of operation and every season and/or
500 hours thereafter, the oil should be changed. Run the boat to warm
up the V-drive to operating temperature. Turn off the engine. Remove
the plug in the # 6B bottom cover that is opposite the # 438 oil
s tr ainer. Re install aft er dr ain ing. Disconnect the oi 1 hose leading
from the #438 strainer (leave the elbow on the strainer). Unscrew the
strainer and clean the outside surface. Reinstall the strainer and




                                    116
reconnect the oil hose.     Unscrew
the two magnetic plugs that are
located on diagonally-opposite cor-
ners of the main housing.

The plugs can be checked to see if
they are magnetic only after remo-
                                            tt1C HOUSING
val.  Touch the inside face with a
metallic   object,    such     as   a       STANDARD PLUG
                                           lNOT MAGNETIC)
screwdriver.      Clean    them   and
reinstall. Usually, there are four
plugs in the bottom part of the
main housing.
are magnetic.
                 Only two of these
                The other two need
                                                              O~
not be removed (see illustration).
Refill with SAE 30 motor oil to the
proper level (see INSTALLATION
OIL FILL). The Z erk fitting on the
external universal joint should be
greased with a light alemite lubri-
cant (see ENGINE ALIGNMENT).

2.   WATER DRAIN

For protection from freezing during winter lay-up, remove the small
pipe plugs (located diagonally opposite) on the front and back of the
housing marked Water Drain (see illustration). On the RV-IO only, one
of the water lines going into the water-cooled bottom cover must be
disconnected to drain the water.

3.   FLANGE AND ENGINE REALIGNMENT

When the boat is launched after being in drydock, the line-up of the
V-dr ive to the propeller shaft flange and the eng ine to the V-dr ive
should be rechecked and corrected if necessary.     Some engines with
rubber mounts may sag and must be raised with adjustments or shims for
proper alignment (see Flange Alignment and Engine Alignment) ·




                                     117
NOTES:




         118
                  MARINE ENGINE DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

              KEYSWITCH & TWO PUSHBUTTONS DRAWING #33685

1.   This system is supplied on most Westerbeke Diesel Propulsion
     engines.  The start circuit and instrumentation are activated by
     turning ON the ignition switch.   To start the engine depress the
     PREHEAT button to activate the starting aids        (glow plugs.)
     Continue to hold the PREHEAT depressed and depress the START
     button; this will energize the starter and crank the engine.
     Once the engine starts, release both buttons.

     (NOTE:   START switch will not function unless PREHEAT button is
     depressed as the PREHEAT circuit supplies voltage to the START
     button when depressed.)

     voltage is applied to the instruments, fuel solenoid, fuel li ft
     pump and to other electr ical devices via the ON posit ion of the
     keyswitch.

2.   Later models that have the fuel shut-off solenoid incorporated in
     the injection pump are shut off with the key switch. These models
     have the option of mechanically shutting off the engine, as well.

     Early models were shut off mechanically. The option for electri-
     cal shut-off is available for these early models by the purchase
     of a shut-off solenoid to replace the deactivated one in the
     injection pump.

     The DC circuit is protected by a circuit breaker located on the
     engine.   Any time excessive current flows, the circuit breaker
     will trip.   This is a manual reset breaker which must be reset
     before the engine will operate electrically again.

                                CAUTION

      The builder/owner must ensure that the instrument panel,
      wir ing and eng ine are installed so that electr ical devices
      cannot come in contact with sea water.

     The latest information regarding your engine's electrical system
     is included in the wiring diagram shipped with the engine.    Be
     sure to study this wiring diagram and all notes thereon.




                                   119
                                                ACTIVATION BY KEYSWITCH




                                                    @seE NOT[- e
                                               wT     SENDER


                                                                            8   ALTERNATOR




                     FUEL
                           e   SOL      W~8.'A'S2.~·,

                                 rU(L lifT t'u .... P
                                                          70.""'100


                                 , .... 1j . 'iVZI.VII2 7.W33)
                                     W'!J2. W':l8. /-nO,wIOO
                                      If EQUIPPE':'.
                                                                 0
                                                                 v'                                           /
                                                                                         ,...._ _ _ _ _...J..,-.

NOT USED                                             eRN                                                                                IZVDC           .....   0-+




                                                                                                                                                       NEUTRA.L
                                                                                                                                                       S.4.F'ETY
                                                                                                                                                       SWITCH

                                                                                                                                                  · ®X@
                                                                                                                                           PUR


                                                                                                                                           BRN
                                                                                                                                           ORN
                                                                                                                                           VEL




                           SERifS "I:" ALTERNATOR
                            12~OLT ">CAMP




                                                                      120
Schematic Diagram
       +   I Z vDC 8ATTERY                          BATTERY RETURN


                                   S'TM:l:r   SOL     ~rA.RT£R       ®
       ~------t                                                                                                    ~
                               :I.v
                                 @                                                            0!QIES       2!:!_8UILDEI.::~          ::J""';N£"R,;     ReSPONS/81":lTr'".

                       "'~(-H(AT ~              PRr-H(ArfR                    ®    AN        ON   -O~F     ~'NlrCH    MUST 81:,           IN~r"''-'£D IN no/IS lINe                    TO   DISC"ONNEcr
       t----·-'O~--____~~~ ~ns~____~~                                              T;.IE..   }'I..~-'ii~~Cf~.W;r--~_RO~ ·.~~E_ 8A~!§~ ~tY.·AN                            A-fEI?GNC'r' WHEN       F
                                                                                   <-EAIIINr;      ,-HE.   80AT.-.L? VOL.T .::>.Esei;. -ENGII'VE                 J TAIZTERS    TYPICAi..~AW
                                       AL   ~e:RNATOR
                                                                                   2.0-6 To 300~PS              ';';H£NC~--"'NKIN~ .-r~ii -bu-:e".,..170N' -O----,;:-;;.;OiVI.DUAL  CeAN'KI""f;
                                   @                                               cY-cm5NouL-DIVOF"EuEiD--"o -s""i---CO;:;-OS',A,-SWlrC!l                              WITH CONTiNuouS       -
                                                                                   ~rIN~ _ O~ ~~_~~~S. ... _AF__~2 VDe                   WI"L        IVOiVNlA.UY' SERVE tHESE t:UNCTToNS,
                                                                                   ~!!r._ ,_...         0- Ring




                                               F
stopping the eng ine.     I f the sole-         ~             Spring
noid appears not to be operating
 (no fuel delivery to injectors when            ..=           Armature
cranking     engine  with     starter),
check wiring connections and ensure
with a voltmeter that 12 Volts is
present at the solenoid terminal
when the ignition key is ON.         If
voltage is present at the solenoid
and it does not operate, replace
the solenoid as a unit.

Voltmeter
The voltmeter can be a useful instrument in determining the status of
your electrical system and will warn you when an abnormality occurs.
The voltmeter will indicate differently, depending when the readings
are taken.

Fully-charged batteries that are in a static state should read between
12.3 and 12.6 Volts on the dial. The term static means that the bat-
tery has not been charged or discharged for at least two hours. If the
reading is between 11 and 11.5 Volts, then the battery is about half
discharged and should be charged to ensure its usefullness.     If the
engine is started and the needle does not go up, it indicates that no
charge is being delivered to the battery.




                                      122
When the battery is being charged, the needle should be between 12.6
and 13 Volts.   The needle may move up to about the 14.6-Volt range
toward the end of the charge cycle, at which time the needle drops
back to the 12.6-to13-Volt range, as voltage regulation controls this
function.   If the battery voltage exceeds 15 Volts, this indicates
that the battery is being overcharged and damage to the battery will
occur if left unchecked.    The voltage regulator is most likely at
fault.

When the battery is not being charged (having electrical loads placed
upon it and no charging current applied, it is normal for the needle
to indicate between 11.4 and 12.6 Volts.

Tachometer

The tachometer is operated by pulses generated from anyone of the
alternator phases.   The pulse frequency is determined by the rota-
tional speed of the alternator rotor.    The rotor speed is dependent
upon the engine crankshaft speed and the ratio of the the alternator
pulley to the crankshaft pulley.    The tachometer in an instrument
panel is calibrated by Westerbeke for a particular engine model with
panel standard alternator;   if an optional alternator (i.e., 90 Amp)
is used to operate the tachometer, the calibration should be checked.
Also, when a tachometer is replaced, the new instrument must be
calibrated.

                                   CAUTION

     When calibrating the tachometer, use a Phillips screwdriver
     with an insulated shaft.


1.   Use a motor tester with an RPM indicator, another tachometer or a
     strobo-tach to determine the speed of the turning crankshaft.

2.   Remove the plastic plug and flat washer located on the rear of the
     tachome te r .

3.   Insert an insulated Phillips screwdriver into the calibration
     control slot and slowly turn it counterclockwise to increase the
     RPM reading, clockwise to decrease reading (direction of screw as
     viewed from the rear of the tachometer case).        An accurate
     calibration setting is more easily achieved at the higher side of
     the dial scale.

4.   Replace plastic plug and flat washer.

Service Bulletins

These bulletins, when issued, ar e sent to dis tr ibu tor s and dealer s.
These can be obtained by inquiring at the dealer for copies of latest
bulletins pertaining to your engine/generator model.




                                   123
                    WIRING DIAGRAM 90 AMP ALTERNATOR (OPTIONAL)



     ,--_ _ _ _ _ _W_H_I_T_E_ _ _ _1L_I_N_E_1_1_ _....,~.. TO 1+1 TE R M I NAL OF
                      EXCITATION                       I      IGN. SWITCH

                                                       ~TO RUN SWITCH
                     RED           ILlNE 21
                                                              FOR DIESEL ENGINES
                      VOLT. SENSE
                                               ----~TO:
                                                                   BATTERY   + TERMINAL   ONLY
                                                                   BEING CHARGED I SEE NOTE      1




OUTPUT
TERMINAL




NOTE:  It is mandatory for this                             LOAD
voltage sensing wire to be con-
nected directly and physically
to the positive terminal of the
battery being charged.  It must
not be connected to any other
connection point.  Otherwise,
the alternator will not operate
properly.




                      CHECKING ALTERNATOR AFTER HOOK-UP

           LINE #1      12.2 - 12.8V          12.2 - 12.8V         14.0 - 15.0V

           LINE #2            0                3.0 -       5.0V    14.0 - 15.0V

           OUTPUT       12.2 - 12.8V          12.2 - 12.8V         14.0 - 15.0V

                        IGN OFF               IGN ON               ENGINE RUNNING
                        ENGINE NOT            ENGINE NOT             (1500 RPM)
                        RUNNING               RUNNING




                                           124


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