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Westerbeke Diesel W 27 Parts Manual



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   SERVICE MANUAL      DIESEL ENGINES    GENERATORS             MARINE DIESEL ENGINES  38B FOUR                 W33                          42B FOUR  W27                     W33A  R08D  W27A        MARINE DIESEL GENERATORS  WMD 11060Hz            WMD 12560Hz                 125 BTDA  WMD 8350Hz             WMD 9450Hz                  94 BTDA  110 BTO                 125 BTD  83 BTD                  94 BTD               PUBLICATION NO 43440                  2nd Edition  April 1998                WESTERBEKE CORPORATION MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK                150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319 USA                    CALIFORNIA               PROPOSITION 65 WARNING       Diesel engine exhaust and some       of its constituents are known to       the State of California to cause       cancer birth defects and other       reproductive harm                      A WARNINGExhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide an odorless andcolorless gas Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can  and death Symptoms of Carbon  can                     Throbbing in TemplesNausea                       Muscular                      Vomiting Weakness and Sleepiness  Inability to Think CoherentlyIF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMSGET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY If symptoms persistseek medical attention Shut down the unit and do not restartuntil it has been inspected and repaired                                            SAFETY                                                         PREVENT BURNS  FIRERead these safety instructions carefully Most accidents arecaused by failure to follow fundamental rules and precautions Know when dangerous conditions exist and take the                                                                     A WARNING Fire can cause injury or deathnecessary precautions to protect yourself your personneland your machinery                                                  Prevent flash fires Do not smoke or permit flames orThe following safety instructions are in compliance with               sparks to occur near the carburetor fuel line filter fuelthe American Boat and Yacht Council ABYC standards                  pump or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel                                                                       vapors Use a suitable container to catch all fuel whenPREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK                                                 removing the fuel line carburetor or fuel filters                                                                     Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved flame                                                                      arrester removed Backfire can cause severe injury or A WARNING 00 not touch AC electrical connections                    death while engine is running or when connected to shore power Lethal voltage is present at these connections              Do not operate with the air  removed                                                                      Backfire can cause severe injury or death Do not operate this machinery without electrical                   Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near the  enclosures and covers in place                                     fuel system Keep the compartment and the enginegener                                                                      ator clean and free of debris to minimize the chances of Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical               fire Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil   equipment                                                                     Be aware      diesel fuel will burn Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical  equipment                                                        PREVENT BURNS  EXPLOSION Make sure your clothing and skin are dry not damp  particularly shoes when handling electrical equipment Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on                                                                     A WARNING Explosions from fuel vapors can cause                                                                     injury or death  electrical equipment Do not connect utility shore power to vessels AC                  Follow refueling safety instructions Keep the vessels  circuits except through a shiptoshore double throw                hatches closed when fueling Open and ventilate cabin  transfer switch Damage to vessels AC generator may                 after fueling Check below for fumesvapor before run  result if this procedure is not followed                            ning the blower Run the blower for four minutes before Electrical shock results from handling a charged capacitor          starting your engine   Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together                                                                     All fuel vapors are highly explosive Use extreme care whenPREVENT BURNS  HOT ENGINE                                             handling and storing fuels Store fuel in a wellventilated                                                                       area away from sparkproducing equipment and out of                                                                       the reach of children A WARNING 00 not touch hot engine parts or                         Do not fill the fuel tanks while the engine is running exhaust system components A running engine gets                                                                     Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing very hot                                                                       the fuel system Take care in catching any fuel that might                                                                       spill DO NOT allow any smoking open flames or other Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant                 sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servic   recovery tank                                                      ing Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the                                                                       fuel system A WARNING        Steam can cause injury or death                  Do not alter or modify the fuel system                                                                     Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve In case of an engine overheat allow the engine to cool            Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and   before touching the engine or checking the coolant                 free of leaks                                                                     Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is                                                                      properly maintained Be familiar with its proper use                                                                      Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate                                                                      for all applications encountered in this environment                                                          Engines  Generators                                             SAFETY  STARTING                                                     TOXIC EXHAUST GASES A WARNING Accidental starting can cause injury                         A WARNING         Carbon monoxide CO is a deadly gas or death                                                                         Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases Disconnect the battery cables before servicing the engine               discharged from the engine Check the exhaust system  generator Remove the negative lead first and reconnect                  regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifolds   it last                                                                are securely attached and no warping exists Pay close                                                                           attention to the manifold water injection elbow and Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before                                                                           exhaust pipe nipple  starting                                                                         Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated Make certain all covers guards and hatches are re  installed before starting the engine                                  In addition to routine inspection of the exhaust system                                                                           install a carbon monoxide detector Consult your boatBAnERY EXPLOSION                                                           builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors                                                                         For additional information refer to ABYC T22 educa A WARNING Battery explosion can cause injury                             tional information on Carbon Monoxide or death Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery                                                                         A WARNING       Carbon monoxide CO is an invisible                                                                         odorless gas Inhalation produces flulike symptoms   being serviced Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen a                  nausea or death   highly explostve gas which can be ignited by electrical  arcing or by lit tobacco products Shut off all electrical                                                                         Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems Diesel  equipment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing dur                                                                          fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust sys  ing servicing                                                                          tems Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of copper Never connect the negative  battery cable to the posi                tubing resulting in exhaustwater leakage  tive  connection terminal of the starter solenoid Do               Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn   not test the battery condition by shorting the terminals                through portholes vents or air conditioners If the engine  together Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapors              exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline water could  Ventilate any compartment containing batteries to prevent                enter the exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the  accumulation of explosive gases To avoid sparks do not                flow of exhaust Avoid overloading the craft  disturb the battery charger connections while the battery  is being charged                                                      Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as toxic as                                                                           exhaust fumes from gasoline engines carbon monoxide Avoid contacting the terminals with tools etc to prevent              gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes Some of the symp   bums or sparks that could cause an explosion Remove                    toms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or poison   wristwatch rings and any other jewelry before handling                ing are   the battery                                                                           Vomiting Always tum the battery charger off before disconnecting                  Dizziness   the battery connections Remove the negative lead first   and reconnect it last when servicing the battery                       Throbbing in templesBAnERY ACID                                                                 Muscular twitching                                                                            Intense headache A WARNING Sulphuric acid in batteries can cause                           Weakness and sleepiness severe injury or death                                                AVOID MOVING PARTS When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte  level wear rubber gloves a rubber apron and eye protec             A WARNING Rotating parts can cause injury  tion Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is destructive If         or death  it comes in contact with your skin wash it off at once  with water Acid may splash on the skin or into the eyes               Do not service the engine while it is running If a situation  inadvertently when removing electrolyte caps                           arises in which it is absolutely necessary to make operat                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                   ii                                            SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS    ing adjustments use extreme care to avoid touching               ABYC NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR    moving parts and hot exhaust system components                                                                      INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing                Read the following ABYC NFPA and USCG publications  equipment avoid wearing loose jackets shirts sleeves            for safety codes and standards Follow their recommenda  rings necklaces or bracelets that could be caught in               tions when installing your   moving parts                                                       ABYC American Boat and Yacht Council Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened             Safety Standards for Small Craft  Keep protective shields and guards in their respective               Order From  places at all times                                                                       ABYC Do not check fluid levels or the drive belts tension while          15 East 26th Street  the engine is operating                                             New York NY 10010 Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling         NFPA National Fire Protection Association   when the engine is running hair and clothing can easily           Fire Protection Standard for Motor Craft   be caught in these rotating parts                                                                       Order FromHAZARDOUS NOISE                                                        NFPA                                                                       11 Tracy Drive A WARNING High noise levels can cause hearing                        Avon Industrial Park                                                                       Avon MA 02322 loss                                                                      USCG United States Coast Guard                                                                      USCG 33CFR183 Never operate an engine without its muffler installed                                                                       Order From Do not run an engine with the air intake silencer  removed                                                             US Government Printing Office                                                                       Washington DC 20404 Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures  open A WARNING Do not work on machinery when you are mentally or physically incapacitated by  MANUALMany of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeatedin your Operators Manual along with other cautions andnotes to highlight critical information Read your  maintain your equipment and follow all   to install an engine should begin with a thorough examination of the American Boat and Yacht CouncilsABYC standards These standards are a combination ofsources including the USCG and the NFPASections of the ABYC standards of particular interest are      H2 Ventilation      Pl Exhaust systems      PA Inboard engines      E9 DC Electrical systemsAll installations must comply with the Federal Code ofRegulations FCR                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                iiiEngines  Generators                                                                          TABLE OF  3                   Engine Shutoff   32      Product Software  3                   Engine with Manual Stop Standard  32       Model Designations  3                                  Optional Key Switch Shutoff 38B and 42B only  32      Notes Cautions and Warnings  3                                 Installing and Adjusting the Key Switch      Ordering PartsSerial Number Location  3                                        Shutoff Solenoid   Specifications 5                                            KeyStop Solenoid System Operation                                                                                                                      Checking Procedure  32Testing for Overhaul 6      How to Judge Engine Overhaul Period  6                             Engine Adjustments 33          Cause of Low Compression  6                                Tightening the Cylinder Head  33          Measuring Compression Pressure  6                                   Adjusting Valve Clearance  33      Overhaul Conditions  6                      Adjusting Fuel Injection Timing  33          Disassembly  6                     Adjusting NoLoad Engine Speeds  34          Reassembly  7               Lubrication System Service 35Service Standards 8                              Description  35                                                                                                                Disassembly  35Technical Data 11                                 Oil Filter and Oil Pump  35      Tightening Torque    11                   Inspection  35      General Screws  l1                                                                                                                     Oil Pump  35      Sealants  11             Reassembly  36Engine  12                                  Testing the Oil Pressure  36Engine Parts Identification 16                                   Oil Pressure Switch  36Cylinder Head  17                    Fuel System   37      Construction  17                 Description  37Cylinder Head Service 18                           Fuel System Service  39      Disassembly  18                  Disassembly  39      Inspection  18                    Fuel Filter  39           Cylinder Head  18                           Fuel Lift Pump  39           Valve Guide  18                         Fuel Injection Pump  39           Valve Seat  18                       Injector  40           Valve  19               Inspection  40           Valve Spring  19                         Fuel Filter  40           Rocker Arm and Rocker Shaft  19                                      Fuel Lift Pump  40      Reassembly  19                       Fuel Injection Pump  40           Partial Reassembly  20                             Nozzle  40           Installation of Cylinder Head Assembly  20                                     Reassembly  40           Valve Clearance Adjustment  20                                    Fuel Filter  40                                                                                                                     Fuel Lift Pump  40Cylinder Block  21                               Injection Pump  40      Construction  21                                                                                                                     Installation and Adjustment of FuelCylinder Block Service 23                                       Injection Pump  41      Disassembly  23                       Injector  42      Inspection  23                    Adjustment and Installation of Nozzle           Cylinder Block  23                            Holder Assembly  42           Piston Piston Pin and Piston Rings  24           Connecting Rod  25                                                                                                          Raw Water Cooling Circuit 44                                                                                                                Description  44           Crankshaft  25           Main Bearings and Connecting Rod Bearings  25                                      Raw Water Pump Service 45           Gearcase  26                  Pump Overhaul  Raw Water Pump PN 33636  45           Timing Gears and Lube Oil Pump Gear  26                                           Disassembly  45           Camshaft  26                      Inspection  45           Fuel Injection Pump Camshaft  26                                    Reassembly  45           Ball Bearings  26                    Pump Overhaul Raw Water Pump PN 24143  46           Tappets  26                    Disassembly  46           Push Rods  26                      Inspection  46      Reassembly  26                     Reassembly  46Governor 31                  Fresh Water Cooling Circuit 47      Description  31                Description  47      Disassembly  31            Fresh Water Cooling Service 48      Inspection  31               Disassembly  48           Governor Lever  31                       Inspection  48           Governor Spring 31                             Water Pump  48           Needle Bearing  31                           Thermostat  48      Reassembly and Adjustment  31                                                                                                     continued                                                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                                                      1                                                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS       Reassembly  48               Engine     Wiring Diagram36467  70           Drive Belt Adjustment  48                         Engine     Wiring Schematic 36467  71Admiral Control Panel 49                               Engine     Wiring Diagram 36844  72       Description  49             Engine     Wiring Schematic 36844  73                                                                                                              Engine     Wiring Diagram 39144  74Captain Control Panel  50                              Engine     Wiring Schematic 39144  75       Description 50                                                                                                        Standard Hardware Torques 76Control Panel  51         51                 Metric Conversions 77           Hourmeter Inoperative 51                    Generator Information 78           Tachometer Inoperative  51                         Use of Electric Motors  78           Tachometer Sticking 51                         Required Operating Speed  78           Tachometer Inaccurate 51                          Generator Frequency Adjustment  78       Manual Starter Disconnect Toggle Switches  52                                     Generator Maintenance  78        Water Temperature                                                                      Generator   78        and Oil Pressure Gauges  52                 WMD  Panel  Early Models 53                                    Description  79     Activation by Key Switch 53                          Disassembly   Service 54                                Inspection  79     Description 54                Reassembly  79     Adjustment and Repair 54                   WMD Generator  80          Pinion Gap Inspection  54                      No Electrical Output  80          NoLoad Test 54                  Flash Field Coils  80          Solenoid55               Replacement of Field CoiJs  81     Starter Disassembly 55                  Low Voltage Output  81     Starter Inspection 56                High VOltage Output  82          Solenoid 56              Solenoid with Throttle Linkage  82          Inspecting the Armature  56                    WMD Generator AC Internal Wiring Diagrams  83          Brush and Brush Holder Inspection 56          Field Coil Inspection  57                 WMD Generator DC Electrical System 84     Starter Adjustment and Reassembly  57                                WMD Generator Wiring Diagram 24700  84                                                                                                              WMD Generator Wiring Schematic 24700  85DC Electrical System  58    Description  58          BT   Generator 86          Engine 12Volt Control Circuit  58                              Description  86    Charging System 58                BT   Generator  87     Alternator  58                          Residual Voltage Check 89          Checking for roper Voltage 58                              Bridge Rectifier  89     Battery Maintenance  59                           Testing the Bridge Rectifier for Faults with     Glow Plugs 59                        an Ohmmeter   Service 60                                   Internal Wiring Diagram  90     Description  60               Component Resistance Values  91     Alternator   60                              Models 110  125A BT  91          Testing the Charging Voltage  60                             Component Resistance Checks  91          Output Test  61                       Exciter Stator Windings  91     Disassembly  61                 Exciter RotorField  92     Inspection  62              Main Stator Windings  93          Diode  62               Compound Transformer  93          Checking for Short Circuit  62                           Selector Switch  93          Checking for Open Circuit  62                            Bridge Rectifier Wiring 93          Checking Diode Trio  62                         NoLoad Voltage Adjustment  94          Stator  63              VoltageHertz Connection Bar  94          Field Coil Rotor  63               BT Generator AC Voltage Connections 95          Checking Brush and Brush Spring  63                                   Generator Frequency  95          Checking the Slip Ring  63                    BT Generator 6 Terminal Block 96     Regulator  63              Wiring Connections  96     Reassembly  64                                                                                                        BT Generator DC Electrical System  65                          BT Generator Wiring Diagram 34651  98DC Electrical System 66                              BT Generator Wiring Diagram 36412  100       Engine     Wiring Diagram 24666  66                         BT Generator Wiring Schematic 36412  101       Engine     Wiring Schematic 24666  67       Engine     Wiring Diagram 33685  68       Engine     Wiring Schematic 33685  69                                                                                         Engines  Generators                                                                                                    2                                                                         service manual contains detailed information relating to                                 NOTES CAUTIONS AND WARNINGSthe proper operation of the major components and systems ofthe engine or generator Included are disassembly inspection                                As this manual takes you through the service procedures                                                                                              maintenance schedules and  of your marineservice and reassembly instructions for the guidance of suit                                                                                               critical information will be highlighted byably equipped and staffed marine engine service and rebuild                                                                                              NOTES CAUTIONS and WARNINGS An explanation foling facilities The necessary procedures should be undertaken                                                                                              lowsonly by such facilities and their personnel Refer also to yourWesterbeke parts catalog when performing an engine over                                      NOTE An operating procedure essential to  SOFTWARE                                                                               A CAUTION Procedures which if not  software tech data parts lists manuals brochures                                                                                               observed can result in the damage or destruction ofand catalogs provided from sources other than WESTER                                         your  are not within WESTERBEKES  CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THECONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE MAKES NO WAR                                                        A WARNING Procedures which if not properly folRANTIES OR  WITH RESPECT                                                        lowed can result in personal injury or loss of lifeTHERETO INCLUDING ACCURACY TIMELINESS ORCOMPLETENESS THEREOF AND WILL IN NO EVENTBE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR INJURY                                                                                              ORDERING PARTSSERIAL NUMBER  IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT                                                    Whenever replacement parts are needed for engines alwaysOF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE                                                    provide the engine model number and engine serial number                                                                                              as they appear on the silver and black identification nameWESTERBEKE customers should also keep in mind the                                                                                              plate located on the manifold For generators provide thetime span between printings of WESTERBEKE product soft                                                                                              generator model number engine serial number and generatorware and the unavoidable existence of earlier WESTER                                                                                              serial number as they appear on the silver and black decalBEKE manuals In summation product software provided                                                                                              located on the generator endwith WESTERBEKE products whether from WESTERBEKE or other suppliers must not and cannot be relied  as the definitive authority on the respective product It not only makes good sense but is imperative   of WESTERBEKE or the supplier in question be consulted to determine the accuracy andcurrentness of the product software being consulted by thecustomer                                                                                              The engine serial number can also be found stamped into  MODEL DESIGNATIONS                                                           engine block just above the injection pump The generatorThis manual contains certain descriptions procedures and                                     serial number is stamped into the generator housing on  that vary depending on the                                     flat surface on the left side of the generatormodel Where references to specific models are necessary                                     You must provide us with this information so we may propthree basic model group designations are used                                                erly identify your  In addition include a                                                                                              complete part description and part number for each part        A MODELS                        B MODELS                 C MODELS                     needed see the separately furnished Parts List Also insist              GENERATORS                    GENERATORS                GENERATORS                                                                                              upon WESTERBEKE packaged parts because will fit or ENGINES                 ENGINES                       ENGINES                                generic parts are frequently not made to the same specifica              60Hz 50Hz                     60Hz 50Hz                 60Hz   50Hz 388 Four   110 BTD   83 BTD   W33     WMO 125 WMD94 42B Four   125 BTDA 94 BTDA                                                                                              tions as original equipment W27        WMD110 WMD83 W33A          125 BTD   94 BTD                                  NOTE Component locations in this manual are referenced R080                                                                                         from the front of the engine which is the pulleydrive belt end W27A       110 BTD   83 BTD                                                                Left and right sides are determined as follows imagine                                                                                              straddling the engine facing in the same direction as the                                                                                              front of the engine the left side is at your left the right side                                                                                              is at your right                                                                                Engines  Generators                                                                                          3                                INTRODUCTION   Owners may find it convenient to fill in the data on the decal or  shown below to provide a quick reference when using this service manual              SPECIFICATION                50 HZ          60             MODEL               RPM                KW                 KVA               VOLTS                 AMPS                ENG HP                 ENG SER NO              GEN SER NO              PFIPHASE                                           WIRES                RATING                  INSUL CLASS               TEMP RISE               BAlTERY                CD                                       GENERATOR DECAL                      PROPULSION ENGINE IDENTIFICATION NAMEPLATE                                      Engines  Generators                                             4                           SPECIFICATIONS                                      A MODELS                                   B MODELS                                   C MODELS                         ENGINES                                            GENERATORS                                                                    ENGINES                                                                                        GENERATORS            ENGINES                                                                                                                                 GENERATORS                                          60Hz       50Hz                             60Hz       50Hz                         60Hz        50Hz                         38B Four       110 BTD    83 BTD         W33          WMD 125      WMD 94        428 Four     125 BTDA   94 BTDA                         W27           WMD 110     WMD 83         W33A         125 BTD      94 8TD                         RD80                         W27A           110 BTD    83 BTDEngine Type                         Vertical inline 4cycle QHV  with heat exchanger diesel                                                                        4Bore Stroke               287 x 307 in 73 x 78 mm                                    307 x 307 in 78 x 78 mmTotal Displacement            796 cu in 130 liters                                       909 cu in 149  Chamber                                                    Swirl chamber  Ratio                                                              231Injection Order                                                               1342Injection Timing                                      Engines 23  15 Generators 19  15Injection Pump                                                           Bosch M typeInjection Nozzle                                                         Throttle typeGovernor                                                           Centrifugal flyweight typeFuel                                                          Diesel 2 cetane rating 45 or                                                    Forced lubrication trochoid pumpOil Filter                                          Paperelement filter full flow type 5 liter capacitySump Capacity                                              50 quarts 48 liters not including filter                                                      Filter requires approximately 5 quarts 5 litersFresh Water Pump                                                        Centrifugal typeFresh Water  approximate                                               80 quarts 75 litersRaw Water Pump                                             Positive displacement Neoprene  Motor                                                  12 volts  16 kW reduction typeDC Alternator                                          12 volt  50 amp  internal voltage  Angle                                              15 Continuous in all directions                                                                 20 Temporary 20  Battery                                                 12 volt 300 CCA or  Value   Standard                                                     455 psi at 280 rpm 32 kgcm2   Minimum                                                      370 psi at 280 rpm 26 kgcm2   Overhaul                                                     312 psi at 280 rpm 22                                                              355 psi 25 kgcm 2                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                   5                                            TESTING FOR OVERHAULHOW TO JUDGE ENGINE OVERHAUL PERIOD                                    5 Install a pressure gauge adapter in the first injector hole                                                                          or glow plug hole to be testedCause of Low Compression                                               6 Connect the pressure gauge to the  the time at which an engine should be overhauled            7 Crank the engine with the starter motor until the pressureis determined by various conditions such as lowered engine                reaches a maximum value Read the engine rpm and thepower output decreased compression pressure and increased               pressure gauge when the starter rotation has become stafuel and oil consumption The lowered engine power output                blein the case of diesel engines is not necessarily due to trouble       8 Repeat the above procedure for each cylinderwith the engine itself but is sometimes caused by injectornozzle wear or injection pump wear It is most reasonable to           9 If the compression differs by more than 427 psi 30judge by a decrease in compression pressure The decrease in              kglcm2 at 200 rpm then determine the cause of the lowcompression pressure is caused by many factors It is there             pressure and repair as necessaryfore necessary to determine a cause or causes on the basis of         NOTE Do not guess the conditions of other cylinders from adata of periodic inspection and maintenance Oil analysis on           result of testing one cylinder Be sure to measure the coma seasonal basis is a good means of monitoring engine inter           pression pressure for each cylinder Look for cylinders withnal wear When caused by worn cylinders or piston rings the           dramatically at least 20 lower compression than the averfollowing symptoms will occur                                         age of the other cylinders If the weak cylinder is flanked by         Low engine power output                                       healthy cylinders the problem is either valve or headgasket                                                                       related Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder points         Increased fuel consumption                                    to gasket failure Abnormally high readings on all cylinders         Increased oil consumption                                     indicate heavy carbon accumulations a condition that might         Hard engine starting                                          be accompanied by high pressures and noise         Noisy engine operation                                        NOTE In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise                                                                       have the injectors overhauled by an authorized fuel injectionThese symptoms often appear together Increased fuel con              service center Poor fuel quality contaminates and loss ofsumption and hard engine starting can result also from exces          positive fuel pressure to the injection pump will result insive fuel injection improper injection timing and wear of            injector faultsplugs and nozzles They are caused also by defective electrical devices such as the battery alternator starter and glow          OVERHAUL  Therefore it is desirable to judge the optimum engine                                                                       Compression pressure tends to increase a little in a newoverhaul time by the lowered compression pressure caused                                                                       engine until piston rings and valve seats have been broken inby worn cylinders and pistons plus increased oil consump                                                                       Thereafter it decreases gradually with the progress of weartion In diesel engines satisfactory combustion is obtained                                                                       of these partsonly under sufficient compression pressure If an enginelacks compression pressure incomplete combustion of fuel              When decrease of compression pressure reaches the repairwill take place even if other parts of the engine are operating        value the engine must be  To judge the period of engine overhaul it is impor         The engine requires overhaul when oil consumption is hightant to measure the engine compression pressure regularly At          blowby evident and comprssion valves at minimum orthe same time the engine speed at which measurement of                below Engine compression should be 32 kglcm2 at 280compression pressure is made should be checked because the             rpm See SERVICE STANDARDS  pressure varies with engine rpm                                                                       NOTE The SERVICE STANDARDS chart gives the values forThe engine rpm can be measured at the front end of the                 repair or replacement of the engine components Refer tocrankshaft                                                            these values and measurements during engine  Compression Pressure                                         DisassemblyTo check the compression pressure follow this procedure              1 Before disassembly and cleaning carefully check for                                                                          defects which cannot be found after disassembly and1 Warm the engine                                                       cleaning2 Remove all the fuel injectors or all the glow plugs from            2 Drain water fuel and oil before disassembly    the cylinder block                                                                       3 Clean or wash the engine exterior3 Disconnect the fuel solenoid from the throttle arm gen   erator models only                                                4 Do not remove or disassemble the parts that require no                                                                          disassembly4 Place the stop lever in the OFF position propulsion mod   els only                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                   6                                            TESTING FOR OVERHAUL5 Perfonn disassembly in a proper order using proper tools   Keep disassembled parts in order Apply oil when neces   sary Take special care to keep the fuel system parts free   from the intrusion of dust and  Prepare all parts necessary for reassembly2 Clean or wash the parts Apply oil on surfaces where    needed or specified3 Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals even if   not specified to check Replace with new ones if defec   tive4 Be sure to install in proper directions and positions   Pay attention to dowel pins mating marks and specified   directions Where tightening torque is not specified   tighten evenly to an ordinary torque Apply sealant where   specified5 After completion of the reassembly manually rotate the   engine crankshaft two complete revolutions to ensure   there is no binding or obstructions Prepare for starting   the engine and idle the engine sufficiently for a test run                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                 7                                                          SERVICE STANDARDSThese SERVICE STANDARDS specify the values at which                                            A MODElS                        B MODELS                 C MODELSthe engine components will require REPAIR replacement is                                            GENERATORS                    GENERATORS                  GENERATORS                                                                                        ENGINES                 ENGINES                        or REPLACEMENT due to maximum component                                                  60Hz 50Hz                     60Hz 50Hz                   60Hz   50Hzwear It is important to observe these standards for your                              388 Four   1108TD 83 BTO      W33     WMD 125 WMD94 428 Four     125 BTDA 94  and to take action when necessary to main                            W27        WMD110 WMO 83 W33A         12SBTD    94 BTDtain a high level of safety dependability and performance                             RD80                                                                                        W27A       110 BTO   83 BTDAll measurements are in mm unless otherwise notedTo convert mm to inches multiply by 03937                                                                                                                                  REPAIR or                DESCRIPTION                                  MODELS                    STANDARD VALUE                            replacement          REPLACEMENT                                                                                                                                  Required at          Required at   ENGINE COMPRESSION PRESSURE                           A      B     C      32 kgcm2 at 280 rpm                                 26 kgcm 2   INTERCYLINDER DIFFERENCE max                       A      B     C      25 kgcm 2   INJECTION ORDER                                       A      B     C      1342   INJECTION TIMING                                      A      B     C      2315 Propulsion   BTDC on compression stroke                                              1915 Generator   CYLINDER HEAD        Bottom surface distortion                        A      B     C      Within 005                                             01        Valve seat angle IN and EX                     A      B     C      45      Valve seat width IN and EX                       A      B     C      13 18                                                25      Valve seat sinkage                                 A      B     C      1213                                                                          1   VALVE CLEARANCE IN and EX                           A      B     C      025 when engine is cold   VALVE        Stem 00                                        A             C     66                                                                B            8        Stem to guide clearance            Intake                                       A      B     C      012                                                                           010            Exhaust                                      A      B     C      025                                                                           015        Valve face angle                                 A      B     C      45        Valve head thickness margin width              A            C      10                                                                             05                                                                B            15                                                                             05   VALVE SPRING        Free length                                      A             C     43                                                      417                                                                8            4585                                                   445        Installed loadlength                            A            C      140 kg  07 kg36 mm                                                     15                                                                8            279 kg  14 kg373 mm                                                   15      Squareness                                         A      8      C     15                                                                             3   ROCKER ARM      Arm to shaft clearance                             A      B      C                                                                                    02   CYLINDER BLOCK        Camshaft hole 10          Front bushing                                  A      B      C     45        Cylinder bore                                    A             C     73                                                      02             95 Replace block                                                                                                                                                      or sleeve                                                                B            78                                                      02             95 Replace block                                                                                                                                                      or sleeve        Cylinder bore oversize finish tolerance          A      8      C     oto 003 for each oversize        Taper of cylinder                                A      8      C     within 001NOTE Valve seats are a part of the cylinder head A machine shop can install valve seats and cut the seats to properly fit the valves                        continued                                                                        Engines  Generators                                                                                   8                                                     SERVICE STANDARDSAll measurements are in mm unless otherwise notedTo convert mm to inches multiply by 03937                                                                                                                   REPAIR or                DESCRIPTION                              MODELS                STANDARD VALUE                     replacement    REPLACEMENT                                                                                                                   Required at    Required at   PISTON      00 skirt end                               A                73                                                           B      C   78       Piston to cylinder clearance                  A     B      C   007008                                      178             03 BIO      Oversize                                       A     B      C   025 050 075   PISTON PIN      Type                                           A            C   Semifloating type                                                           B          Fullfloating type       00                                          A            C   19                                                           B          23       Piston to pin clearance                             B          002 slight force fitheat                                   008       Pin to connecting rod clearance               A            C   Pressfit load 500  1500 kg                                                           B          014  038                                    015               015       Piston protrusion above block surface         A     B      C   06 11   PISTON RINGS       Number of compression rings                   A     B      C   3 No1 chrome plated barrel type semi                                                                      keystone No2 and NO3 taper ring      Number of oil rings                            A     B      C   1 chrome plated with coil expander      Ring side clearance         Compression No1                            A     B      C   06     11                                                     03                         No2  3                    A     B      C   05    09                                                     02                         Oil ring                    A     B      C   03    07                                                     02      Ring gap                                       A     B      C   22    040                                    125             15   CONNECTING ROD      Bend and distortion                            A     B      C                                                                   015      Sideplay clearance                             A     B      C   01  035                                                      05   CONNECTING ROD BEARING      Standard Type                                  A     B      C   Kelmet metal with back metal      Oil clearance                                  A     B      C   0035  005                                   006              015      Undersize                                      A     B      C   025 050 075   CRANKSHAFT       Bend                                          A     B      C                                                                    005       End play                                      A     B      C   006  03                                     03       Main 00                                     A            C   52                                             015           090                                                           B          57                                             015           090       ConnOO                                     A            C   42                                             015           090                                                           B          48                                             015           090       Undersize finish tolerance         Main common to all                        A            C   00015                                                           B          0040  0055         Conn common to all                       A     B      C   0035  0050   MAIN BEARING      Standard type                                  A     B      C   Kelmet metal with back metal                                                                      flanged metal for center bearing only       Oil clearance                                 A     B     e   004  005                                    06              010       Undersize                                     A     B      C   025050075                                                                                                                                       continued                                                                  Engines  Generators                                                                          9All measurements are in mm unless otherwise noted                                                     SERVICE STANDARDS                  mc h11o convert mm to       i                     es mu    I bv 0393 7                            tlply                                                                                                                    REPAIR or                 DESCRIPTION                             MODELS                STANDARD VALUE                      replacement    REPLACEMENT                                                                                                                    Required at    Required at   CAMSHAFT      Front bearing                                  A     B      C   Lead bronze alloy with back metal      Oil clearance                                  A     B      C   004  008                                     010              015      Cam lobe height IN and EX                    A     B      C   356  357                                                      10   PUMP CAMSHAFT       Front bearing                                 A     B      C   Ball bearing       Cam lobe height                               A     B      C   44                                                               10   TAPPET      00                                           A     B      C   23      Tappet to cylinder block clearance             A     B      C   025  050                                                       015   PUSH ROD       Bend                                          A     B      C   Within 03                                                                  LUBRICATION   ENGINE OIL   Oil specification       API service classification                    A     B      C   Class CF or CG4       Viscosity above 20C                          A     B      C   SAE30 or 10W30                   5 to 20C                        A     B      C   SAE20 or 10W30                   below 5C                         A     B      C   SAE 10W30   OIL PUMP       Trochoid type                                 A     B      C       Check valve opening pressure                  A     B      C   4  04 kgcm 2 at 500 rpm of pump speed       Outer rotor to body clearance                 A     B      C   015  02                                                        03       Outer rotor to inner rotor clearance          A     B      C   005 012                                                         025       Rotor to cover clearance                      A     B      C   003  007                                                       020   OIL PRESSURE SWITCH       Contact closing pressure       Engine                                        A     B      C   4  6 psi normally open       Generator                                     A     B      C   4  6 psi normally open                                                                  FUEL SYSTEM    FUEL INJECTION PUMP       Model NOPFT4M                               A     B      C       At smoke set SS          Pump speed                                 A            C   1500 rpm 275  10 mm3st          Pump speed                                       B          1500 rpm 38  10 mm 3st       At start set MS          Pump speed                                 A            C   150 rpm 34  5 mm3st          Pump speed                                       B          150 rpm 36  75 mm3st       Difference from reference cylinder            A     B      C   Within 2 mm3rev cylinder       Prestroke                                     A     B      C   22  01   NOZZLE       Throttle type                                 A     B      C       Model NOON4S024                             A     B      C       Injection start pressure                      A     B      C   120  10 kgcm 2                                                                  Engines  Generators                                                                         10                                                 TECHNICAL DATA                                                    TIGHTENING TORQUE          DESCRIPTION                      MODELS                      TYPEQUANTITY                     TIGHTENING TORQUE kgmCYLINDER HEAD BOLT                         A     C                  M12 bolt      10                       115  125 wet                                           A     C                  M10 bolt       4                        65  80 wet                                             B                      M14 bolt      10                            15 16                                             B                      M14 bolt       4 tappet side               10 11CRANKSHAFT PULLEY NUT                      A     C                  M18t                                         15 20                                             B                      M20                                          2025MAIN BEARING CAP BOLT                      A B C                                                                  5 55CONNECTING ROD CAP NUT                     A     C                                                              32 35CONNECTING ROD CAP BOLT                      B                                                                  55  60FLYWHEEL MOUNTING BOLT with flange       A B C                                                                 13 14       8T WITH WASHER OLD             A B C                                                               115 125OIL DRAIN HOSE BANJO BOLT                  A B C                                                                  56OIL FILTER                                 A B C                                                                11 13FUEL INJECTION PUMP       Delivery valve holder               A    B     C                                                            4 5NOZZLE HOLDER       Holder mounting bolt                A    B     C                                                           15 2       Holder body and retaining nut       A    B     C                                                            68GLOW PLUG                                  A    B     C                                                           15 2                                                      GENERAL SCREWS                                 BOLT DlA                             BOLT HEAD MARK                                                               4                 7                 10                                       M6                  03  05        08 10           10 13                                       M8                  10 13         15  22          25 35                                       M10                 18  25        30 42          50 70                                       M12                 30 42          55 75           95 120                                       M14                 50 70         80 110        160 190                                                           SEALANTS    PARTS REQUIRING SEALANT                        SURFACES REQUIRING SEALANT                                        SEALANT                                                 where to mount sealant coated parts         Taper screw 12 I            Thread portion Gear case                                                 Liquid Teflon         Taper screw 14 1            Thread portion Cylinder block right side pump cover                     Liquid Teflon         Taper screw 18 1            Thread portion Cylinder head rear surface                                Liquid Teflon         Water drain plug              Thread portion Cylinder block right side rear middle portion            Liquid Teflon         Oil pressure switch           Thread portion Cylinder block right side surface                         Liquid Teflon         Side seal                     Periphery Main bearing caps No 1 and No5                               Permatex 6B         Bearing cap No 1             Contact surface with cylinder block                                        Permatex 6B                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                11                                         ENGINE  following  table describes certain                  Note The engine s electrical system is protected by a 20problems relating to engine service the probable causes of            ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on a bracket onthese problems and the  to overcome                    the left front side of the engine The preheat solenoid isthese problems                                                        mounted on the same bracket       PROBLEM                              PROBABLE CAUSE                                          HARD STARTING              LOW CRANKING SPEED                            1 Engine oil viscosity too high                         1   Replace engine oil with less viscous oil                            2 Rundown battery                                      2   Recharge battery                            3 Worn battery                                          3   Replace battery                            4 Battery terminals loosely connected                   4   Clean terminals and correct cables                            5 Defective starter                                     5   Repair or replace starter                            6 Defective main drive section                          6   Check clutch for disengagement                            DEFECTIVE INJECTION SYSTEM                            1 Air trapped in fuel passage                           1   Bleed air from fuel system                            2 Clogged fuel filter                                   2   Clean or replace filter                            3 Low injection pressure                                3   Adjust injection pressure                            4 Inadequate spray                                      4   Clean or replace nozzle                            5 Injection pump delivering insufficient fuel           5   Repair or replace injection pump                            6 Injection too early                                   6   Adjust injection timing                            MAIN ENGINE TROUBLES                            1 Low compression                                a Incorrect valve clearance                             a Adjust valve clearance                                 b Inadequate contact of valve seat                     b Lap valve                                 C Valve stem seized                                    c Replace valve and valve guide                                 d Broken valve spring                                  d Replace valve spring                                 e Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket       e Replace gasket                                 f Piston ring seized                                   f Replace piston and piston ring                                 g Worn piston ring and cylinder                        g Overhaul engine                            2 Burnt glow plug                                       2 Replace glow plug                            3 Faulty glow plug operation                            3 Check glow plugs and solenoid                            4 Incorrect governor lever position                     4 Set lever to starting position  LOW OUTPUT                LOW COMPRESSION                                           See HARD STARTING                            INJECTION SYSTEM OUT OF ADJUSTMENT                            1 Incorrect injection timing                            1 Adjust injection timing                            2 Insufficient injection                                2 Repair or replace injection pump                            3 Low injection pressure                                3 Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure                            INSUFFICIENT FUEL                            1 Air trapped in fuel system                            1 Check and retighten connector                            2 Clogged filter                                        2 Clean or replace filter                            3 Contaminated fuel tank                                3 Clean tank                            INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR                            1 Clogged air cleaner                                   1 Clean or replace air cleaner                                                                                                                                   continued                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                 12                                  ENGINE     PROBLEM                          PROBABLE CAUSE                                      OUTPUT cont   OVERHEATING                     1 Low coolant level                                 1   Add coolant                     2 Loose Vbelt                                      2   Adjust or replace Vbelt                     3 Incorrect injection timing                        3   Adjust injection timing                     4 Low engine oil level                              4   Add engine oilEXCESSIVE OIL        OIL           1 Defective oil seals                               1   Replace oil seals                     2 Broken gear case gasket                           2   Replace gasket                     3 Loose gear case attaching bolts                   3   Retighten bolts                     4 Loose drain plug                                  4   Retighten plug                     5 Loose oil pipe connector                          5   Retighten oil connections                     6 Broken rocker cover gasket                        6   Replace gasket                     7 Loose rocker cover attaching bolts                7   Retighten attaching bolts                     OIL LEVEL RISING                     1 Incorrectly positioned piston ring gaps           1   Correct ring gap positions                     2 Displaced or twisted connecting rod               2   Replace connecting rod                     3 Worn piston ring                                  3   Replace ring                     4 Worn piston or cylinder                           4   Replace piston and rebore cylinder                     OIL LEVEL FALLING                     1 Defective stem seal                               1 Replace stem seal                     2 Worn valve and valve guide                        2 Replace a valve and valve guideEXCESSIVE FUEL        ENGINE BODY           1 Noisy knocking                                    1 See KNOCKING                     2 Smoky exhaust                                     2 See SMOKY EXHAUST                     3 Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn    3 Repair or replace                     4 Poor compression                                  4 See LOW COMPRESSION HARD STARTING                     5 Improper valve timing                             5 Adjust                     6 Improper valve clearance                          6 Adjust                     INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR                     1 Air intake obstructed                             1 Clean or remove obstruction                     NOZZLE TROUBLES                     1 Seized nozzle                                     1 Replace                     2 Worn nozzle                                       2 Replace                     IMPROPER FUEL                                         Replace with proper fuel                     FUEL LEAKS                                            Find fuel leaksSMOKY EXHAUST        WHITISH OR PURPLISH                     1 Excessive engine oil                              1 Correct oil level                     2 Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber                          a Poor piston contact                                a Check                          b Seized piston ring                                 b Replace or clean                          c Excessive  clearance             c Replace or correct                                                                                                                      continued                                                    Engines  Generators                                                           13                                     ENGINE     PROBLEM                             PROBABLE CAUSE                                    EXHAUST cont   WHITISH OR PURPLISH cont                             d Worn valve stem and valve guide                 d Replace                             e Low engine oil viscosity                        e Replace                             f Excessive oil pressure                          1 Correct                        3 Injection timing is too late                     3 Adjust                        4 Insufficient compression                         4 See LOW COMPRESSION HARD STARTING                        BLACKISH OR DARK GRAYISH                        1 Engine body troubles                            a Poor compression                                 a See LOW COMPRESSION HARD STARTING                             b Improper valve clearance                        h Adjust                        2 Insufficient intake air air cleaner clogged    2 Clean air cleaner                        3 Improper fuel                                    3 Replace with proper fuelABNORMAL SOUND          CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGOR NOISE                1 Badly worn bearing                               1 Replace bearing and grind crankshaft                        2 Badly worn crankshaft                            2 Grind crankshaft                        3 Melted bearing                                   3 Replace bearing and check lubrication system                        CONNECTING ROD AND CONNECTING ROD BEARING                        1 Worn connecting rod big end bearing              1 Replace bearing                        2 Worn crankpin                                    2 Grind crankshaft                        3 Bent connecting rod                              3 Correct bend or replace                        PISTON PISTON PIN AND PISTON RING                        1 Worn cylinder                                    1   Rebore cylinder to oversize and replace piston                        2 Worn piston pin                                  2   Replace piston                        3 Piston seized                                    3   Replace piston and rebore cylinder                        4 Piston seized and rings worn or damaged          4   Replace piston and rings                        VALVE MECHANISM                        1 Worn camshaft                                    1   Replace                        2 Excessive valve clearance                        2   Adjust                        3 Worn timing gear                                 3   Replace                        4 Worn fan pulley bearing                          4   ReplaceROUGH OPERATION         INJECTION PUMP SYSTEMHUNTING               1 Uneven injection                                 1   Adjust injection or replace parts                        2 Control rack malfunctioning                      2   Disassemble check and correct injection pump                        3 Worn delivery valve                              3   Replace                        4 Inadequate injection nozzle spray                4   Replace injection nozzle                        GOVERNING SYSTEM                        1 Governor lever malfunctioning                    1 Check governor shaft and correct operation                        2 Fatigued governor spring                         2 Replace                                                                                                                        continued                                                      Engines  Generators                                                             14                              ENGINE     PROBLEM                      PROBABLE CAUSE                                               ENGINE KNOCKS WITHOUT MUCH SMOKE                1 Faulty injector                                     1 Foul exhaust  rebuild injector                2 Bent rod                                            2 Fuelish exhaust check compression repair                3 Main engine troubles                    a Overheated cylinder                                a See OVERHEATING LOW OUTPUT                    b Carbon deposits in cylinder                        b Clean                4 Too early injection timing                          4 Correct                5 Too high injection pressure                         5 Correct                6 Improper fuel                                       4 Replace with proper fuel                KNOCKING WITH DARK SMOKE                1 Poor compression                                    1 See LOW COMPRESSION HARD STARTING                2 Injection pump malfunctioning                    a Worn plunger                                          a   Replace                     b Pinion is not in mesh with control rack              b   Correct                     c Broken delivery valve spring                         c   Replace                     d Worn delivery valve seat                             d   Replace                3 Improper nozzle                    a Poor spray                                            a Clean or replace nozzle                    b Poor chattering                                       b Repair or replace nozzle                    c Afterinjection drip                                  c Repair or replace nozzle                    d Nozzle needle valve seized                            d     1 Fuel filter clogged                                 1   Clean or replaceEXHAUST SOUND   2 Fuel pipe sucks air                                 2   Retighten pipe joints or replace pipe                3 Water mixed in fuel                                  3   Replace      1 Vbelt slackening or slippery with oil              1   Adjust replace or clean                2 Damaged water pump                                  2   Replace                3 Lack of coolant                                     3   Add                4 Faulty thermostat                                   4   Replace                5 Low oil level or poor oil quality                   5   Add or change                6 Knocking                                            6   See KNOCKING                7 Moving parts seized or damaged                      7   Replace                                                 Engines  Generators                                                        15                           ENGINE PARTS IDENTIFICATION                                    EXHAUST VALVE                                                                                                  CYLINDER HEAl                                                                                                         TAPPET      DRIVE BELT                                                                                                         CAMSHAFT                                                                                                         REAR OIL SEAL                         7     CRANKSHAFT                                                                                          PULlEY             GEAR CASE                             CBANKSHAFT GEAR                                                    OIL SCREEN                                                                                       SIDE VIEW                INTAKE SILENCER                                                                                         EXHAUST MANIFOLD                    NOZZLE HOLDER                    CYLINDER HEAO                                                                 PISTON                   INJECTION PUP                                                CONNECTING ROD                                                                   JIII IlIPUSH ROD                                                                                  CAMSHAFT                   PUMP CAMSHFT                                                                                       FRONT VIEW                                                    Engines  Generators                                                          16                                                   CYLINDER                                                           The cylinder head gasket is made of carbon graphite It is                                                                      provided with stainless steel sheet grommets around theThe cylinder head is of an overhead valve type made of                                                                      bores for improved heat and pressure resistance The  special cast iron and has an excel1ent cooling                                                                      requires no sealant when  The crossflow type cylinder head provided with itsintake port on the righthand side and te exhaust port on the        Intake valves are made of heatresisting steel and have alefthand side ensures high intakeexhaust efficiency               largediameter head to provide greater intake efficiency The                                                                      heads of the exhaust valves are protected against high tem                                          ROCKER SHAFT                peratures by a special heatresisting steel facing welded to                                                                      the valve head                                                                      Valve springs are coated with red enamel which marks the                                                                      rocker arm end to aid in proper placement of the spring dur                                                                      ing assembly The spring retainer and retainer lock are com                                                                      mon to intake and exhaust valves The valve stem seal at the                                                                      top of the valve guide prevents downward seepage of oil into                                                                      the combustion chamber The high speed engines 3000 rpm                                                                      and over are provided with a valve spring seat between the                                                                      valve springs and cylinder head    CYLINDER HEAD                                                                                      VALVE GUIDEThe precombustion chamber is of a swirl chamber typeRicardo made of heat resisting steel and is press fittedin the cylinder head This chamber therefore requires no  and exhaust valve guides are made of sintered alloyand are commonly usable in either port The valve guides are                                                                                 VALVE STEM  to improve wear  seats when needed can be installed by a competentand knowledgeable machine shop                                       Rocker arm rocker shaft and stay The rocker arms are                                                                      made of special cast iron and are gas carbonized on the entire                                                                      surface An oil hole is on the upper side of each arm The                 ROCKER COVER                                         rocker arm shaft is a carbon steel tube the interior of which                                                                      forms a lubricant passage The rocker arm area of the shaft is                                                                       Four rocker shaft stays of aluminum                                                                      alloy casting are used The rearmost stay forms an oil pas CYLINDER HEAD                                                        sage connected to the cylinder head The rear stay is identical                                                                      to the front stay                                                                      Intake manifold and exhaust manifold An intake manifold                                                                      with its gasket is on the right side of the cylinder head and an                                                                      exhaust manifold is on the left side of the cylinder head The                                                                      shape of each maniold depends on the engine model                                                                      The crankcase vent system allows blowby gases produced in                                                                      the cylinder block to circulate inside the engine thus prevent                                                                      ing them from exhausting This system leads blowby gases                                                                      from the cylinder block through tappet holes and push rod                                                                      holes into the rocker cover and further through the air                                                                      breather pipe rubber pipe into the air intake manifold so                                                                      that blowby gases are carried into the combustion chamber                                                                      and are burned during combustion                                                         Engines  Generators                                                                 17                                            CYLINDER HEAD                                                             3 Check the lower surface of the cylinder head for distor                                                                          tion using a straight edge and a feeler 1 Remove the air breather pipe Remove the water bypass   hose if provided2 Remove the fuel injection lines3 Remove both the intake manifold and exhaust manifold   assemblies4 Remove the rocker coverS Remove the rocker arms and rocker shaft as an assembly6 Remove the push rods7 Remove the cylinder head assembly by loosening the   head bolts in the numerical order shown below                                                                                 CHECKING CYLINDER HEAD DISTORTION                                                                     Valve Guide                                                                       1 Check the valve stem to guide clearance If the replace                                                                           ment value is reached replace the valve guide and valve                                                                                                         2 To remove an existing guide press it upward with a dri                                                                        ver from under the cylinder head To install a new guide                                                                          press it into the top of the cylinder head with a driver                  CYLINDER HEAD BOLTS LOOSENING SEQUENCE                  until the specified height is obtained8 Remove the cylinder head gasket                                                                        1205 MODELS A  C9 Partly disassemble the cylinder head assembly as fol   lows   a Remove the thermostat housing Remove the thermo      stat and thermostat gasket                                                                                 VALVE GUIDE    b Remove the fuel injectors and sealing washers   c Remove the glow plug lead wires and remove the      glow plugs                                                                                              INSTALLING VALVE GUIDE   d Using a valve spring com presser compress the      spring for each valve Remove the retainer lock                  Valve Seat      and then remove the retainer spring and valve Place                                                                       1 Check each valve seat for damage and improper contact      the removed valves and other parts in order by each                                                                          If necessary correct it as shown in the illustration After      cylinder                                                                          correction lap the valve into the seat using lapping com    e A valve spring seat of 2mm thick for each spring is fit           pound       ted on the cylinder head surface Be careful not to lose                                                                          NOTE Correction of a valve seat should be done after the       the spring seats                                                                           valve guide has been checked and if necessary                                                              2 If the valve seat sinkage reaches the replacement value                                                                          see SERVICE STANDARDS install a new valve seatCylinder HeadNOTE See SERVICE STANDARDS for tolerances and measurements                                                                                                                       29   t1 Before cleaning the cylinder head check it for cracks   damage and water leaks2 Hot tank the cylinder head to thoroughly clean all sur   faces and oil passages                                                              INTAKE SIDE           EXHAUST SIDE                                                                                                                                                                                                           CORRECTING VALVE SEAT                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                  18                                            CYLINDER HEAD SERVICE 3 Check the valve seat sinkage by measuring the installed    length of each valve assembly When measuring the size    up to the top of the valve spring retainer include retainer    thickness at the conar of 17  03 mm                                                 STANDARD                                                 VALUE                                                                                     CHECKING INSTALLED LENGTH OF VALVE SPRING               VALVE SEAT SINKAGE                                                   f        t           NOTE The thickness of the valve spring retainer collar is 17                                                                         03 4 Check the valve seat inserts jf provided for proper fit    Replace any that fit loosely Valve 1 Check the valve face and stem for excessive wear dam    age and distortion If there is any correct or replace the     valve 2 If the replacement value of the valve head thickness is    reached replace the valve 3 Check each valve stem for wear and pitting in the areas    shown by the arrows in the illustration If necessary cor    rect or replace the valve                                          3 Check the squareness of each spring Replace the spring                                                                           if it tilts excessively                                                                                 1r                                                                        SQUAREjjD                                                                        GAUGE                                                                                                                                                                                   CHECKING SPRING SQUARENESS                                                                        Rocker Arm and Rocker Shaft                                                                        1 Check the valve contact surface of each rocker arm for              CHECKING VALVE                                               excessive wear and damage If there is any replace the                                                                           rocker arm Check the push rod contact surface of each                                                                           adjusting screw for wear and damage If there is any                                                                           replace the screw Valve Spring                                                           2 Measure the rocker arm 10 and shaft 00 If the differ                                                                           ence between them is excessive replace the rocker arm 1 Check the valve springs for cracks and damage 2 Measure the free length and load of each spring Replace            REASSEMBLY    the spring if excessively deteriorated                             To reassamble the cylinder head reverse the order of disas                                                                        sembly taking care to observe the following instructions                                                            Engines  Generators                                                                   19                                                    CYLINDER HEAD SERVICE  Partial Reassembly                                                          3 Be sure to use only new gaskets and packings Apply                                                                                 sealant to the specified sealing points  1 Press in the valve guides to the specified height For the     installation procedure see Valve Guide                                                                              Valve Clearance Adjusbnent  2 Install the valve stem seals securely on the valve guide                                                                              Position the piston in 1 cylinder at the top of its compres  3 Apply oil to the valve stems and insert them into the                    sion stroke Observe the valves and timing mark on the front     valve guides Install the springs retainers and retainer                crankshaft pulley TDC when doing this Adjust the valve     locks in that order                                                     clearances for cylinder 1 Rotate the crankshaft 90 in the  4 To assemble the rocker arms and shaft place the rocker                  normal direction of rotation clockwise and adjust the valves     shaft in such a manner that the identification mark 43                 for the next cylinder in the engines firing order cylinder 3     mm hole at the front end of the shaft faces toward the                  Rotate the crankshaft another 90 and adjust the valves for     front of the engine Install the frontmost rocker arm and               cy linder 2     retain it with a snap ring In a similar manner install the             NOTE For additional information see Adjusting Valve     other rocker arms one after another Finally install the               Clearance under ENGINE AD USTMENTS     rearmost rocker arm and retain it with a snap ring Then     install the assembly on the cylinder head When tighten                                        ADJUSTING SCREW     ing the front and rear stays be sure to install the bolt                 LOCKNUT     seats and  MARK                                                                                                                       CLEARANCE COLD 025 MM           FRONT                                                                                      ADJUSTING VALVE CLEARANCE                           INSTALLING ROCKER ARMS O ROCKER SHAFT  S Tighten the glow plugs to the specified torque  6 Install the nozzle holders and tighten the bolts temporar     ily After installing the high pressure injection lines     retighten the bolts evenly to the specified torque Do not     reuse any sealing washers  7 Install the glow plug lead wires The glow plugs are a     taper sealed type they do not require gaskets  Installation of Cylinder Head Assembly  1 Install the cylinder head assembly with a new gasket The         gasket does not require any sealant  2 Tighten the cylinder head bolts to the specified torque in     the numerical order shown in the illustration Start with a     slight torquing of the bolts and after two or three stages     of moderate torquing finally tighten to the specified     torque see TECHNICAL DA1A Be sure to use a torque     wrench          J FRONT                            O                    CD         y                                                            CYLINDER HEAD BOLT TIGHTENING SEQUENCE                            See Engine Adjustment section                                                                    Engines  Generators                                                                         20                                                    CYLINDER                                                              The piston pins are hollow carbonized forgings When con                                                                         necting a piston to its rod a piston pin is pressfitted into theThe special iron casting cylinder block is of a full jacket              small end of the rodtype in which cylinder liners are integrated with the cylinderblock                                                                   The piston rings are made of special cast iron Each piston is                                                                         provided with three compression rings and one oil ring The                                                                         outside surfaces of the top compression rings and oil rings                                                                         are hard chrome plated The top rings are of the semikey                                                                         stone type and the oil rings are provided with a coil                                                                         expander                            CYUNDER BLOCKThe main bearings are made of metalbacked copper sintered alloy Kelmet and an aluminum alloy To improve runin  they are coated with a leadtin alloy platingon the journal surface and tin flashplating on the journalsurface and tin flashplating over the entire bearing  thrust is received by the flanged center bearingOn the front bearing area of the camshaft a  copper alloy rolled bushing is presfittedThe crankshaft is a  of carbon steel whichis supported by five bearings to provide high  pins and oil seal contact areas are  to improve wear resistance and durability                                                                                                          PISTON  PISTON RINGS                                                                         The connecting rod has an Ibeam cross section and a hori                                                                         zontally split big end to provide high rigidity                                                                         The big end bearing is made of a metalbacked special cop                                                                         per alloy and is flashplated all overThe flywheel is made of cast iron and the ring gear is made             The front piate and gear case The steel front plate is posiof carbon steel and is  to the flywheel The             tioned by a dowel pin located in the upper part of thegear teeth are                                        camshaft area and a dowel pin in the lower part of the injecThe pistons are made of an aluminum alloy to reduce engine               tion pump area It is bolted to the cylinder block through aweight and to decrease bearing load during highspeed opera             gasket On the left end rear surface the lube oil pump geartion Each piston forms a tapered cylinder with elliptical               bearing housing is installed together with the gear case Thecross section contour so as to obtain the best contact with the          aluminum casting gear case is attached to the front end surcylinder bore The piston crown surface has a cavity to                  face of the cylinder block through the front plate The caseimprove fuel combustion                                                 houses the lube oil pump front bearing and the governor                                                                         related parts It serves also as a camshaft and idler gear thrust                                                                         stopper                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                    21                                                       CYLINDER BLOCK                                                                            The tappet and push rod The tubular type tappets are chilI                                                                            hardened at the bottom and gascarburized at low tempera                                                                            ture over the entire surface to improve wear resistance Each                                                                            tappet is offset from the cam center to prevent uneven wear                                                                            of the tappet bottom The steelbar push rods are flamehard                                                                            ened at each endThe Camshaft and Timing Gears The camshaft is a highcarbon steel forging The cam surface and journals are induction hardened to improve wear resistance The shaft is supported on three bearings the front bearing is a bush bearingwith the exception of a bushless bearing for engines produced in the initial period of production while the middleand rear bearings are in the holes cut in the cylinder blockAll bearings are lubricated by a forced lubrication systemThe camshaft rear journal has a slot for intermittently lubricating the rocker arms through the cylinder head The rear of                                              IIIOFFSETthe shaft is provided with an oil escape hole to let excess oil                    OFFSET OF TAPPET AND CAMSHAFTreturn to the oil panThe helical timing gears are finished by shaving and crown                 The injection pump camshaft is made of high carbon steeling to provide high durability and to reduce chattering                    Its cam surfaces are  to improve wearValve timing is as follows                                                 resistance The front end of the shaft supported on a ball                                    TDC                                                                            bearing is connected to a gear The rear end is provided with               INTAKE VALVE OPENS           EXHAUST VALVE CLOSES            an Oldhams coupling groove for connecting to the oil pump                                                                            drive shaftVALVE TIMING                                                                The highpressure oil pump is directly coupled to the injec                                                                            tion pump camshaft at the rear of the shaft mating into the                                                                            Oldhams coupling groove                                                                            The sheet metal oil sump has an oil drain hose that routes                                                                            from the lube oil drain plug to a bracket at the front side of                                                                            the engine                                                 EXHAUST VALVE OPENS                                    BDC                         VALVE TIMING        Intake valve opens BTDC                    18        Exhaust valve closes ATDC                  18        Intake valve closes ABDC                   46        Exhaust valve opens BBDC                   46                                                               Engines  Generators                                                                       22                                          CYLINDER BLOCK  For removal of a the cylinder head and related parts refer              A CAUTION Do not hammer a piston pin tD   to DISASSEMBLY under CYLINDER HEAD SERVICE                              remDve it A stuck piston pin which requires exces2 For removal of the water pump and electrical equipment                  sive pulling force should be replaced Do not apply   refer to their respective sections                                      a IDad of mDre than 3000 kg tD the pistDn pin set3 Pull off the push rods then pull out the tappets upward                ting tool4 Remove the fuel filter5 Loosen the crankshaft pulley nut then take off the pulley                                        REMOVING PISTON PIN   and washer6 Loosen the flywheel mounting bolts and remove the fly   wheel7 Remove the back plate and rear oil seal case                                                                  IDENTIFICATION MARK8 Remove the lube oil pump gear bearing housing Remove   the gear case but first it is necessary to remove the tie   rod located at the right front beside the injection pump   of the cylinder block and to remove the stopper spring   and tierod from the injection pumps fuel rack    A    CAUTION Be sure tD separate the injection    pump rack from the tierod before removing the                                                                                                     TOOL    BODY    gear case The front plate is bolted to the cylinder    block frDm inside the gear case therefore be care               18 Remove the main bearing caps Keep the caps and bear    ful nDt tD drive Dut the gear case tDgether with the                   ings in order for each cylinder It is necessary to meaure    front plate Also be careful not to damage the                        the crankshaft end play before removing the caps see                                                                           Crankshaft para 3 under CYLINDER BLOCK SER    dowel pins                                                                           VICE Mark the caps and rod with a number punch 1 4                                                                           as needed9 Remove the fuel injection pump                                     19 Remove the crankshaft10 Remove the governor weight bolts Remove the weights              INSPECTION11 Remove the pump camshaft bolt                                     Cylinder Block12 Remove the oil filter and the oil pump assembly Then              1 Check the cylinder block for cracks and damage If there    pull out the injection pump camshaft                                 is any repair or replace the block Check the camshaft                                                                          front journal bushing for wear and damage If there is13 Remove the gears Then remove the front plate                                                                          any replace the bushing using a special tool Tool14 Remove the camshaft                                                  03358315 Turn the engine upside down Remove the oil pan and oil    screen16 Remove the nuts from the big end of each connecting rod                                                                            A CAUTION The camshaff bushing is a fDrced    and remove the cap Push the piston and connecting rod                  fit in the cylinder block The camshaff bushing will    assembly upward out of the cylinder block Keep Hie                     be crushed or damaged when removed Take care    removed parts in order for each cylinder When pushing                  not to burn or scratch the bushing boss in the block    out the piston and connecting rod assembly put a                       as this will interfere with the installation of the new    wooden block against the cap mating surface of the rod                  bushing    so as not to damage the metal surface17 When separating the piston from the connecting rod use                                                                    BUSHING    the following procedures Keep the disassembled parts in    order for each set Take care to prevent confusion espe    cially for each set of piston and wrist pin    a Set the piston and connecting rod assembly on the       special tool piston pin setting tool body     h Insert the push rod of the tool into the piston pin hole       and press the pin out                                                                                                         REMOVING CAMSHAFT BUSHING                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                  23                                             CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE2 Check the water jacket for scale and corrosion Clean the           3 Measure the side clearance between each piston ring and   block thoroughly and ensure that all oil passages are                  its groove If necessary replace the ring   clean                                                                 As to the semikeystone type top ring allow it to sink by3 Check the cylinder walls for scratches dents and wear If             its own weight into the groove then measure its depth   necessary repair by honing or boring Measure the cylin              from the piston surface   der bore in rightangled directions A and B at three dif   ferent depths    J   FRONT                                                                                          PISTON RING SIDE CLEARANCE                            CHECKING CYUNDER WEAR4 When cylinder bore wear is not excessive and only the   piston rings require replacement check the upper part of                   WEIGHT OF RING   the cylinder for ridge wear If any exists ream the cylin   der bore and hone when  Piston Pin and Piston Rings1 Check the piston for seizing scratches and wear If nec    essary replace the piston2 Measure the piston OD Replace the piston if exces   sively worn If the  clearance is exces   sively large machine the cylinder to an oversize bore or   replace the piston The piston OD should be measured              4 Measure the gap of each piston ring Replace the ring if   at the lower end of the skirt at right angles to the axis of           its gap is excessively large To measure the ring gap   the piston pin hole                                                   insert a ring into the least worn place of the cylinder bore                                                                          skirt using a piston and measure the gap with a feeler                                                                          gauge                                                                                                       o    MEASURING PISTON 00                                                                            JLHG                                                                                                      RING GAP                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                  24                                          CYLINDER BLOCK  Rod                                                                                   JOURNAL1 Using a connecting rod aligner check each connecting                           R25   rod for bending and distortion If necessary correct or   replace the rod2 Measure the connecting rod thrust clearance with a rod   assembled on the crankshaft If the clearance is exces                                            PIN                                                                                                      R 25   sive replace the rod assembly                                                                    3 Check the crankshaft end play If the specified limit is                                                                       exceeded replace the flanged No  3 main bearing To                                                                       check the end play install the man bearings crankshaft                                                                       and main bearing caps then tighten the cap bolts to the                                                                       specified torque Measure the end play with a dial gauge                                                                       held against the front end of the crankshaft       CONNECTING ROD THRUST  Measure the crankshaft bend If excessive repair or   replace the crankshaft                                                                    Main Bearings and Connecting Rd Bearings                                                                    Check the surface of each bearing for flaking melting seiz                                                                    ing and poor contact If any of these conditions exist replace                                                                    the bearing                                                                    Fit the main bearings to the cylinder block and the connect                                                                    ing rod bearings to the connecting rods Tighten the bolts to                                                                    specification Measure the JD of eac bearing Then mea                                                                    sure the 00 of the crankshaft journals and pins to calculate                                                                    the oil clearance a plastigauge may be used If any oil clear                                                                    ance is excessive replace the corresponding bearing If an                                                                    excessive clearance still remains even after replacement of                                                                    the bearing grind the crankshaft to thf undersize 00 and                                                                    install the same undersize bearing                                CRANKSHAFT 002 Check the crankshaft journals and pins for damage   seizure and other faults If excessively worn or damaged   machine to the undersize diameter At the same time   replace the corresponding main bearing or connecting rod   bearing with the same undersize bearing When machin   ing a crankshaft journal or pin to the undersize one be   sure to finish its fillets to R2S mm Check that all oil   passages in the crankshaft are clean and open                                                                                       MEASURING CONNECTIN ROD BEARING 10                                                          Engines  Generators                                                               25                                           CYLINDER BLOCK  the gearcase body for cracks and damage and the oilseal for damage Also check the governor related parts If thecamshaft thrust plug pressfitted in the gearcase has beenworn or damaged install a new thrust plug                                    22   04   PRESSFIT HEIGHT OF                                                                  MEASURING INJECTION PUMP CAMSHAFT LOBE   CAMSHAFT THRUST PLUG                                                                      Ball Bearings                                                                      Check each ball bearing for excessive wear or damage andTiming Gears and Lube Oil Pump Gear                                                                      for irregular or noisy rotation If there is any replace theCheck each gear for poor contact wear and damage If there           bearingis any replace the gear Also check the splined bore of thelube oil pump gear for faults                                        Tappets                                                                      1 Check the bottom of each tappet for cracks flaking andCamshaft                                                                         nicks If any of these conditions exist replace the tappetMeasure the clearance between the center journal and the                                                                      2 Check the clearance between each tappet and the  block and between the rear journal and the cylinder                                                                         block If any clearance exceeds the specified limitblock If either or both clearances are excessive replace the                                                                         replace the tappetcamshaft front bushing or cylinder block Replace thecamshaft if the cam surface is damaged or the cam lobe is             Push Rodsbadly worn                                                                      1 Replace a push rod if both its ends are excessively worn                                                                      2 Place each push rod on a surface plate and check for                                                                         bending at the center of the rod If the bend exceeds the                                                                         specified limit correct or replace the rod                                                                      REASSEMBLY                                                                       A CAUTION Clean each part sufficiently Clean oil                                                                       passages sliding surfaces and rotating parts with spe                                                                       cial care                                                                       Before assembling apply engine oil to all sliding rotat                                                                       ing and press fit parts such as bearings and cylinder                                                                       inner walls       MEASURING CAM LOBE HEIGHT                                                                       Replace gaskets packings and oil seals with new onesFuel Injection Pump Camshaft                                           Apply sealant to gaskets and packings and to the specReplace the camshaft if the cam surface is excessively worn            ified sealing pointsor damaged or if the Oldhams coupling is damaged                     Observe tightening torque and sequence where speci                                                                       fied For other parts tighten to the torque for ordinary                                                                       screws or bolts as the torque table specifies Check                                                                       clearances and end plays during assembly work                                                         Engines  Generators                                                                 26                                                CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE1 When the camshaft front bushing is pressed in align the                       4 Install the main bearings to the cylinder block   bushing oil hole with the oil hole in the cylinder block                           NOTE The oil ports must be properly positioned and the   using a bushing installing tool For proper alignment                             bearing fitted correctly into the block recess   make a mark indicating the blocks oil hole position on   the front end face of the block After installing the bush                    5 Install the crankshaft Apply engine oil to the journals   ing confirm that the oil holes are properly aligned with                         and pins   each other                                                                    6 Install the main bearing caps and tighten the cap bolts to the                                                                                     specified torque Each cap carries an embossed arrow mark                                      CYLINDER BLOCK                                and numeral to prevent incorrect installation of the caps                                                                                     When installing the No 1 and No5 caps apply sealant to                                                                                     the upper surface cylinder block mating surface                                                                                       FRONT                                                            FRONT OF BLOCK                         DRAW A MARK AT OIL HOLE CENTER                           OF BLOCK BEFORE INSTAlliNG BUSHING                        2 ALIGN BUSHING OIL HOLE WITH BLOCK                           OIL HOLE PRESS IN BUSHING2 When pressing in the idler gear shaft follow the align   ment and length of protrusion shown in the diagram   Failure to do so will result in low oil pressure during                        7 Check the crankshaft end play    engine operation                MODelS A  C265tO  5                                                                                  S Apply sealant to the outside surface of both side seals                                                                                     Press the side seals into the front and rear caps thus                                                                                     completing the reassembly of the crankshaft    PRESSFiniNG IDLER GEAR SHAFT3 When replacing the dipstick guide coat the new guide   without a flange with HERMESEAL 52B sealant then   pressfit into the cylinder block Pressfit to a height of   30  05 11811  00197 from the cylinder block   surfaceWhen installing the former type of guide which   is increased in diameter at the midpoint press it in until   caught in the hole There is no difference in the pressfit   position between the former type and later type guides                          INSTALLING                                                                                      BEARING CAP                                                                                      SIDE SEALS              LATERTYPE GUIDE                          FORMER GUIDE                             GUIDE INTO BLOCK                                                                       Engines  Generators                                                                             27                                                 CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE9 Install the oil seal into the crankshaft rear oil seal case                    h Insert the assembled push rod piston pin and guide   Install the seal case to the cylinder block Remember to                           into the piston pin hole from the guide side and into   install the gasket Turn the crankshaft one complete revo                         the small end of the connecting rod In this case both   lution to ensure there is no unwanted binding                                     the arrow front mark on the piston head and the10 Install the back plate                                                           identification mark on the connecting rod are to be                                                                                      positioned upward Before insertion apply engine oil11 Install the flywheel The bolts should be tightened to the                        to the piston pin and to the connecting rod small end    specified torque                                                                 hole12 Assemble the piston and the connecting rod using the                           c Set the piston connecting rod and guide as an assem    Piston Pin Setting Tool                                                          bly on the tool body When setting insert the tool                                                                                      guide into the tool body with the cut in the guide in                                                                                      alignment with that in the tool body and then turn the                                                                                      guide 90 Make certain the small end of the connect                                                                                      ing rod rests properly on the tool body Also confirm                                                                                      that the front mark on the piston head and identifica                                                                                      tion mark on the connecting rod face up                                                                                   d Press the piston pin in under a pressure of 500 to 1500                                                                                      kg If the piston pin is easily pressed in with less pres                                                                                      sure than above or if the pin needs a greater pressure                                                                                      replace the connecting rod or the piston and pin                                                                                      assembly The piston pin will be positioned in place                                                                                      by the guide After installation tum the push rod 90                                                                                      so that the cut in the guide comes in alignment with                                                    CONNECTING ROO                    the cut in the tool body Detach the piston and con                                                                                      necting rod assembly from the tool body                                         IE    TOOL BOOY                     A CAUTION After assembling the piston and                                                                                         connecting rod make certain the connecting rod                                                                                         small end is properly positioned at the center 01                                                                                         the piston pin II any excessive deviation Irom                                                                                         the proper position is loundl correct it In this                                                                                         case check the piston pin setting tool also                       PISTON PIN SETTING TOOL                                                                                         Each pislon and its pin are matched parts andl    3   Insert a piston pin into the push rod of the tool then                         therefore a set 01 piston and pin must not be         screw a guide see illustration for proper guide fully                         confused with other pistons and pins All pistons         into the push rod                                                                                         and pins to be used in an engine must be of the                                                                                         same size same mark                                           10                               13 Piston rings differ in shape from one another Be sure to                                        9m                                                                                     install them in their proper positions and directions as                                                                                     illustrated and with the stamped manufacturer mark and                                                              GUIDEE                size mark facing up When installing the piston ring with                                                                                                                                          a coil expander position the expander joint opposite to                                                                                    the ringgap position                                G                                                      m                                                                                                   PUSH ROD         PISTON PIN SETTING TOOL               PN033582                                                                 Engines  Generators                                                                           28                                          CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE                                          m            NO1                                     BNO             PISTON RING             POSITIONS                                     NO3                           PISTON                                           lOll                                          PISTON RINGS                                                                 RING GAP                                                                                                                               POSITIONS                                                                                                       1                     GEA   MATING MARKS               ENGINE               FRONT                                                                        18 Align the mating mark 1 on the idler gear with that on                                                                            the crankshaft gear install the idler gear on the idler                                                                            shaft Insert the camshaft and gear assembly into the                                                                            cylinder block so that the mating mark 2 on the                                                                            camshaft gear aligns with that on the idler gear Then                                                                            insert the injection pump camshaft assembly into the14 Install the piston and connecting rod assembly from the                 cylinder block and align the mating mark 3 on the    top of the cylinder block using a ring band In this case              pump gear with that on the idler gear Finally install the    make certain the piston ring gaps are properly positioned               injection pump drive shaft gear assembly    and the arrow mark on the piston faces the front of the                                                                        19 Confirm that mating marks on the gears are in proper    engine After insertion install the connecting rod end                                                                            alignment with each other    halves in place and tighten the rod cap bolts to the speci    fied torque Apply oil to the bearing surfaces before               20 Fit the governor weight assembly to the injection pump    assembly of the connecting rod ends                                    cam gear15 Install the front plate Remember to install the gasket and         21 Install the gear case wfth the governor and related parts    dowel pin                                                              previously installed and gasket When installing the gear                                                                            case insert the tierod and tierod stopper spring into the16 Tum the crankshaft until the No1 cylinder piston comes                                                                            hole in the cylinder block so to position it next tothe    to the top dead center                                                                            injection pump fuel rack17 Align the keyway in the crankshaft gear with the key on    the crankshaft Install the gear on the shaft                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                   29                                             CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE               INSTALLING GEAR CASE                                                                                               INSTALLING INJECTION PUMP22 Insert the crankshaft pulley Install the washer and nut    Then tighten to the specified torque                              28 Install the oil pump and oil filter see REASSEMBLY23 Install the back plate Be sure to install the gasket                 under LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE When the oil                                                                           pressure switch and oil pressure sender with adapter has24 Install the oil pick up then install the oil pan                     not yet been installed apply sealant to the threaded por25 Apply oil to the periphery of the tappet Insert the tappet            tion when installing    into the cylinder block Then insert the push rod properly         29 Install the fuel filter    into the tappet hole Check to see if the tappet moves    lightly                                                           30 Install the fresh water pump                                                                       31 Install the starter see  SERVICE                                                PUSH ROD                   and alternator see  SER          INCORRECT                                                        VICE                                                                       32 Install the raw water pump          CORRECT                    INSTALLING TAPPET AND PUSH ROD26 Install the cylinder head assembly see CYLINDER    HEAD SERVICE REASSEMBLY27 Install the injection pump assembly see Installation and    Adjustment of Fuel Injection Pump under FUEL    SYSTEM                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                  30                                                                                                                                                             3 Remove the fuel injection pump see Fuel Injection                                                                                             Pump under FUEL SYSTEMThe governor keeps engine speed constant by using a balance between the centrifugal force acting on the governor                                 4 Remove the gear case mounting bolts and remove theweights and the tension of the governor spring                                              gear case see CA UTION under DISASSEMBLY CYLIN                                                                                             DER BLOCK SERVICEIf engine speed increases the governor weights will openforcing the sliding shaft forward This moves the injection                               5 Remove the governor springpump fuel rack linked to the sliding shaft through the gover                            6 Remove the nut washer spring lever Remove the speednor lever assembly tierod and spring in the direction that                                control lever from the gear caseinjects less fuel into the cylinders The movement is stopped                                                                                          7 Remove the nut washer and spring lever remove theat a point where the centrifugal force of the governor weights                                                                                             governor lever set bolt and remove the governor leverbalances with the tension of the governor spring                                                                                          S Remove the governor weight assembly and the slidingIf engine speed is decreased by an overload the control rack                                                                                             shaft from the injection pump camshaftis pushed against the smoke set spring in the direction thatinjects more fuel The Angleich mechanism restricts the                                   9 Remove the tierod and spring from the governor leverincrease and quantity of fuel injection thus preventing overload saving fuel and decreasing exhaust smoke                                                          GOVERNOR lEVER                                                          GOVERNOR WEIGHT                     llIH1    SLloING SHAFT                                                          GOVERNOR SHAFT                                                                                                        GOVERNOR LEVER SECTION OF GEAR CASE                                                          PUMP GEAR     PUMP CAMSHAFT                                                                                          INSPECTION                                 rUlolER GEAR                                                                                          1 Check the governor weights for wear and damage                                                                                             Replace if defective                                                                                          2 Check the sliding shaft for damage and stiff movement                                                                                             Replace if defective                                                          GEAR CASE                                                                                          Governor Lever                                                          NEEDLE BEARING                                                                                          Check the sliding shaft contact area of the governor lever and                                                          GOVERNOR LEVER                                                                                          check the tierod and spring which connect the governor                                                                                          lever to the fuel rack Replace if defective                                                          GOVERIOR   SHAFT                                                                                          Governor Spring                                                          NEEDLE BEARING                                                                                          Check the spring for deterioration and breakage Replace if                                                                                          defective When overhauling replace the spring                                   frJ GOVERNOR SPRING         GOVERNOR                                                                         Needle Bearing                                                          SPEED CONTROL lEVER                                                                                          Check the needle bearing supporting the governor lever shaft                                                                                          in the gear case for  Remove the drive belt see FRESH WATER COOLING                                                                                          REASSEMBLY AND ADJUSTMENT   SERVICE                                                                              To reassemble the governor reverse the order of disassembly2 Remove the crankshaft pulley nut and remove the pulley                                After reassembly check the governor for smooth operation                                                                                Engines  Generators                                                                                     31                                                  ENGINE SHUTOFFENGINES WITH MANUAL STOP Standard                                          pullin lead should be run to the heavy solenoid terminalA manual stop lever is located on the outboard side of the                   on the starter Connect the red hold lead splice into theengine block just below the fuel injection pump The damper                  R connection on the DC alternator                                                                                                          espring is also mounted on this same lever assembly A throttle bracket is provided to attach a pushpull cable This cable      SIDEOlFlllER                                                                     REMOVE                                                                                                                  Yis attached to the shutoff lever When pulled fully in the stopdirection by the cable a lever inside the cover assemblymoves the fuel rack of the injection pump to the fuel stopposition stopping the engine Once the engine stops the                                                                                                        Icable is pushed in to return the shutoff lever back into thefuelrun position A heavy return spring on the shutoff leverassists in doing this Periodically lubricate the lever andpushpull cable to ensure free movement         Id                                                         MANUAL STOP              KeyStop Solenoid System Operation Checking            i                             I                                                      THROTTLE LEVER                                                                         Procedure                                                                         1 Wire the system making reference to the wiring diagram                                                                         2 Viewing with the tierod cover off confirm that when the                                                                           key switch is turned to the ON position before starting                                                                            the engine the solenoid energizes and brings the fuel                                                                            injection pump fuel rack to the MS STOP plate position                                                                         3 Tum the key switch to OFF and reinstall the tierod coverOPTIONAL KEY SWITCH SHUTOFF                                              4 The shutoff sequence is as followsModels 388 and 428 only                                                   When the start button is depressed during the normalAn optional key switch shutoff solenoid 037100 is offered                  starting procedure the solenoid is energized by the pullfor the above two models only This solenoid mounts in a                    in lead Once the engine starts and the start button isboss directly behind and slightly below the injection pump                  released the solenoid remains energized by current to themounting location This solenoid when energized by turning                 hold lead of the solenoid coming from the R terminalthe keyswitch on allows the injection pump fuel rack to                   connection on the alternator which receives voltagecurmove to the fuelrun position allowing the engine to start to               rent once the engine starts and the oil pressure switchrun When the key switch is turned off the solenoid plunger                closes from engine oil pressuremoves the fuel rack to the stop fuel position stopping theengine                                                                          A CAUTION The pullin lead draws about 810 ampsInstalling and Adjusting the Key Switch                                    to energize the solenoid The hold lead draws about oneShutoff Solenoid                                                           amp to keep the solenoid energized Should these leads1 Remove the large plug or side oil filler assembly located               be connected incorrectly during installation the sole   just behind the injection pump and slightly below it on                 noid will be damaged from excess current draw during   the engine block                                                       engine operation2 Visual access to the fuel injection pump fuel rack is   needed To obtain this remove the shutoff lever side                 NOTE Should the solenoid fail and engine operation is   cover assembly                                                       required unscrew the solenoid as far out of the boss as pos3 Thread the locknut all the way onto the solenoid and                  sible without removing it Lock it in position with the locknut   apply a small amount of Teflon sealant to the threads for            The engine will now start To shut the engine off use the   ward of the nut                                                      manual shutoff lever Disconnect the two leads red and white4 Thread the solenoid into the boss on the engine block and             from their power source   observe the solenoid plunger through the side cover   opening Allow the plunger to contact the fuel rack and   move it fully into the shutoff position on the injection   pump Do not thread the solenoid further into the boss so   that the plunger against the fuel rack is pushed into the   solenoidS Back the solenoid out of the boss 14 to 12 tum and   secure the solenoid in position with the locknut6 Properly connect the three electrical leads from the sole   noid The black eye lead goes to block ground The white                           KEY STOP SOLENOID                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                    32                                                        ENGINE  THE CYLINDER HEAD                                                           The engines valves must be adjusted in this order while                                                                                       the valves are closed You may find that turning thePull off the air breather pipe from the rocker cover and                                                                                       engines crankshaft is more easily accomplished whenremove the rocker cover Before adjusting the valve clear                                                                                       the engines glow plugs are removed before the crankance retighten the cylinder head bolts to their specified                             shaft is rotatedtorque in the sequence shown in the diagram Make sure theengine is cold when this is done Before applying the specified torque to a bolt loosen it 14 to 12 a turn and then applythe torque see TECHNICAL DA14FRONT                            CD           CD                                                    CD          CD             CD                                 CD          cb              CD         CD                     CYLINDER HEAD BOLT TIGHTENING SEQUENCE                                                                                       a Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation                                                                                          placing the No1 Cylinder at the top of its  VALVE CLEARANCE                                                                 sion stroke The mc    mark on the crankshaft pulley                                                                                          should be in line with the pointer on the front of the                                                                                          gear case cover and the valves for the No1 cylinder                                 ADJUSTING SCREW                                          should be closed Now adjust the intake and exhaust        LOCKNUT                                                                           valves for cylinder No1                                                                                       h After adjusting the valves for cylinder No1 rotate the                                                                                          front crankshaft pulley clockwise 1800 so the IDC                                                                                          mark on the pulley is positioned approximately in the                                                    CLEARANCE COLD 025 MM                                                                                          position shown in the illustration for cylinder No3                                                                                          Now adjust the intake and exhaust valves for cylinder                                                                                          No3                                                                                       c Rotate the crankshaft pulley clockwise another 1800                                                                                          and adjust the valve clearances for the intake and           ADJUSTING VALVE ClEAR4NCE                                                     exhaust valves for cylinder No4                                                                                       d Rotate the crankshaft pulley clockwise another 1800                                                                                          and adjust the valve clearances for the intake and                                                                                          exhaust valves for cylinder No2                                                                                    Adjust each valves clearance by inserting a 025 mm                                                                                    0010 feeler gauge between the rocker arm and the valve                                                                                    stem as shown                                                                                    ADJUSTING FUEL INJECTION TIMING                                                                                    1 Position the number one piston at the beginning of its                                                                                       compression stroke Remove the high pressure injector                                                                                       line from between the number one cylinders injector and                                                                                       the injection pump Remove the number one delivery                                                                                       valve holder Remove the spring below it and reinstall the                                                                                       holder Attach the high pressure injector line to the holder                                                                                       and have the other end pointing outboard of the engine                                                                                       Open the throttle and energize the fuel lift pump Fuel1 Adjust the valve clearances at mc Top Dead Center                                 should flow out of this line Have a container under it to   for each cylinder when they are on their compression                                catch the fuel Slowly turn the crankshaft in the normal   stroke Remember the engines firing order is 1342                            direction of rotation and watch the fuel flowing from the                                                                                       injector line The instant it stops is the beginning of the                                                                                       injection point Observe the timing mark on the front                                                                                       crankshaft pulley and the timing pointer on the front gear                                                                                       case Refer to SERVICE STANDARDS for the injection                                                                                       timing for the model being checked                                                                     Engines  Generators                                                                               a3                                                      ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS                                                                                2 Tighten the damper spring adjusting bolt unti1 the engine                                                                                   speed is set to a  40 rpm shown in the table below as                                                                                   b rpm Lock the adjusting bolt at that position with a                                                                                   locknut Apply Locktight to the threads of the adjusting                                                                                   bolt                                                                                              ENGINES                               b rpm                                                                                     W27 RD80 W27A W33 W33A                 3150 0                                                                                                                                         50                       INJECTION                       TIMING MARKS                                                       38B Four 42B Four                        3750 0                                                                                                                                         502 When the specified injection timing is not correct   increase or decrease the shim material thickness under                          a Seal the abovementioned adjusting bolt with its brass   the fuel injection pump Injection timing varies 1 with                           cap and crimp it on the bolt   01 mm increase or decrease of shim thickness The addi                                                                                   h Seal the maximum speed set bolt with wire and sealing   tion of shim thickness will retard the timing and reducing                                                                                      material   shim thickness will advance the timing Another method   of checking injection timing without removing the spring   from under the delivery valve holder is to disconnect the   high pressure injector line from the injector With the   number one piston at the beginning of its compression   stroke tum the crankshaft in the normal direction of rota   tion and watch carefully the fuel in the end of the high   pressure line The moment this fuel starts to swell and                      SOLENOID                                                                                OPTIONAL   come out of the line this is the injection timing point By   this method the timing is about 10 later than the spill tim   ing method previously discussed                                                             DAMPERSPRING  NOLOAD ENGINE SPEEDSTo adjust the engine speed on a generator adjust the linkage                                                                                  STOPbetween the throttle arm and the fuel run solenoid                                                                                            LEVER                                                                                                                       the linkage increases the engine  the linkage reduces the engine speed                                                                                                                                     STOP RANGENOTE This adjustment is performed with the engine operating and at normal operations temperature with no amperagebeing taken from the generator See the chart below      GENERATOR MODElS                   NOLOAD SPEED rpm         60 hertz models              18501880 615  620 hertz         50 hertz models              1550 1580 515      520 hertzNOTE Any adjustment of the throttle on a generator is doneonly with the linkage between the fuel solenoid and the throttle  Models This adjustment need only be performedafter an engine overhaul cir when the governor system orinjection pump  have been performed This                                                                       SPEED CONTROL  is performed after engine assembly during testingat th factory See the chart below for noload engine speed                                                                 DAMPER SPRING1 With the damper spring released by loosening the                                                                         ADJUSTMENT    damper spring adjusting bolt set the engine at a rpm    specified in the chart with the maximum speed set bolt                        c Adjusting the Idling Speed Idling speed for most    lock the bolt at that position                                                   engines is oetween 800 and 1000 rpm Set the engine             ENGINES                            a rpm                               to the idling speed with the idling set bolt and lock the    W27 RD80 W27A W33 W33A               3110 0                              bolt at that position                                                      30         38B Four 428 Four                      3710 0                                                      30                                                                      Engines  Generators                                                                           34                                        LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERICE DESCRIPTION                                                                    OIL PUMP ASSENBL Y The lubrication system uses a trochoid gear pump and a full                                                                                                                                               FILTER flow oil filter The oil pump is driven through the Oldhams coupling at the rear end of the fuel injection pump camshaft                   OIL PRESSURE Oil from the oil pump flows into the cartridge type oil filter                  SWITCH via the relief valve After being filtered by this filter oil is delivered to various engine parts through oil galleries in the engine block                                                                                                 GASKET                                                                           DISASSEMBLY                                                                           Oil Filter and Oil Pump                                                                           1 Remove the oil filter                                                                           2 Remove the pump cover assembly housing and gasket                                                                           INSPECTION   OIL PUMP                                                                           Oil Pump   DIP STICK                                                                              1 Outer rotor to body clearance Using a feeler gauge                                                                              check the clearance between the outer rotor and body If                                                                              excessive replace the rotor assembly The cartridge type oil filter in which the filter body is inte gral with the filter element is easy to handle Oil from the oil pump is led into the filter element When a pressure difference between before and after the element exceeds 1 kglcm 2 due to excessive clogging of the element a bypass valve in the ele ment will open an oil passage bypassing the element As a                                                  OUTER ROTOR TO HOUSING CLEARANCE result oil flows to various engine parts without filtration Therefore it is important to replace the oil filter regularly The        2 Rotor clearance Check the clearance between the outer oil filter should be replaced after the initial 50 hours of opera           and inner rotors with a feeler gauge If excessive replace tion and thereafter every 100 hours of operation                            the rotor assembly  The trochoid gear type oil pump is mounted on the back of                   Check the Old pam s coupling of the inner rotor shaft for the fuel injection pump on the right side of the cylinder block            cracks damage and wear  The oil pump houses a relief valve If pump delivery oil pres  sure exceeds 4 kglcm2 the relief valve will open to bypass oil  into the oil pan thus preventing further oil pressure rise                      FEELER GAUlE                                                                                                                     PFSTANDARD VALUE 01502                                                                                                                                  REPLACE VALUE    01503                                                                                                         OUTER ROTOR TO iNNER                                                                                                         ROTOR CLEARANCE                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                      35                                     LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE3 Rotor to cover clearance With the outer rotor inserted in           TESTING THE OIL PRESSURE   the pump body insert a straightedge and check the clear   ance between the rotor and the straightedge with a feeler                                                                        1 Start and warm up the engine   gauge If excessive replace either the rotor or the body           2 Check for oilleaks at the filter and pump assembly                                                                        3 Remove the oil pressure sender and connect a mechanical                                                                           oil pressure gauge to the hole                                                                        4 Set the engine speed at 3000 rpm and measure the oil                                                                           pressure It should be fairly constant at 35 kgcm2                                                                           50 Ibin2                                                                           NOTE Insure that oil meets specification standards Class                                                                             CF or CG4 or betterSAE 30 wt                                                                        OIL PRESSURE SWITCH                                                                        1 Later propulsion engines and all generators have a two                                                                             prong oil pressurewater temperature switch When the                            ROTOR TO COVER CLEARANCE                                                                             oil pressure drops to 510 psi this switch interrupts the4 Pump body Oring Check the pump body Oring for                          circuit for the fuel run solenoid by opening shutting    cracks and damage                                                       down the  Oil pressure switchsender Replace the oil pressure                      On early propulsion engines this switch activates an   switch and the oil pressure sender On propulsion                         alarm that emits a pulsating signal when the oil pressure   engines the oil pressure switch is normay open On                     drops too low 510 psi   generators this switch is normally open it closes when                                                                             NOTE This alarm will also emit a pulsating signal when   the oil pressure gets to 510 psi                                                                             the engine starts up as the oil has not yet reached its                                                                             normal pressure a good check othe alarm     A CAUTION Oil Pressure Switch          Do not use                     NOTE If this alarm emits a continuous signal propulsion     lock pliers vise grips or pipe wrenches on the oil                     engines only it indicates an engine overheat with the     pressure switch Use the correct socket which is                        operating temperature reaching 210     available from SnapOn Proto New Britain and oth     ers Damage to the switch will cause oil leaks     andor switch                                                                         OIL PRESSURE                                                                                                            ARLY PROPULSION                                                                                                           ENGINE MODELS                                                                                                                              11 Install the oil filter and tighten fully by hand Tightening   torque 11 to 13 kgm Before installation check for   proper fitting of the Oring in the groove and coat the 0   ring with a small quantity of oil2 Install the gasket Then install the oil pump housing 0                                                                                                                  P   ring rotor assembly and cover assembly in that order   Apply oil to the rotating parts                                                                        LATER PROPULSION                                                                                                           ENGINE MODELS                                                                                                                                 3 With sealant applied to the threaded portion screw in the   oil pressure switch taking care not to close the oil hole   with sealant4 Apply liquid teflon sealant to the threaded portion of the                                                                                              t                                                                                              OIL   oil pressure sender Take care not to close off the oil hole                             PRESSURE   into the sender Thread the sender into its fitting on the   oil pumps housing                                                                                                                                                                                                ALL GENERATOR                                                                                                            MODElS               J                                                                                              t                                                                                               OIL                                                                                            PRESSURE                                                                                                        OIL PRESSURE SWITCHES                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                   36                                                          FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION                                                                The builtin fourcylinder fuel injection pump is mounted                                                                            on the right side of the cylinder block It consists of the pump  An  fuel lift pump draws fuel from the diesel                                                                             elements plunger assemblies delivery valves tappets and  supply through an owner supplied fuelwater separator to                                                                            smoke set unit As the pump camshaft rotates the plungers the engines primary fuel filter and on to the fuel injection                                                                            are moved up and down through a fixed stroke thus deliver  pump The pressurized fuel is then injected into the combus                                                                            ing pressurized fuel to engine cylinders  tion chamber through the injection pipes and nozzles Excess  fuel is returned to the fuel supply through the fuel return               Fuel injection control Fuel injection rate is dependent on  pipes that connect to the top of each nozzle holder                      the relative positions of the plunger lead and barrel The                                                                            plunger is rotated by the control pinion which is mounted on NOTE Fuel supplied to the fuel lift pump must be filtered to              the plunger barrel This pinion meshes with the plungers 75200 microns by the owner supplied fuelwater separator                                                                            lower collar which transmits the rotation of the pinion                                                                            directly to the plunger As the engine runs the injection                                                                            pump camshaft rotates to move the control rack through the                                                                            centrifugal type governor weight governor sleeve and lever                                                                            The control rack slides to tum this pinion Rightward move                                                                            ment STOP mark side of the control rack decreases the                                                                            fuel injection rate as the rack moves to the left the fuel                                                                            increases                                                                            AIR                                                                            VENT                                                                            SCREW  lIIooIlI                                                                                                                                        SMOKE SET                                                                                                                                        STOPPER                                                                                                                                        CONTROL RACK                                                                                                                                        RETURN SPRING                                                                               FUEL                                                                               INJECTION                                                                               PUMP                                                                            Smoke set unit The smoke set unit restricts the maximum                                                                            fuel injection rate of the injection pump The stopper is held                                                                            by a spring in the position shown in the illustration This                                                                            position is the smoke set position When starting the engine                                                           FROM FUEL        propulsion models pull the throttle control lever fully                                                                            toward the maximum speed position and the tierod with                                                                          stopper spring will move the control rack in the arrowed                                                                            direction against the spring force thus causing overinjection    FUEL SYSTEM                                                             for easy engine start For the injection pump with the                                                          FUELWATER                                                         SEPARATOR         Angleich mechanism overinjection requires releasing that            ALL WESTERBEKE                                 mechanism            INSTALLATIONS REQUIRE AN OWNERINSTALLED            FUELWATER SEARATOR 75200 MICRONS Fuel Pump Two types of fuel lift pumps are shown in the illustration both operate on the same  princi pal Earlier model engines use a lift pump with a replaceable fuel element This element should be changed at regular maintenance intervals at 250 hours Later model engines use a smaller lift pump that does not require maintenance Electrical connections should be kept clean and tight with either pump The primary fuel filter encloses a highly effective paper ele ment This filter assembly is located on the engine between the fuel pump and the injection pump The paper element                                                                                                     SMOKE SET              OVERINJECTION should be changed at regular maintenance intervals                                                 POSITION                                                               Engines  Generators                                                                       37                                                      FUEL SYSTEMAngleich Mechanism The Angleich Mechanism restricts the                The intercylinder injection control Fuel injection  of the smoke set plate in the narrower range                   among the cylinders is performed by the adjusting platesAngleich effect L to save fuel consumption and decrease             which have their own cam mechanisms These  of exhaust smoke                                              plates are located on the opposite side of the control rack                                                                        Necessary turning of the plunger barrels required for inter                                                                        cylinder injection control is attained by turning the respective                                                                        adjusting plates This adjustment is performed on a fuel shop                                                                        flow bench only                                                                                           ADJUSTING PLATE     PLUNGER BARREL                                                                                          o                                                                         ADJUSTING                                                                         PLATES                                                                        Delivery valve operation The delivery valves function is to                                                                        deliver fuel to the injection pipes after the fuel pressure has                      ANGLEICH MECHANISM                                been increased sufficiently and to prevent afterdrip from                                                                        the nozzles When the fuel pressure above a plunger has                                                                        deceased after injection its delivery valve piston closes the                  o                                                                        delivery valve seat At this time the compressed fuel remain                                                                        ing in the injection pipe drips from the nozzle To prevent                                                                        this afterdrip the delivery valve piston makes a stroke to                                                                        draw back the fuel before the delivery valve reaches the seat                                                                        thus reducing the fuel pressure in the injection pipe to nearly                                                                        zero                                    ANGLEICH EFFECT LReleasing the Angleich Mechanism It is necessary whenstarting the engine to set the injection pump in the overinjec          DURING                                                AFTERtion MS condition by moving the throttle control lever fully            INJECTION                                             INJECTIONto the FULLOPEN position This requires the Angleich set                                                                        Nozzle and nozzle holder Fuel from the fuel injection pumpplate to be released from its set position Usually the                                                                        flows through the passage in the body of each nozzle holderAngleich set plate is released by pulling the throttle leveruntil it is caught by its stopper when stopping the engine             and is injected from the nozzle into the combustion chamber                                                                        Fuel overflowing from the nozzle enters the nozzle holderAfter starting the engine the Angleich set plate is returned                                                                        and returns to the fuel tank through the banjo and  to the applied position during warmup runningof the engine                                                          return fuel line                                                                                                       Engines  Generators                                                                   38                                             FUEL SYSTEM                                                               a Remove the delivery valve holderFuel Filter                                                              h Take out the valve spring valve and Oring                                                                         c Take out the gasket and valve seatRemove the retaining nut Oring and filter element                                                                         d Unbend the lock plate of the tappet guide pin Push theFuel Lift Pump                                                              tappet slightly in and pull out the guide pin using aThe fuel lift pump requires little or no maintenance For early             pincette Then remove the tappetmodel fuel lift pumps disassemble and change the filter                                                                         e Remove the spring and upper seatLater model fuel lift pumps require no disassembly Fuel tothe pump must be filtered to 75200 microns Electrical con             f Remove the pinionnections must be clean and tight Fuel connections at the                g Pull out the plunger barrel upward from the pumppump must be tight and without leaks                                       housing Keep the removed plunger barrels and                                                                            plungers in a set for each cylinder Do not mix                                                                            plungers arid barrels of other cylinders                                       FROM ENGINE                                       PRIMARY FUEL FILTER               h Pull off the split pin Remove the washer return spring                                                                            and smoke set stopper Draw out the control rack                                                                            Remove the AngJeich set spring and plate if equipped                                        j                                   before taking out the control rack                                                                           A CAUTION 00 not disassemble the intercylin                                                                           der injection control adjusting plate When this plate      FUEL LIFT PUMP                                                       has been disassembled it will become necessary to      LATER MODEL                                                                           adjust the intercylinder injection by a tester When                                                                           this plate requires removal remember to draw a                                                                           mating mark across the pump body and the plate                                                                                                        GASKET   it                                                                                                VALVE SEATe                                                                                                                                     DELIVERY                                                                                                     PLUNGER                                                                                                                                     VALVE HottiERFuel Injection Pump1 Remove the fuel injection pipes2 Before removing the pump be sure to remove the pump                                                                                                     BARREL      8          0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ORING    jj   side cover and disconnect the tierod and spring from the   rack Then remove the bolts fastening the injection pump   and remove the pump assembly                                                                                                                          1       ADJUSTING PLATE                                                                                                                            tSPRfNG3 Record the thickness and number of pump adjusting   shims to facilitate adjustment at the time of assembly                                                                     DELIVERY VALVE4 When partly disassembling the fuel injection pump use   the following procedure     A    CAUTION 00 not attempt to disassemble the     fuel injection pump unless itis necessary Since the     adjustment of an injection pump requires a pump     tester and technical disassembly reassembly and                                                                                 RACK     adjustment of a pump should not be performed if                                                                                                                 PINIDN     such a tester and technician arent available Before     disassembly close the fuel inlet and outlet and                                                            IUPPER SEAT     clean the pumps outside surfaces Keep disassem     bled parts immersed in clean kerosene and keep all                                                                                                                  PLUNGER SPRING     parts neatly arranged in order to avoid confusion                               ANGLEICH                                                                                                                         FUEL INJECTION PUMP                                                                                     SET SPRING                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                  39                                                       FUEL SYSTEM  Disconnect the return pipe from the nozzle holder upper   nipple2 Disconnect the fuel injection pipe from the nozzle holder3 Loosen the nozzle holder attaching bolts and remove the   holder assembly4 When disassembling the nozzle holder into parts use the   following procedure    8   Holding the nozzle holder body in a vice remove the         retaining nut with a spanner wrench When holding in         the vice be sure to use an aluminum or copper plate         adapter                                                                                                  TESTING THE FUEL LIFT PUMP    h Remove the shim pressure spring flange pressure       pin and distance piece                                             Fuel Injection Pump    c Remove the nozzle from the retaining nut If the noz               1 Delivery valve seat Check the contact surface of the       zle is hard to remove apply light taps to it with a                   delivery valve seat Replace if defective       wooden block Be careful not to damage the nozzle       needle valve                                                       2 Plunger barrel Check the plunger for seizure damage                                                                              and rust Also check to see if the plunger slides smoofhly                          rSANJOBOlT                                      when inserted into the barrel If defective do not repair                                                                              it but be sure to replace as a set with a new one                                                                                    I                                  t1r                                              BOOY                                                                                                                       3 Control rack and pinion If the rack and pinion have any                                                                              worn or damaged teeth replace                                                                           4 Tappet Check the tappet OD roller and shaft for wear                                                                              and damage If defective replace                                                                           Nozzle                                                                           1 Check the nozzle for incorrect contact and damage                                                                              Replace the nozzle as an assembly if defective                                                                           2 Check the pressure spring for damage          NOZZLE HOLDER                          NOZZLE                       NOTE Also check the Angleich set plates and set springs                                                                               for wear and damage                                                RETAINING NUT                                                                           REASSEMBLY                                                                           Fuel                                                                  Install the filter element and filter cup Orings in positionFuel Filter                                                                Tighten the retaining nut securelyCheck the filter element for contamination The regular ele                                                                           Fuel Lift Pumpment replacement interval is 250 hours Replace the elementmore frequently if necessary                                              To reassemble set the plunger plunger spring valve Oring                                                                           and washer in position in that order and as a final step fit theFuel Lift Pump                                                             retainer to prevent the abovementioned parts from poppingThe fuel pump operates during the start sequence when PRE                 out of position see  is depressed Simulate a start and depress PREHEAT                   Put the filter in position and fit the magnet and gasket in theThe pump should produce a clicking sound indicating the                    cover Using a 17 mm spanner fasten up to the stopper porpumping piston in the pump is pumping If no clicking is                   tion in such a way as to prevent air leakageheard check that there is 12V DC at the pump connectionand that the pump is properly grounded                                    Injection Pump1 Checking the pump delivery Test the pump by connect                   1 Insert the plunger barrel with its slots in alignment with   ing a battery and fuel line as illustrated Fuel delivery                 the dowel pins projecting in the pump housing   must be 225 cc 5 pints or more every 15 seconds                                                                           2 Install the Oring in the delivery valve holder                                                                 Engines  Generators                                                                      40                                                       FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE3 Install the spring seat gasket and the valve assembly in                           before inserting the tappet guide pin and bend the lock   the holder Tighten the delivery holder to the pump hous                          plate after inserting the pin   ing Make certain that the Oring has been properly   installed                                GASKET                                VALVESEAT5                                                                 DELIVERY                             PLUNGER                                                        o                                                                VALVE HOLDER                             BARREL      8                     ORING     Ii                                                                                                              1    ADJUSTING PLATE                                                        ISPRING                                                           DELIVERY VALVE                                                                                                              INSTLLlNG                                                                                                               TAPPET                                                                                   9 Install the smoke set stopper return spring and washer                                                                                      Then insert the split pin and split it                                                                                   10 Install the Angleich set plate and spring when equipped                                                                  RACK                                                                                   n Torque the delivery holder to specification 45 kgm                                         PINION                                   Installation and Adjusbnent of Fuel Injection Pump                                          UPPER SEAT                            1 When installing the pump assembly select and install the                ANGLEICH                                                    PLUNGER SPRING                                                                                      adjusting shim After installing the pump fit the tierod                                                                                      from the governor lever to the control rack then install the                SET PLATE                                                             tierod spring to the control rack Make sure that the end of                ANGLEICH                             FUEL INJECTION PUMP              the tierod spring positioned at the governor lever side has                SET SPRING                                                            the shorter straight wire of the two ends of the spring For4 Install the control rack                                                          proper selection of shim thickness temporarily install a5 Install the pinions with their deeproot teeth aligned with                        shim set having the same thickness as before removal and   the respective marks on the rack                                                  when adjusting fuel injection timing replace the current                                                                                      shim set with one formed by a proper combination of four                                                                                      kinds of shims  02 03 04 and 08 mm in thickness   OEEP ROOTS                                                                                      NOTE Maintaining the same shim thickness for the injec                                                                                      tion pump will place the pwnp in the same timing with the                                                                                      engine as when previously removed                           RACK AND                        ASSEMBLING         PINION6 Install the spring upper seat and spring7 Put the plunger and the spring lower seat together Install   the assembly so that in the same alignment position as   mentioned in step 5 the plunger frontend lead slant   groove is positioned on the opposite side of the control   rack On former engines insert the mark L area of the   plunger collar into the control rack side8 Insert the tappet taking care not to drop the shim Align   the tappet guide hole with the dowel pin hole of the hous   ing and insert the tappet guide pin Install the lock plate                                                                                                        INSTALLING INJECTION PUMP                                                                       Engines  Generators                                                                              41                                                      FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE2 Install the tierod cover In the case of a damper spring                Adjustment and Installation of Nozzle   loaded cover install the cover with the tierod pressed   toward the High Speed side by the speed control lever see                Holder Assembly   illustration                                                            1 Injection Start Pressure Test Using a nozzle tester mea                                                                                sure the injection start pressure If the pressure is differ                                                                                ent from the standard value adjust to the specified                                                                                pressure by increasing or decreasing the thickness of the                                                  TIEROD SPRING                                                                                adjusting shim Increasing or decreasing shim thickness                                                                                by 01 mm will vary the pressure by approximately 10                                                  GASKET                        kgcm When replacing the shim grip the retaining nut                                                                                in a vise and remove the body with a wrench TIghten the                                                  LOCKNUT                                                                                retaining nut to the specified torque                                                  ADJUSTING BOLT                                                                                                                                                                                    tfbAlING CAP                         INJECTION                                                SHIMTHICKNESS                                                                                                                                                                                                                 PRESSURE TEST                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    01 mm                                  TIEROD COVER                                                                                                                                       I               02mm                                                                                                                                                       O3mm                                                                                                                                                       O5mm                     INSTALLlN   TIEROD COVER3 Connect the fuel supply hose Preheat to bleed air from the   system4 Check damper spring adjustment and fuel injection timing   For these adjustment procedures refer to ENGINE                                                                                2 Chattering Test For the chattering test operate the tester  A CAUTION Thoroughly clean all parts with                                    lever slowly If the nozzle sprays sharply and intermit  kerosene 00 not wipe them with rags                                         tently the nozzle is considered good The nozzle should  When tightening the retaining nut on the nozzle holder                        spray fuel straight in its axial direction A nozzle is defec  body be sure to tighten it to the specified torque                          tive if it sprays fuel in a wrong direction or in several  Insufficient torquing will cause poor compression                            separate strips Also a spray in the form of particles indi  Excessive torquing will prevent the nozzle needle from                        cates a defect These defects may sometimes be caused  moving freely                                                                by clogging with dust therefore all parts should be care                                                                                fully cleaned before assembly1 Install the nozzle assembly distance piece and pressure   pin in the retaining nut2 Install the shim spring and flange to the body Install the   retaining nut on the body and tighten to the specified   torque     A CAUTION When using a vice to tighten the     nut be sure to hold the body side If the retaining     nut was held a defonned nozzle would result                                                                                     GOOD                    BAD                              BAD                                                                   Engines  Generators                                                                        42                                              FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE3 Afterdrip test An injection nozzle is considered defec   tive if it drips fuel accumulated on the bottom of the noz   zle after fuel injection is stopped during the chattering   test Replace such a nozzle A very small amount of fuel   may sometimes remain on the top of the nozzle This is   due to chattering and is not detrimental                         AFTER DRIP TEST    DJ 10                                                                                                                                                                     GOOD                    BAD                    BAD4 Injection Condition Test Operate the tester lever quickly    at a rate of 800 strokes per minute The nozzle should    inject a fine atomozed mist of fuel straight in its axial    direction A spray in the form of particles is cause for    rejection5 Install the Nozzle Holder Assembly Install the tested    nozzle holder assembly in the cylinder head Tighten    bolts to the specified torque Be sure to install the assem    bly together with new sealing washers     A CAUTION When installing the nozzle holder     assembly in the cylinder head fit the holder loosely     with two bolts temporarily tightened After fitting     the injection pipe retighten the bolts evenly to the     specified torque                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                   43                                     RAW WATER COOLING                                                        The heat exchanger functions as part of the fresh water sys                                                                  tem and the raw water system The heat exchanger is a copThe raw water cooling circuit is driven by a positive dis        per tube which encloses a number of small copper tubesplacement impeller pump This pump draws in water directly                                                                  Raw water is pumped through the small copper tubes andfrom an ocean lake or river through the seacock then to a                                                                  fresh water coolant from the engine is circulated around theraw water strainer The raw water is drawn through the                                                                  copper tubes The raw water removes heat from the freshstrainer to the selfpriming pump and to the heat exchanger                                                                  water coolant A zinc anode is located in the raw water porwhere it cools the engines circulating fresh water coolant                                                                  tion of the exchanger to help control the effects of electrolyThe raw water is then discharged into the water injected                                                                  sis This area of the exchanger should be  elbow mixing with and cooling the exhaust gases                                                                  inspected and cleaned To keep the exchanger operating effiThis mixture of exhaust gas and raw water is driven through                                                                  ciently it should be removed from the engine every 1000the exhaust system and overboard                                                                  hours to be thoroughly cleaned and pressure  oil cooler In some installations the raw wateris also used to cool the engines transmission by passingthrough a transmission oil cooler Similar to a heatexchanger the transmission fluid is cooled by the raw waterand then passes into the exhaust elbow The oil cooler shouldbe cleaned and pressure tested at about the same interval asthe heat exchanger every 1000 hours                                                                                                                      PETCOCK                                                                        CLEAN OUT DEBRIS                                                                                           HEAT EXCHANGER                         TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS                                                                       NEW                 REPLACE          REPLACE       CLEAN                                                                                                                          AND REUSE                                                                                                 ZINC ANODES                                                                  The raw water pump is a selfpriming pump with a nonfer                                                                  rous housing and a Neoprene impeller The impeller has flex                                                                  ible vanes which wipe against a curved cam plate within the                                                                  impeller housing producing the pumping action The raw                                                                  water pump impeller should be checked every 500 operating                                                                  hours for wear Should the pump fail it can be disassembled                                                                  and overhauled Check for internal wear within the pump                                                                  such as the cover plate cam and impeller housing Replace                                                                  components that show excess wear                                                        Engines  Generators                                                                44                                         RAW WATER PUMP SERVICE                                              RAW WATER PUMP  PN 33636PUMP OVERHAUL                                                          2 Install the shaft into the bearings Support the bearings at                                                                          their center races Push the shaft into the bearings                                                                ing at the impeller drive slot end using the base of theThe pump as removed from the engine will have hose                      drive slot Push the shaft through both of the  nipples threaded into its inlet and outlet ports              flush against each other so the flatsided end of the shaftThey may be left in place or removed if they interfere with               extends beyond the second bearing center race 15 mmthe pump disassembly Note the port location and positioning              1932 in  5 mm 132 inif removed                                                            3 Support the pump housing at the impeller side1 Remove the six cover plate screws cover plate and the                Apply a small amount of petroleum jelly to the seals   cover plate gasket                                                    inner lips and to the impeller shaft Carefully install the   NOTE Replacement of the cover plate gasket is recom                  shaft rotating it through the seals until the bearings   mended however if you are going to reuse it keep the                contact the housing from the bearing end Use a pushing   gasket submerged in water until the pump is reassembled               tool that will push this shaft and the bearing assembly   If its allowed to dry the gasket will shrink and not be              into the pump housing by applying pressure against the   reusable                                                              outer bearing race Push the assembly into the housing                                                                          until the bearings seat fully in the housing Install the2 Remove the impeller with its drive screw from the pump                 retaining ring   housing                                                                       4 Position the cam in the housing and secure it in place3 Remove the screw and sealing washer and remove the                     with the screw and sealing washer   cam from the pump housing                                                                           NOTE Use a small amount ofPermatex 1 on the inner4 Remove the retaining ring                                              cam surface and screw threads Remove any excess from5 Support the pump housing at the mounting flange end                   the impeller housing   on an arbor press and with a drift press out the shaft and        5 Apply a light film of silicone or petroleum jelly to the   bearings from the pump housing                                        inner surface of the housing for the impeller6 With the pump housing supported push the seals out of                  NOTE Coat only the surface do not overapply Install   the pump housing Push the impeller side seal out the                   the impeller with the drive screw Push the assembly into   impeller side then lift the spacer out Then push the                  the housing with the drive screw mating in the slot of the   bearing side seal out the bearing side                                 drive shaft7 Supporting the bearings inner race push the shaft out of          6 Install the cover gasket and cover and secure them with   the bearings                                                          the six cover                                                              7 Reposition and tighten the hose nipples Assemble the                                                                          pump to the engine and attach the hosesInspect all parts and replace those showing wear or  Install the seals and spacer in the pump housing Push the   impeller side seal into the housing Rotate the pump and   install the spacer against the seal face Push the bearing   side seal into the housing from the bearing side    NOTE The seals flat surfaces that have printing and    numbers face toward each other      COVER                                                                                                                     PUMP HOUSING                                                            Engines  Generators                                                                  45                                         RAW WATER PUMP SERVICE                                               RAW WATER PUMP  PN 24143Pump 24143 has been replaced by pump 33636 Complete                      ment bushing chill the bushing in a freezer for 1 hour to24143 pumps are no longer assembled but their component                    reduce its size Prepare the pump housing on a press toparts are still available                                                  accept the bushing                                                                        2 Apply some light oil to the housing boss that the bushingPUMP OVERHAUL                                                              will be pressed into Using an appropriate drift push theDisassembly                                                                bushing into the housing so that it is flush with theRemove the pump from the engine The pump body is a                        impeller housings inner surfacebronze cast unit Its inlet and outlet hose connections are part        3 Using an appropriate installer install the impeller shaftof the pump housing casting                                               seal Ensure that the seal seats properly in the housing1 Remove the six cover plate screws along with the cover                  and that the lip seal is positioned correctly    plate and gasket                                                   4 Place the slinger ring in the housing against the impeller2 Using an appropriate drift push the impeller drive shaft               seal   and impeller out of the pump housing                                5 Install the impeller shaft oil seal into the housing so it is3 Using circlip pliers remove the outer circlip from the                 flush with the housing surface Again ensure that the lip   impeller drive shaft then remove the impeller from the                 seal is positioned correctly   shaft                                                               6 Install the inner circlip on the impeller drive shaft and4 Remove the key from the shaft and the inner circlip                   install the impeller key in the shaft5 Remove the screw holding the cam in the pump housing                7 Apply some light oil to the shaft and with a rotating   and remove the cam                                                     action slide it into the shaft bushing from the impeller                                                                           side and rotate it through the impeller seal Locate the6 Using an appropriate puller withdraw the outer and inner                                                                           slinger ring and rotate the shaft through it Continue   shaft seals along with the slinger ring from the pump                                                                           rotating the shaft and slide it through the housing oil seal   body                                                                        8 Install a new cam Apply some sealant to the cam retain7 Support the pump on a press and with a lubricated drift                                                                           ing screw and thread it into the cam through the housing   push the carbon shaft bushing out of the pump housing                                                                           and tighten it securely   Note the position of the shaft bushing in the housing   prior to removal                                                    9 Apply a small amount of petroleum jelly on the housings                                                                           inner circumference then install the impeller onto theInspection                                                                 shaft and into the housing Install the outer circlip on theExamine all components and replace worn or damaged parts                  shaftIf the pump housing is worn internally and requires replace                NOTE The set of the impeller blades is of no concernment we recommend that the pump assembly be replaced                       Once the pump is installed on the engine and the enginewith the current production pump It is available in a replace             rotated the bLades will take the correct positionment kit Part 037431                                                 10 Install the housing cover and gasket Tighten the cover                                                                            screws  The carbon shaft bushing is a slight force fit into the   pump housing To aide in the installation of the replace              IMPELLER                                                                                                                          COVER                                                                                                       CAM                        SLINGER                                                                        SCREW                        RING               SEAL                                                                            RAW WATER PUMP                                                                                                  PN 24143                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                   46                                        FRESH WATER COOLING CIRCUIT   DESCRIPTION                                                             The water temperature switch and the water temperature                                                                           sender are both mounted in the thermostat housing The    The fresh water cooling circuit consists of a circulatory belt        water temperature switch normally open in a propUlsion    driven water pump a thermostat and thermostat housing                engine when activated will close and sound an alarm The   heat excanger engine manifold and all associated hoses             water temperature switch normally closed in a generator                                                                           drive engine when activated will open and interrupt DC                                                                           Voltage to the fuel run solenoid and shut the drive engine                                                                           down the water temperature sender is a variable resistor                                                             IMPELLER     affected by heat Voltage from the water temperature gauge is                                                                           grounded through the sender to the block Depending on the                                                                           resistance through the sender effected by coolant heat the                                                                           gauge will indicate a temperature reading                                                                           Change of Coolant Over a long period of engine operation                                                                           scale will be deposited and rust formation will occur in theBRACKET                                                                    water jacket and heat exchanger causing progressive deterio                                                                           ration in cooling system efficiency For this reason flush the                                                                           cooling system every 500 hours of engine operation                                                                           Antirust and Antifreeze To protect the cooling system              FRESH WATER PUMP                                             against corrosion and freezing always use a known brand of                                                                           antifreeze compatible with aluminum cooling system compo                                                                           nents The use of an antifreeze mixture of 5050 is recom  The water pump is a centrifugal impeller type and is                     mended for yearround use Use antifreeze that is compatible  mounted on the front upper part of the cylinder block The               with aluminum components and never mix different brands  pump shaft is supported on  greasefilled              of antifreeze Do not use plain water this can be detrimental  doublerow radial ball bearings                                         to the cooling system components                                                                           NOTE Look for the new  long lasting                                                                           antifreeze that is now available                                                                           Antifreeze mixtures will protect against an unexpected freeze                                                                           and they are beneficial to the engines cooling system They                                                                           retard rust and add to the life of the circulating pump seal                                                                                               ANTIFREEZE PROTECTION                                                                            Antifreeze concentration    23       35       50      60                                                                                                         14F      4F     40F                                                                            Freezing temperature       10C   20C   40C      COOLANT      TEMPERATURE      SE                TYPICAL                THERMOSTAT                ASSEMBLY                                                                                                COOLANT RECOVERY TANK  Thermostat A thermostat housing is located on the cylinder  head water outlet Enclosed is a wax pellettype thermostat  The valve opening temperature is not affected by variations of pressure in the cooling water passages                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                      47                                     FRESH WATER COOLING                                                             Thermostat1 Drain the cooling water A drain plug for draining the              Visually check the thermostat for damage Then put it in   engine block is located on the side of the engine block             water and raise the water temperature to test its valve open   just right of the lube oil fi1ter A drain plug for draining        ing temperature Replace if defective   the heat exchanger is located on the heat exchanger2 Disconnect the water hose from the pump    NOTE Generator models are equipped with belt guards                                                                        A CAUTION The wax pellettype thermostat remains                                                                         closed if its heatsensing part is defectve Leaving this    that will need to be removed                                                                         uncorrected would cause the engine to overheat3 Remove the pump drive belt4 Disconnect the bypass hose when equipped                           REASSEMBLY5 Remove the water pump assembly                                     To reassemble the cooling system reverse the order of disas6 If necessary remove the water pump adapter when                    sembly When adjusting the drive belt tension use the fol   equipped                                                           lowing procedure7 On an engine with a thermostat remove the water outlet             Drive Belt Adjusbnent   fitting bolts in the front of the cylinder head and remove   the thermostat                                                                        A WARNING Never attempt to adjust the drive belt                                                                         tension while the engine is operating                                                                        A CAUTION Excessive water pump drive belt                                                                        tension can cause rapid wear of the belt and reduce                                                                        the service life of the fresh water pumps bearings                                                                        Excessive slack or the presence of oil on the belt                                                                        can cause belt slipping resulting in high operating                                                                        temperatures                                                                       Adjust the alternator position so that the belt may deflect 38                                                                       to 12 deep when depressed at the middle point between the                                    WATER PUMP ASSEMBLY                                                                       alternator and crankshaft pulleys After adjustment securely                                                                       tighten the support bolt and brace bolt If any clearance isINSPECTION                                                             found between the gear case and alternator fitting part insert                                                                       a suitable shim inside the support on the back of the alternaWater Pump                                                             tor before tightening the bolts Reinstall belt1 Check every part for cracks damage and water leaks   Replace if defective    NOTE No rebuilding kits are available for the fresh water    circulation pump2 Check the impeller and shaft for rotating condition If   they make noise or rotate irregularly replace as an   assembly                                                                                   BELT TENSION                                                            Engines  Generators                                                                  48                                             ADMIRAL CONTROL                                                                   When the engine is shut down with the key switch turned oJ                                                                             the water temperature gauge will continue to register the lastThis  control panel is equipped with a                                                                             temperature reading indicated by the gauge before electricalKEY switch and RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME                                                                             power was turned off The oil pressure gauge will faJl to zerometer which measures the engines running time in hours and                                                                             when the key switch is turned off The temperature gaugein 110 hours The panel also includes a WATER TEMPER                                                                             will once again register the engines true temperature whenATURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees                                                                             electrical power is restored to the  an OIL PRESSURE gauge which measures theengines oil pressure in pounds per square inch and a DC                    A separate alarm buzzer with harness is supplied with everycontrol circuit VOLTAGE gauge which measures the sys                        Admiral Panel The installer is responsible for  voltage All gauges are illuminated when the key                      connecting the buzzer to the fourpin connection on theswitch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine                  engines electrical harness The installer is also responsibleis in operation The panel also contains two rubberbooted                   for installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry andpushbuttons one for PREHEAT and one for START                              where it will be audible to the operator should it sound while                                                                             the engine is running The buzzer will sound when the igni                                                                             tion key is turned on and should silence when the engine has                                                                             started and the engines oil pressure rises above 15 psi                               WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS                                   Oil PRESSURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS GRADU                               GRADUATED IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT AND IS                                   ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH PSI AND IS                               ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS                                      ILLUMINATeD WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS                               TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING                                 TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATlNG                               TEMPERATURE IS 170190 F                                               OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 3060 PSIRPM GAUGE REGISTERS REVOLUTIONSPER MINUTE OF THEENGINE AND CAN BERECALIBRATED FORACCURACY FROMTHE REAR OF THEPANELHOUR METER REGIS                                                                                                              KEY SWITCH PROVIDESTERS ELAPSED TIME                                                                                                              POWER ONLY TO THEAND SHOULD BE USED                                                                                                              INSTRUMENT PANEL                                                                                                                                CLUSTERAS A GUIDE FOR                                                                                                                                  DC VOLTMETER                                                                                                                                 INDICATES THE AMOUNT                                                                                    I                                           THE SATTERY IS BEINGPREHEAT BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES                                                                                          CHARGED SHOULDTHE ALTERNATORS EXCITER THE FUEL LIFT                                                                                          SHOW 13V TO 14VPUMP THE FUEL SOLENOID ON THE INJECTION                                           AUTOMATIC ALARM SYSTEMPUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS IT BYPASSES THE ENGINES PROTECTIVE OIL PRES                                        HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE AlARM AN ALARM BUZZER HASSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDITION THIS                                               BEEN SUPPLIED WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL IF THE ENGINESSunON ENERGIZES THE START BUTTON                                                  FRESH WATER COOLANT REACHES 210 F98C THIS SWITCH                                                                                   WILL CLOSE SOUNDING THE ALARM WHICH WILL EMIT A CON                                                                                   TINUOUS SIGNAL                                                                                   lOW Dll PRESSURE AlARM A LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARMSTART BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES                                              SWITCH IS LOCATED OFF THE ENGINES OIL GALLERY THISTHE STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE                                            SWITCH MONITORS THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE SHOULD THEENGINE THIS BUTTON WILL NOT OPERATE                                               ENGINES OIL PRESSURE FALL TO 5 10 PSI THE SWITCH  UNLESS THE PREHEAT SunON                                              CLOSE SOUNOING THE ALARM IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILLIS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME TIME                                             EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                        49                                                CAPTAIN CONTROL                                                                    OIL PRESSURE or high WATER TEMPERATURE The                                                                               RPM gauge is illuminated when the KEY switch is turned onThis  control panel is equipped with a                                                                               and remains i1Iuminated while the engine is in operationKEY switch an RPM gauge PREHEAT and START buttons an INSTRUMENT TEST button and three indicatorlamps one for ALTERNATOR DISCHARGE one for lowOIL PRESSURE and one for high ENGINE  It also includes an alann buzzer for low                                                                               ALARM THE ALARM WILL SOUND IF THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE                                                                               FAUS BELOW 15 PSI IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A                                                                               PULSA TING SIGNAL THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOUND IF THE WATERRPM GAUGE REGISTERS REVOLUTIONS PER                                           TEMPERATURE IN THE FRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TOMINUTE OF THE ENGINE AND CAN BE RECALI                                        205F IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WIU EMIT A CONTINUOUS SIGNALBRATED FOR ACCURACY FROM THE REAR OF                                           NOTE THE ALARM WIU SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNEDTHE PANEL                                                                      ON THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAL ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE                                                                               ENGINES OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI THE AlARM WILL SILENCE                                          Oil PRESSURE                                          AlARMU6HT                                                                                                                             TEST BOlTDN WHEN                                                                                                                             PRESSED TESTS niE                                                                                                                             ALTERNATOR THE OIL                                                                                                                             PRESSURE AND THE                                                                                                                             WATER TEMPERATURE                                                                                                                             CONTROL CIRCUITS                                                                                                                             WHEN PRESSED THE                                                                                                                             ALTERNATOR THE OIL                                                                                                                            PRESSURE AND THE                                                                                                                             WATER TEMPERATURE                                                                                                                             INDICATOR LIGHTS IL                                                                                                                             LUMINATE IN ADDITION                                                                                                                             TO SOUNDING THE                                                                                                                             ALARM BUZZER                                                                                                                              KEY SWITCH PROVIDES                                                                                                                              POWER ONLY TO THE IN                                                                                                                              STRUMENT PANEL CLUSTER                                                   WATER TEMPERATURE                                                   AlARM UGHT                                                                                                PREHEAT BUTION WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES                                    START BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES                       THE ALTERNATORS REGULATOR THE FUEL LIFT                                    THE STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE                     PUMP THE FUEL SOLENOID ON THE INJECTION                                    ENGINE IT WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY                    PUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS IT BY                                    UNLESS THE PREHEAT BUTTON IS PRESSED AND                    PASSES THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM                                    HELD AT THE SAME TIME                                      SWITCH IN ADDITION THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES                                                                                                THE START BUTTON                                                                Engines  Generators                                                                       50                                 CONTROL PANEL                                                     Tachometer InaccurateThe  used in propulsion engine instru              1 With a handheld tach on the front of the crankshaft pulment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a               ley retaining nut or with a strobetype tach read the frontcommon ground One circuit operates the hourmeter and the                  crankshaft pulley rpm Set the engine with a hand orother the tachometer The hourmeter circuit operates on 12                 strobe tach at 15001800 rpmvolts alternator charging voltage supplied to the  terminal          2 Adjust the tachometer with a small Phillips type screwon the back of the instrument                                             driver through the calibration acess hole in the rear of theThe tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 68 volts fed               tachometer Zero the tach and bring it to the rpm set byfrom one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to the               the strobe or hand tach Verify the rpm at idle and attachometer input terminal while the engine is running and                 high speed 25003000 rpm Adjust the tach as neededthe alternator producing battery charging voltage 130148volts DCUse the following procedures when  a fault ineither of the two circuits in a                                                                     Inoperative                                               for the proper DC voltage between  and terminals                             1 Voltage present  meter is defective  repair or replace2 Voltage not present  trace  and  electrical con   nections for fault Jump 12 volts DC to meter    terminal to verify the operation                                                                                            CURRENT   for the proper AC voltage between tachometer inputterminal and the  terminal with the engine running1 Voltage present  attempt adjusting the meter through the   calibration access hole If no results repair or replace the    meter2 AC voltage not present  check for proper alternator DC   output voltage3 Check for AC voltage at the tach terminal on the alterna   tor to ground4 Check the electrical connections from the tachometer   input terminal to the alternator  Sticking1 Check for proper AC voltage between the tachometer                                      EARLY MODEL TACHOMETER                                                                                                                               GROUND    input terminal and the  terminal2 Check fr a good ground connection between the meter    terminal and the alternator3 Check that the alternator is well grounded to the engine   block at the alternator pivot bolt                                                                                                                         GROUND                                                                                                                            TERMINAL                                                                                                                          TACHOMETER INPUT                                                                                                                          AC VOLTAGE                                                                                            EARLY MODEL TACHOMETER                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                   51                                     CONTROL PANEL                                       MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT TOGGLE SWITCHES                     NOTE The engine control system is protected by a 20 amp manual reset circuIt breaker                     mounted on a bracket at the lOp rear of the engine near the PREHEAT circuit             PROBLEM                                    PROBABLE CAUSE                                           PREHEAT depressed no panel indications   1 Battery switch or power not on                         1 Check switch andor     fuel solenoid electric fuel pump and    preheat solenoid not energized         2 20 amp circuit breaker tripped                         2 Resetbreaker If opens again check preheat sole                                                                                                          enoid circuit and run circuit for shorts to ground START SWITCH DEPRESSED no starter         1 Connection to solenoid faulty                          1 Check connection    engagement                                            2 Faulty switch                                          2 Check switch with ohmmeter                                            3 Faulty solenoid                                        3 Check that 12 volts are present at the solenoid con                                                                                                          nection                                            4 Loose battery connections                              4 Check battery connections                                            5 Low battery                                            5 Check battery charge state START DEPRESSED panel indications OK     1 Poor connections to fuel solenoid Defective fuel run   1 Check mechanical positioning of the fuel solenoid    Start solenoid OK Fuel solenoid not       solenoid PIN 2304                                       for plunger and throttle arm    functioning                                                                                                       2 Manually check movement of the fuel run solenoid                                                                                                          plunger and throttle arm NO IGNmON cranks does not start Fuel    1 Faulty fueling system                                  1 Check for fuel to generator system    solenoid energized                                                                                                       2 Check for air in the fuel system                                                                                                          Allow system to selfbleed                                                                                                       3 Fulliitt pump faulty ENGINE STOPS                               1 Switch and wiring                                      1 Inspect all wiring for loose connections and short                                                                                                          Circuits NOT CHARGING BATIERY                       1 Alternator drive                                       1 Check the drive belt and its tension Be sure the                                                                                                          alternator turns freely Check for loose connections                                                                                                          Check the output with a voltmeter Ensure 12V are                                                                                                          present at the regulator terminal BATIERY RUNS DOWN                          1 Oil pressure switch                                    1 Observe if the gauges and panel lights are activated                                                                                                          when the engine is not running Test the oil pressure                                                                                                          switch                                            2 High resistance leak to ground                         2 Check the wiring Insert senSitive 025 amp meter                                                                                                          in battery lines Do not start engine Remove con                                                                                                          nections and replace after short is located                                            3 Low resistance leak to ground                          3 Check all wires for temperature rise to locate the                                                                                                          fault                                            4 Alternator                                             4 Disconnect alternator at output after a good battery                                                                                                           charging Jfleakage stops Remove alternator and                                                                                                           bench test Repair or replace                          WATER TEMPERATURE AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGESIf the gauge reading is other than what is normally indicated                     If both of the above gauge tests are positive the gauge isby the gauge when the instrument panel is energized the first                    undoubtedly OK and the problem lies either with the constep is to check for 12 volts DC between the ignition B                        ductor from the sender to the gauge or with the senderand the Negative B tenninals of the gauge                                     If either of the above gauge tests are negative the gauge isAssuming that there is 12 volts as required leave the instru                    probably defective and should be replacedment panel energized and perform the following steps                             Assuming the gauge is OK check the conductor from the1 Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the                         sender to the sender tenninal at the gauge for continuity   gauge reads zero which is the normal reading for this                         Check that the engine block is connected to the ground   situation                                                                     Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the2 Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and                         battery is connected to the starter both plus and minus    see if the gauge reads full scale which is the normal                        terminals the ground side wjJl not necessarily be connected    reading for this situation                                                    to the block                                                                      Engines  Generators                                                                            52                                   CONTROL PANEL  EARLY  BY KEY SWITCH                                                 overheat condition exists and the operating temperature of                                                                         the engine reaches 205F and sounds the alarm TheTurning the ignition switch ON activates the instrument                                                                         tachometer will register the engine speed as it takes impulsespanel The oil and water temperature gauges will zero the                                                                         from the alternator as it charges If the alternator does notvoltmeter will indicate battery voltage and the hourmeter                                                                         produce a charge the tachometer will not operate Thewi1l start to record time The alarm buzzer should sound The                                                                         hourmeter will continue to record time The hourmeter is onelectric fuel pump will start to operate                                                                         a separate 12 volt circuitPushing the key wiJI activate the preheat circuit This closes a                                                                         The circuit is protected by a circuit breaker located on thesolenoid on the engine with an audible click and supplies 12                                                                         engine Whenever excessive current flows the circuit breakervolts to the engine glow plugs Preheat as needed for weather                                                                         will trip This is a manual reset breaker which must be  A noticeable voltage drop will indicate on the                                                                         before the engine wiJI operate electrically againvoltmeter when the preheat circuit is  to preheat tum the key to START This energizesthe starter and turns the engine over Once the engine starts             A     CAUTION The builderowner must ensure that therelease the keyswitch It should spring back to the ON posi                instrument panel Wiring and engine are installed so thattion and pop out of the preheat position                                   electrical devices cannot come in contact with seaThe voltmeter should indicate a charge from the alternator of               water135  145 volts The oil pressure and the alarm buzzershould shut off Oil pressure opens theoil pressure switch in           The latest infonnation regarding your engines electricalthe aJann circuit shutting off the alarm The water tempera             system is included on the wiring diagram shipped with theture switch operates the opposite way it closes when an                 engine Be sure to study this wiring diagram and all notes                                                                         thereon                         PROPULSION ENGINE                                                                      GENERATOR                                                                                                      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                                                                                                                1        I                                                                                                                                                                                               I                                                                                                                                                                                           JI                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                   53                                                                                                              2 Lightly push the pinion back and measure the return                                                                             stroke called pinion gapThe swrtercan be roughly divided into the following sections                                                                          3 If the pinion gap is not within the standard range 05 to     A motor section which generates a drive power                         20 mm adjust it by increasing or decreasing the number                                                                             of shims on the solenoid The gap is decreased as the     An overrunning clutch section which transmits an arma                                                                             number of shims increases      ture torque preventing motor overrun after starting     A switch section solenoid which is operated when      actuating the overrunning clutch through a lever and      which supplies load current to the motorThe starter is a new type small lightweight and is called ahighspeed  starter Its differences in construction from conventional starters are as follows     In conventional starters the pinion slides on the motor      shaft armature shaft In the new type of starter the pin      ion shaft is separate from the motor shaft the pinion      slides only on the pinion shaft                                    NoLoad Test     A reduction gear is installed between the motor shaft and           1 Connect the ammeter voltmeter and battery to the starter      the pinion shaft                                                      see illustration     The pinion sliding part is not exposed outside the starter         2 When the switch is closed the pinion must protrude and      so that the pinion may slide smoothly without becoming                 the starter must run smoothly at 3000 rpm or more If      fouled with dust and grease                                           the current or starter speed is out of specification disas                                                                             semble the starter and repair it     The motor shaft is supported at both ends on ball bear      ings The lever mechanism switch and overrunning      clutch inner circuit are identical to conventional ones                         B                M                                       STARTER WIRING                                                                               A    CAUTION Use thick wires as much as possible                                                                               and tighten every terminal securely This is a sole                                                                               noid shifttype starter which makes a rotating sound                                                                               louder than that of a directdrive type starter WhenADJUSTMENT AND REPAIR                                                          detecting starter rotation at the pinion tip be careIf any abnormality is found by the following tests the starter                ful not to come in contact with the pinion gear whenshould be disassembled and repaired                                                                               it  Gap Inspection1 Conned a battery 12V between the starter lenninaJ S   and the starter body and the pinion drive should rotate   out and stop    A CAUTION Never apply battery voltage for over    10 seconds cominuously                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                     54                                                                                                         3 Holding test With a battery connected to the solenoid                                                                           terminal S and to the starter body manually pu outPerform the following tests If any test result is not satisfac           the pinion fully The pinion must remain at that positiontory replace the solenoid assembly                                       even when released from being held by hand1 Disconnect the wire from terminal M2 Attraction test Connect a battery to the solenoids termi   nal S for  and M for  Have a switch in the  lead   and close it The pinion drive should extend fully out                                                                                             CONNECTOR OFF    A CAUTION Do not apply battery current for     more than 10 seconds when testing the solenoid                                                                              HOLDING TEST                   RETURN TEST                                                                        4 Return test With a battery connected to the solenoid ter                                                                           minal  and to the starter body manually pull out the                              ATTRACTION TEST                              pinion fuUy The pinion must return to its original posi                                                                           tion when released from being held by handSTARTER DISASSEMBLY                                                     7 Pull out the reduction gear lever and lever spring from                                                                           the front bracket1 Disconnect the wire from the solenoid terminal M                                                                        8 On the pinion side pry the snap ring out and pull out the2 Loosen the two screws fastening the solenoid Remove                                                                           pinion and pinion shaft   the solenoid assembly                                                                        9 At each end of the armature remove the ball bearing3 Remove the two through bolts and two screws fastening                                                                           with a bearing puller It is impossible to replace the ball   the brush holder Remove the rear bracket                                                                           bearing pressfitted in the front bracket If that bearing4 With the two brushes pulled away from the armature                     has worn off replace the front bracket assembly   remove the yoke and brush holder assembly Then pull   the annature out5 Remove the cover pry the snap ring out and remove the   washer6 Unscrew the bolts and remove the center   bracket At the same time the washers   for the pinion shaft end play   adjustment will come off           PINION SHAFT                                                            Engines  Generators                                                                   55                                        SERVICE                                                                                                    CLEANING THE   the solenoid for continuity between terminals S andM and between terminals S and body No continuity shouldbe found between Sand M Continuity should be foundbetween S and the body and M and the body                                      COmNUITY CHECK                                                                              Brush and Brush Holder Inspection                                                                              1 Check the brushes If worn out beyond 10 mm replace                                                                                 the brushes                                                                                                                                    The Annature1 Check the armature with  growler tester If its short dr                                       EW            USED  cuited replace the armature Also chck for insulation                                                                              2 Check the brush spring tension A weak or defective    between the communicator and its shaft If poorly insu    lated replace the armature                                                 spring will cause excessive brush wear replace the                                                                                 springs if suspect                                                        ARMATURE                                                        CHECK                                                                              3 Check for insulation between the positive brush holder                                                                                 and holder base If poorly insulated replace the holder                                                                                 assembly Also check the brush holders for proper staking2 Measure the commutator 00 and the depth of undercut   Repair or replace it if the service limit is exceeded Also   check the commutator outside surface for dirtiness and   roughness If rough polish the commutator with a fine   crocus cloth     COMMUTATOR OD                                                                    Engines  Generators                                                                         56                                        SERVICEField Coil Inspection1 Check for insulation between one end brush of the coil   and yoke2 Check for continuity between both ends brushes of the    coil3 Check the poles and coil for tightness                                                                       2 Greasing Whenever the starter has been overhauled                                                                          apply grease to the following parts            FIELD COIL TEST                                              a Armature shaft gear and reduction gear                                                                          h All bearings                                                                         c Bearing shaft washers and snap rings                                                                         d Bearing sleevesSTARTER ADJUSTMENT AND REASSEMBLY                                        e Pinion                                                                         f Sliding portion of lever  A CAUTION Before installing thoroughly clean the  starter flange and mounting surfaces remove all oil  old paint and rust Starter pertonnance largely                         A CAUTION Neer smear the starter fitting silr  depends on the quality of the wiring Use wire of suffi                  face terminals brushes Dr commutator with  cient size and grade between the battery and starter                      grease  and fuly tighten to the terminal                                                                       3 After reassembly check by conducting a noload test                                                                           the starter assembly in the reverse order of disassembly making sure of the folJowing1 Pinibn shaft end play adjustment Set the end play   thrust gap to between 05 to 2 mm by inserting an   adjusting washer between the center bracket and the   reduction gear    a Fit the pinion shaft reduction gear washer and snap       ring to the center bracket    b Measure the end play by moving the pinion shaft in       the axial direction If the end play exceeds 05 mm       increase the number of adjusting washers inserted                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                  57                                            DC ELECTRICAL                                                             NOTE An isolator with a diode a solenoid or a ballery                                                                       selector switch is usually mounted in the circuit to isolate theThe DC Circuit functions to start operate and stop the gener                                                                       balleries so the starling battery is not discharged along withators engine The circuit is best understood by reviewing the                                                                       the house batteries If the isolator is charging the startingDC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS                                                                       battery but not the house battery the alternator is OK andThe engines DC wiring is designed with three simple basic             the problem is in lhe battery charging  preheat slart and run or stopEngine 12Volt Control Circuit                                          A   WARNING Shut off the engine battery switch or disThe engine has a  2 volt DC electrical control circuit that is         connect from the battery when working on the engineshown in the wiring diagrams Refer to these diagrams when              electrical  or when servicing the DC electrical systemon the engine                                                                       Checking for Proper Voltage                                                                       If you suspect the alternator has failed perform the folJowing A     CAUTION    To avoid damage to the battery charg               tests with the engine off                          0  ing circuit never shut the engine battery switch                    1 Using a voltmeter connect the voltmeter red wire clip to  while the engine is running Shut off the engine battery                the output terminal B  switch however to avoid electrical shorts when                     2 Connect the voltmeter negative wire to any ground on the  working on the engines electrical circuit                             engine                                                                       3 Check the battery voltage If the battery is in good   condiCHARGING SYSTEM                                                           tion it should read 2 to 125 voltsThe charging system consists of an alternator a voltage               4 Check the voltage between the alternator   an engine DC wiring harness an engjnemounted                 terminal B and any engine ground If the circuit is goodDC circuit breaker a battery and connecting wires Because               the voltage at the alternator should be the same as theof the use of integrated circuits ICs the electronic voltage           battery unless theres an isolator in the circuit then theregulator is very compact and is mounted internally or on the             reading would be zeroback of the  TROUBLESHOOnNG                                                A    CAUTION    To avoid damage to the battery chalgIf you suspect that the alternator is not producing enough               ing citeuit never shut off the engine battery switchvoltage to charge the engines battery check the following             when the engine is running  A    WARNING A failed aftemator can become very  hot Do not touch until the alternator has cooled down                A    WARNING Before stalfing the engine make cel                                                                         fain that everyone is clealof moving parts Keep awayo    Make certain your alternator is securely mounted                   from sheaves and belts during test procedureso    Check the drive belts for proper tensiono    Inspect for loose or disconnected wires at the alternator        5 Start the engine                                                                       6 The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator                                                                          should indicate between 135 and 145 volts If your                                                                          alternator is over or uncercharging have it repaired at a                                                                          reliable service shop                                                                           NOTE Before removing the alternator for repair use your                                                                           voltmeter to ensure that 2 volts DC excitation is present                                                                           at the EXC lerminal if the previous test showed only bat                                                                           tery vollage at the B oUlput terminal          MANDO          51 AMP AlTERNATOR                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                  58                                          DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMBAmRY  the manufacturers  and then estab              A WARNING These glow plugs will become very hotlish a systematic maintenance schedule for your engines               to the touch Be careful not to bum your fingers whenstarting batteries and house batteries                                testing plugs                              o   Monitor your voltmeter for proper charging during    engine operation                                                                   Reinstall the plugs in the engine and test them again Theo   Check the electrolyte level and specific gravity with a        plugs should get very hot at the terminal end within 20 to    hydrometer                                                    25 seconds If the plugs dont heat up quickly check for ao   Use only distilled water to bring electrolytes to a proper     short circuit    level                                                         When installing the glow plugs use antiseize compound ono   Make certain that battery cable connections are clean          the threads    and tight to the battery posts and to your engineo   Keep your batteries clean and free of corrosion                   A CAUTION Do not keep glow plugs on for more                                                                       than 30 seconds A WARNING Sulfuric acid in lead batteries can cause severe bums on skin and damage clothing Wear protective gear                                                                                              PREHEAT GLOW PLUGSGLOW PLUGSThe glow plug is a small heater installed in each precombustion chamber They run off the engine starting battery andbecome red hot when activatedThe glow plugs are wired through the preheat solenoidWhen PREHEAT is pressed at the control panel this solenoidshould click on and the glow plug should begin to get hotGlow plugs can be checked by unscrewing and holding themagainst a good ground engine block and turning them onThe tip should glow red hot You can also use an ammeter totest the power drain 8 to 9 amps per plug or an ohmmeterto test resistance 11 to 12 ohms                                 TYPICAL GLOW PWG                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                 59                                                                                                  NOTE The alternator connections and color coding described                                                                        on the following illustrations may vary from earlier WESTThe alternator serves to keep the battery constantly charged                                                                        ERBEKE engines Always refer to the wiring diagrams inIt is driven from the pulley at the end of the crankshaft by a                                                                        this manual and also make a quick sketch of your  The type of alternator used is ideal for high speed                                                                        wiring before disconnecting for serviceengines having a wide range of engine speeds It containsdiodes that convert AC to DC and an IC regulator that keepsthe generated voltage constant even when the engine speedchanges  A CAUTION Do not use any highvoltage tester such  as a megger   Otherwise   damage to diodes will result  During highspeed running of the engine do not discon  nect the positive or negative terminal of the battery  from terminal B of the alternator this is done diode  failure will result  Wdh altemators having Ie regulatorsJ absolutely avoid  a short circuit between terminals Band L This would  allow cuent to flow in the Idiode trio and damage it  Do not start the engine with the lead disconnected from  tenninalB of the alternator Otherwise damage to the  voltage regulator will result                                            ALTERNATOR   When charging the battery with a quick charger be                        If you suspect that the alternator is not producing enough  sure to disconnect the battery tenninals to prevent                       voltage to charge the engines battery check the following  damage to diodes                                                         o     Make certain your alternator is securely mounted                                                                            o     Check the drive belts for proper tension                                                                            o     Inspect for loose or disconnected wires at the alternator                                                                             A WARNING A tailed alternator can become very                                                                             bot Do not touch until the alternator has cooled down                                                                            Testing The Charging Voltage                                                               SHAFT        If you suspect the alternator has failed perfonn the following                                                                            tests                                                                            1 Using a voltmeter connect the voltmeter red wire clip to                                                                               the output terminal B                                                                            2 Connect the other voltmeter wire to any ground on the                                                                               engine                                                                            3 Start the engine and record the voltmeters readings                                     STATOR                                                                              A CAUTION To avoid damage to the battery charg                                                                                ing circuit never shut off the engine battery SWitch                                                                                when the engine is running                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                       60                                    SERVICEThe voltage reading for a properly operating alternator                    NOTE If the screwariver is inserted too deep the slOtorshould be between 135 and 145 volts If your alternator is               coil might be damagedover or undercharging have it repaired at a reliable service                                                                       2 Hold the rotor in a vise and remove the pulley nut Thenshop or continue with the following tests                                                                          remove the pulley fan spacer and seal Next remove theNOTE Before removing the alternator for repair use your                 rotor from the front bracket and remove the sealvoltmeter to ensure that I2 volts DC excitation is preselll at                                                                       3 Unsolder the rectifierfrom the stator coil lead wires andthe R XC terminal if the previous tesi showed only battery                                                                          remove the stator  at the B output terminal                                                                           NOTE Make sure that the solder is removed quickly in                                                                          less than five seconds If a diode is heated to more than                                                                           I50 aC 310F it might be damaged                                                                       4 Remove the condenser from terminal B                                                                       5 Unsolder the plates Band L from the rectifier assembly                                                                       6 Remove the mounting screw and B terminal bolt and                                                                          remove the electronic voltage regulator and brush holderOutput Test                                                                          The regulator and brush holder cannot be sepearated1 Disconnect the battery ground cable                                7 Remove the rectifier assembly2 Disconnect the wire from terminal B on the alternator               S Brush and brush spring replacement   and connect an ammeter between B and this wire                                                                           When only a brush or brush spring is to be replaced it can3 Connect a voltmeter between terminal B  and ground               be replaced without removing the stator etc With the brush4 Connect to the P terminal                                              holder assembly removed unsolder the pigtail of the brush5 Reconnect the battery ground cable to the  tenninal             NOTE If the terminals Land B of the rectifier assembly are   The voltmeter should indicate the battery voltage                  bent damage might result to the rectifier Therefore the                                                                       plates Band L should be gently bent at the center6 Connect B to the R terminal regulator7 Start the engine                                                                                              TERMINAL B BOLTS Tum on 12 volt accessories equaling the amperage output   of the alternator accelerate the engine to the specified   speed 2000 to 3000 rpm and measure the output cur   rent The output current should be close to the alterna   tors maximum ouput                                                     RECTIFIER                                    REGULATOR                                                                             ASSEMBLY                                     BRUSH HOLDER    Output Current     1300 rpm      2500 rpm      5000 rpm        Hot             16 amp        41 amp        48 amp                                                                                                                    STATOR        Cold            24 amp        50 amp    NOTE rpm is thaI of the alternator The pulley ratio    alternator vs crank pulley is 178 to 1 all readings are    at j 35 liolts                                                                                                                               REAR                                     OUTPUT TEST SETUP                                                                                                                                     After removing the three assembly throughbolts insert a   screwdriver between the front bracket and stator While             SPACER      ROTOR   prying it remove the front bracket and rotor                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                  61                                   SERVICEAn alterlUlte method for removing the stator winding brush         reguotor unit and the Ie diode rectifier assemblyfrom the rear bracket With the front bracket and rotor            Diodeassembly separated from the rear half of the alternator           Diode troubles are classified as opencircuit and shortcircuit1 Insert a    between the stator core       When the diode is opencircuited no current flows In the    and the edge of the rear bracket on the same side as the       shortcircuited diode current flows in both directions    brushholder Raise this side of the stator core away from    the bracket so as to open a gap of about 12 inch             Checking for Short Circuit   NOTE Be careful not to allow the screwdriver blade to          Check for continuity between the  heat sink and the stator   enter far enough to touch the stator winding                   cojl lead joint terminal and betwecn the  heat sink and the                                                                   said terminal If each test shows current flow in both direc2 Maintaining the 12 inch gap insert the screwdriver            tions the diodes are shortcircuited Replace the rectifier    between the stator core and the bracket on the rectifier                                                                   assembly    side and move the stator laterally toward the brush holder    for a distance of 12 to 34 of an inch without lifting it    from the bracket3 Insert a 2 Phillips screwdriver through this opening and    remove the two screws holding the rectifier                                                                                                                                                                                            DIODE TRIOS 3                                                                                                      HHEATSINK                                                                                                      ASSEMBLY                                                                       Checking for Open Circuit4 Remove the nut anchoring the B terminal bolt and the                To check for an open circuit in the diodes which have passed    capacitor mounted thereto on the outside rear of the               the shortcircuit test disconnect the diode leads and check    bracket Then remove the third Phillips screw holding the          with your ohmmeter between the diode lead and the body    brush holder to the bracket                                       reversing the leads If no continllity is found the diode is5 Carefully withdraw stator brush holder and rectifier from          open    the rear bracket as one loosely connected unit                                                                       Checking Diode Trio    With the bracket out of the way it is easy to unsolder the    stator winding leads from the rectifier quickly to avoid           Check each of the three diodes for continuity If any diode    heat damage to the diodes and IC chips It is also easier         allows current flow in both directions or does not allow    to renew the brushes because there is no need to bend the          current to flow in one direction replace the rectifier assembly    connecting plates between the brush holder and the    rectifier and possibly damage the rectifierWhen reversing this procedure make sure that the statorwinding leads are gently pushed back from possible contactwith the rotor body after seating the stator into the rearbracket                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                  62                                    the stator lead wires from the coil and check forcontinuity between the three leads with a circuit tester If nocontinuity is found the stator windings are open Next checkfor insulation between each lead and the core If continuity isfound replace the stator                                                                   Checking Brush and Brush Spring                                                                   Replace the brush if it has worn to the replacement value                                                                   Check the brush spring force Also confinn that the bnIsh                                                                    moves smoothly in the brush holder                                                                                                      Standard        Replacement                                                                                                       Value          Required at                                                                           Brush Length mm             18                8                                                                           Brush Spring Force g      370060            210                                                                   Checking the Slip Ring                                                                   Because the slip ring wears very little the diameter must be                                                                   measured with a micrometer Replace the rings rotor                                                                   assembly when wear reaches the replacement value                                                                                                   Standard           Replacement                                                                                                     Value            Required atField Coil Rotor                                                         Slip Ring 00           33mm                322 mmCheck resistance between the slip rings The resistance must               Runout               003 mm or less          02mmconfonn to the specified value               Resistance Value 387Q  10                           The slip ring must be smOth with no surface oil If neces                                                                       sary clean and polish with a fine crocus cloth                                                                       REGULATOR                                                                       The regulator consists of a voltage regulator and a lamp                                                                       relay their wires are gathered into a connector The VOltage                                                                       regulator is used to always keep the alternator output con                                                                       stant regardless of alternator speed and to cut off the flow of                                                                       current to the field coil when necessary The lamp relay is                                                                       used on the Captain panel only to illuminate the panel light                                                                       indicating no alternator charge The 50A alternator has a                                                                       builtin Ie regulator During alternator operation field cur                                                                       rent is controlled automatically by the Ie regulator                                                                       1 Connect an ammeter approx 60A rating between the                                                                           battery positive tenninal and its cable                                                                       2 Connect a voltmeter between the generator terminal LCheck for continuity between the slip ring and the core If              and the ground In this case the voltmeter must indicatethere is continuity it means that the coil or slip ring is               0 If otherwise indicated a defective alternator orgrounded Replace the rotor assembly                                     faulty wiring is suspected                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                  63                                   SERVICE3 Tum the starting switch key to the ON position and the         REASSEMBLY   voltmeter wilJ indicate a value considerably lower than   the battery vOltage If the indication is near the battery   voltage a defective generator is possible                      A CAUTION Connect the altemator properly Should4 With the ammeter shortcircuited start the engine               the polarity be reversed a powerful current would flow                                                                     from the battery into the alternator damaging the                                                                     diodes and wiring harness     A CAUTION the ammeter is not shortcir     cuited a large starting current will bum out the     ammeter coi                                                 1 Install the alternator support bolt through the alternator                                                                       leg underside into the engine casting                                                                   2 Swing the alternator into position on the adjustings   Increase the engine sed to between 2000 and 3000 rpm                                                                      bracket and fasten Lightly tighten     and read the ammeter                                                                   3 Adjust belt tension6 If the ammeter reading does not exceed SA read the   voltmeter at that state 20003000 rpm The voltmeter          4 Tighten both bolts and recheck belt tension   reading is the regulated voltage                                  Torque values7 If the ammeter reading exceeds 5A continue charging                 Support bolt           2024 Nm 15 18 ftIbs   the battery until the ammeter reading drops to SA or                 Adjusting bracket bolt 12  14 Nm 9 10 ftlbs   below or replace the battery with a fullycharged one or          NOTE Make certain the belts are perfectly aligned with   connect a 14Q 25W resistor in series to the battery to           the alternator and engine pulleys If not insert or remove   restrict charging current                                          spacers as needed to align the alternatorS The Ie regulator is of the temperature compensation type   and therefore regulated voltage varies with temperature   It is necessary to measure the temperature of the rear   bracket surrounding the regulator and to use the   measurement for correction of regulated voltage                                             AMMETER                CHECKING THE ICREGULATOR VOLTAGE                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                64                                                   uses a variety of marine transmissions madeby wellknown marine manufacturers such as H URTH ZFBORG WARNER PARAGON and others If you  parts repair work or an overhaul we recommend contacting the transmission manufacturer directly forinformation on the locations of authorized 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                             1                                                                                                                                                                                                  I     I     I                      lARM                     i                           0                       ALTD                J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       FUEL SOLENOI D WIRING                                                                                                                                                                                                           lS TII  w09N1IE                                                                                                                              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                                   41U     I                                                                                                                                                                                    CAPTAIN     I                                                                                                        l4Blit              fi                                                               I       PANEL                                                                                                                                                                                    I                                                                             WTt                                                                                                                  7                                                                                                            isl                            I                 j                                                                                                                                                          I     I                                  KEV5WITCH                                            tO                                                                                                         FREHEAT                                                                            lAMP                                                                                          141J11I                                                                                                              J                                                                                                                                                               TACHOMETER                                                                                                                                                                                    I     I                                              SWITCH                                                                            18 91K                                                                                I     I                                                                      881K                                                                                  I     I                                                                      le8l                                                                                   I     I                                                                 1     RLK                                                                                                                                                                     I     I     L                                                                                                                                         1                                                                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                                                                             70                          DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                          ENGINE WIRING SCHEMATIC 36467        to   12VOC             CB              20A                                 I  I P                                                        I                                                       I             I                                                       I                                                       I    L                                                        L                                                                      I        FUEL SOLENOIO                                                                                                                                                               O SNOR                                                                                                                                                     1                                                                               WT SW       SI                                                  SI   52                        51                                                                               TACH       PI            PI     PI                                  PZ                                                           01                                                                                                AMP                                                                                               TEST                                                  04                                           SWITCH                                                           02                                            T                                                                         03                                                                17              PREHEAT SWITCH                                   ALARMSTART I TuRN KEY TO ON POSITION THE ALARM WILL SOUNOOIL PRESSURE AND       BATTERY CHARGE INDICATORS WILL LIGHT       2PUSH PREHEAT SWITCH FOR 15 TO 60 SECONDS AS REQUIRED 1 ALARM WILL STOP       3WHILE CONTINUING TO PUSH PREHEAT SWITCHPUSH THE START SWITCH ALSO            WHEN THE ENGINE STARTS RELEASE THE START SWITCH ONLY       4WHEN THE OIL PRESSURE       INDICATOR LAMP GOES OUT RELEASE THE         PREHEAT SWITCH           TURN THE KEY TO TH E OFF POSITIONI THIS PRODUCT IS PROTECTED BY A MANUAL RESET CIRCUIT BREAKER LOCATED NEAR THE STARTER EXCESSIVE CURRENT DRAIN WILL CAUSE THE BREAKER TO TRIP AND THE ENGINE WILL SHUT DOWN THE BUILDEROWNER MUST BE SURE THAT THE INSTRUMENT PANELyWIRING AND ENGINE ARE INSTALLED TO PREVENT CONTACT BETWEEN ELECTRICAL DEVICES AND SALTWATER                                2 AN ONOFF SW ITCH SIiOULD BE I NSTALLED BETWEEN THE BATTERY AN 0 STARTER TO   DISCONNECT THE BATTERY IN AN EMERGENCY AND WHEN LEAVING THE SOA T A SWITCH   WITH A CONTINUOUS RATING OF 75 AMPS AT 12VDC WILL SERvE THIS FUNCTION THIS   SWITCH SHOULD NOT BE USED TO AKE OR BREAK THE CIRCUIT3 PINK WIRE AT PLUG Z IS UNUSED AND SHOULD BE INSULATED                                    Engines  Generators                                           71                                        DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                                          ENGINE WIRING DIAGRAM 36844                                        WATER                      wATER              GLOwPLVGS                 TEMP                       TEMp              234otI                                        SENOER                     SWITCH                  OENOI ON                  HUUilEAor                                                                        0               IORSj              PREHEAT              SOLENOIO                                                      2                                                                                                                           ill                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   FUEl SOLE NOlOHE   tl        rt       ZI 1        L                                                                                          OIL                                                                                         PRESSURE                                                                                         SENOER                                                            t                                                                                                                                                ilII                                                                                  z                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       SZ                                               12                                                                                                                         14 LT ElIU                                                                                                                       w                                                                                                         0 AU                  4 GREEN              r              I                                                                      I                                                                                                           ALTERNATOR  51 A                                                                                                           ustO 0fI   H   COEISl              I                                                                      I              I                                                                      I              I                                                                      I              I                                                                      I                                                                                     I              I                                                                      I                                                                                     I                                 VOlTMETER                                                                                     I                                                                                     I                                                                                     I                                         JI                                       01110                                                                                   ADMIRAL                                                                                               PANEL                                                                   Engines  Generators                                                                                72                                  DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                                   ENGINE WIRING SCHEMATIC 36844    12 VDC                                                                                          STARTER                                                                                        GLOWPLUS                                                    PREHEAT SOL     C8                                        C8     20A                                       lOA                                                                                                    LIFT PUMP                                                                                                      P   IC                                                                              I                                                                              I                                                                              I                                                                              L                                                                                    Lg                                                                                                                                                                               I        FUEL SOL                NEUTRAL                               SW                                                                                         WTSNDR                                                                                                     O P SNOR                                                                                                     IJ T SIJSI         SI              1                        52    52       SI   SI       SI                                 SI           PI              rl         PI     PI          P2       PI   PI       PI                                 PI                                                                                                        TACH                                                                                                s                                                      C   0    p                                         VOLTS                                                                                                                ALARM                                                                                                          OP                                                                                                          WT     PREHEAT SW                NOTES                I THIS PIIODUCT IS PROTECTED BY A MANUAL RESET CIRCUIT BREAKER LOCATED NEMI THE                     STARTER EXCESSIVE CURRENT DRAIN WILL CAuSE THE SREAKER TO TRIP ANO THE ENGINE                     WILL SHUT DOWN THE BUILOEIIOWNErI     MUST BE SURE THAT THE INSTRUMENT PANEL                     WIJUNG AND ENGINE ARE INSTALLED TO PREVENT            OONTACT BETWEEN ELECTRICAL DEVICES                     AND SALTWATER                2 AN ONOFF SWITCH      SHOULD      eE INSTALLED BETWEEN THE BATTERy AND STARTER TO                     DISCONNECT THE BATTERY IN AN EMERGENCY AND WHEN LEAVING THE BOAT A SWITCH                     WITH A CONTINUOUS RATING OF 175AMPS AT 12VDC WILL seRVE THIS FUNCTION THIS SWITCH                     SHOULD NOT BEUSEO TO MAKE OR BREAK THE CIRCUIT                   GRAY WIRE AT PLUG 2     IS UNUSED AND Sl40ULD 8E MSULATED                                                       Engines  Generators                                                                73                                                       DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                                                          ENGINE WIRING DIAGRAM 39144This diagram illustrates the                                                                                               IIA12 VDC negative ground                                                                                                                  oelectrical circuit Two  panels are alsoshown the Captains Paneland the Admirals PaneL                                                                                                     I   1                                                                                                         IL                    OTf  II                               I        J                                                                                                               L                                   12 IIDC                                   llllI                   HOTE            AN ONOFF SWITCH            SHOULD BE IN            STALLED BETWEEN            THE BAITERY AND                                                                                    ADMIRAL            STARTER TO DIS                                                                                    PANEL            CONNECT THE BAT            TERY IN AN EMER            GENCY AND WHEN            LEAVING THE BOAT                                                                                                                      A SWITCH WITH A            CONTINUOUS            RATING OF 175            AMPS AT 12 voe            WILL SERVE THIS            FUNCTION THIS            SWITCH SHOULD            NOT BE USED TO            MAKE OR BREAK            THE ClRCUIT                                                                                lit Ie                                                                                                                                                                   CAPTAIN                                                                                                               PANEL                               r                                                                                                                                                                                        I lUI                                                                                                            1                                                                                       cLO                  L                                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                                            74                                                      DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                                                      ENGINE WIRING SCHEMATIC 39144    1   woe                                                                                                                        r L I                                                                                 1 Ttl  1               I                                                                                                                                                    U  i                                                                                     I      fUEL     I                                                                                     y                                                                                      1                          I                                                                                                   I                                                                          Lm                                                                          I 0wiRmOHLT                                                                                  I          T                                                                        ADMIRAL                                                                        PANEL                n                                                                                 NOTES                                                                                I THIS PODUCT IS fOTECTED In A MANUAL IIESET CIIICUIT IIREAIIOEIt LOCATE NEAll THE                                                                                   STAltTEIt EXCESSIVE URItEIIT WILL CAU THE III1AIIEIt TO TRI AIID THE EMGUIE WILt                                                                                   sHUT DOWM TME 1111 I LOU 1OWII II IIUST IE SUIIE TMA T THE 11Is1llUIIIIT I ANL Illi 0                                                                                   IIME AII INSTALlD TO f1tVENT CONTACT IlEnrEEII ELECTaCAl DEVICEs AND sEAUEJ                                                                                z AM OIlOFF SITCH IIOULD I  IJSTAlUD IIETWEEII TilE hTTlltY AIID nUTU TO                                                                                    DISCOMNECT TilE eATTERY III All IIII611CT AIID HEII LEAVIIIG THE IIOAT A SWITCH                                                                                   11TH A COIiTlIIUOUS IIATI1I6 Of 17 AMIS AT 12 YDC WilL SEIVE THIS fUlICTIOII    THIS                                                                                   SWITCH SHOULD IIOT lIE USED TO MAli 011 BREAI THE CIIICUIT                                                                                3 THE IIIK IIE AT LUG        IS UIIIISD AIID SHOULD eE SIILATO CAnAIII ANEl OllLT                                                                                4   THE GlIAl lIRE AT PLUG 2 IS UIIUSED AIIO SIIOULO liE I NSULAT ADlliltAL IAL OIlLT                                                                    CAPTAIN                                                                    PANEL                                                      L                                                      TUT                                                                                                                                                                                LT IIIU                                      T1   0                                    51     AMP        ALTERNATOR                           pBESIO lIE        7Z AMP          ALI                                    ST UORI AI HIlIIArOIl 011 THt                                    e   Ili IHe                                                C       ii   ct   m     IZ                                                                                                        o  UN VERSAl                                                                                               I                                                                                      PRESTQl lIE                                                                                                          PROPULS ON                                                                                                          51 AMP         ALI                                                                               Engines  Generators                                                                                           75                                    STANDARD HARDWARE TORQUESNOTE Unless stated otherwise for a specific assembly use the following torque values when tightening standard hardwareGrade 4                  Pitch         Ibft      kgm            Grade 7T 8T and 88     Pitch         Ibft        kgm  6mm bolt headnut                   2951    0407            6mm bolt headnut                   5887      0812  8mm bolt headnut      125        72116    1016            8mm bolt headnut      125        145217     2030  10mm bolt headnut     125        137224   1931            10mm bolt headnut     125        28939S     4055  10mm bolt headnut      15        130217   1830            10mm bolt headnut      15        268376     3752  12mm bolt headnut   125 ISO    25339S   3555            12mm bolt headnut   125 ISO    542759    75105  12mm bolt headnut      15        253398   3555            12mm bolt headnut      15        506651     7090  12mm bolt headnut     175        217362   3050            12mm bolt headnut     175        434615     60S5  13mm bolt headnut      15        325506   4570            13mm bolt headnut      15        579868    80120  14mm bolt headnut      15        362579   5080            14mm bolt headnut      15       7231085    100150  14mm bolt headnut       2         340557   4777            14mm bolt headnut       2        6871013    95140  16mm bolt headnut      15        542796   75110           16mm bolt headnut      15       10851664   150230  16mm bolt headnut       2         514767   71106           16mm bolt headnut       2        10131591   140220Grade 6T                                                          Grade 5 Cap Screw  6mm bolt headnut                   4365    0609            14 UNC                              911        1215  8mm bolt headnut      125        10S159   1522            14 UNF                             1113        1518  10mm bolt headnut     125        217325   3045            516 UNC                            1S20        2528  10mm bolt headnut      15        195304   2742            516 UNF                            2123        2932  12mm bolt headnut   125 ISO    362579   5080            38 UNC                             2833        3746  12mm bolt headnut      15        362506   5070            38 UNF                             3035        4148  12mm bolt headnut     175        347492   4868            716 UNC                            4449        6168                                                                    716 UNF                            5055        6976                                                                    12 UNC                             6873       94101                                                                    12 UNF                             73S0       101111                                                     Engines  Generators                                                            76                              METRIC CONVERSIONS           INCHES TO MILLIMETERS                   MILLIMETERS TO INCHESInches         mm      Inches       mm          mm       Inches                                                                                                                                            mm         Inches   1          2540       15      38100         1        00394      15         05906   2          5080       20      50800         2        00787      20         07874   3          7620       25      63500         3        01181      25         09843   4         10160       30      76200         4        01575      30         11811   5        12700        35      88900         5        01969      35         13780  10        25400        40    101600         10        03937       40         15748     10 MILLIMETERS 1CENTIMETER 100 CENTIMETERS 1 METER 3937 INCHES 33 FEET               INCHES TO METERS                        METERS TO INCHESInches        Meters     Inches     Meters     Meters      Inches    Meters       Inches   1         00254          7     01n8        01          3937     07       27559   2         00508          8     02032       02          7874     08       31496   3         00762          9     02286       03         11811     09       35433   4         01016         10     02540       04         15748     10       39370   5         01270         11     02794       05         19685     11       43307   6         01524         12     03048       06        23622      12       47244       TO CONVERT METERS TO CENTIMETERS MOVE DECIMAL POINT TWO PLACES TO THE RIGHT                 YARDS TO METERS                           METERS TO YARDSYards          Meters     Yards       Meters     Meters        Yards       Meters      Yards   1          091440       6         548640       1         109361         6       656168   2           182880      7         640080       2        218723          7       765529   3          274320       8         731520       3        328084          8       874891   4          365760       9         822960       4        437445          9       984252   5          457200      10         914400       5        546807         10     1093614           MOVE DECIMAL POINT FOR HIGHER VALUES  eg 6000 METERS  656168 YARDS              POUNDS TO KILOGRAMS                          KILOGRAMS TO POUNDS  Ib            kg      Ib      kg                    kg          Ib     kg      Ib   1           0454       6   2722                   1         2205    6   13228   2           0907       7   3175                   2         4409    7   15432   3           1361       8   3629                   3         6614    8   17637   4           1814       9   4082                   4         8818    9   19842   5           2268     10    4536                   5        11023  10    22046                 GALLONS TO LITERS                             LITERS TO GALLONSGallons         Liters Gallons   Liters              Liters       Gallons  Liters Gallons   1            379     10      3786                  1          026     60    1566   2            757     20      7571                  2          053     90    2377   3           1136     30     11357                  5          132    120    3132   4           1514     40     15142                10           264    150    3962   5           1893     50     18928                20           528    180    4754                     PINTS TO LITERS                            LITERS TO PINTS Pints            Liters    Pints    Liters          Liters        Pints  Liters       Pints  1               047         6        284           1           211      6         1268  2               095         7        331           2           423      7         1479  3               142         8        379           3           634      8         1691  4               189         9        426           4           845      9         1902  5               237        10        473           5          1057     10         2113                                        TEMPERATURE   32        40          50   60   70    75     85      95      105 140    175 212       OF    I         I           I    I    I     I      I       I       I   I      I   I       I      I           I    I    I     I      I         I     I    I     I      I       0      5          10   15   20    25     30      35       40   60   80 100        C                                         Engines  Generators                                               77                                           GENERATOR INFORMATIONUSE OF ELECTRIC MOTORS                                                  GENERATOR FREQUENGY ADJUSTMENTThe power required to start an electric motor is considerably           Frequency is a direct result of  speed asmore than is required to keep it running after it is started           indicated by the followingSome motors require much more current to start them than                D   When the generator is run at 1800 rpm the AC voltageothers Splitphase AC motors require more current to start              output frequency is 60 hertzunder similar circumstances than other types They are commonly used on easystarting loads such as washing                     D   When the generator is run at 1500 rpm the AC  or where loads are applied after the motor is start              output frequency is 50 hertzed such as small power tools Because they require 5 to 7              Therefore to change the generators frequency the generatimes as much current to start as to run their use should be           tors drive engines speed must be changedavoided whenever possible if the electric motor is to be driven by a small generator Capacitor and              GENERATOR  require from 2 to 4 times as much current to start as            D   Maintaining reasonable cleanliness is importantto run The current required to start any motor varies with the             Connections of terminal boards and rectifiers mayload connected to it An electric motor connected to an air                 become corroded and insulation surfaces may  for example will require more current than a                   conducting if salts dust engine exhaust carbon etcmotor to which no load is connected                                        are allowed to build up Clogged ventilation openingsIn general the current required to start lISvolt motors con              may cause excessive heating and reduced life of windnected to medium starting loads will be approximately as fol               ingslows                                                                   D For unusually severe conditions thin rustinhibiting                    AMPS FOR RUNNING       AMPS FOR STARTING                petroleumbase coatings should be sprayed or brushed  MOTOR SIZE HP      AMPERES              AMPERES                     over all surfaces to reduce rusting and corrosion                                                                            Typical materials suggested are Ashland Tectyle 506        16                 32                 64  224                                                                            and Daubert Chemical Co NonRustAC410        14                 46                 92  322             D   In addition to periodic cleaning the generator should be        13                 52                104 728                  inspected for a tightness of all connections b evi                                                                            dence of overheated terminals and c loose or dam        12                 72                144 292                                                                            aged wires        34                102                204  408              D   The drive discs on single bearing generators should be         1                 130                 26 52                       checked periodically if possible for tightness of screws                                                                            and for any evidence of incipient cracking failure DiscsNOTE In the above table the maximum Amps for Starting                   should not be allowed to become rusty because rustis more for some small motors than for larger ones The rea                may accelerate cracking The bolts which fasten theson for this is that the hardest starting types splitphase are           drive disc to the generator shaft must be hardened steelnot made in larger sizes                                                   SAE grade 8 identified by 6 radial marks one at each                                                                            of the 6 corners of the headBecause the heavy surge ot current needed for startingmotors is required for only an instant the generator will not          D The rear armature bearing is lubricated and sealed nobe damaged if it can bring the motor up to speed in a few                   maintenance is required However if the bearingse90nds If difficulty is experienced in starting motors turn              becomes noisy or roughsounding have it replacedoff all other electrical loads and if possible reduce the load        D Examine the bearing at periodic intervals No sideon the electric motor                                                      movement of the shaft should be detected when force is                                                                            applied If side motion is detectable the bearings areREQUIRED OPERATING SPEED                                                    wearing or wear on the shaft of the bearing socket outAlthough individual units may vary slightly the normal volt               side bearing has occurred Repair must be made quicklyage and frequency of typical 60 50 hertz enginedriven gen               or major components will rub and cause major damageerators described in this manual are approximately as fol                  to the generatorlows run first with noload applied then at half the genera          D   Examine the control box at periodic intervals to detecttors capacity and finally loaded to its full capacity as indi            cracks from engine and generator vibration If cracks incated on the generators data plate                                        the box are seen engine vibration may be severeThe output voltage should be checked periodically to ensure                 requiring bracing in the box for additional strength toproper operation of the generating plant and the appliances it              resist                                                                         GENERATOR                                                                         A complete and illustrated text on  and ser                                                                        vicing the WMD and BT generators is furnished in the fol                                                                        lowing pages                                                              Engines  Generators                                                                    78                                                                   WMD                                                                                    as well The housing with field coils is heavy Once the                                                                                              housing has cleared the armature shaft it should be supThe WMD model generator is a selfexciting and selfregu                                                                                              ported and slowly drawn over the armature Try not tolating brush style generator requiring only a driving force to                                                                                              drag it over the  voltage It is four lead reconnectable for 115 volts or115230 volts and has a four pole revolving armature with                                INSPECTIONno DC brushes or commutator It has a solid state bridge rec                             1 Inspect the bearing and replace as needed If the unit istifier in the exciter circuit AC slip rings a dripproof con                              going through a major overhaul bearing replacement isstruction and a single bearing design Voltage regulation is                                recommended7 noload to fullload and frequency regulation is 34                                                                                          2 Check the field coils resistance values Remove the fieldhertz noload to fullload It is in insulation class F as                                                                                             coils from the housing Note and mark each field coilsdefined by MEMA MGI165 and its temperature rise is                                                                                             position in the housing Do not mix them up Each coil haswithin MEMA MGI2240 definition when operating at full                                                                                             a different part number and a specific position in the housload Its  blower fan is direct connected to                                                                                             ing Incorrect assembly will cause low voltage outputthe armature shaft for cooling Capacitors across the hot legand neutral minimize radio interference within the limits of                              3 Unbolt the armature from the flywheel Test the armaturemost commercial and civilian applications The armature is                                   with an ohmmeter Clean the slip rings and polish using abalanced laminated steel double dipped and baked The field                                 crocus clothring is thick hot rolled steel with a welded bearing supportbracket machined as an assembly for precise bearing align                                                                                          REASSEMBLY                                                                                          Reassemble in reverse orderment The rear carrier bearing is prelubricated double sealedwith an antirotation lock                                                               NOTE When assembling the housing onto the generator arma                   WMD GENERATOR SPECIFICATIONS                                                                                          ture be sure to properly align the antislip groove in the bear              FREQUENCY                           60 HERTZ STANDARD                                                                                          ing with the hole in the housing and install a new lock pin  RPM                               1800 for 60 Hertz                                     The fan on the back end plays an important part in moving      NOTE To convert a 60 Hz      1500 for 50 Hertz      unit to 50 Hz the armature                                                         air through the generator for cooling In installations where      must be changed                                                                    surrounding air is limited outside air should be ducted to the  Voltage Normal                    115VAG                230 VAG           Maximum                  132 VAG               264 VAG                         area of the screened endbell inlet to provide this needed air           Minimum                  108 VAG               216 VAG                         for cooling and combustion as well  Excitation Voltage                115 VAG output voltage supplied to rectifier  Field Excitation Voltage          190 VDG approximate                                 The security of the generator fan hold down nut should be                                                                                          checked at installation commissioning at the initial                                                                                servicing of the generator unit and periodically thereafter                                                                                          200300 hours The cooling fan securing nut should be tight1 Lift and support the back end of the engine so that the                                enough so that when force is applied to rotate the fan by   generator is not resting on its isolators                                             pushing on the outer edge and blades with the palm of your2 Remove the generator endbell cover This exposes the fan                               hand protect the hand with a cloth or a glove you should   and brush rig assembly Remove the fan assembly with                                   be able to tum the generator and engine without the fan slip   its hardware                                                                          ping on the shaft If properly torqued and the fan still slips3 Remove the brush rig assembly This can be done in two                                 replace the lockwashers   half assemblies Unbolt the two halfmoon assemblies                                   Recirculation of generator cooling air through the generator   from the frame attachment and lift the two halves away                                 must be avoided The generator compartment ventilation   from the slip rings Mark the polarity of the two leads on                             must be sufficient to prevent generator air recirculation   the bridge rectifier that go to the field coils and unplug                             Insure that the screened endbell inlet and the screened dis   these from the bridge rectifier The two halfmoon brush                               charge slots at the flywheel are not obstructed preventing   assemblies can be removed from the generator by remov                                 good air circulation through the generator while it is running   ing the heavy output leads G 1 G2 G3 and G4 from their                                               FAN   attachment point on each brush holder Make a rough                                                                                             03   sketch as to where each of these leads attaches on each   assembly half There are 8 leads that are paired in the   control panel to provide four reconnectable leads Inspect   and replace components in the brush rig as needed Do   not totally disassemble as this is not needed                                                                                                NUT   flAT WASHER STARWASHER4 Remove the control panel from the top of the generator   housing Mark all leads as needed for proper assembly5 Unbolt the generator housing from the bell housing A   puller may be needed at the bearing end to assist in pulling   the housing with or without the bearing off the armature   Some gentle prying at the bell housing end will be needed                                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                                                          79                                   WMD GENERATOR  ELECTRICAL OUTPUT                                                     5 If no voltage is produced check the static capacitors                                                                            that it is not shorted to ground If one is found faulty1 Remove the load from the generator and verify no output                                                                            remove the connection from the output tenninal at the   directly at the generator output leads with a voltmeter                                                                            brush rig and repeat Step 32 Check for proper electrical connections Refer to the   INTERNAL WIRING DIAGRAMS                                             FLASH FIELD COILS   NOTE The generator armature slip rings and brush rigs                1 Units may lose their residual magnetism from extended   are numbered from illboard at the willdings or flywheel                  storage or rough handling during installation or disas   end outward toward the rear support bearing                             sembly and assembly for installation etc requiring the                                                                            field coils to be excited with 6 to  2 volts DC to restore                                                                            the magnetism to the generator This is done in the fol                                                                            lowing manner                                                                            Stop the engine and remove the generator endbell cover                                                                            This will expose the cooling fan brush rig assembly anc                                                                            rectifier Check internal wiring see diagram The posi                                                                            tive  lead from the field coils is connected to the posi                                                                            tive marked terminal on the rectifier and the negative                                                                             lead from the field coils is connected to the opposite                                                                            unmarked terminal on the rectifier Using jumper leads                                                                            with insulated alligator clips connect 6 to 12 volts DC                                                                            battery positive to the positive of the rectitier and nega                                                                            tive to the unmarked terminal of the rectifier for approxi                                                                            mately  0 seconds This should restore magnetism to the3 For a residual voltage check disconnect the field leads                 stationary field coils   from the bridge rectifier Note the position of the leads on   the rectifier  to  and  to  Operate the genera   tor and check the AC output no load on generator                                                                              A CAUTION Be careful not to connect DC voltage                                                                              to the AC terminals on the reclifiet as Ihis will dam   Measure the voltage between the neutral lead and the hot   leads 3 and 4 wire unit  25 volts AC each hot lead                    age the rectifier   to neutral approximate    If the residual voltage chcks OK you can assume the                    Remove the alligator clip connections replace the end    rotating armature and brush rig are OK The generators                  bell cover and operate the generator and check AC output    problem lies in the rectifier andor the field coils                   voltage    If residual voltage is not present Check the brush rig and    the static capacitors Check the rotating armature resis                 t23QvI    tance values and the continuity check found under Flash    Field Coils                          25 VOLTS AC    25 VOLTS AC                                                                                                          INTERNAL WIRING DIAGRAM                                                                                                                BASIC 4 WIRE                    HOT                                  HOT                                                                                                                                  612 vott                                                                                                                                 OCBanery                                    NEUTRAL                                3  4 WIRE UNITS                                                                                                                   AC4 Test the operation of the generator by bypassing the   bridge rectifier Apply 12 volts DC to the field leads on   the bridge rectifier  to  and  to  Run the gen                        Armature   erator noload Measure the voltage output at the gener   ator leads Generator output with 12 volts DC excitation   to the field coils should be 50 to 70 volts AC If 50 to 70   volts AC is produced this should indicate that the gener   ator is OK and that the bridge rectifier is defective                                                               Engines  Generators                                                                    80                                   WMD GENERATOR  Check for a short or open in the rotating armature or in                                    I   the stationary field coils                ROTATING ARMATURE RESISTANCE VALUES                                          i                             j    WMD 110 and 125 KW                             1                                 1 ohm or less between slip rings                                 1 3 and 24                                                                      J    NOTE 4wire units there should be no continuity found    between slip rings 12 23 and 34 If continuity    is found an internal short exists between these windings    and the armature should be replaced    NOTE There should be no continuity found between any    of the slip rings and the armatures central steel shaft If                                                                                         j                                         I    continuity is found the windings are shorted to the shaft                                                                                         I    and the armature should be replaced    Rotating armature slip rings are numbered from inboard                                                                                                                                       of the generator flywheel end outward to the rear support    bearing When referring to 2 3 and 4wire units these                                                                                         II                                                                                                                         I                                                    are the number of generator output leads being connected    to the load You will find on the 110 and 125 KW units    that there are 8 leads coming from the brush rig and they    are in pairs that are combined for a total of 4 output                       11                                             J    leads The number of wires can also be related to the                         RAil                                                    RAIL    number of slip rings on the rotating armature                                                                                                          912  OF FIELD COILS                                                                              BATTERY DC1 Field coils are connected in series and the resistance   value given in this text is the total of the four field coils                                                                                                   TESTING THE FIELD COILS   To determine the resistance value of one divide by four   Each field coil has a mounting position on the generator                      h Using a 3inch iron bolt or its equivalent place this   housing and cannot be interchanged with another field                            bolt between each adjoining field coilshoes It should   coil                                                                            be held in place by the magnetic attraction set up    When installing a replacement field coils the installer                      between the coilshoes by the 912 volts excitation of    must ensure that the coil is correct for the mounting posi                     the field coils Should this fail to happen between any    tion in the housing and will have the correct polarity                          of the four adjoining coilsshoes then an incorrect coil    when excited with 912 volts DC                                                is installed and must be removed and the correct one                                                                                    installed otherwise the generator when assembled    The field coil shoes that hold the coil securely to the gen                                                                                    will not produce proper voltage    erator housing are held in place by bolts that must be    properly tightened when the coil and shoe are installed to                LOW VOLTAGE OUTPUT    the generator housing When connecting the coils in    series ensure the butt connections are good and secure                    1 Verify the voltage output at the generator output leads    and positioned away from rotating parts                                     with load applied to the generator check the noload con                                                                                 dition also Check the voltage at the load Check the rat   To ensure the field coils have been positioned properly in                    ing for the generator and verify the load with an amp   the generator housing and will have the correct polarity                     probe at the output leads Check all connections to ensure   the following test must be made before reassembly of the                      they are clean and secure Ensure that the wire size carry   generator                                                                    ing the voltage to the load is of sufficient size so as not to    3   Connect a 912 volt DC battery to the leads off the                     produce a voltage drop         coils that would normally be connected to the  and                   NOTE Beware of motor starting loads and the amperage          connectors of the bridge rectifier These leads are                 draw placed on the generator from these types of oads         unmarked and the polarity in their connection to the                    Generally the amperage draw of a motor at startup will         DC battery is not important                                            be 35 times the amperage needed when running    NOTE When removing the leads from the battery and                           Ensure that the engine noload speed is producing    reconnecting them to the bridge rectifier you should                        125132 250264 volts from the generator Lower no    maintain the same polarity as used in this test plus lead                   load voltage can result in low output voltage at rated    to  on rectifier and negative to unmarked  connec                     amperage output    tion to rectifier                                                                    Engines  Generators                                                                         81                                 WMD GENERATOR  Check the generator with a Hertz meter                              5 Insufficient cooling of the generator Ambient air entering    NoLoad Hertz            61615 51515                             the generator should not exceed 104F 40C Operating    NoLoad Voltage          130132 volts generator cold                efficiency of the generator decreases as the ambient air    NoLoad Voltage          126130 volts generator hot                 temperature entering the generator endbell increases                                                                           above 104F Generators in confined areas may require3 Test the Bridge Rectifier The bridge rectifier may be                  the ducting of cool outside air into the compartment   faulty and should be checked asiollows                                 directed toward the inlet at the generator endbell   The field excitation rectifier is a fullwave bridge rectifi        6 Check the condition of the brushes for wear and contact   er This type of rectifier has four terminals two AC a                with the slip rings on the armature Ensure that the brush   DC positive and a DC negative The rectifier is tested in              es are not sticking in the holders   the following manner Connect one ohmmeter lead to the   positive DC terminal and the other lead to each of the              7 Condenser Testing Condensers are built into the genera   AC terminals in turn A high or low resistance reading                  tor circuit to minimize radio interference during opera   will be obtained Reverse the meter leads and an oppo                 tion If a condenser shorts out it shorts the generator out   site reading should be observed Now check from the                     put To determine whether a condenser is shorted stop   negative terminal to each of the AC terminals using the                the generator disconnect the lead wire from the brush   same procedures as above Check each terminal to the                    holder to which the condenser is connected start the gen   case and no resistance reading should be observed                     erator and check the output If the generator then pro                                                                           vides power the condenser was at fault and should be    If a batterypowered test light is used follow the proce             replaced If the generator did not provide power after the    dures described above If the rectifier is good the light             lead wire was disconnected the problem was not caused    will come on in one direction only                                   by that condenser Reconnect the lead wire    If the rectifier fails any of the above tests it should be             NOTE There should be no continuity found between the    considered defective and replaced                                      lead end from the condenser and the metal case of the                                                                            condenser If so the condenser is shorted                                                                        HIGH VOLTAGE OUTPUT                                                                        1 Verify the voltage at the generator output leads                                                                            NoLoad Voltage                 126130 volts generator hot                                                                                                            615620 hertz   TESTING THE                                                          2 Check the internal wiring of the generator leads attached   BRIDGE RECTIFIER                                                        to the brush rig and the leads from the brush rig feeding                                                                           AC to the bridge rectifier One connection is from a hot                                                                           brush rig and the other must be from a neutral brush rig                                                                        SOLENOID WITH THROTILE LINKAGE                                                                        The solenoid plunger must move smoothly and rapidly into                                                                        the solenoid when the solenoid is electrically energized                                                                        drawing with it the engine throttle arm into the set speed run                                                                        position Failure of the solenoid plunger to bottom in the                                                                        solenoid will result in a failed solenoid           BACK H b          TEST lEAD4 Check the field coil resistance as per the following speci   fications                  FIELD COIL RESISTANCE TOTAL                              THROTIlE                                                                             ADJUSTMENT                         Aluminum Windings                                    LINKAGE                              142 ohms                    t5      WMD 110 KW         35 ohms per coil      and 125 KW          Copper Windings                                                 FUEL SOLENOID                              226 ohms                    t5                         565 ohms per coil                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                   82 WMD GENERATOR AC INTERNAL WIRING DIAGRAMS                       60 HERTZ  4 WIRE                                       AC     Field                                           Excitation                                            Rectifier       Armature                                AC                                                                                     Field Excitation                                                                                     Rectifier Wiring                                                                                    Same as for 230v                       50 HERTZ  2 WIRE RECONNECTABLE                  J 220 Volts                  I                                                                  AC     Field                                                                       Excitation                                                                       Rectifier                           Armature                                                             AC                                      Engines  Generators                                            83                                                     BT                                                              A circuit breaker is installed on all current WESTERBEKE                                                                        generators This circuit breaker will automatically disconnectThis generator is a brushless selfexcited generator which                                                                        generator power in case of an electrical overload The  only the driving force of the engine to produce AC                                                                        breaker can be manually shut off when servicing the generaoutput The copper and laminated iron in the exciter stator are                                                                        tor to insure that no power is coming into the  for the selfexciting feature of this generator Themagnetic field creates an  field which rotates           NOTE This circuit breaker is available as a  the windings of the main stator inducing AC voltage            addon kit for earlier model generators contact yourwhich is supplied to a load A transformer is connected in              WESTERBEKE DEALERparallel to the AC output of the main stator An AC voltage isproduced in the auxiliary windings of the transformer andmain stator and is in tum supplied to a fullwave bridge rectifier The rectifier produces a DC voltage to further excitethe exciter stator windings enabling the generator to producea rated AC output as the generator speed reaches its set hertzrpmAn optional solidstate voltage regulator is available to workin tandem with the transformer regulator to produce a morestable AC output                                                                                                        CIRCUIT BREAKER                                                                                                        AND CONNECTIONS                                                           DRIVE DISC PLATE                                                        IT GENERATOR                                                          Engines  Generators                                                                   84                                                        DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                                                    WMD GENERATOR WIRING SCHEMATIC 24700                                                         I                       I                       I                       I            I   PREHEAT                 I I                       I                       LlJ 0                                 11                                                                 I I                       lVDC                      J                                   I I                                    BATTERY               BATTERY RETURN             r 1                                                       I     11illll            I       I I      I                 l                 I                                                     J     I           I START                     I I                              to    L4L   J                             I I      LEOffi         r         STOP                       I I     eU     1       I I 67     J                                                      I I                 IL                                          I I                                          L                                           I       I        WI                                                                                    I                                                                                               ICB                                          l                                            IJ                                                                                               IZOAMP                                                                                                                                                                                I   I              I L                                                    I                                                                                                                                                                                       PANEL                  PREHEAT SOL                                                                 I                                                                        I                                                   1                                              II                                                        PREHT                                                                                                                              5TART    oOL                                              I I          1                                              I I                                 r                                            FUEL sOL                                              I I                             START                                  I                                                                 I t       L                    1                                              I t t                                         01      L                                                          I   LEE NOTE H                          L  J tUl FUEL LIFT          PUMP                                                  L LJ I                                                       I                                                       I                                                                                        STOP                                                                                     ElCH TEMP 5W                                                                                                     J                                                                     I                                                                                                            OP CAC                                                                     I                                                                                                                                                                                                   I                                                                     L                                                                                                                                                                     wrt                                                                                                                                   OP SENDER                                                                                                                                 WT lENDER                                                                               Engines  Generators                                                                                    85                                                       BT GENERATO DESCRIPTION                                                              A circuit breaker is installed on all current WESTERBEKE                                                                          generators This circuit breaker will automatically disconnect  This generator is a brushless selfexcited generator which                                                                          generator power in case of an electrical overload The circuit  requires only the driving force of the engine to produce AC             breaker can be manually shut off when servicing the genera  output The copper and laminated iron in the exciter stator are          tor to inspre that no power is coming into the generator  responsible for the selfexciting feature of this generator The  magnetic field creates an  field which rotates           NOTE This circuit breaker is available as a WESTERBK  through the windings of the main stator inducing AC voltage            addon kl for earlier mode generators cOnact your  which is supplied to a load A transformer is connected in              WSTERBEKE DEALER  parallel to the AC output of the main stator An AC voltage is  produced in the auxiliary windings of the transformer and ain stator and is in turn supplied to a fulJwave bridge rec  tifier The rectifier produces a DC voltage to further excite  the exciter stator windings enabling the generator to produce  a rated AC output as the generator speed reaches its set hertz  rpm An optional solidstate voltage regulator is available to work iil tandem with the transfonner regulator to produce a more stable AC output                                                                                                          CIRCUIT BREAKER                                                                                                          AND                                                            BT GENERATOR                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                     86                                   BT GENERATOR   guide will give you insights into prob           NOTE Do not always rely on the vessel S instruments forlems which may be encountered with the WESTERBEKE                      accurate readings bring your own instruments for testingBT brush less transformer regulated generators Most poten                                                                       Before attempting any repairs get as clear an explanation oftial problems are covered in the text of this guide Owing to                                                                       the problem as possible preferably from an individual witthe simplicity of the equipment and controls this trou                                                                       nessing the problem In some cases this may bring to light ableshooting is relatively easy once the relationship between                                                                       problem which is related to the method of operation rathercause and effect is understood                                                                       than an equipment faultKeep in mind that a basic fundamental knowledge of elec                                                                       Bring basic repair parts with you on the initial trip to thetricity is required for this  and always                                                                       problem equipment such as a regulator board when  that lethal voltages are present in the circuitry                                                                       diodes and a bridge rectifier so that if the problem should betherefore extreme caution is essential when working on or                                                                       found in one of these easily replaceable parts the  a generator                                                                       can be remedied early and  a few basic tools are necessary for diagnosis and repair                                                                       The internal and external wiring diagrams are important toolsThese are hand tools an amp probe and a quality volt ohm                                                                       in  this generator or any generator modeL Bemeter capable of reading less than one ohm due to the preci                                                                       sure to have both with you and be sure they are for the spesion required in reading component winding resistances                                                                       cific model you will be working on eg Model 125 BID               rl       A                          I               I               I               I               II                              I                         B                           aoo                            2                                         4                                         b                                                     I                                                     I                                                     I                                                     I                                                     j                                                     I                                                         i 4 11                                                           LIIIIII 1 1i 2 1                                                         1N          I        I                                                                                            1                                                                                                                            3         JI      I                                                         I                                                                       I                                                                                                                                                        I                                                                                                                      I                                                         I                                                                                                              I         I                  I                                                         t 3 J                         J                                                                                                        INTERNAL WIRING SCHEMATIC                                         G                                                     CD                                                                                               r                                                                                               f                                                                                               0                                                                               RED                                            5     6           GREEN                                                                                                                         w        w                   F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     J                                                                                                                         CD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CD       YELLOW i                                                                GREEN                               YELLOW                                                                    8          BLACK                                                     BLACK                                                      BLACK    BLUE                          BLACKAVR                                            60cyc                                                                       BLUE                        LYELLOW PLUG                                     50cycA EXCITER STATOR WINDINGS 1  2                                        D COMPOUND TRANSFORMER  A1 and A2 Exciter Stator Windings                                     1 Compound Transformer Windings  Selector in COMP position                                             2 Compound Transformer Windings                                                                          3 Compound Transformer AuxiliaryB EXCITER ROTOR                                                                             Windings with VoltageHertz Connection Bar   1 Auxiliary Windings abc   2 Diodes 6                                                       E SELECTOR SWITCH   3 Rotating Field Windings                                             F1 Compound   4 Poziresistor                                                       F2 Electronic and CompoundC MAIN STATOR                                                         F BRIDGE RECTIFIER WIRING   1 Main Stator Windings                                             AVR Optional Automatic Voltage Regulator Plug 6 prong   2 Main Stator Windings   3 Main Stator Auxiliary Windings                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                  87                                         BT GENERATOR        NOTE The following is a list offaults with the generator operation on compound COMP transformer       regulation no A VR installed               FAULT                                           CAUSE                                                   CORRECTIONLow Voltage 70 vos at NIL and loss of      1 Selector switch in wrong position              1 Place selector switch in COMP  as load is applied no loss of enginespeed and hertzHigh voltage at NIL 125  135 volts with    1 Generators engine speed rpm high at NIL 1 Check NIL speed and adjust NIL voltagecorrect voltage when loaded115 120 voltsHigh voltage at NIL and FL                  1 Generators engine speed rpm high            1 Check NIL rpm and adjust NIL voltage                                              2 Short in compound transformer auxiliary         2 Check continuity and connections of 03 windings                                                 windings 03low voltage at Nil 0  5 volts with         1 Main stator windings shorted C1 C2          1 Check continuity and resistance values of C1  C2  noise from generator and loss of                                                           and connections Excite unit with 12 VOCengine speed when load is applied            2 Compound transformer windings shorted           2 Check continuity and resistance values of 01 02 windings                                                 01 02                                          Excite unit with 12 VOCGenerator does not excite voltage is         1 Generators engine speed rpm is slow         1 Adjust the engines speed and adjust NIL voltageovolts at NIl                                               2 Short in the main stator windings or           2 Excite the unit with 12 VDC Short will appear as a                                                  in transformer                                       load on the engine growling of the generator                                               3 Failed diodes on exciter rotor                3 Check the diodes on the exciter rotor Four or more                                                                                                    failed diodes will terminate the rotating field                                               4 Shorted poziresistor                         4 Visually examine the poziresistor on the exciter rotor The                                                                                                    shorted resistor will be burnt This will short out the rotating                                                                                                    field Remove and test runlow voltage at NIL 10  20 volts when       1 Diodess in rotating exciter B2 shorted   1 Check B1 and B2 in the rotating exciter as explained inload is applied voltage drops                                                                     this manual                                               2 Bridge rectifier defective                    2 Follow test procedure for the bridge rectifier                                               3 Auxiliary windings B1 shorted                3 Check the continuity and resistance values                                               4 Auxiliary windings 03 andlor C3 open        4 Check the continuity and resistance values of windings and                                                                                                     correct at NIL but not at Fl with    1 Selector switch in ELEC position             1 Place selector switch in COMPloss of engine rpm hertz                                               2 Exciter stator windings A1 and A2            2 Check continuity and resistance values of A2 windings                                                  are open                                               3 Generators engine speed islow               3 Check generator NIL rpm and adjust NIL voltageVoltage correct at NIL but not at FL with    1 Generator overload                            1 Check data plate and monitor load on generator withloss of engine rpm hertz                                                                         ampprobe                                               2 low power factor load motor loads           2 Check type of load applied Consider use of optional                                                  are open                                         regulator boardUnstable voltage                              1 Engines rpm fluctuating                      1 Check the engine operation and the fuel systemLow voltage at NIL and voltage drops           1 Diodes in exciter rotor shorted B2         1 Check the diodes in the exciter rotor as  as a load is applied                                                                       in this manual                                               2 Auxiliary windings in exciter rotor shorted    2 Check the resistance values and continuity to ground                                                  B2Voltage OK at Nil and low at FL              1 Auxiliary windings in the exciter rotor       1 Check resistance values and continuity to ground                                               2 Exciter stator compound windings A2           2 Check continuity and connection of windings                                                  is open                                               3 Auxiliary windings 03 or C3 open            3 Check continuity and connection of  unstable                              1 Defective regulator board                     1 Check stability of DC voltage from regulator to exciter stator                                                                                                    windings Operate unit on COMP Replace regulator board                                               2 Engine is hunting                             2 Check engine operation and the fuel system                                               3 Electrical connections                        3 Check for clean and secure connections                                                                 Engines  Generators                                                                            88                                  BT GENERATOR  VOLTAGE CHECK                                                      failed components that can produce this same novoltage                                                                            output are the poziresistor in the exciter rotor and 4 or1 Residual Voltage 1014 volts AC                                                                            more failed diodes in the exciter rotor   NOTE The amount of flOload voltage produced by the                                                                            a Apply 12 volt DC excitation to the exciter stator   generator can be an indicator of where in the generator                                                                               windings as explained in paragraph 2 A fault in the   the problemfault may lie                                                                               main stator andor compound transformer windings   This voltage is the AC voltage produced by the generator                    such as a short will cause the generator engine to load   from magnetism in the exciter stator field This voltage is                 down and the shorted windings to eventually produce   measured between the AC neutral and hot legs with no                     smoke as the excitation is continued   load on the generator running at 60 hertz                                                                        4 Voltage output greater than residual and less than rated   The presence of residual voltage is an indication that the              output 25100 volts indicates a fault in the exciter   following generator components are OK                                  rotorfield B1 B2 B3 Excitation of the generator as      1    Exciter Rotor B1 a b  C  B2                          explained in paragraph 2 should produce a partial rise in      2    Rotating Field B3                                           voltage output and when removed the voltage wi      3    Main Stator C1  C2                                        return to the original low output      4    Compound Transformer Dl  D2                                                                        BRIDGE RECTIFIER   The fault lies in one or more of the following compo           nents in the exciter circuit      A Exciter Stator A1  A2                                                                        The bridge rectifier is supplied AC voltage from the auxiliary                                                                        windings in the generator stator C3 and the compound                                                                        transformer D3 The AC voltage measured across the AC      B Bridge Rectifier 0                                           terminals of the rectifier during engine operation is as follows      C Selector Switch F      D Main Stator Auxiliary Windings C3                                                                                        120 Volts                   120240      E Compound Transformer Auxiliary Winding D3                                    NIL FL                    NL FL                                                                                         1020 volts AC             1020 volts AC2 Twelve 12 volts DC excitation of the exciter stator   windings should cause the generator to produce between               Diodes in the rectifier convert this AC voltage to DC and   140150 volts AC between each hot lead and the neutral              supply it to the windings Al and A2 of the exciter stator   Twelve volts DC is applied between the lifted  and               to induce a field through which the exciter rotor revolves    leads of the bridge rectifier  to  and  to                The DC voltage measured across the  and  terminals of   Correct voltage produced with twelve volts DC excitation             the bridge rectifier during engine operation is as follows   indicates the fault is in one or more of the above listed                            120 Volts                  120240   components B D or E If the generator does not produce   140150 volts AC then include A and C                                              NLFL                      NLFL                                                                                         1020 volts AC             1020 volts AC3 The absence of any voltage from the generator indicates   a fault with the main stator windings C1 and C2 andor              Failure of the bridge rectifier will result in a weak field being   the compound transformer windings D1 and D2 Other                  produced by the exciter stator windings A weak field is pre                                                                        sent due to the magnetism in the exciter stator which will                                                                         cause the generator to produce residual voltage                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 DC  RED                                                    BRIDGE RECTIFIER                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                   89                                                        BT GENERATOR  the Bridge Rectifier for Faults with                                                          NOTE Different stylemodel meters may produce oppositean Ohmmeter                                                                                           results from the above tests1 Set the ohmmeter scale on RX1 DC Zero the meter                                               Should the rectifier fail any of these tests it is defective and                                                                                                      should be replaced2 Connect the  lead from the meter to point 4 With the    lead from the meter momentarily contact points 1   2 3 and 5 No deflection of the needle should occur   showing infinite resistance3 Remove the  lead from point 4 and connect the    lead to point 4 and with the  lead momentarily   touch points 1 2 and 3 The needle of the meter   should deflect showing a passage of meter voltage   through the diodes in the rectifier4 Touch point 5 with the  lead No deflection of the   needle should occur5 Place the   lead of the meter on point 1 and the  on   point 3 No deflection of the needle should occur infi   nite resistance Reverse the connections and the same                                                                                                  POINT 5   should occur                                                                                                                                           RECTIFIER                                                                                                                                                           MOUNTING HOLE                                                                           INTERNAL WIRING DIAGRAM                                            NOTE The AC terminal block has studs for 14 inch wire terminal ends Multistrand                                            copper wire should be used and sized for the amperage rating of the generator                                                                                                                                                            ACTERMINAL                                                                                                                                                              BLOCK                    rl                             B                                                                                                                                                          6         2    5                                                                                                                                                   5          A        I                                                                                                                              8          ro I         a                   I                                      a                  I                        I      I                           I                   6    7                    iIb                                                                            1 1                                                                                                                                                   3                                                                                                                                                                I      4                                                                                        2                                                                                                                                         j     1                             2                    I                    I                     c                    I                        1                             2                                                          b                                                                                                      I      I                                                                                                                            2                                                                                                                                         I                                                                    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                                                                                               I      I                           I CD                    m                                                                            I                                                                            I                                                                                                      I      I                                                                                                                                         I r        r                                                                             3             I      11   2                                                                                                             L                                                                            L                                                                                                                                  3                I C           r          0                                                                                      I                                                                                                                    r      fJ                                                                            z                                                                                                    10110101                                                                                                                                             0                                                         G                                                        r                                                                            0                                                                            co                                                                                                            I                        aI                                                                                                                                    r                            RED                                                                     YELLOW RED                                                                                                                                                        c                                                        KJ                                                                                                                                    0                        RED              AC                                                              RED                                         I s               GREEN                 AC g                 F                                 GREEN                                                                      uj                                                                                       I          YELLOW r                                     1    YELLOW                                                               GREEN                                               I                                                              BLACK          BLACK                                                                I                                                             BLACK                                                  BLACK                                                                   BLUE                60 eye                                                                                     AVR                                        BLUE                                             YELLOW                                        PLUG                                                             50 eye                                                                                      Engines  Generators                                                                                             90                                                BT GENERATOR   COMPONENT RESISTANCE VALUES                                                          NOTE BT model generators are used on models rated lower  NOTE Resistance Values at 70F 21C                                              than the capabilities of the generator However the generator  Simson Meter 260 Model                                                            is rated according to the capabilities of the drive engine                                                                                       since horsepower produces kilowatts  Models 110  125A BT  A Exciter Stator                         D Main Stator Auxiliary Windings     A1  AM2 115 ohm                        C3 099 ohm     AI 494 ohm                           E Compound Transformer     A2 129 ohm                              Dl 0007 ohm  B Exciter RotorlField                       D2 0007 ohm     81 105 ohm                           Transformer Auxiliary Windings     82 87 ohm                               D3 502 ohm  C Main Stator     Cl 0117 ohm                                             COMPONENT RESISTANCE CHECKS     C2 0117 ohm                                                    Exciter Stator Windings                                                                                                                                   AC TERMINAL                                                                                                                                      BLOCK                         rl                                                                             6        2    5                                                                     asl                                                8                                                                         5                 A       I                                        I                                 1                                                                                11111 8                              6    7                                             i                                                                                                                           3                                             II                                                                   4                                                      b                                                                                                    2                                                                                                                           2                                                                                                                           7        3    8                      2                1       2          3      I                                                                                                I                                                                      lrl  3                                                                        1                                                                                          RED                     GREEN                         F                         I                YElLOW       i                                                            GREEN                                                                                       BLACK                BLACK                                                                                                      BLACK                                                                                                          BLUE                                                                                                          BLUE                 50cycA Windings 1  2                                          A Winding 1                                   A Winding 2Resistance readings for exciter windings                  Resistance reading for exciter winding        Resistance readings for exciter windingAI and A2 with the selector switch in                   A1 with the selector switch in the           A2 with selector switch in the ELECthe COMP position are taken between                       ELEC position is taken between the yel       position is taken between the green the positive  and negative  leads                   low  white striped wire and the black        white striped wire lifted off the  terlifted off the bridge rectifier G Neither               white striped wire at the AVR plug      minal of the bridge rectifier G and theof these two leads should have continu                                                                 red  white striped wires lifted off theity to the generator caseground                                                                        terminal of the bridge rectifier G                                                                           Engines  Generators                                                                                91                                    BT GENERATOR  ROTORFIELD                                                    The diodes can be easily checked in place with the use of a                                                                       common automotive 12volt high beam headlight bulb someAuxiliary windings group a band c Locate the three termi                                                                       jumper leads and the generators 12 volt starting batterynal points on the exciter rotor for these auxiliary windinggroups Position the exciter rotor as shown in the illustration        A short or an open in a diode can easily be found with theand count off the porcelain knobs from the 12 oclock point            above without having to unsolder and isolate each diode toeither left or right to locate terminal points a band c              check it with an  the resistance value between the pairs of terminal             NOTE Attempting to check diodes in place with an ohmmeterpoints A  B B  C and C  A There is no need to unsol             will give erroneous readings on the diodes due to the auxilder these connections unless a faulty reading appears If this         iary windings  unsolder and verify the winding fault There should                                                                       When leads are put across the diode as illustrated voltagebe no continuity found between any of the three terminal                                                                       passes through the diode allowing the headlight to glowpoints and the rotor shaftcase ground                                                                       brightly                            Red  White                                                                       Reverse the leads across the diode The diode SDould block                                                                       voltage passing through it and the headlight should not glow                                                                       or it may glow faintly                                                                                                              High Beam 12 Volt Bulb                                                                                                              Does Not GlowIs Very Faint                         Exciter RotorRotating Field Windings See the illustration of the exciterrotor The field winding connections are noted as the  and connections of the red  white striped wires Measure theresistance value with your ohmmeter between these two connection points These connections need not be  a faulty reading appears If this occurs unsolder theconnection and verify the resistance reading With these connections lifted there should be no continuity to the rotor                a Should the bulb not glow with leads connected in bothshaft This would indicate a short to ground with these field                 directions the diode is open                                                                   h Should the bulb glow with leads connected in bothDiodes Six diodes are mounted on the exciter rotor they                     directions the diode is shorted  the AC voltage produced by the three groups of auxil                                                                           In both a and b above the diode should be replacediary windings to DC voltages and supply this DC voltage to                 Check the resistance values of the rotating field windingsthe rotating field windings                                               and the integrity of the resistors connected between the                       Resistance value                                    field windings   11 ohms through the diode                                           Rotating Field Windings 7080 ohm Reading taken                                                                       between the two red  white wires connected to the  and   Infinite blocking                                                    terminals of the exciter rotor as shown in the illustration                               11 ohms                                                                       Posiresistor Infinite readings between both yellow leads     t        I I                                           lifted from the  and  terminals on the exciter rotor                       lnfinta                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                  92                                       BT GENERATOR  STATOR WINDINGS                                                            lifted off the AC terminal of the bridge rectifier G and                                                                                the yellow  red striped lead lifted off the VoltageHertz1 Group 1 The resistance value is measured between the                                                                                Connection Bar There should be no continuity found   lifted lead 4 from the red insulated terminal below the                                                                                between these winding connections and the caseground   transformer and lead 6 lifted from the AC terminal                                                                                as well as the two main stator groups   block Also lifted from the AC terminal block is lead 5   so as to totally isolate the stator windings of group 1                     NOTE The VoltageHertz Connection Bar is located   see illustration                                                          below and just to the left of the AC terminal block2 Group 2 The resistance value is measured between the                   COMPOUND TRANSFORMER   lifted lead 1 from the red insulated terminal below the   transformer and lead 3 lifted from the AC terminal                      1 Group 1 Resistance value is measured between the lift   block Also lifted from the AC terminal block is lead 2                     ed lead 1 from the red insulated terminal stud below the   so as to totally isolate the stator windings of group 2                     transformer and lead 7 lifted off the AC terminal block   see illustration                                                      2 Group 2 Resistance value is measured between the lift                                                                                ed lead 1 from the red insulated terminal stud below the                                                                                transformer and lead 7 lifted off the AC terminal block                                                                                NOTE None of the lifted leads should have a continuity to                                                                                the caseground nor should either of the groups have                                                                                continuity to the other                                                                            3 Transformer Auxiliary Windings Resistance value is                                                                               measured between the yellow  white striped wires lifted                                                                               off the AC terminal of the bridge rectifier G with the                                                                               selector switch in the ELEC position and the 1 red                                                                                white striped leads lifted off the VoltageHertz                                                                               Connection Bar Off this same bar lift the 2 and 3 red                                                                                White striped leads that come from the auxiliary wind                                                                               ings to totally isolate these windings There should be no                                                                               continuity found from either of these connections to the                                                                               caseground or to either of the two transformer groups                                                                            SELECTOR SWITCH                                                                            Selector switch F2 ELEC electronic AVR and compound                                                                            transformer This is the optional configuration of the exciter                                                                            circuit with the optional AVR installed                                                                            NOTE With the selector switch in ELEC F2 position in                                                                            which the exciter stator windings are divided one group is                                                                            excited through the bridge rectifier and the other group                                                   YellowlWhite                                                                            through the A VR                                                                                                                              TOP VIEW                                                                                              YELLOWYELLOW                  ENGINE SIDE                                                                                                                                                                                                                OF SWITCH                                                                              YELLOW                         r              l                                                                              BLACK                                                               RED                                                                                                                                                                                                                   GREEN                                                                                       r                                                         t                                                                               BROWNYI                                              rGREEN                                                                              BLACK                                                                                                                                                      COMP                            ELEC                                                                                             YELLOW                                                                                                                                        BEARING SIDE               NOTE ON LATER MOOELS THE WHITE STRIPE ON THE                                        OF SWITCH               WIRE WAS REMOVED AND THE WIRE IS A SOLID COLOR   NOTE There should be no continuity found between any                    BRIDGE RECTIFIER WIRING   of the lifted stator leads and the case ground Also no                 The illustration shows the colorcoded striped wires at the   contilluity should be found between the connections of                   two AC terminals and the colorcoded wires at the  and   the two groups                                                           DC terminals3 Main Stator Auxiliary Windings The resistance value                     NOTE When removing or reinstalling connections maintain   for these windings is measured between the black                        correct polarity connection on the  and  DC terminals   white and the brown  yellow double lead connection                                                                  Engines  Generators                                                                       93                                 BT GENERATOR  VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT                                         VOLTAGEHERll CONNECTION BARVoltage adjustment is made with the generator regulation           1 Locate the VoltageHertz Connection Barbeing governed by the compound transformer                        2 Refer to the illustration1 The selector switch must be in the CaMP position               3 Connect the blue  white striped wire to either connec2 Operate the generator apply a moderate load momentari            tion A or B to correspond to the hertz that the genera   ly and remove it Note the voltage output from the gener          tor will be set to produce   ators 120 volt legs 220 volt 50 hertz The noload   voltage should be between 121124 volts at 61562                                             RED      RED         RED   hertz 222226 volts at 515 52 hertz                             BLUEjWHITE                 WHITE     WHITE        WHITE   NOTE The noload voltage should be adjusted to the volt                                                                                                                             3   age produced by the generator once started and a   momentary load should be applied to excite the trans                                8        MAX        MID         LOW   former and then removed The voltage produced by the   generator after this momentary load is removed is no   load voltage                                                                          00000                     Xl        Y         Zl3 To raise or lower the voltage shims of varying thickness   nonconductive material are placed or removed from   under the steel laminated bar on top of the compound                    BlUEI       BLUE               RED   REOI                                                                           WHITE       WHITE               YEllOW WHITE   transformer The material used for shimming should not   soften at temperatures in the 176P 80C range A small                                                                       NOTE On some units A and B may be reversed To ensure   reduction in noload voltage 1 at 3 volts can sometimes                                                                       a proper connection be sure the blue  white striped   be accomplished by gently tapping the top of the laminat                                                                       leads coming offA or B go to the numbered terminal stud   ed steel bar to reduce the gap between the existing shims                                                                       on the AC terminal block 5 for 60 hertz and 6 for   and the transformer core                                                                       50 hertzVarying shim thickness by 001 inch 0025 mm will change                                                                       NOTE The placement of the blue  white wire from conthe noload voltage by 46 volts Adding shim thickness will                                                                       nection A to B or vice versa when converting to 50 Hzraise voltage lessening shim thickness will lower voltage                                                                        is only accomplished when the optional voltage regulator                                                                       is installed as well Disregard this wire connection                                                                       change if there is no voltage regulator installed                                                                   4 Connections X Y and Z are used to increase AC voltage                                                                      to the bridge rectifier under heavy AC amperage loads the                                                                      generator is supplying When this connection is moved                                                                      from X to Y or Z to increase AC output voltage under                                                                      load it will effect noload voltage and a noload adjust                                                                      ment using the compound transformer will be needed                                                         Engines  Generators                                                                 94                           BT GENERATOR AC VOLTAGE CONNECTIONS                                          115V 50Hz                              e                                             230V50                                             fi      2                                                                            120V 60Hz                                       1lV H                                                                                                                                                     il                     2       5               2       5                II                           0                                                                              Ill                                             6        7                                                                        6                                                                                                                               3                                                                                                                               q                                        II                      N       L1             N        L1                                  L1 N                          L1                      L2 N                                                              AC TERMINAL BLOCKNOTE The frame ground wire must be moved when changing                             Maximum voltage drop acceptablefrom 120 volts and 120240 volts 60 hertz to 220 volts 50                           at full rated output ampshertz For making connections to the A C terminal block use                         60 hertz 108110 voltsterminal ends for 14 studs that will accept multistrand cop                      50 hertz 215220 voltsper wire sized for the amperage rating from the hot leadconnection                                                              Should the voltage drop below the proper rate loaded excita                                                                         tion can be increased to raise this voltage by  FREQUENCY                                                      connections on the VoltageHertz Connection Bar                                                                         Repositioning the two leads red  white and yellow 1 Frequency is a direct result of  speed                                                                         white from Z to Y or X will increase the loaded voltage out   1800 rpm 60 hertz 1OO rpm  50 hertz                                                                         progressively in that order2 To change generator frequency follow this procedure                                                                         NOTE Noload voltage may be effected needing readjustment    a Connect the AC output leads to the AC terminal                    with the compound transformer Do not use these adjust       block following the diagrams                                    ments to compensate for overload conditions being placed on    b On the VoHageHertz Bar reposition the blue  white              the  inductive motor type loads Loss of       striped lead to A or B to correspond to the hertz                 generator hertz speed the result of overload will cause a       selected Note  this need only be performed when a               drop in voltage output       voltage regulator is installed    c Start the engine monitor the voltage and adjust the       engine noload speed Adjust the diesel units by the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       G                                                                                                                                        BLACK   I                  linkage between the throttle arm and fuel solenoid         60 hertz noload speed 615620 hertz                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            t1                                                                                                                      GREEN                                                                                                     I         50 hertz noload speed 515520 hertz                                                                    YELLOW                                                                                         1  BLACK    d After the noload hertz adjustment is made the no                                                                                                                load voltage may need to be readjusted In most cases       if the generator was producing the correct noload                                                                                                                                                  IAvR                                                                                                                                                  I PLUG       voltage at the previous hertz setting it would be cor       rect at the changed hertz setting                                                                  INTERNAL WIRING SCHEMATIC       In the event it needs adjustment adjust the shim       thickness under the laminated steel bar of the trans                                                          REDwHITE       former                                                                                                        TO HERTZNOLTS BAR                                                                            BLUEWHITE                                                                        BLACKWHITE         60 hertz noload voltage 121124 volts                           TO PIN 8                                                                        TO SELECTOR         50 hertz noload voltage 114118 volts                            TERM BLOCK                                                        l    I   SWITCH                                    232238 volts                                                                             BLUEWHITE                                                    YELLOWWHITE    e Load the generator to the rated amperage output                       TO HERTZ                                                                    TO SELECTOR       corresponding to the hertz speed of the generator                    VOLTS BAR                                                                    SWITCH                                                                                                                      BlACKWHITE         Rated Loaded Speed                                                                                          TO BRIDGE RECTIFIER                                                                                                                                                      AVR PLUG         60 hertz loaded speed 585590 hertz         50 hertz loaded speed 485490 hertz                         NOTE The voltage regulator was optional on early models                                                                         but is not available on later models                                                             Engines  Generators                                                                   95                        BT GENERATOR 6 TERMINAL BLOCK                                       WIRING CONNECTIONS               Winding Connections Needed to Obtain the Proper Voltage and Frequency       NOTE Connections 1 and 4 are located on two red terminals below the compound transformerN   t                                                           04 L1                                                                 J7               110V      50 Hz           6              5                                            8                                                                   44      II   220V      50 Hz             6            5                      4 4                   8         N    f j                                                      Ll   120V      60 Hz             6                5                  4                    s         11                                                                    4           l2    240V     GO Hz                                                                       8                    N                                     6 TERMINAL BLOCK                          winding connections needed to obtain                          the voltage and frequency             NOTE Connections 1 and 4 are located on two red                        terminals below the cOMpound transforaer                                           Engines  Generators                                                 96This page has been intentionally left blank             Engines  Generators                    97                                                                      DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                                                                    BT GENERATOR WIRING DIAGRAM 34651                                      12 VDC                          SEE                                  BATTERY                                                                                                                                   RETURN   1                                                                                          BATTERY                          NOTE 1 L       J                                                                                               GNO TO BLOCK                                     l                                 r        1                                 I         IC a                                 I         120A                                 L        1                                          SoNon2REMOVE JVMPER WHNCONNECTING REMTECONTROL   ANE     Tel                                     I              I                                    I                                                                            I                                                     I                                                     I                                                                I                                                                                                                                        I                                                                                                                                                  REMOTE CONTROL PANELoPTIONAL                  I                  I                                      I                                                     I                                                     I                 i                                                                                                                                                                                                                         rr                          II                                      I              SEE                  I                   I                                      r              iNOTE 3   I       I                  I                  I                   I                                                     I                 I                                                          TB4         I   J    r                  I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I                  I                                      I                                                                            I                                      I                                                     I                                                     r                  i                                            t tU              I                   LED        I                                                                                                                        l fih21r                                                              I                  I                                  I                  I                   I                  I                  I                                      I                                      I                                                                                                          I                                                                L                  I                   I              L                                                                                                                                           Ri9rtl  4 I J                  I                   I                                      L                                                                                e                                                                                                                                                       J      START                                I                                                                                                                                                                                                        I                   I                  L                                                              l                   EEQI1         14R                                                                                                                                   TIl 3      L     REAR VIEW                                                                            Itl                              oott r       PRE HEAT    I     STANDARD                                                                                                         INSTRUfllENT                                                                                      START                                                                                                                 I     REAR VIEW                                                                                     STOP          I                                                                                                                            continued                                                                                 Engine     Generators                                                                                        98                   DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM               BT GENERATOR WIRING DIAGRAM 34651   THIS PRODUCT S PROTECTeD BY 8 I1IUIIJflL ReSeT CIRcUIT 8REAKeR loCATCD    NEPR THE 5TARTIERAND IlS CLoSE TO HE SouRCE of cuRRSNT Its PaSSeLf    EXCESSive CURRENT DRAw IlNYWHERIE IN THI INSrRUI1NT PANeL WIRING                      OR    ENGINE WILL CAUsE THE 8RIflKfiR To TRIP IN THS eVENT MOST GENERRTOAS WILt    SHUT Do SIECFHIE TIft OPENED l3FifiiAKeR DISCONNCTS THe FUEL SUPPLY    TIERFOR THE aUIlDeROWNeR IVST BE SURE TIAT THE NSiRIJ1cIlT PANEL    IRING fiNO eNGINE ARE INSTAIIED To PREVeNT CoNTACT I3ETwltiiN    clECTRICt1L DEVIES AND SALT WfJTcR   M05T STARTER SOLeNOIDS DRAW IS AMPS THeREFORE THE VOl1AGe DRoF IN TillS    CONcuCTOR NUST ae NO GREATeR rNfl IOIN Till RqTH FROI1THfi STANDflRb    START SWITcH To fiN REMors SWITCHeS liNt BAC To Til SfNCAC STiRTER SIrCIf    IF THIS REURE  LARGe CONDUCTORS iIeN A RelA M4Y Bt qOPeO    To CONTROl Tlfe S1IiRrR SOlNotJ ITSlifLF                                           OP ERA T 10 N                       PREHEAT DEPRESS PREHEAT SWITCH FOR 15 TO 60                          SECONDS AS REQUIRED                       STARTDEPRESS BOTH PREHEAT AND START SWITCHES                         PREHEAT ALSO OVERIDES LOII OIL PRESSURE                                SHUTDOWN CIRCUIT                                WHEN GENERATOR STARTS RELEASE START                                SWITCH ONLYCONTINUe HOLDING PREHEAT                                SWITCH FOR A FEW SECONDS UNTIL OIL                                PRESSURE REACHES 20 PSI                       STOP DEPRESS STOP SWITCH UNTIL TH E GENERATOR                         STOPS COMPLETELY                        WIRING SIZES TO REMOTE CONTROL PANEL     TERMINALS            a      IG20   20 25      25 32   32       la   40    so   5065     TBII TO T8I      12        1 O     IfO       9      8              7          G     T912 TO TB32        14         2        12          10          10          9            8     TSh TO T833        12         10        10          1        8           7            6     T914 TO T934        16         16        16         16           16          16          16     TS21 To T641       16         16         16        110          16          16          16     T82S TOT842       Ie         16         16        IG           16          16           16                                         Engines Generators                                                99                                       DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                              BT GENERATOR WIRING DIAGRAM 36412                                                                                        wmBTURE                                                                                                  114 BEDPUR                                                                                                                                   run    SOLENO I D                                                                z                                                                                                                                                 z                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 co                 o                                                                                                                             01 LrlmrBE                                                                                   GROUND TO                                                                        ENG I HE                                                                        BLOCK                                                                              II                                                                                                                              BATTERY SWITCH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     r                                                                                                                                   fr                       tl2 YELRED                                                                                                                                                                                                       N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            fI1EI                                       114 TAN                                       tl4 BLU                                       tl4 aRN                                                                                                                                                               4 PURWIlT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REMOVE TH IS                                                             JUMPER WHEN                                                             CONNECT I NG A                                                             REMOTE PAIIEL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  N                                  z                                                                                                            o                                                                                                                                                                                                                     e                                                                                         10 ltD                                                       4 Yl                      10 ItDNT                               CIL                   WATER                            PRESSURI                TEMP                              o                       o                                                                10 IDWilT                                                     VOLT                                                     METER                                                          Engine         Generators                                                                    100                                 DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                           BT GENERATOR WIRING SCHEMATIC 36412                                            STARTER BATTERY                                  SOLENOID                        STARTER SWI TCH                                  r    I                                           L    I                            PREHEAT                           SOLENOID                                             GLOWPLUGS                           r     I                           L    I                                                                                ALTERNATOR                                                                                  B                                                          I   I 10 AMP                                                                 I CIRCUIT1 20 AMP                                                           BREAKER                          START                         SWITCH1 EMERGENCYI STOPSWITCH            r    1 PREHEAT            I       SWITCH                                                                   FUEL PUMP            I     1  STOPI SWITCHI                                                                                       FUEL SOLENOID                      EXHAUST TEMP       WATER TEMP              OIL PRESSURE                         SWITCH             SWITCH                    SWITCH                                                                 TEMP                      Oil            PRESS            SENDER                                               Engines       Generators                                                   101Engines  Generators                       ATMG5C 598

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