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Auto Helm 5000 Analog



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 Any reference to Raytheon or
RTN in this manual should be
  interpreted as Raymarine.
The names Raytheon and RTN
       are owned by the
     Raytheon Company.
 Installation and Operating Handbook
                ANNOGUE




Autohelm"
 .-
;-:
      AUTOHELM 5000

            The Autohelm 5000 is a modern high                 The basic system comprises a Drive Unit
       performance autopilot specifically developed        and Control Unit inter-connected by a
       for sailing and motor vessels of up to 40'(13m)     pluggable multi-core cable. A complete range
       LOA. It is exceptionally easy to operate and its   of optional remote control accessories are
      advanced micro-electronic control circuit gives     available which are also pluggable to the
      outstanding steering performance.                   Control Unit. After fitting the system it is only
           The Autohelm 5000 is distinguished by its      necessary to make a single adjustment to the
      automatic course locking capability which           Control Unit in`,order to match the system's
      permits change-over from manual to automatic        response range to the character of a particular
      steering by a single push-button control. From      vessel.
      then on the original heading is rigidly                  The Autohelm 5000 is exceptionally easy to
      maintained by the automatic trim system which       install and prepare for sea trials. Sound
      continuously monitors trim changes and offsets      installation however is vital if the system's high
      the mean wheel position to compensate. In           standard of performance and reliability is to be
      addition, the rate of wheel rotation is regulated   achieved. The installation notes should be
      in proportion to the rate at which the vessel       followed carefully and in cases where special
      moves off course, giving the Autohelm 5000 the      advice may be needed you are encouraged to
      smooth steering capability of an experienced        contact our Technical Sales Department where
      helmsman.                                           expert assistance is always available.
 I .O SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

     The Autohelm 5000 is a modular system               A simple remote control installation is
 that can be built up from a minimum number of      illustrated in Fig. 2. The auxiliary control unit
standardised units to match the individual          repeats the basic working controls of the main
requirements of a wide range of sailing and         control unit and is suitable for extending
power vessels. The rudder drive system may be       autopilot control to a secondary steering
chosen from a range of rotary, linear and           position. Alternatively, in the case of a sailing
hydraulic drive units to best suit the vessel's     yacht for example, the auxiliary control unit
particular steering system.                         provides a watertight cockpit control enabling
    The most basic installation (Fig. 1) consists   the control unit to be mounted in a protected
of a control unit inter-connected by a pluggable    position below deck.
cable system to a drive unit. This installation         The full remote control system (Fig. 3)
would be suitable for a motor vessel with a         provides the addition of a hand-held remote
single enclosed steering position, and where no     control unit.
requirement exists for remote control facilities.
Hand-held remote control unit type DO73 may
be plugged directly into the Control Unit
auxiliary socket.


                                                                       DIRECT REMOTE
                                     DRIVE UNIT                        CONTROL (D073)
                                                       CONTROL UNIT       (OPTION)




         .20 AMP FUSE




           DC SUPPLY



Fig. 1 Basic System


                                     DRIVE UNIT




         20 AMP FUSE




           DC SUPPLY



Fig. 2 Basic Remote Control System
                            DRIVE UNIT
                       f                  \          CONTROL UNIT




    20 AMP
     FUSE
                                                                J
                                                                1                         HAND HELD
                                                                                        REMOTE CONTROL
                                                                                             (0093)
                                                                          REMOTE SOCKET       m

D C SUPPLY




             /             Ef             /
                                                           AUXILIARY
                                                         CONTROL UNIT




Fig 3 Full Remote Contrd System

1 .l CONTROL SYSTEM
                                                                                           .
1.1 .l CONTROL UNIT
The control unit is common to all installations               Rotary controls for course alteration, rudder
and is provided with six metres of multi-core            response and sea state are grouped on the
cable with pre-connected plugs and sockets to            control unit facia, together with the push-button
connect to the drive unit. It houses the main            primary working controls. A secondary gain
control circuit PCB together with the automatic          control is inset into the rear case to allow
course following compass system. The control             adjustment of the system's rudder response
unit case is splash proof, but not watertight, and       range to match the widely differing steering
is, therefore, intended for mounting in a dry and        characteristics of both planing and
protected position. Two sockets are provided             displacement vessels. The control unit is
on the rear case for connecting the drive unit           suitable for use on 12 volt systems.
and remote control system.

                      I-- -1




             r-                      -i
                    142mm (5 VI
 1 .1.2 REMOTE CONTROL
 ACCESSORIES
 1 .I .3 AUXILIARY CONTROL UN IT
 Autopilot control may be transferred to the
 auxiliary control unit by depressing the Remote
 push-button on the main control unit facia. The
 auxiliary control unit is watertight and designed
 for flush mounting in severely exposed
 positions.
                                                                                                     (3.2") 81 mm
      It is provided with six metres of cable
 terminated in a waterproof plug for direct
                                                                                                 r
                                                                                                     1 OOmm   (3 9U

 connection to the control unit. A connector is
 situated on the rear case for connecting hand-
 held remote control deck socket.

 1 .1.4 REMOTE CONTROL UNITS
The remote control is a hand-held unit that
                                                                                                                      i
enables the autopilot to be overriden and the        Auxiliary control Unit DO69                     86mm (3 38")
vessel to be power steered from anywhere on
board. The unit is fitted with a six-metre flying
lead, Type DO73 is suitable for direct
connection to the Control Unit auxiliary socket.                   35mm
                                                                               56mm (2.2")
Type DO93 is fitted with a waterproof plug for                     I1 38")

connection to a waterproof deck socket.




                                                                                             I
 1.15 REMOTE SOCKET
 The remote socket provides a watertight
 socket for the hand-held remote control. The
  socket is supplied with 6 metres of 3 core cable
terminating in a plugfor direct connection to
 the Auxiliary Control Unit.

 1 .1.6 CABLE EXTENSION
The cable extension facilitates the lengthening
of all multi-core cables in six-metre increments.
The extension cable is terminated with
compatible waterproof connectors for insertion
into the cable harness in the positions shown in
Fig. 3.                                              Hand Held Remote Control Unit (D093t
                                                     Direct Remote Control         (0073)

1 .I .7 CATALOGUE NUMBERS
CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control Unit                  2068
Auxiliary Control Unit        DO69
Remote Control                DO93
Direct Remote Control         DO73
Remote Socket                 DO91
Cable Extension               DO59
DRIVE SYSTEMS                 12v only
Rotary                        Z069
Linear                        2070                   Remote Socket DO91
Hydraulic                     2071

                                                                                                                      0
1.2 DRIVE SYSTEMS                                             1.2.1 ROTARY DRIVE UNIT
 Mechanical steering systems may be driven by                 The output shaft is driven by a continuously
 either a rotary or linear drive unit. Some steering          rated servo motor via an efficient reduction
 systems are fitted with an autopilot drive shaft,            gearbox. The gearbox is dry lubricated to permit
 and in such cases the choice of a rotary drive               operation in any attitude. A fail safe friction
system is straightforward. In general, if a drive             clutch within the gear train engages
shaft exists and lost motion does not exceed                  automatically when the autopilot is switched to
2% of total rudder movement, the rotary drive                 Duty and will disengage instantly even under
unit becomes the most economic choice. In all                 extreme load when the autopilot is switched
other cases the linear drive unit will provide the            to Set.
simplest installation since it may be connected
directly to a tiller link on the rudder stock. Total          Supply voltage                          12 volts
independence of the mechanical steering                       Peak output torque                      240lb.in. (27Nm)
linkage also allows the linear drive unit to be               Maximum shaft speed                     18 rpm
used to power steer the vessel in the event of                Power consumption (typical              1 S-3 amps
steering linkage failure, and this is an important            average)
safety feature. In addition, minimisation of                  Suitable for vessels up to              40ft. LOA (12m)
working parts improves the overall efficiency of
the rudder drive system and reduces lost
motion to an absolute minimum.
     All vessels with hydraulic steering systems
will require a hydraulic drive unit.



                                                                              175mm (6.88")

                             2 Holes: 12Smm (0.5") diameter           r   -     -     -       -   i
1.2.2 LINEAR DRIVE UNIT
The output ram of the linear drive unit is driven                           Supply voltage                     12 volts
by a declutchable re-circulating ball leadscrew                             Peak thrust                        550lbs (225Kg)
which enables the drive unit to .be permanently                             Maximum stroke speed               1.2in./sec.
coupled to the rudder stock via a simple crank                                                                 (30mm/sec.)
or tiller arm. The drive is automatically engaged                           Maximum stroke                     12in. (300mm)
by means of an internal friction clutch when the
autopilot is switched to Duty and will                                      Overall length at mid stroke       27.5in. (700mm)
disengage instaltly even under heavy load                                   Tiller arm length                  1 Oin. (260mm)
when the autopilot is switched to Set or Off.                               (+35" rudder)
                                                                            Maximum rudder torque        500lb.in.
                                                                                                         (570Nm)
                                                                            Power consumption (typical 1 Z-3 amps
                                                                            average)
                 25mm (1 .o")           207mm   (6.15")
                                                                            Suitable for vessels up to   40ft. LOA (12m)


                                                                          51 mm (2.0")




                                                                                         1
                                                                                              _ ,- _
                                                                                   ,                  /
                                                        JJ

                                                                 700mm   lZ7.5")                  I
                           !    1

                           I



                                                                                                          mm (0.7") RADIUS




                                                                                                                260mm
                                                                                                                (10.0")




                                                                                             --+j$--
                                                                                                r

1.2.3 HYDRAULIC DRIVE UNIT                                                 Supply voltage              12 volts
The hydraulic drive unit consists of a precision                           Regulated peak pressure    4501b.in2 (30 bar)
gear pump with integral valve block driven by a                            Flow control               integral pilot
continuously rated servo motor. A special                                                             check and
pressure balance valve corrects the effects of                                                        pressure
hydraulic slip and isolates the pump from the                                                         balance valve
steering circuit when the autopilot is not                                                            sys tern
energised.                                                                 Peak flow rate (unloaded)  40in3/mm
                                                                                                      (650cc/min)
                                                                           Maximum ram capacity       1 5in3 (25Occ)
                                    ,                                      Power consumption (typical 2-3.5 amps
                                                                           average)
                                                                           Overall length             9.5in. (240mm)




    /L/       240mm   (9.5")                    117mm   (4.6")
    2.0 INSTALLATION

    The Atitohalm 5CCC is excepticnally easy tc           essential to operate the autopilot via a weathsr-
    install and prepare for sea trials. Sound              proof auxiliary control unit. The auxiliary control
    installation however is vital if the system's high     unit would normally be mounted in the cockpit
    standard of performance and reliability is to be       adjacent to the steering position and the
    achieved. The installation notes should be             control unit situated below in a suitably
    followed carefully and in cases where special          protected position.
    advice may be needed you are encouraged to                  The compass within the control unit is
    contact our Technical Sales Department where          capable of satisfactory operation at roll and
    expert assistance is always available.                pitch angles of up to -r-30 degrees. The control
                                                          unit should, therefore, be positioned as near to
                                                          horizontal as possible to maximise gimbal
    2.1 CONTROL SYSTEM                                    action in all directions. In the case of a sailing
                                                          yacht where sustained heel angles may on
    2.1.1 CONTROL UNIT                                    occasions exceed the above limit, it will be
   The control unit is the most sensitive part of the     necessary to readjust the control unit to a near
   system and care should be taken to select a            horizontal position on each tack. To faciliate
   mounting position that is reasonably free from         this, the control unit's suspension frame should
   vibration and protected from external weather          be mounted parallel to the direction of the heel
   conditions. The control unit is mounted in an          axis.
   aluminium frame which can be pivoted to
   permit fixing to either horizontal or vertical
   surfaces. The frame is finally fixed into position     2.1.2 AUXILIARY CONTROL UNIT
   by two No. 8 (4mm) diameter countersunk head          The Auxiliary Control Unit is connected directly
  stainless steel or brass screws.                       to the auxiliary connector on the Control Unit.
        In the case of a vessel with an enclosed         The unit is waterproof and should be positioned
  wheelhouse, it would normally be desirable to          close to the steering wheel. It is designed for
   mount the control unit sufficiently near to the       discreet flush mounting and a pattern is
  wheel so that the controls are easily accessible       provided to assist panel cutting before fitting.
  to the helmsman. However, since the control            Matching black self-tapping screws are
  unit incorporates a magnetic compass it is             provided to secure the auxiliary control unit
  necessary to position it at least 2ft 6in (80cm)       facia in position. A good quality silicone sealant
  away from the nearest steering compass in              should be used to seal between the facia and
.order to avoid devi&on Df both compasses.               the mounting panel.
  Deviation of the control unit compass is much
  less critical because of its auto-following
 capability. Nevertheless excessive deviation            2.1.3 HAND-HELD REMOTE'CONTROL
 should be avoided as far as possible in order to
 maintain uniform sensitivity on all headings. The       SYSTEM
 control unit should thus be mounted as far               It is usually desirable to arrange for operation
 away as possible from iron or other magnetic             of the hand-held control unit from anywhere on
 devices. If any doubt exists, the chosen site            deck. For this purpose up to two remote
 should be checked by means of a handbearing              sockets may be strategically positioned to
 compass. The handbearing compass should be               make this practical without the need for long
 fixed into the chosen position and the vessel            and potentially hazardous flying leads on the
 swung through 360 degrees. Relative                      hand-held unit. In the case of a sailing yacht for
 differences in reading between the                      example, one socket position in the foredeck
 handbearing compass and the main steering               area and another in the cockpit usually makes
 compass should not vary by more than 20                 a perfect arrangement. The sockets are flush
 degrees.                                                mounted and a pattern is provided to simplify
       In rare cases even the above extreme              panel cutting. Matching black self-tapping
deviation tolerance may not be achievable, in            screws are also supplied. A good quality
which case an alternative site remote from the           silicone sealant should be used to seal the joint
steering position must be selected. In such a            between the socket facia and the mounting
case it will be necessary to operate the                 face. When more than one remote control
autopilot through an auxiliary control unit              socket is required, the three core inter-
situated near the steering position. Installation        connecting cables may be paralled together
in steel hulled vessels invariably presents              using a standard cable junction box before
difficulties and the advice of a compass                 connection to the Auxiliary Control Unit.
adjuster should always be sought.
      Sarling yachts with a single external
steering position are a special case where it is

8
 2.2 DRIVE SYSTEM
 The following notes describe the installation of       equally spaced caphead screws, and may be
 both the rotary and linear drive units.                rotated through 90 degrees to provide a more
                                                       convenient mounting position if required (Fig. 6)
 2.2.1 ROTARY DRIVE UNIT                                tn some cases, it may be necessary to
                                                       fabricate a special frame to mount the drive
 The rotary drive unit is coupled to the vessel's      unit. It should be noted that chain tension can
  steering mechanism by a simple chain drive.          exceed 3OOlb (.l.50kg), and thus an extremely
  Most steering gear manufacturers supply              rigid mounting structure is vital to maintain
 special autopilot drive attachments and many          good chain alignment. Installation failures
 include this facility as standard.                    frequently occur in this area, and as a general
      Fig. 7 shows recommended rudder hardover         rule it is desirable to `over engineer' the drive
 to hardover times for both planing and                unit mounting.
 displacement vessels up to 42 feet (13m) LOA.
 The charts shown in Fig. 8 enables the chain
 reduction ratio for optimum rate of rudder                   3.22-3.24mm
 application to be selected for both planing and              (0.127"-0 1275")

 displacement vessels. To use the charts, it is                          1
 first necessary to determine the number of turns
 of the driven sprocket when the rudder is driven
 from hardover to hardover.
                                                                                                     GRUB   SCREW
Example:                                                                9 46-9 61 mm
                                                                        (0.3725"-0.3765"l
                                                                                            LJ
A 40 foot (12m) LOA displacement vessel
requiring two turns of the driven sprocket to                                                    /   /

drive the rudder from hardover to hardover will               19mm
                                                                                                               127mm
                                                              (0.75")
require a chain reduction ratio of approximately                                                               (0.5")

3:l (as indicated by the dotted line on the
chart). The table on the left hand side of the                      Fig. 4
chart gives suitable sprocket combinations. In
this example, the required reduction ratio of 3:l
would be best achieved by a 38 tooth sprocket
driven by a 13 Mti.mcket on the drive unit.

       It should be borne in mind that the
 reduction ratios recommended are for the
 `average case' and that vessels broadly
 classified by length and hull type can vary
 significantly in steering characteristics.
 Selection of the correct chain reduction ratio is
 not over critical however, and any slight
 mismatch can usually be corrected later during
 sea trials by an adjustment to the gain control
 on the control unit.
      Standard 3W' pitch chain is recommended
 for the chain drive. Sprockets of 13, 15, 17, 19
 and 25 teeth are available as standard
 accessories. Bore and keyway dimensions for
the drive unit sprocket are detailed in Fig. 4. If
sprockets other than those supplied by
 Nautech are fitted, it is essential that bore and
 keyway dimensions specified in Fig. 4 are
strictly adhered to. The recommended driven
sprockets tabulated In Fig. 8 are common
standard sizes and should be obtainable from
local suppliers of chain drive equipment. All
sprockets must be "keyed" and grub screwed
to their shafts, and finally secured with `Loctite'.
      The drive unit is mounted by bolting to a
substantial frame member (Fig. 5). The `1
shaped mounting foot is secured by four
       Rrovision must also be r;;ade for chain
 adjustment, which is most easily achieved by                       HARDOVER-HARDOVER
 removable shims placed under the mounting                          TIME RECOMMENDATIONS
 foot, or by elongated clearance holes in the
 mounting frame as illustrated in Fig. 6. Both                 40
 sprockets must be accurately aligned to run in
 the same plane, and this must be carefully                         1
 checked by means of a straight-edge.
       The grease lubricated gearbox permits
 mounting of the drive unit in any convenient
 attitude without risk of oil leakage. The drive
 unit's sprocket may also face any direction,
since steering sense can be corrected by
 means of a phase switch located in the control
 unit.
       Finally, the chain should be tensioned until
it is `just' tight and contributes negligible lost
motion to the drive system. Total lost motion
between the driven sprocket attached to the
steering system and the rudder stock should                                    .-

not exceed 2% of total movement. If lost motion                           .,
                                                                                       FFFT
exceeds this level, it should be corrected,
otherwise steering performance will be
impaired.

                                                      Fig. 7
Fig. 8
-.




      2.2.2 LINEAR DRIVE UNIT
       The linear drive unit couples directly to the                               LINEAR DRIVE
        rudder stock at the tiller arm length                                      TILLER ARM LENGTHS
        recommended in Fig. 9. It is usually                           INS   CM
       preferable to couple the linear drive unit to the
       rudder stock via an independent tiller arm
                                                                       `*- 3 0
      (Edson offer a standard fitting). In certain cases,
       however, it may be possible to couple the                       1'- `._ .,
       pushrod to the same tiller arm or rudder                        lI: *;L.-.yy
      quadrant employed by the main steering
       linkage. It is important to note that the linear
      drive system can exert a thrust of 550lbs. If any
      doubt exists about the strength of the existing
      tiller arm or rudder quadrant the steering gear
      manufacturer must be consulted.                                  5-
            The method of bolting the pushrod ball end                                                              METRES
      to the tiller arm or rudder quadrant is illustrated                              I   I        1      1    I     I
                                                                                       8   9       10     11   12    13
      in Fig. 11. It is vitally important that the
                                                                                                                      FEET
      coupling bolt is fully tightened and the nut                                 I           I          I     I
      locked by means of the locking tab provided.                                25       30            35    40
      The standard ball end fitting will allow for a                                                    LOA
      maximum angular misalignment between the
      pushrod and the tiller crank plane of rotation of       Fig. 9
      up to 5". Accurate angular alignment is
      extremely important and under no
      circumstances should the above extreme limits
      be exceeded. The body of the drive unit is
      mounted by bolting to a substantial frame
      member (Fig. 10). As a general rule it is
     desirable to `over engineer' the linear drive
     unit's mounting structure to ensure reliability
     and maintenance of correct alignment. An
     excessively fletibk mount can also severely
     impair the steering performance of the
     autopilot.
            It is important to ensure that the total rudder
     movement is limited by the rudder stops built
     into the vessel rather than the end stops of the
     linear drive output.




                                                                                                                             11
2.2.3 HYDRAULIC DRIVE UNIT
  The hydraulic drive unitshould be mounted
  clear of spraj/ and the possibility of immersion
  in water. It should be located as near as
  possible to the hydraulic steering cylinder. It is
  important to bolt the hydraulic drive unit                                       222mm (8 7")
                                                                                                          *
 securely to a substantial member to avoid any
 possibility of vibration that could damage the
 inter-connecting pipework.
     The drive amplifier (Fig. 13) should be
 mounted between the drive unit and the power
 supply (batteries) in order to minimise the total
 length of power cable. It should also be
 mounted in a position clear of bilge water and
 spray. The drive amplifier is mounted by first
 removing the cover marked `Autohelm' and                                                8
 bolting or screwing to a suitable vertical                        Fig. 13 Drive Amplifier
 bulkhead through the four holes in the .base
(Fig. 14).
                                                            CONTROL UNIT                            POWER SUPPLY CABLE
     There are three basic types of hydraulic               COiVfylECTlON SOCKET                       fve     I
steering system (Fig. 12). Typical connection
points for the drive unit are shown in each case.
In all cases it is strongly recommended that
the steering gear manufacturer be
consulted. The drive unit valve block is tapped
                                                                                                                      -ve
l/4" BSP to accept suitable pipe fittings and
Dowty sealing washers are supplied (Fig. 15).



                                                               I                                              DRIVE UNIT
                                                          EARTHING       TERMINAL                             CONNECTION

                                                                   Fig. 14 Drive Amplifier Wiring   Diagram
            Two Line System
                                            Two Line                                                    .
                                       Pressurised System
                                                                                    Three Line System




                                      -RESERVOIR   LINE


                                               PRESSURISED
                                                                                                  RESERVOIR    LINE




                                                                                     w
  Fig. 12
        Minimisation of hydraulic fluid loss during      CONNECTION OF
   connection of the drive unit will help to reduce.     HYDRAULIC LINES TO PUMP
   the time and effort required later to bleed the
   system of trapped air. Absolute cleanliness is                                       DOWTY SEAL
   essential since even the smallest particle of
  foreign matter could interfere with the correct                                               ' BSP FITTING
  function of precision check valves in the
  steering system.
       When the installation has been completed
  the hydraulic pump may be operated by
  switching the control unit to Duty and operating
  the Steer control. Greater motor movements will
  be obtained if the gain control on the course
  computer is set to No. 10 and the rudder                                   Assembly for W' BSP Line Fitting
  control set to maximum.
       The hydraulic steering system should be           Fig. 15
 bled according to the manufacturer's                                                 DOWTY SEAL
                                                                                 -       I
  instructions. From time to time during the
 bleeding process the drive unit should be run                               #=%I           `h" NPT FllTlNG
 in both directions to clear trapped air from the
 pump and inter-connecting pipe work.
       If air is left in the system the steering will
 feel spongy particularly when the wheel is
 rotated to the hardover position. Trapped air will
 severely impair correct operation of the
 autopilot and the steering system and must be
 removed.                                                                    Assembly for l/d' NPT Line Fitting
       During the installation of the system it has
 not been necessary to keep track of the
 connection sense to the hydraulic steering
circuit since operating sense of the autopilot
can be corrected if necessary by reversing the
polarity of* pump drive motor connections
(see section 3.3.1).
     To check correct phasing of the_autopilot,
switch to Duty and rotate the Steer control
                                                              ii3          IN3        RECOMMENDED GAI N
clockwise. If phasing is correct starboard

                                                                       1
rudder movement will result. If opposite rudder               50b 3 0 -               CONTROL SETTINGS
movement occurs, reverse the phase switch
direction to correct as described in Section 3.2.
     The gain control located on the back of the                            5-
Control, Unit sets the rudder response of the
autopilot to match the particular installation.
The recommended gain control setting is given
                                                                           O-
in Fig. 16.
                                                                   1       _#" __.ii.

                                                                           15
                                                                                                         /




                                                                                  I     I   I   II       "       11     1
                                                                                  1     2   3   4    5   6   7   8   9 1 0
                                                                                 GAIN CONTROL AVERAGE SE-tllNG


                                                        Fig. 16
                                                                                                                            13
 2.3 CABLING AND POWER SUPPLIES
 2.3.1 SIGNAL CABLING
 Cable inter-connections between system sub-
 units are shown schematically in Figs. 1, 2, and
 3. The interconnecting multi-core cable
 between the control unit and drive unit is 20
 feet (6m) long, and is supplied with the control
 unit. All other interconnecting cables are
 supplied with their related sub-unit and are also
20feet (6m) in length. All 7 core cables are
 supplied with pre-wired waterproof connectors
 and are extendable in 20 feet (6m) increments
 by the addition of standard cable extensions
(Cat. No. 059) as shown in Fig. 3.
     Cable connector clamp nuts should be
securely tightened to ensure watertight joints.
All cables should be run at least 3ft (1 m) from
existing cables carrying radio frequency or
pulsed signals, and should be clamped at 1.5
foot (05m) intervals.

2.3.2 DC SUPPLY CABLE
As a general rule the DC supply cable to the
drive unit should be kept as short as possible,
and have a conductor area of 1 .O sq.mm per
metre run to minimise voltage drop.

Example:
Length of cable Conductor area Cable size
Up to 2.5m       2.5 sq.mm     50/0.25mm
Upti4m           4 scpnm       56/0.3mm

    The two supply cables must run directly from
the vessel's battery or alternatively from the
main distribution panel, and a 20 amp fuse or
overload trip should be included in the circuit.
It is important not to tap into supplies to other
into supplies to other equipment to avoid the
possibility of mutual interference.
     The drive unit is supplied with 1.5ft (0.5m)
power supply cable tails. These should be
connected to the main power supply cable via
a heavy-duty terminal block. The red cable tail
should be connected to the positive supply and
the black cable to the negative supply. If
polarity is accidentally reversed the equipment
will not operate, but no damage will result.
    The drive unit case must be bonded to the
metal hull or engine frame and a heavy duty
conductor (2.5mm2) should be used for this
purpose.




14
 3.0 OPERATION

 3.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES
  The following description of the Autohelm 5000     DUTY
  principle of operation will help in providing a    Push to fully energise the autopilot for
  complete understanding of its controls. The        automatic steering duty.
  control unit houses an extremely sensitive auto-
 setting electronic compass. When the autopilot      REMOTE
  is in operation, deviation from course is          Push to transfer basic automatic pilot control to
 continuously monitored by the compass and           the auxiliary control unit.
 corrective rudder is applied by the drive unit to
 return the vessel to course. The amount of          SEA
 applied rudder is proportional to the course         Rotate to adjust compass sensitivity to suit sea
 error at any time, and thus when the original       conditions. In position `0' the compass is fully
 course is restored the rudder will be               sensitised for operation in calm sea conditions.
 neutralised. The amount of the rudder applied       Clockwise rotation to position `7' progressively
 for a given off-course error is adjustable to       densensitises the compass for operation in
 match both the steering characteristics of the      rough sea conditions. Adjustment of this
 vessel and speed through the water. A vessel        important control is fully discussed later.
 with a small rudder for example, will require
 more corrective helm than a similar sized vessel    R U D D E R
 with a larger rudder. Similarly, a high speed       Rotate to adjust rudder response. In position `0'
 power boat will require considerably less           rudder movement is minimised. Clockwise
 corrective helm at planing speeds than it will at   rotation to position `7' progressively increases
 lower displacement speeds (Fig.1 8.)                the amount of applied rudder. Adjustment
      The characteristic which distinguishes the     technique is fully discussed later.
 Autohelm 5000 is its ability to make automatic
 correction for changes in trim or weather helm.     STEER
 When changes in trim occur the set course can        Rotate counter-clockwise or clockwise to alter
 only be maintained by the application of             course to port or starboard respectively. Each
 permanent rudder offset to restore balance.         scale division represents 5 degrees of course
 Many automatic pilots are incapable of this and     alteration. The steer control will rotate
will allow the vessel to bear on to a new            automatically when the control unit is switched
 heading to achieve a new state of balance.          to Set.
Under these circumstances the Autoheim 5000                The controls on the rear case are used to
detects that the original course has not been        adjust the auto-pilot's response to suit the
restored and will continue to apply additional       particular installation and the vessel's steering
helm in the appropriate direction until the          characteristics.
vessel returns to the original heading. This               Each control has the following functions:
facility ensures that the originally set course is   GAIN
held irrespective of changes in balance that         Presets the overall system gain to compensate
may occur during the course of a passage.            for variations in the mechanical reduction
                                                     between the drive unit and the rudder and the
                                                     vessel's steering characteristics. For initial sea
3.2 CONTROLS                                         trial purposes this control is set according to
                                                     the recommendations given in Fig.1 8.
3.2.1 CONTROL UNIT
Fig.1 .I shows the position of all controls. Each    PHASE SWITCH
control has the following functions:                 The phase switch is located on the internal
                                                     PCB and is accessible by removal of a blank
OFF                                                  rubber grommet from the rear case. The phase
Push to de-energise the autopilot. The electro-      switch reverses the direction of corrective
magnetic clutch in the drive unit is disengaged      rudder action and its setting procedure is
for manual steering.                                 described later.

SET                                                  NB Recommended gain control settings for
Push to energise the compass circuit and                hydraulic drive installations are given in
initiate the automatic compass setting                  the hydraulic drive unit instructions.
sequence. The compass is finally set to the
manually steered heading when both the red
and green pilot lights are extinguished.
                                                                       RECOMMENDED GAIN
                                                                       CONTROL SETTINGS




          GAIN        DRIVE UNIT    AUXILIARY
          CONTROL     SOCKET        CONTROL SOCKET




                                                                 l-l
                                                                                                                                           METRES
Fig. 17                     PHASE SWITCH                                    /            I            I            I      I       I    1
                                                                           7             8            9           10     11      12   13
                                                                                                                                             FEET
3.2.2 AUXILIARY CONTROL UNIT                                                         I                    I              I        I
                                                                                    25            30                    35       40
Autopilot control may be transferred to the
                                                                                                 `,_                   LOA
 auxiliary control unit (Fig.1 9) by depressing the
 Remote push-button on the main control unit                           "                 ,,.   _s.,           .              I
facia.                                                 Fig. 18
     Two independent rotary switches are
provided on the auxiliary control unit. The first                               I
permits Mange-over betweenSet and Duty
modes. The second control permits remote
alteration of heading. Switch movement to the
left or right initiates course alteration to port or
starboard respectively at approximately one
degree per second.
                                                       Fig. 19
3.2.3 REMOTE CONTROL UNIT
 The hand-held remote control unit (Fig.20)
 enables the autopilot to be switched out and
 the vessel to be power steered from anywhere
 on board. Its flying lead may be plugged into                                                                    .CONTROL WHEEL
 any one of the remotely positioned waterproof
 sockets and should be switched to Auto for
 normal automatic steering operation. The
 autopilot may be overriden by switching to
 Manual and the vessel then power steered by
 means of the control wheel. The automatic trim
 system continues to operate in the manual
 steering mode and a straight course will be
steered when the `boat' on the control wheel is
aligned with the remote control centre line. The
original course is remembered and will be
resumed immediately the change-over switch is
returned to Auto. If the vessel has been power
steered by the remote control for a long period
it is important to check that there is no chance
of collision when the original automatic
heading is acquired by switching back to Auto.         Fig. 26
16
4.0 FUNCTIONAL TEST PROCEDURES

 The following functional test procedure is            4.2 AUXILIARY CONTROL UNIT
 recommended before attempting sea trials.
                                                       0 Switch the auxiliary control unit to Set and
                                                         then depress Remote on the main control
4.1 MAIN CONTROL UNIT                                    unit. In this position the compass
 0 Switch to Set and observe that the compass            automatically sets to the present heading.
   automatically sets to the present heading.
   The Steer control will rotate while the             0 Switch the auxiliary control unit to Duty and
   compass is setting and slow down as the                check that.the drive unit clutch is engaged
   null position is approached. When the                  by attempting to rotate the steering wheel.
   compass is finally set both pilot lights will be
   extinguished.
                                                       4.3 MECHANICAL TEST
 0 Switch to Duty and check that the drive unit        PROCEDURES
   clutch is engaged by attempting to rotate
   the steering wheel.                                 Before attempting sea trials it is important to
                                                       verify that the vital link between the Autohelm
0 Adjust the Sea and Rudder controls to `0'.           5000 drive actuator and the vessel's steering
  Then adjust the Steer control one or two             system is free of obstruction and operating
  divisions clockwise and then counter-                correctly.
  clockwise. The steering wheel should rotate             It is strongly advised that the following
  in the same direction as the Steer control. If       simple checks are carried out.
  opposite wheel rotation occurs, reverse the
  phase switch. (A small screwdriver will be           Warning
  required to operate the phase switch after           When the steering system is being moved
  removal of the blank rubber grommet from             manually or under drive from the actuator do
  the rear case).                                      not touch any part of the system, sprockets,
                                                       chains or limit stops. The forces exerted are
0 Increase Rudder control setting and note             considerable and could cause injury.
  that larger wheel movements result when the
  Steer control is adjusted.                           Rotary Drive Unit
                                                       Locate the actuator and with an assistant to
.* Increase theSea control setting and note            turn the main steering wheel switch on the pilot.
   that larger movements of the Steer control
   are necessary in either direction b.efore           0 Press Set - turn the steering wheel from
   steering wheei movement commences.                     hardover to hardover.      '

     The automatic trimming capability of the          0 Ensure that the chain and sprockets driving
 autopilot can be observed by the following test:        the actuator move freely and in alignment.
     Switch to Set to realign the compass. Then
 switch to Duty and offset the Steer control by        0 Ensure that chain tension is adjusted
approximately two divisions i.e. approximately           correctly (see 2.2.1)
 10 degrees of heading change. This effectively
simulates a condition where the need for               0 Select Duty and rotate the Rudder control
standing helm has developed and the vessel is            several turns to the right to drive the rudder
not returning to course. You will notice that after      hardover.
an initial fixed helm has been applied the drive
unit continues to apply further helm movements,        0 When the actuator drives the rudder onto the
but at a much slower rate. If left in this condition     mechanical limit stops ensure that the
the wheel will eventually rotate hardover. If,           mounting of the drive actuator shows no
however, the vessel is moving through the water          sign of movement.
the progressive application of additional helm
will eventually return the vessel to its original      0 Rotate the Rudder control in the opposite
course with the necessary standing helm                  direction to reverse the rudder drive to the
applied. This can be simulated by rotating the           opposite end stop. Check for any movement.
steer control back to the original course
position. The progressive application of
standing helm will cease when the compass
senses that the original course has been
restored.
Linear Drive Unit                                 Hydraulic System
0 Proceed as for rotary drive unit.               0 Proceed as for the rotary drive unit.

0 Check that at no point during movement of       l   Check that all unions are tight and there is
  the steering quadrant and linear drive              no seepage of hydraulic fluid.
  actuator from hardover to hardover does the
  actuator foul any part of the quadrant,         l    Select Duty and rotate the Rudder control
  steering mechanism or yachts structure. Any         several times to drive the rudder hardover.
  fouling under load could damage the drive
  actuator.                                       l    Rotate the Rudder control in the opposite
                                                      direction and drive the rudder hardover in
0 Check that the Drive actuator operates              the opposite direction.
  horizontally and that angular movement of
  the ball end fitting is minimal (So maximum).   0 Check that the steering ram moves smoothly
                                                     and that there is no excessive play or
0 Select Duty and rotate the Rudder control         jerkiness in the movement.
  several times to drive the rudder hardover.
                                                      The performance of the Autohelm 5000 will
0 When the rudder is driven hardover check        only reach the designed levels if the installation
  that the mechanical limit stop on the           of the actuator and steering system is correctly
  vessel's steering system is reached before      engineered and adjusted. It is strongly advised
  the actuator reaches its mechanical limit.      that these be checked before sea trials.
0 When the rudder drives hard against the end
  stop check there is no visible movement of
  the actuator mounting pedestal or the
  structure supporting it.

0 Rotate the Rudder control in the opposite
   direction and repeat the checks with the
  rudder driven hardover inthe opposite
  direction.
5.0 SEA TRIALS

 Initial sea trials should be carried out in calm      0 When the autopilot is set to Duty return to
 conditions and with plenty of sea room. The             manual steering may be instantly achieved
 previously conducted functional test will have          by switching to Set or Off on the main
verified that the autopilot is operating correctly       control unit. It is very important to remember
and that you are familiar with all of its controls.      that manual control can only be obtained on
      Check that the gain control on the rear of         the auxiliary control unit if the main control
the control unit is adjusted to the setting              unit is switched to Remote. The importance
recommended for the particular vessel category           of being able to regain manual control of
given in Fig. 3.1, Then set the Sea control to `0'       steering must-be stressed. The Off button is
and the Rudder control to `4'.                           coloured red for easy identification and
      Initial sea trials on fast planing vessels         manual take-over procedures should be
should be conducted at no more than half                 practised at an early stage.
engine throttle under which conditions the
recommended mid-way setting of the rudder             5.2 RUDDER CONTROL ADJUSTMENT
control should give acceptable steering
performance. A mid-way setting of the rudder           The gain control on the rear of the control unit
control will also give acceptable steering             has been previously set according to the
performance in sailing and displacement power          recommendation given in Fig. 3.1. This control
vessels under all conditions for initial trial         sets the range of adjustment available on the
purposes. Fine setting of the Rudder control is        main panel Rudder control and in all but
discussed later.                                      extreme cases should not need further
                                                      adjustment.
5.1 FIRST TRIALS                                          In all cases, excessive rudder application
                                                      results in `oversteer' which can be recognised
.The following initial trial procedure is             by the vessel swinging slowly from side to side
recommended:                                          of the controlled heading. In addition, distinct
                                                      overshoot will be observed when the course is
0 Steer manually on to a fixed heading and            changed. This extreme condition may be
     hold the course steady.                          corrected by reducing the Rudder control
0 Switch the autopilot to Set and allow up to         setting.
    1.5 seconds for the compass to adjust                 Similarly, insufficient rudder application will
    automatically to the manually steered             result in sluggish steering response which is
 : heading.                                           particularly apparent when changing course
0 Switch to Duty and the autopilot will               using the Steer control. This condition is
    automatically take control. In calm               corrected by increasing the Rudder control
    conditions an extremely constant heading          setting.
    will be maintained.                                  Oversteering and understeering tendencies
0 Increase the setting of the Sea control until       are most easily recognised in calm sea
    a good heading is achieved with a minimum         conditions where wave action does not mask
    number of wheel movements. Correct setting        basic steering performance.
    of this control for varying sea conditions is        The operational adjustment technique for the
    essential to avoid unnecessary wear and           Rudder control varies significantly between
    tear on the autopilot and to minimise             planing and displacement craft and is               ,
    electrical power consumption.                     described separately below.
0 Alter course to port or starboard using the
   Steer control on the main control unit, (or        5.2.1 PLANING CRAFT
   the Left/Right control on the auxiliary
    control unit with the main control unit           Planing craft operate over a very large speed
   switched to Remote). Major course                  range. Rudder effectiveness increases very
   alterations are best applied by switching to       significantly at higher hull speeds and it is thus
   Set and then manually steering the vessel          necessary to reduce the Rudder control setting
   on to the new heading. When the new                as speed increases to avoid oversteer. In
   course is acquired, hold for a few seconds         normal cases the rudder control setting would
   and then switch the autopilot back to Duty         be reduced almost to `0' at maximum planing
   to maintain the new heading.                       speed and increased towards `7' at minimum
0 If a hand-held remote control is fitted, switch     displacement speeds. Oversteer can be
   from Auto to Manual and then power steer           extremely violent at planing speeds and it is
   the vessel by the control wheel. Switch back       thus essential to reduce the rudder setting
   to Auto and the vessel will return promptly        before opening the throttle.
   to the original heading.


                                                                                                        19
5.2.2 DISPLACEMENT POWER
VESSELS
The Rudder control setting is much less critical
on this type of vessel and it is not normally
necessary to change the setting for different
engine speeds. As a general guide initial              ._ .   .
testing should be carried out at setting `4' and
reduced as much as possible `consistent with
good heading control to minimise wear and
tear on the steering `system.

5.2.3 SAILING CRAFT
 Sailing craft average hull speeds do not vary
 greatly and thus the Rudder control setting can
 remain fixed most of the time. Initial testing
should be carried out at setting `4'. Sailing craft,
however, are particularly stable when sailing
close hauled and under these conditions it is
usually possible to reduce the Rudder control
setting to minimise rudder movement and
hence power consumption. Conversely, when
sailing down wind, directional stability is least,
and improved course holding will result from
increasing the rudder setting. The optimum
range of adjustment is easily found by
experiment.




                                                                  .
  6.0 OPERATING HINTS

      Unlike sailing yachts, power vessels do not         It is also worth mentionina the more obvious
  generally suffer with violent changes in trim,       and that is that an autopilot cannot anticipate.
  and thus, provided the operating instructions        Sailing downwind in breaking seas needs
  are carefully followed, extremely good course        particular care.
  holding performance will result in all weather          One should avoid sailing under autopilot
  conditions.                                         when the wi`nd.is dead astern. Ideally, the wind
      Sailing yachts are very different since in       should be brought at least 30 degrees towards
  gusting wind conditions violent changes in trim     the beam, and in breaking seas it is often better
  often occur. When a yacht is sailing badly out      to remove the mainsail altogether and to sail
  of balance, sudden gusts will generally cause it     under boomed out headsail alone.
 to luff violently to windward. When hand                 Providing you ensure that your vessel is
 steering, the tendency is overcome by applying       properly canvassed for the prevailing
 sufficient weather helm to maintain the original     conditions, your Autohelm 5000 will be capable
 heading. The Autohelm 5000's automatic               to sailing you through gale force winds.
 weather helm compensation circuit however, is         Moreover, it is at times like this that it will
 intended only to take account of the gradual         endear itself most of all by leaving you fresh
 changes in standing helm that typically occur        and alert to sail in safety.
 when passage making due to changing wind                 Passage making under automatic pilot is a
 conditions.                                          wonderful experience that can easily lead you
     When a sudden change in helm balance             into the temptation of relaxing permanent
 occurs the automatic compensation circuit will       watch-keeping. This must be avoided however
 take approximately one minute to restore the         clear the sea ahead may appear to be.
 original heading. In gusty conditions the course     Remember, a large ship can cover two miles in
 will tend to meander particularly if the sails are   five minutes - just the time it takes to brew a
 badly balanced. Significant improvement to           cup of coffee!
 course keeping can be obtained by ensuring
 that sail balance is maintained.
     Bear in mind the following important points.
: 0 00 notallow the yacht to heel excessive!y.

 0 Ease the mainsheet traveller to leeward to
   reduce heeling and weather helm.

 0 If necessary reef the mainsail a little early.
7.0 ROUTINE MAINTENANCE

     The autooilot is one of the most used and      3 Check that all inter-connecting cable sockets
 hardest working items of equipment on board          are fully tightened and free from corrosion.
and, therefore, must receive its fair share of      4 Check that external waterproof sockets are
attention and routine maintenance. The working        capped when not in use and periodically
parts of the drive unit and the control unit are      spray with WD40 (or similar) to protect from
sealed and lubricated for life during manufacture     corrosion.       ..
and do not need servicing                           5 Check that the power supply cable
     Regular inspection and routine maintenance       connections are tight and free from
of the installation is recommended in the             corrosion.
following areas:
                                                        The Autohelm 5000 has an advanced micro-
1 Check tension and alignment of the drive          electronic circuit requiring special equipment
  chain and lubricate with a good quality           and knowledge to service. In the unlikely event
  waterproof light grease.                          of failure occuring in any part of the system you
2 Check for the development of excessive lost       are advised to contact your nearest appointed
  motion (backlash) in the steering gear and        Service Agent who will provide you with
  correct if necessary. Lost motion at the wheel    competent and efficient service.
  should not exceed 5% of the total wheel
  movement from lock to lock.
    Nautech Limited, Anchorage Park, Portsmouth
Hampshire PO3 5TD, England. Telephone (0705) 693611
     Fax (0705) 694642, Telex 86384 NAUTEC G


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