Stainless Steel Primer
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S TA I N L E S S STEEL PRIMER Stainless Steel The Value Option WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL GENERAL steel is an ironbased metal that has at least MECHANICAL PROPERTIES105 chromium Other alloying elements such as Hardness Tensile Strength Yield Strength molybdenum manganese can be added as Rb 1000 Psi 02 1000 Psi in 2 inwell as additional amounts of chromium to achieve 304316 7883 8085 3042 5060specific corrosion resistance and physical properties 430 8085 7075 4050 3035 410 8082 7075 3545 2535WHY DOESNT IT RUST 409 75 65 35 25Stainless steel does not RUST red rust that onenormally sees on carbon steel is iron oxide becauseit contains chromium and has a very low carbon STAINLESS TYPE 430 SIZES AND SHAPEScontent compared to mild steel The chromium UNS S43000 with oxygen in the air to form a very 430 is a straight chromium type stainless no nickel Stainless steel manufacturers produce many surface film that resists further oxidation No with 16 chromium It has less corrosion resistance sizes and shapes of stainless steel Flat productsiron is oxidized therefore no red rust than the 300 series Like the 300 series 430 cannot be called sheets are available in thickness from under hardened by heat treatment but it is magnetic 0375 inches down to about 0020 inches either asTHE MOST POPULAR KINDS STAINLESS TYPE 410 cut sheets or as wrapped coils Material under 0020OF STAINLESS STEEL UNS S41000 inches is usually called foil and can be made downThere are over 100 different kinds of stainless steel 410 is a straight chromium grade with less chromium to 0001 inches Sheets are usually wider than 18but only about 5 grades are the most popular For than 430 about 115 Because it has less inches and can be made up to 60 inches wide Widthsfurther information please refer to the SSINA chromium it has somewhat less corrosion resistance under 18 inches are called strip and are Design Guidelines for the Selection and than 430 but this grade can be hardened by heat available in the same thickness as sheet Flat productsUse of Stainless Steel treatment It is also magnetic with thickness of 0375 inches and over are TYPE 304 plates They are available up to about 10 inches STAINLESS TYPE 409UNS S30400 thick and usually 96 or 120 inches wide Long UNS S40900By far the most popular grade of stainless steel is products are round square rectangular hexagon or This grade contains the lowest level of chromium at304 The 300 series designation tells one that the octagon from 01875 inches in thickness and up 105 It is also magneticgrade is composed basically of 18 chromium and Wire products are generally round in size from 07038 nickel It is nonmagnetic and cannot be hardened to 0003 inches Tubular products from 01875 inchesby heat treatment Sometimes referred to as 188 pipes from 0125 inches and angled products fromSTAINLESS TYPE 316 150 inches are also availableUNS S31600The next most popular stainless for general corrosion CORROSION is 316 It also consists of chromium 16 Generally resists corrosion in the atmosphere and inand nickel 10 but also contains 2 molybdenum water environments most acids alkaline solutionsThe additional alloying increases the resistance to salt and some chlorine bearing FIRE HEAT RESISTANCE Resistant to major deformation at temperatures up to 1000 F HYGIENE Extremely easy to clean with biodegradable soap and water Does not alter the taste of FINISHES AVAILABLE SUPERIOR STRENGTHTO WEIGHT RATIOSHEET STRIP The strength of many stainless steels can be increasedNo 1 is a rough dull finish that results from hot rolling by workhardening thereby providing higher strengthNo 2D is a dull finish generally used where the surface appearance is of little concern at lower weightNo 2B is a bright finish with some reflectivity It is a general purpose finish used as is or it is IMPACT RESISTANTused as a basis for subsequent polished finishes The 300 series provides high toughness from elevatedNo 4 is a polished bright surface with reasonable reflectivity although it contains visible grit temperatures to far below freezinglines which prevent mirror reflectionNo 6 is a dull satin finish with less reflectivity than a No 4 RECYCLABLE Stainless steel is 100 recyclable Recycled materialNo 7 is a highly reflective surface finish but still maintains some light grit lines is used in over 65 of all new stainless productsNo 8 is the most reflective standard finish with a mirrorlike reflectivity GREEN MATERIALPLATE Stainless steel is a Green material as Rolled is a rough surface with the annealing scale left on Generally not recommended for by the evaluation of stainless steel using the followinguse in this condition critical environmental guidelinesHot Rolled Annealed Pickled or blast cleaned is the commonly preferred finish with the scale ENVIRONMENTAL from the hot rolled surface by acid etching or blasting Developing an environmental policy is one of the most important components of environment managementHot Rolled Annealed Pickled and Cold Rolled is a smoother finish with less Many of the North American producers of imperfections steel have such a policy SSINA member companies are committed to operating their facilities inBAR compliance with applicable federal state and localHot Worked Only is a surface where the scale is left on after hot rolling environmental laws and regulationsHot Worked Rough Turned is a surface where the scale has been removed by turning the ENVIRONMENTAL in a lathe or grinding machine SYSTEMS SSINA member companies have establishedHot Rolled Pickled or blast cleaned Pickled is where the surface has been cleaned of scale environmental affairs departments analogous to theby acid etching or blasting marketing and finance departments that Only is a surface where the scale is left on after hot rolling and annealing environmental issues MATERIALS ENERGY AND WATER USAGEAnnealed Rough Turned is the same as hot worked and rough turned but the bar has beenannealed to make the structure more ductile The use of these vital resources is closely monitored The major raw material for the production of Pickled or blast cleaned Pickled is where the surface has been cleaned of scale steel is recycled stainless steel scrap from within theby acid etching or blasting after annealing plants themselves and from customers and Cold Drawn or Cold Rolled is where the surface is smooth because it has been drawn after a long useful life in the marketplace Furnacethrough a die or rolled through polished rolls byproducts are collected and reclaimed Electric furnaces that melt the stainless steel are Centerless Ground is where the surface has been ground to remove some art with computer controls to ensure efficient use ofof the surface area similar to ground flat sheet surface electric power Water which is mainly used as aAnnealed Polished is where the surface has been polished to bright finish cooling medium is recycled up to 100 times prior to dischargeWIRE POLLUTION PREVENTIONCold Drawn is a smooth surface with the residual drawing lubricant left on The air emissions from the electric melting andCold Drawn and Clean has a smooth surface free of residual drawing lubricants refining furnaces are collected via a series of ducts and hoods then routed to a high efficiency filter whereDiamond Drawn is a bright smooth surface produced with diamond drawing dies and wetdrawing Quality EPQ has a smooth surface for producing a bright finish after particles are collected and the metals recovered MACHINABILITY FOR MORE INFORMATIONThe air emissions from the cleaning operations are Stainless steels can be machined however the You can contact us through our Web sitescollected and routed to a fume scrubber to remove gummy nature of the material makes the standard wwwssinacom and acid mist grades difficult Several specially developed stainless The following free SSINA publications can be orderedFor further information please refer to the SSINA grades exist that have been altered to provide excellent or downloaded by visiting the Publications andpublication Stainless Steel The Green Material machining Type 303 is the machining Whats New section of the ssinacom web site equivalent of type 304GENERAL INFORMATION Stainless Steel SPECIAL FINISHES COLOR Stainless Steel for steel can be fabricated by methods similar to In addition to the standard finishes there are several Stainless Steel Architectural Factsthose used for carbon steel and other common metals special finishes that are available for stainless steel Stainless Steel for Wall Ties Stone AnchorsHowever changes may be necessary to the extent that Finishes can be rolledon embossed or etched in a Masonry Fastening Systemsthey differ in yield strength and rate of work wide variety of patterns and designs Very different Specifications for Stainless Steelhardening All stainless steels have a work hardening and remarkable finishes can be achieved by Stainless Steel Fastenersrate higher than carbon steel the 300 series 304 mechanical treatments to the surface to provide Standard Practices for Stainless Steel316 are characterized by large increases in strength interesting textures and patterns including Stainless Steel for Handrails Railingsand hardness when cold worked For example if one perforations knitting weaving and cutting and Barrier cut or shear a piece of carbon steel 040 inches in expanding the material Stainless can be colored by The Care and Cleaning of Stainless Steelthickness then the equipment used to cut will only be coloring sputtering plating and by Stainless Steel in Water Handling Delivery Systemsable to shear a piece of stainless steel 020 inches in using resinbased paints Stainless Steel for Structural Every time a piece of stainless steel is bent For further information please refer to the SSINA Stainless Steel for Superior Fire Heat Resistanceor a saw blade passes over the surface the material publication Special Finishes for Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Rebar for Construction increase in hardness and become stiffer Stainless Stainless Steel The Green Materialsteels also tend to springback after being bent to a AVAILABILITY Why Stainless Steelmuch greater extent than mild steel It is therefore Stainless steel is produced in North America by several Environmental Brochure on Stainless Steelnecessary to over bend stainless to obtain the desired companies A list with Web sites is provided on the Special Finishes for Stainless Steelbend Care in the shop is extremely important when back page Directory of Stainless Steel Products for stainless steel Care should be taken to Many Steel Service Centers stock and process the surface of the material plastic film is stainless steel For a partial list refer to the Sponsors Design Guidelines for the on certain finishes and should be left on listing on the back page For a complete listing of and Use of Stainless Steelduring processing Contact with carbon tools or steel service centers contact the Steel Service Center Stainless Steel for Residential equipment should be prevented as the Institute at 7738671300 or ssciorg Standard Practices for Stainless Steel steel can pickup carbon particles which will Flashing Copingslodge in the surface and subsequently will rust If you PRICE COMPARISONsee red rust on the surface of stainless steel it is Pricing of stainless steel has generally been below theprobably from some source of contamination such as CPI index for other metals and while dependent onthe use of a steel brush steel wool or the surface of the price of the main alloying elements such as nickelthe stainless steel was dragged over a carbon steel and chromium has not significantly increased in thesupport member past few yearsFor further information please refer to the SSINA Data provided by Stainless Steel Fabrication Price for Stainless Steel vs steel can be welded as easily as carbon steel 180 300 175 250but the process is different Stainless steel electrodes 170must be used and currents and cooling techniques are 165 200 CPInot the same 160 150For detailed information on welding stainless steel 155 100 SS Index 150please contact the American Welding Society 145 50 140 0 J 96 J 98 J 01 SOME TYPICAL APPLICATIONS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Roofing Flashings Wall ties for masonryThis primer has been developed by the Specialty Steel Industry of North Doors windows Entry ways SSINA to help the novice or lay person understand some of the Lobby walls ceilings and uses of stainless steel It is intended to be a beginning Food processing equipment Wine tanksin learning about stainless steel and is not particularly comprehensive SSINA Fast food equipment Hospital equipmenthas other publications that go into further detail on stainless steel They are Oil Gas processing equipment Petrochemical throughout this primer and a complete listing is provided at the end INDUSTRIAL Farm equipment Animal feeding equipmentof this publication Fertilizer manufacturing Aircraft parts Pumps and shafts Filters Chemical manufacturing Computer chip processing RESIDENTIAL Kitchen appliances Sinks counter tops Fireplace fronts liners BBQ grills outdoor kitchens Washer fronts and interior drums Furniture Cooking utensils Tableware MEDICAL Implants Hospital equipment Orthodontic fixtures Sutures Tools MARINE Boat hardware Propellers Safety lines Rigging Dock hardware
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