Fm5 125 1995 Rigging
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FM 5125 C1Change 1 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington DC 23 February 2001 Rigging Techniques Procedures and Applications1 Change FM 5125 3 October 1995 as follows Remove Old Pages Insert New Pages i through iv i through iv vii and viii vii and viii 115 through 120 115 through 121 237 through 240 237 through 2402 A bar marks new or changed material3 File this transmittal sheet in front of the RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimited ERIC K SHINSEKI General United States Army Chief of StaffOfficial JOEL B Assistant to the Secretary of the Army Army Army National Guard and US Army Reserve To be distributed in accordancewith the initial distribution number 115426 requirements for FM 5125 FM 5125Field Manual HeadquartersNo 5125 Department of the Army Washington DC 3 October 1995 Rigging Techniques Procedures and PageLIST OF FIGURES viiLIST OF TABLES xvPREFACE xviiChapter 1 Rope Section I Fiber Rope 11 Types of Fibers 11 Vegetable Fibers 11 Synthetic Fibers 13 of Fiber Rope 13 Size 13 Weight 13 Strength 13 Care of Fiber Rope 14 Handling of Fiber Rope 15 Inspection of Fiber Rope 16 Section II Wire Rope 16 Types of WireRope Cores 17 FiberRope Cores 17 Independent WireRope Cores 17 WireStrand Cores 17DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimitedThis manual supersedes TM 5725 3 October 1968 iC1 5125FM FM 5125 Page Classification of Wire Rope 17 Wire and Strand Combinations 17 Lay 17 of Wire Rope 19 Size 19 Weight 19 Strength 19 Care of Wire Rope 110 Reversing or Cutting Back Ends 111 Cleaning 111 Lubricating 111 Storing 111 Handling of Wire Rope 111 Kinking 112 Coiling 112 Unreeling 112 Seizing 112 Welding 114 Cutting 114 Drums and Sheaves 115 Inspection of Wire Rope 120 Procedures 120 Causes of Failure 121Chapter 2 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders Section I Knots Hitches and Lashings 21 Knots 22 Knots at the End of Rope 24 Knots for Joining Two Ropes 25 Knots for Making Loops 26 Knots for Tightening a Rope 212 Knots for Wire Rope 213 Hitches 217 Half Hitch 217 Two Half Hitches 217 Round Turn and Two Half Hitches 218 Timber Hitch 218 Timber Hitch and Half Hitch 218 Clove Hitch 218 ii C1 FM 5125 FM 5125 Page Rolling Hitch 218 Telegraph Hitch 219 Mooring Hitch 219 Scaffold Hitch 219 Blackwall Hitch 219 Harness Hitch 222 Girth Hitch 222 Sheepshank 223 Fishermans Bend 223 Lashings 224 Square Lashing 224 Shears Lashing 224 Block Lashing 226Section II Splices 226 FiberRope Splices 226 Short Splice 226 Eye or Side Splice 226 Long Splice 228 Crown or Back Splice 228 WireRope Splices 231 Short Splice 231 Eye or Side Splice 231 Long Splice 232Section III Attachments 234 End Fittings 235 Clips 235 Clamps 237 Wedge Socket 237 BasketSocket End Fitting 237 Poured Method 237 Stanchions 240Section IV Rope Ladders 241 Hanging Ladders 241 WireRope Ladders 241 FiberRope Ladders 243 Standoff Ladders 245 iiiFM 5125 PageChapter 3 Hoists Section I Chains and Hooks 31 Chains 31 Strength of Chains 32 Care of Chains 32 Hooks 33 Strength of Hooks 33 Mousing of Hooks 33 Inspection of Chains and Hooks 34 Section II Slings 35 Types of Slings 35 Endless Slings 35 Single Slings 36 Combination Slings 37 Pallets 38 Spreaders 38 Stresses 39 Inspecting and Cushioning Slings 39 Section III Blocks and Tackle Systems 314 Blocks 314 Types of Blocks 314 Reeving of Blocks 316 Tackle Systems 318 Simple Tackle Systems 318 Compound Tackle Systems 318 Friction 320 Section IV Chain Hoists and Winches 322 Chain Hoists 322 Types of Chain Hoists 322 Load Capacity 323 Winches 324 Ground Angle 324 Fleet Angle 324 Spanish Windlass 325 iv C1 FM 5125 List of Figures PageFigure 11 Cordage of rope construction l2Figure 12 Uncoiling and coiling rope 15Figure 13 Elements of wirerope construction 16Figure 14 Arrangement of strands in wire rope 18Figure 15 Wirerope lays 18Figure 16 Measuring wire rope 19Figure 17 Kinking in wire rope 112Figure 18 Unreeling wire rope 113Figure 19 Uncoiling wire rope 113Figure 110 Seizing wire rope 114Figure 111 Wirerope cutter 115Figure 112 Avoiding reverse bends in wire rope 117Figure 113 Spooling wire rope from reel to drum 117Figure 114 Determining starting flange of wire rope 118Figure 115 Winding wirerope layers on a drum 119Figure 116 Lay length 120Figure 117 Unserviceable wire rope 121Figure 21 Elements of knots bends and hitches 21Figure 22 Whipping the end of a rope 23Figure 23 Overhand knot 24Figure 24 Figureeight knot 24Figure 25 Wall knot 25Figure 26 Crown on a wall knot 26Figure 27 Square knot 27Figure 28 Single sheet bend 27Figure 29 Double sheet bend 28Figure 210 Carrick bend 28Figure 211 Bowline 29Figure 212 Double bowline 210 viiFM 5125 PageFigure 213 Running bowline 210Figure 214 Bowline on a bight 211Figure 215 Spanish bowline 212Figure 216 French bowline 212Figure 217 Speir knot 213Figure 218 Catspaw 213Figure 219 Figure eight with an extra turn 214Figure 220 Butterfly knot 214Figure 221 Baker bowline 215Figure 222 Half hitches 217Figure 223 Round turn and two half hitches 218Figure 224 Timber hitch 218Figure 225 Timber hitch and half hitch 218Figure 226 Clove hitch 219Figure 227 Rolling hitch 220Figure 228 Telegraph hitch 220Figure 229 Mooring hitch 221Figure 230 Scaffold hitch 221Figure 231 Blackwall hitch 222Figure 232 Harness hitch 222Figure 233 Girth hitch 223Figure 234 Sheepshank 223Figure 235 Fishermans bend 224Figure 236 Square lashing 225Figure 237 Shears lashing 225Figure 238 Block lashing 226Figure 239 Renewing rope strands 227Figure 240 Short splice for fiber rope 227Figure 241 Eye or side splice for fiber rope 228Figure 242 Long splice for fiber rope 229Figure 243 Crown or back splice for fiber rope 230Figure 244 Tools for wire splicing 232Figure 245 Tucking wirerope strands 232Figure 246 Eye splice with thimble for wire rope 233Figure 247 Hasty eye splice for wire rope 233 viii FM 5125 Wire rope cutter Blade Seizings Figure 111 Wirerope cutterthe two central seizings Push the blade other in addition to bending Keep thisdown against the wire rope and strike the bending and moving of wires to a minimumtop of the blade sharply with a sledge ham to reduce wear If the sheave or drummer several times Use the bolt clippers on diameter is sufficiently large the loss ofwire rope of fairly small diameter however strength due to bending wire rope arounduse an oxyacetylene torch on wire rope of it will be about 5 or 6 percent In all casesany diameter The hacksaw and cold chisel keep the speed of the rope over the sheavesare slower methods of cutting or drum as slow as is consistent with effi cient work to decrease wear on the rope It DRUMS AND SHEAVES is impossible to give an absolute minimumThe size and location of the sheaves and size for each sheave or drum since a numdrums about which wire rope operates and ber of factors enter into this decision Howthe speed with which the rope passes over ever Table 14 page 116 shows thethe sheaves have a definite effect on the minimum recommended sheave and drumropes strength and service life diameters for several wirerope sizes The sheave diameter always should be as large as possible and except for very flexible Size rope never less than 20 times the wireEach time wire rope is bent the individual rope dia meter This figure has beenstrands must move with respect to each adopted widely Rope 115C15125FM FM 5125 Table 14 Minimum tread diameter of drums and sheaves Rope Minimum Tread Diameter for Given Rope Diameter Construction inches inches 6x7 6 x 19 6 x 37 8 x 19 14 10 12 8 12 6 12 38 15 34 12 34 6 34 9 34 12 21 17 9 13 58 26 14 21 14 11 14 16 14 34 31 12 25 12 13 12 19 12 78 36 34 29 34 15 34 22 34 1 42 34 18 26 1 18 47 14 38 14 20 14 29 14 1 14 52 12 42 12 22 12 32 12 1 12 63 51 27 39 Rope construction is strands and wires per strand Location in smooth layers Overlapping results in binding causing snatches on the line whenYou should reeve the drums sheaves andblocks used with wire rope and place them the rope is unwound To produce smooth layin a manner to avoid reverse bends when ers start the rope against one flange of theever possible see Figure 112 A reverse drum and keep tension on the line whilebend occurs when rope bends in one direc winding Start the rope against the right ortion around one block drum or sheave and left flange as necessary to match the direcbends in the opposite direction around the tion of winding so that when it is rewoundnext This causes the individual wires and on the drum the rope will curve in t h estrands to do an unnecessary amount of same manner as when it left the reel seeshifting which increases wear Where you Figure 113 A convenient method for determust use a reverse bend the block sheave mining the proper flange of the drum foror drum causing the reversal should be of starting the rope is known as the hand rulelarger diameter t h a n o r d i n a r i l y u s e d see Figure 114 page 118 The extendedSpace the bend as far apart as possible sothere will be more time allowed between index finger in this figure points at the onthe bending motions winding rope The turns of the rope are wound on the drum close together to prevent the possibility of crushing and abrasion of Winding the rope while it is winding and to preventDo not overlap wirerope turns when wind binding or snatching when it is unwound Ifing them on the drum of a winch wrap them ne ce ssa r y use a wood stick to force the116 Rope C1 FM FM5125 5125 Block Drum Drum Block 1 2 INCORRECT Block Drum Drum Block 3 4 CORRECTFigure 112 Avoiding reverse bends in wire rope Reel Drum Reel DrumFigure 113 Spooling wire rope from reel to drum Rope 117C15125FM FM 5125 For rightlay rope For leftlay rope use right hand use left hand For overwind on drum For underwind on drum For overwind on drum For underwind on drum The palm is down The palm is up facing The palm is down The palm is up facing facing the drum the drum facing the drum the drum The index finger points The index finger points The index finger points The index finger points at onwinding rope at onwinding rope at onwinding rope at onwinding rope The index finger must The index finger must The index finger must The index finger must be closest to the be closest to the be closest to the be closest to the leftside flange rightside flange rightside flange leftside flange The wind of the rope The wind of the rope The wind of the rope The wind of the rope must be from left to must be from right to must be from right to must be from left to right along the drum left along the drum left along the drum right along the drum If a smoothface drum has been cut or scored by an old rope the methods shown may not apply Figure 114 Determining starting flange of wire ropeturns closer together Striking the wire with layer however cross each turn of the ropea hammer or other metal object damages in the second layer over two turns of thethe individual wires in the rope If possi first layer see Figure 115 Wind the thirdb l e w i n d o n l y a si n g l e l a y e r o f w i r e layer in the grooves of the second layerrope on the drum Where it is necessary to however each turn of the rope will crosswind additional layers wind them so as over two turns of the second layerto eliminate the binding Wind the secondlayer of turns over the first layer by placingthe wire in the grooves formed by the first118 Rope C1 FM FM 5125 5125 Crossover two turns Crossover to of the second layersecond groove Turn back and first Five turns on Starting third layer crossover for second layer second layer Figure 115 Winding wirerope layers on a drum Rope 119C1 5125FM FM 5125 INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPEInspect wire rope frequently Replace Replace the wire rope when 125 perfrayed kinked worn or corroded rope The cent of the total rope wires are of inspection is determined by in one strand in one laythe amount of use A rope that is used 1 or2 hours a week requires less frequent inspec Replace wire rope with 200 or moretion than one that is used 24 hours a day wires 6 x 37 class when the surface wires show flat wear spots equal in width to 80 percent of the diameter of PROCEDURES the wires On wire rope with inspect the weak points in rope and fewer total wires 6 x 7 7 x 7 7 xand the points where the greatest stress 19 replace it when the flat wear spotoccurs Worn spots will show up as shiny width is 50 percent of the wire diameflattened spots on the wires terInspect broken wires to determine whether Replace the wire if it is kinked or ifit is a single broken wire or several wires there is evidence of a popped core orRope is unsafe if broken wire strands protruding from the core strand See Figure 117 Individual wires are broken next to one another causing unequal load dis Replace the wire rope if there is evi tribution at this point dence of an electrical arc strike or other thermal damage or crushing Replace the wire rope when 25 per damage cent of the total rope wires are broken in the length of one lay which is the Replace the wire rope if there is evi length along the rope that a strand dence of birdcage damage due to makes one complete spiral around the shock unloading See Figure 117 rope core See Figure 116 One lay Figure 116 Lay length120 Rope C1 FM FM 5125 5125 Popped core Birdcage Figure 117 Unserviceable wire rope CAUSES OF FAILURE Overwinding or crosswinding it on drumsWire rope failure is commonly caused by Operating it over drums and sheaves Sizing constructing or grading it that are out of alignment incorrectly Permitting it to jump sheaves Allowing it to drag over obstacles Subjecting it to moisture or acid Lubricating it improperly fumes Operating it over drums and sheaves Permitting it to untwist of inadequate size Kinking Rope 121 C1FM FM5125 5125after applying the working load and at frequent intervals thereafter Retightening isnecessary to compensate for the decrease inrope diameter that occurs when the strandsadjust to the lengthwise strain caused by theload Position the clips so that they areimmediately accessible for inspection andmaintenance CLAMPSA wire clamp can be used with or without athimble to make an eye in wire rope see Figure 251 Ordinarily use a clamp to makean eye without a thimble It has about 90percent of the strength of the rope Tightenthe two end collars with wrenches to forcethe clamp to a good snug fit This crushesthe pieces of rope firmly against each other Figure 251 Wirerope clamps WEDGE SOCKETUse a wedgesocket end fitting when it is tapered socket The loop of wire rope mustnecessary to change the fitting at frequent be inserted in the wedge socket so that theintervals see Figure 252 page 238 The standing part of the wire rope will form aefficiency is about twothirds of the strength nearly direct line to the clevis pin of the fitof the rope It is made in two parts The ting A properly installed wedgesocket consocket itself has a tapered opening for the nection will tighten when a strain is placedwire rope and a small wedge to go into this on the wire rope BASKETSOCKET END FITTINGThe basketsocket end fittings include closed POURED METHODsockets open sockets and bridge sockets The poured basket socket is the most satissee Figure 253 page 238 This socket is factory method in use see Figure 254 pageordinarily attached to the end of the rope 239 If the socketing is properly done awith molten zinc and is a permanent end wire rope when tested to destruction willrifting If this fitting is properly made up itis as strong as the rope itself In all cases break before it will pull out from the socketthe wire rope should lead from the socket inline with the axis of the socket WARNING Never use babbitt lead or dry method to attach a basket socket end fitting Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 237C15125FM FM 5125Live end Add clamp and Live end short cable Dead splice end Dead 6 to 9 times end diameter Entering wrong side Not long enough READYTOUSE CAUTION RIGHT Never clamp the live end to the dead WRONG end Add the clamp and the short cable splice to the dead end as shown above Figure 252 Wedge socket Wedge Bridge Open Closed socket socket socket socket Figure 253 Basketsocket end fittings238 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders C1FM FM5125 5125 Spread the wires in each strand Unlay the strands equal to the length of the socket 1 Pour in molten zinc Pull the rope into the socket Place putty or clay here 2 3Figure 254 Attaching basket sockets by pouring Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 239C1 FM 5125FM 5125 DRY METHOD method see Figure 255 The strength of the connection must be assumed to beThe dry method should be used only when reduced to about onesixth of the are not available for the poured of a poured zinc connection STANCHIONSThe standard pipe stanchion is made up of a modifying it for a suspended walkway1inch diameter pipe see Figure 256 Each that uses two wire ropes on each sidestanchion is 40 inches long Two 34inch However for handlines remove or leavewirerope clips are fastened through holes in off the lower wirerope clip For more inforthe pipe with the centers of the clips 36 mation on types and uses of apart Use this stanchion without see TM 5270240 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Field Manual HeadquartersNo 5125 Department of the Army Washington DC 3 October RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimitedThis publication supersedes TM 5725 3 October 1968 iFM 5125 ii FM 5125iiiFM 5125 iv FM 5125vFM 5125 vi FM 5125List of Figures viiFM 5125 viii FM 5125ixFM 5125 x FM 5125xiFM 5125 List of Tables xii FM 5125 PrefaceThis manual is a guide and basic reference for personnel whose duties require the use of rigging It is intended for use in training and as a reference manual for field operations It covers the types of rigging and the application of fiber rope wire rope and chains used invarious combinations to raise or move heavy loads It includes basic instructions on knotshitches splices lashing and tackle systems Safety precautions and requirements for thevarious operations are listed as well as rules of thumb for rapid safeload material contained herein is applicable to both nuclear and nonnuclear warfareThe proponent for this publication is Headquarters HQ United States US Army Training and Doctrine Command TRADOC Users of this manual are encouraged to submit recommended changes or comments on Department of the Army DA Form 2028 and forwardthem to Commandant US Army Engineer School ATTN ATSETPDP Fort LeonardWood Missouri otherwise stated masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men xiii FM 5125 CHAPTER 1 Rope Section 1 Fiber RopeIn the fabrication of fiber rope a number in the opposite direction puts the rope inof fibers of various plants are twisted balance and prevents its elements fromtogether to form yarns These yarns are unlaying when a load is suspended on itthen twisted together in the opposite direc The principal type of fiber rope is thetion of the fibers to form strands see Figure threestrand right lay in which three11 page 12 The strands are twisted in strands are twisted in a righthand directhe opposite direction of the yarns to form tion Fourstrand ropes which are alsothe completed rope The direction of twist of available are slightly heavier but areeach element of the rope is known as the weaker than threestrand ropes of thelay of that element Twisting each element same diameter TYPES OF FIBERSThe term cordage is applied collectively to Manilaropes and twines made by twisting together This is a strong fiber that comes from thevegetable or synthetic fibers leaf stems of the stalk of the abaca plant which belongs to the banana family The VEGETABLE FIBERS fibers vary in length from 12 to 45 metersThe principal vegetable fibers are abaca 4 to 15 feet in the natural states Theknown as Manila sisalana and henequen quality of the fiber and its length giveboth known as sisal hemp and some Manila rope relatively high coir cotton and jute The last three strength and resistance to wear and deteare relatively unimportant in the heavy rioration The manufacturer treats the rope with chemicals to make it more milcordage field dew resistant which increases the ropesAbaca sisalana and henequen are classi quality Manila rope is generally the stanfied as hard fibers The comparative dard item of issue because of its of the vegetable fibers consider and relative strengthing abaca as 100 are as follows Sisalana 80 Sisal Henequen 65 Sisal rope is made from two tropical plants sisalana and henequen that pro Hemp 100 duce fibers 06 to 12 meters 2 to 4 feet Rope 11FM 5125long Sisalana produces the stronger fibers yarn Since hemp absorbs much betterof the two plants so the rope is known as than the hard fibers these fittings aresisal Sisal rope is about 80 percent as invariably tarred to make them morestrong as high quality Manila rope and can waterresistant Tarred hemp has aboutbe easily obtained It withstands exposure 80 percent of the strength of untarredto sea water very well and is often used for hemp Of these tarred fittings marline isthis reason the standard item of issue Hemp Coir and CottonThis tall plant is cultivated in many parts of Coir rope is made from the fiber of coconutthe world and provides useful fibers for husks It is a very elastic rough ropemaking rope and cloth Hemp was used about onefourth the strength of hemp butextensively before the introduction of light enough to float on water CottonManila but its principal use today is in fit makes a very smooth white rope that withtings such as ratline marline and spun stands much bending and running These12 Rope FM 5125two types of rope are not widely used in the SYNTHETIC FIBERSmilitary however cotton is used in somecases for very small lines The principal synthetic fiber used for rope is nylon It has a tensile strength nearly three times that of Manila The advantage Jute of using nylon rope is that it is waterproofJute is the glossy fiber of either of two East and has the ability to stretch absorbIndian plants of the linden family used shocks and resume normal length It alsochiefly for sacking burlap and cheaper vari resists abrasion rot decay and funguseties of twine and rope growth OF FIBER ROPEFiber rope is characterized by its size the SWC of rope divide the BS by a factorweight and strength of safety FS SWC BSFS SIZE A new linch diameter Number 1 ManilaFiber rope is designated by diameter up to rope has a BS of 9000 pounds see58 inch then it is designated by circumfer Table 11 To determine the ropes SWCence up to 12 inches or more For this rea divide its BS 9000 pounds by a minimumson most tables give both the diameter and standard FS of 4 The result is a SWC of fiber rope 2250 pounds This means that you can safely apply 2250 pounds of tension to the new linch diameter Number 1 Manila WEIGHT rope in normal use Always use a FSThe weight of rope varies with use weather because the BS of rope becomes added preservatives and other after use and exposure to weather condifactors Table 11 page 14 lists the weight tions In addition a FS is required becauseof new fiber rope of shock loading knots sharp bends and other stresses that rope may have to with stand during its use Some of these STRENGTH stresses reduce the strength of rope asTable 11 lists some of the properties of much as 50 percent If tables are not availManila and sisal rope including the break able you can closely approximate the SWCing strength B S which is the greatest by a rule of thumb The rule of thumb for the SWC in tons for fiber rope is equal tostress that a material is capable of with the square of the rope diameter D instanding without rupture The table shows inchesthat the minimum BS is considerably 2greater than the safe load or the safe work SWC Ding capacity SWC This is the maximum The SWC in tons of a l2inch diameterload that can safely be applied to a particu fiber rope would be 12 inch squared or 14lar type of rope The difference is caused by ton The rule of thumb allows a FS ofthe application of a safety factor To obtain about 4 Rope 13FM 5125 CARE OF FIBER ROPEThe strength and useful life of fiber rope is grit between the fibers cuts them andshortened considerably by improper care reduces the ropes strengthTo prolong its life and strength observe the Slacken taut lines before they arefollowing guidelines exposed to rain or dampness because Ensure that it is dry and then stored in a wet rope shrinks and may break a cool dry place This reduces the pos Thaw a frozen rope completely before sibility of mildew and rotting using it otherwise the frozen fibers will break as they resist bending Coil it on a spool or hang it from pegs in a way that allows air circulation Avoid exposure to excessive heat and fumes of chemicals heat or boiling Avoid dragging it through sand or dirt water decreases rope strength about or pulling it over sharp edges Sand or 20 percent14 Rope FM 5125 HANDLING OF FIBER ROPENew rope is coiled bound and wrapped in the end of the rope This should be at theburlap The protective covering should not bottom of the coil see Figure 12 If it isbe removed until the rope is to be used This not turn the coil over so the end is at theprotects it during storage and prevents tan bottom Pull the end up through the centergling To open the new rope strip off the of the coil As the rope comes up it unwindsburlap wrapping and look inside the coil for in a direction Rope 15FM 5125 INSPECTION OF FIBER ROPEThe outside appearance of fiber rope is not or broken yarns ordinarily are easy to idenalways a good indication of its internal con tify Dirt and sawdustlike material inside adition Rope softens with use Dampness rope caused by chafing indicate damageheavy strain fraying and breaking of In rope having a central core the corestrands and chafing on rough edges all should not break away in small pieces whenweaken it considerably Overloading rope examined If it does this is an indicationmay cause it to break with possible heavy that a rope has been to material and serious injury to If a rope appears to be satisfactory in allpersonnel For this reason inspect it care other respects pull out two fibers and try tofully at regular intervals to determine its break them Sound fibers should offer concondition Untwist the strands slightly to siderable resistance to breakage When youopen a rope so that you can examine the find unsatisfactory conditions destroy ainside Mildewed rope has a musty odor rope or cut it up in short pieces to preventand the inner fibers of the strands have a its being used in hoisting You can use thedark stained appearance Broken strands short pieces for other purposes Section II Wire RopeThe basic element of wire rope is the individ usually wound or laid together in the oppositeual wire which is made of steel or iron in vari direction of the lay of the strands Strandsous sizes Wires are laid together to form are then wound around a central core thatstrands and strands are laid together to form supports and maintains the position ofrope see Figure 13 Individual wires are strands during bending and load stresses16 Rope FM 5125In some wire ropes the wires and strands completed rope As a result preformed wireare preformed Preforming is a method of rope does not contain the internal the wires in the strands and the found in the nonpreformed wire rope therestrands in the rope into the permanent heli fore it does not untwist as easily and iscal or corkscrew form they will have in the more flexible than nonpreformed wire rope TYPES OF WIRE ROPE CORESThe core of wire rope may be constructed of of the core and distortion of the rope strandfiber rope independent wire rope or a wire Furthermore if the rope is subjected tostrand excessive heat the vegetable or synthetic fibers may be damaged FIBERROPE CORES INDEPENDENT WIREROPE CORESThe fiberrope core can be of vegetable orsynthetic fibers It is treated with a special Under severe conditions an that helps keep wire rope lubri wirerope core is normally used This iscated internally Under tension wire rope actually a separate smaller wire rope thatcontracts forcing the lubricant from the core acts as a core and adds strength to the ropeinto the rope This type of core also acts as acushion for the strands when they are under WIRESTRAND CORESstress preventing internal crushing of individual wires The limitations of fiberrope A wirestrand core consists of a singlecores are reached when pressure such as strand that is of the same or a more on the drum results in the collapse construction than the main rope strands CLASSIFICATION OF WIRE ROPEWire rope is classified by the number of rope because many inner strands are prostrands the number of wires per strand the tected from abrasion by the outer strandsstrand construction and the type of lay The stiffest and strongest type for general use is the 6by19 rope It may be used over WIRE AND STRAND COMBINATIONS sheaves of large diameter if the speed is kept to moderate levels It is not suitableWire and strand combinations vary accord for rapid operation or for use over smalling to the purpose for which a rope is sheaves because of its stiffness The 6by7intended see Figure 14 page 18 Rope wire rope is the least flexible of the stanwith smaller and more numerous wires dard rope constructions It can withstandis more flexible however it is less resistant abrasive wear because of the large outerto external abrasion Rope made up of a wiressmaller number of larger wires is more resistant to external abrasion but is less flexible LAYThe 6by37 wire rope 6 strands each madeup of 37 wires is the most flexible of the Lay refers to the direction of winding ofstandard sixstrand ropes This flexibility wires in strands and strands in rope seeallows it to be used with small drums and Figure 15 page 18 Both may be wound insheaves such as on cranes It is a very efficient the same direction or they may be wound in Rope 17FM 5125 the supported load such as in drill rods and tubes for deepwell drilling Lang Lay In lang lay strands and wires are wound in the same direction Because of the greater length of exposed wires lang lay assures longer abrasion resistance of wires less radial pressure on small diameter sheaves or drums by rope and less binding stresses in wire than in regular lay wire rope Disad vantages of lang lay are its tendencies to kink and unlay or open up the directions The three types of rope which makes it undesirable for use wherelays are grit dust and moisture are present The standard direction of lang lay is right Regular strands and wires wound right although it Lang also comes in left lay strands and wires wound left Reverse Reverse Lay Regular Lay In reverse lay the wires of any strand areIn regular lay strands and wires are wound wound in the opposite direction of the wiresin opposite directions The most common lay in the adjacent strands Reverse lay appliesin wire rope is right regular lay strands to ropes in which the strands are alternately regular lay and lang lay The use of reversewound right wires wound left Left regular lay rope is usually limited to certain types oflay strands wound left wires wound right conveyors The standard direction of lay isis used where the untwisting rotation of the right strands wound right as it is for bothrope counteracts the unscrewing forces in regularlay and langlay ropes18 Rope FM 5125 OF WIRE ROPEWire rope is characterized by its size of safety must be provided when applying aweight and strength load to a wire rope the BS is divided by an appropriate FS to obtain the SWC for that SIZE particular type of service see Table 13 page 111The size of wire rope is designated by itsdiameter in inches To determine the size of You should use the FS given in Table 13 ina wire rope measure its greatest diameter all cases where rope will be in service for asee Figure 16 considerable time As a rule of thumb you can square the diameter of wire rope in WEIGHT inches and multiply by 8 to obtain the SWC in tonsThe weight of wire rope varies with the size 2and the type of construction No rule of SWC 8Dthumb can be given for determining the A value obtained in this manner will notweight Approximate weights for certain always agree with the FS given in Table 13sizes are given in Table 12 page 110 The table is more accurate The proper FS depends not only on loads applied but also STRENGTH on theThe strength of wire rope is determined by Speed of the operationits size and grade and the method of fabrica Type of fittings used for securing thetion The individual wires may be made of rope endsvarious materials including traction steelmild plow steel MPS improved plow steel Acceleration and and extra IPS Since a suitable margin Length of the rope Rope 19FM 5125 Number size and location of sheaves Possible loss of life and property if the and drums rope fails Factors causing abrasion and corrosion Table 12 shows comparative BS of typical Facilities for inspection wire ropes CARE OF WIRE ROPECaring for wire rope properly includes and storing it When working with wirereversing the ends and cleaning lubricating rope you should wear work gloves110 Rope FM 5125 on a used wire rope Remove rust at regu lar intervals by using a wire brush Always clean the rope carefully just before lubricat ing it The object of cleaning at that time is to remove all foreign material and old lubricant from the valleys between the strands and from the spaces between the outer wires to permit the newly applied lubricant free entrance into the rope LUBRICATING At the time of fabrication a lubricant is applied to wire rope However this lubri cant generally does not last throughout the life of the rope which makes relubrication necessary To lubricate use a good grade of oil or grease It should be free of acids and REVERSING OR CUTTING BACK ENDS alkalis and should be light enough to pene trate between the wires and strands BrushTo obtain increased service from wire rope the lubricant on or apply it by passing theit is sometimes advisable to either reverse or rope through a trough or box containing thecut back the ends Reversing the ends is lubricant Apply it as uniformly as possiblemore satisfactory because frequently the throughout the length of the ropewear and fatigue on rope are more severe atcertain points than at others To reverse theends detach the drum end of the rope from STORINGthe drum remove the rope from the endattachment and place the drum end of the If wire rope is to be stored for any length ofrope in the end attachment Then fasten the time you should always clean and lubriend that you removed from the end attach cate it first If you apply the lubricant propment to the drum Cutting back the end has erly and store the wire in a place that isa similar effect but there is not as much protected from the weather and from chemchange involved Cut a short length off the icals and fumes corrosion will be virtuallyend of the rope and place the new end in the eliminated Although the effects of rustingfitting thus removing the section that has and corrosion of the wires and the greatest local fatigue of the fiber core are difficult to estimate it is certain that they will sharply decrease CLEANING the strength of the rope Before or steaming will remove most of coil the rope on a spool and tag it properlythe dirt or grit that may have accumulated as to size and length HANDLING OF WIRE ROPEHandling wire rope may involve kinking coil handling wire rope you should wearing unreeling seizing welding cutting work glovesor the use of drums and sheaves When Rope 111FM 5125 KINKING UNREELINGWhen handling loose wire rope small loops When removing wire rope from a reel orfrequently form in the slack portion see Fig coil it is imperative that the reel or coilure 17 If you apply tension while these rotate as the rope unwinds Mount the reelloops are in position they will not as shown in Figure 18 Then pull the ropestraighten out but will form sharp kinks from the reel by holding the end of the roperesulting in unlaying of the rope Youshould straighten out all of these loops and walking away from the reel whichbefore applying a load After a kink has rotates as the rope unwinds If wire rope isformed in wire rope it is impossible to in a small coil stand the coil on end and rollremove it Since the strength of the rope is it along the ground see Figure 19 If loopsseriously damaged at the point where a kink form in the wire rope carefully removeoccurs cut out that portion before using the them before they form kinksrope again SEIZING COILING Seizing is the most satisfactory method ofSmall loops or twists will form if rope is binding the end of a wire rope althoughbeing wound into the coil in a direction that welding will also hold the ends together satis opposite to the lay Coil leftlay wire rope isfactorily The seizing will last as long asin a direction and rightlay wire rope in a clockwise direction desired and there is no danger of weaken ing the wire through the application of heat Wire rope is seized as shown in Figure 110 page 114 There are three convenient rules for determining the number of seizings lengths and space between seizings In each case when the calculation results in a fraction use the next larger whole num ber The following calculations are based on a 4inch diameter wire rope The number of seizings to be applied equals approximately three times the diameter of the rope number of seiz ings SD Example 3 x 34 D 2 14 Use 3 seizings Each seizing should be 1 to 1 12 times as long as the diameter of the rope length of seizing 1 12D The seizings should be spaced a dis tance apart equal to twice the diameter spacing 2D Example 2 x 34 D 1 12 Use 2inch spaces112 Rope FM 5125Rope 113FM 5125 Note Always change the fraction apply more heat than is essential to fuse the to the next larger whole number metal WELDING CUTTINGYou can bind wirerope ends together by fus You can cut wire rope with a wirerope cuting or welding the wires This is a satisfac ter a cold chisel a hacksaw bolt clippers ortory method if you do it carefully as it does an oxyacetylene cutting torch see Figurenot increase the size of the rope and requires 111 Before cutting wire rope tightly bindlittle time to complete Before welding rope the strands to prevent unlaying Secure thecut a short piece of the core out of the end so ends that are to be cut by seizing or weldingthat a clean weld will result and the core them To use the wirerope cutter insertwill not be burned deep into the rope Keep the wire rope in the bottom of the cutterthe area heated to a minimum and do not with the blade of the cutter coming between114 Rope FM 5125the two central seizings Push the blade other in addition to bending Keep thisdown against the wire rope and strike the bending and moving of wires to a minimumtop of the blade sharply with a sledge ham to reduce wear If the sheave or drummer several times Use the bolt clippers on diameter is sufficiently large the loss ofwire rope of fairly small diameter however strength due to bending wire rope arounduse an oxyacetylene torch on wire rope of it will be about 5 or 6 percent In all casesany diameter The hacksaw and cold chisel keep the speed of the rope over the sheavesare slower methods of cutting or drum as slow as is consistent with effi cient work to decrease wear on the rope It DRUMS AND SHEAVES is impossible to give an absolute minimum size for each sheave or drum since a numThe size and location of the sheaves anddrums about which wire rope operates and ber of factors enter into this decision Howthe speed with which the rope passes over ever Table 14 page 116 shows thethe sheaves have a definite effect on the minimum recommended sheave and drumropes strength and service life diameters for several wirerope sizes The sheave diameter always should be as large as possible and except for very flexible Size rope never less than 20 times the wireEach time wire rope is bent the individual rope diameter This figure has beenstrands must move with respect to each adopted widely Rope 115FM 5125 Location in smooth layers Overlapping results inYou should reeve the drums sheaves and binding causing snatches on the line whenblocks used with wire rope and place them the rope is unwound To produce smooth layin a manner to avoid reverse bends when ers start the rope against one flange of theever possible see Figure 112 A reverse drum and keep tension on the line when rope bends in one direc winding Start the rope against the right ortion around one block drum or sheave and left flange as necessary to match the direcbends in the opposite direction around the tion of winding so that when it is rewoundnext This causes the individual wires and on the drum the rope will curve in thestrands to do an unnecessary amount of same manner as when it left the reelshifting which increases wear Where you see Figure 113 page 118 A convenientmust use a reverse bend the block sheave method for determining the proper flange ofor drum causing the reversal should be of the drum for starting the rope is known aslarger diameter than ordinarily used the hand rule see Figure 114 page 119Space the bend as far apart as possible sothere will be more time allowed between The extended index finger in this figurethe bending motions points at the onwinding rope The turns of the rope are wound on the drum close together to prevent the possibility of crush Winding ing and abrasion of the rope while it is windDo not overlap wirerope turns when wind ing and to prevent binding or snatchinging them on the drum of a winch wrap them when it is unwound If necessary use a116 Rope FM 5125wood stick be to force the turns closer wire in the grooves formed by the firsttogether Striking the wire with a hammer layer however cross each turn of the ropeor other metal object damages the individ in the second layer over two turns of theual wires in the rope If possible wind first layer see Figure 115 page 120only a single layer of wire rope on the Wind the third layer in the grooves of thedrum Where it is necessary to wind addi second layer however each turn of thetional layers wind them so as to elimi rope will cross over two turns of the secondnate the binding Wind the second layer of layerturns over the first layer by placing the INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPEInspect wire rope frequently Replace the amount of use A rope that is used 1 orfrayed kinked worn or corroded rope The 2 hours a week requires less frequent of inspection is determined by tion than one that is used 24 hours a day Rope 117FM 5125 PROCEDURES another causing unequal load inspect the weak points in rope tion at this pointand the points where the greatest stress Four percent of the total number ofoccurs Worn spots will show up as shiny wires composing a type of wire rope areflattened spots on the wires If the outer found to be broken in one strand thewires have been reduced in diameter by one distance in which one strand makesfourth the worn spot is unsafe one complete turn around the ropeInspect broken wires to determine whether Three broken wires are found in oneit is a single broken wire or several wires strand of 6by7 rope if six brokenRope is unsafe if wires are found in one strand of 6by 19 rope or if nine broken wires are Individual wires are broken next to one found in one strand of 6by37 rope118 Rope FM 5125 CAUSES OF FAILURE Overwinding or crosswinding it onWire rope failure is commonly caused by drums Sizing constructing or grading it Operating it over drums and sheaves incorrectly that are out of alignment Allowing it to drag over obstacles Permitting it to jump sheaves Lubricating it improperly Subjecting it to moisture or acid fumes Operating it over drums and sheaves of Permitting it to untwist inadequate size Kinking Rope 119FM 5125120 Rope FM 5125 CHAPTER 2 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders Section I Knots Hitches and LashingsA study of the terminology pictured in Figure will aid in understanding the methods of21 and the definitions in Table 21 page 22 knotting presented in this section Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 21FM 5125The raw cut end of a rope has a tendency to the size of the rope The whipped end of auntwist and should always be knotted or fas rope will still thread through blocks ortened in some manner to prevent this other openings Before cutting a rope Whipping is one method of fas two whippings on the rope 1 or 2 inchestening the end of the rope to prevent apart and make the cut between the whipuntwisting see Figure 22 A rope is pings see Figure 22 This will prevent thewhipped by wrapping the end tightly with a cut ends from untwisting cord This method is particularly satis after they are cutfactory because there is very little increase in KNOTSA knot is an interlacement of the parts used as a stopper to prevent a rope fromof one or more flexible bodies such as cord passing through an openingage rope forming a lump It is also any tie or A good knot must be easy to tie must holdfastening formed with a rope including without slipping and must be easy tobends hitches and splices A knot is often untie The choice of the best knot bend or22 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 23FM 5125hitch to use depends largely on the job it the end of a rope from untwisting to form ahas to do In general knots can be classi knob at the end of a rope or to serve as afied into three groups They are part of another knot When tied at the end or standing part of a rope this knot prevents Knots at the end of a rope it from sliding through a block hole or Knots for joining two ropes another knot Use it also to increase a per sons grip on a rope This knot reduces the Knots for making loops strength of a straight rope by 55 percent KNOTS AT THE END OF ROPE FigureEight KnotKnots at the end of a rope fall into the fol Use the figureeight knot to form a largerlowing categories knot at the end of a rope than would be Overhand knot formed by an overhand knot see Figure 24 The knot prevents the end of the rope Figureeight knot from slipping through a fastening or loop in Wall knot another rope or from unreeving when reeved through blocks It is easy to untie Overhand Knot Wall KnotThe overhand knot is the most commonlyused and the simplest of all knots see Fig Use the wall knot with crown to preventure 23 Use an overhand knot to prevent the end of a rope from untwisting when an24 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125enlarged end is not objectionable see Figure KNOTS FOR JOINING TWO ROPES25 The wall knot also makes a desirableknot to prevent the end of the rope from slip Knots for joining two ropes fall into the folping through small openings as when using lowing categoriesrope handles on boxes Use either the crown Square knotor the wall knot separately to form semipermanent stopper knots tied with the end Single sheet bendstrands of a rope The wall knot will prevent Double sheet bendthe rope from untwisting but to make aneat round knob crown it see Figure 26 Carrick bendpage 26 Notice that in the wall knot theends come up through the bights causing Square Knotthe strands to lead forward In a crownknot the ends go down through the bights Use the square knot to tie two ropes ofand point backward equal size together so they will not slip see Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 25FM 5125Figure 27 Note that in the square knot Double Sheet Bendthe end and standing part of one rope come The double sheet bend has greater holdingout on the same side of the bight formed by power than the single sheet bend for joiningthe other rope The square knot will not ropes of equal or unequal diameter joininghold if the ropes are wet or if they are of dif wet ropes or tying a rope to an eye see Figferent sizes It tightens under strain but ure 29 page 28 It will not slip or drawcan be untied by grasping the ends of the tight under heavy loads This knot is moretwo bights and pulling the knot apart secure than the single sheet bend when used NOTE It makes no difference in a spliced eye whether the first crossing is tied leftoverright or rightoverleft as Carrick Bend long as the second crossing is tied opposite to the first crossing Use the carrick bend for heavy loads and for joining large hawsers or heavy rope see Fig ure 210 page 28 It will not draw tight Single Sheet Bend under a heavy load and can be untied easilyA single sheet bend sometimes called a if the ends are seized to their own knot has two major uses see Fig parture 28 They are Tying together two ropes of unequal KNOTS FOR MAKING LOOPS size Knots for making loops fall into the follow Tying a rope to an eye ing categoriesThis knot will draw tight but will loosen or Bowlineslip when the lines are slackened The sin Double bowlinegle sheet bend is stronger and unties easierthan the square knot Running bowline26 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 27FM 512528 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 Bowline on a bight ing two loops support his legs A notched Spanish bowline board that passes through the two loops makes a comfortable seat known as a boat French bowline swains chair This chair is discussed in the scaffolding section of this manual see Chap Speir knot ter 6 Catspaw Running Bowline Figure eight with an extra turn The running bowline forms a strong running loop see Figure 213 page 210 It is a con Bowline venient form of running an eye The runThe bowline is one of the most common ning bowline provides a sling of the chokerknots and has a variety of uses one of which type at the end of a single line Use it whenis the lowering of men and material see Fig tying a handline around an object at a pointure 211 It is the best knot for forming a that you cannot safely reach such as the endsingle loop that will not tighten or slip under of a limbstrain and can be untied easily if each running end is seized to its own standing part Bowline on a BightThe bowline forms a loop that may be of anylength This knot forms two nonslipping loops see Figure 214 page 211 You can use the bowline on a bight for the same purpose as a Double Bowline boatswains chair It does not leave both hands free but its twin nonslipping loopsThe double bowline forms three nonslipping form a comfortable seat Use it whenloops see Figure 212 page 210 Use thisknot to sling a man As he sits in the slings You need more strength than a singleone loop supports his back and the remain bowline will give Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 29FM 5125210 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 You need to form a loop at some point Spanish bowline in rescue work or to give a in a rope other than at the end twofold grip for lifting a pipe or other round objects in a sling You do not have access to the end of a rope French BowlineYou can easily untie the bowline on a bightand tie it at the end of a rope by doubling You can use the French bowline as a sling tothe rope for a short section lift injured men see Figure 216 page 212 When used for this purpose one loop is a seat and the other loop is put around the Spanish Bowline body under the arms The injured mans You can tie a Spanish bowline at any point weight keeps the two loops tight so that hein a rope either at a place where the line is cannot fall out It is particularly useful as adouble or at an end that has been doubled sling for an unconscious man Also use theback see Figure 215 page 212 Use the French bowline when working alone and you Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 211FM 5125need your hands free The two loops of this a onerope bridge across a small streamknot can be adjusted to the size required You can tie and untie it easily Speir Knot KNOTS FOR TIGHTENING A ROPEUse a speir knot when you need a fixed loop The types of knots used for tightening a ropea nonslip knot and a quick release see Fig are the butterfly knot and the baker bowure 217 You can tie this knot quickly and linerelease it by pulling on the running end Butterfly Knot Catspaw Use the butterfly knot is to pull taut a highUse a catspaw to fasten an endless sling to line handline tread rope for foot bridges ora hook or make it at the end of a rope to fas similar installations see Figure 220 pageten the rope to a hook see Figure 218 You 214 Using this knot provides the capabilcan tie or untie it easily This knot which is ity to tighten a fixed rope when a form of a hitch is a more satisfactory means are not available You can also useway of attaching a rope to a hook than the the harness hitch for this purpose see Figblackwall hitch It will not slip off and need ure 232 page 222 The butterfly knot willnot be kept taut to make it hold not jam if a stick is placed between the two upper loops Figure Eight With an Extra TurnUse a figure eight with an extra turn to Baker Bowlinetighten a rope see Figure 219 page 214 You can use the baker bowline for the sameThis knot is especially suitable for tightening purpose as the butterfly knot and for lashing cargo see Figure 221 pages 215 and 216212 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 When used to lash cargo secure one end with two half hitches pass the rope over the cargo and tie a baker bowline then secure the lashing with a slippery half hitch To release the rope simply pull on the running end Advantages of the baker bowline are that it can be Tied easily Adjusted without losing control Released quickly KNOTS FOR WIRE ROPE Under special circumstances when wire rope fittings are not available and it is nec essary to fasten wire rope by some other manner you can use certain knots In all knots made with wire rope fasten the running end of the rope to the standing part after tying the knot When wirerope clips are available use them to fasten the running end If clips are not available useKnots Splices Attachments and Ladders 213FM 5125214 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 215FM 5125 216 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125wire or strands of cordage Check all knots sive wear cut off a short length of the endin wire rope periodically for wear or signs of of the rope including the knot and tie abreakage If there is any reason to believe new knot Use the fishermans bend clovethat the knot has been subjected to exces hitch and carrick bend to fasten wire rope HITCHESA hitch is any of various knots used to form Sheepshanka temporary noose in a rope or to secure a Fishermans bendrope around a timber pipe or post so thatit will hold temporarily but can be readilyundone The types of hitches are as follows HALF HITCH Half hitch Use the half hitch to tie a rope to a timber or to a larger rope see Figure 222 A It Two half hitches will hold against a steady pull on the Round turn and two half hitches standing part of the rope however it is not a secure hitch You can use the half hitch Timber hitch to secure the free end of a rope and as an Timber hitch and half hitch aid to and the foundation of many knots For example it is the start of a timber Clove hitch hitch and a part of the fishermans knot It Rolling hitch also makes the rolling hitch more secure Telegraph hitch TWO HALF HITCHES Mooring hitch Two half hitches are especially useful for Scaffold hitch securing the running end of a rope to the Blackwall hitch standing part see Figure 222 B If the two hitches are slid together along the Harness hitch standing part to form a single knot the Girth hitch knot becomes a clove hitch Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 217FM 5125 ROUND TURN AND TWO HALF HITCHESAnother hitch used to fasten a rope to apole timber or spar is the round turn andtwo half hitches see Figure 223 Forgreater security seize the running end ofthe rope to the standing part This hitchdoes not jam TIMBER HITCHUse the timber hitch to move heavy timberor poles see Figure 224 It is excellent forsecuring a piece of lumber or similarobjects The pressure of the coils one overthe other holds the timber securely themore tension applied the tighter the hitchbecomes about the timber It will not slip CLOVE HITCHbut will readily loosen when the strain is The clove hitch is one of the most widelyrelieved used knots see Figure 226 page 219 You can use it to fasten a rope to a timber pipe TIMBER HITCH AND HALF HITCH or post You can also use it to make other knots This knot puts very little strain onA timber hitch and half hitch are combined the fibers when the rope is put around anto hold heavy timber or poles when they are object in one continuous direction You canbeing lifted or dragged see Figure 225 A tie a clove hitch at any point in a rope Iftimber hitch used alone may become untied there is not constant tension on the ropewhen the rope is slack or when a sudden another loop round of the rope around thestrain is put on it object and under the center of the clove hitch will permit a tightening and slacken ing motion of the rope ROLLING HITCH Use the rolling hitch to secure a rope to another rope or to fasten it to a pole or pipe218 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125so that the rope will not slip see Figure This hitch grips tightly and is easily227 page 220 This knot grips tightly but removedis easily moved along a rope or pole whenthe strain is relieved SCAFFOLD HITCH Use the scaffold hitch to support the end of a TELEGRAPH HITCH scaffold plank with a single rope see FigureThe telegraph hitch is a very useful and 230 page 221 It prevents the plank fromsecure hitch that you can use to hoist or haul tiltingposts and poles see Figure 228 page 220It is easy to tie and untie and will not slip BLACKWALL HITCH MOORING HITCH Use the blackwall hitch to fasten a rope to a hook see Figure 231 page 222 GenerUse the mooring hitch also called rolling or ally use it to attach a rope temporarily to amagnus hitch to fasten a rope around a hook or similar object in derrick work Themooring post or to attach a rope at a right hitch holds only when subjected to a conangle to a post see Figure 229 page 221 stant strain or when used in the middle of a Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 219FM 5125220 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 221FM 5125rope with both ends secured Human life The hitch is tied only in the middle of a ropeand breakable equipment should never be It will slip if only one end of the rope isentrusted to the blackwall hitch pulled HARNESS HITCH GIRTH HITCHThe harness hitch forms a nonslipping loop Use the girth hitch to tie suspender ropes toin a rope see Figure 232 It is often hand ropes when constructing expedient footemployed by putting an arm through the bridges see Figure 233 It is a simple andloop then placing the loop on the shoulder convenient hitch for many other uses ofand pulling the object attached to the rope ropes and cords222 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 SHEEPSHANK A sheepshank is a method of shortening a rope but you can use it to take the load off a weak spot in the rope see Figure 234 It is only a temporary knot unless the eyes are fastened to the standing part on each end FISHERMANS BEND The fishermans bend is an excellent knot for attaching a rope to a light anchor a ring or a rectangular piece of stone see Figure 2 35 page 224 You can use it to fasten a rope or cable to a ring or post Also use it where there will be a slackening and tight ening motion in the ropeKnots Splices Attachments and Ladders 223FM 5125 LASHINGSA lashing is as rope wire or chain used for SHEARS LASHINGbinding wrapping or fastening The types Use the shears lashing to lash two sparsof lashings include square shears and together at one end to form an expedientblock device called a shears see Figure 237 Do this by laying two spars side by side SQUARE LASHING spaced about onethird of the diameter of aUse the square lashing to lash two spars spar apart with the butt ends at right angles to each other see Start the shears lashing a short distance inFigure 236 To tie a square lashing begin from the top of one of the spars by tying thewith a clove hitch on one spar and make a end of the rope to it with a clove hitchminimum of four complete turns around Then make eight tight turns around bothboth members Continue with two frapping spars above the clove hitch Tighten theturns between the vertical and the horizon lashing with a minimum of two frappingtal spar to tighten the lashing Tie off the turns around the eight turns Finish therunning end to the opposite spar from shears lashing by tying the end of the ropewhich you started with another clove hitch to the opposite spar from which you startedto finish the square lashing with another clove hitch224 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 225FM 5125 BLOCK LASHINGUse the block lashing to tie a tackle block toa spar see Figure 238 First make threeright turns of the rope around the sparwhere the tackle block is to be attachedPass the next two turns of the rope throughthe mouth of the hook or shackle of thetackle block and drawn tightly Then putthree additional taut turns of the ropearound the spar above the hook or the block lashing by tying the twoends of the rope together with a squareknot When a sling is supported by a blocklashing pass the sling through the centerfour turns Section II is a method of joining fiber or wire The methods of making all four types ofrope by unlaying strands of both ends and splices are similar They generally these strands together The of the following basic stepsgeneral types of splices are Unlaying the strands of the rope A short splice Placing the rope ends together An eye or side splice A long splice Interweaving the strands and tucking them into the rope A crown or back splice FIBERROPE SPLICESWhen one strand of a rope is broken you short splice because a minimum repair it by tying the ends together in rope length takes place in making thebecause this would shorten the strand splice This splice is frequently used toRepair it by inserting a strand longer than repair damaged ropes when two ropes of thethe break and tying the ends together see same size are to be joined together permaFigure 239 nently Cut out the damaged parts of the rope and splice the sound sections SHORT SPLICEThe short splice is as strong as the rope in EYE OR SIDE SPLICEwhich it is made and will hold as much as a Use the eye or side splice to make a permalong splice see Figure 240 However the nent loop in the end of a rope see Figureshort splice causes an increase in the diame 241 page 228 You can use the loopster of the rope for a short distance and can made with or without a thimble to fastenbe used only where this increase in diameter the rope to a ring or hook Use a thimblewill not affect operations It is called the to reduce wear Use this splice also to splice226 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 227FM 5125one rope into the side of another As a per The ropes to be joined should be the samemanent loop or eye no knot can compare lay and as nearly the same diameter aswith this splice for neatness and efficiency possible LONG SPLICE CROWN OR BACK SPLICEUse the long splice when the larger diameter When you are splicing the end of a rope toof the short splice has an adverse effect on prevent unlaying and a slight enlargethe use of the rope use it also to splice long ment of the end is not objectionable use aropes that operate under heavy stress see crown splice to do this see Figure 243Figure 242 This splice is as strong as the page 230 Do not put any length of roperope itself A skillfully made long splice will into service without properly preparing therun through sheaves without any difficulty ends228 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 229FM 5125230 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 WIREROPE SPLICESIn splicing wire rope it is extremely impor untwist the wire A pocket knife may betant to use great care in laying the various needed to cut the hemp corerope strands firmly into position Slackstrands will not receive their full share of the SHORT SPLICEload which causes excessive stress to be puton the other strands The unequal stress A short splice develops only from 70 to 90distribution will decrease the possible ulti percent of the strength of the rope Since amate strength of the splice When using short splice is bulky it is used only for blocksplices in places where their failure may straps slings or where an enlargement ofresult in material damage or may endanger the diameter is of no importance It is nothuman lives test the splices under stresses suitable for splicing driving ropes or ropesequal to at least twice their maximum work used in running tackles and should nevering load before placing the ropes into service be put into a crane or hoist rope The wireTable 22 shows the amount or length of rope rope splice differs from the fiber ropeto be unlaid on each of the two ends of the short splice only in the method by which theropes and the amount of tuck for ropes of dif end strands are tucked see Figure 245ferent diameters As a rule of thumb use page 232the following Long splice 40 times the diameter EYE OR SIDE SPLICE Short splice 20 times the diameter An eye splice can be made with or without a thimble Use a thimble for every rope eyeYou need only a few tools to splice wire rope unless special circumstances prohibit it seeIn addition to the tools shown in Figure 244 Figure 246 page 233 The thimble propage 232 a hammer and cold chisel are tects the rope from sharp bends and abraoften used to cut the ends of strands Use sive action The efficiency of a wellmadetwo slings of marline and two sticks to eye splice with a heavyduty thimble varies Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 231FM 5125 from 70 to 90 percent Occasionally it be comes necessary to construct a field expedi ent called a hasty eye see Figure 247 The hasty eye can be easily and quickly made but is limited to about 70 percent of the strength of the rope consequently it should not be used to hoist loads LONG SPLICE Use the long splice to join two ropes or to make an endless sling without increasing the thickness of the wire rope at the splice see Figure 248 page 234 It is the best and most important kind of splice because it is strong and trim RoundStrand RegularLay Rope The directions given in Figure 248 are for making a 30foot splice in a Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 233FM 5125inch regularlay roundstrand hempcenter because of the tendency of the rope towire rope Other strand combinations differ untwist Up to the point of tucking theonly when there is an uneven number of ends follow the procedure for regular laystrands In splicing ropes having an odd Then instead of laying the strands side bynumber of strands make the odd tuck at the side where they pass each other crosscenter of the splice them over to increase the holding power of the splice At the point where they cross RoundStrand LangLay Rope untwist the strands for a length of about 3 inches so they cross over each other withIn splicing a roundstrand Langlay rope it out materially increasing the diameter ofis advisable to make a slightly longer splice the rope Then finish the tucks in thethan for the same size rope of regular lay usual manner Section III of the attachments used with wire rope a number of attachments used with the eyeare designed to provide an eye on the end of splice Any two of the ends can be joinedthe rope by which maximum strength can be together either directly or with the aid of aobtained when the rope is connected with shackle or end fitting These rope hook or ring Figure 249 shows for wire rope take the place of knots234 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 END FITTINGSAn end fitting may be placed directly on wire age to another wire rope Table 23 page 2rope Fittings that are easily and quickly 36 shows the numberand spacing of clipschanged are clips clamps and wedge sockets and the proper torque to apply to the nuts of the clips After installing all the clips tighten the clip farthest from the eye thim CLIPS ble with a torque wrench Next place theWirerope clips are reliable and durable see rope under tension and tighten the clip nextFigure 250 page 236 Use them repeat to the clip you tightened first Tighten theedly to make eyes in wire rope either for a remaining clips in order moving toward thesimple eye or an eye reinforced with a thim loop thimble After placing the rope inble or to secure a wirerope line or anchor service tighten the clips again immediately Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 235FM 5125236 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125after applying the working load and at frequent intervals thereafter Retightening isnecessary to compensate for the decrease inrope diameter that occurs when the strandsadjust to the lengthwise strain caused by theload Position the clips so that they areimmediately accessible for inspection andmaintenance CLAMPSA wire clamp can be used with or without athimble to make an eye in wire rope see Figure 251 Ordinarily use a clamp to makean eye without a thimble It has about 90percent of the strength of the rope Tightenthe two end collars with wrenches to forcethe clamp to a good snug fit This crushesthe pieces of rope firmly against each other WEDGE SOCKETUse a wedgesocket end fitting when it is tapered socket The loop of wire rope mustnecessary to change the fitting at frequent be inserted in the wedge socket so that theintervals see Figure 252 page 238 The standing part of the wire rope will form aefficiency is about twothirds of the strength nearly direct line to the clevis pin of the fitof the rope It is made in two parts The ting A properly installed itself has a tapered opening for the connection will tighten when a strain iswire rope and a small wedge to go into this placed on the wire rope BASKETSOCKET END FITTINGThe basketsocket end fittings include closed its strength is sharply reduced and must besockets open sockets and bridge sockets considered to be about onesixth thesee Figure 253 page 238 This socket is strength of a zinc connection In all attached to the end of the rope the wire rope should lead from the socket inwith molten zinc or babbitt metal and is a line with the axis of the end rifting If this fitting is properly made up it is as strong as the rope POURED METHODitself If molten lead is used instead of zincthe strength of the connection must be The poured basket socket is the most satisassumed to be reduced to onefourth the factory method in use see Figure 254 pagestrength of a zinc connection The socket can 239 If the socketing is properly done abe made up by the dry method if facilities are wire rope when tested to destruction willnot available to make a poured fitting but break before it will pull out from the socket Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 237FM 5125238 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 239FM 5125 DRY METHOD method see Figure 255 The strength of the connection must be assumed to beThe dry method should be used only when reduced to about onesixth of the are not available for the poured of a poured zinc connection STANCHIONSThe standard pipe stanchion is made up of a modifying it for a suspended walkwaylinch diameter pipe see Figure 256 Each that uses two wire ropes on each sidestanchion is 40 inches long Two 34inch However for handlines remove or leavewirerope clips are fastened through holes in off the lower wirerope clip For more inforthe pipe with the centers of the clips 36 mation on types and uses of apart Use this stanchion without see TM 5270240 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 Section IV Rope LaddersRopes may be used in the construction of hanging ladders and standoff ladders HANGING LADDERSHanging ladders are made of wire or fiber WIREROPE LADDERSrope anchored at the top and suspended vertically They are difficult to ascend and Wirerope uprights with pipe rungs makedescend particularly for a man carrying a the most satisfactory hanging ladders bepack or load and should be used only when cause they are more rigid and do not sag asnecessary The uprights of hanging ladders much as hanging ladders made of othermay be made of wire or fiber rope and material Wirerope uprights with at the top and bottom rungs are usable Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 241FM 5125 WireRope Ladder With Pipe Rungs clips in the stanchion over 34inch wireropeMake a wirerope ladder using either linch uprights see Figure 257 If you use 38inchor 34inch pipe rungs The linch pipe wirerope uprights insert 38inch wireroperungs are more satisfactory For such lad clips in the pipe over the wirerope uprightsders use the standard pipe stanchion When you use 34inch pipe rungs space theSpace the pipe stanchions 12 inches apart in rungs 12 inches apart in the ladder but dothe ladder and insert the 34inch wirerope not space the uprights more than 12 inches242 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125apart because of using weaker pipe The first length in a series of Ushaped bendsrungs may be fastened in place by two differ Lay out the second length in a similar manent methods In one method drill a 716 ner with the Ushaped bends in the oppositeinch diameter hole at each end of each pipe direction from those in the first series andrung and thread 38inch wirerope uprights the horizontal rung portions the holes To hold each rung in see Figure 258 Fasten a 38inch wireplace fasten a 38inch wirerope clip about rope clip on the overlapping rung portions atthe wirerope upright at each end of each each end of each rung to hold them firmrung after the rung is in its final position Inthe other method cut the pipe rungs 12 FIBERROPE LADDERSinches long and weld the Ubolt of a 38inchrope clip to each end Space the rungs 12 Fiberrope uprights with wood or apart on the 38inch wirerope rungs are difficult to use because theiruprights Place the saddle of the wirerope greater flexibility causes them to twist whenclips and the nuts on the Ubolts tighten the they are being used Place a log at the break of the ladder at the top to hold the uprightsnuts to hold the rungs in place and rungs away from a rock face to provide better handholds and footholds A single WireRope Ladder With WireRope Rungs rock anchor at the bottom of the ladder isMake a wirerope ladder with wirerope usually sufficient You can also use a pile ofrungs by laying the 38inch diameter wire rocks as the bottom anchor for fiberroperope uprights on the ground Lay out the hanging ladders Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 243FM 5125 FiberRope Ladder With FiberRope Rungs rungs see Figure 260 When you useMake fiberrope ladders with fiberrope native material cut the rungs from 2inchrungs by using two or three uprights When diameter material about 15 inches longyou use three uprights make a loop in the Notch the ends of each rung and fasten thecenter upright at the position of each rung rung to the fiberrope upright with a clovesee Figure 259 Space the two outside hitch Space the rungs 12 inches apartuprights 20 inches apart A loop and a single Twist a piece of seizing wire about the backsplice hold each end of each rung to the out of the clove hitch to make it more secure andside upright A loop in the center of the rung in a manner that will not snag the clothingpasses through the loop in the center of persons climbing the ladder If you makeupright If you use only two uprights hold the rungs of finished lumber cut them tothe rungs in place by a loop and a rolling size and drill a 34inch hole at each endhitch or a single splice at each upright The Oak lumber is best for this purpose Put atwo uprights must be closer together with l4inch by 2inch carriage bolt rungs to stiffen the ladder Ladders through each end near the vertical hole toof either type are very flexible and difficult prevent splitting Tie an overhand knot into climb the upright to support the rung Then thread the upright through the 34inch hole in the rung Tie a second overhand knot in FiberRope Ladder With Wood Rungs the upright before you thread it through theMake fiberrope ladders with wood rungs by next rung Continue this Procedure untilusing finished lumber or native material for you reachthe desired length of the ladder244 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders FM 5125 STANDOFF ladders are easier to climb than transported easily One or two standoff ladhanging ladders because they have two ders are adequate for most purposes butwood or metal uprights that hold them three or four hanging ladders must be prorigid and they are placed at an angle Both vialed for the same purpose because they aretypes of ladders can be prefabricated and more difficult to use Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 245 FM 5125 CHAPTER 3 Hoists Section I Chains and HooksChains are much more resistant to abrasion In lifting chains as well as fiber ropesand corrosion than wire rope use them or wire ropes can be tied to the load Butwhere this type of deterioration is a problem for speed and convenience it is muchas in marine work where anchor gear must better to fasten a hook to the end of thewithstand the corrosive effects of seawater lifting line Also you can use hooks areYou can also use chains to lift heavy objects in constructing blockswith sharp edges that would cut wire CHAINSChains are made up of a series of links fastened through each other Each link ismade of a rod of wire bent into an ovalshape and welded at one or two points Theweld ordinarily causes a slight bulge on theside or end of the link see Figure 31 Thechain size refers to the diameter in inchesof the rod used to make the link Chainsusually stretch under excessive loading sothat the individual links bend slightlyBent links are a warning that the chain hasbeen overloaded and might fail suddenlyunder a load Wire rope on the other handfails a strand at a time giving warningbefore complete failure occurs If a chain isequipped with the proper hook the hookshould start to fail first indicating that thechain is grades and types of chains areavailable Hoists 31FM 5125 STRENGTH OF CHAINS of a chain with a link thickness of 34 inchTo determine the SWC on a chain apply a is 2 2FS to the breaking strength The SWC ordi SWC 8D 8 34 45 tons ornarily is assumed to be about onesixth of 9000 poundsthe BS giving a FS of 6 Table 31 lists SWC The figures given assume that the load isfor various chains You can approximate the applied in a straight pull rather than by anSWC of an openlink chain by using the fol impact An impact load occurs when anlowing rule of thumb object is dropped suddenly for a distance SWC 8D 2 and stopped The impact load in such a case is several times the weight of the load SWC Safe working capacity in tons D Smallest link thickness or least diam CARE OF CHAINS eter measured in inches see Figure 31 When hoisting heavy metal objects using page 31 chains for slings insert padding aroundExample Using the rule of thumb the SWC the sharp corners of the load to protect the32 Hoists FM 5125chain links from being cut The padding Cut the smaller chain links with a boltmay be either planks or heavy fabric Do cutter cut large chain links with a hacknot permit chains to twist or kink when saw or an oxyacetylene torch Inspect theunder strain Never fasten chain links chain chains frequently depending on thetogether with bolts or wire because such amount of use Do not paint chains toconnections weaken the chain and limit prevent rusting because the paint willits SWC Cut worn or damaged links out interfere with the action of the linksof the chain and replace them with a cold Instead apply a light coat of lubricant andshut link Close the coldshut link and weld store them in a dry and to equal the strength of the other links place HOOKSThe two general types of hooks available STRENGTH OF HOOKSare the slip hook and the grab hook see Hooks usually fail by straightening AnyFigure 32 Slip hooks are made so that deviation from the original inner arc indithe inside curve of the hook is an arc of a cates that the hook has been and may be used with wire rope Since you can easily detect evidence ofchains or fiber rope Chain links can slip overloading the hook you should use athrough a slip hook so the loop formed in hook that is weaker than the chain tothe chain will tighten under a load Grab which it is attached With this systemhooks have an inside curve that is nearly hook distortion will occur before the chainUshaped so that the hook will slip over a is overloaded Discard severely distortedlink of chain edgeways but will not permit cracked or badly worn hooks because theythe next link to slip through Grab hooks are dangerous Table 32 page 34 listshave a more limited range of use than slip SWCs on hooks Approximate the SWC ofhooks They are used on chains when the a hook by using the following rule ofloop formed with the hook is not intended to thumbclose up around the load 2 SWC D D the diameter in inches of the hook where the inside of the hook starts its arc see Figure 33 page 35 Thus the SWC of a hook with a diameter of 1 14 inches is as follows 2 2 SWCD 1 14 16 tons or 3125 pounds MOUSING OF HOOKS In general always mouse a hook as a safety measure to prevent slings or ropes from jumping off To mouse a hook after the sling is on the hook wrap the wire or heavy twine 8 or 10 turns around the two sides of the hook see Figure 34 page 35 Hoists 33FM 5125Complete the process by winding several securely Mousing also helps preventturns of the wire or twine around the straightening of the hook but does notsides of the mousing and tying the ends strengthen it materially INSPECTING CHAINS AND HOOKSInspect chains including the hooks at least and cracks sharp nicks or cuts worn suronce a month inspect those that are used faces and distortions Replace those thatfor heavy and continuous loading more fre show any of these weaknesses If severalquently Give particular attention to the links are stretched or distorted do not usesmall radius fillets at the neck of hooks for the chain it probably was overloaded orany deviation from the original inner arc hooked improperly which weakened theExamine each link and hook for small dents entire chain34 Hoists FM 5125 Section II SlingsThe term sling includes a wide variety of made of fiber rope nor do they lose theirdesigns Slings may be made of fiber rope strength from exposure as rapidly Theywire rope or chain also are not susceptible to the weakest link condition of chains caused by theFiber rope makes good slings because of its uncertainty of the strengths of the but it is more easily damaged by The appearance of broken wires clearlysharp edges on the material hoisted than are indicates the fatigue of the metal and thewire rope or chain slings Fiberrope slings end of the usefulness of the slingare used for lifting comparatively light loadsand for temporary jobs Chain slings are used especially where sharp edges of metal would cut wire rope orWire rope is widely used for slings because it where very hot items are lifted as in foundhas a combination of strength and flexibility ries or blacksmith shopsProperly designed and appropriately fabricated wirerope slings are the safest type of Barrel slings can be made with fiber rope toslings They do not wear away as do slings hold barrels horizontally or vertically TYPES OF SLINGSThe sling for lifting a given load may be ENDLESS SLINGS An endless sling The endless sling is made by splicing the A single sling ends of a piece of wire rope or fiber rope together or by inserting a coldshut link in a A combination sling several single chain Coldshut links should be welded slings used together after insertion in the chain These endlessEach type or combination has its particular slings are simple to handle and may be usedadvantages that must be considered when in several different ways to lift loads seeselecting a sling for a given purpose Figure 35 page 36 Hoists 35FM 5125 Choker or Anchor Hitch the inverted basket hitch except that theA common method of using an endless sling line passes around toggles fastened to theis to cast the sling under the load to be lifted load rather than going around the loadand insert one loop through the other and itselfover the hoisting hook When the hoistinghook is raised one side of the choker hitch is SINGLE SLINGSforced down against the load by the strainon the other side forming a tight grip on the A single sling can be made of wire rope fiberload rope or chain Each end of a single sling is made into an eye or has an attached hook Basket Hitch see Figure 36 In some instances the ends of a wire rope are spliced into the eyesWith this hitch the endless sling is passed that are around the thimbles and one eye isaround the object to be lifted and both fastened to a hook with a shackle With thisremaining loops are slipped over the hook type of single sling you can remove the shackle and hook when desired You can Inverted Basket Hitch use a single sling in several different waysThis hitch is very much like the simple bas for hoisting see Figure 36 It is advisableket hitch except that the two parts of the to have four single slings of wire rope availsling going under the load are spread wide able at all times These can be used singlyapart or in combination as necessary Toggle Hitch Choker or Anchor HitchThe toggle hitch is used only for special A choker or anchor hitch is a single It is actually a modification of that is used for hoisting by passing one eye36 Hoists FM 5125through the other eye and over the hoistinghook A choker hitch will tighten downagainst the load when a strain is placed onthe sling Basket HitchA basket hitch is a single sling that ispassed under the load with both endshooked over the hoisting hook StoneDog HitchA stonedog hitch is single slings with twohooks that are used for lifting stone Double Anchor HitchThis hitch is used for hoisting drums orother cylindrical objects where it is necessary for the sling to tighten itself understrain and lift by friction against the sides ofthe cylinder COMBINATION SLINGSSingle slings can be combined into bridleslings basket slings and choker slings tolift virtually any type of load Either twoor four single slings can be used in a Where greater length isrequired two of the single slings can be combined into a longer single sling One of theproblems in lifting heavy loads is in fastening the bottom of the sling legs to the load insuch a way that the load will not be damaged Lifting eyes are fastened to manypieces of equipment at the time it is manufactured On large crates or boxes the slinglegs may be passed under the object to forma gasket sling A hook can be fastened to theeye on one end of each sling leg to permiteasier fastening on some loads Where theload being lifted is heavy enough or awkward enough a fourleg sling may berequired If a still greater length of sling isrequired two additional slings can be usedin conjunction with the fourleg sling to forma double basket Hoists 37FM 5125 PALLETSA problem in hoisting and moving loads the job out of 2 by 8inch timbers that are 6sometimes occurs when the items to be or 8 feet long and are nailed to three or fourlifted are packaged in small boxes and the heavy cross members such as 4 by boxes are not crated In this timbers Several pallets should be made upcase it is entirely too slow to pick up each so that one pallet can be loaded while thesmall box and move it separately Pallets pallet previously loaded is being hoisted Asused in combination with slings provide each pallet is unloaded the next return tripan efficient method of handling such of the hoist takes the empty pallet back forloads The pallets can be made up readily on loading it is necessary to hoist loads that of the load the angle of the sling leg isare not protected sufficiently to prevent crush changed so that crushing of the load is preing by the sling legs In such cases spreaders vented Changing the angle of the sling legmay be used with the slings see Figure 37 may increase the stress in that portion ofSpreaders are short bars or pipes with eyes on the sling leg above the spreaders The detereach end The sling leg passes through the eye mining factor in computing the safe liftingdown to its connection with the load By set capacity of the sling is the stress or tensionting spreaders in the sling legs above the top in the sling leg above the spreader38 Hoists FM 5125 STRESSESTables 33 through 35 pages 310 Example Determine the tension of a singlethrough 312 list the SWCs of ropes leg of a twolegged sling being used to lift achains and wirerope slings under various load weighing 1800 pounds The length ofconditions The angle of the legs of a sling a sling is 8 feet and the vertical distance is 6must be considered as well as the strength of feetthe material of which a sling is made Thelifting capacity of a sling is reduced as the Solutionangle of its legs to the horizontal is reducedas the legs of a sling are spread see Figure T37 Thus reducing the angle of the legs ofa sling increases the tension on the slinglegs In determining the proper size of sling T 1200 pounds or 6 tonsyou must determine the tension on each legfor each load see Figure 38 page 313 By knowing the amount of tension in a sinYou can compute this tension using the following formula gle leg you can determine the appropriate size of fiber rope wire rope or chain The SWC of a sling leg keeping within the safety factors for slings must be equal to or greater than the tension on a sling leg If T Tension in a single sling leg which possible keep the tension on each sling leg may be more than the weight of the load below that in the hoisting line to which the lifted sling is attached A particular angle formed W Weight of the load to be lifted by the sling legs with the horizontal where the tension within each sling leg equals the N Number of slings weight of the load is called the critical angle L Length of sling see Figure 39 page 313 Approximate V Vertical distance measured from the this angle using the following formula hook to the top of the load NOTES Critical angle 1 L and V must be expressed in the N Number of sling legs same unit of measure When using slings stay above the critical 2 The resulting tension will be in angle the same unit of measure as that of the weight of the load Thus if the weight of the load is in pounds the tension will be given in pounds INSPECTING AND CUSHIONING SLINGSInspect slings periodically and condemn 4 percent or more of the wires are brokenthem when they are no longer safe Make Pad all objects to be lifted with wood blocksthe usual deterioration check for fiber ropes heavy fabric old rubber tires or other cushwire ropes chains and hooks when you use ioning material to protect the legs of slingsthem in slings Besides the usual precautions from being damageddeclare wire ropes used in slings unsafe if Hoists 39FM 5125310 Hoists FM 5125Hoists 311FM 5125312 Hoists FM 5125Hoists 313FM 5125 Section III Blocks and Tackle SystemsA force is a push or pull The push or pull A block consists of a wood or metal framethat humans can exert depends on their containing one or more rotating pulleysweight and strength To move any load called sheaves see Figure 310 A A tackleheavier than the maximum amount a per is an assembly of ropes and blocks used toson can move use a machine that multi multiply forces see Figure 310 B Theplies the force exerted into a force capable of number of times the force is multiplied ismoving the load The machine may be a the MA of the tackle To make up a tacklelever a screw or a tackle system The same system lay out the blocks you are to use toprinciple applies to all of them If you use a be used and reeve thread the rope throughmachine that exerts a force 10 times greaterthan the force applied to it the machine has the blocks Every tackle system contains amultiplied the force input by 10 The fixed block attached to some solid advantage MA of a machine is and may have a traveling block attached tothe amount by which the machine multi the load The single rope leaving the tackleplies the force applied to it to lift or move a system is called the fall line The pullingload For example if a downward push of 10 force is applied to the fall line which maypounds on the left end of a lever will cause be led through a leading block This is anthe right end of the lever to raise a load additional block used to change the direcweighing 100 pounds the lever is said to tion of pullhave a MA of 10 BLOCKSBlocks are used to reverse the direction of are used where it is necessary to changethe rope in the tackle Blocks take their the direction of the pull on the linenames from The purpose for which they are used Traveling Block The places they occupy A traveling block is attached to the load that is being lifted and moves as the load is A particular shape or type of construc lifted tion see Figure 311 Standing Block TYPES OF BLOCKS This block is fixed to a stationary objectBlocks are designated as single double or Leading Blockstriple depending on the number of sheaves Blocks used in the tackle to change the direction of the pull without affecting the Snatch Block MA of the system are called leading blocksThis is a single sheave block made so that see Figure 312 page 316 In some tacklethe shell opens on one side at the base of the systems the fall line leads off the last blockhook to permit a rope to be slipped over the in a direction that makes it difficult tosheave without threading the end of it apply the motive force required A leadingthrough the block Snatch blocks ordinarily block is used to correct this Ordinarily a314 Hoists FM 5125Hoists 315FM 5125snatch block is used as the leading block over remember that the rope should notThis block can be placed at any convenient cross the rope leading away from the cenposition The fall line from the tackle sys ter sheave of the first block Lead the ropetem is led through the leading block to the over the top sheave of the second block line of most direct action and back to the remaining side sheave of the first block From this point lead the rope to the center sheave of the second block and back to the becket of the first block Reeve the rope through the blocks so that no part of the rope chafes another part of the rope Twisting of Blocks Reeve blocks so as to prevent twisting After reeving the blocks pull the rope back and forth through the blocks several times to allow the rope to adjust to the blocks This reduces the tendency of the tackle to twist under a load When the ropes in a tackle system become twisted there is an increase in friction and chafing of the ropes as well as a possibility of jamming REEVING BLOCKS the blocks When the hook of the standingTo prepare blocks for use reeve or pass a block is fastened to the supporting memberrope through it To do this lay out the turn the hook so that the fall line leadsblocks on a clean and level surface other directly to the leading block or to the sourcethan the ground to avoid getting dirt into of motive power It is very difficult to prethe operating parts Figure 313 shows the vent twisting of a traveling block It is parreeving of single and double blocks In reev ticularly important when the tackle ising triple blocks it is imperative that you being used for a long pull along the groundput the hoisting strain at the center of the such as in dragging logs or timbersblocks to prevent them from being inclinedunder the strain see Figure 314 If the Antiwisting Devicesblocks do incline the rope will drag acrossthe edges of the sheaves and the shell of the One of the simplest antitwisting devices forblock and cut the fibers Place the blocks so such a tackle is a short iron rod or athat the sheaves in one block are at right piece of pipe lashed to the traveling blockangles to the sheaves in the other block see Figure 315 page 318 You can lashYou may lay the coil of rope beside either the antitwisting rod or pipe to the shell ofblock Pass the running end over the center the block with two or three turns of rope Ifsheave of one block and back to the bottom it is lashed to the becket of the block yousheave of the other block Then pass it over should pass the rod or pipe between theone of the side sheaves of the first block In ropes without chafing them as the tackle isselecting which side sheave to pass the rope hauled in316 Hoists FM 5125Hoists 317FM 5125 TACKLE SYSTEMSTackle systems may be either simple or com Method ICounting Supporting Linespound There are three lines supporting the travel ing block so the theoretical MA is 31 SIMPLE TACKLE SYSTEMSA simple tackle system uses one rope and Method IIUnit Forceone or more blocks To determine the MA ofa simple system count the number of lines Assuming that the tension on a single ropesupporting the load or the traveling is the same throughout its length a unitblock see Figure 316 In counting force of 1 on the fall line results in a total ofinclude the fall line if it leads out of a travel 3 unit forces acting on the traveling blocking block In a simple tackle system the MA The ratio of the resulting force of 8 on thealways will be the same as the number of traveling block to the unit force of 1 on thelines supporting the load As an alternate fall line gives a theoretical MA of 31method you can determine the MA by tracing the forces through the system Begin COMPOUND TACKLE SYSTEMSwith a unit force applied to the fall lineAssume that the tension in a single rope is A compound tackle system uses more thanthe same throughout and therefore the same one rope with two or more blocks see Figureforce will exist in each line Total all the 318 page 320 Compound systems areforces acting on the load or traveling block made up of two or more simple systemsThe ratio of the resulting total force acting The fall line from one simple system is fason the load or traveling block to the original tened to a hook on the traveling block ofunit force exerted on the fall line is the theo another simple system which may includeretical MA of the simple system one or more blocks In compound systemsFigure 317 shows examples of two meth you can best determine the MA by using theods of determining the ratio of a simple unitforce method Begin by applying a unittackle system They are force to the fall line Assume that the ten Method Icounting supporting lines sion in a single rope is the same throughout and therefore the same force will exist in Method IIunit force each line Total all the forces acting on the318 Hoists FM 5125Hoists 319FM 5125 two methods of determining the ratio of a compound tackle system They are Method Iunit force Method IImultiplying mechanical advantages of simple systems Method IUnit Force As in method II of simple tackle systems a unit force of 1 on the fall line results in 4 unit forces acting on the traveling block of tackle system A Transferring the unit force of 4 into the fall line of simple system B results in a total of 16 unit forces 4 lines with 4 units of force in each acting on the traveling block of tackle system B The ratio of 16 unit forces on the traveling block carry ing the load to a 1 unit force on the fall line gives a theoretical MA of 161 Method IIMultiplying MAs of Simple Systems The number of lines supporting the travel ing blocks in systems A and B is equal to 4 The MA of each simple system is therefore equal to 41 You can then determine the MA of the compound system by multiplying together the MA of each simple system for a resulting MA of 161 FRICTION There is a loss in any tackle system because of the friction created bytraveling block and transfer this force into The sheave rolling on the pin the ropesthe next simple system The ratio of the rubbing total force acting on the load ortraveling block to the original unit force The rope rubbing against the sheaveexerted on the fall line is the theoretical This friction reduces the total lifting powerMA of the compound system Another therefore the force exerted on the fall linemethod which is simpler but less accurate must be increased by some amount to overin some cases is to determine the MA of come the friction of the system to lift theeach simple system in the compound system load Each sheave in the tackle system canand multiplying these together to obtain the be expected to create a resistance equal tototal MA Figure 319 shows examples of the about 10 percent of the weight of the load320 HoistsFM 5125Hoists 321FM 5125 Example A load weighing 5000 pounds is MA of the tackle system The actual pull lifted by a tackle system that has a MA of required on the fall line would be equal to 41 The rope travels over four sheaves that the sum of 5000 pounds load and 2000 produce a resistance of 40 percent of 5000 pounds friction divided by 4 MA or 1750 pounds or 2000 pounds 5000 x 040 The pounds actual pull that would be required on the fall There are other types of resistance that line of the tackle system is equal to the sum may have to be considered in addition to of the weight of the load and the friction in tackle resistance FM 2022 presents a the tackle system divided by the theoretical thorough discussion of resistance Section IV Chain Hoists and WinchesIn all cases where manpower is used for tackle vertical line If 300 pounds timeshoisting the system must be arranged to the MA of the system is not enough to liftconsider the most satisfactory method of a given load the tackle must be riggedusing that source of power More men can again to increase the MA or the fall linepull on a single horizontal line along the must be led through a leading block to proground than on a single vertical line On a vide a horizontal pull This will permit morevertical pull men of average weight can people to pull on the line Similarly if apull about 100 pounds per man and about heavy load is to be lifted and the fall line is60 pounds per man on a horizontal If led through a leading block to a winchthe force required on the fall line is 300 mounted on a vehicle the full power availpounds or less the fall line can lead able at the winch is multiplied by the MA ofdirectly down from the upper block of a the system CHAIN HOISTSChain hoists provide a convenient and effi vertical operation are the spur gear screwcient method for hoisting by hand under gear and circumstances see Figure 320The chief advantages of chain hoists arethat SpurGear Chain Hoist This is the most satisfactory chain hoist for The load can remain stationary with ordinary operation where a minimum num out requiring attention ber of people are available to operate the One person can operate the hoist to hoist and the hoist is to be used frequently raise loads weighing several tons This type of chain hoist is about 85 percent efficientThe slow lifting travel of a chain hoist permits small movements accurate adjust ScrewGear Chain Hoistments of height and gentle handling ofloads A retchedhandle pull hoist is used The screwgear chain hoist is about 50 perfor short horizontal pulls on heavy objects cent efficient and is satisfactory where lesssee Figure 321 Chain hoists differ widely frequent use of the chain hoist is involvedin their MA depending on their rated capacity which may vary from 5 to 250 Differential Chain Hoist TYPES OF CHAIN HOISTS The differential chain hoist is only about 35 percent efficient but is satisfactory for occaThe three general types of chain hoists for sional use and light loads322 Hoists FM 5125 LOAD CAPACITYChain hoists are usually stamped with theirload capacities on the shellof the upperblock The rated load capacity will run fromonehalf of a ton upward Ordinarily chainhoists are constructed with their lower hookas the weakest part of the assembly Thisis done as a precaution so that the lowerhook will be overloaded before the chainhoist is overloaded The lower hook will startto spread under overload indicating to theoperator that he is approaching the overload point of the chain hoist Under ordinary Hoists 323FM the pull exerted on a chain the chain are distorted it indicates thathoist by one or two men will not overload the chain hoist has been heavily overthe hoist Inspect chain hoists at frequent loaded and is probably unsafe for Any evidence of spreading of use Under such circumstances the chainthe hook or excessive wear is sufficient hoist should be condemnedcause to replace the hook If the links of and enginedriven overwound or underwound on the drum aswinches are used with tackles for hoisting may be necessary to avoid a reverse bendsee Figure 322 There are two points toconsider when placing a powerdriven winch FLEET ANGLEto operate hoisting equipment They are The drum of the winch is placed so that a The angle with the ground that the line from the last block passing through the hoisting line makes at the drum of the center of the drum is at right angles to the hoist axis of the drum The angle between this line and the hoisting line as it winds on the The fleet angle of the hoisting line drum is called the fleet angle see Figure winding on the drum see Figure 323 323 As the hoisting line is wound in onThe distance from the drum to the first the drum it moves from one flange to thesheave of the system is the controlling factor other so that the fleet angle changes duringin the fleet angle When using vehicular the hoisting process The fleet angle shouldmounted winches place the vehicle in a not be permitted to exceed 2 degrees and should be kept below this if possible A 1 1position that lets the operator watch the 2degree maximum angle is satisfactory andload being hoisted A winch is most effective will be obtained if the distance from thewhen the pull is exerted on the bare drum of drum to the first sheave is 40 inches forthe winch When a winch is rated at a capac each inch from the center of the drum to theity that rating applies only as the first layer flange The wider the drum of the hoist theof cable is wound onto the drum The winch greater the lead distance must be in is reduced as each layer of cable is the winchwound onto the drum because of the changein leverage resulting from the of the drum The capacity of thewinch may be reduced by as much as 50 percent when the last layer is being wound ontothe drum GROUND ANGLEIf the hoisting line leaves the drum at anangle upward from the ground the resulting pull on the winch will tend to lift itclear of the ground In this case a leadingblock must be placed in the system at somedistance from the drum to change the direction of the hoisting line to a horizontal ordownward pull The hoisting line should be324 Hoists FM 5125 SPANISH WINDLASSIn the absence of mechanical power or anappropriate tackle you may have to usemakeshift equipment for hoisting or pullingYou can use a Spanish windlass to move aload along the ground or you can direct thehorizontal pull from the windlass throughthe blocks to provide a vertical pull on aload In making a Spanish windlass fastena rope between the load you are to move andan anchorage some distance away Place ashort spar vertically beside this rope abouthalfway between the anchorage and the loadsee Figure 324 page 326 This spar maybe a pipe or a pole but in either case itshould have as large a diameter as possibleMake a loop in the rope and wrap it partlyaround the spar Insert the end of a horizontal rod through this loop The horizontal rodshould be a stout pipe or bar long enough toprovide leverage It is used as a lever toturn the vertical spar As the vertical sparturns the rope is wound around it whichshortens the line and pulls on the loadMake sure that the rope leaving the verticalspar is close to the same level on both sidesto prevent the spar from tipping over Hoists 325FM 5125326 Hoists FM 5125 CHAPTER 4 A n c h o r s and Guy Lines Section I AnchorsWhen heavy loads are handled with a anchorages should be used so that timetackle it is necessary to have some means effort and material can be conserved Theof anchorage Many expedient rigging ideal anchorage system must be of are supported by combining cient strength to support the breakingguy lines and some type of anchorage sys strength of the attached line Lines shouldtem Anchorage systems may be either nat always be fastened to anchorages at aural or manmade The type of anchorage point as near to the ground as possibleto be used depends on the time and mate The principal factor in the strength of mostrial available and on the holding power anchorage systems is the area Whenever possible natural against the ground NATURAL ANCHORSTrees stumps or rocks can serve as between two trees to provide a anchorages for rapid work in anchorage than a single tree see Figthe field Always attach lines near the ure 42 page 42 When using rocks asground level on trees or stumps see Fig natural anchorages examine the rocksure 41 Avoid dead or rotten trees or carefully to be sure that they are largestumps as an anchorage because they are enough and firmly embedded in thelikely to snap suddenly when a strain is ground see Figure 43 page 42 An outplaced on the line It is always advisable to cropping of rock or a heavy boulder buriedlash the first tree or stump to a second one partially in the ground will serve as a satto provide added support Place a transom is factory anchor Anchors and Guy Lines 41FM 5125 MANMADE ANCHORSYou must construct manmade anchors 5 inches deep Use a linchdiameter drillwhen natural anchors are not available for hard rock and a 34inchdiameter drillThese include for soft rock Drill the hole as neatly as possible so that the rock anchor can Rock anchors develop the maximum strength In case of Picket holdfasts extremely soft rock it is better to use some other type of anchor because the wedging Combination holdfasts action may not provide sufficient holding Deadmen power ROCK ANCHORSRock anchors have an eye on one end and athreaded nut an expanding wedge and astop nut on the other end see Figure 44To construct a rock anchor insert thethreaded end of the rock anchor in the hole with the nuts relation to the wedge asshown in Figure 44 After placing the anchor insert a crowbar through the eye of therock anchor and twist it This causes thethreads to draw the nut up against thewedge and force the wedge out against thesides of the hole in the rock The wedgingaction is strongest under a direct pulltherefore always set rock anchors so thatthe pull is in a direct line with the shaft ofthe anchor Drill the holes for rock anchors42 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125 PICKET HOLDFASTSA single picket either steel or wood can bedriven into the ground as an anchor Theholding power depends on the Diameter and kind of material used Type of soil Depth and angle in which the picket is driven Angle of the guy line in relation to the groundTable 41 lists the holding capacities of thevarious types of wooden picket 45 shows the various picket holdfasts Anchors and Guy Lines 43FM 5125 Single Wooden Pickets first picket to the bottom of the second picket see Figure 46 B Then fasten theWooden stakes used for pickets should be at rope to the second picket with a clove hitchleast 3 inches in diameter and 5 feet long just above the turns Put a stake betweenDrive the picket 3 feet into the ground at anangle of 15 degrees from the vertical and the rope turns to tighten the rope by twistinclined away from the direction of pull see ing the stake and then driving it into theFigure 46 ground see Figure 46 C This distributes the load between the pickets If you use more than two pickets make a similar lash Multiple Wooden Pickets ing between the second and third picketsYou can increase the strength of a holdfast see Figure 46 D If you use wire rope forby increasing the area of the picket bearing lashing make only two complete turnsagainst the ground Two or more pickets around each pair of pickets If neither fiberdriven into the ground spaced 3 to 6 feet rope nor wire rope is available for lashingapart and lashed together to distribute the place boards from the top of the front picketload are much stronger than a single picket to the bottom of the second picket and nailsee Figure 46 A To construct the lashing them onto each picket see Figure 47 Astie a clove hitch to the top of the first picket you place pickets farther away from thewith four to six turns around the first and front picket the load to the rear pickets issecond pickets leading from the top of the distributed more unevenly Thus the prin44 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125cipal strength of a multiplepicket holdfast pattern Drive the rear pickets in first tois at the front pickets Increase the capacity secure the end of the chain then install theof a holdfast by using two or more pickets to successive pickets so that there is no slackform the front group This increases both in the chain between the pickets A lashedthe bearing surface against the soil and the steelpicket holdfast consists of steel picketsBS lashed together with wire rope the same as for a woodenstake picket holdfast see Fig ure 49 page 46 As an expedient any mis SteelPicket Holdfasts cellaneous lightsteel members can beA standard steelpicket holdfast consists of driven into the ground and lashed togethera steel box plate with nine holes drilled with wire rope to form an it and a steel eye welded on the endfor attaching a guy line see Figure 48 page Rock Holdfasts46 The pickets are also steel and aredriven through the holes in a way that You can place a holdfast in rock by the pickets in the ground This into the rock and driving the pickets into theholdfast is especially adapted for anchoring holes Lash the pickets together with ahorizontal lines such as the anchor cable on chain see Figure 410 page 47 Drill thea ponton bridge Use two or more of these holes about 3 feet apart in line with the guyunits in combination to provide a stronger line The first or front hole should be 2 12anchorage You can improvise a similar to 3 feet deep and the rear hole 2 feet deepholdfast with a chain by driving steel pick Drill the holes at a slight angle inclinedets through the chain links in a crisscross away from the direction of the pull Anchors and Guy Lines 45FM 5125 COMBINATION HOLDFASTS heavy loading of an anchorage spread You can construct a deadman from a log athe load over the largest possible area of rectangular timber a steel beam or a simiground Do this by increasing the number of lar object buried in the ground with a guypickets used Place four or five multiple line or sling attached to its center This guypicket holdfasts parallel to each other with a line or sling leads to the surface of theheavy log resting against the front pickets to ground along a narrow upward slopingform a combination log and picket holdfast trench The holding power of a deadman issee Figure 411 Fasten the guy line or affected byanchor sling to the log that bears against thepickets The log should bear evenly against Its frontal bearing areaall pickets to obtain maximum strength Its mean average depthSelect the timber carefully so it can withstand the maximum pull on the line bending Also you could use asteel cross member to form a holdfast see Figure 412 page48 DEADMENA deadman is one of the best types ofanchorages for heavy loads or because of its great holdingpower46 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125 The angle of pull withstand the BS of the line attached to it In constructing a deadman dig a hole at The deadman material right angles to the guy line and undercut 15 The soil condition degrees from the vertical at the front of the hole facing the load see Figure 413 pageThe holding power increases progressively 48 Make the guy line as horizontal as posas you place the deadman deeper and as the sible and ensure that the sloping trenchangle of pull approaches a horizontal posi matches the slope of the guy line The maintion see Table 42 page 48 The holding or standing part of the line leads from thepower of a deadman must be designed to bottom of the deadman This reduces the Anchors and Guy Lines 47FM 5125tendency to rotate the deadman upward out the wirerope clips above the ground forof the hole If the line cuts into the ground retightening and a log or board under the line at theoutlet of the sloping trench When using Termswirerope guy lines with a wooden deadman place a steel bearing plate on the Table 43 lists the terms used in designing adeadman where the wire rope is attached to deadmanavoid cutting into the wood Always place48 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125 Formulas Given linchdiameter 6by19 IPS ropeThe following formulas are used in designinga deadman MD 7 feet B Ar B S HP SR 13 BA r E L D WST 2 feet TL EL WST Requirement I Determine the length and thickness of a rectangular timber D deadman if the height of the face avail VD MD 2 able is 18 inches 1 12 feet VD BS of wire rope 83600 psf see Table HD S R 12 HP 8000 psf see Table 42A sample problem for designing a deadmanis as follows Anchors and Guy Lines 49FM 5125 Note Design the deadman so it can to or less than 5 The ratio for Requirement withstand a tension equal to the II would be equal to Ld 6225 25 BS of the wire rope Since this is less than 5 the log will not fail by bending BA r BS 83600 pounds 2 105 feet Ratio HP 8000 psf If the ratios for a log or a rectangular timber are exceeded you must BA r 105 feet2 decrease the length requirements Use one 7 feet EL face height 15 feet of the following methods to accomplish this Increase the mean depth TL EL WST 7 feet 2 feet 7 feet Increase the slope ration the guy line becomes more a final check to ensure that the Increase the thickness of the timber will not fail by bendingby doing a ratio Lt Decrease the width of the slopingwhich should be equal to or less than 9 trench if the minimum thickness by Lt 9 and solve for t DEADMEN L 9 Nomography and charts have been prepared to facilitate the design of deadmen in the 1t field The deadmen are designed to resist 99 the BS of the cable The required length and t thickness are based on allowable soil bear ing with 1foot lengths added to compensate 9 l feet for the width of the cable trench The 9 required thickness is based on a Ld ratio of s for logs and a Ld ratio of 9 for cut timberThus an 18inch by 12inch by 9foot timberis suitable Log Deadman Requirement II Determine the length A sample problem for designing a log dead of a log deadman with a diameter of 2 man is as follows 12 feet Given 34inch IPS cable You must 2 BAr 105feet bury the required deadman 5 feet at a EL D 25 feet 42 feet slope of 14 Solution With this information TL EL WST 42 feet 2 feet 62 feet use the nomograph to determine the diameter and length of the deadman required see Figure 414 Figure 415Conduct a final check to ensure that the log page 412 shows the steps graphiwill not fail by bending by doing a lengthto cally on an incomplete ratio Ld which should be equal Lay a straightedge across section AA410 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125lefthand scale on the 5foot depth at up from the intersection on the log anddeadman and 14 slope and on 34inch read the length of deadman required InIPS on BB Read across the straightedge this case the deadman must be over 5and locate a point on section CC Then 12 feet long Be careful not to select ago horizontally across the graph and log deadman in the darkened area ofintersect the diameter of the log dead the nomograph because a log from thismen available Assume that a 30inch area will fail by log is available Go vertically Anchors and Guy Lines 411FM 5125412 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125 Rectangular Timber Deadman deadman depth 7ft 28ftA sample problem for designing a rectangu slope ratio 14lar timber deadman is as follows Given 34inch IPS cable You are to BEARING PLATES bury the deadman 5 feet at a slope of 14 To prevent the cable from cutting into the wood place a metal bearing plate on the Solution Use the same 14 slope and deadman The two types of bearing plates 5foot depth along with the procedure are the flat bearing plate and the formed to the left of the graph as in the bearing plate each with its particular previous problem see Figure 414 page advantages The flat bearing plate is easily 411 At CC go horizontally across fabricated while the formed or shaped plate the graph to the timber with an 18inch can be made of much thinner steel face Reading down working with cut timber you can see that the length is 8 Flat Bearing Plate feet 6 inches and that the minimum A sample problem in the design of flat bear thickness is 11 12 inches None of the ing plates is as follows timber sizes shown on the nomograph will fail due to bending Given 12inch by 12inch timber 34inch IPS cable Horizontal Distance Solution Enter the graph see FigureUse the following formula to determine the 416 page 414 from the left of the 34distance behind the tower in which deadmen inch cable and go horizontally acrossare placed the graph to intersect the line marked 12inch timber which shows that the plate will be 10 inches wide The bearHorizontal distance tower height deadman depth ing plate is made 2 inches narrower slope ratio than the timber to prevent cutting into the anchor cable Drop vertically andA sample problem for determining the hori determine the length of the platezontal distance behind a tower is as follows which is 9 12 inches Go to the top Given The tower height is 25 feet 4 14 vertically along the line to where it inches and the deadman depth is 7 feet intersects with 34inch cable and with a 14 slope determine the minimum required thickness which is 1 116 inches Thus the necessary bearing plate must Solution be 1 116 inches by 9 12 inches by 10 inches 25 ft 4 14 in 7 ft 32ft 4 14 in 129 ft 5 in 14 14 Formed Bearing Plate The formed bearing plates are either curvedPlace the deadman 129 feet behind the to fit logs or formed to fit rectangular timtower ber In the case of a log the bearing plate Note The horizontal distance must go half way 180 degrees around the without a tower is as follows log For a shaped timber the bearing plate Anchors and Guy Lines 413FM 5125414 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125extends the depth of the timber with an inches If you use a log the width ofextended portion at the top and the bottom the bearing plate is equal to half thesee Figure 417 Each extended portion circumference of the logshould be half the depth of the timberA sample problem for designing a formed d in this case 22 inchesbearing plate is as follows 2 Given 14inch log or timber with 14inch face and 1 18 MPS cable d 314 x 14 2198 use 22 inches 2 2 Solution Design a formed bearing The bearing plate would therefore be 14 plate Enter the graph on the left at 1 inch by 12 inches by 22 inches For a rectan 18 MPS and go horizontally across to intersect the 14inch line see figure gular timber the width of the plate would be 417 Note that the lines intersect in 14 inches for the face and 7 inches for the an area requiring a l4inch plate width of each leg or a total width of 28 Drop vertically to the bottom of the inches see Figure 417 The bearing plate graph to determine the length of the would therefore be 14 inch by 12 inches by plate which in this instance is 12 28 inches Anchors and Guy Lines 415FM 5125 Section II Guy LinesGuy lines are ropes or chains attached to an Angle of the guy lineobject to steady guide or secure it The For example if the supported structure islines leading from the object or structure are vertical the stress on each guy line is veryattached to an anchor system see Fig small but if the angle of the structure is 45ure 418 When a load is applied to the degrees the stress on the guy lines supported by the guy lines a por ing the structure will increase of the load is passed through each sup Wire rope is preferred for guy lines becauseporting guy line to its anchor The amount of its strength and resistance to corrosionof tension on a guy line depends on the Fiber is also used for guy lines particularly Main load on temporary structures The number and size of guy lines required depends on the Position and weight of the structure type of structure to be supported and the Alignment of the guy line with the tension or pull exerted on the guy lines structure and the main load while the structure is being used416 Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125 NUMBER OF GUY LINESUsually a minimum of four guy lines are points in a tiered effect In such casesused for gin poles and boom derricks and there might be four guy lines from thetwo for shears The guy lines should be center of a long pole to anchorage onevenly spaced around the structure In a the ground and four additional guylong slender structure it is sometimes lines from the top of the pole to to provide support at several age on the ground TENSION ON GUY LINESYou must determine the tension that will be Given WL 2400 lbexerted on the guy lines beforehand to select W 3 800 lbthe proper size and material you will use D 20The maximum load or tension on a guy linewill result when a guy line is in direct line Solutionwith the load and the structure Considerthis tension in all strength calculations of WL 12W3 D 2400 12 800 20 T guy lines You can use the following formula Y 28to determine the tension for gin poles andshears see Figure 419 page 418 2000 pounds of tension in the rear or supporting guy lineT WL 12W3 D YT Tension in guy line Requirement II shearsW L Weight of the load Given The same conditions exist as in Requirement I except that there areW 3 Weight of spars two spars each one weighing 800 poundsD Drift distance measured from the base ofthe gin pole or shears to the center of the sus Solutionpended load along the ground W L 12W3D 2 400 12 800 20 T Y Perpendicular distance from the rear guy Y Yline to the base of the gin pole or for a shears 2285 poundsto a point on the ground midway between theshear legsA sample problem for determining the ten NOTE The shears produced asion for gin poles and shears follows greater tension in the rear guy line due to the weight of an addi Requirement I gin pole tional spar Anchors and Guy Lines 417FM 5125 SIZE OF GUY LINESThe size of the guy line to use will depend on must incorporate the appropriate FSsthe amount of tension placed on it Since Therefore choose a rope for the guy linethe tension on a guy line may be affected by that has a SWC equal to or greater than theshock loading and its strength affected by tension placed on the guy lineknots sharp bends age and condition you ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTSAn ideal anchorage system should be least a 11 combination 1400pound capacdesigned to withstand a tension equal to the it y in ordinary soil Anchor the guy line asBS of the guy line attached to it If you use a far as possible from the base of the manila rope as a guy line tion to obtain a greater holding power fromthe anchorage must be capable of withstand the anchorage system The recommendeding a tension of 1350 pounds which is the minimum distance from the base of theBS of the 38inch diameter manila rope If installation to the anchorage for the guy lineyou use picket holdfasts you will need at is twice the height of the Anchors and Guy Lines FM 5125 CHAPTER 5 Lifting and Moving Equipment Section I Lifting used for lifting includes gin includes pole brave and jinniwink derpoles tripods shears boom derricks and ricksstiff leg derricks Light hoisting equipment GIN POLESA gin pole consists of an upright spar that is spruce timbers as gin poles with allowguyed at the top to maintain it in a vertical ances for normal stresses in hoisting operor nearly vertical position and is equipped ationswith suitable hoisting tackle The verticalspar may be of timber a wideflange steel RIGGING GIN POLESbeam section a railroad rail or similarmembers of sufficient strength to support In rigging a gin pole lay out the pole withthe load being lifted The load may be the base at the spot where it is to behoisted by hand tackle or by hand or erected To make provisions for the hoists The gin pole is used lines and tackle blocks place the ginwidely in erection work because of the ease pole on cribbing for ease of lashing Figurewith which it can be rigged moved and 418 page 416 shows the lashing on top ofoperated It is suitable for raising loads of a gin pole and the method of weight to heights of 10 to 50 feet guys The procedure is as followswhere only a vertical lift is required Thegin pole may also be used to drag loads hori Make a tight lashing of eight turns ofzontally toward the base of the pole when fiber rope about 1 foot from the top ofpreparing for a vertical lift It cannot be the pole with two of the center turnsdrifted inclined more than 45 degrees from engaging the hook of the upper blockthe vertical or seventenths the height of of the tackle Secure the ends of thethe pole nor is it suitable for swinging the lashing with a square knot Nailload horizontally The length and thickness wooden cleats boards to the poleof the gin pole depends on the purpose for flush with the lower and upper sideswhich it is installed It should be no longer of the lashing to prevent the lashingthan 60 times its minimum thickness from of its tendency to buckle under compression A usable rule is to allow 5 feet of Lay out guy ropes each four times thepole for each inch of minimum thickness length of the gin pole In the center ofTable 51 page 52 lists values when using each guy rope form a clove hitch over Lifting and Moving Equipment 51FM 5125 the top of the pole next to the tackle the lashing on the leading block and lashing Be sure to align the guy lines near the bottom of the pole This pre in the direction of their anchors see vents the pole from skidding while you Figure 51 erect it Lash a block to the gin pole about 2 feet Check all lines to be sure that they are from the base of the pole the same as not snarled Check all lashings to see for the tackle lashing at the top and that they are made up properly and place a cleat above the lashing to pre that all knots are tight Check the vent slipping This block serves as a hooks on the blocks to see that they are leading block on the fall line which moused properly You are now ready allows a directional change of pull from to erect the gin pole the vertical to the horizontal A snatch block is the most convenient type to use ERECTING GIN POLES for this purpose You can easily raise a 40footlong gin pole Reeve the hoisting tackle and use the by hand see Figure 52 However you block lashed to the top of the pole so must raise longer poles by supplementary that the fall line can be passed through rigging or power equipment The number of the leading block at the base of the gin people needed to erect a gin pole depends on pole the weight of the pole The procedure is as follows Drive a stake about 3 feet from the base of the gin pole Tie a rope from Dig a hole about 2 feet deep for the the stake to the base of the pole below base of the gin pole52 LIftlng and Moving Equipment FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 53FM 5125 String out the guys to their respective throwing all of its weight on one of the anchorages and assign a person to each side guys anchorage to control the slack in the guy line with a round turn around the Fasten all guy lines to their anchor anchorage as the pole is raised If it ages with the round turn and two half has not been done already install an hitches when the pole is in its final anchorage for the base of the pole position approximately vertical or inclined as desired At times you may Use the tackle system that was used to have to double the portion of rope used raise and lower the load to assist in for the half hitches raising the gin pole if necessary how ever the preferred method is to attach Open the leading block at the base of an additional tackle system to the rear the gin pole and place the fall line from guy line Attach the running block of the tackle system through it When the rear guyline tackle system to the the leading block is closed the gin pole rear guy line the end of which is at this is ready for use If you have to drift point of erection near the base of the the top of the pole without moving the gin pole see Figure 418 page 416 base do it when there is no load on Secure the fixed or stationary block to the pole unless the guys are equipped the rear anchor The fall line should with tackle come out of the running block to give greater MA to the tackle system OPERATING GIN POLES Stretch the tackle system to the base of the gin pole before erecting it to pre The gin pole is particularly adapted to verti vent the tackle blocks from chocking cal lifts see Figure 53 Sometimes it is used for lifting and pulling at the same time Haul in on the fall line of the tackle so that the load being moved travels toward system keeping a slight tension on the the gin pole just off the ground When used rear guy line and on each of the side in this manner attach a snubbing line of guy lines while eight people more for some kind to the other end of the load being larger poles raise the top of the pole by dragged keep it under tension at all times hand until the tackle system can take Use tag lines to control loads that you are control see Figure 52 page 53 lifting vertically A tag line is a light line Keep the rear guy line under tension to fastened to one end of the load and kept prevent the pole from swinging and under slight tension during hoisting TRIPODSA tripod consists of three legs lashed or onehalf times that of shears made of thesecured at the top The advantage of the tri same size materialpod over other rigging installations is thatit is stable and requires no guy lines tohold it in place Its disadvantage is that the RIGGING TRIPODSload can be moved only up and down The The two methods of lashing a tripod eitherload capacity of a tripod is about one and of which is suitable provided the lashing54 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 55FM 5125material is strong enough are discussedbelow The material used for lashing can befiber rope wire rope or chain Metal ringsjoined with short chain sections and largeenough to slip over the top of the tripod legsalso can be used Method 1This method is for fiber rope 1 inch in diameter or smaller Since the strength of the tripod is affected directly by the strength of therope and the lashing used use more turnsthan described here for extra heavy loadsand fewer turns for light loads The procedure is as follows Select three spars about equal in size and place a mark near the top of each to indicate the center of the lashing Lay two of the spars parallel with their tops resting on a skid or block and a third spar between the first two with the butt in the opposite direction and the lashing marks on all three in line The spacing between spars should be about onehalf the diameter of the spars Leave space between the spars so that the lashing will not be drawn too tight when erecting the tripod Method H Make a clove hitch using a linch You can use this method when using slender poles that are not more than 20 feet long or rope around one of the outside spars when some means other than hand power is about 4 inches above the lashing mark available for erection see figure 54 B The and take eight turns of the line around procedure is as follows the three spars see Figure 54 A Be sure to maintain the space between the Lay the three spars parallel to each spars while making the turns other with an interval between them slightly greater than twice the diame Finish the lashing by taking two close ter of the rope you use Rest the tops of frapping turns around the lashing the poles on a skid so that the ends between each pair of spars Secure the project over the skid about 2 feet and end of the rope with a clove hitch on the butts of the three spars are in line the center spar just above the lashing Put a clove hitch on one outside leg at Do not draw the frapping turns too the bottom of the position that the lash tight ing will occupy which is about 2 feet56 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125 from the end Weave the line over the middle leg under and around the outer leg under the middle leg and over and around the first leg continue this weaving for eight turns Finish with a clove hitch on the outer leg ERECTING TRIPODSSpread the legs of a tripod in its final position so that each leg is equidistant from theothers see Figure 55 This spread shouldnot be less than onehalf nor more than twothirds of the length of the legs Use chainrope or boards to hold the legs in this position You can lash a leading block for the fallline of the tackle to one of the legs The procedure is as follows Raise the tops of the spars about 4 feet keeping the base of the legs on the ground Cross the two outer legs The third or center leg then rests on top of the cross With the legs in this position pass a sling over the cross so that it passes over the top or center leg and around the other two Hook the upper block of a tackle to the sling and mouse the hook Continue raising the tripod by pushing in on the legs as they are lifted at the center Eight people should be able to raise an ordinary tripod into position Place a rope or chain lashing between the tripod legs to keep them from shift with the three legs laid together by raising ing once they are in their final position the tops of the legs until the legs clear the ground so they can be spread apart Use guy lines or tag lines to assist in steadying ERECTING LARGE TRIPODS the legs while raising them Cross the outerFor larger tripod installations you may have legs so that the center leg is on top of theto erect a small gin pole to raise the tripod cross and pass the sling for the hoistinginto position Erect the tripods that are tackle over the center leg and around thelashed in the manner described in Method II two outer legs at the cross Lifting and Moving Equipment 57FM 5125 SHEARSShears made by lashing two legs together the legs at this point should be equal towith a rope are well adapted for lifting onethird the diameter of one leg toheavy machinery or other bulky loads They make handling of the lashing easierare formed by two members crossed at theirtops with the hoisting tackle suspended With sufficient linch rope for 14 turnsfrom the intersection Shears must be around both legs make a clove hitchguyed to hold them in position Shears are around one spar and take eight turnsquickly assembled and erected They around both legs above the clove hitchrequire only two guys and are adapted to see Figure 56 Wrap the turnsworking at an inclination from the vertical tightly so that the lashing is smoothThe legs of the shears may be round poles and without kinkstimbers heavy planks or steel bars depend Finish the lashing by taking two fraping on the material at hand and the purpose ping turns around the lashing betweenof the shears In determining the size of themembers to use the load to be lifted and the the legs and securing the end of theratio Ld of the legs are the determining rope to the other leg just below thefactors For heavy loads the Ld should not lashing For handling heavy loadsexceed 60 because of the tendency of the legs increase the number of lashing turnsto bend rather than to act as columns Forlight work you can improvise shears from ERECTING SHEARStwo planks or light poles bolted together andreinforced by a small lashing at the intersec Dig the holes at the points where the legs oftion of the legs the shears are to stand If placed on rocky ground make sure that the base for the shears is level Cross the legs of the shears RIGGING SHEARS and place the butts at the edges of the holesWhen the shears are erected the spread of With a short length of rope make two turnsthe legs should equal about onehalf the over the cross at the top of the shears and tieheight of the shears The maximum allow the rope together to form a sling Be sure toable drift is 45 degrees Tackle blocks and have the sling bearing against the spars andguys for shears are essential You can not on the shears lashing entirely The prosecure the guy ropes to firm posts or trees cedure is as followswith a turn of the rope so that the length ofthe guys can be adjusted easily The proce Reeve a set of blocks and place thedure is as follows hook of the upper block through the Lay two timbers together on the sling Secure the sling in the hook by ground in line with the guys with the mousing Fasten the lower block to one butt ends pointing toward the back guy of the legs near the butt so that it will and close to the point of erection be in a convenient position when the shears have been raised but will be out Place a large block under the tops of of the way during erection the legs just below the point of lashing and insert a small spacer block Rig another tackle in the back guy near between the tops at the same point see its anchorage if you use the shears on Figure 56 The separation between heavy lifts Secure the two guys to the58 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125top of the shears with clove hitches to Keep the legs from spreading by conlegs opposite their anchorages above necting them with rope a chair orthe lashing boards It may be neceesary under some conditions to anchor each leg ofLift the top end of the shears legs and the shears while erecting them to keepwalk them up by hand until the the legs from sliding in the wrongtackle on the rear guy line can take see Figure 57 page 510 Itwill take several people depending onthe size of the shears to do this Then OPERATING SHEARSraise the shears legs into final position The rear guy is a very important part of theby hauling in on the tackle Secure the shears rigging since it is under a considerfront guy line to its anchorage before able strain during hoisting To avoid guyraising the shears legs and keep a line failure design them according to theslight tension on this line to control principles discussed in Chapter 4 Section IImovement The front guy has very little strain on it and Lifting and Moving Equipment 59FM 5125is used mainly to aid in adjusting the loads the fall line of the tackle of the shearsdrift and to steady the top of the shears can be led straight out of the upper blockwhen hoisting or placing the load You may When handling heavy loads you may havehave to rig a tackle in the rear guy for to lash a snatch block near the base of one ofhandling heavy loads During opera the shear legs to act as a leading block seetion set the desired drift by adjusting Figure 58 Run the fall line through thethe rear guy but do not do this while a leading block to a hand or is onthe shears For handling light winch for heavy loads510 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125 BOOM DERRICKSA boom derrick is a lifting device that incor swing more than 180 degrees when it is setporates the advantages of a gin pole and the on a turn plate or turn wheellong horizontal reach of a boom Use theboom derrick to lift and swing mediumsize RIGGING BOOM DERRICKSloads in a 90degree arc on either side of theresting position of the boom for a total For hoisting medium loads rig a boom to swing independently of the pole Takeswing of 180 degrees When employing a care to ensure the safety of those using theboom derrick in lifting heavy loads set it on installation Use a boom only temporarilya turn plate or turn wheel to allow the mast or when time does not permit a more staand boom to swing as a unit A mast is a ble installation When using a boom on agin pole used with a boom The mast can gin pole more stress is placed on the rear Lifting and Moving Equipment 511FM 5125guy therefore you may need a stronger guyIn case larger rope is not at hand use a setof tackle reeved with the same size rope asthat used in the hoisting tackle as a guy lineby extending the tackle from the top of thegin pole to the anchorage Lash the blockattached to the gin pole at the point wherethe other guys are tied and in the samemanner The procedure is as follows Rig a gin pole as described on page 51 but lash another block about 2 feet below the tackle lashing at the top of the pole see Figure 59 Reeve the tackle so that the fall line comes from the traveling block instead of the standing block Attach the traveling block to the top end of the boom after erecting the gin pole Erect the gin pole in the manner described on page 51 but pass the fall line of the tackle through the extra Use manpower to lift the boom in place block at the top of the pole before erect on the mast through the sling that will ing it to increase the MA of the tackle support it if the boom is light enough system The sling consists of two turns of rope with the ends tied together with a Select a boom with the same diameter square knot The sling should pass and not more than twothirds as long through the center four turns of the as the gin pole Spike two boards to the block lashing on the mast and should butt end of the boom and lash them cradle the boom On heavier booms with rope making a fork see Figure use the tackle system on the top of the 59 Make the lashing with a mini mast to raise the butt of the boom to mum of sixteen turns and tie it off with the desired position onto the mast a square knot Drive wedges under the lashing next to the cleats to help make Lash the traveling block of the gin pole the fork more secure see Figure 59 tackle to the top end of the boom as described on page 51 and lash the Spike cleats to the mast about 4 feet standing block of the boom tackle at above the resting place of the boom and the same point Reeve the boom tackle place another block lashing just above so that the fall line comes from the these cleats This block lashing will standing block and passes through the support the butt of the boom If a sepa block at the base of the gin pole The rate tackle system is rigged up to sup use of the leading block on this fall line port the butt of the boom place an is optional but when handling heavy additional block lashing on the boom loads apply more power to a horizontal just below the larger lashing to secure line leading from the block with less the running block of the tackle system strain on the boom and guys512 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125 ERECTING BOOM DERRICKS flatcars when the base of the gin pole cannot be set close to the object to be lifted It isRaise the boom into position when the rig used also on docks and piers for unloadingging is finished When working with heavy boats and barges Swing the boom by pushloads rest the base of the boom on the ing directly on the load or by pulling theground at the base of the pole Use a more load with bridle lines or tag lines position when working with light the angle of the boom to the mast by haulingloads In no case should the boom bear on the fall line of the mast tackle Raise oragainst any part of the upper twothirds of lower the load by hauling on the fall line ofthe mast the boom tackle You should place a leading block snatch block at the base of the gin OPERATING BOOM DERRICKS pole Lead the fall line of the boom tackle through this leading block to a hand orA boom on a gin pole provides a convenient poweroperated winch for the actual hoistmeans for loading and unloading trucks or ing of the load STIFFLEG DERRICKSThe mast of a stiffleg derrick is held in the mounted on the tower The stiffleg position by two rigid inclined struts also is used where guy lines cannot be proconnected to the top of the mast The struts vided as on the edge of a wharf or on aare spread 60 to 90 degrees to provide sup bargeport in two directions and are attached tosills extending from the bottom of the mast STEEL DERRICKSThe mast is mounted on vertical pins Themast and boom can swing through an arc of Steel derricks of the stiffleg type are availabout 270 degrees The tackles for hoisting able to engineer troops in two sizesthe load and raising the boom are similar to A 4ton rated capacity with a 28footthose used with the boom and gin pole see radius see Figure 510 page 514page 511 Rigging Boom Derrick A 30ton rated capacity with a 38foot OPERATING STIFFLEG DERRICKS radius when properly counter weightedA stiffleg derrick equipped with a long boomis suitable for yard use for unloading and Both derricks are erected on fixed material whenever continuous The 4ton derrick including a skidoperations are carried on within reach of its mounted doubledrum When used on a bridge deck move driven hoist weighs 7 tons and occupies athese derricks on rollers They are sometimes space 20 feet square The 30ton derrickused in multistory buildings surmounted by including a skidmounted to hoist material to the roof of the hoist weighs about 22 tons and occupies amain building to supply guy derricks space 29 feet square LIGHT HOISTING construction projects usually in members by hand or by light hoisting equipvolve erecting numerous light members as ment allowing the heavy hoisting equipwell as the heavy main members Progress ment to move ahead with the erection of thecan be more rapid if you raise the light main members Very light members can be Lifting and Moving Equipment 513FM 5125raised into place by two people using manila POLE When handlines are inadequate The improved pole derrick called a dutchor when members must be raised above the man is essentially a gin pole level use light hoisting equipment with a sill and knee braces at the bottomMany types of hoisting equipment for lifting see Figure 511 A It is usually installedlight loads have been devised Those dis with guys at the front and back It is effeccussed here are only typical examples that tive for lifting loads of 2 tons and becausecan be constructed easily in the field and of its light weight and few guys is readilymoved readily about the job moved from place to place by a small squad514 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 515FM 5125 BRAVE DERRICKS JINNIWINK DERRICKS The braced derrick known as a monkey is This derrick is suitable for lifting loads very useful for filling in heavy members weighing 5 tons see Figure 511 C page behind the regular erection equipment see 515 Handpowered jinniwinks are Figure 511 B page 515 Two back guys rigged preferably with manila rope Those are usually employed when lifting heavy operated by a powerdriven hoist should loads although light members may be lifted be rigged with wire rope The jinniwink without them Power is furnished by a is lashed down to the structural frame at hand or powerdriven hoist The construc both the front sill and tail sill to prevent tion of the base of the monkey permits it to the tail sill from rising when a load is be anchored to the structure by lashings to lifted resist the pull of the lead line on the snatch block at the foot of the mast Section II Moving EquipmentSkids rollers and jacks are used to move see Figure 512 A firm and level foundaheavy loads Cribbing or blocking is often tion for cribbing is essential and the as a safety measure to keep an timbers should rest firmly and evenly onobject in position or to prevent accidents to the ground Blocking used as a who work under or near these heavy for jacks should be sound and large enoughobjects Cribbing is formed by piling tim to carry the load The timbers should bebers in tiers with the tiers alternating in dry free from grease and placed firmly ondirection to support a heavy weight at a the ground so that the pressure is evenlyheight greater than blocking would provide distributed SKIDSPlace timber skids longitudinally under Oak planks 2 inches thick and about 15 feetheavy loads either to long make satisfactory skids for most opera Distribute the weight over a greater tions Keep the angle of the skids low to pre area vent the load from drifting or getting out of control You can use grease on skids when Make a smooth surface for skidding only horizontal movement is involved how equipment ever in most circumstances greasing is dan Provide a runway surface when rollers gerous because it may cause the load to drift are used see Figure 513 sideways suddenly ROLLERSUse hardwood or pipe rollers over skids for round and long enough to pass very heavy loads into position under the load being moved Support thePlace the skids under the rollers to provide a load on longitudinal wooden members tosmooth continuous surface for the rollers provide a smooth upper surface for the rollersMake sure that the rollers are smooth and to move on The skids placed underneath516 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 517FM 5125the rollers must form continuous place four to six rollers under theload to be moved see Figure 513 page 517Place several rollers in front of the load androll the load slowly forward onto the rollersAs the load passes rollers are left clearbehind the load and are picked up and placedin front of the load so that there is a continuous path of rollers In making a turn with aload on rollers incline the front in the direction of the turn and therear rollers in the opposite direction of the rollers may be made bystriking them sharply with a sledge Formoving lighter loads make up the rollers andset on axles in side beams as a semipermanent conveyor Permanent metal roller conveyors are available see Figure 514 Theyare usually made in sections JACKSTo place cribbing skids or rollers you may Lowering the load onto the cribbinghave to lift and lower the load for a shortdistance Jacks are used for this purpose Repeat this process as many times as necJacks are used also for precision placement essary to lift the load to the desired heightof heavy loads such as bridge spans A Jacks are available in capacities from 5 tonumber of different styles of jacks are avail 100 tons see Figure 516 Small capacityable but only use heavy duty hydraulic or jacks are operated through a rack bar orscrewtype jacks The number of jacks used screw while those of large capacity arewill depend on the weight of the load andthe rated capacity of the jacks Be certain usually operated the jacks are provided with a solid footing preferably wooden blocking Cribbing RATCHETLEVER JACKSis frequently used in lifting loads by jackingstages see Figure 515 The procedure The ratchet lever jack available to engirequires neer troops as part of panel bridge equip ment is a rackbar jack that has a rated Blocking the jacks capacity of 15 tons see Figure 516 A It Raising the object to the maximum has a foot lift by which loads close to its height of the jacks to permit cribbing base can be engaged The foot capacity is 7 to be put directly under the load 12 tons518 Lifting and Moving Equipment FM 5125 Their principal uses are for tightening lines or lashings and for spreading or bracing parts in bridge construction SCREW JACKS Screw jacks have a rated capacity of 12 tons see Figure 516 C They are about 13 inches high when closed and have a safe rise of at least 7 inches These jacks are issued with the pioneer set and can be used for general purposes including steel erection HYDRAULIC JACKS Hydraulic jacks are available in Class IV supplies in capacities up to 100 tons see Figure 516 D Loads normally encountered STEAMBOAT RATCHETS by engineer troops do not require large capacity hydralic jacks Those ratchets sometimes called jacks are ratchet screw with the squad pioneer set are 11 inchesjacks of 10ton rated capacity with end fit high and have a rated capacity of 12 tonstings that permit pulling parts together or and a rise of at least 5 14 inches They arepushing them apart see Figure 516 B large enough for usual construction needs Lifting and Moving Equipment 519 FM 5125 CHAPTER 6 jobs may require several the hole is more than 1 inch or if the splitkinds of scaffolds to permit easy working extends more than 3 inches in from theprocedures Scaffolds may range from indi end Use 3inch planks to build the temvidual planks placed on structural members porary floor used for constructing steelof the building to involved patent scaffold buildings because of the possibility that aing Scaffold planks are placed as a decking heavy steel member might be rested temover porarily on the planks Lay single scaffold planks across beams of upper floors or Swinging scaffolds roofs to form working areas or runways see Figure 61 page 62 Run each plank from Suspended scaffolds beam to beam with not more than a few Needlebeam scaffolds inches of any plank projecting beyond the end of the supporting beam Overhangs Doublepole builtup independent are dangerous because people may step on scaffolds them and overbalance the scaffold plank When laying planking continuously as inScaffold planks are of various sizes includ a runway lay the planks so that their endsing 2 inches by 9 inches by 13 feet 2 inches overlap You can stagger single plank runsby 10 inches by 16 feet and 2 inches by 12 so that each plank is offset with by 16 feet You may need 3inch to the next plank in the run It is advisablethick scaffold planks for platforms that to use two layers of planking on largemust hold heavy loads or withstand move working areas to increase the freedom ofments Planks with holes or splits are not for scaffolding if the diameter of SWINGING SCAFFOLDSThe swinging single plank or platform SINGLEPLANK SWINGING SCAFFOLDStype of scaffold must always be secured to A single scaffold plank maybe swung overthe building or structure to prevent it from the edge of a building with two ropes bymoving away and causing someone to fall using a scaffold hitch at each end see FigWhen swinging scaffolds are suspended ures 62 page 62 and 228 page 220 Aadjacent to each other planks should never tackle may be inserted in place of ropes forbe placed so as to form a bridge between lowering and hoisting This type of swingthem ing scaffold is suitable for one person Scaffolds 61FM 512562 Scaffolds FM 5125 SWINGING PLATFORM SCAFFOLDS which the lower block of a set of manila rope falls is attached The scaffold is supThe swinging platform scaffold consists of a ported by hooks or anchors on the roof of aframe similar in appearance to a ladder with structure The fall line of the tackle musta decking of wood slats see Figure 63 It is be secured to a member of the scaffold whensupported near each end by a steel stirrup to in final position to prevent it from falling SUSPENDED scaffolds are heavier than swing be made up in almost any width up toing scaffolds and are usually supported on about 6 feet and may be 12 feet longoutriggers at the roof From each outrigger depending on the size of the putlogs or loncables lead to hand winches on the scaffold gitudinal supports under the scaffold AThis type of scaffold is raised or lowered by light roof may be included on this type ofoperating the hand winches which must scaffold to protect people from fallingcontain a locking device The scaffold may debris Scaffolds 63FM 5125 NEEDLEBEAM SCAFFOLDS This type of scaffold is used only for tempo Figure 64 A scaffold hitch is used in the rary jobs No material should be stored on rope supporting the needle beams to pre this scaffold In needlebeam scaffolding vent them from rolling or turning over see two 4 by 6inch or similar size timbers are Figure 228 page 220 The hanging lines suspended by ropes A decking of 2inch are usually of 1 14inch manila rope The scaffold plank is placed across the needle rope is hitched to the needle beam carried beams which should be placed about 10 feet up over a structural beam or other support apart Needlebeam scaffolding is often and then down again under the needle used by riveting gangs working on steel beam so the latter has a complete loop of structures because of the necessity for fre rope under it The rope is then passed over quent changes of location and because of the support again and fastened around its adaptability to different situations see itself by two half hitches DOUBLEPOLE BUILTUP SCAFFOLDSThe doublepole builtup scaffold steel or by placing the two uprights on the groundwood sometimes called the independent and inserting the diagonal members Thescaffold is completely independent of the diagonal members have end fittings thatmain structure Several types of patent permit rapid lockingin position The scaffolding are available for tier is set on steel bases on the ground Asimple and rapid erection see Figure 65 second tier is placed in the same manner onThe scaffolding can be built from wood if the first tier with the bottom of eachnecessary The scaffold uprights are braced upright locked to the top of the lower tier Awith diagonal members and the working third and fourth upright can be placed onlevel is covered with a platform of planks the ground level and locked to the first setAll bracing must form triangles The base of with diagonal bracing The scaffolding caneach column requires adequate footing be built as high as desired but high scafplates for the bearing area on the ground folding should be tied in to the main strucPatented steel scaffolding is usually erected ture64 Scaffolds FM 5125Scaffolds 65FM 5125 BOATSWAINS chairs can be made several notched board inserted through the two legways but they usually consist of a sling for loops will provide a comfortable seat seesupporting one person Figure 67 The loop formed as the running end to make the double bowline will still ROPE CHAIR provide a back support and the rolling hitch can still be used to lower the boatswainsYou can make a rope boatswains chair by chairusing a double bowline and a rolling hitchsee Figure 66 One person can operate the ROPE CHAIR WITH TACKLErope seat to lower himself by releasing thegrip of the rolling hitch A slight twist with The boatswains chair is supported by a fourthe hand on the hitch permits the suspen part rope tackle two double blocks see Figsion line to slip through it but when the ure 68 One person can raise or lowerhand pressure on the hitch is released the himself or can be assisted by a person on thehitch will hold firmly ground When working alone the fall line is attached to the lines between the seat and ROPE CHAIR WITH SEAT the traveling block with a rolling hitch As aIf the rope boatswains chair must be used to safety precaution a figureeight knot shouldsupport a person at work for some time the be tied after the rolling hitch to prevent accirope may cause considerable discomfort A dental untying66 Scaffolds FM 5125Scaffolds 67 FM 5125 and Tables of Useful Information Figures and Tables of Useful Information A1FM 5125A2 Figures and Tables of Useful Information FM 5125Figures and Tables of Useful Information A3FM 5125A4 Figures and Tables of Useful Information FM 5125Figures and Tables of Useful Information A5FM 5125A6 Figures and Tables of Useful Information FM 5125 G l o s s a r yAR Army regulationATTN attentionBA bearing areabend A bend in this manual called a knot is used to fasten two ropes together or to fasten a rope to a ring or loopbight A bight is a bend or Ushaped curve in a ropeBS breaking strength the greatest strengthCH clay high clay low Ropes and twines made by twisting together vegetable or synthetic fibersD diameterD drift distanceDA Department of the ArmyEL effective lengthENG engineerFM field manualFS factor of safety Glossary1FM 5125 GC clayey gravel GP poorly graded gravel GW wellgraded gravel HD horizontal distance HP holding power HQ headquarters IPS improved plow steel L length of the sling line A line sometimes called a rope is a thread string cord or rope espe cially a comparatively slender and strong cord This manual will use the word rope rather than line in describing knots hitches rigging and the like loop A loop is formed by crossing the running end cover or under the stand ing part forming a ring or circle in the rope Ld ratio Lt ratio MA mechanical advantage MD mean depth MH silt high ML silt low MPS mild plow steelGlossary2 FM 5125N number of slingsNo numberOH organic soil high organic soil low turn or loop An overhand turn or loop is made when the running end passes over the standing partPS plow steelpsi pounds per square inchrope A rope often called a line is a large stout cord made of strands of fiber or wire that are twisted or braided togetherround turn A round turn is a modified turn but with the running end leaving the circle in the same general direction as the standing partrunning end The running end is the free or working end of a ropeSC clayey sandy soilSF finely graded sandSP poorly graded sandSR slope ratiostanding part The standing part is the rest of the rope excluding the running endSW wellgraded sandSWC safe working capacity Glossary3FM 5125 T tension TB technical bulletin TC training circular TL timber length TM training manual TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command turn A turn is the placing of a loop around a specific object such as a post rail or ring with the running end continuing in a direction opposite to the standing part underhand turn or loop An underhand turn or loop is made when the running end passes under the standing part US United States of America V vertical distance VD vertical distance W weight of the load to be lifted W3 width of spars WL width of the load WST width of the sloping trench Y Perpendicular distance from the rear guy line to the base of the gin pole or for shears to a point on the ground midway between the shears legsGlossary4 FM 5125 R e f e r e n c e sSOURCES USEDThese are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this Regulations ARsAR 593 Air Transportation Movement of Cargo by Scheduled Military and Commercial Air Transportation CONUS Outbound 1 February 1981Field Manuals FMsFM 534 Engineer Field Data 14 September 1987FM 5434 Earthmoving Operations 30 September 1992FM 105007 Airdrop Derigging and Recovery Procedures 20 September 1994FM 2022 Vehicle Recovery Operations FMFRP 419 18 September 1990FM 559 Unit Air Movement Planning 5 April 1993FM 5512 Movement of Units in Air Force Aircraft AFM 767 FMFM 46 OPNAVINST 463027A 10 November 1989FM 5515 Transportation Reference Data 9 June 1986Supply Catalog SCSC 518090CLN17 Tool Kit Rigging Wire Rope Cutting Clamping and Splicing wChest 23 October 1981Technical Bulletins TBsTB 430142 Safety Inspection and Testing of Lifting Devices 30 August 1993TB ENG 317 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and Reassembly for Crane Shovel Truck Mounted 20 Ton 34 Cubic Yard Gasoline Driven Garwood Model M20B 28 June 1962TB ENG 324 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and Reassembly for Mixer Concrete GED Trailer Mounted Construction Machinery Model 16S 2 July 1962TB ENG 326 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and Reassembly for Scraper Earth Moving Towed 12 Cubic Yard Cable Operated Model LPO 9 July 1962 References1FM 5125TB ENG 330 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and Reassembly for Truck Stake 5Ton 6x6 Military Bridging on ORD M139 Chassis 3 July 1962Training Circular TCTC 9061 Military Mountaineering 26 April 1989Technical Manuals TMsTM 5270 Cableways Tramways and Suspension Bridges 21 May 1964TM 1050070 Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment Rigging Dry Bulk Materials and Potable Water for Free Drop 2 November 1967DOCUMENTS NEEDEDThese documents must be available to the intended users of this of the Army DA FormsDA Form 2028 Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms 1 February FM 5125Index Index1FM 5125Index2FM 5125Index3FM 5125Index4 FM 5125 3 OCTOBER 1995By Order of the Secretary of the Army DENNIS J REIMER General United States ArmyOfficial Chief of Staff JOEL B HUDSONActing Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army Army USAR and ARNG To be distributed in accordance with DAForm 1211 E requirements for FM 5125 Rigging Techniques Procedures Qty rqr block no 5426 C US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1995 628 027 40064
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