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United States Coast Guard Navigation Rules



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U.S. Department                   Commandant                  Mailing Address:
of Transportation                 United States Coast Guard   2100 2nd Street, S.W.
                                                              Washington, DC 0593-001
United States
                                                              Phone: (202) 267-0352
Coast Guard

                                                              COMDTINST M16672.2C
                                                              1 October 1995
COMMANDANT INSTRUCTION M16672.2C

Subj: Navigation Rules, International-Inland

1. PURPOSE. This instruction forwards International and Inland
   Navigation Rules and Regulations for use by Coast Guard personnel.

2. ACTION. Area and District Commanders, commanders of mainte-
  nance and logistics commands and unit commanding officer shall
  ensure implementation and compliance with this manual.

3. DIRECTIVES AFFECTED
                     . COMDTINST M16672.2B is cancelled.

4. DISCUSSION.

  a. This manual contains the International Regulations for Prevention of
     Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). It also contains the Inland
     Navigation Rules which were enacted by law on 24 December 1980
     and became effective for all Inland waters except the Great Lakes
     on 24 December 1981. The Inland Rules became effective on the
     Great Lakes on 1 March 1983. Some differences do remain
     between the International and Inland Rules. The side-by-side pre-
     sentation of the Rules in this publication will allow mariners to deter-
     mine those differences.

  b. On 19 November 1989, nine amendments to the 72 COLREGS
     became effective. These nine amendments are technical in nature
     and are incorporated in this publication. The Coast Guard has
     adopted several amendments to the Inland and International Rules
     and Annexes which are also included in this revision. This publica-
     tion includes all revisions through 30 September 1995.
COMDTINST M16672.2C

5. ORDERING INFORMATION.

  a. Following initial distribution of this publication, Coast Guard and Navy
    units should order additional copies from:

    Defense Mapping Agency
    Combat Support Center
    Washington, D.C. 20315-0030
    Attn: PMSR

  b. The public may purchase this publication from the U.S. Government
    Printing Office (GPO) at GPO Bookstores located in many Cities, from
    GPO sales agents located in principal ports or by telephone at (202)
    783-3238. The book is also available for order by mail from:

    Superintendent of Documents
    U.S. Government Printing Office
    PO. Box 371954
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954

6. CHANGES AND CORRECTIONS . Notices of changes to the Navigation
   Rules and Regulations will appear in the Federal Register, Local Notice
   to Mariners, Weekly Notice to Mariners, and Commandant Notice.
   Comments should be addressed to Commandant (G-MOV-3).




                                         Rudy K. Peschel
                                         Chief, Office of Navigation Safety
                                         Waterway Services




                                     2
            RECORD OF CHANGES

CHANGE   DATE OF    DATE        BY WHOM
NUMBER   CHANGE    ENTERED      ENTERED
                                                    CONTENTS

I    INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................vi
II   NAVIGATION RULES AND REGULATIONS
     --International and Inland     ........................................................................................ 1
     PART A--General   ..................................................................................................... 2
        Rule 1--Application .............................................................................................. 2
        Rule 2--Responsibility.......................................................................................... 6
        Rule 3--General Definitions       .................................................................................. 6

     PART B--Steering and Sailing Rules                         .................................................................. 12
     Section/Subpart I--Conduct of Vessels In Any Condition of
     Visibility .................................................................................................................. 12
        Rule 4--Application ............................................................................................ 12
        Rule 5--Look-out ................................................................................................ 12
        Rule 6--Safe Speed ........................................................................................... 14
        Rule 7--Risk of Collision.................................................................................... 16
        Rule 8--Action to Avoid Collision                 ........................................................................ 18
        Rule 9--Narrow Channels.................................................................................. 20
        Rule 10--Traffic Separation Schemes/Vessel Traffic Services                                     .......................... 22

     Section/Subpart II--Conduct of Vessels In Sight of One Another                               .................... 26
       Rule 11--Application .......................................................................................... 26
       Rule 12--Sailing Vessels   .................................................................................... 26
       Rule 13--Overtaking........................................................................................... 28
       Rule 14--Head-on Situation     ................................................................................ 30
       Rule 15--Crossing Situation     ............................................................................... 30
       Rule 16--Action by Give-way Vessel           .................................................................. 32
       Rule 17--Action by Stand-on Vessel           .................................................................. 32
       Rule 18--Responsibilities Between Vessels               ....................................................... 34

     Section/Subpart Ill--Conduct of Vessels In Restricted Visibility         ...................... 36
       Rule 19--Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility
                                                          .......................................... 36

     PART C--Lights and Shapes        ................................................................................ 38
       Rule 20--Application .......................................................................................... 38
       Rule 21--Definitions........................................................................................... 40
       Rule 22--Visibility of Lights................................................................................ 42
       Rule 23--Power-driven Vessels Underway                ......................................................... 44
       Rule 24--Towing and Pushing........................................................................... 52
       Rule 25--Sailing Vessels Underway and Vessels Under Oars                            ........................... 70
       Rule 26--Fishing Vessels................................................................................... 78
       Rule 27--Vessels Not Under Command or Restricted in
                  Their Ability to Maneuver................................................................. 86
       Rule 28--Vessels Constrained by Their Draft/[Reserved]                       ................................ 100
       Rule 29--Pilot Vessels ..................................................................................... 102
       Rule 30--Anchored Vessels and Vessels Aground                      .......................................... 104
       Rule 31--Seaplanes......................................................................................... 110




                                                                       i
       PART D--Sound and Light Signals             ....................................................................112
         Rule 32--Definitions ......................................................................................... 112
         Rule 33--Equipment for Sound Signals              ............................................................ 112
         Rule 34--Maneuvering and Warning Signals                  .................................................... 114
         Rule 35--Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility               ................................................ 118
         Rule 36--Signals to Attract Attention        .................................................................122
         Rule 37--Distress Signals................................................................................ 124

       PART E--Exemptions  .......................................................................................... 126
         Rule 38--Exemptions........................................................................................ 126

       ANNEX I--POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS
                  AND SHAPES ................................................................................... 130
       ANNEX II--ADDITIONAL SIGNALS FOR FISHING VESSELS
                   FISHING IN CLOSE PROXIMITY................................................... 148
       ANNEX Ill--TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL
                   APPLIANCES .................................................................................. 150
       ANNEX IV--DISTRESS SIGNALS........................................................................ 160
       ANNEX V--[BLANK]/PILOT RULES.....................................................................165

III    INTERPRETATIVE RULES
                          ................................................................................... 172

IV     LINES OF DEMARCATION
                          .................................................................................... 174

V      PENALTY PROVISIONS                ........................................................................................ 198
       Violations of International Navigation Rules and Regulations                            ..................................198
       Violations of Inland Navigation Rules and Regulations                         ............................................ 198
       Penalties for negligent operations            ............................................................................ 200
       Duties related to marine casualty assistance and information                            ..................................200
       Duty to provide assistance at sea             ............................................................................ 201
       Injunctions .............................................................................................................. 201

VI     ALTERNATIVE COMPLIANCE--International & Inland
                                                   ....................................202

VII    WATERS SPECIFIED BY THE SECRETARY
                                       ..................................................... 205

VIII   VESSEL BRIDGE-TO-BRIDGE RADIOTELEPHONE
         REGULATIONS ................................................................................................ 206

IX     LEGAL CITATIONS
                     ............................................................................................... 213

X      CONVERSION TABLE
                      .......................................................................................... 214




                                                                       ii
                           Introduction
  International Rules

    The International Rules in this book were formalized in the
Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at
Sea, 1972, and became effective on July 15, 1977. The Rules (com      -
monly called 72 COLREGS) are part of the Convention, and vessels
flying the flags of states ratifying the treaty are bound to the Rules.
The United States has ratified this treaty and all United States flag
vessels must adhere to these Rules where applicable. President Gerald
R. Ford proclaimed 72 COLREGS and the Congress adopted them as
the International Navigational Rules Act of 1977.
    The 72 COLREGS were developed by the Inter-Governmental
Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) which in May 1982 was
renamed the International Maritime Organization (IMO). In November
1981, IMO's Assembly adopted 55 amendments to the 72 COLREGS
which became effective on June 1, 1983. The IMO also adopted 9
more amendments which became effective on November 19, 1989.
The International Rules in this book contain these amendments.
    These Rules are applicable on waters outside of established navi-
gational lines of demarcation. The lines are called COLREGS
Demarcation Lines and delineate those waters upon which mariners
shall comply with the Inland and International Rules. COLREGS
Demarcation Lines are contained in this book.




                                iii
                   Introduction--Continued
   Inland Rules

    The Inland Rules in this book replace the old Inland Rules, Western
Rivers Rules, Great Lakes Rules, their respective pilot rules and
interpretive rules, and parts of the Motorboat Act of 1940. Many of the
old navigation rules were originally enacted in the last century.
Occasionally, provisions were added to cope with the increasing
complexities of water transportation. Eventually, the navigation rules for
United States inland waterways became such a confusing patchwork of
requirements that in the 1960's several attempts were made to revise
and simplify them. These attempts were not successful.
    Following the signing of the Convention on the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, a new effort was
made to unify and update the various inland navigation rules. This
effort culminated in the enactment of the Inland Navigational Rules
Act of 1980. This legislation sets out Rules 1 through 38-- the main
body of the Rules. The five Annexes were published as regulations.
It is important to note that with the exception of Annex V to the Inland
Rules, the International and Inland Rules and Annexes are very sim-
ilar in both content and format.
    The effective date for the Inland Navigation Rules was December
24,1981, except for the Great Lakes where the effective date was
March 1, 1983.




                                 iv
NAVIGATION RULES

INTERNATIONAL-INLAND
NOTES
NOTES
                          INTERNATIONAL
                                         General

                           PART A--GENERAL
                                         RULE 1

                                        Application
  (a) These Rules shall apply to all vessels upon the high seas and
in all waters connected therewith navigable by seagoing vessels.

   (b) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of spe
                                                                      -
cial rules made by an appropriate authority for roadsteads, harbors,
rivers, lakes or inland waterways connected with the high seas and
navigable by seagoing vessels. Such special rules shall conform as
closely as possible to these Rules.

   (C) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of any
special rules made by the Government of any State with respect to
additional station or signal lights, shapes or whistle signals for ships
of war and vessels proceeding under convoy, with respect to addi-
tional station or signal lights or shapes for fishing vessels engaged in
fishing as a fleet. These additional station or signal lights, shapes or
whistle signals shall, so far as possible, be such that they cannot be
mistaken for any light. shape or signal authorized elsewhere under
these Rules.1




     1
       Submarines may display, as a distinctive means of identification, an intermittent flashing
amber (yellow) beacon with a sequence of operation of one flash per second for three (3)
seconds followed by a three (3) second off-period. Other special rules made by the Secretary
of the Navy with respect to additional station and signal lights are found in Part 707 of Title
32, Code of Federal Regulations (32 CFR 707).
                                        INLAND
                                           General

                             PART A--GENERAL
                                            RULE I

                                          Application
 (a) These Rules apply to all vessels upon the inland waters of the
United States, and to vessels of the United States on the Canadian
waters of the Great Lakes to the extent that there is no conflict with
Canadian law.
 (b) (i) These Rules constitute special rules made by an appropriate
     authority within the meaning of Rule 1 (b) of the International
     Regulations.
     (ii) All vessels complying with the construction and equipment
     requirements of the International Regulations are considered to
     be in compliance with these Rules.
 (c) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of any
 special rules made by the Secretary of the Navy with respect to addi-
 tional station or signal lights and shapes or whistle signals for ships of
 war and vessels proceeding under convoy, or by the Secretary with
 respect to additional station or signal lights and shapes for fishing
 vessels engaged in fishing as a fleet. These additional station or sig  -
 nal lights and shapes or whistle signals shall, so far as possible, be
 such that they cannot be mistaken for any light, shape, or signal
 authorized elsewhere under these Rules. Notice of such special rules
 shall be published in the Federal Register and, after the effective
 date specified in such notice, they shall have effect as if they were a
 part of these Rules.2




    2 Submarines may-display, as a distinctive means of identification, an intermittent flashing
amber (yellow) beacon with a sequence of operation of one flash per second for three (3)
seconds followed by a three (3) second off-pealed. Other special rules made by the Secretary
of the Navy with respect to additional station and signal lights are found in Part 707 of Title 32,
Cede of Federal Regulations (32 CFR 707).



                                                  3
                   INTERNATIONAL
                              General

                    RULE 1--CONTINUED
  (d) Traffic separation schemes may be adopted by the Organization
for the purpose of these Rules.

  (e) Whenever the Government concerned shall have determined
that a vessel of special construction or purpose cannot comply fully
with the provisions of any of these Rules with respect to the number,
position, range or arc of visibility of lights or shapes, as well as to the
disposition and characteristics of sound-signaling appliances, such
vessel shall comply with such other provisions in regard to the num       -
ber, position, range or arc of visibility of lights or shapes, as well as to
the disposition and characteristics of sound-signaling appliances, as
her Government shall have determined to be the closest possible
compliance with these Rules in respect to that vessel.




                                    4
                            INLAND
                              General

                   RULE 1 -- CONTINUED

  (d) Traffic separation schemes may be established for the purposes
of these Rules. Vessel traffic service regulations may be in effect in
certain areas.
  (e) Whenever the Secretary determines that a vessel or class of
vessels of special construction or purpose cannot comply fully with the
provisions of any of these Rules with respect to the number, position,
range, or arc of visibility of lights or shapes, as well as to the dis-
position and characteristics of sound-signaling appliances, the ves    - sel
shall comply with such other provisions in regard to the number,
position, range, or arc of visibility of lights or shapes, as well as to the
disposition and characteristics of sound-signaling appliances, as the
Secretary shall have determined to be the closest possible compliance
with these Rules. The Secretary may issue a certificate of alternative
compliance for a vessel or class of vessels specifying the closest
possible compliance with these Rules. The Secretary of the Navy shall
make these determinations and issue certificates of alternative
compliance for vessels of the Navy.
  (f) The Secretary may accept a certificate of alternative compliance
issued by a contracting party to the International Regulations if he
determines that the alternative compliance standards of the contract       -
ing party are substantially the same as those of the United States.




                                   5
                  INTERNATIONAL
                            General

                           RULE 2
                          Responsibility

   (a) Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner,
master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to
comply with these Rules or of the neglect of any precaution which may
be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special
circumstances of the case.
   (b) In construing and complying with these Rules due regard shall be
had to all dangers of navigation and collision and to any special
circumstances, including the limitations of the vessels involved, which
may make a departure from these Rules necessary to avoid
immediate danger.

                            RULE 3
                         General Definitions
   For the purpose of these Rules, except where the context otherwise
requires:
   (a) The word "Vessel" includes every description of water craft,
including nondisplacement craft and seaplanes, used or capable of
being used as a means of transportation on water.
   (b) The term "Power-driven vessel" means any vessel propelled by
machinery.
   (c) The term "sailing vessel" means any vessel under sail provided
that propelling machinery, if fitted, is not being used.
   (d) The term "Vessel engaged in fishing" means any vessel fishing
with nets, lines, trawls or other fishing apparatus which restrict
maneuverability, but does not include a vessel fishing with trolling
lines or other fishing apparatus which do not restrict maneuver-
ability.
   (e) The word "Seaplane" includes any aircraft designed to maneu-
ver on the water.
   (f) The term "Vessel not under command" means a vessel which
through some exceptional circumstance is unable to maneuver as
required by these Rules and is therefore unable to keep out of the
way of another vessel.
   (g) The term "Vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver" means a
vessel which from the nature of her work is restricted in her ability to
maneuver as required by these Rules and is therefore unable to keep
out of the way of another vessel.



                                 6
                           INLAND
                             General

                            RULE 2
                           Responsibility
   (a) Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner,
master, or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to
comply with these Rules or of the neglect of any precaution which
may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special
circumstances of the case.
   (b) In construing and complying with these Rules due regard shall
be had to all dangers of navigation and collision and to any special
circumstances, including the limitations of the vessels involved,
which may make a departure from these Rules necessary to avoid
immediate danger.

                           RULE 3
                        General Definitions
   For the purpose of these Rules and this Act, except where the
context otherwise requires:
   (a) The word "vessel" includes every description of water craft,
including nondisplacement craft and seaplanes, used or capable of
being used as a means of transportation on water;
   (b) The term "power-driven vessel" means any vessel propelled by
machinery;
   (c) The term "sailing vessel" means any vessel under sail provided
that propelling machinery, if fitted, is not being used;
   (d) The term "vessel engaged in fishing" means any vessel fishing
with nets, lines, trawls, or other fishing apparatus which restricts
maneuverability, but does not include a vessel fishing with trolling
lines or other fishing apparatus which do not restrict maneuverability;

  (e) The word "seaplane" includes any aircraft designed to maneu     -
ver on the water;
  (f) The term "vessel not under command" means a vessel which
through some exceptional circumstance is unable to maneuver as
required by these Rules and is therefore unable to keep out of the
way of another vessel;
  (g) The term "vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver" means a
vessel which from the nature of her work is restricted in her ability to
maneuver as required by these Rules and is therefore unable to keep
out of the way of another vessel; vessels restricted in their ability to
maneuver include, but are not limited to:

                                  7
                  INTERNATIONAL
                             General

                   RULE 3--CONTINUED

  The term Vessels restricted in their ability to maneuver' shall
include but not be limited to:

  (i) a vessel engaged in laying, servicing or picking up a navigation
  mark, submarine cable or pipeline;

  (ii) a vessel engaged in dredging, surveying or underwater
  operations;

  (iii) a vessel engaged in replenishment or transferring persons,
  provisions or cargo while underway;

  (iv) a vessel engaged in the launching or recovery of aircraft;

  (v) a vessel engaged in mine clearance operations;

  (vi) a vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely
  restricts the towing vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate
  from their course.

  (h) The term "vessel constrained by her draft" means a power-
driven vessel which, because of her draft in relation to the available
depth and width of navigable water is severely restricted in her abili-
ty to deviate from the course she is following.
  (i) The word "underway" means that a vessel is not at anchor, or
made fast to the shore, or aground.
  (j) The words "length" and "breadth" of a vessel means her length
overall and greatest breadth.
  (k) Vessels shall be deemed to be in sight of one another only when
one can be observed visually from the other.
  (I) The term "restricted visibility" means any condition in which
visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms,
sandstorms or any other similar causes.




                                  8
                           INLAND
                             General

                   RULE 3--CONTINUED
(i) a vessel engaged in laying, servicing, or picking up a navigation
mark, submarine cable, or pipeline;

(ii) a vessel engaged in dredging, surveying, or underwater
operations;

(iii) a vessel engaged in replenishment or transferring persons,
provisions, or cargo while underway;

(iv) a vessel engaged in the launching or recovery of aircraft;

(v) (v) a vessel engaged in mine clearance operations; and

(vi) a vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely
restricts the towing vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate from
their course.



  (h) The word "underway" means that a vessel is not at anchor, or
made fast to the shore, or aground;
  (i) The words 'length" and "breadth" of a vessel means her length
overall and greatest breadth;
  (j) Vessels shall be deemed to be in sight of one another only when
one can be observed visually from the other;
  (k) The term "restricted visibility" means any condition in which
visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms,
sandstorms, or any other similar causes;




                                  9
INTERNATIONAL
    General




    [BLANK]




      10
                          INLAND
                            General

                  RULE 3--CONTINUED
   (I) "Western Rivers" means the Mississippi River, its tributaries,
South Pass, and Southwest Pass, to the navigational demarcation
lines dividing the high seas from harbors, rivers, and other inland
waters of the United States, and the Port Allen-Morgan City Alternate
Route, and that part of the Atchafalaya River above its junction with
the Port Allen-Morgan City Alternate Route including the Old River
and the Red River;
   (m) "Great Lakes" means the Great Lakes and their connecting and
tributary waters including the Calumet River as far as the Thomas J.
O'Brien Lock and Controlling Works (between mile 326 and 327), the
Chicago River as far as the east side of the Ashland Avenue Bridge
(between mile 321 and 322), and the Saint Lawrence River as far east
as the lower exit of Saint Lambert Lock;
   (n) "Secretary" means the Secretary of the department in which the
Coast Guard is operating;
   (o) "Inland Waters" means the navigable waters of the United
States shoreward of the navigational demarcation lines dividing the
high seas from harbors, rivers, and other inland waters of the United
States and the waters of the Great Lakes on the United States side of
the International Boundary;
   (p) "Inland Rules" or "Rules" mean the Inland Navigational Rules
and the annexes thereto, which govern the conduct of vessels and
specify the lights, shapes, and sound signals that apply on inland
waters; and
   (q) "International Regulations" means the International Regulations
for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, including annexes currently in
force for the United States.




                                11
                 --INTERNATIONAL--
                   Steering and Sailing Rules

       PART B--STEERING AND SAILING RULES

           Section I--Conduct of Vessels in Any
                  Condition of Visibility

                                 RULE 4
                                 Application
  Rules in this Section apply to any condition of visibility.

                                 RULE 5
                                 Look-out
   Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and
hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the pre        -
vailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the
situation and of the risk of collision.




                                     12
                             --INLAND--
                     Steering and Sailing Rules

        PART B--STEERING AND SAILING RULES

            Subpart I--Conduct of Vessels in Any
                  Condition of Visibility

                                    RULE 4
                                    Application

Rules in this subpart apply in any condition of visibility.

                                     RULE 5
                                     Look-out

   Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and
heading as well as by all available means appropriate in the pre-
vailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the
situation and of the risk of collision.




                                         13
            --INTERNATIONAL--
                  Steering and Sailing Rules

                                RULE 6
                               Safe Speed

  Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she
can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped
within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and
conditions.
  In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among
those taken into account:
  (a) By all vessels:
        (i) the state of visibility;
        (ii) the traffic density including concentrations of fishing ves
                                                                       sels
        or any other vessels;
        (iii) the maneuverability of the vessel with special reference
        to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing
        conditions;
        (iv) at night the presence of background light such as from
        shore lights or from back scatter of her own lights;
        (v) the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of
        navigational hazards;
        (vi) the draft in relation to the available depth of water.

  (b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:
        (i) the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar
        equipment;
        (ii) any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
        (iii) the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather
        and other sources of interference;
        (iv) the possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating
        objects may not be detected by radar at an adequate range;
        (v) the number, location and movement of vessels detected
        by radar;
        (vi) the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be
              possible when radar is used to determine the range of
              vessels or other objects in the vicinity.




                                    14
                           INLAND
                  Steering and Sailing Rules

                               RULE 6
                              Safe Speed

  Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she
can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped
within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and
conditions.
  In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among
those taken into account:
  (a) By all vessels:
        (i) the state of visibility;
        (ii) the traffic density including concentration of fishing ves-
        sels or any other vessels;
        (iii) the maneuverability of the vessel with special reference
        to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing
        conditions;
        (iv) at night the presence of background light such as from
        shore lights or from back scatter of her own lights;
        (v) the state of wind, sea, and current, and the proximity of
        navigational hazards;
        (vi) the draft in relation to the available depth of water.

  (b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:
       (i) the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar
       equipment;
       (ii) any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
       (iii) the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather,
       and other sources of interference;
       (iv) the possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating
       objects may not be detected by radar at an adequate range;
       (v) the number, location. and movement of vessels detected
       by radar; and
       (vi) the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be
       possible when radar is used to determine the range of ves-
       sels or other objects in the vicinity.




                                   15
                --INTERNATIONAL--
                  Steering and Sailing Rules

                                RULE 7
                             Risk of Collision

   (a) Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to the
prevailing circumstances and conditions to determine if risk of collision
exists. If there is any doubt such risk shall be deemed to exist.
   (b) Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and
operational, including long-range scanning to obtain early warning of
risk of collision and radar plotting or equivalent systematic observation
of detected objects.
   (c) Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty
information, especially scanty radar information.
   (d) In determining if risk of collision exists the following considera-
tions shall be among those taken into account:
       (i) such risk shall be deemed to exist if the compass heading of
       an approaching vessel does not appreciably change;
       (ii) such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable
       bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a
       very large vessel or a tow or when approaching a vessel at
       close range.




                                    16
                          INLAND
                Steering and Sailing Rules

                             RULE 7
                          Risk of Collision

(a) Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to the
    prevailing circumstances and conditions to determine if risk of
    collision exists. If there is any doubt such risk shall be deemed
    to exist.
(b) Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and
    operational, including long-range scanning to obtain early
    warning of risk of collision and radar plotting or equivalent
    systematic observation of detected objects.
(c) Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty
    information, especially scanty radar information.
(d) In determining if risk of collision exists the following considera-
    tions shall be among those taken into account:
    (i) such risk shall be deemed to exist if the compass heading of
    an approaching vessel does not appreciably change;
    (ii) such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable
    bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a
    very large vessel or a tow or when approaching a vessel at
    close range.




                                  17
                     INTERNATIONAL
                   Steering and Sailing Rules

                                RULE 8
                        Action to Avoid Collision

   (a) Any action taken to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of
the case admit, be positive, made in ample time and with due regard
to the observance of good seamanship.
   (b) Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if
the circumstances of the case admit, be large enough to be readily
apparent to another vessel observing visually or by radar; a succes-
sion of small alterations of course and/or speed should be avoided.
   (c) If there is sufficient sea room, alteration of course alone may be
the most effective action to avoid a close-quarters situation provided
that it is made in good time, is substantial and does not result in
another close-quarters situation.
   (d) Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall be such
as to result in passing at a safe distance. The effectiveness of the
action shall be carefully checked until the other vessel is finally past
and clear.
   (e) If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess the
situation, a vessel shall slacken her speed or take all way off by
stopping or reversing her means of propulsion.
   (f) (i) A vessel which, by any of these rules, is required not to impede
      the passage or safe passage of another vessel shall, when required
      by the circumstances of the case, take early action to allow
      sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the other vessel.
      (ii) A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe passage of
      another vessel is not relieved of this obligation if approaching the
      other vessel so as to involve risk of collision and shall, when taking
      action, have full regard to the action which may be required by the
      rules of this part.
      (iii) A vessel, the passage of which is not to be impeded remains
      fully obliged to comply with the rules of this part when the two
      vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of
      collision.




                                     18
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                  Steering and Sailing Rules

                                RULE 8
                        Action to Avoid Collision
   (a) Any action taken to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of
the case admit, be positive, made in ample time and with due regard
to the observance of good seamanship.
   (b) Any alteration of course or speed to avoid collision shall, if
the circumstances of the case admit, be large enough to be readily
apparent to another vessel observing visually or by radar; a succes     -
sion of small alterations of course or speed should be avoided.
   (c) If there is sufficient sea room, alteration of course alone may be
the most effective action to avoid a close-quarters situation provided
that it is made in good time, is substantial and does not result in
another close-quarters situation.
   (d) Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall be such
as to result in passing at a safe distance. The effectiveness of the
action shall be carefully checked until the other vessel is finally past
and clear.
   (e) If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess the
situation, a vessel shall slacken her speed or take all way off by
stopping or reversing her means of propulsion.
   (f) (i) A vessel which, by any of these rules, is required not to
       impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel shall,
       when required by the circumstances of the case, take early action
       to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the other
       vessel.
       (ii) A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe pas-
       sage of another vessel is not relieved of this obligation if
       approaching the other vessel so as to involve risk of collision and
       shall, when taking action, have full regard to the action
       which may be required by the rules of this part.
       (iii) A vessel, the passage of which is not to be impeded remains
       fully obliged to comply with the rules of this part when the two
       vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of
       collision.




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                  Steering and Sailing Rules

                              RULE 9
                           Narrow Channels
  (a) (i) A vessel proceeding along the course of a narrow channel or
       fairway shall keep as near to the outer limit of the channel or
       fairway which lies on her starboard side as is safe and practicable.
       (ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(i) and Rule 14(a), a powerdriven
       vessel operating in narrow channels or fairways on the Great
       Lakes, Western Rivers, or waters specified by the Secretary, and
       proceeding downbound with a following current shall have the right-
       of-way over an upbound vessel, shall propose the manner and
       place of passage, and shall initiate the maneuvering signals
       prescribed by rule 34(a)(i), as appropriate. The vessel proceeding
       upbound against the current shall hold as necessary to permit safe
       passing.
  (b) A vessel of less than 20 meters in length or a sailing vessel shall
not impede the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate only
within a narrow channel or fairway.
  (c) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any
other vessel navigating within a narrow channel or fairway.
  (d) A vessel shall not cross a narrow channel or fairway if such crossing
impedes the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate only within
such channel or fairway. The latter vessel may use the sound signal
prescribed in Rule 34(d) if in doubt as to the intention of the crossing
vessel.
  (e) (i) In a narrow channel or fairway when overtaking can take place
       only if the vessel to be overtaken has to take action to permit safe
       passing, the vessel intending to overtake shall indicate her
       intention by sounding the appropriate signal pre scribed in Rule
       34(c). The vessel to be overtaken shall, if in agreement, sound
       the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(c) and take steps to
       permit safe passing. If in doubt she may sound the signals
       prescribed in Rule 34(d).
       (ii) This Rule does not relieve the overtaking vessel of her oblig-
        ation under Rule 13.
  (f) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a narrow channel or fairway
where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall
navigate with particular alertness and caution and shall sound the
appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(e).
  (g) Any vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid
anchoring in a narrow channel.


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                              RULE 9
                           Narrow Channels
(a) (i) A vessel proceeding along the course of a narrow channel or
    fairway shall keep as near to the outer limit of the channel or fair-
    way which lies on her starboard side as is safe and practicable.
    (ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(i) and Rule 14(a), a power-
    driven vessel operating in narrow channels or fairways on the
    Great Lakes, Western Rivers,or waters specified by the Secretary,
    and proceeding downbound with a following current shall have the
    right-of-way over an upbound vessel, shall pro   - pose the manner
    and place of passage, and shall initiate the maneuvering signals
    prescribed by Rule 34(a)(i), as appropriate. The vessel proceeding
    upbound against the current shall hold as necessary to permit safe
    passing.
  (b) A vessel of less than 20 meters in length or a sailing vessel shall
not impede the passage of a vessel that can safely navigate only
within a narrow channel or fairway.
  (c) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any
other vessel navigating within a narrow channel or fairway.
  (d) A vessel shall not cross a narrow channel or fairway if such
crossing impedes the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate
only within that channel or fairway. The latter vessel shall use the
danger signal prescribed in Rule 34(d) if in doubt as to the intention of
the crossing vessel.
  (e) (i) In a narrow channel or fairway when overtaking, the vessel
      intending to overtake shall indicate her intention by sounding the
      appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(c) and take steps to
      permit safe passing. The overtaken vessel, if in agreement, shall
      sound the same signal. If in doubt she shall sound the danger
      signal prescribed in Rule 34(d).

      (ii) This Rule does not relieve the overtaking vessel of her oblig-
      ation under Rule 13.
  (f) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a narrow channel or
fairway where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening
obstruction shall navigate with particular alertness and caution and
shall sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(e).
  (g) Every vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid
anchoring in a narrow channel.



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                  Steering and Sailing Rules

                                RULE 10
                       Traffic Separation Schemes
   (a) This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes adopted by the
Organization and does not relieve any vessel of her obligation under any
other rule.
   (b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:
       (i) proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of
       traffic flow for that lane;
       (ii) so far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or
       separation zone;
       (iii) normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the
       lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as
       small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as
       practicable.
   (c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes
but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable
at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.
   (d) (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can
       safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic
       separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 meters in
       length,       sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use
       the inshore traffic zone.
       (ii) Notwithstanding subparagraph (d)(i), a vessel may use an
       inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore
       installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated
       within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.
   (e) A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving
a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation
line except:
       (i) in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger;
       (ii) to engage in fishing within a separation zone.
   (f) A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic separation
schemes shall do so with particular caution.
   (g) A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic
separa- tion scheme or in areas near its terminations.
   (h) A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as
wide a margin as is practicable.
   (i) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any
vessel following a traffic lane.
   (j) A vessel of less than 20 meters in length or a sailing vessel shall not
impede the safe passage of a power-driven vessel following a traffic lane.




                                     22
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                  Steering and Sailing Rules

                                RULE 10
                       Traffic Separation Schemes

   (a) This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes and does not
relieve any vessel of her obligation under any other Rule.
   (b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:
       (i) proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of
       traffic flow for that lane;
       (ii) so far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or
       separation zone;
       (iii) normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the
       lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as
       small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable.
   (c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but
if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at
right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.
   (d) (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can
       safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic
       separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 meters in
       length, sailing vessels, and vessels engaged in fishing may use the
       inshore traffic zone.
       (ii) Notwithstanding subparagraph (d)(i), a vessel may use an
       inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore
       installation or structure, pilot station, or any other place situated
       within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.
   (e) A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving
a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation
line except:
       (i) in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger; or
       (ii) to engage in fishing within a separation zone.
   (f) A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic
separation schemes shall do so with particular caution.
   (g) A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic
separation scheme or in areas near its terminations.
   (h) A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as
wide a margin as is practicable.
   (i) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any
vessel following a traffic lane.
   (j) A vessel of less than 20 meters in length or a sailing vessel shall not
impede the safe passage of a power-driven vessel following a traffic lane.




                                     23
            --INTERNATIONAL--
               Steering and Sailing Rules

                   RULE 10--Continued

  (k) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver when engaged in
an operation for the maintenance of safety of navigation in a traffic
separation scheme is exempted from complying with this Rule to the
extent necessary to carry out the operation.

  (I) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver when engaged in
an operation for the laying, servicing or picking up of a submarine
cable, within a traffic separation scheme, is exempted from
complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the
operation.




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               Steering and Sailing Rules

                   RULE 10--Continued
  (k) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver when engaged in
an operation for the maintenance of safety of navigation in a traffic
separation scheme is exempted from complying with this Rule to the
extent necessary to carry out the operation.

  (I) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver when engaged in
an operation for the laying, servicing, or picking up of a submarine
cable, within a traffic separation scheme, is exempted from
complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the
operation.




                                25
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                Steering and Sailing Rules

   Section II--Conduct of Vessels in Sight of
                One Another

                             RULE 11
                             Application
    Rules in this section apply to vessels in sight of one another.

                            RULE 12
                           Sailing Vessels

  (a) When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to
involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the
other as follows:
     (i) when each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which
     has the wind on the pod side shall keep out of the way of the
     other;
     (ii) when both have the wind on the same side, the vessel which
     is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to
     leeward;
     (iii) if a vessel with the wind on the port side sees a vessel to
     windward and cannot determine with certainty whether the other
     vessel has the wind on the port or on the starboard side, she
     shall keep out of the way of the other.
  (b) For the purposes of this Rule the windward side shall be
deemed to be the side opposite to that on which the mainsail is
carried or, in the case of a square-rigged vessel, the side opposite to
that on which the largest fore-and-aft sail is carried.




                                 26
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                Steering and Sailing Rules

   Subpart II--Conduct of Vessels in Sight of
                One Another

                            RULE 11
                             Application

  Rules in this subpart apply to vessels in sight of one another.

                            RULE 12
                           Sailing Vessels

  (a) When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to
involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the
other as follows:
      (i) when each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which
      has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the
      other;
      (ii) when both have the wind on the same side, the vessel which
      is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to
      leeward; and
      (iii) if a vessel with the wind on the port side sees a vessel to
      windward and cannot determine with certainty whether the other
      vessel has the wind on the port or on the starboard side, she
      shall keep out of the way of the other.
  (b) For the purpose of this Rule the windward side shall be deemed
to be the side opposite to that on which the mainsail is carried or, in
the case of a square-rigged vessel, the side opposite to that on which
the largest fore-and-aft sail is carried.




                                 27
             --INTERNATIONAL--
                Steering and Sailing Rules

                            RULE 13
                             Overtaking
  (a) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B.
  Sections I and 11 any vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of
the way of the vessel being overtaken.
  (b) A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up with
another vessel from a direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her
beam, that is, in such a position with reference to the vessel she is
overtaking, that at night she would be able to see only the sternlight of
that vessel but neither of her sidelights.
  (c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether she is overtaking
another, she shall assume that this is the case and act accordingly.
  (d) Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two
vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within
the meaning of these Rules or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear
of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.




                                 28
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                Steering and Sailing Rules

                            RULE 13
                             Overtaking

  (a) Notwithstanding anything contained in Rules 4 through 18, any
vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel
being overtaken.
  (b) A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up with
another vessel from a direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her
beam; that is, in such a position with reference to the vessel she is
overtaking, that at night she would be able to see only the sternlight of
that vessel but neither of her sidelights.
  (c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether she is overtaking
another, she shall assume that this is the case and act accordingly.
  (d) Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two
vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within
the meaning of these Rules or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear
of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.




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                Steering and Sailing Rules

                            RULE 14
                         Head-on Situation
  (a) When two power-driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal or
nearly reciprocal courses so as to involve risk of collision each shall
alter her course to starboard so that each shall pass on the port side
of the other.
  (b) Such a situation shall be deemed to exist when a vessel sees
the other ahead or nearly ahead and by night she could see the
masthead lights of the other in a line or nearly in a line and/or both
sidelights and by day she observes the corresponding aspect of the
other vessel.
  (c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether such a situation
exists she shall assume that it does exist and act accordingly.

                            RULE 15
                         Crossing Situation
  When two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk
of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side
shall keep out of the way and shall, if the circumstances of the case
admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel.




                                 30
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                Steering and Sailing Rules

                            RULE 14
                         Head-on Situation
   (a) Unless otherwise agreed, when two power-driven vessels are
meeting on reciprocal or nearly reciprocal courses so as to involve
risk of collision each shall alter her course to starboard so that each
shall pass on the port side of the other.
   (b) Such a situation shall be deemed to exist when a vessel sees the
other ahead or nearly ahead and by night she could see the mast--
head lights of the other in a line or nearly in a line or both sidelights
and by day she observes the corresponding aspect of the other ves      -
sel.
   (c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether such a situation
exists she shall assume that it does exist and act accordingly.
   (d) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this Rule, a power driven
vessel operating on the Great Lakes, Western Rivers, or waters
specified by the Secretary, and proceeding downbound with a
following current shall have the right-of-way over an upbound vessel,
shall propose the manner of passage, and shall initiate the
maneuvering signals prescribed by Rule 34(a)(1 ), as appropriate.

                            RULE 15
                         Crossing Situation
   (a) When two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve
risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her starboard side
shall keep out of the way and shall, If the circumstances of the case
admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel.
   (b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), on the Great Lakes, Western
Rivers, or water specified by the Secretary, a vessel crossing a river
shall keep out of the way of a power-driven vessel ascending or
descending the river.




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                Steering and Sailing Rules

                             RULE 16
                     Action by Give-way Vessel
  Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another
vessel shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to
keep well clear.

                             RULE 17
                     Action by Stand-on Vessel
  (a) (i) Where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other
      shall keep her course and speed.
      (ii) The latter vessel may, however, take action to avoid collision
      by her maneuver alone, as soon as it becomes apparent to her
      that the vessel required to keep out of the way is not taking
      appropriate action in compliance with these Rules.
  (b) When, from any cause, the vessel required to keep her course
and speed finds herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by
the action of the give-way vessel alone, she shall take such action as
will best aid to avoid collision.
  (c) A power-driven vessel which takes action in a crossing situation
in accordance with subparagraph (a)(ii) of this Rule to avoid collision
with another power-driven vessel shall, if the circumstances of the
case admit, not alter course to port for a vessel on her own port side.
  (d) This Rule does not relieve the give-way vessel of her obligation
to keep out of the way.




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                Steering and Sailing Rules

                             RULE 16
                     Action by Give-way Vessel
  Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another
vessel shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to
keep well clear.

                             RULE 17
                     Action by Stand-on Vessel
  (a) (i) Where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other
      shall keep her course and speed.
      (ii) The latter vessel may, however, take action to avoid collision
      by her maneuver alone, as soon as it becomes apparent to her
      that the vessel required to keep out of the way is not taking
      appropriate action in compliance with these Rules.
  (b) When, from any cause, the vessel required to keep her course
and speed finds herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by
the action of the give-way vessel alone, she shall take such action as
will best aid to avoid collision.
  (c) A power-driven vessel which takes action in a crossing situation
in accordance with subparagraph (a)(ii) of this Rule to avoid collision
with another power-driven vessel shall, if the circumstances of the
case admit, not alter course to port for a vessel on her own port side.
  (d) This Rule does not relieve the give-way vessel of her obligation
to keep out of the way.




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                Steering and Sailing Rules

                             RULE 18
                  Responsibilities Between Vessels

  Except where Rules 9, 10, and 13 otherwise require:
  (a) A power-driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:
    (i) a vessel not under command;
    (ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver;
    (iii) a vessel engaged in fishing; and
    (iv) a sailing vessel.
  (b) A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:
    (i) a vessel not under command;
    (ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver; and
    (iii) a vessel engaged in fishing.
  (c) A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as
possible, keep out of the way of:
    (i) a vessel not under command;
    (ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver.
  (d)(i) A vessel other than a vessel not under command or a vessel
      restricted in her ability to maneuver shall, if the circumstances of
      the case admit, avoid impeding the safe passage of a vessel
      constrained by her draft, exhibiting the signals in Rule 28.
      (ii) A vessel constrained by her draft shall navigate with particular
      caution having full regard to her special condition.
  (e) A seaplane on the water shall, in general, keep well clear of all
vessels and avoid impeding their navigation. In circumstances,
however, where risk of collision exists, she shall comply with the
Rules of this Part.




                                  34
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                Steering and Sailing Rules

                            RULE 18
                  Responsibilities Between Vessels

  Except where Rules 9, 10, and 13 otherwise require:
  (a) A power-driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:
    (i) a vessel not under command;
    (ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver;
    (iii) a vessel engaged in fishing; and
    (iv) a sailing vessel.
  (b) A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:
    (i) a vessel not under command;
    (ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver; and
    (iii) a vessel engaged in fishing.
  (c) A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as
possible, keep out of the way of:
    (i) a vessel not under command; and
    (ii) a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver.



  (d) A seaplane on the water shall, in general, keep well clear of all
vessels and avoid impeding their navigation. In circumstances, how  -
ever, where risk of collision exists, she shall comply with the Rules
of this Part.




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                Steering and Sailing Rules

Subpart Ill--Conduct of Vessels in Restricted
                 Visibility

                             RULE 19
              Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

   (a) This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when
navigating in or near an area of restricted visibility.
   (b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the
prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility. A power
driven vessel shall have her engines ready for immediate maneuver.
   (c) Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility when complying
with Rules of Section I of this Part.
   (d) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another
vessel shall determine if a close-quarters situation is developing and/or
risk of collision exists. If so, she shall take avoiding action in ample
time, provided that when such action consists of an alteration of course,
so far as possible the following shall be avoided:
      (i) an alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the
       beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken; and
      (ii) an alteration of course toward a vessel abeam or abaft the
       beam.
   (e) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does
not exist, every vessel which hears apparently forward of her beam the
fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarters
situation with another vessel forward of her beam, shall reduce her
speed to the minimum at which she can be kept on course. She shall if
necessary take all her way off and, in any event, navigate with extreme
caution until danger of collision is over.




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                Steering and Sailing Rules

Subpart Ill--Conduct of Vessels in Restricted
                 Visibility

                             RULE 19
              Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

   (a) This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when
navigating in or near an area of restricted visibility.
   (b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the
prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility. A power
driven vessel shall have her engines ready for immediate maneuver.
   (c) Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility when complying
with Rules 4 through 10..
   (d) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another
vessel shall determine if a close-quarters situation is developing or
risk of collision exists. If so, she shall take avoiding action in ample
time, provided that when such action consists of an alteration of course,
so far as possible the following shall be avoided:
      (i) an alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the
       beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken; and
      (ii) an alteration of course toward a vessel abeam or abaft the
       beam.
   (e) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision
does not exist, every vessel which hears apparently forward of her
beam the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a close
quarters situation with another vessel forward of her beam, shall reduce
her speed to the minimum at which she can be kept on course. She
shall if necessary take all her way off and, in any event, navigate with
extreme caution until danger of collision is over.




                                  37
              --INTERNATIONAL--
                      Lights and Shapes

          PART C--LIGHTS AND SHAPES

                             RULE 20
                             Application
  (a) Rules in this Part shall be complied with in all weathers.
  (b) The Rules concerning lights shall be complied with from sunset
to sunrise, and during such times no other lights shall be exhibited,
except such lights as cannot be mistaken for the lights specified in
these Rules or do not impair their visibility or distinctive character, or
interfere with the keeping of a proper look-out.
  (c) The lights prescribed by these Rules shall, if carried, also be
exhibited from sunrise to sunset in restricted visibility and may be
exhibited in all other circumstances when it is deemed necessary.
  (d) The Rules concerning shapes shall be complied with by day.
  (e) The lights and shapes specified in these Rules shall comply with
the provisions of Annex I of these Regulations.




                                  38
                        --INLAND--
                      Lights and Shapes

          PART C--LIGHTS AND SHAPES

                             RULE 20
                             Application
  (a) Rules in this Part shall be complied with in all weathers.
  (b) The Rules concerning lights shall be complied with from sunset
to sunrise, and during such times no other lights shall be exhibited,
except such lights as cannot be mistaken for the lights specified in
these Rules or do not impair their visibility or distinctive character, or
interfere with the keeping of a proper look-out.
  (c) The lights prescribed by these Rules shall, if carried, also be
exhibited from sunrise to sunset in restricted visibility and may be
exhibited in all other circumstances when it is deemed necessary.
  (d) The Rules concerning shapes shall be complied with by day.
  (e) The lights and shapes specified in these Rules shall comply with
the provisions of Annex I of these Rules.




                                  39
              --INTERNATIONAL--
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 21
                              Definitions

   (a) "Masthead light" means a white light placed over the fore and
aft centerline of the vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of
the horizon of 225 degrees and so fixed as to show the light from
right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on either side of the
vessel.


   (b) "Sidelights" mean a green light on the starboard side and a
red light on the port side each showing an unbroken light over an arc
of the horizon of 112.5 degrees and so fixed as to show the light
from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on its respective
side. In a vessel of less than 20 meters in length the sidelights may
be combined in one lantern carried on the fore and aft centerline of
the vessel.


   (c) "Sternlight" means a white light placed as nearly as practicable
at the stern showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of
135 degrees and so fixed as to show the light 67.5 degrees from
right aft on each side of the vessel.
   (d) "Towing light" means a yellow light having the same
characteristics as the "sternlight" defined in paragraph (c) of this
Rule.
   (e) "All-round light" means a light showing an unbroken light over
an arc of the horizon of 360 degrees.
   (f) "Flashing light" means a light flashing at regular intervals at a
frequency of 120 flashes or more per minute.




                                  40
                       --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                            RULE 21
                             Definitions

   (a) "Masthead light" means a white light placed over the fore and
aft centerline of the vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of
the horizon of 225 degrees and so fixed as to show the light from
right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on either side of the
vessel, except that on a vessel of less than 12 meters in length the
masthead light shall be placed as nearly as practicable to the fore
and aft centerline of the vessel.
   (b) "Sidelights" mean a green light on the starboard side and a red
light on the port side each showing an unbroken light over an arc of
the horizon of 112.5 degrees and so fixed as to show the light from
right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on its respective side. On
a vessel of less than 20 meters in length the sidelights may be
combined in one lantern carried on the fore and aft centerline of the
vessel, except that on a vessel of less than 12 meters in lengththe
side-lights when combined in one lantern shall be placed as nearly as
practicable to the fore and aft centerline of the vessel.
   (c) "Sternlight" means a white light placed as nearly as practicable
at the stern showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of
135 degrees and so fixed as to show the light 67.5 degrees from right
aft on each side of the vessel.
   (d) "Towing light" means a yellow light having the same
characteristics as the "sternlight" defined in paragraph (c) of this
Rule.
   (e) "All-round light" means a light showing an unbroken light over
an arc of the horizon of 360 degrees.
   (f) "Flashing light" means a light flashing at regular intervals at a
frequency of 120 flashes or more per minute.
   (g) "Special flashing light" means a yellow light flashing at regular
intervals at a frequency of 50 to 70 flashes per minute, placed as far
forward and as nearly as practicable on the fore and aft centerline of
the tow and showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of
not less than 180 degrees nor more than 225 degrees and so fixed as
to show the light from right ahead to abeam and no more than 22.5
degrees abaft the beam on either side of the vessel.




                                 41
              --INTERNATIONAL--
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 22
                          Visibility of Lights

        The lights prescribed in these Rules shall have an intensity
as specified in Section 8 of Annex I to these Rules, so as to be
visible at the following minimum ranges:
  (a) In a vessel of 50 meters or more in length:
     --a masthead light, 6 miles;
     --a sidelight, 3 miles;
     --a sternlight, 3 miles;
     --a towing light, 3 miles;
     --a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 3 miles; and

 (b) In a vessel of 12 meters or more in length but less than 50
meters in length:
   --a masthead light, 5 miles; except that where the length of the
       vessel is less than 20 meters, 3 miles;
   --a sidelight, 2 miles;
   --a sternlight, 2 miles;
   --a towing light, 2 miles;
   --a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles; and

  (c) In a vessel of less than 12 meters in length:
    --a masthead light, 2 miles;
    --a sidelight, 1 mile;
    --a sternlight, 2 miles;
    --a towing light, 2 miles;
    --a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles; and

  (d) In an inconspicuous, partly submerged vessel or object being
    towed:
    --a white all-round light, 3 miles.




                                  42
                       --INLAND--
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 22
                          Visibility of Lights

  The lights prescribed in these Rules shall have an intensity as
specified in Annex I to these Rules, so as to be visible at the
following minimum ranges:
  (a) In a vessel of 50 meters or more in length:
     --a masthead light, 6 miles;
     --a sidelight, 3 miles;
     --a sternlight, 3 miles;
     --a towing light, 3 miles;
     --a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 3 miles; and
     --a special flashing light, 2 miles.

 (b) In a vessel of 12 meters or more in length but less than 50
meters in length:
   --a masthead light, 5 miles; except that where the length of the
       vessel is less than 20 meters, 3 miles;
   --a sidelight, 2 miles;
   --a sternlight, 2 miles;
   --a towing light, 2 miles;
   --a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles; and
   --a special flashing light, 2 miles.

  (c) In a vessel of less than 12 meters in length:
    --a masthead light, 2 miles;
    --a sidelight, 1 mile;
    --a sternlight, 2 miles;
    --a towing light, 2 miles;
    --a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles; and
    --a special flashing light, 2 miles.

  (d) In an inconspicuous, partly submerged vessel or object being
    towed:
    --a white all-round light, 3 miles.




                                  43
             --INTERNATIONAL--
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                           RULE 23
                 Power-driven Vessels Underway

(a) A power-driven vessel underway shall exhibit:
    (i) a masthead light forward;

   (ii) a second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward
   one; except that a vessel of less than 50 meters in length shall
   not be obliged to exhibit such light but may do so;
   (iii) sidelights;
   (iv) a stern light.




         Power-driven vessel underway. Same for Inland.



                                44
                      --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                            RULE 23
                  Power-driven Vessels Underway
(a) A power-driven vessel underway shall exhibit:
    (i) a masthead light forward; except that a vessel of less than 20
    meters in length need not exhibit this light forward of amidships
    but shall exhibit it as far forward as is practicable;
    (ii) a second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward
    one; except that a vessel of less than 50 meters in length shall
    not be obliged to exhibit such light but may do so;
    (iii) sidelights; and
    (iv) a stern light.




    Power-driven vessel underway--less than 50 meters in length.
                     Same for International.



                                 45
             --INTERNATIONAL--
                    Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 23--CONTINUED

     (b) An air-cushion vessel when operating in the nondisplacement
mode shall, in addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of
this Rule, exhibit an all-round flashing yellow light.




Air-cushion vessel when operating in the nondisplacement mode--
               vessel less than 50 meters in length.




                                46
                      --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 23--CONTINUED
  (b) An air-cushion vessel when operating in the nondisplacement
mode shall, In addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this
Rule, exhibit an all-round flashing yellow light where it can best be
seen.




   Air-cushion vessel when operating in the displacement mode
               vessel less than 50 meters in length.




                                 47
              --INTERNATIONAL--
                       Lights and Shapes

                   RULE 23--CONTINUED

(c) (i) A power-driven vessel of less than 12 meters in length may in
    lieu of the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule exhibit
    an all-round white light and sidelights;
    (ii) a power-driven vessel of less than 7 meters in length whose
    maximum speed does not exceed 7 knots may in lieu of the
    lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule exhibit an all
    round white light and shall, if practicable, also exhibit sidelights;
    (iii) the masthead light or all-round white light on a power-driven
    vessel of less than 12 meters in length may be displaced from
    the fore and aft centerline of the vessel if centerline fitting is not
    practicable, provided that the sidelights are combined in one
    lantern which shall be carried on the fore and aft centerline of
    the vessel or located as nearly as practicable in the same fore
    and aft line as the masthead light or the all-round white light.




Power-driven vessel of less than 7 meters in length whose
           maximum speed does not exceed 7 knots.




                                   48
                      --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 23--CONTINUED

(c) A power-driven vessel of less than 12 meters in length may, in
    lieu of the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule,
    exhibit an all-round white light and sidelights.




    Power-driven vessel of less than 12 meters in length. Same for
                            International.




                                 49
--INTERNATIONAL--
   Lights and Shapes




        [Blank]




          50
             --INTERNATIONAL--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 23--CONTINUED
    (d) A power-driven vessel when operating on the Great Lakes
may carry an all-round white light in lieu of the second masthead
light and sternlight prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule. The
light shall be carried in the position of the second masthead light and
be visible at the same minimum range.




                Power-driven vessel on Great Lakes.



                                 51
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                            RULE 24
                        Towing and Pushing

(a) A power-driven vessel when towing shall exhibit:
    (i) instead of the light prescribed in Rule 23(a)(i) or (a)(ii), two
    masthead lights in a vertical line. When the length of the tow,
    measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the after end
    of the tow exceeds 200 meters, three such lights in a vertical
    line;
    (ii) sidelights;
    (iii) a sternlight;
    (iv) a towing light in a vertical line above the sternlight;
    (v) when the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond
    shape where it can best be seen.




   Power-driven vessel towing astern--towing vessel less than 50
       meters in length; length of tow exceeds 200 meters.
                         Same for Inland.




                                  52
                       --INLAND--
                      Lights and Shapes

                   RULE 24--CONTINUED

     (b) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are
rigidly connected in a composite unit they shall be regarded as a power-
driven vessel and exhibit the lights prescribed in Rule 23.

        Composite unit underway--less than 50 meters in length.
                        Same for International.

(a) A power-driven vessel when towing shall exhibit:
    (i) instead of the light prescribed in Rule 23(a)(i) or (a)(ii), two
    masthead lights in a vertical line. When the length of the tow,
    measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the after end
    of the tow exceeds 200 meters, three such lights in a vertical
    line;
    (ii) sidelights;
    (iii) a sternlight;
    (iv) a towing light in a vertical line above the sternlight;
    (v) when the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond
    shape where it can best be seen.




   Power-driven vessel towing astern--towing vessel less than 50
   meters in length; length of tow 200 meters or less. Same for
                            International.


                                  53
             --INTERNATIONAL--
                    Lights and Shapes

                          RULE 24
                      Towing and Pushing

     (b) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are
rigidly connected in a composite unit they shall be regarded as a
power-driven vessel and exhibit the lights prescribed in Rule 23.




             Composite unit underway. Same for Inland.




                                54
                     --INLAND--
                    Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 24--CONTINUED

     (b) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are
rigidly connected in a composite unit they shall be regarded as a
power-driven vessel and exhibit the lights prescribed in Rule 23.




       Composite unit underway--less than 50 meters in length.
                       Same for International.




                                55
             --INTERNATIONAL--
                      Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24 CONTINUED
    (c) A power-driven vessel when pushing ahead or towing
alongside, except in the case of a composite unit, shall exhibit:

   (i) instead of the light prescribed in Rule 23(a)(i) or (a)(ii), two
   masthead lights in a vertical line;
   (ii) sidelights;
   (iii) a stern light.




Power-driven vessel pushing ahead or towing alongside--towing
           vessel less than 50 meters in length.




                                  56
                      --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED

    (c) A power-driven vessel when pushing ahead or towing
alongside, except as required by paragraphs (b) and (i) of this Rule,
shall exhibit:
    (i) instead of the light prescribed either in Rule 23(a)(i) or
    23(a)(ii), two masthead lights in a vertical line;
    (ii) (ii) sidelights; and
    (iii) two towing lights in a vertical line.




Power-driven vessel pushing ahead or towing alongside towing
           vessel less than 50 meters in length.




                                57
              --INTERNATIONAL--
                      Lights and Shapes
                   RULE 24--CONTINUED

   (d) A power-driven vessel to which paragraph (a) or (c) of this
Rule apply shall also comply with Rule 23(a)(ii).




Power-driven vessel towing astern--length of tow 200 meters or less. The
 after masthead light is optional for vessel less than 50 meters in length.
                              Same for Inland.

   (e) A vessel or object being towed, other than those mentioned in
paragraph (g) of this Rule, shall exhibit:
 (i) sidelights;
 (ii) a sternlight;
(iii) when the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond
shape where it can best be seen.




Vessel or object being towed-length of tow exceeds 200 meters. Same for
Inland.


                                   58
                        --INLAND--
                       Lights and Shapes

                   RULE 24--CONTINUED

    (d) A power-driven vessel to which paragraphs (a) or (c) of this Rule
apply shall also comply with Rule 23(a)(i) and 23(a)(ii).




Power-driven vessel towing astern--length of tow 200 meters or less.
When masthead lights for towing or pushing are exhibited aft, a forward
masthead ight is required. Same for International
                                                .

    (e) A vessel or object other than those referred to in paragraph (g) of
this Rule being towed shall exhibit:
     (i) sidelights;
     (ii) a sternlight; and
     (iii) when the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond
     shape where it can best be seen.




Vessel being towed--length of tow 200 meters or less. Same for
International.



                                   59
             --INTERNATIONAL--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED

    (f) Provided that any number of vessels being towed alongside
or pushed in a group shall be lighted as one vessel,
    (i) a vessel being pushed ahead, not being part of a composite
    unit, shall exhibit at the forward end, sidelights;
    (ii) a vessel being towed alongside shall exhibit a sternlight and
    at the forward end, sidelights.




     Vessel being pushed ahead, not being part of a composite unit.




                    Vessel being towed alongside.




                                  60
                      --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED

    (f) Provided that any number of vessels being towed alongside
or pushed in a group shall be lighted as one vessel:
       (i) a vessel being pushed ahead, not being part of a composite
    unit, shall exhibit at the forward end sidelights, and a special
    flashing light; and
       (ii) a vessel being towed alongside shall exhibit a sternlight
    and at the forward end sidelights.




     Vessel being pushed ahead, not being part of a composite unit
                                                                 .




                    Vessel being towed alongside.


                                  61
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                      Lights and Shapes

                   RULE 24--CONTINUED

(g) An inconspicuous, partly submerged vessel or object, or
combination of such vessels or objects being towed, shall exhibit:
    (i) if it is less than 25 meters in breadth, one all-round white light
    at or near the forward end and one at or near the after end
    except that dracones need not exhibit a light at or near the
    forward end;
    (ii) if it is 25 meters or more in breadth, two additional all-round
    white lights at or near the extremities of its breadth; (iii) if it
    exceeds 100 meters in length, additional all-round white lights
    between the lights prescribed in subparagraphs (i) and (ii) so
    that the distance between the lights shall not exceed 100
    meters;

    (iv) a diamond shape at or near the aftermost extremity of the
    last vessel or object being towed and if the length of the tow
    exceeds 200 meters an additional diamond shape where it can
    best be seen and located as far forward as is practicable.




                         Dracone being towed.

                                   62
                       --INLAND--
                      Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED

   (g) An inconspicuous, partly submerged vessel or object being
towed shall exhibit:
        (i) if it is less than 25 meters in breadth, one all-round white
   light at or near each end;

       (ii) if it is 25 meters or more in breadth, four all-round white
    lights to mark its length and breadth;
       (iii) if it exceeds 100 meters in length, additional all-round
    white lights between the lights prescribed in subparagraphs (i)
    and (ii) so that the distance between the lights shall not exceed
    100 meters: Provided, That any vessels or objects being towed
    alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object;
       (iv) a diamond shape at or near the aftermost extremity of the
    last vessel or object being towed; and

        (v) the towing vessel may direct a searchlight in the direction
    of the tow to indicate its presence to an approaching vessel.




                                  63
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                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED

  (h) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a vessel
or object being towed to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in
paragraph (e) or (g) of this Rule, all possible measures shall be
taken to light the vessel or object towed or at least to indicate the
presence of such vessel or object.




                                 64
                      --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED
    (h) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a
vessel or object being towed to exhibit the lights prescribed in
paragraph (e) or (g) of this Rule, all possible measures shall be
taken to light the vessel or object towed or at least to indicate the
presence of the unlighted vessel or object.




                                65
--INTERNATIONAL--
   Lights and Shapes

 RULE 24--CONTINUED



       [BLANK]




          66
                      --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED

  (i) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), on the Western Rivers (except
below the Huey P. Long Bridge on the Mississippi River) and on
waters specified by the Secretary, a power-driven vessel when
pushing ahead or towing alongside, except as paragraph (b) applies,
shall exhibit:
        (i) sidelights; and
        (ii) two towing lights in a vertical line.




           Power-driven-vessel pushing ahead on Western Rivers.
          (above the Huey P. Long Bridge on the Mississippi River)




                                  67
             --INTERNATIONAL--
                    Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 24--CONTINUED

     (i) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a
vessel not normally engaged in towing operations to display the
lights prescribed in paragraph (a) or (c) of this Rule, such vessel
shall not be required to exhibit those lights when engaged in towing
another vessel in distress or otherwise in need of assistance. All
possible measures shall be taken to indicate the nature of the
relationship between the towing vessel and the vessel being towed
as authorized by Rule 36, in particular by illuminating the towline.




                                68
                       --INLAND--
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 24--CONTINUED
     (j) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a
vessel not normally engaged in towing operations to display the
lights prescribed by paragraph (a), (c) or(i) of this Rule, such vessel
shall not be required to exhibit those lights when engaged in towing
another vessel in distress or otherwise in need of assistance. All
possible measures shall be taken to indicate the nature of the
relationship between the towing vessel and the vessel being
assisted. The searchlight authorized by Rule 36 may be used to
illuminate the tow.




                                 69
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                    Lights and Shapes
                            RULE 25
        Sailing Vessels Underway and Vessels Under Oars
  (a) A sailing vessel underway shall exhibit:
      (i) sidelights;
      (ii) a stern light.
  (b) In a sailing vessel of less than 20 meters in length the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule may be combined in one
lantern carried at or near the top of the mast where it can best be
seen.




              Sailing vessel underway. Same for Inland.




                                 70
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                            RULE 25
        Sailing Vessels Underway and Vessels Under Oars

  (a) A sailing vessel underway shall exhibit:
     (i) sidelights; and
     (ii)a stern light.
   (b) In a sailing vessel of less than 20 meters in length the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule may be combined in one
lantern carried at or near the top of the mast where it can best be
seen.




        Sailing vessel underway--less than 20 meters in length.
                         Same for International.




                                 71
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 25--CONTINUED

     (c) A sailing vessel underway may, in addition to the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule, exhibit at or near the top of
the mast, where they can best be seen, two all-round lights in a
vertical line, the upper being red and the lower green, but these
lights shall not be exhibited in conjunction with the combined lantern
permitted by paragraph (b) of this Rule.




               Sailing vessel underway. Same for Inland.




                                 72
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 25--CONTINUED

     (c) A sailing vessel underway may, in addition to the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule, exhibit at or near the top of
the mast, where they can best be seen, two all-round lights in a
vertical line, the upper being red and the lower green, but these
lights shall not be exhibited in conjunction with the combined lantern
permitted by paragraph (b) of this Rule.




                                 73
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                   RULE 25--CONTINUED
(d) (i) A sailing vessel of less than 7 meters in length shall, if
    practicable, exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b)
    of this Rule, but if she does not, she shall have ready at hand
    an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light which
    shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.
    (ii) A vessel under oars may exhibit the lights prescribed in this
    Rule for sailing vessels, but if she does not, she shall have
    ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a
    white light which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent
    collision.




     Sailing vessel underway--less than 7 meters in length. Same for
                                Inland.


                                  74
                      -- INLAND --
                      Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 25--CONTINUED

(d) (i) A sailing vessel of less than 7 meters in length shall, if
    practicable, exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b)
    of this Rule, but if she does not, she shall have ready at hand
    an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light which
    shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.
    (ii) A vessel under oars may exhibit the lights prescribed in
    this Rule for sailing vessels, but if she does not, she shall
    have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing
    a white light which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to
    prevent collision.




        Vessel under oars. Same for International.




                                  75
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                       Lights and Shapes

                    RULE 25--CONTINUED

   (e) A vessel proceeding under sail when also being propelled by
machinery shall exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical
shape, apex downwards.




  Vessel proceeding under sail when also being propelled by machin  ery.
Same for Inland except that a vessel of less than 12 meters in length is not
                    required to exhibit the dayshape.




                                    76
                    -- INLAND --
                    Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 25--CONTINUED

    (e) A vessel proceeding under sail when also being propelled by
machinery shall exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical
shape, apex downward. A vessel of less than 12 meters in length is
not required to exhibit this shape, but may do so.




                               77
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 26
                           Fishing Vessels

  (a) A vessel engaged in fishing, whether underway or at anchor,
shall exhibit only the lights and shapes prescribed in this Rule.
  (b) A vessel when engaged in trawling, by which is meant the
dragging through the water of a dredge net or other apparatus used
as a fishing appliance, shall exhibit:
      (i) two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being green
      and the lower white, or a shape consisting of two cones with
      their apexes together in a vertical line one above the other;
      (ii) a masthead light abaft of and higher than the all-round
      green light; a vessel of less than 50 meters in length shall not
      be obliged to exhibit such a light but may do so;
      (iii) when making way through the water, in addition to the lights
      prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.




     Vessel engaged in trawling--not making way. Same for Inland.




                                  78
                      -- INLAND --
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 26
                           Fishing Vessels

  (a) A vessel engaged in fishing, whether underway or at anchor,
shall exhibit only the lights and shapes prescribed in this Rule.
  (b) A vessel when engaged in trawling, by which is meant the
dragging through the water of a dredge net or other apparatus used
as a fishing appliance, shall exhibit:
      (i) two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being green
      and the lower white, or a shape consisting of two cones with
      their apexes together in a vertical line one above the other; a
      vessel of less than 20 meters in length may instead of this
      shape exhibit a basket;
      (ii) a masthead light abaft of and higher than the all-round
      green light; a vessel of less than 50 meters in length shall not
      be obliged to exhibit such a light but may do so; and
      (iii) when making way through the water, in addition to the lights
      prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.




    Vessel engaged in trawling--not making way; vessel less than 50
               meters in length. Same for International.




                                  79
      -- INTERNATIONAL --
               Lights and Shapes

            RULE 26--CONTINUED




Vessel engaged in trawling--making way; vessel less than 50
            meters in length. Same for Inland.




                           80
                 -- INLAND --
                 Lights and Shapes

              RULE 26--CONTINUED




Vessel engaged in trawling--making way. Same for International.




                             81
          -- INTERNATIONAL --
                   Lights and Shapes

                RULE 26--CONTINUED
(c) A vessel engaged in fishing, other than trawling, shall exhibit:
    (i) two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red
        and the lower white, or a shape consisting of two cones
        with apexes together in a vertical line one above the
        other;


    (ii) when there is outlying gear extending more than 150
    meters horizontally from the vessel, an all-round white light or
    a cone apex upward in the direction of the gear; and
    (iii) when making way through the water, in addition to the
    lights prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.




   Vessel engaged in fishing other than trawling--not making way.
                      Same for International.




                                82
                   -- INLAND --
                   Lights and Shapes

                RULE 26--CONTINUED
(c) A vessel engaged in fishing, other than trawling, shall exhibit:
    (i) two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red
    and the lower white, or a shape consisting of two cones with
    apexes together in a vertical line one above the other; a
    vessel of less than 20 meters in length may instead of this
    shape exhibit a basket;
    (ii) when there is outlying gear extending more than 150
    meters horizontally from the vessel, an all-round white light or
    a cone apex upward in the direction of the gear; and
    (iii) when making way through the water, in addition to the
    lights prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.




   Vessel engaged in fishing other than trawling--not making way.
                      Same for International.




                                83
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 26--CONTINUED
  (d) The additional signals described in Annex II to these
regulations apply to a vessel engaged in fishing in close proximity to
other vessels engaged in fishing.
  (e) A vessel when not engaged in fishing shall not exhibit the lights
or shapes prescribed in this Rule, but only those prescribed for a
vessel of her length.




                                 84
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 26--CONTINUED

   (d) A vessel engaged in fishing in close proximity to other vessels
engaged in fishing may exhibit the additional signals described in
Annex II to these Rules.
   (e) A vessel when not engaged in fishing shall not exhibit the
lights or shapes prescribed in this Rule, but only those prescribed for
a vessel of her length.




                                 85
          -- INTERNATIONAL --
                    Lights and Shapes

                          RULE 27
  Vessels Not Under Command or Restricted in Their Ability to
                       Maneuver
(a) A vessel not under command shall exhibit:
   (i) two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best
   be seen;
   (ii) two balls or similar shapes in a vertical line where they can
   best be seen;
   (iii) when making way through the water, in addition to the lights
   prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.




   Vessel not under command--not making way. Same for Inland.



                                86
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                     RULE 27
Vessels Not Under Command or Restricted in Their Ability to
                      Maneuver
(a) A vessel not under command shall exhibit:
    (i) two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best
    be seen;
    (ii) two balls or similar shapes in a vertical line where they can
    best be seen; and
    (iii) when making way through the water, in addition to the lights
    prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.




    Vessel not under command--making way. Same for International.


                                 87
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED
  (b) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver, except a vessel
engaged in mineclearance operations, shall exhibit:
     (i) three all-round lights in a vertical line where they can best be
     seen. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and
     the middle light shall be white;
     (ii) three shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen.
     The highest and lowest of these shapes shall be balls and the
     middle one a diamond;
     (iii) when making way through the water, a masthead light or
     lights, sidelights and a sternlight, in addition to the lights pre-
     scribed in subparagraph (i);
     (iv) when at anchor, in addition to the lights or shapes
     prescribed in subparagraphs (i) and (ii), the light, lights or
     shape prescribed in Rule 30.




     Vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver--making way; vessel
             less than 50 meters in length. Same for Inland.




                                   88
                      -- INLAND --
                      Lights and Shapes

                   RULE 27--Continued

  (b) A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver, except a vessel
engaged in mineclearance operations, shall exhibit:
     (i) three all-round lights in a vertical line where they can best be
     seen. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and
     the middle light shall be white;
     (ii) three shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen.
     The highest and lowest of these shapes shall be balls and the
     middle one a diamond;
     (iii) when making way through the water, masthead lights,
     sidelights and a sternlight, in addition to the lights prescribed in
     sub-paragraph (b)(i); and
     (iv) when at anchor, in addition to the lights or shapes
     prescribed in subparagraphs (b)(i) and (ii), the light, lights or
     shapes prescribed in Rule 30.




 Vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver--at anchor; vessel less
          than 50 meters in length. Same for International.




                                  89
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     Lights and Shapes

                RULE 27--CONTINUED

    (c) A power-driven vessel engaged in a towing operation such as
severely restricts the towing vessel and her tow in their ability to
deviate from their course shall, in addition to ht e lights or shapes
prescribed in Rule 24(a), exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in
sub-paragraphs (b)(i) and (ii) of this Rule,




                                90
                       -- INLAND --
                       Lights and Shapes

                  RULE 27--CONTINUED
  (c) A vessel engaged in a towing operation which severely restricts
the towing vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate from their
course shall, in addition to the lights or shapes prescribed in
subparagraphs (b)(i) and (ii) of this Rule, exhibit the lights or shape
prescribed in Rule 24.




    Vessel engaged in towing operation which severely restricts towing
vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate from their course--length of
tow does not exceed 200 meters; towing vessel less than 50 meters in
length. Same for International.




                                   91
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED

  (d) A vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations, when
restricted in her ability to maneuver, shall exhibit the lights and
shapes prescribed in subparagraphs (b)(i), (ii) and (iii) of this Rule
and shall in addition, when an obstruction exists, exhibit:
      (i) two all-round red lights or two balls in a vertical line to
      indicate the side on which the obstruction exists;
      (ii) two all-round green lights or two diamonds in a vertical line
      to indicate the side on which another vessel may pass;
      (iii) when at anchor, the lights or shapes prescribed in this
      paragraph instead of the lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30.




        Vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations when
 restricted in ability to maneuver--making way with an obstruction on the
                        starboard side. Same for Inland.




                                   92
                      -- INLAND --
                      Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED
  (d) A vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations, when
restricted in her ability to maneuver, shall exhibit the lights and
shapes prescribed in subparagraphs (b)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this Rule
and shall in addition, when an obstruction exists, exhibit:
      (i) two all-round red lights or two balls in a vertical line to
      indicate the side on which the obstruction exists;
      (ii) two all-round green lights or two diamonds in a vertical line
      to indicate the side on which another vessel may pass; and
      (iii) when at anchor, the lights or shape prescribed by this
      para- graph, instead of the lights or shapes prescribed in Rule
      30 for anchored vessels.




 Vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations when restricted in
ability to maneuver--not making way with an obstruction on the starboard
                      side. Same for International.




                                  93
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED

  (e) Whenever the size of a vessel engaged in diving operations
makes it impracticable to exhibit all lights and shapes prescribed in
paragraph (d) of this Rule, the following shall be exhibited:
     (i) three all-round lights in a vertical line where they can best be
     seen. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and
     the middle light shall be white;
     (ii) a rigid replica of the International Code flag "A" not less
     than 1 meter in height. Measures shall be taken to ensure its all
     round visibility.




      Small vessel engaged in diving operations. Same for Inland.




                                  94
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED
  (e) Whenever the size of a vessel engaged in diving operations
makes it impracticable to exhibit all lights and shapes prescribed in
paragraph (d) of this Rule, the following shall instead be exhibited:
     (i) Three all-round lights in a vertical line where they can best
     be seen. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and
     the middle light shall be white;
     (ii) A rigid replica of the international Code flag "A" not less
     than 1 meter in height. Measures shall be taken to insure its
     all-round visibility.




 Small vessel engaged in diving operations. Same for International.




                                 95
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED
   (f) A vessel engaged in mineclearance operations shall in addition
to the lights prescribed for a power-driven vessel in Rule 23 or to the
lights or shape prescribed for a vessel at anchor in Rule 30 as
appropriate, exhibit three all-round green lights or three balls. One of
these lights or shapes shall be exhibited near the foremast head and
one at each end of the fore yard. These lights or shapes indicate
that it is dangerous for another vessel to approach within 1000
meters of the mineclearance vessel.




 Vessel engaged in mineclearance operations--vessel less than 50
               meters in length. Same for Inland.




                                  96
                      -- INLAND --
                      Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED
   (f) A vessel engaged in mineclearance operations shall in addition
to the lights prescribed for a power-driven vessel in Rule 23 or to the
lights or shape prescribed for a vessel at anchor in Rule 30 as
appropriate, exhibit three all-round green lights or three balls. One of
these lights or shapes shall be exhibited near the foremast head and
one at each end of the fore yard. These lights or shapes indicate
that it is dangerous for another vessel to approach within 1000
meters of the mineclearance vessel.




              Vessel engaged in mineclearance operations.
                        Same for international.




                                  97
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED

  (g) Vessels of less than 12 meters in length, except those engaged
in diving operations, shall not be required to exhibit the lights and
shapes prescribed in this Rule.
  (h) The signals prescribed in this Rule are not signals of vessels in
distress and requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in
Annex IV to these Regulations.




                                 98
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 27--CONTINUED
  (g) A vessel of less than 12 meters in length, except when
engaged in diving operations, is not required to exhibit the lights or
shapes prescribed in this Rule.
  (h) The signals prescribed in this Rule are not signals of vessels in
distress and requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in
Annex IV to these Rules.




                                 99
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                    Lights and Shapes

                        RULE 28
              Vessels Constrained by their Draft
  A vessel constrained by her draft may, in addition to the lights
prescribed for power-driven vessels in Rule 23, exhibit where they
can best be seen three all-round red lights in a vertical line, or a
cylinder.




                   Vessel constrained by her draft.




                                100
-- INLAND --
Lights and Shapes

    RULE 28
    [Reserved]




       101
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 29
                             Pilot Vessels

  (a) A vessel engaged on postage duty shall exhibit:
       (i) at or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical
       line, the upper being white and the lower red;
            (ii) when underway, in addition, sidelights and a sternlight;
       (iii) when at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in
       subparagraph (i), the light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule
       30 for vessels at anchor.
  (b) A pilot vessel when not engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit
the lights or shapes prescribed for a similar vessel of her length.




        Vessel engaged on pilotage duty--underway. Same for Inland.




                                 102
                      -- INLAND --
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 29
                             Pilot Vessels

  (a) A vessel engaged on postage duty shall exhibit:
       (i) at or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical
       line, the upper being white and the lower red;
       (ii) when underway, in addition, sidelights and a sternlight; and
       (iii) when at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in
       subparagraph (i), the anchor light, lights, or shape prescribed in
       Rule 30 for anchored vessels.
  (b) A pilot vessel when not engaged on postage duty shall exhibit
the lights or shapes prescribed for a vessel of her length.




     Vessel engaged on pilotage duty--at anchor; vessel of less than
              50 meters in length. Same for International.




                                  103
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      Lights and Shapes

                             RULE 30
               Anchored Vessels and Vessels Aground

  (a) A vessel at anchor shall exhibit where it can best be seen:
    (i) in the fore part, an all-round white light or one ball;
    (ii) (ii) at or near the stern and at a lower level than the light
         prescribed in subparagraph (i), an all-round white light.
    (b) A vessel of less than 50 meters in length may exhibit an all-
round white light where it can best be seen instead of the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule.
   (c) A vessel at anchor may, and a vessel of 100 meters and more
in length shall, also use the available working or equivalent lights to
illuminate her decks.




     Vessel at anchor-less than 50 meters in length. Same for Inland.




                                  104
                       -- INLAND --
                       Lights and Shapes

                              RULE 30
               Anchored Vessels and Vessels Aground

   (a) A vessel at anchor shall exhibit where it can best be seen:
        (i) in the fore part, an all-round white light or one ball; and
        (ii) at or near the stern and at a lower level than the light
        prescribed in subparagraph (i), an all-round white light.
    (b) A vessel of less than 50 meters in length may exhibit an all
round white light where it can best be seen instead of the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule.
   (c) A vessel at anchor may, and a vessel of 100 meters or more in
length shall, also use the available working or equivalent lights to
illuminate her decks.




        Vessel at anchor with deck illumination. Same for International.




                                   105
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 30--CONTINUED
  (d) A vessel aground shall exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraph
(a) or (b) of this Rule and in addition, where they can best be seen:
     (i) two all-round red lights in a vertical line;
     (ii) three balls in a vertical line.




                   Vessel aground. Same for Inland.




                                 106
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 30--CONTINUED
  (d) A vessel aground shall exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraph
(a) or (b) of this Rule and in addition, if practicable, where they can
best be seen:
     (i) two all-round red lights in a vertical line; and
     (ii) three balls in a vertical line.




        Vessel aground--less than 50 meters in length. Same for
                            International.




                                 107
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 30--CONTINUED

  (e) A vessel of less than 7 meters in length, when at anchor, not in
or near a narrow channel, fairway or anchorage, or where other
vessels normally navigate, shall not be required to exhibit the lights
or shape prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Rule.

  (f) A vessel of less than 12 meters in length, when aground, shall
not be required to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in
subparagraphs (d)(i) and (ii) of this Rule.




                                108
                     -- INLAND --
                     Lights and Shapes

                 RULE 30--CONTINUED
  (e) A vessel of less than 7 meters in length, when at anchor, not in
or near a narrow channel, fairway, anchorage, or where other vessels
normally navigate, shall not be required to exhibit the lights or shape
prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Rule.
  (f) A vessel of less than 12 meters in length when aground shall not
be required to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in
subparagraphs (d)(i) and (ii) of this Rule.
  (g) A vessel of less than 20 meters in length, when at anchor in a
special anchorage area designated by the Secretary, shall not be
required to exhibit the anchor lights and shapes required by this Rule.




                                109
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                    Lights and Shapes

                          RULE 31
                          Sea planes
  Where it is impracticable for a seaplane to exhibit lights and
shapes of the characteristics or in the positions prescribed in the
Rules of this Part she shall exhibit lights and shapes as closely
similar in characteristics and position as is possible.




                               110
                    -- INLAND --
                    Lights and Shapes

                          RULE 31
                          Sea planes
  Where it is impracticable for a seaplane to exhibit lights and
shapes of the characteristics or in the positions prescribed in the
Rules of this Part she shall exhibit lights and shapes as closely
similar in characteristics and position as is possible.




                               111
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                Sound and Light Signals

      PART D--SOUND AND LIGHT SIGNALS

                          RULE 32
                            Definitions

  (a) The word "whistle" means any sound signaling appliance
capable of producing the prescribed blasts and which complies with
the specifications in Annex III to these Regulations.
  (b) The term "short blast" means a blast of about one seconds'
duration.
  (c) The term "prolonged blast" means a blast of from four to six
seconds' duration.

                          RULE 33
                   Equipment for Sound Signals

 (a) A vessel of 12 meters or more in length shall be provided with
 a whistle and a bell and a vessel of 100 meters or more in length
 shall, in addition, be provided with a gong, the tone and sound of
 which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The whistle, bell
 and gong shall comply with the specifications in Annex III to these
 Regulations. The belt or gong or both may be replaced by other
 equipment having the same respective sound characteristics,
 provided that manual sounding of the prescribed signals shall
 always be possible.
 (b) A vessel of less than 12 meters in length shall not be obliged
     to
 carry the sound signaling appliances prescribed in paragraph (a)
 of this Rule but if she does not, she shall be provided with some
 other means of making an efficient sound signal.




                               112
                     -- INLAND --
                 Sound and Light Signals

     PART D--SOUND AND LIGHT SIGNALS

                            RULE 32
                             Definitions
  (a) The word "whistle" means any sound signaling appliance
capable of producing the prescribed blasts and which complies with
specifications in Annex III to these Rules.
  (b) The term "short blast" means a blast of about 1 seconds
duration.
  (c) The term "prolonged blast" means a blast of from 4 to 6
seconds' duration.

                            RULE 33
                    Equipment for Sound Signals

  (a) A vessel of 12 meters or more in length shall be provided with a
whistle and a bell and a vessel of 100 meters or more in length shall,
in addition, be provided with a gong, the tone and sound of which
cannot be confused with that of the bell. The whistle, bell and gong
shall comply with the specifications in Annex III to these Rules. The
bell or gong or both may be replaced by other equipment having the
same respective sound characteristics, provided that manual
sounding of the prescribed signals shall always be possible.

  (b) A vessel of less than 12 meters in length shall not be obliged to
carry the sound signaling appliances prescribed in paragraph (a) of
this Rule but if she does not, she shall be provided with some other
means of making an efficient sound signal.




                                 113
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                   Sound and Light Signals

                              RULE 34
                   Maneuvering and Warning Signals
  (a) When vessels are in sight of one another, a power-driven
vessel underway, when maneuvering as authorized or required by
these Rules, shall indicate that maneuver by the following signals on
her whistle:
--one short blast to mean "I am altering my course to starboard";
--two short blasts to mean "I am altering my course to port";
--three short blasts to mean "I am operating astern propulsion".




  (b) Any vessel may supplement the whistle signals prescribed in
paragraph (a) of this Rule by light signals, repeated as appropriate,
while the maneuver is being carried out:
      (i) these light signals shall have the following significance:
          --one flash to mean "I am altering my course to starboard";
          --two flashes to mean "I am altering my course to port";
          --three flashes to mean "I am operating astern propulsion";
      (ii) the duration of each flash shall be about one second, the
      interval between flashes shall be about one second, and the
      interval between successive signals shall be not less than ten
      seconds;
      (iii) the light used for this signal shall, if fitted, be an all-round
      white light, visible at a minimum range of 5 miles, and shall
      comply with the provisions of Annex I to these Regulations.




                                   114
                       -- INLAND --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                              RULE 34
                  Maneuvering and Warning Signals
  (a) When power-driven vessels are in sight of one another and
meeting or crossing at a distance within half a mile of each other,
each vessel underway, when maneuvering as authorized or required
by these Rules:
      (i) shall indicate that maneuver by the following signals on her
      whistle: one shod blast to mean "I intend to leave you on my
      port side"; two shod blasts to mean "I intend to leave you on
      my starboard side"; and three short blasts to mean "I am
      operating astern propulsion".
      (ii) upon hearing the one or two blast signal of the other shall, if
      in agreement, sound the same whistle signal and take the steps
      necessary to effect a safe passing. If, however, from any
      cause, the vessel doubts the safety of the proposed maneuver,
      she shall sound the danger signal specified in paragraph (d) of
      this Rule and each vessel shall take appropriate precautionary
      action until a safe passing agreement is made.
  (b) A vessel may supplement the whistle signals prescribed in
paragraph (a) of this Rule by light signals:
      (i) These signals shall have the following significance: one
      flash to mean "I intend to leave you on my pod side"; two
      flashes to mean "I intend to leave you on my starboard side";
      three flashes to mean "I am operating astern propulsion";
     (ii) The duration of each flash shall be about 1 second; and



      (iii) The light used for this signal shall, if fitted, be one all-round
      white or yellow light, visible at a minimum range of 2 miles,
      synchronized with the whistle, and shall comply with the
      provisions of Annex I to these Rules.




                                   115
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                  RULE 34--CONTINUED
   (c) When in sight of one another in a narrow channel or fairway:
         (i) a vessel intending to overtake another shall in compliance
         with Rule 9(e)(i) indicate her intention by the following signals
         on her whistle:
            --two prolonged blasts followed by one short blast to mean "I
            intend to overtake you on your starboard side";
            --two prolonged blasts followed by two short blasts to mean
            "I intend to overtake you on your port side".
         (ii)the vessel about to be overtaken when acting in accordance
         with Rule 9(e)(i) shall indicate her agreement by the following
         signal on her whistle:
            --one prolonged, one short, one prolonged and one short
            blast, in that order.
    (d) When vessels in sight of one another are approaching each
other and from any cause either vessel fails to understand the inten     -
tions or actions of the other, or is in doubt whether sufficient action is
being taken by the other to avoid collision, the vessel in doubt shall
immediately indicate such doubt by giving at Feast five short and
rapid blasts on the whistle. Such signal may be supplemented by a
light signal of at least five short and rapid flashes.
   (e) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a channel or fairway
where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction
shall sound one prolonged blast. Such signal shall be answered with
a prolonged blast by any approaching vessel that may be within
hearing around the bend or behind the intervening obstruction.
   (f) If whistles are fitted on a vessel at a distance apart of more than
100 meters, one whistle only shall be used for giving maneuvering
and warning signals.




                                  116
                      -- INLAND --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                  RULE 34--CONTINUED
  (c) When in sight of one another:
      (i) a power-driven vessel intending to overtake another power-
      driven vessel shall indicate her intention by the following signals
      on her whistle: one short blast to mean "I intend to overtake you
      on your starboard side"; two short blasts to mean "I intend to
      overtake you on your port side"; and

     (ii) the power-driven vessel about to be overtaken shall, if in
     agreement, sound a similar sound signal. If in doubt she shall
     sound the danger signal prescribed in paragraph (d).

   (d) When vessels in sight of one another are approaching each
other and from any cause either vessel fails to understand the inten     -
tions or actions of the other, or is in doubt whether sufficient action is
being taken by the other to avoid collision, the vessel in doubt shall
immediately indicate such doubt by giving at least five short and
rapid blasts on the whistle. This signal may be supplemented by a
light signal of at least five short and rapid flashes.
   (e) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a channel or fairway
where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction
shall sound one prolonged blast. This signal shall be answered with
a prolonged blast by any approaching vessel that may be within
hearing around the bend or behind the intervening obstruction.
   (f) If whistles are fitted on a vessel at a distance apart of more than
100 meters, one whistle only shall be used for giving maneuvering
and warning signals.
   (g) When a power-driven vessel is leaving a dock or berth, she
shall sound one prolonged blast.
   (h) A vessel that reaches agreement with another vessel in a
meeting, crossing, or overtaking situation by using the radiotelephone
as prescribed by the Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone Act (85 Stat.
165; 33 U.S.C. 1207), is not obliged to sound the whistle signals
prescribed by this Rule, but may do so. If agreement is not reached,
then whistle signals shall be exchanged in a timely manner and shall
prevail.




                                  117
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                             RULE 35
                 Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility

  In or near an area of restricted visibility, whether by day or night,
the signals prescribed in this Rule shall be used as follows:
  (a) A power-driven vessel making way through the water shall
sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes one prolonged blast.
  (b) A power-driven vessel underway but stopped and making no
way through the water shall sound at intervals of not more than 2
minutes two prolonged blasts in succession with an interval of about
2 seconds between them.
  (c) A vessel not under command, a vessel restricted in her ability to
maneuver, a vessel constrained by her draft, a sailing vessel, a
vessel engaged in fishing and a vessel engaged in towing or pushing
another vessel shall, instead of the signals prescribed in paragraphs
(a) or (b) of this Rule, sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes
three blasts in succession, namely one prolonged followed by two
short blasts.
  (d) A vessel engaged in fishing, when at anchor, and a vessel
restricted in her ability to maneuver when carrying out her work at
anchor, shall instead of the signals prescribed in paragraph (g) of this
Rule sound the signal prescribed in paragraph (c) of this Rule.

   (e) A vessel towed or if more than one vessel is towed the last
vessel of the tow, if manned, shall at intervals of not more than 2
minutes sound four blasts in succession, namely one prolonged
followed by three shod blasts. When practicable, this signal shall be
made immediately after the signal made by the towing vessel.
   (f) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are
rigidly connected in a composite unit they shall be regarded as a
power-driven vessel and shall give the signals prescribed in
paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule.




                                 118
                     -- INLAND --
                 Sound and Light Signals

                            RULE 35
                Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility

  In or near an area of restricted visibility, whether by day or night,
the signals prescribed in this Rule shall be used as follows:
  (a) A power-driven vessel making way through the water shall
sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes one prolonged blast.
  (b) A power-driven vessel underway but stopped and making no
way through the water shall sound at intervals of not more than 2
minutes two prolonged blasts in succession with an interval of about
2 seconds between them.
  (c) A vessel not under command; a vessel restricted in her ability to
maneuver, whether underway or at anchor; a sailing vessel; a vessel
engaged in fishing, whether underway or at anchor; and a vessel
engaged in towing or pushing another vessel shall, instead of the sig-
nals prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule, sound at
intervals of not more than 2 minutes, three blasts in succession;
namely, one prolonged followed by two short blasts.

   (d) A vessel towed or if more than one vessel is towed the last
vessel of the tow, if manned, shall at intervals of not more than 2
minutes sound four blasts in succession; namely, one prolonged
followed by three short blasts. When practicable, this signal shall be
made immediately after the signal made by the towing vessel.
   (e) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are
rigidly connected in a composite unit they shall be regarded as a
power-driven vessel and shall give the signals prescribed in
paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule.




                                 119
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                  RULE 35--CONTINUED

  (g) A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not more than one
minute ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds. In a vessel of 100
meters or more in length the bell shall be sounded in the forepart of
the vessel and immediately after the ringing of the bell the gong shall
be sounded rapidly for about 5 seconds in the after part of the vessel.
A vessel at anchor may in addition sound three blasts in succession,
namely one short, one prolonged and one shod blast, to give warn-
ing of her position and of the possibility of collision to an approaching
vessel.
  (h) A vessel aground shall give the bell signal and if required the
gong signal prescribed in paragraph (g) of this Rule and shall, in
addition, give three separate and distinct strokes on the bell
immediately before and after the rapid ringing of the bell. A vessel
aground may in addition sound an appropriate whistle signal.
  (i) A vessel of less than 12 meters in length shall not be obliged to
give the above-mentioned signals but, if she does not, shall make
some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than 2
minutes.
  (j) A pilot vessel when engaged on postage duty may in addition to
the signals prescribed in paragraphs (a), (b) or (g) of this Rule sound
an identity signal consisting of four short blasts.




                                 120
                      -- INLAND --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                 RULE 35--CONTINUED

   (f) A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not more than 1 minute
ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds. In a vessel of 100 meters or
more in length the bell shall be sounded in the forepart of the vessel
and immediately after the ringing of the bell the gong shall be
sounded rapidly for about 5 seconds in the after part of the vessel. A
vessel at anchor may in addition sound three blasts in succession,
namely one short, one prolonged and one shod blast, to give warning
of her position and of the possibility of collision to an approaching
vessel.
   (g) A vessel aground shall give the bell signal and if required the
gong signal prescribed in paragraph (g) of this Rule and shall, in
addition, give three separate and distinct strokes on the bell
immediately before and after the rapid ringing of the bell. A vessel
aground may in addition sound an appropriate whistle signal.
   (h) A vessel of less than 12 meters in length shall not be obliged to
give the above-mentioned signals but, if she does not, shall make
some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than 2
minutes.
   (i) A pilot vessel when engaged on postage duty may in addition
to the signals prescribed in paragraphs (a), (b) or (g) of this Rule
sound an identity signal consisting of four short blasts.
   (j) The following vessels shall not be required to sound signals as
prescribed in paragraph (f) of this Rule when anchored in a special
anchorage area designated by the Secretary:
        (i) a vessel of less than 20 meters in length; and
        (ii) a barge, canal boat, scow, or other nondescript craft.




                                 121
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                             RULE 36
                      Signals to Attract Attention

  If necessary to attract the attention of another vessel, any vessel
may make light or sound signals that cannot be mistaken for any
signal authorized elsewhere in these Rules, or may direct the beam
of her search light in the direction of the danger, in such a way as
not to embarrass any vessel. Any light to attract the attention of
another vessel shall be such that it cannot be mistaken for any aid to
navigation. For the purpose of this rule the use of high intensity
intermittent or revolving lights, such as strobe lights, shall be
avoided.




                                 122
                      -- INLAND --
                  Sound and Light Signals

                            RULE 36
                   Signals to Attract Attention

  If necessary to attract the attention of another vessel, any vessel
may make light or sound signals that cannot be mistaken for any
signal authorized elsewhere in these Rules, or may direct the beam
of her search light in the direction of the danger, in such a way as
not to embarrass any vessel.




                                 123
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                 Sound and Light Signals

                            RULE 37
                           Distress Signals

  When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use
or exhibit the signals in Annex IV to these Regulations.

                           DISTRESS SIGNALS
                              72 COLREGS




                                124
                       -- INLAND --
                   Sound and Light Signals

                               RULE 36
                    Signals to Attract Attention

  When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use
or exhibit the signals in Annex IV to these Rules.

  The distress signals for inland waters and the same as those displayed
on the facing page for international waters with the following additional
signals described:




           A high intensity white light flashing at regular intervals
                      from 50 to 70 times per minute.


                                    125
               -- INTERNATIONAL --
                          Exemptions

               PART E -- EXEMPTIONS

                           RULE 38
                          Exemptions
Any vessel ( or class of vessels) provided that she complies with the
requirement of the International Regulations for Preventing collisions
at Sea, 1960, the keel of which is laid or which is at a corresponding
stage of construction before the entry into force of these Regulations
may be exempted from compliance therewith as follows:

(a) The installation of lights with ranges prescribed in Rule 22, until
four years after the date of entry into force of these Regulations.


(b) The installation of lights with color specifications as prescribed in
    Section 7 of Annex I of these Regulations, until four years after
    the date of entry into force of these Regulations.


(c)The repositioning of lights as a result of conversion from Imperial
to metric units and rounding off measurement figures, permanent
exemption.




                                  126
                      -- INLAND --
                           Exemptions

                 PART E--EXEMPTIONS

                              RULE 38
                             Exemptions
  Any vessel or class of vessels, the keel of which is laid or which is
at a corresponding stage of construction before the date of
enactment of this Act, provided that she complies with the
requirements of--

  (a) The Act of June 7, 1897 (30 Stat. 96), as amended (33 U.S.C.
154-232) for vessels navigating the waters subject to that statute;
  (b) Section 4233 of the Revised Statutes (33 U.S.C. 301-356) for
vessels navigating the waters subject to that statute;

  (c) The Act of February 8, 1895 (28 Stat. 645), as amended (33
U.S.C. 241-295) for vessels navigating the waters subject to that
statute; or
  (d) Sections 3, 4, and 5 of the Act of April 25, 1940 (54 Stat. 163),
as amended (46 U.S.C. 526 b, c, and d) for motorboats navigating
the waters subject to that statute; shall be exempted from
compliance with the technical Annexes to these Rules as follows:
     (i) the installation of lights with ranges prescribed in Rule 22,
     until 4 years after the effective date of these Rules, except that
     vessels of less than 20 meters in length are permanently
     exempt;
     (ii) the installation of lights with color specifications as
     prescribed in Annex I to these Rules, until 4 years after the
     effective date of these Rules, except that vessels of less than
     20 meters in length are permanently exempt;
     (iii) the repositioning of lights as a result of conversion to metric
     units and rounding off measurement figures, are permanently
     exempt; and.




                                  127
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                          Exemptions

                  RULE 38--CONTINUED
  (d) (i) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of less than
150 meters in length, resulting from the prescriptions of Section 3(a)
of Annex I to these Regulations, permanent exemption.
      (ii) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of 150
      meters or more in length, resulting from the prescriptions of
      Section 3(a) of Annex I to these Regulations, until 9 years after
      the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
  (e) The repositioning of masthead lights resulting from the
prescriptions of Section 2(b) of Annex I to these Regulations, until 9
years after the date of entry into force of these Regulations. (f) The
repositioning of sidelights resulting from the prescriptions of
Sections 2(9) and 3(b) of Annex I to these Regulations, until 9 years
after the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
  (g) The requirements for sound signal appliances prescribed in
Annex III to these Regulations, until 9 years after the date of entry
into force of these Regulations.
  (h) The repositioning of all-round lights resulting from the
prescription of Section 9(b) of Annex I to these Regulations,
permanent exemption.




                                128
                 -- INLAND --
                      Exemptions

              RULE 38--CONTINUED

(iv) the horizontal repositioning of masthead lights prescribed
by Annex I to these Rules:
     (1) on vessels of less than 150 meters in length, permanent
     exemption.

    (2) on vessels of 150 meters or more in length, until 9 years
    after the effective date of these Rules.

(v) the restructuring or repositioning of all lights to meet the
prescriptions of Annex I to these Rules, until 9 years after the
effective date of these Rules;
(vi) power-driven vessels of 12 meters or more but less than 20
meters in length are permanently exempt from the provisions of
Rule 23(a)(i) and 23 (a)(iv) provided that, in place of these
lights, the vessel exhibits a white light aft visible all round the
horizon; and
(vii) the requirements for sound signal appliances prescribed in
Annex III to these Rules, until 9 years after the effective date of
these Rules.




                             129
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                       ANNEX I
 Positioning and Technical Details of Lights and Shapes

1. Definition
     The term "height above the hull" means height above the upper
                                                                 -
most continuous deck. This height shall be measured from the posi-
tion vertically beneath the location of the light.

2. Vertical positioning and spacing of lights
     (a) On a power-driven vessel of 20 meters or more in length the
masthead lights shall be placed as follows:
     (i) the forward masthead light, or if only one masthead light is
     carried, then that light, at a height above the hull of not less than
     6 meters, and, if the breadth of the vessel exceeds 6 meters,
     then at a height above the hull not less than such breadth, so
     however that the light need not be placed at a greater height
     above the hull than 12 meters;
     (ii) when two masthead lights are carried the after one shall be
     at least 4.5 meters vertically higher than the forward one.
     (b) The vertical separation of masthead lights of power-driven
vessels shall be such that in all normal conditions of trim the after
light will be seen over and separate from the forward light at a
distance of 1000 meters from the stem when viewed from sea level.
     (c) The masthead light of a power-driven vessel of 12 meters
but less than 20 meters in length shall be placed at a height above
the gunwale of not less than 2.5 meters.




                                  130
                      -- INLAND --
                              ANNEX I
       Positioning and Technical Details of Lights and Shapes

 84.01 Definitions.
     (a) The term "height above the hull" means height above the
uppermost continuous deck. This height shall be measured from the
position vertically beneath the location of the light.
     (b) The term "practical cut-off" means, for vessels 20 meters or
more in length, 12.5 percent of the minimum luminous intensity
(Table 84.15(b)) corresponding to the greatest range of visibility for
which the requirements of Annex I are met.
     (c) The term "Rule" or "Rules" means the Inland Navigation
Rules contained in Sec. 2 of the Inland Navigational Rules Act of
1980 (Pub. L. 96-591,94 Stat. 3415, 33 U.S.C. 2001, December 24,
1980) as amended.
 84.03 Vertical positioning and spacing of lights.
     (a) On a power-driven vessel of 20 meters or more in length the
masthead lights shall be placed as follows:
     (1) The forward masthead light, or if only one masthead light is
     carried, then that light, at a height above the hull of not less than
     5 meters, and, if the breadth of the vessel exceeds 5 meters,
     then at a height above the hull not less than such breadth, so
     however that the light need not be placed at a greater height
     above the hull than 8 meters;
   (2) When two masthead lights are carried the after one shall be
at least 2 meters vertically higher than the forward one. (b) The
vertical separation of the masthead lights of power-driven vessels
shall be such that in all normal conditions of trim the after light will
be seen over and separate from the forward light at a dis    tance of
1000 meters from the stem when viewed from water level.
     (c) The masthead light of a power-driven vessel of 12 meters
but less than 20 meters in length shall be placed at a height above
the gunwale of not less than 2.5 meters.




                                  131
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      ANNEX I--Continued

     (d) A power-driven vessel of less than 12 meters in length may
carry the uppermost light at a height of less than 2.5 meters above
the gunwale. When however a masthead light is carried in addition
to side-lights and a sternlight or the all-round light prescribed in rule
23(c)(i) is carried in addition to sidelights, then such masthead light
or all-round light shall be carried at least 1 meter higher than the
sidelights.
     (e) One of the two or three masthead lights prescribed for a
power-driven vessel when engaged in towing or pushing another
vessel shall be placed in the same position as either the forward
masthead light or the after masthead light; provided that, if carried
on the after-mast, the lowest after masthead light shall be at least
4.5 meters vertically higher than the forward masthead light.
     (f) (i) The masthead light or lights prescribed in Rule 23(a) shall
     be so placed as to be above and clear of all other lights and
     obstructions except as described in subparagraph (ii).
     (ii) When it is impracticable to carry the all-round lights pre    -
     scribed by Rule 27(b)(i) or Rule 28 below the masthead lights,
     they may be carded above the after masthead light(s) or verti      -
     cally in between the forward masthead light(s) and after mast      -
     head light(s), provided that in the latter case the requirement of
Section 3(c) of this Annex shall be complied with.
     (g) The sidelights of a power-driven vessel shall be placed at a
height above the hull not greater than three quarters of that of the
forward masthead light. They shall not be so low as to be interfered
with by deck lights,
     (h) The sidelights, if in a combined lantern and carried on a
power-driven vessel of less than 20 meters in length, shall be placed
not less than 1 meter below the masthead light.
     (i) When the Rules prescribe two or three lights to be carried in a
vertical line, they shall be spaced as follows:
           (i) on a vessel of 20 meters in length or more such lights
           shall be spaced not less than 2 meters apart, and the lowest
           of these lights shall, except where a towing light is required,
           be placed at a height of not less than 4 meters above the
           hull;
           (ii) on a vessel of less than 20 meters in length such lights
           shall be spaced not less than 1 meter apart and the lowest
           of these lights shall, except where a towing light is required,
           be placed at a height of not less than 2 meters above the
           gunwale;
    (iii) when three lights are carried they shall be equally spaced.



                                  132
                      -- INLAND --
                       ANNEX I Continued

    (d) The masthead light, or the all-round light described in Rule
23(c), of a power-driven vessel of less than 12 meters in length shall
be carried at least one meter higher than the sidelights.

    (e) One of the two or three masthead lights prescribed for a
power-driven vessel when engaged in towing or pushing another
vessel shall be placed in the same position as either the forward
masthead light or the after masthead light, provided that the lowest
after masthead light shall be at least 2 meters vertically higher than
the highest forward masthead light.
    (f) (1) The masthead light or lights prescribed in Rule 23(a)
    shall be so placed as to be above and clear of all other lights
    and obstructions except as described in paragraph (f)(2) of this
    section.
    (2) When it is impracticable to carry the all-round lights pre-
    scribed in Rule 27(b)(i) below the masthead lights, they may be
    carried above the after masthead light(s) or vertically in between
    the forward masthead light(s) and after masthead light(s),
    provided that in the latter case the requirement of  84.05(d)
    shall be complied with.
    (g) The sidelights of a power-driven vessel shall be placed at
least one meter lower than the forward masthead light. They shall
not be so low as to be interfered with by deck lights.

    (h) [Reserved]

    (i) When the Rules prescribe two or three lights to be carried in a
vertical line, they shall be spaced as follows:
         (1) On a vessel of 20 meters in length or more such lights
         shall be spaced not less than 1 meter apart, and the lowest
         of these lights shall, except where a towing light is required,
         be placed at a height of not less than 4 meters above the
         hull;
         (2) On a vessel of less than 20 meters in length such lights
         shall be spaced not less than 1 meter apart and the lowest
         of these lights shall, except where a towing light is required,
         be placed at a height of not less than 2 meters above the
         gunwale;
   (3) When three lights are carried they shall be equally spaced.




                                 133
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     ANNEX I--Continued

     (j) The lower of the two all-round lights prescribed for a vessel
when engaged in fishing shall be at a height above the sidelights not
less than twice the distance between the two vertical lights.
     (k) The forward anchor light prescribed in Rule 30(a)(i), when
two are carried, shall not be less than 4.5 meters above the after
one. On a vessel of 50 meters or more in length this forward anchor
light shall be placed at a height of not less than 6 meters above the
hull.

3. Horizontal positioning and spacing of lights
     (a) When two masthead lights are prescribed for a power-driven
vessel, the horizontal distance between them shall not be less than
one half of the length of the vessel but need not be more than 100
meters. The forward light shall be placed not more than one quarter
of the length of the vessel from the stem.
     (b) On a power-driven vessel of 20 meters or more in length the
sidelights shall not be placed in front of the forward masthead lights.
They shall be placed at or near the side of the vessel
     (c) When the lights prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) or Rule 28 are
placed vertically between the forward masthead light(s) and the after
masthead light(s) these all-round lights shall be placed at a horizon-
tal distance of not less than 2 meters from the fore and aft centerline
of the vessel in the athwartship direction.
     (d) When only one masthead light is prescribed for a power
driven vessel, this light shall be exhibited forward of amidships;
except that a vessel of less then 20 meters in length need not
exhibit this light forward of amidships but shall exhibit it as far
forward as is practicable.




                                 134
                     -- INLAND --
                      ANNEX I Continued

     (j)) The lower of the two all-round lights prescribed for a vessel
when engaged in fishing shall be at a height above the sidelights not
less than twice the distance between the two vertical lights.
     (k) The forward anchor light prescribed in Rule 30(a)(i), when
two are carried, shall not be less than 4.5 meters above the after
one. On a vessel of 50 meters or more in length this forward anchor
light shall be placed at a height of not less than 6 meters above the
hull.

 84.05 Horizontal positioning and spacing of lights
    (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of' this section, when
two masthead lights are prescribed for a power-driven vessel, the
horizontal distance between them shall not be less than one quarter
of the length of the vessel but need not be more than 50 meters.
The forward light shall be placed not more than one half of the
length of the vessel from the stem.
    (b) On power-driven vessels 50 meters but less than 60 meters
in length operated on the Western Rivers, and those waters
specified in 89.25, the horizontal distance between masthead lights
shall not be less than 10 meters.
    (c) On a power-driven vessel of 20 meters or more in length the
sidelights shall not be placed in front of the forward masthead lights.
They shall be placed at or near the side of the vessel.
    (d) When the lights prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) are placed
vertically between the forward masthead light(s) and the after
masthead light(s) these all-round lights shall be placed at a
horizontal distance of not less than 2 meters from the fore and aft
centerline of the vessel in the athwartship direction.




                                 135
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      ANNEX I Continued

    4. Details of location of direction-indicating lights for fishing
vessels, dredgers and vessels engaged in underwater opera    tions
    (a) The light indicating the direction of the outlying gear from a
vessel engaged in fishing as prescribed in Rule 26(c)(ii) shall be
placed at a horizontal distance of not less than 2 meters and not
more than 6 meters away from the two all-round red and white lights.
This light shall be placed not higher than the all-round white light
prescribed in Rule 26(c)(i) and not lower than the sidelights.
    (b) The lights and shapes on a vessel engaged in dredging or
underwater operations to indicate the obstructed side and/or the side
on which it is safe to pass, as prescribed in Rule 27(d)(i) and (ii),
shall be placed at the maximum practical horizontal distance, but in
no case less than 2 meters, from the lights or shapes prescribed in
Rule 27(b)(i) and (ii). In no case shall the upper of these lights or
shapes be at a greater height than the lower of the three lights or
shapes prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) and (ii).




                                136
                     -- INLAND --
                     ANNEX I-- Continued

      84.07 Details of location of direction-indicating lights for
fishing vessels, dredgers and vessels engaged In underwater
operations
     (a) The light indicating the direction of the outlying gear from a
vessel engaged in fishing as prescribed in Rule 26(c)(ii) shall be
placed at a horizontal distance of not less than 2 meters and not
more than 6 meters away from the two all-round red and white lights.
This light shall be placed not higher than the all-round white light
prescribed in Rule 26(c)(i) and not lower than the sidelights.
     (b) The lights and shapes on a vessel engaged in dredging or
underwater operations to indicate the obstructed side and/or the side
on which it is safe to pass, as prescribed in Rule 27(d)(i) and (ii),
shall be placed at the maximum practical horizontal distance, but in
no case less than 2 meters, from the lights or shapes prescribed in
Rule 27(b)(i) and (ii). In no case shall the upper of these lights or
shapes be at a greater height than the lower of the three lights or
shapes prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) and (ii).




                                 137
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      ANNEX/--Continued

5. Screens for sidelights
     The sidelights of vessels of 20 meters or more in length shall be
fitted with inboard screens painted matt black, and meeting the
requirements of Section 9 of this Annex. On vessels of less than 20
meters in length the sidelights, if necessary to meet the
requirements of Section 9 of this Annex, shall be fitted with inboard
matt black screens. With a combined lantern, using a single vertical
filament and a very narrow division between the green and red
sections, external screens need not be fitted.

6. Shapes
(a) Shapes shall be black and of the following sizes:
        (i) a ball shall have a diameter of not less than 0.6 meter;
     (ii) a cone shall have a base diameter of not less than 0.6 meter
     and a height equal to its diameter;
     (iii) a cylinder shall have a diameter of at least 0.6 meter and a
     height of twice its diameter;
   (iv) a diamond shape shall consist of two cones as defined in (ii)
     above having a common base.
     (b) The vertical distance between shapes shall be at least 1.5
meter.
     (c) In a vessel of less than 20 meters in length shapes of lesser
dimensions but commensurate with the size of the vessel may be
used and the distance apart may be correspondingly reduced.




                                 138
                      -- INLAND --
                     ANNEX I-- Continued

 84.09 Screens
     (a) The sidelights of vessels of 20 meters or more in length shall
be fitted with mat black inboard screens and meet the requirements
of  84.17. On vessels of less than 20 meters in length, the
sidelights, if necessary to meet the requirements of  84.17, shall be
fitted with mat black inboard screens. With a combined lantern,
using a single vertical filament and a very narrow division between
the green and red sections, external screens need not be fitted.
     (b) On power-driven vessels less than 12 meters in length con    -
structed after July 31, 1983, the masthead light, or the all round light
described in Rule 23(c) shall be screened to prevent direct illumina-
tion of the vessel forward of the operator's position.
 84.11 Shapes
     (a) Shapes shall be black and of the following sizes:
      (1) A ball shall have a diameter of not less than 0.6 meter;
         (2) A cone shall have a base diameter of not less than 0.6
         meter and a height equal to its diameter;

        (3) A diamond shape shall consist of two cones (as defined
        in Paragraph (a)(2) of this section) having a common base.
   (b) The vertical distance between shapes shall be at least 1.5
meter.
   (c) In a vessel of less than 20 meters in length shapes of lesser
dimensions but commensurate with the size of the vessel may be
used and the distance apart may be correspondingly reduced.




                                 139
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     ANNEX I--Continued

7. Color specification of lights
     The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the
following standards, which lie within the boundaries of the area of
the diagram specified for each color by the International
Commission on Illumination (CIE).

    The boundaries of the area for each color are given by
indicating the corner coordinates, which are as follows:

(i) White:
x 0.525 0.525 0.452 0.310. 0.310 0.443
y 0.382 0.440 0.440.0348 0.283 0.382
(ii) Green:
x 0.028 0.009 0.300 0.203
y 0.385 0.723 0.511 0.356
(iii) Red:
x 0.680 0.660 0.735 0.721
y 0.320 0.320 0.265 0.259
(iv) Yellow:
x 0.612 0.618 0.575 0.575
y 0.382 0.382 0.425 0.406

8. Intensity of lights
    (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated
by using the formula:
                     1=3.43 x 1 06xT x D2 x K-D
where I is luminous intensity in candelas under service conditions,
    T is threshold factor 2 x 10-7 lux,
    D is range of visibility (luminous range) of the light in nautical
    miles,
    K is atmospheric transmissivity. For prescribed lights the value
    of K shall be 0.8, corresponding to a meteorological visibility of
    approximately 13 nautical miles.




                                140
                     -- INLAND --
                     ANNEX I-- Continued

 84.13 Color specification of lights
     (a) The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the
following standards, which lie within the boundaries of the area of
the diagram specified for each color by the International
Commission on Illumination (CIE), in the "Colors of Light Signals",
which is incorporated by reference. It is Publication CIE No. 2.2.
(TC-1.6), 1975, and is available from the Illumination Engineering
Society, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017. It is also
available for inspection at the Office of the Federal Register, Room
8401, 1100 L Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20408. This
incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the
Federal Register.
     (b) The boundaries of the area for each color are given by
indicating the corner coordinates, which are as follows:

(1) White:
         x 0.525 0.525 0.452 0.310 0.310 0.443
         y 0.382 0.440 0.440 0.348 0.283 0.382
(2) Green:
         x 0.028 0.009 0.300 0.203
         y O.385 O.723 0.511 0.356
(3) Red:
         x 0.680 0.660 0.735 0.721
         y 0.320 0.320 0.265 0.259
(4) Yellow:
         x 0.612 0.618 0.575 0.575
         y 0.382 0.382 0.425 0.406
 84.15 Intensity of lights
    (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated
by using the formula:
                     1=3.43 x 106 x T x D2 x K-D
where I is luminous intensity in candelas under service conditions, T
    is threshold factor 2 x 10-7 lux,
    D is range of visibility (luminous range) of the light in nautical
    miles,
    K is atmospheric transmissivity. For prescribed lights the value
    of K shall be 0.8, corresponding to a meteorological visibility of
    approximately 13 nautical miles.




                                 141
              -- INTERNATIONAL --
                          ANNEX I Continued

     (b) A selection of figures derived from the formula is given in the
following table:

    Range of visibility (luminous              Luminous intensity of light
    range) of light in nautical                 in candelas for K = 0.8
                miles                                   I
                 D


                     1                                    0.9
                     2                                    4.3
                     3                                     12
                     4                                     27
                     5                                     52
                     6                                     94

     Note: The maximum luminous intensity of navigation lights should be
limited to avoid undue glare. This shall not be achieved by a variable
control of the luminous intensity.
9. Horizontal sectors
(a) (i) In the forward direction, sidelights as fitted on the vessel shall show
     the minimum required intensities. The intensities shall decrease to
     reach practical cut-off between 1 degree and 3 degrees outside the
     prescribed sectors.
          (ii) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft
          the beam for sidelights, the minimum required intensities shall be
          maintained over the arc of the horizon up to 5 degrees within the
          limits of the sectors prescribed in Rule 21. From 5 degrees within
          the prescribed sectors the intensity may decrease by 50 percent
          up to the prescribed limits; it shall decrease steadily to reach
          practical cut-off at not more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed
          sectors.
   (b)    (i) All-round lights shall be so located as not to be obscured
          by masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of
          more than 6 degrees, except anchor lights prescribed in Rule
          30, which need not be placed at an impracticable height
          above the hull.
          (ii) If it is impracticable to comply with paragraph (b)(i) of this sec-
          tion by exhibiting only one all-round light, two all-round lights shall
          be used suitably positioned or screened so that they appear, as
          far as practicable, as one light at a distance of one mile."




                                      142
                      -- INLAND --
                       ANNEX I Continued

   (b) A selection of figures derived from the formula is given in
Table 84.15(b).

                            Table 84.15(b)

   Range of visibility (luminous                    Minimum
   range) of light in nautical               luminous intensity of light
            miles                            in candelas for K = 0.8
               D                                     I



                 1                                 0.9
                 2                                 4.3
                 3                                  12
                 4                                  27
                 5                                  52
                 6                                  94

 84.17 Horizontal sectors
     (a) (1) In the forward direction, sidelights as fitted on the vessel
shall show the minimum required intensities. The intensities shall
decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 and 3 degrees outside
the prescribed sectors.
     (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees
abaft the beam for sidelights, the minimum required intensities shall
be maintained over the arc of the horizon up to 5 degrees within the
limits of the sectors prescribed in Rule 21. From 5 degrees within
the prescribed sectors the intensity may decrease by 50 percent up
to the prescribed limits; it shall decrease steadily to reach practical
cut-off at not more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.

    (b) All-round lights shall be so located as not to be obscured by
masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of more than 6
degrees, except anchor lights prescribed in Rule 30, which need not
be placed at an impracticable height above the hull, and the all-
round white light described in Rule 23(d), which may not be
obscured at all.




                                   143
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     ANNEX I--Continued

10. Vertical sectors
    (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the
exception of lights on sailing vessels underway shall ensure that:

    (i) at least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all
    angles from 5 degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizon   tal;
    (ii) at least 60 percent of the required minimum intensity is
    maintained from 7.5 degrees above to 7.5 degrees below the
    horizontal.
    (b) In the case of sailing vessels underway the vertical sectors of
electric lights as fitted shall ensure that: (i) at least the required
minimum intensity is maintained at all angles from 5 degrees above
to 5 degrees below the horizon  tal;
    (ii) at least 50 percent of the required minimum intensity is
    maintained from 25 degrees above to 25 degrees below the
    horizontal.

    (c) In the case of lights other than electric these specifications
shall be met as closely as possible.

11. Intensity of non-electric lights
     Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the
minimum intensities, as specified in the Table given in Section 8 of
this Annex.




                                 144
                     -- INLAND --
                      ANNEX I Continued

 84.19 Vertical sectors
    (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the
exception of lights on sailing vessels underway and on unmanned
barges, shall ensure that:
    (1) At least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all
    angles from 5 degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizon   tal;
    (2) At least 60 percent of the required minimum intensity is
    maintained from 7.5 degrees above to 7.5 degrees below the
    horizontal.
    (b) In the case of sailing vessels underway the vertical sectors of
electric lights as fitted shall ensure that:
    (1) At least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all
    angles from 5 degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizon   tal;
    (2) At least 50 percent of the required minimum intensity is
    maintained from 25 degrees above to 25 degrees below the
    horizontal.
    (c) In the case of unmanned barges the minimum required
intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the
horizontal.
    (d) In the case of lights other than electric lights these
specifications shall be met as closely as possible.

     84.21 Intensity of non-electric lights
    Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the
minimum intensities, as specified in the Table given in  84.15.




                                 145
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      ANNEX I Continued

12. Maneuvering light
     Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2(f) of this Annex
the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be placed in the
same fore and aft vertical plane as the masthead light or lights and,
where practicable, at a minimum height of 2 meters vertically above
the forward masthead light, provided that it shall be carried not less
than 2 meters vertically above or below the after masthead light. On
a vessel where only one masthead light is carried the maneuvering
light, if fitted, shall be carried where it can best be seen, not less
than
2 meters vertically apart from the masthead light.
13. High Speed Craft
     The masthead light of high speed craft with a length to breadth
ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at a height related to the
breadth of the craft lower than that prescribed in paragraph 2(a)(i) of
this annex, provided that the base angle of the isosceles triangles
formed by the sidelights and masthead light, when seen in end
elevation, is not less than 27.
14. Approval
     The construction of lights and shapes and the installation of
lights on board the vessel shall be to the satisfaction of the
appropriate authority of the State whose flag the vessel is entitled to
fly.




                                 146
                        -- INLAND --
                          ANNEX I Continued

 84.23 Maneuvering light
     Notwithstanding the provisions of  84.03(f), the maneuvering light
described in Rule 34(b) shall be placed approximately in the same fore and
aft vertical plane as the masthead light or lights and, where practicable, at
a minimum height of one-half meter vertically above the forward masthead
light, provided that it shall be carried not less than one-half meter vertically
above or below the after masthead light. On a vessel where only one
masthead light is carried the maneuvering light, if fitted, shall be carried
where it can best be seen, not less than one-half meter vertically apart from
the masthead light.

     84.25 Approval. [Reserved]




                                     147
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                         ANNEX II
  Additional Signals for Fishing Vessels Fishing in Close
                          Proximity

1. General
    The lights mentioned herein shall, if exhibited in pursuance of
Rule 26(d), be placed where they can best be seen. They shall be at
least 0.9 meter apart but at a lower level than lights prescribed in
Rule 26(b)(i) and (c)(i). The lights shall be visible all around the
horizon at a distance of at least I mile but at a lesser distance than
the lights prescribed by these Rules for fishing vessels.

2. Signals for trawlers
      (a) Vessels of 20 meters or more in length when engaged in
trawling, whether using demersal or pelagic gear, may exhibit:
      (i) when shooting their nets:-two white lights in a vertical line; (ii)
      when hauling their nets: one white light over one red light in a
      vertical line;
      (iii) when the net has come fast upon an obstruction: two red
      lights in a vertical line.
      (b) Each vessel of 20 meters or more in length engaged in pair
trawling may exhibit:
      (i) by night, a searchlight directed forward and in the direction of
      the other vessel of the pair;
(ii) when shooting or hauling their nets or when their nets have come
fast upon an obstruction, the lights prescribed in 2(a) above.
3. Signals for purse seiners
      Vessels engaged in fishing with purse seine gear may exhibit
two yellow lights in a vertical line. These lights shall flash alternately
every second and with equal light and occultation duration. These
lights may be exhibited only when the vessel is hampered by its
fishing gear.




                                   148
                      -- INLAND --
                         ANNEX II
  Additional Signals for Fishing Vessels Fishing in Close
                          Proximity

85.1. General
    The lights mentioned herein shall, if exhibited in pursuance of
Rule 26(d), be placed where they can best be seen. They shall be at
least 0.9 meter apart but at a lower level than lights prescribed in
Rule 26(b)(i) and (c)(i) contained in the Inland Navigational Rules
Act of 1980. The lights shall be visible all around the horizon at a
distance of at least 1 mile but at a lesser distance than the lights
prescribed by these Rules for fishing vessels.

 85.3 Signals for trawlers
     (a) Vessels when engaged in trawling, whether using demersal
or pelagic gear, may exhibit:
     (1) When shooting their nets: two white lights in a vertical line;
     (2) When hauling their nets: one white light over one red light in
     a vertical line;
     (3) When the net has come fast upon an obstruction: two red
lights in a vertical line. (b) Each vessel engaged in pair trawling may
exhibit:

    (1) By night, a searchlight directed forward and in the direction
of the other vessel of the pair; (2) When shooting or hauling their
nets or when their nets have come fast upon an obstruction, the
lights prescribed in paragraph (a) above.
 85.5 Signals for purse seiners
     Vessels engaged in fishing with purse seine gear may exhibit
two yellow lights in a vertical line. These lights shall flash alternately
every second and with equal light and occultation duration. These
lights may be exhibited only when the vessel is hampered by its fish    -
ing gear




                                  149
           -- INTERNATIONAL --
                           ANNEX III

       Technical Details of Sound Signal Appliances

1. Whistles
    (a) Frequencies and range of audibility        . The fundamental
frequency of the signal shall lie within the range 70-700 Hz.
    The range of audibility of the signal from a whistle shall be
determined by those frequencies, which may include the
fundamental and/or one or more higher frequencies, which lie within
the range 180-700 Hz ( + 1 percent) and which provide the sound
pressure levels specified in paragraph 1 (c) below.

    (b) Limits of fundamental frequencies      . To ensure a wide
variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a
whistle shall be between the following limits:

   (i) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 meters or more in length;
   (ii) 130-350 Hz, for a vessel 75 meters but less than 200 meters
   in length;-
   (iii) 250-700 Hz, for a vessel less than 75 meters in length.




                               150
                     -- INLAND --
                           ANNEX III

       Technical Details of Sound Signal Appliances

                 SUBPART A--WHISTLES

 86.01 Frequencies and range of audibility   .
    The fundamental frequency of the signal shall lie within the
range 70-525 Hz. The range of audibility of the signal from a whistle
shall be determined by those frequencies, which may include the
fundamental and/or one or more higher frequencies, which lie within
the frequency ranges and provide the sound pressure levels
specified in  86.05.

 86.03 Limits of fundamental frequencies.
     To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the
fundamental frequency of a whistle shall be between the following
limits:

     (a) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 meters or more in length;
     (b) 130-350 Hz, for a vessel 75 meters but less than 200
meters in length;
    (c) 250-525 Hz, for a vessel less than 75 meters in length.




                                151
              -- INTERNATIONAL --
                        ANNEX III Continued

    (c) Sound signal intensity and range of audibility      . A whistle
        fitted in a vessel shall provide, in the direction of maximum
        intensity of the whistle and at a distance of 1 meter from it, a
        sound pressure level in at least one 1/3-octave band within
        the range of frequencies 180-700 Hz ( + 1 percent) of not
        less than the appropriate figure given in the table below.


                               I/3-octave band
                                   level at 1
                                  meter in dB     Audibility
Length of vessel                  referred to     range in
   in meters                     2x10-5 N/m   2 nautical miles

200 or more ............................143              2
75 but less than 200....................  138            1.5
20 but less than 75 ................... 130              1
Less than 20 .,...........................120            0.5


     The range of audibility in the table above is for information and
is approximately the range at which a whistle may be heard on its
forward axis with 90 percent probability in conditions of still air on
board a vessel having average background noise level at the
listening posts (taken to be 68 dB in the octave band centered on
250 Hz and 63 dB in the octave band centered on 500 Hz).




                                     152
                        -- INLAND --
                       ANNEX Ill--Continued

       86.05 Sound signal intensity and range of audibility   .
     A whistle on a vessel shall provide, in the direction of the
forward axis of the whistle and at a distance of 1 meter from it, a
sound pressure level in at least one/3-octave band of not less than
the appropriate figure given in Table 86.05 within the following
frequency ranges ( + 1 percent):
     (a) 130-1200 Hz, for a vessel 75 meters or more in length;
     (b) 250-1600 Hz, for a vessel 20 meters but less than 75 meters
in length;
     (c) 250-2100 Hz, for a vessel 12 meters but less than 20 meters
in length.

                                 Table 86.05

                                                  1/3-octave band
                       Fundamental     For            level at 1 Audibility
                        frequency   measured        meter in dB range in
Length of vessel           range   frequencies       referred to nautical
    in meters             (Hz)            (Hz)       2xl0-5 N/m2 miles

                                       130-180          145
200 or more              70-200        180-250          143          2
                                       250-1200         140

                                       130-180          140
  75 but less than 200 130-350         180-250          138          1.5
                                       250-1200         134

                                       250-450          130
 20 but less than 75    250-525        450-800          125          1.0
                                       800-1600         121

                                       250-450          120
 12 but less than 20    250-525        450-800          115          0.5
                                       800-2100         111

    NOTE: The range of audibility in the table above is for
information and is approximately the range at which a whistle may
usually be heard on its forward axis in conditions of still air on board
a vessel having average background noise level at the listening
posts (taken to be 68 dB in the octave band centered on 250 Hz and
63 dB in the octave band centered on 500 Hz).




                                    153
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                    ANNEX Ill--Continued

    In practice the range at which a whistle may be heard is
extremely variable and depends critically on weather conditions; the
values given can be regarded as typical but under conditions of
strong wind or high ambient noise level at the listening post the
range may be much reduced.
    (d) Directional properties. The sound pressure level of a
directional whistle shall be not more than 4 dB below the prescribed
sound pressure level on the axis at any direction in the horizontal
plane within; 45 degrees of the axis. The sound pressure level at
any other direction in the horizontal plane shall be not more than 10
dB below the prescribed sound pressure level on the axis, so that
the range in any direction will be at least half the range on the
forward axis. The sound pressure level shall be measured in that
one-third octave band which determines the audibility range.

   (e) Positioning of whistles . When a directional whistle is to be
used as the only whistle on a vessel, it shall be installed with its
maximum intensity directed straight ahead.

    A whistle shall be placed as high as practicable on a vessel, in
order to reduce interception of the emitted sound by obstructions
and also to minimize hearing damage risk to personnel. The sound
pressure level of the vessel's own signal at listening posts shall not
exceed 110 dB (A) and so far as practicable should not exceed 100
dB (A).




                                154
                      -- INLAND --
                     ANNEX Ill--Continued

      In practice the range at which a whistle may be heard is
extremely variable and depends critically on weather conditions; the
values given can be regarded as typical but under conditions of
strong wind or high ambient noise level at the listening post the
range may be much reduced.
      86.07 Directional properties.
      The sound pressure level of a directional whistle shall be not
more than 4 dB below the sound pressure level .specified in  86.05
in any direction in the horizontal plane within + 45 degrees of the
forward axis. The sound pressure level of the whistle at any other
direction in the horizontal plane shall not be more than 10 dB less
than the sound pressure level specified for the forward axis, so that
the range of audibility in any direction will be at least half the range
required on the forward axis. The sound pressure level shall be
measured in that
one-third octave band which determines the audibility range.
      86.09 Positioning of whistles.
      (a) When a directional whistle is to be used as the only whistle
on the vessel and is permanently installed, it shall be installed with
its forward axis directed forward.
      (b) A whistle shall be placed as high as practicable on a vessel,
in order to reduce interception of the emitted sound by obstructions
and also to minimize hearing damage risk to personnel. The sound
pressure level of the vessel's own signal at listening posts shall not
exceed 110 dB (A) and so far as practicable should not exceed 100
dB (A).




                                 155
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                      ANNEX III Continued

    (f) Fitting of more than one whistle     . If whistles are fitted at a
distance apart of more than 100 meters, it shall be so arranged that
they are not sounded simultaneously.
    (g) Combined whistle systems         . If due to the presence of
obstructions the sound field of a single whistle or of one of the
whistles referred to in paragraph 1 (f) above is likely to have a zone
of greatly reduced signal level, it is recommended that a combined
whistle system be fitted so as to overcome this reduction. For the
purposes of the Rules a combined whistle system is to be regarded
as a single whistle. The whistles of a combined system shall be
located at a distance apart of not more than 100 me             ters and
arranged to be sounded simultaneously. The frequency of any one
whistle shall differ from those of the others by at least 10 Hz.




                                  156
                      -- INLAND --
                      ANNEX III Continued

      86.11 Fitting of more than one whistle.
  If whistles are fitted at a distance apart of more than 100 meters,
they shall not be sounded simultaneously.
      86.13 Combined whistle systems       .
     (a) A combined whistle system is a number of whistles (sound
emitting sources) operated together. For the purposes of the Rules a
combined whistle system is to be regarded as a single whistle.
(b) The whistles of a combined system shall-
         (1) Be located at a distance apart of not more than 100
         meters
         (2) Be sounded simultaneously,
         (3) Each have a fundamental frequency different from those
         of the others by at least 100 Hz, and
         (4) Have a tonal characteristic appropriate for the length of
         vessel which shall be evidenced by at least two-thirds of the
         whistles in the combined system having fundamental
         frequencies falling within the limits prescribed in  86.03, or
         if there are only two whistles in the combined system, by the
         higher fundamental frequency falling within the limits
         prescribed  86.03. NOTE: if due to the presence of
         obstructions the sound field of a single whistle or of one of
         the whistles referred to in 86.11 is likely to have a zone of
         greatly reduced signal level a combined whistle system
         should be fitted so as to overcome this reduction.




                                 157
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                     ANNEX Ill--Continued

2. Bell or gong
    (a) Intensity of signal. A bell or gong, or other device having
similar sound characteristics shall produce a sound pressure level of
not less than 110 dB at a distance of 1 meter from it.

    (b) Construction. Bells and gongs shall be made of corrosion-
resistant material and designed to give a clear tone. The diameter of
the mouth of the bell shall be not less than 300 mm for vessels of 20
meters or more in length, and shall be not less than 200 mm for
vessels of 12 meters or more but of less than 20 meters in length.
Where practicable, ~i power-driven bell striker is recommended to
ensure constant force but manual operation shall be possible. The
mass of the striker shall be not less than 3 percent of the mass of
the bell.

3. Approval
     The construction of sound signal appliances, their performance
and their installation on board the vessel shall be to the satisfaction
of the appropriate authority of the State whose flag the vessel is
entitled to fly.




                                 158
                     -- INLAND --
                    ANNEX Ill--Continued

 86.15 Towing vessel whistles.
    A power-driven vessel normally engaged in pushing ahead or
towing alongside may, at all times, use a whistle whose
characteristic falls within the limits prescribed by  86.03 for the
longest customary composite length of the vessel and its tow.

Subpart B--Bell or gong
 86.21 Intensity of signal.
    A bell or gong, or other device having similar sound
characteristics shall produce a sound pressure level of not less than
110 dB at 1 meter.
 86.23 Construction.
    Bells and gongs shall be made of corrosion-resistant material
and designed to give a clear tone. The diameter of the mouth of the
bell shall be not less than 300 mm for vessels of more than 20
meters in length, and shall be not less than 200 mm for vessels of
12 to 20 meters in length. The mass of the striker shall be not less
than 3 percent of the mass of the bell. The striker shall be capable
of manual operation.
    NOTE: When practicable, a power-driven bell striker is recom-
mended to ensure constant force.

   Subpart C--Approval
    86.31 Approval
                  . [Reserved]




                                159
             -- INTERNATIONAL --
                             ANNEX IV

                         Distress Signals

1. Need of assistance
      The following signals, used or exhibited either together or
separately, indicate distress and need of assistance:
      (a) a gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a
minute;
       (b) a continuous sounding with any fog-signaling apparatus;
      (c) rockets or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at
short intervals;
      (d) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling
method consisting of the group ...... (SOS) in the Morse Code;
      (e) a signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken word
"Mayday";
     (f) the International Code Signal of distress indicated by N.C.;
      (g) a signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it
a ball or anything resembling a ball;
      (h) flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel,
etc.);
(i) a rocket parachute flare or a hand flare showing a red light; (j) a
smoke signal giving off orange-colored smoke;
      (k) slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched
to each side;
(I) the radiotelegraph alarm signal;
(m) the radiotelephone alarm signal;
(n) signals transmitted by emergency position-indicating radio
beacons
(o) approved signals transmitted by radio communication systems,
including survival craft radar transponders.




                                  160
                      -- INLAND --
                  ANNEX IV Distress Signals

 87.1 Need of assistance.
    The following signals, used or exhibited either together or sepa  -
rately, indicate distress and freed of assistance:
    (a) A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a
minute;
     (b) A continuous sounding with any fog-signaling apparatus;
    (c) Rockets or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at
short intervals;
    (d) A signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling
method consisting of the group...- - -... (SOS) in the Morse Code;
    (e) A signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken
word "Mayday";
   (f) The International Code Signal of distress indicated by N.C.;
    (g) A signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it
a ball or anything resembling a ball;
  (h) Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel,
                                  etc.);

    (i) A rocket parachute flare or a hand flare showing a red light;
    (j) A smoke signal giving off orange-colored smoke;
    (k) Slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched
to each side;
    (I) The radiotelegraph alarm signal; (m) The radiotelephone
    alarm signal;
    (n) Signals transmitted by emergency position-indicating radio
beacons;
       (o) Signals transmitted by radiocommunication systems.
    (p) A high intensity white light flashing at regular intervals from
50 to 70 times per minute.




                                  161
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                    ANNEX IV--Continued

     2. The use or exhibition of any of the foregoing signals except
for the purpose of indicating distress and need of assistance and the
use of other signals which may be confused with any of the above
signals is prohibited.

    3. Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International
Code of Signals, the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual and
the following signals:

(a) a piece of orange-colored canvas with either a black square and
circle or other appropriate symbol (for identification from the air);
(b) a dye marker.




                                 162
                     -- INLAND --
                     ANNEX IV Continued

 87.3 Exclusive use   .
    The use or exhibition of any of the foregoing signals except for
the purpose of indicating distress and need of assistance and the
use of other signals which may be confused with any of the above
signals is prohibited.
 87.5 Supplemental signals  .
    Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International
Code of Signals, the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual, the
International Telecommunication Union Regulations, and the follow -
ing signals:

(a) A piece of orange-colored canvas with either a black square and
circle or other appropriate symbol (for identification from the air);
(b) A dye marker.




                                163
-- INTERNATIONAL --




        164
                     -- INLAND --
                     ANNEX V Pilot Rules

 88.01 Purpose and applicability   .
    This Part applies to all vessels operating on United States inland
waters and to United States vessels operating on the Canadian
waters of the Great Lakes to the extent there is no conflict with
Canadian law.
 88.03 Definitions.
  The terms used in this part have the same meaning as defined in
the Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980.
 88.05 Copy of Rules  .
    After January 1, 1983, the operator of each self-propelled vessel
12 meters or more in length shall carry on board and maintain for
ready reference a copy of the Inland Navigation Rules.
     88.09 Temporary exemption from light and shape require         -
ments when operating under bridges      .
    A vessel's navigation lights and shapes may be lowered if neces  -
sary to pass under a bridge.




                                165
-- INTERNATIONAL --



       [BLANK]




         166
                         -- INLAND --
                         ANNEX V Continued

88.11 Law enforcement vessels      .
     (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when
engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This light must
be located so that it does not interfere with the visibility of the vessel's navi
                                                                                -
gation lights.
     (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law
enforcement vessels of the United States and the States and their political
subdivisions.
88.12 Public Safety Activities.
     (a) Vessels engaged in government sanctioned public safety activities,
and commercial vessels performing similar functions, may display an alter-
nately flashing red and yellow light signal. This identification light signal
must be located so that it does not interfere with the visibility of the vessel's
navigation lights. The identification light signal may be used only as an
identification signal and conveys no special privilege. Vessels using the
identification light signal during public safety activities must abide by the
Inland Navigation Rules, and must not presume that the light or the exigency
gives them precedence or right of way.
     (b) Public safety activities include but are not limited to patrolling
marine parades, regattas, or special water celebrations; traffic control;
salvage; fire-fighting; medical assistance; assisting disabled vessels; and
search and rescue.

88.13 Lights on barges at bank or dock         .
  (a) The following barges shall display at night and, if practicable, in
       periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph
  (b) of this section
     (1) Every barge projecting into a buoyed or restricted channel.
     (2) Every barge so moored that it reduces the available navigable width
of any channel to less than 80 meters.
     (3) Barges moored in groups more than two barges wide or to a
maximum width of over 25 meters.
     (4) Every barge not moored parallel to the bank or dock.
     (b) Barges described in paragraph (a) shall carry two unobstructed
white lights of an intensity to be visible for at least one mile on a clear dark
night, and arranged as follows:
     (1) On a single moored barge, lights shall be placed on the two comers
farthest from the bank or dock.
     (2) On barges moored in group formation, a light shall be placed on
each of the upstream and downstream ends of the group, on the comers
farthest from the bank or dock.
     (3) Any barge in a group, projecting from the main body of the group
toward the channel, shall be lighted as a single barge.
     (c) Barges moored in any slip or slough which is used primarily for
mooring purposes are exempt from the lighting requirements of this section.




                                      167
-- INTERNATIONAL --


       [BLANK]




         168
                     -- INLAND --
                     ANNEX V--Continued

     (d) Barges moored in well-illuminated areas are exempt from the
lighting requirements of this section. These areas are as follows:

Chicago Sanitary Ship Canal            (43) Mile 318.7 to 318.8 (45)
(1) Mile 293.2 to 293.9                Mile 320 to 320.3 (47) Mile
(3) Mile 295.2 to 296.1                320.6
(5) Mile 297.5 to 297.8                (49) Mile 322.3 to 322.4 (51)
(7) Mile 298 to 298.2                  Mile 322.8
(9) Mile 298.6 to 298.8                (53) Mile 322.9 to 327.2
(11) Mile 299.3 to 299.4               Calumet Sag Channel (61)
(13)     Mile 299.8 to 300.5           Mile 316.5
(15)     Mile 303 to 303.2             Little Calumet River (71) Mile
(17)     Mile 303 7 to 303 9           321,2
(21)     Mile 310.7 to 310.9           (73) Mile 322.3
(23)     Mile 311 to 311.2             Calumet River
(25)     Mile 312.5 to 312.6           (81) Mile 328.5 to 328.7
(27)     Mile 313.8 to 314.2           (83) Mile 329.2 to 329.4
(29)     Mile 314.6                    (85) Mile 330, West bank to
(31)     Mile 314.8 to 315.3           330.2
(33)     Mite 315.7 to 316             (87) Mile 331.4 to 331.6
(35)     Mile 316.8                    (89) Mile 332.2 to 332.4 -
(37)     Mile 316.85 to 317.05         (91) Mile 332.6 to 332.8
(39)     Mile 317.5
(41)     Mile 318.4 to 318.9           Cumberland River
                                       (101) Mile 126.8
                                       (103) Mile 191




                                 169
-- INTERNATIONAL --


       [BLANK]




         170
                      -- INLAND --
                       ANNEX V Continued

 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines.
     Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall
display the following lights at night and in periods of restricted
visibility.
(a) One row of yellow lights. The lights must be
            (1 ) Flashing 50 to 70 times per minute,
            (2) Visible all around the horizon,
            (3) Visible for at least 2 miles on a clear dark night,
          (4) Not less than I and not more than 3.5 meters above the
          water,
          (5) Approximately equally spaced, and
          (6) Not more than 10 meters apart where the pipeline cross   es
          a navigable channel. Where the pipeline does not cross a
          navigable channel the lights must be sufficient in number to
clearly show the pipeline's length and course.
(b) Two red lights at each end of the pipeline, including the ends in a
channel where the pipeline is separated to allow vessels to pass
(whether open or closed). The lights must be
          (1) Visible all around the horizon, and
           (2) Visible for at least 2 miles on a clear dark night, and
          (3) One meter apart in a vertical line with the lower light at
          the same height above the water as the flashing yellow light.




                                  171
            -- INTERNATIONAL --
                  INTERPRETATIVE RULES

Sec.
82.1 Purpose.
82.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.
    AUTHORITY: 33 U.S.C. 180, 30 Stat. 98; 49 CFR 1.46(c)(2); 28 Stat.
647.33 U.S.C. 258; 49 CFR 1.46(c)(3); sec. 4233 R.S., 33 U.S.C. 322
                                                                  .

 82.1 Purpose.
    (a) This part contains the interpretative rules concerning the 72
COLREGS that are adopted by the Coast Guard for the guidance of
the public.

 82.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed:Composite unit        .
Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel
and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a com       -
posite unit, they are regarded as a power-driven vessel and must
exhibit the lights under Rule 23. A "composite unit" is interpreted to
be a pushing vessel that is rigidly connected by mechanical means to
a vessel being pushed so they react to sea and swell as one vessel.
"Mechanical means" does not include the following: (a) Lines. (b)
    Hawsers. (c) Wires. (d) Chains.
[CGD 76-133, 42 FR 35792, July 11, 1977. Redesignated by CGD 81-017,
   46 FR 28154, May 26, 1981]




                                 172
                      -- INLAND --
                  INTERPRETATIVE RULES

Sec.
90.1 Purpose. 90.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite
unit.
AUTHORITY: 33 U.S.C. 2071, 49 CFR 1.46(n)(14).

 90.1 Purpose.
    (a) This part contains the interpretative rules for the Inland Rules.
These interpretative rules are intended as a guide to assist the pub lic
and promote compliance with the Inland Rules.

 90.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed:Composite unit       .
Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and
a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a com    posite
unit, they are regarded as a power-driven vessel and must exhibit the
lights prescribed in Rule 23. A "composite unit" is inter
                                                        preted to be
the combination of a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed
ahead that are rigidly connected by mechanical means so they react
to sea and swell as one vessel. Mechanical means does not include
lines, wires, hawsers, or chains.

[CGD 83-011,48 FR 51621, NOV. 10, 1983]




                                  173
            COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES
General

Sec.                               Sec.
80.01 General basis and pur-       80,520 Cape Hatteras, NC to
pose of demarcation lines.           Cape Lookout, NC.
                                   80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to
      ATLANTIC COAST                 Cape Fear, NC.
                                   80.530 Cape Fear, NC to New
       FIRST DISTRICT                River Inlet, NC.

80.105 Calais, ME to                    SEVENTH DISTRICT
  Cape Small, ME.
80.110 Casco Bay, M E.             80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to
80.115 Portland Head, ME to          Cape Romain, SC.
  Cape Ann, MA.                    80.707 Cape Romain, SC to
80.120 Cape Ann, MA to               Sullivans Island, SC.
  Marblehead Neck, MA.             80.710 Charleston Harbor, SC.
80.125 Marblehead Neck, MA to      80.712 Morris Island, SC to
  Nahant, MA.                        Hilton Head Island, SC.
80.130 Boston Harbor entrance.     80.715 Savannah River.
80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point,     80.717 Tybee Island, GA to
  MA.                                St. Simons Island, GA.
80.145 Race Point, MA to           80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to
  Watch Hill, RI.                    Amelia Island, FL.
80.150 Block Island, RI.           80.723 Amelia Island, FL to
80.155 Watch Hill, RI to             Cape Canaveral, FL.
  Montauk Point, NY.               80.727 Cape Canaveral, FL to
80.160 Montauk Point, NY to          Miami Beach, FL.
  Atlantic Beach, NY.              80.730 Miami Harbor, FL.
80.165 New York Harbor.            80.735 Miami, FL to
80.1 70 Sandy Hook, NJ to            Long Key, FL.
  Tom's River, NJ.
                                         PUERTO RICO AND
       FIFTH DISTRICT                     VIRGIN ISLANDS

80.501 Tom's River N.J. to              SEVENTH DISTRICT
Cape May, N J, 80.503 Delaware
  Bay,                             80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin
80.505 Cape Henlopen, DE to         Islands
  Cape Charles, VA.
80.510 Chesapeake Bay
  Entrance, VA.




                                 174
    GULF COAST SEVENTH                PACIFIC COAST ELEVENTH
           DISTRICT                   DISTRICT
Sec.
80.740 Long Key, FL to Cape         Sec.
  Sable, FL.                        80.1105 Santa Catalina Island
80.745 Cape Sable, FL to              CA.
  Cape Romano, FL.                  80.1110 San Diego Harbor, CA.
80.748 Cape Romano, FL to           80.1115 Mission Bay, CA.
  Sanibel Island, FL.               80.1120 Oceanside Harbor, CA.
80.750 Sanibel Island, FL to        80.1125 Dana Point Harbor, CA.
  St. Petersburg, FL.               80.1130 Newport Bay, CA.
80.753 St. Petersburg, FL to        80.1135 San Pedro Bay--
  Anclote, FL.                        Anaheim Bay, CA.
80.755 Anclote, FL to               80.1140 Redondo Harbor, CA.
  the Suncoast Keys, FL.            80.1145 Marina Del Rey, CA.
80.757 Suncoast Keys, FL to         80.1150 Port Hueneme, CA.
  Horseshoe Point, FL               80.1155 Channel Islands Harbor,
80.760 Horseshoe Point, FL to         CA.
  Rock Island, FL.
                                         TVVELFTH DISTRICT
      EIGHTH DISTRICT
                                    80.1205 San Luis Obispo Bay,
80.805 Rock Island, FL to             CA.
  Cape San BIas, FL.                80.1210 Estero--Morro Bay, CA.
80.810 Cape San BIas, FL to         80.1215 Monterey Harbor, CA.
  Perdido Bay, FL.                  80.1220 Moss Landing Harbor,
80.815 Mobile Bay, AL to              CA.
  the Chandeleur Island, LA..       80.1225 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.
80.825 Mississippi Passes, LA.      80.1230 Pillar Point Harbor, CA.
80.830 Mississippi Passes, LA. to   80.1250 San Francisco Harbor,
  Point Au Fer, LA.                   CA.
80.835 Point Au Fer, LA to          80.1255 Bodega and Tomales
  Calcasieu Pass, LA.                 Bay, CA.
80.840 Sabine Pass, TX. to          80.1260 Albion River, CA.
  Galveston, TX.                    80.1265 Noyo River, CA.
80.845 Galveston, TX. to            80.1270 Arcato--Humboldt Bay,
  Freeport, TX.                       CA.
80.850 Brazos River, TX to          80.1275 Crescent City Harbor,
  the Rio Grande, TX.                 CA.




                                175
THIRTEENTH DISTRICT                          ALASKA
Sec.                                   SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT
80.1305 Chetco River, OR.
80.1310 Rogue River, OR.           1705 Alaska.
80.1315 Coquille River, OR.
80.1320 Coos Bay, OR.                 AUTHORITY: Rule 1,
80.1325 Umpqua River, OR.          International Regulations for
80.1330 Sinslaw River, OR.         Preventing Collisions at Sea,
80.1335 Alsea Bay, OR.             1972 (as rectified); E.O. 11964;
80.1340 Yaquina Bay, OR.           Pub. L. 95-75, 91 Stat. 308; 14
80.1345 Depoe Bay, OR.             U.S.C. 2;49 CFR 1.46(b), unless
80.1350 Netarts Bay, OR.           otherwise noted.
80.1355 'Tillamook Bay, OR.           SOURCE: CGD 77-118a, 42
80.1360 Nehalem River, OR.         FR 35784, July 11, 1977, unless
80.1365 Columbia River             otherwise noted.
  Entrance, OR/WA.
80.1370 Willapa Bay, WA.                      GENERAL
80.1375 Grays Harbor, WA.
80.1380 Quillayute River,           80.01 General basis and
80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca     purpose of demarcation lines     .
80.1390 Haro Strait and Strait         (a) The regulations in this part
  of Georgia                       establish the lines of demarca     -
80.1395 Puget Sound and            tion delineating those waters
  Adjacent Waters                  upon which mariners shall com      -
                                   ply     with   the    International
      PACIFIC ISLANDS              Regulations      for    Preventing
                                   Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72
   FOURTEENTH DISTRICT             COLREGS) and those waters
                                   upon which mariners shall com      -
80.1410 Hawaiian Island            ply with the Inland Navigation
  Exemption from General rule.     Rules.
80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.          (b) The waters inside of the
80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.     lines are Inland Rules Waters.
80.1 440 Port Allen, Kauai, H I.   The waters outside the lines are
80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor,         COLREGS Waters.
  Kauai, HI.                           [CGD 82-029, 47 FR 19518,
80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maul,      May 6, 1982; CGD 83-003, 48
  HI.                              FR 7442, Feb. 22, 1983]
80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor,
  Hawaii, HI.
80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.
80.1490 Apra Harbor, U.S.
  Territory of Guam.
   80.1495 U.S. Pacific Island
           Possessions.




                                 176
        ATLANTIC COAST           the harbors, bays, and inlets on
                                 the east coast of Maine, New
          FIRST DISTRICT         Hampshire, and Massachusetts
                                 from Portland Head to Halibut
   80.105 Carats, ME to Cape Point at Cape Ann.
Small, ME.
  The 72 COLREGS shall apply        (b) A line drawn from the
on the harbors, bays, and inlets southernmost tower on Gerrish
on the east coast of Maine from Island charted in approximate
International Bridge at Calais, position latitude 43004.0, N. lon-
ME to the southwesternmost gitude 70 41.2 ' W. to
extremity of Bald Head at Cape Whaleback Light; thence to
Small.                           Jeffrey Point Light 2A; thence to
                                 the northeasternmost extremity
   80.110 Casco Bay, M E.       of Frost Point.

   (a) A line drawn from the         (c) A line drawn from the north-
southwesternmost extremity of      ernmost extremity of Farm Point
Bald Head at Cape Small to the     to Annisquam Harbor Light.
southeasternmost extremity of
Ragged Island; thence to the           80.120 Cape Ann, MA to
southern tangent of Jaquish        Marblehead Neck, MA.
Island thence to Little Mark          (a) Except inside lines specifi
                                                                    -
Island Monument Light; thence to   cally described in this section,
the northernmost extremity of      the 72 COLREGS shall apply on
Jewell Island.                     the harbors, bays and inlets on
                                   the east coast of Massachusetts
   (b) A line drawn from the tower from Halibut Point at Cape Ann
on Jewell Island charted in to Marblehead Neck.
approximate position latitude 43
40.6' N. longitude 70 05.9' W.      (b) A line drawn from
to the northeasternmost extremi  - Gloucester Harbor Breakwater
ty of Outer Green Island.          Light to the twin towers charted
                                   in approximate position latitude
   (c) A line drawn from the 4235.1'N. longitude 7041.6'W.
southwesternmost extremity of
Outer Green Island to Ram             (c) A line drawn from the
Island Ledge Light; thence to westernmost extremity of Gales
Portland Head Light.               Point    to    the    easternmost
                                   extremity of House Island;
    80.115 Portland Head, ME thence to Bakers Island Light;
to Cape Ann, MA.                   thence to Marblehead Light.
   (a) Except inside lines specifi
                                 -
cally described in this section,      [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,
the 72 COLREGS shall apply on May 26, 1981]




                                177
    80.125 Marblehead Neck,       shoreline.
MA to Nahant, MA.                    [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,
   The 72 COLREGS apply on         May 26, 1981 ]
the harbors, bays, and inlets on
the east coast of Massachusetts      80.145 Race Point, MA to
from Marblehead Neck to the        Watch Hail, RI.
easternmost tower at Nahant,
charted in approximate position     (a) Except inside lines specifi
                                                                  -
latitude 4225.4' N., longitude  cally described in this section,
70054.6, W.                      the 72 COLREGS shall apply on
   [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,     the sounds, bays, harbors and
May 26, 1981]                    inlets along the coast of Cape
                                 Cod and the southern coasts of
   80.130    Boston      Harbor Massachusetts and Rhode Island
entrance.                        from Race Point to Watch Hill.

  A line drawn from eastern most     (b) A line drawn from Nobska
tower at Nahant, charted in        Point Light to Tarpaulin Cove
approximate position latitude      Light on the southeastern side of
4225.4' N., longitude 70054.6,    Naushon Island; thence from the
W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy    southernmost        tangent      of
"B"; thence to the eastern most    Naushon       Island     to    the
radio tower at Hull, charted in    easternmost       extremity     of
approximate position latitude      Nashawena Island; thence from
4216.7' N., longitude 7052.6'    the southwestern most extremity
W.                                 of Nashawena Island to the
  [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,        easternmost       extremity      of
May 26, 1981 ]                     Cuttyhunk Island; thence from
                                   the southwestern tangent of
   80.135 Hull, MA to Race Cuttyhunk Island to the tower on
Point, MA.                         Gooseberry Neck charted in
                                   approximate position latitude
  (a)    Except    inside    lines 4129.1 'N. longitude 71 02.3'W.
described in this section, the 72
COLREGS apply on the harbors,        (c) A line drawn from Sakonnet
bays, and inlets on the east coast Breakwater Light 2 tangent to the
of Massachusetts from the southernmost part of Sacnuest
easternmost radio tower at Hull, Point charted in approximate
charted in approximate position position latitude 41 28.5'N.
latitude 4216.7' N., longitude longitude 71 14.8 'W.
70052.6, W., to Race Point on
Cape Cod.

  (b) A line drawn from Canal
Breakwater Light 4 south to the




                                178
  (d) An east-west line drawn      (h) A line drawn from
through Beavertail Light between Threemile       Harbor    West
Brenton Point and the Boston Breakwater Light to Three Mile
Neck shoreline.                  Harbor East Breakwater Light.
  [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,
May 26, 1981 ]                     (i) A line drawn from Montauk
                                 West Jetty Light 1 to Montauk
   80.150 Block Island, RI.     East Jetty Light 2.

  The 72 COLREGS shall apply      [Redesignated by CGD 87-
on the harbors of Block Island. 0086, 52 FR 25218, July 6, 1987]

  80.155 Watch Hill, RI to    80.160 Montauk Point, NY
Montauk Point, NY.          to Atlantic Beach, N.Y.

   (a) A line drawn from Watch        (a) A line drawn from
Hill Light to East Point on Fishers Shinnecock        Inlet     East
Island.                             Breakwater Light to Shinnecock
                                    Inlet West Breakwater Light 1.
   (b) A line drawn from Race
Point to Race Rock Light; thence      (b) A line drawn from Moriches
to Little Gull Island Light thence Inlet East Breakwater Light to
to East Point on Plum Island.       Moriches Inlet West Breakwater
                                    Light,
   (c) A line drawn from Plum
Island Harbor East Dolphin Light      (c) A line drawn from Fire
to Plum Island Harbor West Island Inlet Breakwater Light
Dolphin Light.                      348 true to the southernmost
                                    extremity of the spit of land at
   (d) A line drawn from Plum the western end of Oak Beach.
Island Light to Orient Point Light;
thence to Orient Point.               (d) A line drawn from Jones
                                    Inlet Light 322 true across the
   (e) A line drawn from the light- southwest tangent of the island
house ruins at the southwestern on the north side of Jones Inlet to
end of Long Beach Point to the shoreline.
Cornelius Point.
                                      [Redesignated by CGD 87-
   (f) A line drawn from Coec!es 0086 52 FR 25218, July 6, 1987]
Harbor Entrance Light to Sungic
Point.                                 80.165 New York Harbor.

 (g) A line drawn from Nichols   A line drawn from East
Point to Cedar Island Light.   Rockaway Inlet Breakwater Light
                               to Sandy Hook Light.




                                179
   80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to           shoreline across Corson Inlet.
Tom's River, NJ                           (f) A line formed by the center-
  (a) A line drawn from Shark          line of the Townsend Inlet
River Inlet North Breakwater           Highway Bridge.
Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South        (g) A line formed by the shore-
Breakwater Light 1.                    line of Seven Mile Beach and
  (b) A line drawn from                Hereford Inlet Light.
Manasquan         Inlet      North        (h) A line drawn from Cape
Breakwater      Light     4     to     May Inlet West Jetty Light.
Manasquan         Inlet      South        [CGD 87-0086, 52 FR 25218,
Breakwater light 3.                    July 6, 1987]
  (c) A line drawn from Barnegat
Inlet North Breakwater Light 4A           80.503 Delaware Bay.
to the seaward extremity of the          A line drawn from Cape May
submerged Barnegat Inlet South         Light to Harbor of Refuge Light;
Breakwater; thence along the           thence to the northernmost
submerged breakwater to the            extremity of Cape Henlopen.
shoreline.
                                          80.505 Cape Henlopen, DE
         FIFTH DISTRICT                to Cape Charles, VA.
                                         (a) A line drawn from the sea   -
    80.501 Tom's River, NJ to         ward extremity of Indian River
Cape May, NJ                           Inlet North Jetty to Indian River
   (a) A line drawn from the sea   -   Inlet South Jetty Light.
ward tangent of Long Beach               (b) A line drawn from Ocean
Island to the seaward tangent to       City Inlet Light 6 225 true across
Pullen Island across Beach             Ocean      City    Inlet   to   the
Haven and Little Egg Inlets.           submerged south breakwater.
   (b) A line drawn from the             (c) A line drawn from
seaward tangent of Pullen Island       Assateague Beach Tower Light
to the seaward tangent of              to the tower charted at latitude
Brigantine       Island      across    37052.6, N. longitude 7526.7'W.
Brigantine Inlet.                        (d) A line formed by the range
   (c) A line drawn from the sea   -   of Wachapreague Inlet Light 3
ward extremity of Absecon Inlet        and Parramore Beach Lookout
North Jetty to Atlantic City Light.    Tower          drawn         across
   (d) A line drawn from the           Wachapreague Inlet.
southernmost point of Longport           (e) A line drawn from the look  -
at latitude 30 18.2 ' N               out tower charted on the north  ern
   Iongitude 7532.2' W. to the        end of Hog Island to the sea  ward
northeasternmost point of Ocean        tangent of Parramore Beach.
City at latitude 39 17.6 ' N. lon -     (f) A Line drawn 207 true from
gitude 7433.1, W. across Great        the lookout tower charted on the
Egg Harbor Inlet.                      southern end of Hog Island
   (e) A line drawn parallel with
the general trend of highwater




                                  180
across Great Machipongo Inlet.           (c) A line drawn across Drum
   (g) A line formed by the range     Inlet parallel with the general
of the two cupolas charted on the     trend of the highwater shoreline.
southern end of Cobb Island
drawn across Sand Shoal Inlet.           80.525 Cape Lookout, NC
   (h) Except as provided else  -     to Cape Fear, NC.
where in this section from Cape
Henlopen to Cape Charles, lines         (a) A line drawn from Cape
drawn parallel with the general       Lookout Light to the seaward
trend of the highwater shoreline      tangent of the southeastern end
across the entrances to small         of Shackleford Banks.
bays and inlets.                        (b) A line drawn from
                                      Morehead City Channel Range
  80.510 Chesapeake          Bay     Front Light to the seaward
Entrance, VA.                         extremity of the Beaufort Inlet
                                      west jetty.
  A line drawn from Cape                (c) A line drawn from the
Charles Light to Cape Henry           southernmost extremity of Bogue
Light.                                Banks at latitude 34 38.7' N.
                                      longitude 7706.0' W. across
    80.515 Cape Henry, VA to         Bogue Inlet to the northernmost
Cape Hatteras, NC.                    extremity of Bear Beach at
   a) A line drawn from Rudee         latitude 34038.5, N. longitude 77
Inlet Jetty Light 2 to Rudee Inlet    07.1 ' W.
Jetty Light 1.                          (d) A line drawn from the tower
   (b) A line formed by the center-   charted in approximate position
line of the highway bridge across     latitude 34 31.5' N. longitude
Oregon Inlet.                         77020.8, W. to the seaward tan   -
                                      gent of the shoreline on the
   80.520 Cape Hatteras, NC          northeast side of New River Inlet.
to                                      (e) A line drawn across New
                                      Topsail Inlet between the closest
   (a) A line drawn from Hatteras     extremities of the shore on either
Inlet Lookout Tower (3011.8'N        side of the inlet from latitude 34
7544.9W) 255 true to the east   -   20.8' N. longitude 77 39.2' W.
ern end of Ocracoke Island.           to latitude 34 20.6' N. longitude
   (b) A line drawn from the west-    77 39.6' W.
ernmost extremity of Ocracoke
Island at latitude 35 04.0' N.
longitude 76 00.8' W. to the
northeast-em       extremity    of
Portsmouth Island at latitude 35
03.7 ' N. longitude 76 02.3' W.




                                 181
   (f) A line drawn from the sea -   line drawn parallel with the gen   -
ward extremity of the jetty on the   eral trend of the highwater
northeast side of Masonboro Inlet    shoreline across Hog Inlet;
to the seaward extremity of the      thence a line drawn from Murrels
jetty on the southeast side of the   Inlet Light 2 to Murrels Inlet Light
Inlet.                               1; thence a line drawn parallel
                                     with the general trend of the
   (g) Except as provided else -     highwater       shoreline     across
where in this section from Cape      Midway Inlet, Pawleys Inlet and
Lookout to Cape Fear, lines          North Inlet.
drawn parallel with the general         (c) A line drawn from the chart -
trend of the highwater shoreline     ed position of Winyah Bay North
across the entrance of small         Jetty End Buoy 2N south to the
bays and inlets.                     Winyah Bay South Jetty.
                                        (d) A line drawn from Santee
   80.530 Cape Fear, NC to          Point to the seaward tangent of
Little River Inlet, NC.              Cedar Island.
                                        (e) A line drawn from Cedar
  (a) A line drawn from the aban-    Island Point west to Murphy
doned lighthouse charted in          Island.
approximate position latitude 33        (f) A north-south line (longitude
52.4' N. longitude 78 00.1 ' W.    79020.3' W.) drawn from Murphy
across the Cape Fear River           Island to the northernmost
Entrance to Oak Island Light.        extremity of Cape Island Point.

   (b) Except as provided else  -      80.707 Cape Romain, SC to
where in this section from Cape      Sullivans Island, SC.
Fear to Little River Inlet, lines
drawn parallel with the general        (a) A line drawn from the west
                                                                    -
trend of the highwater shoreline     ern extremity of Cape Romain
across the entrance to small         292 true to Racoon Key on the
inlets.                              west side of Racoon Creek.

  SEVENTH DISTRICT                   (b) A line drawn from the west-
                                   ernmost extremity of Sandy
    80.703 Little River Inlet, SC Point across Bull Bay to the
to Cape Romain, SC.                northernmost      extremity   of
                                   Northeast Point.
   (a) A line drawn from the west-
ernmost extremity of the sand        (c) A line drawn from the
spit on Bird Island to the east- southernmost extremity of Bull
ernmost extremity of Waties Island to the easternmost
Island across Little River Inlet.  extremity of Capers Island.

  (b) From Little River Inlet, a        (d) A line formed by the over
                                                                    -
                                     head power cable from Capers
                                     Island to Dewees Island.




                                182
   (e) A line formed by the over -    Island through Folly River
head power cable from Dewees          Daybeacon 10 across Stono
Island to Isle of Palms.              River to the shoreline of Sandy
   (f) A line formed by the center-   Point.
line of the highway bridge
between Isle of Palms and      (c) A line drawn from the
Sullivans Island over Breach southernmost     extremity   of
Inlet.                       Seabrook Island 257  true
                             across the North Edisto River
  80.710 Charleston Harbor, Entrance to the shore of Botany
SC.                          Bay Island,

  (a) A line formed by the sub-    (d) A line drawn from the
merged north jetty from the microwave antenna tower on
shore to the west end of the Edisto Beach charted in approxi     -
north jetty.                    mate position latitude 3229.3' N.
                                longitude 80 19.2' W. across St.
  (b) A line drawn from across Helena Sound to the aban    doned
the seaward extremity of the lighthouse tower on Hunting
Charleston Harbor Jetties.      Island.

  (c) A line drawn from the west     (e) A line formed by the center-
end of the South Jetty across the line of the highway bridge
South Entrance to Charleston between Hunting Island and
Harbor to shore on a line formed Fripp Island.
by the submerged south jetty.
                                     (f) A line following the general
   80.712 Morris Island, SC to trend of the seaward highwater
Hilton Head Island, SC.           shoreline across Cabretta Inlet.

  (a) A line drawn from the east-      80.715 Savannah River.
ernmost tip of Folley Island to the
abandoned lighthouse tower on         A line drawn from the south    -
the north side of Lighthouse Inlet; ernmost tank on Hilton Head
thence west to the shoreline of Island charted in approximate
Morris Island.                      position latitude 32006.7, N. lon-
                                    gitude 80 49.3' W. to Bloody
  (b) A straight line drawn from Point Range Rear Light; thence
the seaward tangent of Folly to Tybee (Range Rear) Light.




                                 183
    80.717 Tybee Island, GA to       (h) A north-south line (longi  -
St. Simons Island, GA.             tude 81 17.1 ' W.) drawn from
                                   the southeasternmost point of
   (a) A line drawn from the Wolf Island to the northeastern-
southernmost        extremity   of most point on Little St. Simons
Savannah Beach on Tybee Island.
Island 255 true across Tybee
Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee    (i) A line drawn from the north-
Island south of the entrance to easternmost extremity of Sea
Buck Hammock Creek.                Island 045 true to Little St.
                                   Simons Island.
   (b) A straight line drawn from
the northernmost extremity of         (j) An east-west line from the
Wassaw Island 031 true through southernmost extremity of Sea
Tybee River Daybeacon I to the Island across Goulds Inlet to St.
shore of Little Tybee Island.      Simons Island.

   (c) A line drawn approximately      80,720 St. Simons Island, GA
parallel with the general trend of   to Amelia Island, FL.
the highwater shorelines from the
seaward tangent of Wassau              (a) A line drawn from St.
Island to the seaward tangent of    Simons Light to the northern-
Bradley Point on Ossabaw            most tank on Jekyll Island chart
                                                                   -
Island,                             ed in approximate position lati-
                                    tude 31 05.9' N. longitude 81
   (d)     A     north-south   line 24.5' W.
(longitude 81 08.4' W.) drawn
from the southernmost extremity        (b) A line drawn from the
of Ossabaw Island to St. southernmost tank on Jekyll
Catherines Island.                  Island charted in approximate
                                    position latitude 31 01.6' N.
   (e) A north-south line (longi  - longitude 81 25.2' W. to coordi
                                                                   -
tude 81 10.6'W.) drawn from the nate        latitude  30059.4,   N.
southernmost extremity of St. longitude 81 23.7' W. (0.5 nauti    -
Catherines Island to Northeast cal mile east of the charted posi   -
Point on Blackbeard Island.         tion of St. Andrew Sound Lighted
                                    Buoy 32); thence to the aban   -
   (f) A line following the general doned lighthouse tower on the
trend of the seaward highwater north end of Little Cumberland
shoreline across Cabretta Inlet.    Island charted in approximate
                                    position latitude 30 58.5' N .
   (g) A north-south line (longi  - longitude 81 24.8' W.
tude 81 16.9' W.) drawn from
the southwesternmost point on
Sapelo Island to Wolf Island.




                                184
   (c) A line drawn across the St. Lucie Inlet.
seaward extremity of the St.            (e) A line drawn from the sea   -
Marys Entrance Jetties.              ward extremity of Jupiter Inlet
                                     North Jetty to the northeast
    80.723 Amelia Island, FL to extremity of the concrete apron
Cape Canaveral, FL.                  on the south side of Jupiter inlet.
                                        (f) A line drawn across the sea -
   (a) A line drawn from the ward extremity of the Lake Worth
southernmost         extremity    of Inlet Jetties.
Amelia         Island     to    the     (g) A line drawn across the
northeasternmost extremity of seaward               extremity  of    the
Little Talbot Island.                Boynton Inlet Jetties.
   (b) A line formed by the center-     (h) A line drawn from Boca
line of the highway bridge from Raton Inlet North Jetty Light 2 to
Little Talbot Island to Fort Boca Raton Inlet South Jetty
George Island.                       Light 1.
   (c) A line drawn across the          (i) A line drawn from Hillsboro
seaward extremity of the St. Inlet Light to Hillsboro Inlet
Johns River Entrance Jetties,        Entrance Light 2; thence to
   (d) A line drawn across the Hillsboro Inlet Entrance Light 1;
seaward extremity of the St. thence west to the shoreline.
Augustine Inlet Jetties.                (j) A line drawn across the sea -
   (e) A line formed by the center- ward extremity of the Port
line of the highway bridge over Everglades Entrance Jetties.
Matanzas Inlet.                         (k) A line formed by the center-
   (f) A line drawn across the sea - line of the highway bridge over
ward extremity of the Ponce de Bakers Haulover Inlet.
Leon Inlet Jetties.
                                         80.730 Miami Harbor, FL.
    80.727 Cape Canaveral, FL
to Miami Beach, FL.                     A line drawn across the sea     -
                                     ward extremity of the Miami
   (a) A line drawn across the Harbor Government Cut Jetties.
seaward extremity of the Port
Canaveral Entrance Channel               80.735 Miami, FL 10 Lolls
Jetties.                             Key, FL.
   (b) A line drawn across the
seaward        extremity    of  the     (a) A line drawn from the
Sebastian Inlet Jetties.             southernmost extremity of Fisher
   (c) A line drawn across the Island 212 o true to the point lat       -
seaward extremity of the Fort itude 25 45.0 ' N . longitude
Pierce Inlet Jetties.                8008.6' W. on Virginia Key.
   (d) A north-south line (longi   -
tude 80009.7, W.) drawn across




                                  185
   (b) A line formed by the center-   across the entrance of San Juan
line of the highway bridge            Harbor.
between Virginia Key and Key
Biscayne.                                     GULF COAST
   (c) A line drawn from Cape               SEVENTH DISTRICT
Florida Light to the northern most
extremity on Soldier Key.               80.740 Long Key, FL to
   (d) A line drawn from the          Cape Sable, FL.
southernmost       extremity    on
Soldier Key to the northernmost          A line drawn from the
extremity of the Ragged Keys.         microwave tower charted on
   (e) A line drawn from the Rag-     Long Key at approximate posi     -
ged Keys to the southernmost          tion latitude 2448.8'N. longitude
extremity of Angelfish Key fol   -    8049.6'W, to Long Key Light 1;
lowing the general trend of the       thence to Arsenic Bank Light 2;
seaward shoreline.                    thence to Sprigger Bank Light 5;
   (f) A line drawn on the center-    thence to Schooner Bank Light 6;
line of the Overseas Highway          thence to Oxfoot Bank Light 10;
(U.S. 1) and bridges from latitude    thence to East Cape Light 2;
2519.3' N. longitude 80016.0,        thence through East Cape
W. at Little Angelfish Creek to       Daybeacon 1A to the shoreline at
the radar dome charted on Long        East Cape.
Key at approximate position
latitude 24 49.3' N. longitude 80      80.745 Cape Sable, FL to
49.2' W. [CGD 8t-017, 46 FR          Cape Romano, FL.
28154, May 26, 1981]
                                         (a) A line drawn following the
       PUERTO RICO AND                general trend of the mainland,
        VIRGIN ISLANDS                highwater shoreline from Cape
                                      Sable at East Cape to Little
       SEVENTH DISTRICT               Shark River Light 1; thence to
                                      westernmost extremity of Shark
   80.738 Puerto Rico and            Point; thence following the gen -
Virgin Islands.                       eral trend of the mainland, high-
                                      water shoreline crossing the
   (a) Except inside lines specifi
                                 -    entrances of Harney River,
cally described in this section,      Broad Creek, Broad River,
the 72 COLREGS shall apply on         Rodgers      River   First   Bay,
all other bays, harbors and           Chatham River, Huston River, to
lagoons of Puerto Rico and the        the shoreline at coordinate
U.S. Virgin Islands.                  latitude 2541.8' N. longitude 81
   (b) A line drawn from Puerto       17.9 'W.
San Juan Light to Cabras Light




                                 186
   (b) The 72 COLREGS shall         Wiggins, Big Hickory, New, and
apply to the waters surrounding     Big Cados Passes parallel to the
the Ten Thousand Islands and        general trend of the seaward
the bays, creeks, inlets, and       highwater shoreland.
rivers between Chatham Bend            (g) A straight line drawn from
and Marco Island except inside      Sanibel Island Light through
lines specifically described in thisMatanzas Pass Channel Light 2
part.                               to the shore of Estero Island.
                                       [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,
   (c) A north-south line drawn at May 26, 1981]
longitude 81 20.2' W. across the
entrance to Lopez River.                80.750 Sanibel Island, FL
                                    to St. Petersburg, FL.
   (d) A line drawn across the
entrance to Turner River parallel      (a) A line formed by the center-
to the general trend of the shore - line of the highway bridge over
line.                               Blind Pass, between Captiva
                                    Island and Sanibel Island, and
   (e) A line formed by the center- lines drawn across Redfish and
line of Highway 92 Bridge at Captiva Passes parallel to the
Goodland.                           general trend of the seaward,
                                    highwater shorelines.
    80.748 Cape Romano, FL            (b) A line drawn from La Costa
to Sanibel Island, FL.              Test Pile North Light to Port
   (a) A line drawn across Big Boca Grande Light.
Marco Pass parallel to the gen    -
eral trend of the seaward, high-       (c)    Lines    drawn    across
water shoreline.                    Gasparilla and Stump Pasees
                                    parallel to the general trend of
   (b) A line drawn from the north- the seaward, highwater shore       -
westernmost        extremity     of lines.
Coconut Island 000 T across
Capri Pass.                            (d) A line across the seaward
                                    extremity of Venice Inlet Jetties.
   (c)    Lines    drawn    across
Hurricane and Little Marco             (e) A line drawn across
Passes parallel to the general Midnight Pass parallel to the
trend of the seaward, highwater general trend of the seaward,
shoreline.                          highwater shoreline.

  (d) A line from the seaward            (f) A line drawn from Big
extremity of Gordon Pass South         Sarasota Pass Light 14 to the
Jetty 014  true to the shoreline      southernmost extremity of Lido
at approximate coordinate lati  -      Key.
tude 26o05.7' N. longitude 81
48.1 ' W.                               (g) A line drawn across New
  (e) A line drawn across the          Pass tangent to the seaward,
seaward extremity of Doctors           high-water shoreline of Longboat
Pass Jetties.                          Key.
  (f)   Lines    drawn    across
                                  187
  (h) A line drawn across Anchorage South Entrance Light
Longboat Pass parallel to the 7; thence to Anclote Key
seaward, highwater shoreline.      2810,0'N 8250.6w; thence a
                                   straight line through Anclote
  (i) A line drawn from the north- River Cut B Range Rear Light to
westernmost extremity of Bean the shoreline.
Point to the southeasternmost
extremity of Egmont Key.              80.755 Anclote, FL to the
                                   Suncoast Keys, FL.
  (j) A straight line drawn from
Egmont Key Light through             (a) Except inside lines specifi
                                                                   -
Egmont Channel Range Rear cally described in this section,
Light to the shoreline on Mullet the 72 COLREGS shall apply on
Key.                               the bays, bayous, creeks, mari  -
                                   nas, and rivers from Anclote to
  (k) A line drawn from the north- the Suncoast Keys.
ernmost extremity of Mullet Key
across Bunces Pass and South         (b) A north-south line drawn at
Channel        to    Pass-a-Grille longitude 82038.3' W. across the
Channel Light 8; thence to Pass- Chassahowitzka River Entrance.
a-Grille Channel Daybeacon 9;
thence to the southwesternmost        80.757 Suncoast Keys, FL
extremity of Long Key.             to Horseshoe Point, FL.
  [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,
May 26, 1981]                        (a) Except inside lines specifi
                                                                   -
                                   cally described in this section,
   80.753 St. Petersburg, FL the 72 COLREGS shall apply on
to the Anclote, FL.                the bays, bayous, creeks, and
                                   marinas from the Suncoast Keys
  (a) A line drawn across Blind to Horseshoe Point.
Pass, between Treasure Island
and Long Key, parallel with the      (b) A line formed by the center-
general trend of the seaward, line of Highway 44 Bridge over
highwater shoreline.               the Salt River.

   (b) Lines formed by the center-   (c) A north-south line drawn
line of the highway bridges over through Crystal River Entrance
Johns and Clearwater Passes.       Daybeacon 25 across the river
                                   entrance.
   (c) A line drawn across
Dunedin and Hurricane Passes         (d) A north-south line drawn
parallel with the general trend of through the Cross Florida Barge
the seaward,-highwater shore    - Canal Daybeacon 48 across the
line.                              canal.

  (d) A line drawn from the north-   (e) A north-south line drawn
ernmost         extremity       of through Withlacoochee River
Honeymoon Island to Anclote


                                188
   Daybeacon 40 across the river.    Marks Channel Light 11; thence
   (f) A line drawn from the west-   to the southernmost extremity of
ernmost extremity of South Point     Live Oak Point; thence in a
north to the shoreline across the    straight line through Shell Point
Waccasassa River Entrance.           Light to the southernmost
   (g) A line drawn from position    extremity of Ochlockonee Point;
latitude 29o16.6' N. longitude 83    thence to Bald Point along
06.7' W. 300 o true to the          longitude 8420.5W.
shoreline of Hog Island.                (d) A line drawn from the south
   (h) A north-south line drawn      shore of Southwest Cape at lon    -
through Suwannee River Wadley        gitude 84022.7, W. to Dog Island
Pass Channel Daybeacons 30           Reef East Light 1; thence to
and 31 across the Suwannee           Turkey Point Light 2; thence to
River.                               the easternmost extremity of Dog
                                     Island.
    80.760 Horseshoe Point,            (e) A line drawn from the west-
FL to Rock Islands, FL.              ernmost extremity of Dog Island
   (a) Except inside lines specifi
                                 -   to the easternmost extremity of
cally described provided in this     St. George Island.
section, the 72 COLREGS shall           (f) A line drawn across the sea-
apply on the bays, bayous,           ward extremity of the St. George
creeks, marinas, and dyers from      Island Channel Jetties.
Horseshoe Point to the Rock             (g) A line drawn from the north
Islands.                             westernmost extremity of Sand
   (b) A north-south line drawn      Island to West Pass Light 7.
through Steinhatchee River Light        (h) A line drawn from the west-
21.                                  ernmost extremity oh St. Vincent
   (c) A line drawn from             Island to the southeast, highwa-
Fenholloway River Approach           ter shoreline of Indian Peninsula
Light FR east across the             at longitude 8513.5' W.
entrance to Fenholloway River.
                                        80.810 Cape San Bias, FL
       EIGHTH DISTRICT               to Perdido Bay, FL.

    80.805 Rock Island, FL to         (a) A line drawn from St.
Cape San Bras, FL.                   Joseph Bay Entrance Range A
   (a) A north-south line drawn      Rear Light through St. Joseph
from the Econfina River Light to     Bay Entrance Range B Front
the opposite shore.                  Light to St. Joseph Point.
   (b) A line drawn from Gamble
Point Light to the southernmost         (b) A line drawn across the
extremity of Cabell Point.           mouth of Salt Creek as an exten -
   (c) A line drawn from St. Marks   sion of the general trend of the
(Range Rear) Light to St.            shoreline to continue across the
                                     inlet to St. Andrews sound in the
                                     middle of Crooked Island.




                                 189
   (c) A line drawn from the north-      (e) A east-west line (latitude
ernmost extremity of Crooked          30014.7' N.) drawn between the
Island 000 T. to the mainland.       westernmost extremity of Horn
   (d) A line drawn from the east-    Island to the easternmost
ernmost extremity of Shell Island     extremity of Ship Island.
120 true to the shoreline across        (f) A curved line drawn follow-
the east entrance to St. Andrews      ing the general trend of the sea -
Bay.                                  ward, highwater shoreline of Ship
   (e) A line drawn between the       Island.
seaward end of the St. Andrews           (g) A line drawn from Ship
Bay Entrance Jetties.                 Island Light; to Chandeleur Light;
   (f) A line drawn between the       thence in a curved line following
seaward         end      of     the   the general trend of the seaward,
Choctawatchee Bay Entrance            highwater shorelines of the
Jetties.                              Chandeleur Islands to the island
   (g) A east-west line drawn from    at latitude 2944.1 'N. longitude
Fort McRee Leading Light across       8853.0W.; thence to latitude
the Pensacola Bay Entrance            2926.5'N. longitude 8855.6 VV.
along latitude 3019.5'N.
   (h) A line drawn between the           80.825 Mississippi Passes,
seaward end of the Perdido Pass       LA.
Jetties.                                 (a) A line drawn from latitude
                                      2926.5'N., longitude 8855.6'W.
    80.815 Mobile Bay, AL to         to latitude 29 10.6'N., longitude
the Chandeleur Islands, LA.           8859.8W.; thence to latitude
   (a) A line drawn across the in     2903.5'N., longitude 8903.7W.;
lets to Little Lagoon as an exten -   thence to latitude 2858.8'N.,
sion of the general trend of the      longitude 8904.3 W.
shoreline.                               (b) A line drawn from latitude
   (b) A line drawn from Mobile       2858.8'N. longitude 8904.3'W.;
Point Light to Dauphin Island         to latitude 28 57.3'N., longitude
Channel Light No. 1 to the east   -   8905.3W.; thence to latitude
ern corner of Fort Gaines at          2856.95'N., longitude 8905.6
Pelican Point.                        W.; thence to latitude 2900.4'N.
   (c) A line drawn from the west-    longitude 8909.8 W.; thence
ernmost extremity of Dauphin          following the general trend of the
Island to the easternmost             seaward highwater shoreline in a
extremity of Petit Bois Island.       northwesterly direction to latitude
   (d) A fine drawn from Horn         2903.4'N., longitude 8913.0
Island Pass Entrance Range            W.; thence west to latitude 29
Front Light on Petit Bois Island to   03.5'N., longitude 8915.5 W.;
the easternmost extremity of          thence following the general
Horn Island.                          trend of the seaward highwater




                                 190
shoreline in a southwesterly       tude 8926.1 W.; thence follow   -
direction to latitude 28057.7, N., ing the general trend of the sea -
longitude 89o22.3, W.              ward, highwater jetty and shore  -
   (c) A line drawn from latitude  line in a north, northeasterly
28057.7' N., longitude 89o22.3'    direction to Old Tower latitude 28
W.; to latitude 28 51.4' N.,      58.8' N. longitude 89023.3' W.;
longitude 89o24.5' W.; thence to   thence to West Bay Light; thence
latitude 2851.5' N., longitude    to coordinate latitude 29o05.2' N.
8927.1' W.; thence to latitude    longitude 89o24.3' W.; thence a
28o52.65' N., longitude 8927.1'   curved line following the general
W.; thence to the seaward          trend of the high-water shoreline
extremity of the Southwest Pass    to Point Au Fer Island except as
West Jetty located at latitude     otherwise described in this
2854.5 ' N. longitude 8926.1 '   section.
W.                                    (b) A line drawn across the
   (d) A line drawn from           seaward extremity of the Empire
Mississippi River South Pass       Waterway (Bayou Fontanelle)
East Jetty Light 4 to Mississippi  entrance jetties.
River South Pass West Jetty           (c) An east-west line drawn
Light; thence following the        from the westernmost extremity
general trend of the seaward       of Grand Terre Islands in the
highwater shoreline in a north-    direction of 194 o true to the
westerly direction to coordinate   Grand Isle Fishing Jetty Light.
latitude 29003.4' N. longitude        (d) A line drawn between the
89013.0' W.; thence west to        seaward extremity of the Belle
coordinate latitude 29003.5, N.,   Pass Jetties.
longitude 8915.5'W., thence          (e) A line drawn from the west-
following the general trend of the ernmost extremity of the Tumbler
seaward, highwater shoreline in a  Island to the easternmost
southwesterly       direction      extremity of Isles Dernieres.
                                  to
Mississippi River Southwest Pass      (f) A north-south line drawn
Entrance Light.                    from Caillou Bay Light 13 across
   (e) A line drawn from           Caillou Boca.
Mississippi River Southwest Pass      (g) A line drawn 107 true from
Entrance Light; thence to the      Caillou Bay Boat Landing Light
seaward      extremity     of   theacross the entrances to Grand
Southwest Pass West Jetty          Bayou du Large and Bayou
located at coordinate latitude 28  Grand Caillou.
54.5 ' N. Iongitude 89 26.1 ' W.    (h) A line drawn on an axis of
                                   103 true through Taylors Bayou
   80.830 Mississippi Passes, Entrance Light 2 across the
LA to Point Au Fer, LA.            entrances to Jack Stout Bayou,
  (a) A line drawn from the sea  - Taylors Bayou, Pelican Pass,
ward extremity of the Southwest and Bayou de West.
Pass West Jetty located at coor  -
dinate latitude .2854.5' N. Iongi
                                 -




                                  191
    80.835 Point Au Fer, LA to       Sabine Pass East Jetty Light to
Calcasieu Pass, LA.                   the seaward end of the Sabine
   (a) A line drawn from Point Au     Pass West Jetty.
Fer to Atchafalaya Channel Light         (b) A line drawn across the
34; thence Point Au Fer Reef          small boat passes through the
Light 33; Atchafalaya Bay             Sabine Pass East and West
Pipeline Light D latitude 2925.0'    Jetties.
N. longitude 9131.7' W.; thence         (c) A line formed by the center-
Atchafalaya Bay Light 1 latitude      line of the highway bridge over
29 25.3' N. longitude 91035.8,       Rollover Pass at Gilchrist.
W.; thence South Point.
   (b) Lines following the general        80.845 Galveston, TX to
trend of the highwater shoreline      Freeport, TX.
drawn across the bayou canal             (a) A line drawn from
inlets from the Gulf of Mexico        Galveston North Jetty Light 6A to
between       South    Point   and    Galveston South Jetty Light 5A.
Calcasieu Pass except as other    -      (b) A line formed by the center-
wise described in this section.       line of the highway bridge over
   (c) A line drawn on an axis of     San Luis Pass.
140 true through Southwest              (c) Lines formed by the center-
Pass-Vermillion Bay Light 4           lines of the highway .bridges
across Southwest Pass.                over the inlets to Christmas Bay
   (d) A line drawn across the        (Cedar Cut) and Drum Bay.
seaward       extremity   of    the      (d) A line drawn from the sea -
Freshwater        Bayou      Canal    ward extremity of the Freeport
Entrance Jetties.                     North Jetty to Freeport Entrance
   (e) A line drawn from              Light      6;    thence   Freeport
Mermentau Channel East Jetty          Entrance Light 7; thence the
Light 6 to Mermentau Channel          seaward extremity of Freeport
West Jetty Light 7.                   South Jetty.
   (f) A line drawn from the radio
tower charted in approximate     80.850 Brazos River, TX to
position latitude 2945.7' N. lon -
                             the Rio Grande, TX.
gitude 9306.3-' W. 115 true   (a) Except as otherwise
across Mermentau Pass.       described in this section lines
   (g) A line drawn across the
                             drawn continuing the general
seaward       extremity   of    the
                             trend of the seaward, highwater
Calcasieu Pass Jetties.      shorelines across the inlets to
                             Brazos River Diversion Channel,
  80.840 Sabine Pass, TX to San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes,
Galveston, TX.               Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado
 (a) A line drawn from the River,        Matagorda      Bay,




                                 192
Cedar Bayou, Corpus Christi Bay North Jetty Light 1.
Bay, and Laguna Madre.
                                    80.1120 Oceanside Harbor,
  (b) A line drawn across the CA.
seaward extremity of Matagorda
Ship Channel North Jetties.        A line drawn from Oceanside
                                 South Jetty Light 4 to Oceanside
  (c) A line drawn from the sea- Breakwater Light 3.
ward tangent of Matagorda
Peninsula at Decros Point to        80.1125 Dana Point Harbor,
Matagorda Light.                 CA.

  (d) A line drawn across the         A line drawn from Dana Point
   seaward extremity of       the   Jetty Light 6 to Dana Point
   Aransas Pass Jetties.            Breakwater Light 5,

  (e) A line drawn across the          80.1130 Newport Bay, CA.
seaward extremity of the Port
Mansfield Entrance Jetties.          A line drawn from Newport Bay
                                    East Jetty Light 4 to Newport Bay
 (f) A line drawn across the sea-   West Jetty Light 3.
ward extremity of the Brazos
Santiago Pass Jetties,                80.1135 San Pedro Bay--
                                    Anaheim Bay, CA.
        PACIFIC COAST
                                   (a) A line drawn across the
      ELEVENTH DISTRICT          seaward extremities of the
                                 Anaheim Bay Entrance East
   80.1105    Santa    Catalina Jetties; thence to Long Beach
Island, CA.                      Breakwater East End Light 1.

   The 72 COLREGS shall apply      (b) A line drawn from Long
to the harbors on Santa Catalina Beach Channel Entrance Light 2
Island.                          to Long Beach Light.

   80.1110 San Diego Harbor,      (c) A line drawn from Los
CA.                              Angeles Main Entrance Channel
                                 Light 2 to Los Angeles Light.
  A line drawn from Zuniga Jetty
Light "V" to Zuniga Jetty Light     80.1140 Redondo Harbor,
"Z"; thence to Point Loma Light. CA.

   80.111 5 Mission Bay, CA.     A line drawn from Redondo
                               Beach East Jetty Light 2 to
 A line drawn from Mission Bay Redondo Beach West Jetty Light
South Jetty Light 2 to Mission 3.




                                193
    80.1145 Marina Del Rey, Barbara Harbor Breakwater
CA.                              Light.
   (a) A line drawn from Marina
Del Rey Breakwater South Light           TWELFTH DISTRICT
1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4.
                                    80.1205 San Luis Obispo
   (b) A line drawn from Marina  Bay, CA.
Del Rey Breakwater North Light     A line drawn from the south-
2 to Marina Del Rey Light 3.     ernmost extremity of Fossil Point
                                 to the seaward extremity of
   (c) A line drawn from Marina  Whaler Island Breakwater.
Del Rey Light 4 to the seaward
extremity of the Ballona Creek      80.1210 Estero-Morro Bay,
South Jetty.                     CA.
                                   A line drawn from the seaward
    80.1150 Port Husneme, CA. extremity of the Morro Bay East
   A line drawn from Port Breakwater to the Morro Bay
Hueneme East Jetty Light 4 to West Breakwater Light.
fort Hueneme West Jetty Light
                                    80.1215 Monterey Harbor,
    80.1155 Channel Islands CA.
Harbor, CA.                        A line drawn from Monterey
   (a) A line drawn from Channel Harbor Light 6 to the northern
Islands Harbor South Jetty Light extremity of Monterey Municipal
2 to Channel Islands Harbor      Wharf 2.
Breakwater South Light 1.
                                    80.1220 Moss Landing
   (b) A line drawn from Channel Harbor, CA.
Islands Harbor Breakwater North    A line drawn from the seaward
Light to Channel Islands Harbor  extremity of the pier located 0.3
North Jetty Light 5.             mile south of Moss Landing
                                 Harbor Entrance to the seaward
    80.1160 Ventura Marina, extremity of the Moss Landing
CA.                              Harbor North Breakwater.
   A line drawn from Ventura
Marina South Jetty Light 6 to       80.1225 Santa Cruz Harbor,
Ventura Marina Breakwater        CA.
South Light 3; thence to Ventura   A line drawn from the Seaward
Marina North Jetty Light 7.      extremity of the Santa Cruz
                                 Harbor East Breakwater to Santa
    80.1165 Santa Barbara Cruz Harbor West Breakwater
Harbor, CA.                      Light; thence to Santa Cruz
   A line drawn from Santa       Light.
Barbara Harbor Light 4 to Santa




                               194
    80.1230 Pillar Point Harbor, easternmost extremity of Whaler
CA.                                 Island.
   A line drawn from Pillar Point
Harbor Light 6 to Pillar Point             THIRTEENTH DISTRICT
Harbor Entrance Light.
                                        80.1305 Chetco River, OR.
    80.1250 San Francisco A line drawn across the sea             ward
Harbor, CA.                         extremities of the Chetco River
   A straight line drawn from       Entrance Jetties.
Point Bonita Light through Mile
Rocks Light to the shore.              [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,
                                    May 26, 19811
    80.1255       Bodega      and
Tomales Bay, CA.                        80.1310 Rogue River, OR.
   (a) An east-west line drawn      A  line drawn across the sea   ward
from Sand Point to Avails Beach.    extremities  of   the   Rogue  River
                                    Entrance Jetties.
   (b) A line drawn from the sea-
ward extremity of Bodega Harbor         80.1315 Coquille River, OR.
North Breakwater to Bodega              A line drawn across the sea    -
Harbor Entrance Light 1. [CGD       ward extremities of the Coquille
81-017, 46 FR 28154, May 26,        River Entrance Jetties.
1981]
                                        80.1320 Coos Bay, OR.
    80.12B0 Albion River, CA.         A line drawn across the sea  -
A line drawn on an axis of 030     ward   extremities  of the Coos Bay
true through Albion River Light 1 Entrance Jetties.
across Albion Cove.
                                        80.1325 Umpqua River, OR.
    80.1265 Noyo River, CA.           A line drawn across the sea     -
   A line drawn from Noyo River     ward extremities of the Umpqua
Entrance Daybeacon 4 to Noyo        Entrance Jetties.
River Entrance Light 5.
                                        80.1330 Siuslaw River, OR.
    80.1270 Arcata-Humboldt        A  line drawn across the sea   ward
Bay, CA.                            extremities  of  the   Siuslaw River
   A line drawn from Humboldt       Entrance Jetties.
Bay Entrance Light 4 to Hum-
boldt Bay Entrance Light 3.             80.1335 Alsea Bay, OR.
                                       A line drawn from the seaward
    80.1275      Crescent     City shoreline on the north of the
Harbor, CA.                         Alsea Bay Entrance 165 true
   A line drawn from Crescent       across the channel entrance.
City Entrance Light to the south  -




                                 195
    80.1340 Yaquina Bay, OR. ward extremities (above water)
A line drawn across the sea   ward of the Grays Harbor Entrance
extremities of Yaquina Bay Jetties.
Entrance Jetties.
                                        80.1380 Quillayute River,
    80.1345 Depoe Bay, OR.          WA.
   A line drawn across the Depoe       A line drawn from the seaward
Bay Channel entrance parallel        extremity of the Quillayute River
with the general trend of the        Entrance East Jetty to the over  -
highwater shoreline.                 head power cable tower charted
                                     on James Island; thence a
    80.1350 Netarts Bay, OR. A straight line through Quillayute
line drawn from the northern  most River Entrance Light 3 to the
extremity of the shore on the shoreline.
south side of Netarts Bay north to
the opposite shoreline.                 80.1385 Strait of Juan de
                                     Fuca.
    80.1355 Tillamook Bay, OR. The 72 COLREGS shall apply
   A line drawn across the sea     - on all waters of the Strait of Juan
ward extremities of the Tillamook de Fuca.
Bay Entrance Jetties.
                                        80.1390 Haro Strait and
    80.1360 Nehalem River, Strait of Georgia.
OR.                                    The 72 COLREGS shall apply
   A line drawn approximately        on all waters of the Haro Strait
parallel with the general trend of   and the Strait of Georgia.
the highwater shoreline across
the Nehalem River Entrance.             80.1395 Puget Sound and
                                     Adjacent Waters.
    80.1365 Columbia River            The 72 COLREGS shall apply
Entrance, OR/WA.                     on all waters of Puget Sound and
   A line drawn from the seaward adjacent waters, including Lake
extremity of the Columbia River      Union, Lake Washington, Hood
North Jetty (above water) 155       Canal, and all tributaries. [CGD
true to the seaward extremity of     81-087, 46 FR 61456, Dec. 17,
the Columbia River South Jetty       1981]
(above water).
                                             PACIFIC ISLANDS
    80.1370 Willapa Bay, WA. A
line drawn from Willapa Bay               FOURTEENTH DISTRICT
Light 169.8 true to the western-
most tripod charted 1.6 miles           80.1410 Hawaiian Island
south of Leadbetter Point.           Exemption from General Rule.
                                     Except as provided elsewhere in
    80.1375 Grays Harbor, WA. this part for Mamala Bay and
   A line drawn across the sea Kaneohe Bay on Oahu; Port




                                 196
  Allen and Nawiliwili Bay on           Light to the seaward extremity
Kauai; Kahului Harbor on Maul;        of the Kawaihae South
and Kawailae and Hilo Harbors         Breakwater.
on Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS
shall apply on all other bays, har-    80.1480      Hilo      Harbor,
bors, and lagoons of the            Hawaii, HI.
Hawaiian      Island     (including   A line drawn from the seaward
Midway).                            extremity of the Hilo Breakwater
                                    265 true (as an extension of the
   80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, seaward side of the breakwater)
HI.                                 to the shoreline 0.2 nautical mile
  A line drawn from Barbers         north of Alealea Point.
Point Light to Diamond Head
Light.                                 80.1490 Apra Harbor, U.S.
                                    Territory of Guam.
   80.1430      Kaneohe      Bay,    A line drawn from the western-
Oahu, HI.                           most extremity of Orote Island to
  A straight line drawn from        the westernmost extremity of
Pyramid Rock Light across           Glass Breakwater.
Kaneohe Bay through the center
of Mokolii Island to the shoreline.    80.1495 U.S. Pacific Island
                                    Possessions.
   80.1440 Port Allen, Kaual,        The 72 COLREGS shall apply
HI.                                 on the bays, harbors, lagoons,
  A line drawn from Hanapepe        and waters surrounding the U.S.
Light to Hanapepe Bay               Pacific Island Possessions of
Breakwater Light.                   American Samoa, Baker,
  [CGD 81-Of7, 46 FR 28154,         Canton, Howland, Jarvis,
May 26, 1981]                       Johnson, Palmyra, Swains and
                                    Wake Island. (The Trust Territory
   80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, of the Pacific Islands is not a
Kauai, HI.                          U.S. possession, and therefore
  A line drawn from Nawiliwili      Part 82 does not apply thereto.)
1981] Harbor Breakwater Light to      [CGD 81-017. 46 FR 28154,
Kukii Point Light.                  May  26, 1981]

   80.1460 Kahului Harbor,                ALASKA
Maul, HI.
  A line drawn from Kahului      SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT
Harbor Entrance East
Breakwater Light to Kahului     80.1705 Alaska
Harbor Entrance West           The 72 COLREGS shall apply
Breakwater Light.            on all the sounds, bays, harbors,
                             and inlets of Alaska
   80.1470 Kawalhae Harbor,   [CGD 81-017, 46 FR 28154,
Hawaii, HI.                  May  26, 1981]
  A line drawn from Kawaihae



                                 197
                      PENALTY PROVISIONS

  VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES AND
             REGULATIONS (33 U.S.C. 1608)

     Sec. 9.(a) Whoever operates a vessel, subject to the provisions
of this Act, in violation of this Act or of any regulation promulgated
pursuant to section 8, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more
than $5,000 for each such violation.
     (b) Every vessel subject to the provisions of this Act, other than a
public vessel being used for noncommercial purposes, which is oper     -
ated in violation of this Act or of any regulation promulgated pursuant
to section 8, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000
for each such violation, for which penalty the vessel may be seized
and proceeded against in the district court of the United States of any
district within which such vessel may be found.
     (c) The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is
operating may assess any civil penalty authorized by this section. No
such penalty may be assessed until the person charged, or the owner
of the vessel charged, as appropriate, shall have been given notice
of the violation involved and an opportunity for a hearing. For good
cause shown, the Secretary may remit, mitigate, or compromise any
penalty assessed. Upon the failure of the person charged, or the
owner of the vessel charged, to pay an assessed penalty, as it may
have been mitigated or compromised, the Secretary may request the
Attorney General to commence-an action in the appropriate district
court of the United States for collection of the penalty as assessed,
without regard to the amount involved, together with such other relief
as may be appropriate. (July 27, 1977,  9, 91 Stat. 310)

       VIOLATIONS OF INLAND NAVIGATION RULES AND
                     REGULATIONS
                     (33 U.S.C. 2072)

    Sec. 4.(a) Whoever operates a vessel in violation of this Act, or
of any regulation issued thereunder, or in violation of a certificate of
alternative compliance issued under Rule 1 is liable to a civil penalty
of not more than $5,000 for each violation.
 (b) Every vessel subject to this Act, other than a public vessel being
used for noncommercial purposes, that is operated in violation of this
Act, or of any regulation issued thereunder, or in violation of a certifi
                                                                       -
cate of alternative compliance issued under Rule 1 is liable to a civil
penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation, for which penalty
the vessel may be seized and proceeded against in the district court




                                  198
of the United States of any district within which the vessel may be
found.
     (c) The Secretary may assess any civil penalty authorized by this
section. No such penalty may be assessed until the person charged,
or the owner of the vessel charged, as appropriate, shall have been
given notice of the violation involved and an opportunity for a hear  -
ing. For good cause shown, the Secretary may remit, mitigate, or
compromise any penalty assessed. Upon the failure of the person
charged, or the owner of the vessel charged, to pay an assessed
penalty, as it may have been mitigated or compromised, the
Secretary may request the Attorney General to commence an action
in the appropriate district court of the United States for collection of
the penalty as assessed, without regard to the amount involved,
together with such other relief as may be appropriate.
     (d) The Secretary of the Treasury shall withhold or revoke, at the
request of the Secretary, the clearance, required by section 4197 of
the Revised Statutes of the United States (46 U.S.C. 91 ) of any ves  -
sel, the owner or operator of which is subject to any of the penalties
in this section. Clearance may be granted in such cases upon the fil  -
ing of a bond or other surety satisfactory to the Secretary. (Dec. 24,
1980,  4, 94 Stat. 3433)

PENALTIES FOR NEGLIGENT OPERATIONS; DUTIES RELATED
  TO MARINE CASUALTY ASSISTANCE AND INFORMATION;
 DUTY TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE AT SEA; INJUNCTIONS (46
                 U.S.C. 2301-2305)

    EXCERPT FROM TITLE 46 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE

         CHAPTER 23 OPERATIONS OF VESSELS
                    GENERALLY
             [Enacted on August 26,19831

    Sec.
    2301 Application
    2302 Penalties for negligent operations.
    2303 Duties related to marine casualty assistance.
    2304 Duty to provide assistance at sea.
    2305 Injunctions.

     2301 Application.
     This chapter applies to a vessel operated on waters subject to the
jurisdiction of the United States and, for a vessel owned in the United
States, on the high seas.




                                       199
 2302 Penalties for negligent operations.

     (a) A person operating a vessel in a negligent manner that
endangers the life, limb, or property of a person is liable to the United
States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000.
     (b) A person operating a vessel in a grossly negligent manner
that endangers the life, limb, or property of a person shall be fined
not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or
both.
     (c) For a penalty imposed under this section, the vessel also is
liable in rem unless the vessel is-
     (1 ) owned by a State or a political subdivision of a State; (2)
     operated principally for governmental purposes; and
      (3) identified clearly as a vessel of that State or subdivision.

     2303 Duties related to marine casualty assistance and
information.

(a) The master or individual in charge of a vessel involved in a
marine casualty shall-
     (1) render necessary assistance to each individual affected to
     save that affected individual from danger caused by the marine
     casualty, so far as the master or individual in charge can do so
     without serious danger to the master's or individual's vessel or to
     individuals on board; and
     (2) give the master's or individual's name and address and
     identification of the vessel to the master or individual in charge of
     any other vessel involved in the casualty, to any individual
     injured, and to the owner of any property damaged.
     (b) An individual violating this section or a regulation prescribed
under this section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned
for not more than 2 years. The vessel also is liable in rein to the
United States Government for the fine.
     (c) An individual complying with subsection (a) of this section or
gratuitously and in good faith rendering assistance at the scene of a
marine casualty without objection by an individual assisted, is not
liable for damages as a result of rendering assistance or for an act or
omission in providing or arranging salvage, towage, medical treat       -
ment, or other assistance when the individual acts as an ordinary,
reasonable, and prudent individual would have acted under the cir       -
cumstances..




                                  200
2304 Duty to provide assistance at sea
                                     .

    (a) A master or individual in charge of a vessel shall render
assistance to any individual found at sea in danger of being lost, so
far as the master or individual in charge can do so without serious
danger to the master's or individual's vessel or individuals on board.
    (b) A master or individual violating this section shall be fined not
more than $1,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both.

 2305 Injunctions.

    (a) The district courts of the United States have jurisdiction to
enjoin the negligent operation of vessels prohibited by this chapter on
the petition of the Attorney General for the United States
Government.
(b) When practicable, the Secretary shall-
    (1 ) give notice to any person against whom an action for
    injunctive relief is considered under this section an opportunity to
    present that person's views; and
(2) except for a knowing and willful violation, give the person a
reasonable opportunity to achieve compliance. (c) The failure to give
notice and opportunity to present views under subsection (b) of this
section does not preclude the court from grant   ing appropriate relief.




                                 201
                    ALTERNATIVE COMPLIANCE

     The alternative compliance procedures for the International
Rules and the Inland Rules are the same, although they appear both
in the International Rules section of the Code of Federal Regulations
(33 CFR Part 81) and in the Inland Rules section (33 CFR Part 89).

SEC
1. Definitions.                    4. Certificate of alternative compliance: Contents
2. General.                        5. Certificate of alternative compliance Termination.
3. Application for a certificate   6. Record of certification of vessels of special
     alternative compliance,          construction or purpose.


1, Definitions.
As used in this part:
    "72 COLREGS" refers to the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, done at London, October 20,
1972, as rectified by the Proces-Verbal of December 1, 1973, as
amended.
    "Inland Rules" refers to the Inland Navigation Rules contained in
the Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-591 ) and the
technical annexes established under that act.
    "A vessel of special construction or purpose" means a vessel
designed or modified to perform a special function and whose
arrangement is thereby made relatively inflexible.
    "Interference with the special function of the vessel" occurs when
installation or use of lights, shapes, or sound-signaling appliances
under the 72 COLREGS/inland Rules prevents or significantly hin      -
ders the operation in which the vessel is usually engaged.

2. General.
Vessels of special construction or purpose which cannot fully com ply
with the light, shape, and sound signal provisions of the 72 COL-
REGS/inland Rules without interfering with their special function may
instead meet alternative requirements. The Chief of the Marine
Safety Division in each Coast Guard District Office makes this deter-
mination and requires that alternative compliance be as close as pos-
sible with the 72 COLREGS/inland Rules. These regulations set out
the procedure by which a vessel may be certified for alternative com-
pliance.

  3. Application for a Certificate of Alternative Compliance.
  a) The owner, builder, operator, or agent of a vessel of special con-
struction or purpose who believes the vessel cannot fully comply with




                                      202
 the 72 COLREGS/inland Rules light, shape, or sound signal provi          -
sions without interference with its special function may apply for a
determination that alternative compliance is justified. The application
must be in writing, submitted to the Chief of the Marine Safety
Division of the Coast Guard District in which the vessel is being built
or operated, and include the following information:
    (1) The name, address, and telephone number of the applicant.
   (2) The identification of the vessel by its--(i) Official number;
          (ii) Shipyard hull number;
          (iii) Hull identification number; or
          (iv) State number, if the vessel does not have an official
                number or hull identification number. (3) Vessel name
                and home port, if known.
          (4) A description of the vessel's area of operation.
          (5) A description of the provision for which the Certificate of
          Alternative Compliance is sought, including:
          (i) The 72 COLREGS/inland Rules Rule or Annex section
          number for which the Certificate of Alternative Compliance is
          sought;
          (ii) A description of the special function of the vessel that
          would be interfered with by full compliance with the provision
          of that Rule or Annex section; and
          (iii) A statement of how full compliance would interfere with
the special function of the vessel. (6) A description of the alternative
installation that is in closest possible compliance with the applicable
72 COLREGS/Inland Rules Rule or Annex section.
          (7) A copy of the vessel's plans or an accurate scale drawing
     that clearly shows-
          (i) The required installation of the equipment under the 72
          COLREGS/inland Rules,
          (ii) The proposed installation of the equipment for which cer   -
          tification As being sought, and
          (ill) Any obstructions that may interfere with the equipment
          when installed in-
                (A) The required location; and
                (B) The proposed location.
     (b) The Coast Guard may request from the applicant additional
information concerning the application.




                                   203
4. Certificate of Alternative Compliance: Contents.

    The Chief of the Marine Safety Division issues the Certificate of
Alternative Compliance to the vessel based on a determination that it
cannot comply fully with 72 COLREGS/Inland Rules light, shape, and
sound signal provisions without interference with its special function.
This Certificate includes-
    (a) Identification of the vessel as supplied in the application;
    (b) The provision of the 72 COLREGS/inland Rules for which the
Certificate authorizes alternative compliance;
    (c) A certification that the vessel is unable to comply fully with
the 72 COLREGS/inland Rules light, shape, and sound signal
requirements without interference with its special function;
    (d) A statement of why full compliance would interfere with the
special function of the vessel;
    (e) The required alternative installation;
    (f) A statement that the required alternative installation is in the
closest possible compliance with the 72 COLREGS/inland Rules
without interfering with the special function of the vessel; (g) The
    date of issuance;
    (h) A statement that the Certificate of Alternative Compliance
terminates when the vessel ceases to be usually engaged in the
operation for which the certificate is issued.

5. Certificate of Alternative Compliance: Termination.

    The Certificate of Alternative Compliance terminates if the
information supplied under 3.(a) or the Certificate issued under 4. is
no longer applicable to the vessel.

6. Record of certification of vessels of special construction or
purpose.

    (a) Copies of Certificates of Alternative Compliance and
documentation concerning Coast Guard vessels are available for
inspection at Coast Guard Headquarters, Office of Navigation Safety
and Waterway Services, 2100 Second Street, S.W., Washington,
D.C. 20593.
    (b) The owner or operator of a vessel issued a Certificate shall
ensure that the vessel does not operate unless the Certificate of
Alternative Compliance or a certified copy of that Certificate is on
board the vessel and available for inspection by Coast Guard per   -
sonnel.




                                 204
                WATERS SPECIFIED BY THE SECRETARY

33 CFR 89.25 Waters upon which Inland Rules 9(a)(1), 14(d),
and 15(b) apply.
Inland Rules 9(a)(ii), 14(d), and 15(b) apply on the Great Lakes, the
Western Rivers, and the following specified waters  :

(a)   Tennessee TombbbeeWaterway;
(b)   Tombbbee River;
(c)   Back Warrior River;
(d)   Alabama River;
(e)   Coosa River
(f)   Mobile River above the Cochrane Bddge at St Louis Point;
(g)   Flint River;
(h)   Chattahoochee River, and
(i)   The Apaiachicoia River above its confiuence with the Jackson River.

   33 CFR 89.27 Waters upon which Inland Rule 24(1) apples.
    (a) Inland Rule 24(i) applies on the Western Rivers and the
specified waters listed in 89.25 (a) through (i).
    (b) Inland Rule 24(i) applies on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
from St. Marks, Florida, to the Rio Grande, Texas, including the
Morgan City-Pod Allen Alternate Route and the Galveston-Freeport
Cutoff, except that a power-driven vessel pushing ahead or towing
alongside shall exhibit the lights required by Inland Rule 24(c), while
transiting within the following areas:

(1)   St Andrews Bay from the Hathaway Fixed Bridge at Mid 284.6 East of Harvey Locks (EHL) to
      the DuPont Fixed Badge at Mile 295.4 EHL
(2) Pensacola Bay Santa Rosa Sound and Big Lagoon from the Ught o10" off of T     rout Point at
      Mile 176.9 EHL to the Pensacola Faxed Bridge d Mile 189.1 EHL
(3) Mobile Bay and Bon Secour Bay from the Dauphin Island Causeway Fixed Bridge at Mile 127.7
      EHL to Little Point Clear at Mile 140 EHL
(4) Mississippi Sound from Grand Island Waterway Ught "1" at Mile 53.8 EHL to Light "40" off the
      West Point of Dauphin Island at Mid 118.7 EHL
(5) The Mississippi River d New Orleans Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal and the Inner Hareor
      Navigation Canal from the junction of the Harvey Canal and the Algiers Altemate Route at Mile
      6.5 West of Harvey Locks (WHL) to the Michoud Canal at Mile 18 EHL
(6) The Calcasieu River from the Caicasieu Lock at Mile 238.6 WHL to the Emender Ufl Bridge at
      Mile 243.6 WHL.
7)    The Sabine Neches Canal from Mile 262.5 WHL to Mile 291.5 WHL.
8)    Bolivar Roads from the Bolivar Assembling Basin at Mile 346 WHL to the Galveston
      Causeway Bridge at Mile 357,3 WHL
(9) Freeport Hareor from Surfside Beach Fixed Bddge d Mile 393.8 WHL to the Bryan Beach
      Pontoon Bddge at Mid 397.6 WHL
(10)      Matagorda Ship Channel area of Matagorda Bay from Range SKY Front Light at Mile
          468.7 WHL to the Port O Connor Jetty at Mile 472.2 WHL
(11 ) Corpus Christi Bay from Reddish Bay Day Beacon "55" at Mile 537,4 WHL when in the Gulf
      Intracoastal Waterway main route or from the north end of Lydia Ann Island Mile 531.1A when
      in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Alternate Route to Corpus Christl Bay LT 76 d Mile 543.7
      WHL
(12)      Port Isabel and Brownsville Ship Channel south of the Padre Island Causeway Fixed
          Bddge d Mile 665.1 WHL.




                                               205
         VESSEL BRIDGE-TO-BRIDGE RADIOTELEPHONE
                            REGULATIONS
The Vessel Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone Act is applicable on
navigable waters of the United States inside the boundary lines
established in 46 CFR 7. In all cases, the Act applies on waters sub-
ject to the Inland Rules. In some instances, the Act may apply all the
way out to the three mile limit, depending on where the boundary
lines are located. In no instance does the Act apply beyond the three
mile limit.

Sec.                                                 Sec.

26.01 Purpose.                                       26.06 Maintenance of radiotelephone;
26.02Definitions.                                    failure of radiotelephone.
26.03Radiotelephone required.                        26.07 Communications.
26.04Use of the designated frequency.                26.08 Exemption procedures.
26.05Use of radiotelephone.                          26.09 List of exemptions.
                                                     26.10 Penalties.



     AUTHORITY: 33 U.S.C. 1201-1208, 49 CFR 1.46. Sections 26.04 and 26.09 also issued
under Sec. 4118, Pub. L. 101-380,104 Stat. 523 (33 U.S.C.  1203 note).
         SOURCE: CGD 71-114R, 37 FR 12720, June 28, 1972, unless otherwise noted.

 26.01 Purpose.
     (a) The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions of the Vessel Bridge-to-
Bridge Radiotelephone Act. This part--
     (1) Requires the use of the vessel bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone;
     (2) Provides the Coast Guard's interpretation of the meaning of important terms in the
Act;
     (3) Prescribes the procedures for applying for an exemption from the Act and the
     regulations issued under the Act and a listing of exemptions.
     (b) Nothing in this part relieves any person from the obligation of complying with the
rules of the road and the applicable pilot rules.

 26.02 Definitions.
For the purpose of this part and interpreting the Act-
     "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is
operating;
     "Act" means the " Vessel Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone Act", 33 U .S C. sections
1201-1208;
"Length" is measured from end to end over the deck excluding sheer, "Power-driven
vessel" means any vessel propelled by machinery;
     "Towing vessel means any commercial vessel engaged in towing another vessel
astem, alongside, or by pushing ahead;
"Vessel Traffic Services (VTS)" means a service implemented under Part 161 of this
chapter by the United States Coast Guard designed to improve the safety and efficiency of
vessel traffic and to protect the envi
                                    ronment. The VTS has the capability to interact with
marine traffic and respond to traffic situations developing in the VTS area; and




                                           206
     "Vessel Traffic Service Area or VTS Area" means the
 geographical area encompassing a specific VTS area of service as
 described in Part 161 of this chapter. This area of service may be
 subdivided into sectors for the purpose of allocating responsibility to
 individual Vessel Traffic Centers or to identify different operating
 requirements.
     Note: Although regulatory jurisdiction is limited to the navigable
 waters of the United States, certain vessels will be encouraged or
 may be required, as a condition of port entry, to report beyond this
 area to facilitate traffic management within the VTS area.

    (Rule 1, International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at
 Sea, 1972
     (as rectified); EO 11964 (14 U.S.C. 2}; 49 CFR 1.46(b))
     [CGD 71-114R, 37 FR 12720, June 28, 1972, as amended by CGD 77118a, 42 FR
 35784, July 11, 1977; CGD 90-020,59 FR 36313, JULY 15, 1994]

  26.03 Radiotelephone required.
     (a) Unless an exemption is granted under 26.09 and except as
 provided in paragraph (a) (4) of this section, this part applies to:
     (1) Every power-driven vessel of 20 meters or over in length
     while navigating;
     (2) Every vessel of 100 gross tons and upward carrying one or
     more passengers for hire while navigating;
     (3) Every towing vessel of 26 feet or over in length while
     navigating; and (4) Every dredge and floating plant engaged in or
     near a channel or fairway in operations likely to restric  t or affect
     navigation of other vessels except for an unmanned or
     intermittently manned floating plant under the
 control of a dredge,
 (b) Every vessel, dredge, or floating plant described in paragraph
(a) of this section must have a radiotelephone on board capable of
 operation from its navigational bridge, or in the case of a dredge,
 from its main control station, and capable of transmitting and receiv    -
 ing on the frequency or frequencies within the 156-162 Megahertz
 band using the classes of emissions designated by the Federal
 Communications Commission for the exchange of navigational infor         -
 mation.
     (c) The radiotelephone required by paragraph (b) of this section
 must be carried on board the described vessels, dredges, and float       -
 ing plants upon the navigable waters of the United States.
     (d) The radiotelephone required by paragraph (b) of this section
 must be capable of transmitting and receiving on VHF FM channel
 22A (157.1 MHz).
     (e) While transiting any of the following waters, each vessel
 described in paragraph (a) of this section also must have on board a
 radiotelephone capable of transmitting and receiving on VHF FM
 channel 67 (156.375 MHz):
     (1) The lower Mississippi River from the territorial sea boundary,
 and within either the' Southwest Pass safety fairway or the South


                                     207
Pass safety fairway specified in 33 CFR 166.200, to mile 242.4 AHP
(Above Head of Passes) near Baton Rouge;

       (2) The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet from the territorial sea boundary,
       and within the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Safety Fairway specified in
           33 CFR 166.200, to that channel's junction with the Inner Harbor
                                 Navigation Canal; and
      (3) The full length of the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal from its junction
      with the Mississippi River to that canal's entry to Lake Pontchartrain at
      the New Seabrook vehicular bridge.
   (f) In addition to the radiotelephone required by paragraph (b) of this
section, each vessel described in paragraph (a) of this section while
transiting any waters within a Vessel Traffic Service Area, must have on
board a radiotelephone capable of transmitting and receiving on the VTS
designated frequency in Table 26.03(f) (VTS Call Signs, Designated
Frequencies, and Monitoring Areas). (Located on pages 210A and 210B)

    Note: A single VHF-FM radio capable of scanning or sequential
monitoring (often referred to as "dual watch' capability) will not meet the
requirements for two radios.

    [CGD 71-114R, 37 FR 12720, June 28, 1972, as amended by CGD 91-
046, 57 FR 14485, Apr. 21, 1992; 57FR 21740, May 22, 1992; CGD 90-020,
59 FR 36316, July 15, 1994]

 26,04 Use of the designated frequency.
     (a) No person may use the frequency designated by the Federal
Communications Commission under sections of the Act, 33 U.S.C. 1207(a),
to transmit any information other than information necessary for the safe
navigation of vessels or necessary tests.
     (b) Each person who is required to maintain a listening watch under
section 5 of the Act shall, when necessary, transmit and confirm, on the
designated frequency, the intentions of his vessel and any other information
necessary for the safe navigation of vessels.
     (c) Nothing in these regulations may be construed as prohibiting the use
of the designated frequency to communicate with shore stations to obtain or
furnish information necessary for the safe navigation of vessels.
     (d) On the navigable waters of the United States, channel 13 (156.65
MHz) is the designated frequency required to be monitored in accordance
with 26.05(a) except that in the area prescribed in 26.03(e), channel 67
(156.375 MHz) is an additional frequency.
     (e) On those navigable waters of the United States within a VTS area,
the designated VTS frequency is the designated frequency required to be
monitored in accordance with 26.05.
     Note: As stated in 47 CFR 80.148(b), a VHF watch on Channel 16
(156.800Mhz) is not required on vessels subject to the Vessel Bridge-to-
Bridge Radiotelephone Act and participating in a Vessel Traffic Service
(VTS) system when the watch is maintained on both the vessel bridge-to-
bridge frequency and a designated VTS frequency.

[CGD 71-114R, 37 FR 12720, June 28, 1972, as amended by CGD 83-036,
48 PR 30107 June 30, 1983; CGD 91-046, 57. FR 14486, Apr. 21, 1992; 57
   FR 21741, May 22, 1992; CGD 90-020, 59 FR 36316, July 15, 1994]



                                     208
     26. 05 Use of Radiotelephone.
    Section 5 of the Act states that:
    (a) The radiotelephone required by this Act is for the exclusive
use of the master or person in charge of the vessel, or the person
designated by the master or person in charge to pilot or direct the
movement of the vessel, who shall maintain a listening watch on the
designated frequency. Nothing contained herein shall be interpreted
as precluding the use of portable radiotelephone equipment to satisfy
the requirements of this Act.

     26.06 Maintenance of radiotelephone; tenure of
    radiotelephone.
    Section 6 of the Act States
    (a) Whenever radiotelephone capability is required by this Act, a
vessel's radiotelephone equipment shall be maintained in effective
operating condition. If the radiotelephone equipment carried aboard a
vessel ceases to operate, the master shall exercise due diligence to
restore it or cause it to be restored to effective operating condition at
the earliest practicable time. The failure of a vessel's radiotele
                                                                 phone
equipment shall not, in itself, constitute a violation of this Act, nor
shall it obligate the master of any vessel to moor or anchor his
vessel; however, the loss of radiotelephone capability shall be given
consideration in the navigation of the vessel.

     26.07 Communications.
    No person may use the services of, and no person may serve as,
a person required to maintain a listening watch under section 5 of the
Act, 33 U.S.C. 1204, unless the person can communicate in the
English language.
[CGD 90-020, 59 FR 36316, July 15, 1994]

      26.08 Exemption procedures.
     (a) Any person may petition for an exemption from any provision
of the Act or this part;
     (b) Each petition must be submitted in writing to U.S. Coast
Guard (G-NSR), 2100 Second Street, SW, Washington, D.C. 20593-
0001, and must state:
         (1) The provisions of the Act or this part from which an
         exemption is requested; and
         (2) The reasons why marine navigation will not be adversely
         affected if the exemption is granted and if the exemption
         relates to a local communication system how that system
         would fully comply with the intent of the concept of the Act
         but would not conform in detail if the exemption is granted.

[CGD 71-114R, 37 FR 12720, June 28, 1972, as amended by CGD
73-256, 39 FR 9176, Mar. 8, 1974]; CGD 88-052,53 FR 25119, July
1, 1988



                                  209
      26.09 Ust of Exemptions.
     (a) All vessels navigating on those waters governed by the
navigation rules for the Great Lakes and their connecting and
tributary waters (33 U.S.C. 241 et seq.) are exempt from the
requirements of the Vessel Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone Act and
this part until May 6, 1975.
     (b) Each vessel navigating on the Great Lakes as defined in the
Inland Navigation Rules Act of 1980 (33 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) and to
which the Vessel Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone Act (33 U.S.C.
1201-1208) applies is exempt from the requirements in 33 U.S.C.
1203, 1204, and 1205 and the regulations under 26.03, 26.04,
26.05, 26.06, and 26.07. Each of these vessels and each person to
whom 33 U.S.C. 1208(a) applies must comply with Articles VII, X, XI,
XII, XIII, XV, and XVI and Technical Regulations 1-9 of 'The
Agreement Between the United States of America and Canada for
Promotion of Safety on the Great Lakes by Means of Radio, 1973."

[CGD 72-223R, 37 FR 28633, Dec. 28, 1972, as amended by
CGD 74-291, 39 FR 44980, Dec. 30, 1974; CGD 74-304, 40
FR 19470 May 5, 1975; CGD 83-003, 48 FR 7442, Feb. 18,
1983; CGD 91-046, 57 FR 14483, Apr. 21, 1992]

      26.10 Penalties.
     Section 9 of the Act states
     (a) Whoever, being the master or person in charge of a vessel
subject to the Act, fails to enforce or comply with the Act or the
regulations hereunder; or whoever, being designated by the master
or person in charge of a vessel subject to the Act to pilot or direct the
movement of a vessel fails to enforce or comply with the Act or the
regulations hereunder-is liable to a civil penalty of not more than
$500 to be assessed by the Secretary.
     (b) Every vessel navigated in violation of the Act or the
regulations hereunder is liable to a civil penalty of not more than
$500 to be assessed by the Secretary, for which the vessel may be
proceeded against in any District Court of the United States having
jurisdiction.
     (c) Any penalty assessed under this section may be remitted or
mitigated by the Secretary, upon such terms as he m  ay deem proper.




                                  210
                 TABLE 26.03(1) - VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICES (VTS) CALL SIGNS, DESIGNATED FREQUENCIES, AND MONITORING AREAS
                ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
      1                                          2
VTS                       DESIGNATED FREQUENCY         MONITORING AREA
Call Sign                 (Channel Designation)

                ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
NEW YORK
                     3
  New York Traffic        156.700 MHZ (Ch14)          The waters of the Lower New York Bay west of a line drawn from Norton Point to Breezy Point and north of a line
                                                      drawn from Ambrose Entrance Lighted Gong Buoy #1 to Ambrose channel Lighted Gong Buoy #9 thence to West
                                                      Bank Light and thence to Great Kills Light. The waters of the Upper New York Bay, south of 4042.40'N.(Brooklyn
                                                      Bridge) and 4043.70'N. (Holland Tunnel Ventilator Shaft); and in Newark Bay, north of 4038.25'N. (Arthur
                                                      Kill Railroad (Bridge), and south of 4041.95'N.(Lehigh Draw Bridge); and the Kill Van Kull.
                          156.550 MHZ (Ch.11)         The waters of Raritan Bay east of a line drawn from Great Kills Light to Point Comfort in New Jersey and south of a
                                                      line drawn from Great Kills Light to West Bank Light thence to Ambrose Channel Lighted Gong Buoy #9, and thence
                                                      to Ambrose Channel Lighted Gong Buoy #1 and west of a line drawn from Ambrose Channel Lighted Gong Buoy #1 to
                                                      the Sandy Hook Channel Entrance Buoys (Lighted Gong Buoys #1 and #2).
                          156.600 MHZ (Ch.12)         Each vessel at anchor within the above areas.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
            3
HOUSTON                                               The navigable waters north of 29N., west of 9420'W., south of 2949'N., and east of 9520'W.:

 Houston Traffic                                      The navigable waters north of a line extending due west from the southern most end of Exxon
                                                      Dock #1 (2943.37N, 9501.27W.)
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BERWICK BAY
  Berwick Traffic              156.550 MHZ (Ch.11)    The navigational waters south of 2945'N, west of 9110'W, north of 2937N, and east of 9118W.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ST. MARY'S RIVER
 Soo Control                   156.600 MHZ (Ch.12)                                                          57'N. (De Tour Reef Light) and 46
                                                      The navigable waters of the St. Mary's River between 45
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                     3
SAN FRANCISCO
  San Francisco Traffic        156.600 MHZ (Ch.12)    The waters within a 38 nautical mile radius of Mount Tamalpals (3755.8'N, 12234.6W)
                                                      excluding the San Francisco Offshore Precautionary Area.
                               156.700 MHZ (Ch.14)    The waters of the San Francisco Offshore Precautionary Area eastward to San Francisco Bay
                                                      including its tributaries extending to the pops of Stockton, Sacramento and Redwood City.




                                                                      211
              TABLE 26.03(1) - VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICES (VTS) CALL SIGNS, DESIGNATED FREQUENCIES, AND MONITORING AREAS (Cont)
               ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                    4
PUGET SOUND
                5
 Seattle Traffic                      156.700 MHZ (Ch14)
                                                  The navigable waters of the Puget Sound, Hood Canal and adjacent waters south of a line point connecting
                                                  Marrowstone Point and Lagoon Point in Admiralty Inlet and South of a line drawn due east from the
                                                  southernmost tip of Possession Point on Whidbey Island to the shoreline.
                    156.250 MHZ (Ch.5A)           The navigable waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca east of 12440'W. excluding the waters in the central
                                                  portion of the Strait of Juan de Fuca north and east of Race Rocks; the navi
                                                                                                                           gable waters of the Strait of
                                                  Georgia east of 12252'W.; the San Juan Rand Archipelago, Rosario Strait, Bellingham Bay,; Admiralty
                                                  Inlet north of a line connecting Mamowstone Point and Lagoon Point and all waters east of dbey Is and
                                                  north of a line drawn due east from the southernmost tip of Possession Point on Whidbey and to the
                                                  shoreline.
               6
 Torino Traffic     156.725 MHZ (Ch.74)           The waters west of 12440'W. within 50 nautical miles of the coast of Vancouver Island Including the
                                                  waters northof 48N., and east of 127W.
 Vancouver Traffic  156.550 MHZ (Ch.11)           The navigable water of the Strait of Georgia west of 12252'W., the navigable waters of the central Strait of
                                                  Juan de Fuca north and east of Race Rocks, including the Gulf Island Archipelago, Boundary Pass and
                                                  Haro Strait.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                    7
PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND
 Valdez Traffic     156.650 MHZ (Ch.13)           The navigable waters south of 6105'N.,aste of 14720'W., north 60N., and west of 14630'W.; all
                                                  navigable waters in Port Valdez.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
             7
LOUISVILLE
Louisville Traffic  156.650 MHZ (Ch.13)           The navigable waters of the Ohio River between McAlpine Locks (mile 606) and Twelve Mile Island (mile
                                                  593), only when the McAlpine upper pool guage is at approximately 13.0 feet or above.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
         1.    VTS regulations are denoted in 33 DFR Plan 161.A1 geography coordinates (latitude and longitude) are expressed in North American Datum of 1383 (NAD 83).
NOTES:
         2.    In the event of a communication failure either by the vessel traffic center or the vessel or radio congestion on a designated VTS frequency, communications may be established on an alternate VTS frequency. The bridge-to-bridge navigational
               frequency 145.650MHZ (Ch.13), is monitored in each
                                                                VTS area; and it may be used as an alternate frequency, however, only to the extent that doing so provides a level of safety beyond that provided by other means.
         3.    Designated frequency monitoring is required within U.S. navigable waters. In areas which are outside the U.S. navigable waters, designated frequency monitoring is voluntary. However, prospective VTS Users are
               encouraged to monitor the designated frequency.
         4.    A Cooperative Vessel Traffic Service was established by the United States and Canada within
                                                                                                        adjoining waters. The appropriate vessel traffic center administers the rules issued by both nations; however, it will enforce only its own set of rules
               within its jurisdiction.
         5.    Seame Traffic may direct a vessel to monitor the other primary VTS frequency 156.250MHZ or 145.700MHZ (Ch.5a or 14) depending on traffic density, weather conditions or other safety factors, rather than strictly adhere no to the designated
               frequency required for each monitoring area as defined above. This does not require a vessel
                                                                                                          o tmonitor both primary frequencies.
         6.    A portion of Tofino Sectors monitoring area extends beyond the defined CVTS area. Designated frequency monitoring is voluntary in these portions outside the VTS jurisdiction, however, prospective VTS users are encouraged to monitor the
               designated frequency.
         7.    The bridge-to-bridge navigational frequency, 145.650MHZ (Ch.13), is used in these VTSs because the level of radiotelephone transmissions does not warrant a designated VTS frequency. The listening watch required by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   05526.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of this chapter is
               not limited to the monitoring area.




                                                                                                                        212
                                    LEGAL CITATIONS

72 COLREGS
International Navigational Rules .................................. Public Law 95-75;
  Act of 1977 ......................................................................9 1 Star. 311;
 .............................................................................. 33 U.S.C. 1601-1608
COLREGS Demarcation Lines ...............................................33 CFR 80
72 COLREGS: Implementing Rules .......................................33 CFR 81
72 COLREGS: Interpretative Rules ........................................33 CFR 82
Amendments to 72 COLREGS effective ..............................48 FR 28634
  June 1, 1983

  INLAND RULES
  Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980 .................... Public Law 96-591;
  .......................................................................................94 Stat. 3415;
  ........................................................................... 33 U.S.C. 2001-2038,
  Annex I: Positioning and Technical ......................................33 CFR 84
  Details of Lights and Shapes
  Annex I1: Additional Signals for Fishing ..............................33 CFR 85
  in Close Proximity
  Annex II1: Technical Details of Sound .................................33 CFR 86
  Signal Appliances
  Annex IV: Distress Signals ..................................................33 CFR 87
  Annex V: Pilot Rules ...........................................................33 CFR 88
  Inland Navigation Rules: Implementing ...............................33 CFR 89
  Rules
  Inland Navigation Rules: Interpretative ................................33 CFR 90
  Rules

VESSEL BRIDGE-TO-BRIDGE RADIOTELEPHONE
  Vessel Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone...................Public Law 92-63;
  Act .................................................................................. 85 Stat. 164;
                                                                            33 U.S.C. 1201-1208
  Vessel Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone..............................33 CFR 26
  Regulations (Coast Guard regulations)
  Radiotelephone Stations Provided for ............... 47 CFR 83.701-83.725
  Compliance With the Vessel Bridge-to
  Bridge Radiotelephone Act (Fe               deral Corn-
  communications Commission regulations)
  Other FCC regulations pertaining to vessel
  bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone
  communications are contained in various
  sections of 47 CFR 81 and 47 CFR 83.
  Boundary Lines .................................................................... 46 CFR 7




                                                  213
                             CONVERSION TABLE

Conversion of Metric to U.S. Customary/imperial Units

                                                                           U.S. Customary/
                                                                          Imperial Measure
    Metric Measure                                                          (approx)

1000 Meters (M)........................ ........................ ............3280.8 ft.
 500 M............ ........................ ........................ ............1640.4 ft.
 200 M............ ........................ ........................ ............656.2 ft.
 150 M............ ........................ ........................ ............492.1 ft.
 100 M............ ........................ ........................ ............328.1 ft.
   75 M............ ........................ ........................ ............ 246.1 ft.
   60 M............ ........................ ........................ ............ 196.8 ft.
   50 M............ ........................ ........................ ............164.0 ft.
   25 M............ ........................ ........................ ............ 82.0 ft.
   20 M............ ........................ ........................ ............. 65.6 ft.
    12M............ ........................ ........................ ............. 39.4 ft.
    10M .......... ........................ ........................ ............. 32.8 ft.
     8M............ ........................ ........................ ............. 26.2 ft.
     7M............ ........................ ........................ ............ 23.0 ft.
     6M............ ........................ .......................................19.7 ft.
    5 M ........... ........................ ........................ ............. 16.4 ft.
   4.5M ........... ........................ ........................ ............. 14.8 ft.
  4.0 M............ ........................ ........................ ............. 13.1 ft.
  3.5 M ........... ........................ ........................ ............. 11.5 ft.
  2.5 M............ ........................ ........................ ............... 8.2 ft.
  2.0 M............ ........................ ........................ ............... 6.6 ft.
  1.5 M............ ........................ ........................ ............... 4.9 ft.
    1 M............ ........................ ........................ ............... 3.3 ft.
   .9 M ........... ........................ ........................ .............35.4 in.
    .6M ........... ........................ ........................ .............23.6 in.
. .5 M ........... ........................ ........................ .............19.7 in.
300 Millimeters (mm) ................ ........................ .............11.8 in.
200 mm ........... ........................ ........................ .............. 7.9 in.




                                              214


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