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Knots



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                                         Knots for Rock Climbers
                                                 - by Michael Strong ≠
                                           - illustrations by Ryan Ojerio -

                                     KNOT SELECTION AND CARE
       The climber has a large selection of knots to chose from. While it may be tempting to learn as many
knots as possible, it's usually better to learn the handful of knots essential to a specific situation, and learn
them well enough to tie efficiently. When it comes to knot selection, ask "What kind of knot is needed?"
There are three kinds to chose from: bends, loops and hitches.
       Bends are easily identified, as the ends come out opposite sides of the knot. Bends are commonly
used in climbing (e.g. to tie two ropes together for a rappel, or to tie accessory cord or tubular webbing into
slings or runners)




                                                        Ring Bend




                                                      Flemish Bend

       Loops can be tied two different ways. The method used depends on the circumstance. When tying
into the end of the rope, for example, theres no choice but to tie the loop with a follow through. Likewise, a
loop tied in the middle of a rope must be tied on a bight. Whichever of these two kinds of knots you tie, the
finished product looks the same, as shown below.




                                Figure-of-eight follow-through / -Figure-of-eight on a bight

       Hitches are adjustable knots. Rope can be fed back and forth through a hitch while it remains tied.
The MŁenter hitch is shown below.
                                                                               Knots for Climbers               2




                                                    MŁenter hitch



                                         PERFORMANCE QUALITIES
        Once you know what kind of knot is needed, selection can be narrowed to one or two knots that will
do the job. The choice of one knot over another is best based on a blend of the following performance
qualities.
        Strength is usually the first quality that comes to mind when deciding on which knot to use. While it
is important, strength should not be the sole determinant for selecting a knot. Knots used by climbers rarely
break, largely because the materials used in the construction of ropes, webbing and accessory cord are
more than strong enough to meet the demands normally placed upon them.
        Knot security is critical. The ability of a knot to stay tied is probably more important than knot
strength. Does this mean that the most secure knot is the most appropriate one? Not at all. If this were the
case, more climbers would use the overhand follow through as a tie-in knot. Its certainly strong enough,
and its easier to tie than the figure-of-eight follow through. The overhand knot, however, is extremely
difficult to untie once firmly loaded.
        Ease of tying is also important. Theres no point in choosing a complicated knot when a less
complex one will work just as well. Ease of untying after loading is especially important. Ease of visual
inspection is a performance quality that should not be overlooked. Its important to be able to glance at the
tie-in knot of your climbing partner, or the knots of an anchor system and quickly recognize whether these
knots are tied correctly.
        One way to evaluate whether the right kind of knot has been selected for the job is to examine the
knot when its loaded. Look to see if the knot is stressed along its long axis. If it isnt (e.g. the stress is
sideways), the knot may be split apart under load, compromising its strength and security.
                                                                                        Knots for Climbers     3




                     A bend and a loop stressed along their long axes - correct applications in each case




                            A knot stressed sideways (across its long axis) - incorrect application




                                               KNOT MANAGEMENT
        A knot must be dressed, or tied in its most secure orientation. With most knots tied with accessory
cord, this means making sure that strands running side by side through a knot do not cross. Knots with
crossed strands may not snug together, can jam badly and risk coming loose over time.
        The manner in which knots are dressed may be quite different, so know how to efficiently dress each
knot. To dress a figure-of-eight on a bight, loosely tie the knot and then work out any twists or crosses.
Think of the rope strands as freeway lanes. Just like the lanes of a freeway, the cords should remain side by
side, never cross at any point along their path. When the crosses have been worked out, tighten the knot.




                                            A loosely tied figure-eight on a bight


Knots must also be firmly tightened. In most cases it's not enough to simply pull on the rope strands on
either side of the knot in an effort to tighten it. With the figure-of-eight bend and the figure-of-eight follow-
through, for example, both strands on each side of the knot must be pulled tightly (four pulls total).
                                                                                  Knots for Climbers         4




                                           Tightening a figure-of-eight bend

        Once a knot has been loaded, it can be difficult to loosen. Its best to break the strands which run
perpendicularly to the long axis of the knot away from the knots center. Make sure to work both sides of the
knot.




                                              Loosening a Flemish bend

        Bends, loops and hitches are dressed and tightened differently, so know the specific ways to
efficiently tie, dress, tighten and loosen each knot . Keep in mind that working with tubular webbing is much
different than tying knots with rope or accessory cord. Considerations for working with webbing are
addressed below, in the section Webbing Knots.



                                        TIE-IN AND CLIP-IN KNOTS
        The most popular tie-in and clip-in knots are members of the figure-of-eight family. When tying into
the end of the rope, use the figure-of-eight follow-through. It's strong, stays securely tied and is relatively
easy to untie once loaded.




                                         Tying a figure-of-eight follow through

        When you're at an anchor station on a climb and need to attach yourself to an anchor for safety, you
can tie a loop into the rope with a figure-of-eight on a bight and clip the loop to an anchor carabiner.
                                                                                    Knots for Climbers             5




                                           Tying a figure-of-eight on a bight



                                               FRICTION KNOTS
         Friction knots are invaluable for rescue situations. They serve as ascending devices when you need
to ascend a set of jammed rappel ropes and as a means to transfer the load to an anchor during a belay
escape.
         There are many friction knots to choose from. Some are more appropriate than others in a given
situation. In all cases, friction knots work the same way, by clamping onto the rope when tensioned, and
sliding along the rope when tension is released (or allowing the rope to slide through the knot). In order for a
friction knot to grip, the cord from which it is tied must be smaller in diameter than the rope to which it is
attached. It also helps if the cord is relatively supple so that it can easily conform to the rope's circular
shape.
         The prusik knot is tied by wrapping consecutive girth hitches around the rope. A two-wrap prusik
provides sufficient grip for ascending a rope. If the load is heavier, a three-wrap prusik is necessary. Always
use a three-wrap prusik for rescue work.




               A three wrap prusik    Tie 3 consecutive girth hitches.    A single girth-hitch is shown at left.

         Prusik knots tied with one-inch tubular webbing slip on the rope, whereas prusiks tied with 9/16"
webbing hold fine, but are difficult to slide along the rope due to the small bulk. It's best to use accessory
cord to tie a prusik knot.
                                                                              Knots for Climbers             6


       The Klemheist knot works very well when tied with webbing (unlike the prusik knot). It's also faster to
tie when using a long (16' to 20') cordelette, especially if the ends of the cordelette are left open (untied).
Tying a prusik knot with a long cordelette is more time consuming, as the ends must be repeatedly passed
through the knot.




                                      Klemheist knot          Bachmann knot

       The Bachmann knot incorporates a carabiner as a handle, making it easier to slide the knot along
the rope, a helpful feature when ascending a rope. The carabiner also enables the knot to be self-tending in
a rescue system. This knot also works well when tied with webbing.


                                              USEFUL HITCHES
       One of the most useful knots is the MŁenter hitch. It can be used in lieu of a belay device and as a
component of a tension release mechanism. It's advantageous to be able to tie this knot one handed,
especially for a lone rescuer who may have to attend to other tasks.
       Use a locking carabiner when tying a MŁenter hitch. A pear-shaped carabiner may be needed to
allow the knot to be flipped from one side of the carabiner to the other, especially when larger diameter rope
is used.
                                                                                           Knots for Climbers                  7




                                               Tying a one-handed MŁenter hitch


      Grab the non-loaded                   Pull the strand up into a                 Clip the bight into the
   strand and pass it behind                bight. Do not twist or flip               carabiner and lock the
       the loaded strand.                          this strand.                                gate.



       When used in a tension release mechanism, the MŁenter hitch must be backed up. Tie a slippery
hitch followed by a non-slippery overhand.




                                                    Tying off a MŁenter hitch


    Keep your brake hand on the rope!             The knot is now slippery, meaning                  The finished product.
      With your free hand, pull a bight         that the bight can easily be pulled out.           Notice the overhand on a
    around the loaded rope and through           For security, a slippery tie-off should              bight is snugged up
    a slot formed immediately in front of       always be backed up. An overhand on                against the slippery tie-off.
              the MŁenter hitch.                     a bight is an excellent choice.
                                                                                         Knots for Climbers                    8




       The Mariner's hitch is a useful tension release knot. It's simple to tie, especially with an open-ended
(untied) cordelette. The major disadvantage to the Mariner's hitch is that it cannot be tied with a single
strand of cord.




                                                      Mariner's hitch



       When tying the Mariner's hitch, wrap the cord twice around the body of the carabiner and then
around the strands with a minimum of five wraps. Finish the knot off with a safety overhand.
       A clove hitch is an adjustable knot that grips securely onto the round surface of a carabiner. The
clove hitch is particularly useful for clipping into an anchor, because it allows for quick adjustment of the
amount of slack or tension in the rope.




                                                    Tying a clove hitch

   Using identical hand            Slide one of the loops in front of the other. It will be            Clip the loops into a
     motions, tie two              clear which loop to slide as one choice results in a                  locking carabiner,
   loops into the rope.            clove hitch and the other produces no knot at all. In               tighten the hitch and
                                   this case, the loop on the right is slid in front of the                lock the gate.
                                       loop on the left. Do not twist of fold the loop.
                                                                                      Knots for Climbers                9



       Always use a locking carabiner when tying a clove hitch and tighten the knot securely. A loose clove
hitch can slip when loaded and weld abrade the rope. A loose knot can also detach from the carabiner. For
these reasons some climbers favor the figure-of-eight on a bight as a method for attaching to an anchor.
If you know how to tie a one-handed clove hitch you can tie and adjust the knot at the same time.




                                            Tying a one-handed clove hitch
       Pull the non-loaded strand    You have two choices for twisting this strand. You'll           Tighten the knot
      behind the loaded one. Twist    always get it right if you twist the rope into a loop            and lock the
         this strand into a loop.    such that the length of the non-loaded strand ends                 carabiner.
                                         up behind, rather than in front of the loop.


                                          OTHER USEFUL KNOTS
       One of the most secure knots is the grapevine (a.k.a. double fishermans). Climbers use it to join
accessory cord, or even webbing, into slings. The knot definitely stays tied, especially once it is loaded.
       Tying the knot is easier than it appears. Tie one side, flip the knot around and then tie the same
knot again (using identical hand motions). The grapevine is tightened by pulling the strands on either side
of the knot away from each other. Its tied properly when the four parallel strands are on the same side of
the knot. If the parallel strands are opposite each other, a portion of the knot sticks out on either side,
making these areas susceptible to abrasion.
                                                                                           Knots for Climbers                  10




  Begin by tying one end of the rope around the other                     Pass the working end between the "x"
  end. Notice the "x" pattern formed.                                     and the stationary strand of rope.




To adjust the length of end tail, slide the knot                 Finish the other half of the grapevine by flipping the knot end to
along the stationary strand. Tighten the knot.                   end and repeating the above sequence of hand motions.

                                                          Tying a grapevine



                                                   WEBBING KNOTS
        Overhand knots are used almost exclusively when working with sling webbing. The water knot
(Ring bend) is used to join pieces of webbing into slings or runners.




                                                        Water knot (ring bend)


        The water knot has an uncanny ability to work itself loose over time. Dressing the knot properly, as
shown below, adds to its security. Nevertheless, get in the habit of checking the water knot frequently. Its
also a good idea to incorporate long (at least 3") tails into the knot when tying it.




                                                        Dressing a water knot
        To dress the water knot, pinch the webbing on each side of the knot and then give each strand a
good tug. The finished product will look like a tie.
                                                                                Knots for Climbers      11


       Its also possible to use a grapevine knot to join webbing into runners. The grapevine cinches tightly
when loaded, adding an element of security lacking with the water knot. The grapevine, however, may be
impossible to untie once loaded, a definite disadvantage when trying to tie runners together. Some climbers
carry a selection of runners joined with water knots and grapevines in order to take advantage of the
benefits of each knot.


       Tie an overhand on-a-bight to form a loop in the middle of a runner, or in one end of an individual
strand of webbing (e.g. for girth hitching a piece of webbing to a prusik in a tension release mechanism).




                                    Overhand on a bight at the end of a sling


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