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Universal Diesel M 30 Technical Manual




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SERVICE MANUAL
MODELS
M 30 M 40 M 50
PIN 200154
Refer to the beginning of the individual sections for a cqrnplete table of contents for that I 118
SECTION II PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 1924
SECTION III CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION 2530
SECTION IV LUBRICATION COOLING AND FUEL SySTEMS 3149
SECTION V ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 5182
SECTION VI DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY VII DYNAMO AND REGULATOR I
ii
SECTION 1 M30 23
Model M40 45
Model M50
Parts 815
Bolt Torques 1618
UNIVERSAL MODEL M30 24 2800
No of Cylinders 3
Bore x Stroke 300 x 323
Cubic Inch 68
Maximum RPM Range Approx 20002400 Ratio
Equipment 12 Volt 51 Amp WGlow Eng Approx Qts
50 to 55
SAE 30 HD CD or 10W40 CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON Trans FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK
Type AFT 1 or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction 21
Coolant FWC 5050 Solution Approx 6 qts
Exhaust Flange 1 V4 NPT
Fuel Type 2 Diesel
Fuel Filter PIN 298854
Oil Filter PIN 300209
Eng Operating Temp Degrees F
Propeller Rotation Right Hand
Weight Ibs Nozzle PIN 298787 is governor
controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 Qt of Trans Oil 2 Qts Lub Oil
and 1 Gal 5050 Coolant
All pictorial views and subject to change without notice
UNIVERSAL MODEL M30
FUEL LINES
AIR BREATHER
GLOW PLUG FUEL AIR
LEED VALVE
SEA WATER EX DRAIN ZINC c STOP LEVER
TRANS DIP STICK
OIL FILL HOLE
SHIFT LEVER OIL FILTER
BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN
ENGINE COUPLIN
TIMING PORT
COOLANT AIR BLEED VALVE COOLANT FILL CAP
AUST FLANGE
FW CIRCULATING MANIFOLD DRAIN
PUMP HEAT EXCHANGER
ALTERNATOR HEAT EX CLEANOUT
COVERS
SEA WATER PUMP
DRAIN AND ZINC
VBELT nI DRAIN PLUG
OIL PAN
DIP STICK
UNIVERSAL MODEL M40 32 2800
No of Cylinders 4
Bore x Stroke 300 x 323
Cubic Inch 91
Maximum RPM Range Approx 20002500 R Ratio
Equipment 12 Volt 51 Amp WIGlow Eng Approx ats
80 to 85
SAE 30 HD CD or 10W40 CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK
Lubrication Trans FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK
Type AFT 1 or GMDEXRON II Do not mix different Reduction 21
Coolant FWC 5050 Solution Approx 8 qts
Exhaust Flange 1 V4 NPT
Fuel Type 2 Diesel
Fuel Filter PIN 298854
Oil Filter PIN 299927
Eng Operating Temp Degrees F
Propeller Rotation Right Hand
Weight Ibs Nozzle Prior to Ser 315023 PIN 299517 299518
After Ser 315023 PIN is governor controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra
parts should
the need arise Vbelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 Ots Lub Oil
and 1 Gal 5050 Coolant
All pictorial views and subject to change without notice
UNIVERSAL MODEL M40
FUEL LINES
AIR BREATHER
FUEL RETURN
GLOW PLUGS FUEL AIR
BLEED VALVE
SEA WATER OVERBOARD
EX DRAIN ZIN STOP LEVER
TRANS DIP STICK
OIL FILL HOLE
O I L FILTER
BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN
ENGINE COUPLING
EX MOUNTS
TIMING PORT
COOLANT AIR BLEED VALVE COOLANT FILL CAP
FW CIRCULATING MANIFOLD DRAIN
PUMP HEAT EXCHANGER
ALTERNATOR HEAT EX CLEANOUT
COVERS
SEA WATER PUMP
DRAIN AND ZINC
VBELT RANS DRAIN PLUG
OIL PAN
DIP STICK
UNIVERSAL MODEL M50 44 3000
No of Cylinders 4
Bore x Stroke 335 x 323
Cubic Inch 115
Maximum RPM Range Approx 20002500 Ratio
Equipment 12 Volt 51 Amp WIGlow Eng Approx Ots
85
SAE 30 HD CD or 10W40 CAUTION FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON Trans FILL TO FULL RING ON Reduction
FWC 5050 Solution Approx 8 qts
Exhaust Flange 1 14 NPT
Fuel Type 2 Diesel
Fuel Filter PIN 298854
Oil Filter PIN 299927
Eng Operating Temp Degrees F 1650 to Rotation Right Hand
Weight Ibs 545 Nozzle PIN is governor
controlled to prevent overspeed It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise VBelt Sea Water Pump Impeller Fuel Lube Oil Filters 1 at of Trans Oil 2 Ots Lub Oil
and 1 Gal of 5050 Coolant
All pictorial views and subject to change without notice
UNIVERSAL MODEL M50
FUEL LINES
AIR BREATHER
FUEL RETURN INJECTOR PUMP
GLOW PLUGS FUEL AIR
EED VALVE
SEA WATER OVERBOARD
TH ROTTLE
HEAT EX DRAIN ZINC STOP LEVER
TRANS DIP STICK
OIL FILL HOLE
SHIFT LEVER OIL FILTER
BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN
ENGINE COUPLING
LEX MOUNTS
TIMING PORT
COOLANT AIR BLEED VALVE COOLANT FILL CAP
EXHAUST FLANGE
LD DRAIN
FW CIRCULATING
PUMP
ALTERNATOR HEAT EX CLEANOUT
COVERS
SEA WATER PUMP
DRAIN AND ZINC
VBELT
NS DRAIN PLUG
STARTER
OIL PAN
DIP STICK
ENGINE Head
Item M30 M40
Cylinder head surface 005 mm 005 mm
flatness 0002 in 0002 in
07 to 09 mm 07 to 09 mm
Top clearance
0028 to 0035 in 0028 to 0035 in
Free 130 to 160 mm 130 to 160 mm
Gasket 0051 to 0063 in 0051 to 0063 in
thickness 105 to 115 mm 105 to 115 mm
Tightened
0041 to 0045 in 0041 to 0045 in
02 mm 02 mm
Gasket shim thickness
0008 in 0008 in
Compression pressure 448 psi 448 psi
Variance among cylinders
Valves IN EX
Valve clearance cold 018 to 022 mm 018 to 022 mm
0007 to 0008 in 0007 to 0008 in
21 mm 21 mm
Valve seat width
0083 in 0083 in
Valve seat angle 450 450
Valve face angle 450 450
11 to 13 mm 11 to 13 mm
Valve recessing
0043 to 0051 in 0043 to 0051 in
Clearance between valve 004 to 007 mm 004 to 007 mm
stem and guide 0001 to 0003 in 0001 to 0003 in
7960 to 7975 mm 7960 to 7975 mm
Valve stem O D
0313 to 0314 in 0313 to 0314 in
Valve guide 10 8015 to 8030 mm 8015 to 8030 mm
0315 to 0316 in 0315 to 0316 in
Valve Timing
Open 035 rad 035 rad
200 before TDC 200 before TDC
Inlet valve
079 rad 079 rad
Close
450 after TDC 450 after TDC
087 rad 087 rad
Open
500 before TDC 500 before TDC
Exhaust valve
Close 026 rad 026 rad
150 after TDC 150 after TDC
Valve Springs
Free length 417 to 422 mm 417 to 422 mm
1642 to 1661 in 1642 to 1661 in
10 mm 10 mm
Tilt
0039 in 0039 in
1117 N 1117 N
Tension
12 kgf 265 Ibs 12 kgf 265 Ibs
ENGINE Allowable
Limit
005 mm
0002 in
07 to 09 mm
0028 to 0035 in
130 to 160 mm
0051 to 0063 in
105 to 115 mm
0041 to 0045 in
02 mm
0008 in
448 psi 350 psi
018 to 022 mm
0007 to 0008 in
21 mm
0083 in
450
450
11 to 13 mm 16 mm
0043 to 0051 in 0063 in
004 to 007 mm 01 mm
0001 to 0003 in 0004 in
7960 to 7975 mm
0313 to 0314 in
8015 to 8030 mm
0315 to 0316 in
035 rad
200 before TDC
079 rad
45 0 after TDC
087 rad
500 before TDC
026 rad
150 After TDC
417 to 422 mm 412 mm
1642 to 1661 in 1622 in
10 mm 100 N
0039 in 102 kgf 225 Ibs
1117 N
12 kgf 265 Ibs
ENGINE Arm
Item M30 M40
Clearance between rocker 0Q18 to 0070 mm 0Q18 to 0070 mm
arm and bushing 00007 to 0003 in 00007 to 0003 in
Rocker arm shaft 00 13973 to 13984 mm 13973 to 13984 mm
0550 to 0551 in 0550 to 0551 in
Rocker arm bushing 10 14002 to 14043 mm 14002 to 14043 mm
0551 to 0553 in 0551 to 0553 Camshaft alignment 005 mm 005 mm
0002 in 0002 in
Cam height IN EX 3336 mm 3336 mm
1313 in 1313 in
Oil clearance of camshaft 0050 to 0091 mm 0050 to 0091 mm
0002 to 0004 in 0002 to 0004 in
Camshaft journal 00 39934 to 39950 mm 39934 to 39950 mm
1572 to 1573 in 1572 to 1573 in
Camshaft bearing 10 40000 to 40025 mm 40000 to 40025 mm
1575 to 1576 in 1575 to 1576 in
Timing Gear
Timing gear backlash 0042 to 0115 mm 0042 to 0115 mm
0002 to 0005 il 0002 to 0005 in
Idle gear side clearance 020 to 051 mm 020 to 051 mm
0008 to 0020 in 0008 to 0020 in
Clearance between idle gear 0Q16 to 0045 mm 0Q16 to 0045 mm
shaft and idle gear bushing 00006 to 0001 in 00006 to 0001 in
Idle gear shaft 00 15973 to 15984 mm 15973 to 15984 mm
0628 to 0629 in 0628 to 0629 in
Idle gear bushing 10 16000 to 16018 mm 16000 to 16018 mm
0621 to 0630 in 0621 to 0630 Liner
Cylinder Liner 10 76000 to 76019 mm 76000 to 76019 mm
2992 to 2993 in 2992 to 2993 in
Oversize of cylinder liner 05 mm 05 mm
0020 in 0020 Ring
Piston pin hole 10 23000 to 23013 mm 23000 to 23013 mm
2905 to 0906 in 0905 to 0906 in
Compression 0093 to 0120 mm 0093 to 0120 mm
Piston ring ring 2 0004 to 0005 in 0004 to 0005 in
clearance
Oil ring
0020 to 0052 mm 0020 to 0052 mm
00008 to 0002 in 00008 to 0002 in
Compression 030 to 045 mm 030 to 045 mm
ring 1 2 0012 to 0Q18 in 0012 to 0Q18 in
Ring gap
Oil ring 025 to 045 mm 025 to 045 mm
0010 to 0Q18 in 0010 to 0Q18 in
Oversize of piston rings 05 mm 05 mm
0020 in 0020 in
ENGINE M50 Allowable
Limit
0Q18 to 0070 mm 015 mm
00007 to 0003 in 0006 in
13973 to 13984 mm
0550 to 0551 in
14002 to 14043 mm
0551 to 0553 in
005 mm
0002 in
3336 mm 3331 mm
1313 in 1315 in
0050 to 0091 mm 015
0002 to 0004 in 0006 in
39934 to 39950 mm
1572 to 1573 in
40000 to 40025 mm
1575 to 1576 in
0042 to 0115 mm 015 mm
0002 to 0005 in 0006 in
020 to 051 mm 06mm
0008 to 0020 in 0024 in
0Q16 to 0045 mm to 0001 in 0004 in
15973 to 15984 mm
0628 to 0629 in
16000 to 16018 mm
0621 to 0630 in
85000 to 85022 mm 015 mm
3346 to 3347 in 0006 in
05 mm
0020 in
23000 to 23013 mm 23053 mm
0905 to 0906 in 0907 in
0093 to 0120 mm
0004 to 0005 in
0020 to 0052 mm
00008 to 0002 in
030 to 045 mm 125 mm
0012 to 0Q18 in 0049 in
025 to 045 mm 125 mm
0010 to 0Q18 in 0049 in
05 mm
0020 in
ENGINE Item M30 M40
Crankshaft alignment 002 mm 002 mm
00008 in 00008 in
Oil clearance between crank 0040 to 0118 mm 0040 to 0118 mm
shaft journal and bearing 0002 to 0004 in 0002 to 0004 in
Front and 51921 to 51940 mm 51921 to 51940 mm
intermediate 2044 to 2045 in 2044 to 2045 in
Journal 00
Rear 51921 to 51940 mm 51921 to 51940 mm
2044 to 2045 in 2044 to 2045 in
Front and 51980 to 52039 mm 51980 to 52039 mm
intermediate 2046 to 2049 in 2046 to 2049 in
Bearing 10
Rear 51980 to 52025 mm 51980 to 52025 mm
2046 to 2048 in 2046 to 2048 in
Oil clearance between crank 0035 to 0093 mm 0035 to 0093 mm
pin and bearing 0002 to 0004 in 0002 to 0004 in
43959 to 43975 mm 43959 to 43975 mm
Crank pin 00
1731 to 1732 in 1731 to 1732 in
44010 to 44052 mm 44010 to 44052 mm
Crank pin bearing 10
1733 to 1734 in 1733 to 1734 in
015 to 031 mm 015 to 031 mm
Crank shaft side clearance
0006 to 0012 in 0006 to 0012 in
Under sizes of crankshaft 002 mm 004 mm 002 mm 004 mm
bearing and crank pin bearing 0008 in 0016 in 0008 in 0Q16 in
02mm 04 mm 002 mm 004 mm
Oversizes of thrust bearing 0008 in 0016 in 0008 in 0016 Rod
002 mm 002 mm
Connecting rod alignment
00008 in 00008 in
Oil clearance between piston 0014 to 0038 mm 0014 to 0038 mm
pin and small end bushing 00006 to 0001 in 00006 to 0001 in
23002 to 23011 mm 23002 to 23011 mm
Piston 00
0905 to 0906 in 0905 to 0906 in
Small end bushing 10 23000 to 23013 mm 23000 to 23013 mm
fitting 0905 to 0906 in 0905 to 0906 SYSTEM
At idle 10 kgfcm 2 10 kgfcm 2
Oil pressure speed 142 Dsi 142 DSi
At rated 30 to 45 kgfcm 2 30 to 45 kgfcm 2
speed 43 to 64 psi 43 to 64 psi
Oil Pump
Rotor lobe clearance 010 to 016 mm 004 to 013 mm
0004 to 0006 in 0002 to 0005 in
Radial clearance between 011 to 019 mm 011 to 019 mm
outer rotor and pump body 0004 to 0007 0004 to 0007 in
End clearance between rotor 0105 to 0150 mm 0105 to 0150 mm
and cover 0004 to 0006 in 0004 to 0006 in
Oil Filter
Opening pressure of bypass 98 KPa 98 KPa
valve 10 kgfcm 2 142 psi 10 kgfcm 2 142 psi
ENGINE Allowable
Limit
002 mm 008 mm
00008 in 0003 in
0040 to 0118 mm 020 mm
0002 to 0004 in 0008 in
51921 to 51940 mm
2044 to 2045 in
51921 to 51940 mm
2044 to 2045 in
51980 to 52039 mm
2046 to 2049 in
51980 to 52025 mm
2046 to 2048 in
0035 to 0093 mm 020 mm
0002 to 0004 in 0008 in
43959 to 43975 mm
1731 to 1732 in
44010 to 44052 mm
1733 to 1734 in
015 to 031 mm 05mm
0006 in to 0012 in 0020 in
002 mm 004 mm
0008 mm 0016 mm
002 mm 004 mm
0008 in 0016 in
002 mm 005 mm
00008 in 0002 in
0014 to 0038 mm 015 mm
00006 to 0001 in 0006 in
23002 to 23011 mm
0905 to 0906 in
23000 to 23013 mm 23053 mm
0905 to 0906 in 0907 in
10 kgfcm 2 or more
142 psi
30 to 45 kgfcm2 25 kgfcm 2
43 to 64 psi 35 psi
004 to 013 mm 020 mm
0002 to 0005 in 0008 in
011 to 019 mm 025 mm
0004 to 0007 in 0010 in
0105 to 0150 mm 02 mm
0004 to 0006 in 0008 in
98 KPa
10 kgfcm 2 142 psi
ENGINE SYSTEM
Fan Belt
Item M30 M40
Belt deflection under load of 7 to 9 mm 7 to 9 mm
98 N 10 kgf 21 Ibs 0275 to 0355 in 0275 to 0355 in
Heat Exchanger
12 kgfcm 2 12 kgfcm 2
Exchanger water tightness
14 to 15 psi 14 to 15 psi
Radiator cap opening 09 to 06 kgfcm 2 09 to 06 kgfcm 2
pressure 15 to 9 psi 15 to 9 Thermostats valve opening 60 C
60 C
temperature 140 F 140 F
Temperature at which 739 C 739 C
thermostat completely opens 165 F 1650 F
FUEL Pump
Injection timing static 23 to 25 before TOC 23 to 25 before TOC
Fuel tightness of pump 600 to 500 kgfcm2 600 to 500 kgfcm2
element 8532 to 7110 Ibs 8532 to 7110 Ibs
Fuel tightness of delivery 100 to 5 kgfcm2 100 to 5 kgfcm2
valve 1422 to 711 Ibs 1422 to 711 Nozzle
Fuel injection pressure 140 to 150 kgfcm2 140 to 150 kgfcm2
1990 to 2133 Ibs 1990 to 2133 Ibs
Fuel tightness of nozzle valve 130 to 140 kgfcm2 130 to 140 kgfcm 2
seat 1848 to 1991 Ibs 1848 to 1991 327 mm
300 mm
Commutator 00
1287 in 1181 in
Variance 45 A or less 90 A or less
05 to 08 mm 05 to 09 mm
Mica undercut
0092 to 0032 in 0020 to 0035 in
19 mm 19 mm
Brush length
0748 in 0748 in
Glow Plug
I Resistance Approx 15 ohm Approx 15 ohm
AC dynamo
I Noload output AC 20 volts or more 5200 RPM AC 20 volts or more 5200 Regulating voltage 138 to 148 volts
138 to 148 volts
ENGINE Allowable
M50 Limit
7 to 9 mm
0275 to 0355 in
12 kgfcm2
14 to 15 psi
09 to 06 kgfcm2
15 to 9 psi
739 C
165 F
23 to 25 before TOC
600 to 500 kgfcm2
8532 to 7110 Ibs
100 to 5 kgfcm2
1422 to 711 Ibs
140 to 150 kgfcm2
1990 to 2133 Ibs
130 to 140 kgfcm2
1848 to 1991 Ibs
300 mm
1181 in
90 A or less 02 mm
0008 in
05 to 09 mm
0020 to 0035 in
19 mm 127 mm
0748 in 0500 in
Approx 15 ohm
I AC 20 bolts or more 5200 RPM
138 to 148 volts
BOLT TORQUES
As a lot of bolts and nuts in the engine are of special shape be careful to tighten them correctly using a torque wrench
When tightening follow this method First tighten all the bolts 50 of the regular torque then tighten them BOLTS OF IMPORTANT PARTS
Marked bolts must be tightened after applying oil
MODEL M30 M40
Head bolts and nuts 75 to 80 kgfm 75 to 80 kgfm
542 to 579 ftllbs 542 to 579 ftllbs
Bearing case bolts 1 30 to 35 kgfm 30 to 35 kgflm
217 to 253 ftllbs 217 to 253 ftllbs
Bearing case bolts 2 30 to 35 kgfm 30 to 35 kgflm
217 to 253 ftllbs 217 to 253 ftllbs
Flywheel bolts 10 to 11 kgfm 10 to 11 kgfm
723 to 796 ftllbs 723 to 796 ftllbs
Connecting rod bolts 37 to 42 kgflm 37 to 42 kgfm
268 to 304 ftllbs 268 to 304 ftllbs
Rocker arm bracket studs 17 to 21 kgfm 17 to 21 kgfm
123 to 152 ftllbs 123 to 152 ftllbs
Idle gear shaft bolts 10 to 115 kgfm 10 to 115 kgfm
723 to 831 ftllbs 723 to 831 ftllbs
Glow plugs 20 to 25 kgflm 20 to 25 kgfm
No neea to apply oil 145 to 181 ftllbs 145 to 181 ftllbs
Drain plugs 40 to 45 kgfm 40 to 45 kgfm
289 to 362 ftllbs 289 to 362 ftllbs
Nozzle holders 3 to 5 kgfm 3 to 5 kgfm
217 to 362 ftllbs 217 to 362 ftllbs
014 to 02 kgfm 014 to 02 kgfm
Bis 101 to 145 ftllbs 101 to 145 15 to 20 kgfm
15 to 20 kgfm
Taper screw
108 to 145 ftllbs 108 to 145 ftllbs
Fuel limit lock nut 28 to 35 kgfm 28 to 35 kgfm
203 to 253 ftllbs 203 to 253 ftllbs
Fuel limit cap nut 25 to 30 kgfm 25 to 30 kgfm
181 to 217 ftllbs 181 to 217 ftllbs
Injection pipes 15 to 26 kgfm 15 to 26 kgflm
108 to 188 ftllbs 108 to 188 ftllbs
Crankshaft nut 14 to 16 kgfm 14 to 16 kgfm
101 to 116 ftllbs 100 to 116 ftllbs
Air vent screw 14 to 18 kgfm 14 to 18 kgflm
on injection pump 101 to 130 ftllbs 101 to 130 ftllbs
75 to 80 kgfm
542 to 579 ftllbs
30 to 35 kgfm
217 to 253 ftllbs
30 to 35 kgfm
217 to 253 ftllbs
10 to 11 kgfm
723 to 796 ftllbs
37 to 42 kgflm
268 to 304 ftllbs
17 to 21 kgfm
123 to 152 ftllbs
10 to 115 kgfm
723 to 831 ftllbs
20 to 25 kgfm
145 to 181 ftllbs
40 to 45 kgfm
289 to 362 ftllbs
3 to 5 kgfm
217 to 362 ftllbs
014 to 02 kgfm
101 to 145 ftllbs
15 to 20 kgfm
108 to 145 ftllbs
28 35 kgfm
203 to 253 ftllbs
25 to 30 kgfm
181 to 217 ftllbs
15 to 26 kgfm
108 to 188 ftllbs
14 to 16 kgfm
101 to 116 ftllbs
14 to 18 kgfm
101 to 130 ftllbs
Bolt Torques
Material Grade Standard Bolt Special Bolt Special Bolt
Nominal Dia SS41S20C S43C S48C Refined SCR3 SCM3 Refined
M6 58 69 Ibsft 72 83 Ibsft 90 105 Ibsft
M8 130 152 Ibslft 174 203 Ibsft 217 253 Ibsft
M 10 289 333 Ibsft 354 412 Ibsft 448 521 Ibsft
M 12 463 535 Ibsft 571 665 Ibsft 759 868 Ibslft
M 14 796 926 Ibsft 911 1085 Ibslft 1230 1447 Ibsft
M 16 1230 1410 Ibslft 1447 1664 Ibsft 1917 2242 Ibsft
M 18 1800 2098 Ibsft 2025 2351 Ibsft 2532 2965 Ibslft
M 20 2459 2893 Ibsft 2712 3182 Ibsft 3616 4195 material grades are shown by numbers punched on the bolt heads Prior
to tightening be sure
to check out the numbers as shown below
Punched
Bolt Material Grade
Number
Standard Bolts
None
SS41 S20C
Special Bolts
S43C S48C Refined
Special Bolts
SCM3 SCR3 18
SECTION II PREVENTIVE Warnings Check List 21
POINTS OF INSPECTION AND Lubricating Oil 22
Changing Engine Oil Level 22
Changing Engine Oil 22
Changing Engine Oil Filter Cartridge 23
Inspection of Fuel Filter 23
Venting the Fuel System 24
GENERAL WARNINGS
When disassembling engine arrange each part on a clean surface Do not mix them up
Replace bolts and nuts in their original positions
When servicing voltaged parts or connecting instruments to electrical equipment first
disconnect negative battery terminal
Replace gaskets or Orings with new ones when and apply grease on the 0
ring and the oil seal when When exchanging parts use Universal genuine parts to maintain engine performance and
safety
To prevent oil and water leakage apply nondrying adhesive to the gasket according to this
manual before When hoisting the engine use the hook provided on the cylinder head
When installing external circlips or internal circlips direct corner end to the direction
Applying grease to oil seal Direction of installing circlips
3 4
1 5 5
1 Inside of Lip
2 Grease
3 External Circlip
4 Internal Circlip
5 Direct the Corner End to the Direction Subject to Force
MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST
To maintain longlasting and safe engine performance make it a rule to carry out regular inspections by following the
table below
Service Interval
every every every every every every every every every every
Item one or two three one two
50 hrs 100 hrs 150 hrs 200 hrs 400 hrs 500 hrs months months year year
Checking fuel pipes and clamps
Changing engine oil
Cleaning air filter element
Cleaning fuel fiilter
Checking battery electrolyte level
Checking fan belt tension
and damage
Checking oil or water leakage
Checking water pipes and clamps
Changing oil filter cartridge
Changing fuel filter element
Cleaning heat exchanger
Recharging battery
Changing coolant
Changing air filter element
or every 6
valve clearance
Checking nozzle injection pressure
Changing battery
Changing water pipes and clamps
Changing fuel pipes and clamps
POINTS OF INSPECTION AND LUBRICATING OIL
Brand name oil for diesel engines or CCCD class oils defined by SPI It should be as to HD or 10W40 HD
CHECKING ENGINE OIL LEVEL
Stop for 5 minutes or more and remove the dip stick wipe off dip stick and recheck Read the
engine oil level on the dip stick If the oil level is below the lower mark on the dip stick oil to the full mark DO NOT
1 Dip Stick
2 Oil Filler ENGINE OIL
Drain the oil while the engine is still warm by removing the drain plug on the oil pan and oil filler
plug or through the oil drain hose so that the oil may completely drain
Do not mix different brands of oil If a different brand of oil should be employed drain out the
existing oil no matter how new it may be and then replace it Do the same when using oil of a
different 1 Oil Drain Plug
CHANGING ENGINE OIL FILTER the oil filter cartridge with a filter a slight coat of oil to the rubber gasket on the new the new cartridge in by may
cause deformation of rubber cartridge has been replaced engine oil normally decreases a little Check that the engine
oil does not leak through the seal and be sure to read the oil level Then add engine oil up to
the prescribed level
1 Oil filter cartridge
INSPECTION OF FUEL FILTER
The fuel filter is installed in the fuel line from the fuel tank to the injection pump between the tank
and feed pump in the basic model
As the fuel from the inlet of the cock body moves through the filter element the dirt and impurities
in the fuel are filtered allowing only clean fuel to enter the inside of the filter element
The cleaned fuel flows out from the outlet of the cock body
Before starting or after disassembling and reassembling loosen the air vent plug to bleed the air
in the fuel line
1 Cock Body Inlet
2 Cock Body Outlet
3 Air Vent Plug
VENTING THE FUEL SYSTEM Models 18 25 25XP and 35
Air must be vented when
The fuel filter and piping are removed
The fuel tank becomes completely empty
The engine has not been used for an extended procedure is as follows
1 Fill the fuel tank with fuel and open the fuel cock
2 Twist off the air vent screw at the top of the filter by turning it twice
3 When bubbles disappear from fuel coming out of the plug twist it back on
4 Open the air vent plug on the fuel injection pump
5 Pull the engine stop lever back completely to stop the engine and run the starter for about 10
seconds
6 Close the air vent plug when air bubbles disappear from the fuel flowing out
Models 12 212 320 and 430 have continuous bleed Do not perform venting when the engine is hot
1 Air vent screw
SECTION III CONSTRUCTION AND Block 26
Cylinder Head 26
Crankshaft 27
Piston and Piston Rings 28
Connecting Rods 28
Camshaft and Fuel Camshaft 29
Rocker Arm Assembly 29
Inlet and Exhaust Valves 30
Flywheel 30
CYLINDER BLOCK
The engine features a high durability tunneltyped cylinder in which the crank bearing part body Furthermore drytype cylinder liners being into
cylinders cooling less distortion higher qualities and each cylinder having its own
chamber helps to minimize noise
Tunnel cylinder HEAD
The crossflow type inletexhaust ports in this engine have their openings at both sides of the
cylinder head Because overlaps of inletexhaust ports are smaller than in ports of other types
which have openings one side the suction air can be protected from being heated and expanded
by heated exhaust air The cool high density suction air has a higher voluminous efficiency and
raises the power of the engine Furthermore distortion of the cylinder head by heated exhaust air
is reduced because suction ports are arranged alternately The combustion chamber is combustion chamber type Suction air is whirled to be mixed
effectively with combustion and reducing fuel the combustion chamber are installed throttle type injection nozzle and rapid heating sheathed
type glow plug This glow plug assures easier than ever engine starts even at 15C 15F
Crossflow type cylinder head Combustion chamber
1 Combustion chamber
2 Suction
3 Exhaust
4 Nozzle assembly
5 Glow plug
6 Cylinder head
crankshaft is driven by the pistons and connecting rods and translates its into a circular movement It also drives the oil pump camshaft and fuel
camshaft are integrated into one unit to minimize bearing wear and lubricating rise Crankshaft journals crankpins and oil seal sliding section are
raise wear resistance quality Crankshaft journals are supported by the main bearing cases in
which bearing is bearing 1 at the front end is a wind type bushing and the three bearings 2 behind are
split type bearings 12 of split type are mounted on both sides of the main bearing case 1 at the
flywheel bearings and side bearings are plated with special alloy to raise wear
8
1 Crankshaft
2 Piston
3 Connecting rod
4 Oil passage
5 Crankshaft bearing 1
6 Crankshaft bearing 2
7 Side bearing
8 27
PISTON AND PISTON RINGS
Piston circumference has a special elliptic shape in consideration of expansion due to Piston head is flatformed Furthermore ribs are provided
between the piston head and top
ring to reduce distortion and to help heat is made of special aluminum alloy of low thermal expansion and high ring is of key stone type which can
stand against heavy load and the sliding surface to the
cylinder wall is shaped into barrel face which is well fitted to the wall and plated with hard ring is of undercut type which is effective to prevent
oil rising
Oil ring is effective to scrape oil because it is closely fitted to the cylinder wall by coil expander
and the upper and lower ends of its sliding surface are cut diagonally to raise fare pressure to the
cylinder walls
A part of scraped oil is forced into the inside of piston through oil escape holes of rings and
piston The oil ring is plated with hard chrome to increase wear resistance quality
Pistons and piston rings
1 Rib
2 Top ring
3 2
3 Barrel face
4 Hard chrome plating
Second ring
Coil expander ring
i 6
CONNECTING rod is used to connect the piston with the crankshaft The big end of the has crankpin bearings split type and the small end has a bushing
solid type
1111
1 Connecting rod
2 Crankpin bearing
3 Bushing
CAMSHAFT AND FUEL CAMSHAFT
The camshaft is made of special cast iron and the journal and cam sections are chilled to resist
wear The journal sections are The fuel camshaft controls the of the injection pump and is equipped with a ball to control the governor Fuel
camshaft is made of carbon steel and cam sections are quenched and tempered to wear Fuel
Camshaft
1 Tappet
2 Push rod
3 Camshaft
4 Camshaft gear
5 Injection pump gear
6 Governor sleeve
7 Governor ball case
8 Circlip
9 Circlip
10 Fuel camshaft
11 Ball
12 Ball ARM ASSEMBLY
The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms rocker arm brackets and rocker arm shaft and
converts the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an openclose movement of the inlet and
exhaust valves Valve control timing must be adjusted with screws on the rocker arms is pressurized through the bracket to the rocker arm shaft so
that the rocker arm bearings and
the entire system are lubricated 4 1
y 8
1 Rocker arm
2 Rocker arm shaft 8
3 Rocker arm bracket
4 Oil filer plug
5 Decompression lever rft
6 Decompression window cover
7 Decompression nut
8 Decompression bolt
9 Decompression shaft
10 Valve 3
INLET AND EXHAUST VALVES
The inlet and exhaust valves and their guides are different from each other Other parts such as
valve springs valve spring retainers valve spring collets valve stem seals and valve caps are the
same for both the inlet and exhaust valves All contact or sliding parts are quenched and tempered
to resist wear
Intake and exhaust valve
1 Valve cap
2 Valve spring Retainer 4
3 Valve spring Collets 5
4 Valve spring 6
5 Valve stem seal
6 Valve guide 7 8
7 Inlet valve
8 Exhaust is connected with the crankshaft Storing explosive force by each cylinder as the force of
inertia the flywheel functions to rotate the crankshaft smoothly
On the circumference of the flywheel are stamped marks for fuel injection timing and top dead
center The flywheel and crankshaft can be fixed to each other at a certain point according to of flywheel mounting bolt hole
2 Fl 1 FI
12 127 rad
173rad
127 rad
127 rad
1 TC
119 rad
11TC Mark for top dead center of 1st piston
1FI Mark for fuel injection of 1st piston
SECTION IV LUBRICATION COOLING AND FUEL System Diagram 32
Engine Oil Flow Diagram 33
Relief Valve 34
Bypass Valve 34
Oil Switch 35
Oil Pump 35
COOLING SYSTEM
Water Pump 36
Thermostat 36
Oberdorfer Water Pump 37
Sherwood Water Pump 38
Johnson Water Pump 39
New Style Sherwood Water Pump 40
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Filter 41
Fuel Pump 42
Fuel Injection Pump Nozzle 46
Governor 4749
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil Filter Cartridge and
Relief Valve
Crankpin Bearing
1 To rocker arm shaft
and camshaft
2 To Oil Filter 1
ENGINE OIL FLOW
181 ROCKER ARM SHAFT
1201
1201
1201
SWITCH
DRAIN I DRAIN l DRAIN J
I I f
l 151
151
151 CAMSHAFT
121 I
TAPPETS I TAETS I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
141 I I
1911 191
SPLPSH SPLASH
TIMING
19 SPLASH I
GEAR
1 I
J 1
61 MAIN OIL GALLERY
11 engine lubrication system consists of oil filter 1 strainer oil pump relief valve oil and oil switch The oil pump suctions lubrication oil from
the oil pan through oil filter 1
and the oil flows down to the filter cartridge where it is further filtered Then the oil is forced connecting rods idle gear camshaft and rocker arm
shaft to lubricate each part Some
part of oil splashed by the crankshaft or leaking and dropping from gaps of each part parts pistons cylinders small ends of connecting rods tappets
pushrods inlet and and timing gears
RELIEF VALVE
Relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system due to high oil pressure Control range of
the relief valve is 196 to 441 KPa 28 to 64 psL When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit the
ball is pushed back by high pressure oil and the oil VALVE
Oil filter cartridge has a bypass valve inside to prevent the lack of lubrication oil in the engine if
the oil filter element is clogged When the pressure difference before filtering and after is more
than 981 kPa 142 psi the bypass valve opens and lets the oil pass to each part of passing through the filter
Relief valve and bypass valve
1 Relief valve
2 Bypass valve
3 From pump
To rocker arm shaft and camshaft
To crankshaft
OIL SWITCH
Oil switch is provided on the way for the oil pressure If the oil pressure is proper it is switched
off if oil pressure falls below 490 kPa 71 psi the oil warning lamp etc will light warning the
operator In this case stop the engine immediately and check the cause of the pressure drop
Oil switch
tljj 8
1 11 2
1 When oil pressure is proper 8 Rubber packing
2 When oil pressure falls 9 Oil seat
3 Screw 10 Contact rivet
4 Terminal 11 Contact
5 Spring plate 12 Lamp
6 Insulator 13 Battery
7 Spring retainer
OIL PUMP
The oil pump is of rotor type and works smoothly and noiselessly An inner and outer rotor turn
inside a housing In operation the inner rotor is driven inside the outer rotor The inner rotor has
one less lobe than the outer rotor so that only one lobe is in full engagement with the outer rotor
at anyone time This allows the other lobes to slide over the outer lobes making a seal to of oil
As the lobes slide up and over the lobes on the outer rotor oil is drawn in As the lobes fall into
the rings cavities oil is squeezed out
Rotortype pump in operation
1 Draw in 1
2 Draw in 2
3 Draw in 3
4 Squeeze out
5 Inlet
6 Outlet
7 Inner rotor
8 Outer rotor
WATER PUMP
35 Imino 77 IMpgalsmin 92 US galsmin of water is forced into the crank case and to cool them The impeller of backward type is bent as far as possible
from the center in
the opposite direction to rotation The bearing unit prevents cooling water from entering by a
special mechanical seal
1 Water Pump Impeller
2 Mechanical Seal
3 Water Pump Body
4 Bearing thermostat maintains the cooling water at correct temperature and uses wax pellet Wax is enclosed in the pallet The wax is solid at low
temperatures but turns liquid at
high temperatures expands and opens the valve
Flow of cooling water r Temperature sensor of wax pellet type 1
a b
1 Leak hole 7 To radiator
2 Water cover 8 To engine
3 Spindle 9 Pellet
4 Pellet 10 Wax liquid
5 Valve 11 Wax solid
6 Sheet
a At low temperature
b At high temperature
OBERDORFER WATER PUMP
PUMP ASSEMBLY 301357
Item Unit Description
1 4 Cover Screws
2 1 Pump Cover
3 1 Cover Gasket
4 1 Impeller Snap Ring
5 1 Impeller
6 1 PUmp Shaft Old Style
6A 1 1 pc Shaft New Style
7 1 Cam
8 1 Carbon Bushing
9 1 Cam Locking Screw
10 2 Oil Seal
11 1 Drain Plug
SHERWOOD WATER PUMp
PUMP ASSEMBLY 300986
Item Unit Description
1 6 Cover Screws
2 1 Pump Cover
3 1 Cover Gasket
4 1 Impeller Snap Ring
5 1 Impeller
6 1 Key
7 1 Pump Shaft Old Style
7A 1 1 pc Shaft New Style
8 1 Water Seal
9 1 Cam
10 1 Pump Body
11 1 Cam Locking Screw
12 2 Oil Seal
13 1 Drain Plug
JOHNSON WATER PUMP
PUMP ASSEMBLY 302259
Item Unit Description
1 6 Cover Screws
2 1 Pump Cover
3 1 Cover Gasket
4 1 Impeller
5 1 Pump Shaft
6 1 Caqm
7 1 Wear Plate
8 1 Pin
9 1 Cam Locking Screw
10 1 PUmp Body
11 1 Lip Seal
12 1 ORing
13 1 Washer
14 2 Ball Bearing
15 1 Guide Ring
16 1 Service Kit
PUMP ASS EMBLY 302648
Description
Housing
Ring
Cam Screw
Impeller
CirClip
Flat Washer
Seal Seat
Not Available 0
CirCr rder 13
Ip Internal
ClrcrIp External
Ball Bearing
Seal Seat A
CirCr ssembly
ip External
Shaft
End Plate
Gasket
Pump Body
Lock Washer
Bolt
FUEL SYSTEM
While the engine is running fuel is fed from the fuel tank optional part through the fuel filter to
the fuel pump which feeds fuel to the injection pump The injection pump then feeds the fuel
through the injection pipes to the nozzles which inject fuel to the cylinders for combustion Any
fuel leaking from nozzles is collected in the fuel overflow pipes which drain into the tank
1 2 3
1 Fuel Tank
2 Fuel Overflow Pipe
3 Injection Pipe
4 Injection Nozzle
5 Injection Pump
6 Fuel Filter Water Separator
7 Fuel Feed Pump Elec
8 Fuel Filter
FUEL FILTER
A fuel filter is used to prevent dirty fuel from reaching the injection pump and injection nozzles
The filter element will require occasional replacement to maintain an adequate flow of fuel to the
injection pump The frequency of this service will vary according to the cleanliness of available fuel
and the care used in storage
1 Cock Body Inlet
2 Cock Body Outlet
3 Air Vent Plug
FUEL PUMP
Filtered fuel is forcibly sucked from the tank by the fuel pump and fed under pressure to the
injection pump Inlet and discharge pressures are produced by a vertical movement of the
diaphragm which is caused by the special cam for pump of the fuel camshaft Fuel is suctioned
on the downward stroke and discharged on the upward stroke A system of two valves allows fuel
to flow in only one direction
Inlet stroke Discharge stroke
1 From Fuel Filter
2 Inlet Valve
3 Outlet Valve
4 Diaphragm
5 Fuel Camshaft
6 To Injection Pump
FUEL INJECTION PUMP
The K type mini pump is provided it features high injection quality even at low engine speed The
fuel injection pump plunger is reciprocated by the fuel camshaft which is driven by the a system of timing gears Fuel camshaft rpm is 12 of camshaft
Fuel Injection pump
2 9 1
3 5
1 Delivery Valve Holder
2 Delivery Valve Spring
3 Delivery Valve
4 Plunger
5 Cylinder Pump Element
6 Control Rack
7 Tappet
8 Plunger Spring
9 Air Vent Screw
Fuel Bottom dead center of plunger
At bottom dead center fuel enters the delivery chamber through the fuel chamber and the
feed hole Fuel chamber is always kept full by the fuel pump
2 Pressurefeed start
3 Pressurefeed process
Plunger is pushed up by camshaft to close the feed hole and fuel starts As
the plunger moves up pressure increases and delivery valve is opened Then fuel is
pressurefed through the injection pipe and nozzle into the combustion chamber
4 Completion of When plunger moves further up the control groove and feed hole meet Pressurized fuel
in the delivery chamber is returned through the plungers center hole control groove and
feed hole to the fuel chamber Then pressure falls and pressurefeed is completed
Pressurefeed Start to 11 2
3 4
1 Delivery Chamber
2 Delivery Valve
3 Feed Hole
4 Fuel Chamber
5 Plunger
Injection Control
1 Injection zero
The feed hole meets the control groove before it is closed by the plunger top Therefore
fuel is not pressurized and is not injected even if the plunger moves up
2 Injection medium
When the plunger is rotated a certain amount in the direction of the arrow by the control
rack stroke A is effective until the feed hole meets the control groove and fuel is injected
as the stroke amount
3 Injection maximum
When the plunger is rotated by the control rack to the maximum amount in the direction
of the arrow effective stroke reaches maximum and maximum injection is provided
Injection Control
t 1
1 2
1 Effective Stroke
Delivery Valve
The delivery valve is composed of the valve and the valve seat It performs two Reverse flow prevention
If the circuit between the delivery chamber and the nozzle is always closed a time lag will
occur between pressure feed start of valve element and start of nozzle injection This in
turn will prevent injection from stopping properly until after completion of To eliminate this time lag the valve lowers on completion of
pressurefeed and the relief
valve contacts the valve seat and breaks the circuit between the injection pipe and
plunger
2 Fuel dribbling prevention
After the relief valve contacts delivery valve seat this valve lowers a little Since the relief
valve breaks the circuit pressure int he injection pipe is reduce as the valve lowers
preventing fuel dribbling from the nozzle
Pump Element
The pump element is composed of a cylinder and a plunger Their contact surfaces are
precision finished to provide a high injection pressure even at low speeds The of the plunger has slanted grooves which are called control grooves
and a
connecting hole for plunger Rack
This is connected directly to the governor fork in the engine body It is connected with the
plunger by pinion to change injection tappet converts rotating movement of the camshaft into a reCiprocating movement to
drive plunger A roller is used where it contacts the cam to reduce friction
Delivery Valve Pump Element
5 6
1 Relief Valve
2 Seat
3 Delivery Valve Seat
4 Pressure Decrease Because of Increase in this Volume
5 End of Pressurefeed and Start of Sucking Back
6 End of Sucking Back
7 Pump Element
8 Cylinder
9 Plunger
10 Feed Hole
11 Control Groove
12 Driving Face
INJECTION NOZZLE
This nozzle is Fuel fed from the pump pressurized to push the needle valve up and
the fuel is then injected The needle valve is pressed by the nozzle spring through the push rod
Fuel overflow is passed from nozzle holder center through the fuel overflow nipple and the fuel
overflow pipe to the fuel tank Injection pressure can be controlled by inserting shims holder body and adjusting washers The pressure increases when
a O1mm shim is nozzle is also precision finished as is the injection pump treat it carefully and protect
from water and dust
Injection nozzle
1 Nozzle Holder Body
2 Adjusting Washer
3 Nozzle Spring
4 Push Rod
5 Retaining Nut
6 Nozzle Body
7 Needle Valve
8 Combustion Chamber
9 Fuel Overflow Nipple
10 Fuel Overflow Pipe
centrifugal ball weight system this mechanical governor works in the whole range of speeds
It keeps the engine speed and controls the engine output
At Start
When the engine is started more fuel is required than in running At starting fork lever 1 is
pulled rightward by starter spring because ball weights have no centrifugal force Control rack
moves to a position for overlimit discharging of fuel to assure easy starting
At start
1 Ball Weights
2 Start Spring
3 Fork Lever 1
4 Control Rack
At Idling
When speed control lever is set at idling position after the engine is started high spring 1 does not work at all and also low speed governor spring
2 does only a
little action Therefore governor sleeve is pushed leftward by a centrifugal force of ball
weights Fork lever 1 and control rack are moved leftward by the sleeve and then idling limit
spring is compressed by control rack As a result the control rack is kept at a position where
a centrifugal force of ball weights and forces start spring governor spring 2 and idling limit
spring are balanced providing stable idling
At idling
1 Speed Control Lever
2 Governor Spring 1
3 Governor Spring 2
4 Ball Weight
5 Governor Sleeve
6 Fork Lever 1
7 Control Rack
8 Idling Limit Spring
9 Start Spring
At middlehigh speed running
The engine speed is controlled when the tension of governor springs 1 and 2 which are
pulled speed control lever and the centrifugal force of ball weights are balanced When the
speed is reduced A 8 with load increased a b the centrifugal force of ball smaller than the tension of governor springs 1 and 2 As a result the
control rack
is moved rightward and fuel injection amount is increased to produce an engine for the load a c
At middlehigh speed running
1 Speed Control Lever
2 Governor Spring 1
3 Governor Spring 2
4 Ball Weights
When load is increased 1
1 Engine Torque Curve
2 Small Loan Torque Curve
3 Large Load Torque Curve
4 Engine RPM
5 Torque
At high speed running with overload
When an overload is applied to the engine running at a high speed the centrifugal force of
ball weights become small as the speed is reduced and fork lever 2 is pulled rightward by
governor springs 1 and 2 increasing fuel injection Fork lever 2 becomes ineffective to
increase fuel injection when it is stopped by maximum output limit bolt After that when the
force of spring becomes larger than the centrifugal force of ball weights fork lever 1 to increase fuel injection driving the engine continuously
with a high torque
At high speed running with overload
1 Ball Weight
2 Fork Lever 2
3 Governor Spring 1
4 Governor Spring 2
5 Maximum Output Limit Bolt
6 Spring
7 Fork Lever 1
To stop engine
When stop lever is moved to STOP position fork lever is moved leftward and then control
rack is moved to the noninjection position stopping the engine
To stop engine
1 Stop Lever
2 Fork Lever 1
3 Control Rack
SECTION V ELECTRICAL Diagram 52
General Information General Information Schematic Diagrams 55
Alternator Rear Housing Rotation 57
Belt Installation Alignment and Tightening 58
Ammeter Test Procedure 59
Test Procedure Integral Regulator Systems Guide Integral Regulator Systems 6061
Test Procedure Remote Regulator Systems Guide Remote Regulator Systems 64
Alternato Repair Procedure 6773
Rotor Inspection and Electrical Testing Reassembly Performance Tests System 8082
WIRING DIAGRAM
Glow Pktp 1 per cyl
NO COLOR WIRE SIZE
1 Black 10
2 Grey 10
3 YellowRed 16
4 Orange 10
5 Red 10
6 Purple 16
7 Lt Blue 16
8 Tan 16
9 Open 14
10 Grey 16
11 OrangeRed 14
ELECTRICAL 8E series of charging systems were designed for the replacement of many current Models are available for 51 amp 12 volt negative ground
systems with or without an
integral solidstate voltage integral voltage regulator incorporates an IC all silicon and remote regulator model alternator is quipped with a blade
terminal for connection to remote features of previous Motorola Charging System designs have been retained in these
units The voltage regulator and brush assembly can be removed without disassembly of thus allowing for individual testing or
1 2 3
1 Long life silicon diodes
2 Permanently lubricated sealed rear ball bearing
3 Quiet troublefree dynamically balanced rotor
4 Convenient regulator brush replacement
5 Insulated stator prevents shorts
6 Permanently lubricated sealed front ball bearing
7 Standard shaft
CUTAWAY VIEW OF TYPICAL alternators are available in two basic versions One version includes a
solidstate regulator
and forms a complete charging system The other version does not include a regulator However it
is equipped with a blade terminal for connection to a remote alternator portions of these charging systems are threephase diode rectified machines
with
die cast aluminum housings to provide the necessary strength while keeping the weight to a
minimum The weight of a typical alternator excluding pulley is approximately 10 pounds
TYPICAL ALTERNATOR MODEL
The field for the alternator is wound about the core of the rotor The field twelve poles six sets of pole pairs and the rotor is dynamically
balanced after assembly
to minimize vibration The rotor is supported in the alternator by a pair os sealed ball current of approximately 25 Amperes is supplied to the field
through copper slip rings and a
set of brushes The slip rings ar small in diameter for extended brush life
NOTE The design is a sealed brush design and therefore is suitable for marine applications is easily removed for either inspection or replacement
Removal does not require of the 54
The stator is connected to a threephase fullwave bridge rectifier package which contains six
diodes The bridge converts the AC generated in the stator to a DC output for battery charging
and accessories such as radio heater lights ignition etc See illustrations below
Power to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator alternators is provided by the field
diode or diode trio
package contained in the alternator Remote regulator alternators obtain field power via the
regulator in the charging system
The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 amperes Rated output is achieved at 6000 alternator RPM at an ambient temperature of 75 degrees F
238 degrees C is designed to operate in an ambient of 40 degrees to 212 degrees F 40 to 100
degrees C To ensure proper cooling of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alter
nator it must be used with the proper cooling fan
D B D B
EXCITE SENSE EXCITE
REGULATOR REGULATOR
ICI GROUND ICI GROUND
STATOR STATOR
ACTAP ACTAP
TACH TACH
ALTERNATOR SENSE INTEGRAL REG BATTERY SENSE INTEGRAL REG
D B
GROUND
STATOR
ACTAP
ROTOR b
TACH
REMOTE REGULATOR
ALTERNATOR SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS
INTEGRAL Voltage Regulator
The voltage regulator is an electronic switching device which senses system voltage level and
switches the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain proper system voltage
The regulator design utilizes all silicon and thickfilm assembly techniques After
the voltage has been adjusted to the proper regulating valve the entire circuit is encapsulated to
protect the circuit and the components from possible damage due to handling or vibration and
moisture encountered in a vehicle
The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to provide a slightly higher voltage at and a lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide
for charging requirements of
the battery under these 12 VOLT 51 AMP
80 4
E w
a 40 I
20 1
I W
o a
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 750
238C SAE TEST METHOD
residual magnetism of an alternator is very low therefore some field current must be supplied
to the rotor to initiate the generation of power by the machine
CHARGE
IND LIGHT
TO BATT
ING SW
IND LIGHT
TERMINAL
TO BATT
ING SW
IND LIGHT
TERMINAL
FIELD
INTERGRAL REGULATOR ALTERNATOR REMOTE REGULATOR ALTERNATOR
EXCITATION CIRCUIT EXCITATION vehicle battery polarity prior to connecting output cables to the alternator Reverse
will destroy the alternator rectifier REAR HOUSING ROTATION
For special installation requirements the alternator rear housing may be rotated to one of positions that are spaced 90 apart To rotate the rear
housing proceed as follows
1 Detach plastic cover from rear housing
2 Remove the four 4 throughbolts using a 14 nutdriver or socket See illustration below
3 Rotate the housing clockwise or to the desired location The stator assembly
must be rotated with the rear housing
4 Replace Tighten throughbolts alternately and evenly until tight Check that rotor
shaft turns freely after Reattach plastic cover to rear housing NOTE Be sure felt gasket located on inside of cover is
in place
STATOR
ASSY
THROUGH BOLT 4 REAR HOUSING
THROUGHBOLT REMOVAL
BELT INSTALLATION ALIGNMENT belt alignment is essential for maximum alternator and belt service life The center line of
all pulleys related to the alternator drive must be within 132 of the true center line See illustration drive belts by applying pressure to the
alternator front housing ONLY DO NOT to the rear housing or stator Set belt tension to the engine If this information is not available tighten belts
to the point where the cannot be turned by hand
CAUTION
APPLY PRESSURE
HERE TO FRONT
HOUSING ONLY
WHEN SETTING BELT
TENSION
ALTERNATOR PULLEY AND ENGINE
I DRIVE PULLEY MUST BE IN LINE
WITH EACH OTHER
REAR FRONT
HOUSING HOUSING
ALTERNATOR BELT requirements vary with application An original equipment ammeter may be difficult to
replace with a higher reading unit due to limited panel space and the vehicle wiring system For
an ammeter to show alternator charge and accessory discharge it must be connected as shown below
ALTERNATOR BATTERY
CHARGE DISCHARGE
PATH PATH
1 AMMETER T
AMMETER CHARGE DISCHARGE CIRCUIT
An accessory ammeter may be used if it provides 75075 scale information Such meters are
available in two types direct reading and external shunt types Internal shunt direct are not usually recommended for charging systems of high output
capability due to the
long heavy gauge wiring required Failure to provide adequate wiring will result in poor TEST
is desirable to test the charging system alternator and voltage regulator in the vehicle using the
vehicle wiring harness and electrical loads that are a permanent part of the system will then provide the technician with an operational test of the
charging system as well as
the major components of the electrical Checks Tests
Before starting the actual electrical test procedure the charging system battery and wiring should
be checked to eliminate possible problem areas The following procedure is 1 Check the condition and adjustment of belts
A If the alternator fan can be moved by pushing on a fan blade with your finger the belts
should be adjusted
B Replace any worn or glazed belts
2 Check to see that all terminals connectors and plugs are clean and tight
A Loose or corroded connections cause high resistance and this could cause
overcharging undercharging or damage to the charging system
B Badly corroded battery cables could prevent the battery from reaching a fully charged
condition
3 Check battery condition and change if necessary A low or discharged battery may cause
false or misleading readings on the invehicle tests
Test Equipment Alternator and Regulator tests outlined require electrical test equipment to measure voltage
only however most commercial test equipment incorporates several testing devices in a VOLTMETER 020 Volt TEST EQUIP Any commercial type Hydrometer
with temperature correction Battery
The vehicle storage battery circuit represents a continuous although variable electrical load to If the circuit position or negative is opened or
broken while the alternator is charging
the loss of the battery will result in the charging voltage rising to unsafe following table illustrates typical ranges of specific gravity for a
cell in various states of charge
THE BATTERY MUST BE AT LEAST 75 OF FULL CHARGE FOR EFFECTIVE 1260 SP GR 1280 SP GR CHARGE
BATTERY BATTERY STATE
1260 Sp Gr 1280 Sp Gr 100 Charged
1230 Sp Gr 1250 Sp Gr 75 Charged
1200 Sp Gr 1220 Sp Gr 50 Charged
1170 Sp Gr 1190 Sp Gr 25 Charged
1140 Sp Gr 1160 Sp Gr Very Low Cap
1110 Sp Gr 1130 Sp Gr completing these preliminary checks and tests proceed with the tests as outlined in Guide
TEST PROCEDURE INTEGRAL REGULATOR SYSTEMS
See Pages 6466 for Remote Regulator Systems
AC TAp BACK ACTAP BACK
TACH COVER TACH COVER
D INDICATOR
LIGHT TERM D INDICATOR
LIGHT TERM
GROUND GROUND SENSE
TO BATT
INTEGRAL ALTERNATOR INTEGRAL
REGULATOR SENSE REGULATOR
REMOTE
BATTERY
EXCITE SENSE
ALTERNATOR TERMINAL INTEGRAL GUIDE
INTEGRAL REGULATOR SYSTEMS
PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSES CORRECTIVE ACTION
A Battery undercharged 1 Defective cables dirty battery 1 Check clean repair or replace
ammeter if used indicates posts corroded terminals etc as needed
constant discharge
indicator lamp remains on 2 Loose or broken belt 2 Check belt
3 Worn or broken brushes 3 Replace brush assy
4 Defective alternator system 4 Refer to Problem Area
Determination Section
B Battery undercharged 1 Indicator lamp burned out or 1 Check bulb harness
indicator lamp off with key defective wire harness
on engine stopped Normal
condition is lamp on 2 Broken brush 2 Replace brush assy
3 Defective alternator system 3 Refer to Problem Area
Determination Section
C Battery overcharges 1 Defective wire harness 1 Refer to Problem Area
excessive use of water 2 Defective alt system Determination Section
ammeter if used shows 3 Poor ground 2 Refer to Problem Area
constant excessive charge 4 Broken sense lead remote Determination Section
voltmeter indicates greater battery sense only 3 Check ground
than 145 volts connected 4 Check clean repair or replace
across battery with no load as needed
with engine idling
D Battery charges at idle but 1 Slipping belts 1 Check belts and adjust tension
discharges under load 2 Alternator defective or replace as necessary
conditions 2 Disassemble check diodes
E Indicator lamp glows slightly 1 Defective diodetrio 1 Remove replace
under moderate load battery
appears charged
PROBLEM AREA DETERMINATION SECTION
CONDITIONS Engine Idling For All Tests Unless otherwise specified
A BATTERY UNDERCHARGED
1 Remove Battery sense only
a Perform Harness Voltage Test Test No3
2 Indicator Lamp On
a Perform Open DiodeTrio Test Test NO1
3 Indicator Lamp Off Ignition on and engine stopped
a Perform Regulator Test Test NO2
b If Regulator is OK the cause is probably an open field circuit and Alternator must be
removed for repair
4 Further Investigation Requires Alternator Removal and Repair
diodes
B BATTERY OVERCHARGED
1 Regulator Shorted Replace IGN IND
SW LIGHT
POS
0 OUTPUT
I I
vocrs
RED STEP TEST POIN INDICATION
t 2 B REG 15 TO 30 wcrs WITH
II BATTERY
ILI 135 TO 150 wcrs IND
3 A B LIGHT OFF JUMPER REMOTE BATT
ATTACHED ENGINE IDLING SENSE ONLY
JUMPER NOT ATTACHED
OPEN DIODETRIO TEST
Tests
Test No 1 Open DiodeTrio Test
With ignition on and engine not running and jumped not attached
no electrical load check for battery voltage at terminal A and for 15 to 30 volts at terminal B
Add jumper JUl between terminals A and B Start engine and run at idle If indicator lamp now
goes ott and charging voltage is present at terminal A the diodetrio is probably and alternator should be removed for repair
Test No2 Open Regulator Test
NOTE Test requires removal of back cover of alternator To remove disconnect wires extending through back cover Remove back cover two screws and
reconnect all wires
With ignition on and engine not running and jumper not attached check for battery voltage at
terminal A and terminal B Indicator light will be ott Add jumper JUl between field and ground If
15 to 30 volts is present at terminal B and the indicator light is on an open defective regulator is
indicated If lamp is still not on an open field circuit brushes sliprings etc
is indicated and alternator repair is required
AC TAP TACH
I I
voas
TEST POIN INDICATION
A B BATTERY VOIJAGE
B REG BATTERY VOIJAGE WITH
IND LIGHT OFF BATTERY
JUMPER ATTACHED 15 TO
B 0 30 voas IND LIGHT ON REMOTE BATT
SENSE ONLY
JUMPER NOT ATTACHED
REGULATOR TEST BACK COVER REMOVED
Test No 3 Harness Voltage Test Remove Battery Sense Only
Remove harness sense lead from sense terminal and connect voltmeter leads as shown in Figure
below Voltmeter should indicate battery voltage approx 126 volts for a fully charged battery with
ignition key off If voltage is zero the hardness sense lead is open and should be repaired INTEGRAL
REGULATOR
I I
voas
EXCITE
TO IGN SN OR
OIL PRESS SW
fI BLK
REMOTE BATTERY SENSE ONLY
BATTERY
CABLE HARNESS VOLTAGE TEST
Test No 4 Alternator Ooutput Test
After voltmeter is connected as shown in Figure below start and run engine at a fast idle 1500 RPM Turn on vehicle headlights and blower fan low
speed Check for
nominal system output voltage of between 138148 volts for a properly operating charging may vary a few tenths of a volt higher or lower due to
ambient temperature the alternator output voltage does not fall within the proper range the alternator should for further inspection and tests
IGN IND
SW LIGHT
SENSE TO
BATT
INTEGRAL
REGULATOR
I I
RED POS OUTPUT
138 TO 14BV
BATTERY
REMOTE BATTERY SENSE ONLY
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST
TEST REGULATOR SYSTEMS
ACTAP
TACH
D INDICATOR
LIGHT TERM
GROUND
ALTERNATOR TERMINAL REMOTE GUIDE
REMOTE REGULATOR SYSTEMS
PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSES CORRECTIVE ACTION
A Battery undercharged 1 Defective cables dirty battery 1 Check clean repair or replace
ammeter if used indicates posts corroded terminals etc as needed
constant discharge
indicator lamp remains on 2 Loose or broken belt 2 Check belt
3 Worn or broken brushes 3 Replace brush assy
4 Defective alternator system 4 Refer to Problem Area
Determination Section
B Battery undercharged 1 Indicator lamp burned out or 1 Check bulb harness
indicator lamp off with key defective wire harness
on engine stopped Normal
condition is lamp on 2 Broken brush 2 Replace brush assy
3 Defective alternator system 3 Refer to Problem Area
Determination Section
C Battery overcharges 1 Poor ground 1 Check ground
excessive use of water 2 Defective alt system 2 Refer to Problem Area
ammeter if used shows Determination Section
constant excessive charge
voltmeter indicates greater
than 145 volts connected
across battery with no load
with engine idling
D Battery charges at idle but 1 Slipping belts 1 Check belts and adjust tension
discharges under load 2 Alternator defective or replace as necessary
conditions 2 Disassemble check diodes
E Indicator lamp glows slightly 1 Defective diodetrio 1 Remove replace
under moderate load battery
appears charged
Problem Area Determination Section
A BATTERY UNDERCHARGED
1 Indicator Lamp On
a Perform Open DiodeTrio Test Test No1
2 Indicator Lamp Off Ignition on and engine stopped
a Perform Regulator Test Test No2
b If Regulator is OK the cause is probably an open field circuit and Alternator must be
removed for repair
3 Further Investigation Requires Alternator Removal and Repair diodes
B BATTERY OVERCHARGED
1 Regulator Shorted Replace Tests
Test No1 Open DiodeTrio Test
With ignition on and engine not running jumped not attached and no electrical load check for
battery voltage at terminal A and for 15 to 30 volts at terminal B Add jumper JU1 A and B Start engine and run at idle If indicator lamp now goes off
and is present at terminal A the diodetrio is probably open defective and alternator should
be removed for repair
IGN IND
SW UGHT
VOIJAGE
REGULATOR
RED n POS OUTPUT
BLK B
I I
VOIIS
FIELD
EXCITE J
TO IGN LTFi BLK
SW OR
OIL PRESS RED STEP TEST POIN INDICATION
SW I l A B BATTERY VOIJAGE
2 B REG 15 TO 30 VOIIS WITH
IND UGHT ON BATTERY
135 TO 150 VOIIS IND
3 A B UGHT OFF JUMPER
ATTACHED ENGINE IDUNG
JUMPER NOT ATTACHED
OPEN DIODETRIO TEST
Test No2 Open Regulator Test
With ignition on and engine not running and jumper not attached check for battery voltage at
terminal A and terminal B Indicator light will be off Add jumper JU1 between terminals Band C 11
15 to 30 volts is present at terminal B and the indicator light is on an open defective regulator is
indicated If lamp is still not on an open field circuit brushes sliprings etc
is indicated and alternator repair is required
IGN IND
sw LIGHT
VOIJAGE
REGULATOR
RED fo POS OUTPUT
BLK B
GREEN
I I
VOIJS
EXCITE
TO IGN BLK
sw OR
OIL PRESS REO STEP TEST POIN INOICATION
sw 1 A B BATTERY VOIJAGE
IL 2 B REG BATTERY VOIJAGE WITH
r IND LIGHT OFF BATTERY
v JUMPER ATTACHED 15 TO
3 B 0 30 VOLTS IND LIGHT ON
JUMPER NOT ATTACHED
OPEN REGULATOR TEST
Test No 3 Alternator Output Test
After voltmeter is connected as shown in Figure below start and run engine at a fast idle 1500 RPM Turn on vehicle headlights and blower fan low
speed Check for
nominal system output voltage of between 138148 volts for a properly operating charging may vary a few tenths of a volt higher or lower due to
ambient temperature the alternator output voltage does not fall within the proper range the alternator should for further inspection and tests
IGN IND
sw LIGHT
VOIJAGE
REGULATOR
RED 0 POS OUTPUT
BLK B
I I
VOIJS
EXCITE
TO IGN BLK
sw OR
OIL PRESS
sw RED POS OUTPUT
138 TO 148V
BATTERY
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST
REPAIR following instructions are presented as a general overall procedure for complete an alternator However it should be pOinted out that
following the complete procedure whenever
a repair is necessary will seldom if ever be required In cases where the causes of are known it is only necessary to follow that portion of the
procedure directly related
to resolving the problem Similarly when the reasons for the malfunction are uncertain it will be
necessary to follow the procedure in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem
The following diagram should help identify some of the more common problems on during the procedure
NO LOW NOISY
ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR
OUTPUT OUTPUT
DEFECTIVE LOOSE DRIVE
DEFECTIVE PULLEY
REGULATOR REGULATOR
WORN CRACKED OR
DEFECTIVE DAMAGED
BRUSHES BRUSHES
HOUSING
OPEN GROUNDEDI
FIELD SHORTED WORN
DIODE ROTOR WINDINGS BEARINGS
OPEN GROUNDEDI SHORTED
ROTOR SHORTED RECTIFIER
STATOR WINDINGS DIODE
SHORTEDOPEN SHORTED OR
RECTIFIER DIODE GROUNDED STATOR
WINDINGS
ALTERNATOR Back Cover
Remove nuts from terminals Remove two screws securing back cover to rear housing
2 BACK COVER
MOUNTING SCREWS
REMOVING BACK COVER
Remove Brush two locknuts securing brush holder Pull out brush holder See illustration below
2 BRUSHOLDER
MOUNTING LOCKNUT
REMOVING BRUSH and Test Brush Assembly
The illustration below shows the terminals brush arrangement and testing procedure The set may be reused if the brushes are 316 or longer and if
brushes are not oil or show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes caused by TEST
CONTINUITY
FROM A TO B
FROM C TO 0
NO CIRCUIT
FROM A OR B TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC
TO C OR 0 TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER
BRUSH TEST
Remove Integral Voltage two screws securing integral voltage regulator to rear Alternators with remote voltage regulator systems will have a space
part mounted to the
rear housing instead of the integral voltage 2 REGULATOR
MOUNTING SCREWS
REMOVING VOLTAGE DiodeTrio Field Diode and Rectifier Diode Bridge
The diodetrio and rectifier diode bridge are detached as an assembly Remove cone lockout from
positive output B terminal Straighten B strap Remove three terminal screws and four diode
trio mounting screws Detach assembly from rear housing and separate diodetrio assembly bridge See illustration below
4 MOUNTING
SCREW
CONE LOCKNUT
AND B STRAP
REMOVING DIODETRIO AND RECTIFIER DIODE BRIDGE
Test Diode Trio a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test lamp check for continuity from each to the 0 stud continuity should be observed in one
direction polarity only and all
diodes should check alike If any diode is defective replace the entire diode trio assembly below
COMMERCIAL
DlOOE TESTER
D STUD
Ltr IND LIGHT TERMINAL
TESTING Diode Rectifier Bridge a commercial diode tested check for continuity Check betweenn pOint A and each of C for negative diodes Continuity
should be observed in one direction polarity only and
all diodes should check alike Then check between point B B strap and each of the C for positive diodes Continuity should be observed in one direction
only and all diodes
should check alike See illustration below
If any diode is defective replace the entire diode rectifier bridge assembly
COMMERCIAL
DIODE TESTER
e e
Q 9
TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE
Separate StatorRear Housing Assy from Front four thrubolts See illustration insert two screwdriver blades in opposite openings between the stator
and front housing
as shown in illustration below Pry units Do not insert screwdriver blades deeper than 116 to avoid damaging 4
THROUGH BLADE SCREWDRIVERS
BOLT AT OPPOSITE
OPENINGS CAUTION DO NOT
INSERT BLADE OF
SCREWDRIVER MORE
THAN 116
THRUBOLT REMOVAL STATORREAR HOUSING Rear the rear housing for a cracked or broken casting stripped threads or evidence
of severe
wear in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing
If casting is to be reused clean in solvent dry with compressed air and install a new rear if retainer is Stator
The stator assembly consists of three individual windings terminated in the delta type an ohmmeter or a test lamp check for winding continuity
between terminals A Band C
There should be no continuity from any terminal to point D Also stators showing any
signs of winding discoloration should be discarded See illustration below
STATOR WINDING TESTS
Remove Pulley Fan and Spacer
The pulley is a slipfit on the rotor shaft positioned with a Woodruff Key Remove the nut from the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool
After nut and lockwasher are removed the alternator can be separated from the pulley
The fan will slide over the key The key may be removed with diagonal pliers or with a the fan for cracked or broken fins note the condition of the
mounting hole If worn from
running loose replace the fan to insure pulley for possible faults as listed in illustration below
CHECK FOR WORN
DRIVE SURFACES
CHECK FOR POLISHED
SURFACE HERE
NOTE CONDITION OF 1
KEY GROOVE I
CHECK BORE
FOR WEAR
PULLEY REMOVAL PULLEY INSPECTION Rotor from Front front housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press
Push rotor assembly from
housing See illustration below
IPRESS
FRONT
HOUSING
SEPARATING ROTOR FROM FRONT HOUSING
Remove Front Bearing from three bearing retainer screws Position housing on support blocks placed on an arbor
press Using a tool that contacts inner race of bearing press out front bearing See illustrations below
3 BEARING RETAINIER
SCREW
BEARING INNER RACE
REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS PRESSING OUT Front housing for cracks Check condition of threads in adjusting ear Check
bore in Discard housing if bore shows signs of elongation oval or INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING
Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical properties See illustration on page 89
A Current Draw or Resistance of the Turn off DC power source before removing test leads to avoid avc damage to slip
ring surfaces
1 CURRENT DRAW IN AMPERES AT 70 TO 80F
CORRECT
12 VOLT MODELS CURRENT DRAW
RATED AT 150 V
51 AMPERES 32 to 36 AMPERES
2 RESISTANCE OF WINDING IN OHMS AT 70 TO 80 F
12 VOLT MODELS CORRECT WINDING
RATED AT RESISTANCE
51 AMPERES 41 to 47 OHM
REAR
BEARING
SLIP BEARING
RING AREA
KEY SLOT
TEST CURRENT SHAFT THREADS
DRAW OR RESISTANCE
BEWEEN RINGS NOTE PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES
OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING
ARCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES
ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING
B Grounded Slip Ring or Winding
Use 12 volt DC test lamp ohmmeter or 110V AC test lamp Place one test lead to the rotor
body and the other on either slip ring Open circuit from either slip ring to the rotor body is a
correct Condition of Slip Rings
1 Clean brush contacting surfaces with fine crocus cloth wipe dust and residue away
2 If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration replace the entire rotor assembly
D Rotor Shaft and Pole Pieces
1 Stripped threads on shaft
2 Worn key slot
3 Worn bearing surface
4 Scuffed pole fingers
5 Worn or dry rear rotor assembly if any of the above faults are noted with the exception of item 5
NOTE New rotors include a new rear bearing and new slip rings as part of the assembly
If rear bearing requires replacement follow instructions for this 74
Remove Slip Rings from Rotor the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil
leads from the slip ring terminals as shown in illustration below
REMOVE ALL RESIDUE
FROM BETWEEN
SLIP RINGS
UNSOLDER rJ II IT
CAUTION DO NOT
OVERHEAT
UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP rotor leads Insert a No 10 x 1 cap screw into opening at center of slip ring bearing puller as shown in illustration
below and pull slip ring assembly off rotor When holding rear end of rotor shaft in vise be sure not to grip bearing area of
rotor shaft
STRAIGHTEN
ROTOR LEADS
REMOVING SLIP RING ASSY
Remove Rear Bearing from Rotor
Dress rotor leads away from the bearing puller contact area
Adjust puller to contact inner bearing race carefully remove bearing from the shaft See top of page 76
This completes the disassembly of the 75
DRESS ROTOR LEADS
AWAY FROM PULLER
REMOVING REAR general reassembly instructions are reverse order to the procedures given for only information pertaining to special reassembly
requirements will be covered in Rear Bearing
Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure
on inner race only and press bearing on rotor shaft until it contact shoulder New should be used whenever bearing is removed during repair procedures
or when bearing
is rough dry or noisy
PRESS
REAR
BEARING
DRIVER
RaroR
SLEEVE
BLOCK
INSTALLING REAR BEARING
Install Slip Ring rotor leads through one of the oval passages in the slip ring assembly Be sure oval
passages is in line with groove in rotor shaft Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below
Choose a driver sleeve with a diameter that clears leads
Press slip ring assembly on shaft Solder rotor leads to leads on slip ring Trim excess slip ring
leads extending above solder PRESS
DRIVER
SLIP RING SLEEVE
INSTALLING SLIP RING Front Bearing
Place front bearing and housing in an arbor press as in illustration below Select a drive tool to
contact the outer race only and press bearing into housing bore Bearing replacement whenever bearing is removed during alternator repair procedures
of if bearing is
rough dry or noisy Install three bearing retainer screws Torque to 2530 pounds
PRESS
DRIVER TOOL
CONTACTS
OUTER BEARING
RACE ONLY
FRONT
BEARING
FRONT
HOUSING
INSTALLING FRONT BEARING
Assemble Rotor and Front Housing
Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press using two steel blocks for support as shown below Place front housing over shaft Using driver sleeve
that contacts inner bearing
race only press front housing down until inner bearing race contacts shoulder on the Be sure rotor leads clear blocks
PRESS
DRIVER
SLEEVE
FRONT
HOUSING
ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO Spacer Fan and Pulley
Place pulley spacer over shaft Install Woodruff Key Install fan Install pulley lock washer and nut
Mount pulley as shown in left hand illustration on page 92 Tighten to 35 to 50 foot pounds
Spin rotor by hand to test freedom of Front Rear Housing
Place stator into front housing with stator leads at top and notches in laminations aligned with bolt
holds Position rear housing over slip rings with housing bolt holes aligned and stator leads exten
ding through openings at top of rear through bolts and tighten evenly to between 50 to 60 inch pounds Spin rotor by hand to
test freedom of New front housings contain thrubolt holes that are not tapped Therefore a socket wrench
rather than a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient torque to drive the thread Diode Rectifier Bridge and Diode Trio
Insert B strap through slot in diode trio body Bend strap over B terminal and secure with
cone locknut Apply thin film of heat sink compound to back of diode rectifier bridge and to mating
area on rear assembly to rear housing four screws Place strap AC tap in position and connect stator
leads three capacitor where Integral brush mounting screws two through openings in regulator body Secure regulator to rear
housing two screws
Install Brush brush holder into grooves in hub of rear housing Place D strap or male terminal on stud and secure brush holder with locknuts two
places Secure other end of D Rear Cover
Be sure felt gasket is in place see illustration below Position rear cover on rear housing and
secure with two screws
FELT
GASKET
INSTALLING REAR PERFORMANCE TESTS
The following tests will determine the current producing capability of the repaired alternator Mount
the alternator in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator RPM Select required and circuit polarity
A For remote regulator model connect fixture circuit leads and instruments to the alternator
terminals as shown in Diagram A on page 100 Place field rheostat in maximum resistance
drive motor on adjust to obtain 5000 alternator RPM Slowly reduce field rheostat should develop a charge Continue to reduce resistance until
alternator reaches rated
current output in amperes CAUTION Limit output voltage to 15V maximum DO NOT operate for more than a few minutes in the manner due to the lack of
voltage control If will deliver its rated output terminate the test
B For integral regulator model connect fixture leads and instruments to alternator terminals as
shown in Diagram B on page 100
The Carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must be capable of handling the output alternaotr Make sure connections are well secured and
tight to avoid possible damage alternator or wiring due to short with carbon pile off slowly increase load while observing ammeter and maintaining
5000
RPM Increase load until a minimum output voltage of approximately 137 volts is the output current at this point and refer to the chart for minimum
acceptable ratings
MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT
VAWES AT 70 TO 800
RATING OUTPUT
51 AMP 46 AMP
D AC TAP TACH
FIELD
RHEOSTAT
EXCITE
TO IGN SW OR
OIL PRESS SW
I I
WLTS
BLK RED POS OUTPUT
REMOTE BATT
SENSE ONLY
BATTERY
DIAGRAM AREMOTE REGULATOR MODEL DIAGRAM BINTEGRAL REGULATOR MODEL
TYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE magnetswitch type starter is composed of two main sections The first section current into mechanical rotation to
turn the engine crankshaft It is composed of the field
coil armature brush commutator pinion overrunning clutch etc The second section allows the
pinion and flywheel to engage together and current to flow through the motor section It is
composed of the pullin coil holding coil pluge drive lever contract plate etc
1 Field Coil
2 Brush Spring
3 Brush Holder
4 Brush
5 Commutator
6 Through
7 Pole Core
8 End Frame
9 Contact Bolt
10 Contact Plate
11 Holding Coil
12 Magnet Switch
13 PUllin Coil
14 Moving Core
15 Drive Lever
16 Drive Spring
17 Lever Set Bolt
18 Bearing
19 Drive Side Housing
20 Over Running Clutch
21 Armature
22 Yoke
Starter circuit
3 1 2
1 PC Pullin Coil
2 HC Holding Coil
3 S Switch
4 Drive Lever clutch
5 Screw Spline
6 Armature
7 Pole Core
8 Commutator
9 Contact Plate
When Start Button is Pushed
When the start button is pushed on a current flows from the battery through the pullin coil in the
magnet switch section to the holding coil energizing the plunger to pull it in At this time the
pinion moves by the drive lever to engage with the ring gear
When start button is pushed
1 Battery
2 Starter Switch
3 Ground
4 Return Spring
5 Spline Tube
6 Pinion
7 Ring Gear
8 Operated By contact plate is closed
When the contact plate is closed a large current flows through the motor section to generate a
large mechanical power which turns the engine this time the pinion is moved forward by the screw spline for more the pullin coil ends are by the
contact plate the plunger is held only by the
force of the holding coil
When contact plate il clo
When Push Button is the push button is released a current flows through the pullin coil in
the opposite direction as shown in Figure below Therefore the forces of the holding coil and
pullin coil are balanced As a result the plunger is returned by the return the pinion is disengaged from the ring gear the contact plate is the
starter is promptly stopped by the armature brake
When push button is Plugs
Glow plugs are used for each chamber of the cylinder head to make The glow plugs are quickheating type which make starting easier with short
Construction of bar glow plug
1 Housing
2 Metal Tube
3 Insulating Powder
4 Heat Coil
1 2
SECTION VI DISASSEMBLY AND Head Cover 86
Removing Injection Pipes 1 2 and 3 86
Removing Nozzle Holder Assemblies 87
Removing AC Dynamo and Fan Belt 87
Removing Rocker Arm 88
Removing Push Rods 88
Removing Cylinder Heads 89
Removing Cylinder Head Gasket 89
Removing Oring 90
Removing Tappets 90
Removing Valves 91
NOZZLE Nozzle Holder 91
INJECTION PUMP
Removing Injection Pump Cover 92
Removing Injection Pump 92
GEAR CASE TIMING GEAR CAMSHAFT OIL Governor Spring 93
Removing Speed Control Plate 93
Detaching Start Spring 94
Removing Fan Drive Pulley 94
Removing Gear Case 95
Removing Crankshaft Oil Slinger 95
Removing Idle Gear 96
Camshaft Stopper 96
Removing Gear and Camshaft 97
Removing Fork Lever Assembly 97
Removing Fuel Camshaft 98
Removing Oil Pump Drive Gear 98
Removing Oil Pump 99
Removing Crank Gear 99
PISTON AND Oil Pan 100
Removing Oil Filter 1 100
Removing Connecting Rod Cap 101
Removing Pistons 101
Removing Flywheel 102
SECTION VI CONTENTS AND CRANKSHAFT Bearing Case Cover 102
Removing Bearing Case Bolt 2 103
Removing Crankshaft 103
Removing Main Bearing Case 104
Removing Cylinder Liner WATER PUMP
Removing Thermostat 105
Removing Water Pump 106
CYLINDER HEAD AND Flatness of Cylinder Head Surface Flaw of Cylinder Head Surface 107
Reparing Valve Seat 108
Checking Valve Recessing 108
Checking Guide Clearance 109
Checking Valve Spring Free Length 109
Checking Valve Spring Squareness 110
Checking Valve Spring Tension 110
Checking Oil Clearance Between Rocker Arm Shaft and Bushing 111
Checking Top Clearance 111
Adjusting Valve Clearance 113
Adjusting Compression Release 112
FUEL Opening Pressure of Nozzle 113
Checking Fuel Tightness of Nozzle Valve Seat 113
Checking Shape of Fumes Across Nozzle Tip 114
Checking Fuel Tightness of Fuel Injection Pump Plunger 114
Checking Fuel Tightness of Delivery Valve of Fuel Injection Pump 115
Choking and Adjusting Injection Timing 116
TIMING GEARS Oil Clearance of Camshaft 117
Checking Camshaft Alignment 117
Checking Cam Heights of Intake and Exhaust 118
Checking Gear Backlash Oil Pressure 119
Oil Pump Rotor Type 119120
SECTION VI CONTENTS CONNECTING ROD
Checking Inside Diameter of Piston Bosses 121
Checking Clearance Between Piston Pin and Small End Bushing 121
Checking Piston Ring Clearance 122
Checking Side Clearance of Ring in Groove 122
Checking Connecting Rod Alignment 123
Checking Crankshaft Alignment 123
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearing 1 124
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearing 2 124
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crank Pins and Crank Pin Bearings 125
Checking End Play of Crankshaft 125
Checking Wear of Cylinder Liner and Bearing Reference 127
REPLACING VALVE GUIDES BUSHINGS AND Valve Guides 128
Replacing Rocker Arm Bushings 128
Replacing Idle Gear Bushings 129
Replacing Small End Bushings 129
Replacing Crankshaft Bearing 1 130
When reassembling replace all the Orings and gaskets with new ones
CYLINDER HEAD
REMOVING HEAD COVER
1 Remove the head cover nuts
2 Remove the head cover
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if the head cover gasket is not defective To prevent
valve stem seizure apply enough engine oil to the valve guide and valve stem
1 Head INJECTION PIPES 12 and 3
1 Loosen the screws on the pipe clamps
2 Detach the injection pipes in the order of 1 2 and 3
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Send compressed air into the pipes to blowout dust the pipes in the reverse order Tighten the retaining nuts to 15 to 25 Nm 15
to 25 kgf
m 11 to 18 ft Ibs
1 Injection Pipe 1
2 Injection Pipe 2
3 Injection Pipe 3
4 Pipe Clamp
5 Retaining Nuts
REMOVING NOZZLE HOLDER ASSEMBLIES
1 Remove the pipe clips holding the fuel overflow pipes and detach the pipes
2 Detach the nozzle holders using a 27mm 1116 nozzle holder socket wrench after loosening
the rock nuts
3 Detach the copper gaskets on the seats on which the nozzles are to be FOR REASSEMBLING Return the nozzle holders after confirming that there are
no or foreign matter on the surface on which the nozzles are to be installed Tighten the
nozzles to 29 to 49 Nm 30 to 50 kgfm 22 to 36 1 Nozzle Holder Socket Wrench
2 Rock AC DYNAMO AND FAN BELT
1 Remove the AC dynamo
2 Detach the fan belt
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if the Vbelt is placed in a correct position on the belt can be read from your side and there is no oil or grease
on the belt Fan belt
tension The belt should deflect approx 7 mm 028 in when the center of the belt is a finger pressure of 588 to 686 N 6 to 7 kgfm 132 to 154 Ibs
1 AC Dynamo
2 Fan Belt
REMOVING ROCKER ARM
1 Remove the set nuts for the rocker arm brackets
2 Detach the whole rocker arm
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Always adjust the valve clearance Before installing the rocker arm
bracket check to see if there are any metallic particles on the surface on which the assembly is
mounted Tighten the bolts to 17 to 21 Nm 17 to 21 kgfm 12 to 15 1 Rocker PUSHRODS
1 Remove the FOR REASSEMBLING Before inserting the push rods into the tappets check to see if their
ends are properly engaged with the grooves If a push rod is roughly inserted it may hit the
shoulder of the tappet and be damaged
1 Pushrod
REMOVING CYLINDER HEADS
1 Remove the twelve cylinder head set bolts and two nuts
2 Lift up the cylinder head to detach
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Tighten the bolts and nuts after applying sufficient oil Tighten the
bolts and nuts in diagonal sequence starting from the center Tighten them uniformly or the head
may deform in the long When overhauling the engine replace the gasket with a new one its front and back Retighten the cylinder head after running
the engine for 30
minutes Tighten the cylinder head bolts and nuts to engine Cylinder head
tightening sequence
10 2 7
oo oo Oo8
1 0 0 0 0 2
13 0 5 0 4 0 12
1 Gear Case Side
2 Flywheel CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
1 Detach the cylinder head gasket being careful not to scratch it
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Before installing the gasket check to see there is no foreign matter
on the cylinder head and the 1 Cylinder Head Gasket
REMOVING ORING
1 Remove the Oring from the periphery of the oil pipe on the 1 Oring
2 Pipe TAPPETS
1 Remove the six tappets from the FOR REASSEMBLING Visually check the contact between tappets and cams for If a defect is found replace tappets
Before installing the tappets apply engine oil thinly
around them
1 Tappets
REMOVING VALVES
1 Remove the valve caps
2 Remove the valve spring collet pushing the valve spring retainer by valve spring replacer
3 Remove the valve spring retainer valve spring and valve stem seal
4 Remove the Dont change the combination of valve and valve guide
1 Valve Spring Replacer
2 Valve Cap
3 Valve Spring Collet
4 Valve Spring Retainer
5 Valve Spring
6 Valve Stem Seal
7 Valve
NOZZLE NOZZLE HOLDER
1 Secure the retaining nut with a vise
2 Remove the nut the eye joint and the plain washer
3 Remove the nozzle holder body and take out parts inside
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING When disassembling and reassembling the nozzle piece dip it in
clean fuel Install the push rod noting its direction upside down Tighten the retaining nut to 588
to 784 Nm 6 to 8 kgfm to 578 ftIbs Do not tighten it too much or the needle valve will not
slide easily and the injection performance will be decreased
Retaining Nut
Nozzle Holder Body t
Eye Joint
5 Plain Washer
6 Adjusting Washer 9
7 Nozzle Spring 7 8
8 Push Rod I
Q 5
9 Distance Piece
10 Nozzle Piece t
INJECTION PUMP
REMOVING INJECTION PUMP COVER
1 Remove the injection pump cover
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Before installing the pump cover gasket apply a to INJECTION PUMP
1 Remove the injection pump mounting bolts and nuts
2 Detach the injection pump To prevent the pump rack from being caught detach the pump
along the removal groove
3 Align the control rack pin with the slot on the gear case and remove the injection pump
4 In principle the injection pump should not be FOR REASSEMBLING Install the injection pump by aligning the control rack with the
indicated positon Addition or reduction of one shim delays or advances the injection timing by
00262 rad 150 Install the injection pump shims after applying thinly a nondrying 1 Injection Pump
2 Control Rack
3 Removal Groove
I 92
GEAR CASE TIMING GEAR CAMSHAFT OIL GOVERNOR SPRING
1 Detach the governor springs 1 and 2 from governor fork lever 2
NOTE FOR Fix the governor spring to the speed control lever and pull the
spring or wire through the window of the injection pump and spring will be able to be hooked on
the governor fork with ease Bend the end of the governor spring to prevent it from falling off
How to remove governor spring
1 Detach Governor Spring on the Side of Fork Lever
2 Gear Case
3 Fork Lever 2
REMOVING SPEED CONTROL PLATE
1 Remove the speed control plate and governor spring
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Be careful not to drop the governor spring in the gear case
DETACHING START SPRING
1 Remove the start spring from the gear case
How to remove start spring
J U U
1 Detach Start Spring on the Side of Gear Case
2 Gear FAN DRIVE PULLEY
1 Flatten the crankshaft washer
2 Loosen and remove the crankshaft nut
3 Draw out the pulley with a puller
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Bend the crankshaft washer against one side of the nut Tighten
the nut to 1373 to 1569 Nm 140 to 160 kgfm 1013 to 1157 ftIbs Do not tighten the it may damage the oil slinger causing oil leakage
1 Fan Drive Pulley
REMOVING GEAR CASE
1 Remove the gear case cover
2 Remove the Oring
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if there are three Orings inside the gear case Apply
a thin film of engine to the oil seal and install it noting the lip come off Before installing the gear
case gasket apply a nondrying adhesive Tighten the oil filter cartridge by CRANKSHAFT OIL SLINGER
1 Remove the crankshaft collar
2 Remove the Oring
3 Detach the crankshaft oil slinger
1 Crankshaft Oil Slinger
2 ORing
3 Crankshaft Collar
REMOVING IDLE GEAR
1 Remove the external circlip
2 Detach the idle gear collar 2
3 Detach the idle gear
4 Detach the idle gear collar 1
NOTE FOR REASEMBLlNG Check to see each gear is aligned with its aligning mark
1 Idle gear and crank gear
2 Idle gear and camshaft gear
3 Idle gear and injection pump gear
Tighten the idle gear shaft mounting bolt 7T to 10 to 12 Nm 10 to 12 kgf8m 72 to 87 ftIbs
00 2
1 Idler Gear
2 Alignment CAMSHAFT STOPPER
1 Align the round hole on the cam gear with the camshaft stopper mounting bolt position
2 Remove the camshaft stopper mounting bolt
3 Detach the camshaft stopper
1 Camshaft Stopper
REMOVING GEAR AND CAMSHAFT
1 Draw the camshaft and the cam gear
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Apply a thin film of engine oil to the camshaft before 1
1 Camshaft FORK LEVER ASSEMBLY
1 Remove the two fork lever holder mounting bolts
2 Detach the fork lever FOR REASSEMBLING Install the fork lever holder and crankcase after cleaning their
contact surfaces Install the fork lever so that it will not hit the governor sleeve and so that equal
space is allowed on either side of the lever After installation check to see that the fork lever 1 is
fixed to the fork lever shaft and that it can turn smoothly in the holder
1 Fork Lever Assembly
REMOVING FUEL CAMSHAFT
1 Remove the fuel camshaft stopper
2 Draw out the fuel camshaft and the injection pump gear
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Apply a thin film of engine oil to each part and reassemble so that
the drive groove at the end of the camshaft engages with the drive shaft of the hydraulic gear
pump The balls to be contained in the governor ball case are thirty 397 mm 01563 in diameter
ones and eight 13 46 mm 05300 in diameter ones
1 Fuel Camshaft Assembly
2 Fuel Camshaft OIL PUMP DRIVE GEAR
1 Straighten the claw of the claw washer of the oil pan and remove the nut
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see if there is a feather key Be sure to bend the claw of
the claw washer
1 Crank Gear
2 Oil Pump Drive Gear
REMOVING OIL PUMP
1 Remove the four pump mounting bolts Detach the oil pump
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Tighten the bolts 10 to 12 Nm 10 to 12 kgfm 72 to 87 1 Oil Pump CRANK GEAR
1 Set a special puller on the crank gear
2 Screw in the center bolt of the puller and draw out the crank gear
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Check to see that the key is on the crankshaft Heat the crank gear
to about 990 C 120 0 F and fit on the crankshaft If there is fear of the shaft being damaged heat
the gear more and fit
1 13T Gear Crank Gear
PISTON OIL PAN
1 Lay the engine on the engine cradle on its side
2 Remove the eighteen oil pan mounting bolts
3 Detach the oil pan by lightly tapping the grove of the pan with a wooden hammer
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Wipe off oil on the oil pan mounting surface apply a and install the oil pan To avoid uneven tightening tighten mounting bolts
in from the center Check to see that the drain plug is tight
1 Oil Pan
REMOVING OIL FILTER 1
1 Remove the mounting bolt of oil filter 1
2 Detach oil filter 1 being careful of the Oring
NOTE FOR cleaning the oil filter check to see that the filter mesh is
clean and install it Visually check the Oring apply engine oil and install it After checking to see
that the Oring is securely installed attach the oil filter
1 Oil Filter 1
REMOVING CONNECTING ROD CAP
1 Remove the connecting rod bolts from connecting rod cap
2 Detach the connecting rod Apply engine oil to the connecting rod bolts and tighten them to 26 to 30 Nm
27 to 31 kgfOm 20 to 22 ftIbs
Reassembling of connecting rod 1
1 Connecting Rod Cap
a Align the marks with each other
b Face the marks toward the injection pump
REMOVING PISTONS
1 Turn the crankshaft by 314 rad 180 0 and bring the piston to top dead center
2 Draw out the piston upward by lightly tapping it from the bottom of the crankcase with the grip
of a hammer
3 Draw out the other two pistons in the same method as above
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Before inserting the pistons into the cylinders apply enough engine
oil to the Install the piston rings with their gaps making an angle of 209 rad 120 0 or 314
rad 1800 to each other Place the top ring with their gaps on the opposite side of chamber Attach a ring to the pistons securely with a piston ring
set them to the cylinder being careful about the cylinder number and the position of rod Connecting rods must be installed with their ends being the
number toward
the fuel injection pump Carefully insert the pistons Otherwise their chromeplated section
may be scratched causing trouble inside the liner
1 Piston
REMOVING FLYWHEEL
1 Flatter the flywheel washers
2 Remove the flywheel bolts except for two which must be loosened and left as they are
3 Set a flywheel puller and remove the FOR Apply a thin film of grease to the bearing and oil seal at the back of
the crankshaft Check the ring gear for any uneven wear lack or crack of teeth Check to see that
there are no metal particles left on the flywheel mounting surface To ease alignment of and the flywheel bring the crank of one of the cylinders to
TC top dead center Make
sure of the flywheel TC align it with the punch mark of the rear end plate and set the the flywheel bolts to 54 to 59 Nm 55 to 60 kgfOm 40 to 43
ftIbs in diagonal order Bend
the tangs of the flywheel washer against the bolts
1 Flywheel Puller
2 BEARING CASE COVER
1 Remove the bearings case cover mounting bolts First unscrew the eight bolts inside and then
work on the nine outside
2 Screw the two bolts removed above into the two right and left holes for the bearing case cover
and pull off the cover by jacking it up
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING When installing the main bearing case cover check to see that
there are no scratches on the oil seal lip Then apply a thin film of engine oil and install Tighten
the mounting bolts in diagonal order to 10 to 12 Nm 10 to 12 kgfOm 72 to 87 ftIbs
1 Lift Bolt
2 Bearing Case Cover
REMOVING BEARING CASE BOLT 2
1 Straighten the washer for the bearing case bolt 2
2 Detach the bearing case bolts
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING When tightening the main bearing case bolts align the direction of
the holes so that the crankshaft can be easily installed Tighten the bearing case bolts 2 to 30 to
34 Nm 30 to 35 kgfOm 22 to 25 ftIbs Securely bend tangs of the washer
1 Bearing Case Bolt 2
REMOVING CRANKSHAFT
1 Draw out the crankshaft from the back of the crankcase by lightly tapping it with a copper
hammer
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Before installing the crankshaft clean the oil holes in the compressed air
REMOVING MAIN BEARING CASE
1 Remove the two mounting bolts for main bearing case assembly
2 Detach the main bearing case being careful with the side and crankshaft bearings
3 Detach the other bearing cases 2 and 3 in the same method Be careful not to mix them up
NOTE FOR Clean the oil holes in the main bearing case Install the main
bearing case with their side marks toward the flywheel Be sure to install main bearing 1 with its
oil grove facing outward Tighten the bearing case bolts 1 to 2 to 24 Nm 20 to 24 kgfOm 15 to 1 Main Bearing Case Assembly 1
2 Main Bearing Case Assembly 2
3 Main Bearing Case Assembly 3
4 Bearing Case Bolt CYLINDER LINER See illustration on page 105
1 Grind the cylinder head mounting surface with an oil grinding stone
2 Set a dry liner centering base and adaptor on the frame head
3 Set the dry liner centering base
4 Set the bearing cradle to the dry liner centering base with the bearing on top
5 Insert the pullingout adaptor coupling and fix the center bolt
6 Contact the pullingout adaptor with the bottom of the liner from the bottom of the Pull out the liner by turning the nut with a ratchet handle
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Clean the frame holl3s and oil where the liner fits Clean the sur
face of the liner and apply oil Insert the liner with its end downed After insert a feeler gauge through the check window on the bottom of the liner
centering base and
check to see the liner has been properly pressed in Tolerance Liner projection 00010 in Hone
the cylinder liner 12 u R max to 2 u R max
1 Dry Liner Centering Base
2 Bearing Cradle
3 Center Bolt
4 Nut
THERMOSTAT WATER PUMP
REMOVING THERMOSTAT
1 Remove the thermostat cover
2 Remove the FOR Apply a nondrying adhesive only at the thermostat cover side of
the gasket
REMOVING WATER PUMP
1 Remove the water pump from gear case cover
2 Remove the fan and fan If changing the water pump change the whole pump If disassembling the
water pump check to see the clearance between the water pump impeller and body
Water pump assembly
1 Water Pump Impeller
2 Seal Set
3 Water Pump Body
4 FLATNESS OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE See illustration on page 107
1 Clean the surface of the cylinder head
2 Place a straight edge on each of the cylinder headss four sides and two diagonally as shown
at the left to check the straightness of the surface
3 Insert a feeler gauge between the straight edge and the cylinder head surface
4 The maximum thickness that can be inserted is the amount of flatness
5 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit correct with a surface Do not place the straight edge on the combustion chamber
005 mm 0002 in per 100 mm 4 in
Allowable limit
of cylinder head surface length
How to check cylinder head FLAW OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE
1 Clean the surface of the cylinder head
2 Spray the cylinder head surfacewith the red permeative liquid
3 Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder head surface with the Spray the cylinder head surface with the developer If flawed it can
be identified as red marks
Reference Should be no flaw
A Air spray red check
1 Detergent
2 Red Permeative Liquid
3 White 2
REPAIRING THE VALVE SEAT
1 Clean the valve seat surface
2 Use a 45 cutter suitable for the valve guide and the valve seat
3 Grind the upper surface of valve seat with 15 cutter so that the valve seat fits to the valve
center so as to ensure a b as shown in the After correcting the valve seat check for valve recessing
How to repair the valve seat
A 45 cutter B 15 cutter
1 Valve 2 Corrected surface of valve VALVE RECESSING
1 Clean the face of the valve
2 Measure the recessing with a depth gauge
3 See engine 108
CHECKING GUIDE CLEARANCE
1 Remove carbon from the valve guide
2 After making sure that the valve stem is straight insert the valve into the valve guide
3 Measure the stem guide clearance with a dial gauge
4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the stem guide and the When changing the valve guide be sure to ream as the figure
indicates the valve guide See engine Finishing size of inlet valve guide
Finishing size of exhaust valve guide
CHECKING VALVE SPRING FREE LENGTH
1 Measure the spring with a set of vernier calipers
2 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine 109
CHECKING VALVE SPRING SQUARENESS
1 Put the spring on a surface plate place a square on the side of the spring and check to see
if the entire side is in contact with the square
2 Rotate the spring and measure the maximum B See illustration below
3 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace The flat surface at the end of the
spring coil must exceed the full circumference by twothirds Check the entire surface of the
spring for scratches
13 mm
Allowable limit
0051 in
How to measure squarenass of valve spring
CHECKING VALVE SPRING TENSION
1 Place the spring on a tester and compress it to the same degree that it is actually compressed
in the engine 31 mm 12 in
2 Read the compression load on the gauge
3 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine 110
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN ROCKER ARM SHAFT AND BUSHING
1 Measure the rocker arm 10
2 Measure the rocker arm 00
3 If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine CHECKING TOP CLEARANCE
1 Remove the nozzle holder
2 Lower the piston in the cylinder to be measured
3 Insert a highquality fuse from the nozzle holder hole Be careful not to let the fuse touch the
valve surface
4 Rotate the engine with your hand
5 Take the fuse out Measure the place where the fuse was crushed with vernier calipers
7 If the clearance is not within the reference value adjust by inserting a shim between the
cylinder head and the gasket
Reference value 06 to 08 mm
00236 to 000315 in
Thickness of gasket 105 to 115 mm
when tightened 00413 to 00453 in
Thickness of gasket shim 020 mm
00079 in
VALVE CLEARANCE
1 Measure the clearance with a feeler gauge after aligning each cylinder with the top dead
center of Align the flywheel mark TC with the timing check mark on the Valve
0145 0185 mm
T 0006 to 0007 COMPRESSION RELEASE
1 Close the exhaust valve Remove the compression release window cover from the head cover
3 Pull the compression release lever
4 Reduce the valve clearance to zero by the compression release adjustment bolt Reach for the
bolt through the window Then screw in the bolt by 1 to 15 turns and tighten the lock nut
NOTE After adjustment turn the crankshaft by hand and check to see that the valve and the
piston should not be in contact with each other
0750 to 1125 mm
Reference value
00295 to 00443 in
Compression release 1 Compression Release Window Cover
2 Compression Position
3 Compression Release Position
FUEL SYSTEM
TESTING OPENING PRESSURE OF NOZZLE
1 Move the tester hanctle up and down to prime fuel Measure the pressure of fuel jetting from
the nozzle tip
2 If the measurement is not within the reference value adjust with the adjustment washer inside
the nozzle holder Each extra 01 mm 00039 in of washer thickness causes an approximate
9806 kPa 10 kgfcm2 1422 psi increase in fuel injection Be careful not to come into direct contact with the injected fumes The fumes
destroy any cells they may touch They may also cause blood poisoning See FUEL TIGHTNESS OF NOZZLE VALVE SEAT
1 Apply a pressure
2 After keeping the nozzle under this pressure for 10 seconds check to see if fuel leaks from
the nozzle valve seat
3 If fuel should leak replace the nozzle piece See engine 113
CHECKING SHAPE OF FUMES ACROSS NOZZLE TIP
1 Set the nozzle to a nozzle tester and shoot it in the air Check the shape of the fumes
2 If the shape is defective replace the nozzle piece
1 Good
2 Bad
FUEL TIGHTNESS OF FUEL INJECTION PUMP PLUNGER
1 Set a pressure gauge to the pump
2 Rotate the flywheel to increase the pressure to 588 MPa 600 kgfcm 2 8532 psi
3 Align the plunger with the top dead center
4 Measure the time needed to decrease the initial pressure
5 If the measurement is less than allowable limit replace the pump element In this case ask a
repair shop to do the replacement Be sure to give them adjustment reference data on the fuel
injection pump Shown below See engine Adjustment of Injection
Reference valve 8 seconds or more
Allowable limit 4 seconds Control rack Speed Amount of injection Allowance mm3
position 1 rpm mm3st 3
9 1400 225 to 235 15 or less
8 1400 112 to 262 38 or less
7 1400 60 to 210 38 or less
o to 35 1550 02
1 Travel distance from noninjecting point of control rack
2 Zero opening pressure and no injection
3 Allowance on the basis of standard cylinder
Profile of fuel pump cam
1 Base Circle
CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF DELIVERY VALVE OF FUEL INJECTION PUMP
1 Set a pressure gauge to the pump
2 Rotate the flywheel to increase the pressure to 98 MPa 100 kgfcm 2 1422 psi
3 Align the plunger with the bottom dead center
4 Measure the time needed to decrease the initial pressure
5 If the measurement is less than allowable limit replace the delivery valve See engine
Reference value 10 seconds or more
Allowable limit 5 seconds
Pressure gauge Unit mm in
1 Connector
2 Pressure Sensor
147 MPa 150 kgfcm 2 2133 psi and
686 MPa 700 kgfcm 2 9954 psi
3 Nondrying Adhesive
4 Weld Entire 5 Copper Packing
6 S45C Steel Tube
7 S45C Hexagonal Steel Tube
8 Injection Pipe
CHOKING AND ADJUSTING INJECTION TIMING
1 Disconnect the injection pipe from the fuel injection pump
2 Set the acceleration lever for maximum fuel Turn the flywheel until fuel jets out from the delivery valve holder of the fuel injection pump
4 Continue to turn the flywheel slowly and stop it as soon as the fuel level at the tip of the valve
holder begins to increase
5 Check to see if the F1 mark on the flywheel is aligned with the dot mark
6 If the timing is out of adjustment readjust with Adding or removing one shim 015 mm 00059 in varies the crank angle by
approx 15 After adjustment apply a thin film of nonclrying adhesive to both sides of the
shims See engine Adjustment of injection timing
1 F1 Mark
2 Mark
3 Injection Timing Adjusting Shim
TIMING GEARS OIL CLEARANCE OF CAMSHAFT
1 Measure the camshaft bearing in the crankcase with an inside Measure the camshaft journal with an outside micrometer Calculate the If the
clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace the camshaft See engine CAMSHAFT ALIGNMENT
1 Gently put the camshaft on V blocks
2 Set a dial gauge to the journal
3 While slowly rotating the camshaft read the dial gauge The camshaft flexure is half of the
reading
4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the camshaft
I Allowable limit 008 mm
00031 in
CHECKING CAM HEIGHTS OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST
1 Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with a If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the camshaft See engine
Cam height measuring points
1 Cam Height
CHECKING GEAR BACKLASH
1 Install a levertype indicator between the gear teeth
2 Clamp one gear rotate the other and measure the backlash
3 If the backlash exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine
WBRICATION OIL PRESSURE
1 Remove the oil switch and set a pressure gauge
2 Start the engine Measure the oil pressure both at idling and at the rated speed
3 If the measurement is not within the reference value check the oil pump oilways oil
clearances and pressure regulating valve
NOTE FOR MEASURING Supply the specified amount of recommended oil The oil filter must not
be clogged or broken See engine PUMP ROTOR Rotor Lobe Clearance
1 Insert a feeler gauge into the gap between the inner and outer rotors and measure the
If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine 119
Checking Radial Clearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body
1 Insert a feeling gauge into the gap between the oil pump body and the outer rotor and
measure the If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine end Clearance Between Rotor and Cover
1 Paste a press gauge to the surface of the gear with grease
2 Attach the cover
3 Gently remove the cover Measure the clearance by plaCing the gauge paper on the press
gauge where it is crushed
4 If the measurement is not within the reference value replace
Reference value 008 to 013 mm
00031 to 00051 in
PISTON CONNECTING ROD
CHECKING INSIDE DIAMETER OF PISTON BOSSES
1 Measure the piston bosses with a cylinder gauge Set the cylinder gauges reference
measurement to 23 mm and carry out zero pOint adjustment with an outside If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine
CHECKING CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON PIN AND SMALL END BUSHING
1 Measure the piston pin with an outside Measure the ID of connecting rod small end bushing with an inside micrometer Calculate the
If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine 121
CHECKING PISTON RING CLEARANCE
1 Put the piston ring in the cylinder
2 Turn the piston upside down and push the ring into the cylinder with the piston head
3 Insert a feeler gauge into the piston ring gap
4 If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit Measure the piston ring gap at the point of the minimum inside diameter of the
cylinder liner See engine SIDE CLEARANCE OF RING IN GROOVE
1 Remove the piston ring from the piston
2 Place the ring in its groove as it shown at left and measure the If the clearance is not within the reference valve replace the ring
NOTE As the top ring is a keystone type it cannot be measured by this method See 122
CHECKING CONNECTING ROD ALIGNMENT
1 Remove the connecting rod crank pin bearing and tighten the rod bolts
2 Set the connecting rod to a connecting rod aligner
3 Place the gauge on the piston pin Measure the gap between the pin of the gauge and the flat
surface of the aligner
4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit Because the 10 of the connecting rod small end bushing is used as the basis
for this check check it is not worn beforehand See engine CRANKSHAFT
CHECKING CRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT
1 Place V blocks on the surface plate and support the journals at both ends of the crankshaft
on the V blocks
2 Set a dial gauge to the central journal
3 Read the dial gauge while rotating the crankshaft slowly Crankshaft flexure is half of the
reading
4 If the reading exceeds the allowable limit replace See engine 123
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL AND 1
1 Measure the crankshaft journal on the side of the crankshaft bearing 1 with an outside
Measure the crankshaft bearing 1 with an inside micrometer Calculate the If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit replace the crankshaft
bearing 1 See engine
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNALS AND CRANKSHAFT
BEARINGS 2
1 Paste a press gauge with grease on the crankshaft bearing
2 Tighten the crankshaft bearing case onto the crankshaft journal to the specified torque 294 to
343 Nm 30 to 35 kgfOm 217 to 253 ftIbs
3 Detach the bearing case slowly and measure the depression of the press gauge with a sheet
of gauge paper
4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the crankshaft bearing 2 See engine
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANK PINS AND CRANK PIN BEARINGS
1 Paste a press gauge onto the crank pin bearing with grease
2 Tighten the connecting rod onto the crank pin to the specified torque 265 to 304 Nm 27 to
31 kgfOm 1952 to 2242 ftIbs
3 Remove the connecting rod gently and measure the depression of the press gauge with a
sheet of gauge paper
4 If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the crankpin FOR MEASURING Fasten the crankshaft so that it does not turn Do not insert
the press
gauge into the crank pin hole Crankpin bearing measuring pOints are shown below See
Crank pin measuring points
CHECKING END PLAY OF CRANKSHAFT
1 Move the crankshaft to the crank gear side
2 Set a dial gauge to the Push the crankshaft toward the flywheel and measure the If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit replace the
side When replacing the side bearing face the oil grooves of side bearing outward
See engine 125
CYLINDER WEAR OF CYLINDER LINER
1 Set a cylinder gauge and adjust it to the reference valve of the cylinder liner with an outside
To find out the maximum wear measure the diameters at six pOints on the cylinder liner with
the cylinder gauge as shown below
NOTE When the cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit bore and hone it by 05 mm
00197 in
1 The cylinder liner which has been oversized by 05 mm 00197 in should use a piston and
ring of the same When the oversized cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit replace the and bore and hone it See engine
Measuring points of cylinder liner
1 Top
2 Middle
3 Bottom Skirt
a Rightangle to the piston pin
b Parallel to the piston pin
Reference
If the standardsize bearing cannot be employed due to excessive wear of the crankpin and employ undersize or oversize undersize or oversize bearing
use follow the precautions noted below
1 33 to 37 mm 01300 to 01457 in
2 28 to 32 mm 01102 to 01260 in
3 Oil hole must be 1 to 15 mm 00394 to 00591 in
Be sure to chamfer the oil circumference with an oil and Oversize
4 The crankpin must be finefinished to higher than 1111111 045
5 The crank journal must be finefinished to higher than 1111111
6 The crank journal side surface must be finefinish to higher than 111111 045 5ee engine
REPLACING VALVE GUIDES BUSHINGS AND VALVES GUIDES
1 Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig A
2 Press out the used valve guide from the cylinder heads lower end
3 Apply engine oil to the outer surface of the new valve guide press fit the valve guide from the
upper end of the cylinder head until the flange part of the valve guide contacts the cylinder
head
4 After finish the valve guide by means of reemer machining to dimensions shown
in Figs B and C
NOTE Be careful not to strike valve guides with a hammer during A Tool for replacing valve guides 8
Finishing size of inlet valve guide
e Finishing size of exhaust valve guide
REPLACING ROCKER ARM BUSHINGS
1 Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig A
2 Press out the used bushing and using this tool press fit the new bushing taking due care to
see that the rocker arm hole matches the bushing hole
CA Tool for replacing rocker arm bushing B Rocker arm and bushing as assembled
137 540
tOO 1394 25 109S 12 10471
IDLE GEAR BUSHINGS
1 Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig A
2 Press out the used bushing and press a new one using this tool
B Idle gear and bushing as Tool for replacing idle gear bushing
160 6 30
10 10
1401551 REPLACING SMALL END BUSHINGS
1 Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig A
2 Press out the used bushing and press a new bushing in taking due care to see that the con
necting rod hole matches the bushing hole
A Tool for replacing small end bushings B Connecting rod and bushing as assembled
1331524
0 23
100 394 D39 D9
B
PkJ I I
e D1
cofD
iJLl 3
C CO
1 QOas QO
1 Material S43C
Heat treatment Quenching tempering
2 Connecting rod hole
3 Bushing hole
REPLACING CRANKSHAFT BEARING 1
1 Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Figs A and B
2 Press out the bearing 1 using the extracting tool
3 Insert a new bearing 1 using the inserting tool taking due care to see that the contact edge
of bearing 1 faces the exhaust manifold side
A Tool for extracting crankshaft bearing 1 B Tool for inserting crankshaft bearing 1
13C1tSI21
C Crankshaft and crankshaft bearing 1 as 2
SECTION VII DYNAMO AND Battery Charging Current 132
Checking AC Dynamos Noload Voltage Testing of Starter 133
Motor Test 134
Checking Magnet Switch Pullin Coil Attraction Test 135
Holding Test Reassembly of Magnet Switch Type Starter type Starter Starter 140147
Battery Charging Current
1 After starting the engine disconnect lead of the battery and connect an Measure charging current with full electric load with lights etc
NOTES ON CHECKING Connect the amperemeter only after starting the engine In the event of a
lower electric load or fully charged battery the stipulated value may not be given
Reference value
14 to 15A with dynamo turning at 5200 rpm
1 Battery AC Dynamos NoLoad Voltage
1 Disconnect lead wire from the dynamo
2 Start the engine and measure the voltage generated by the single dynamo
Reference value
AC 20V or more with the dynamo turning at 5200 rpm
Sequence
If the starter system malfunctions do the following checks to locate the cause
t B Battery terminal check
A Check the circuit
LC Wiring check
E Motor test 2
D Test the starter at noload 1
F Magnet switch check Testing of Starter
1 Connect the ammeters positive probe to the batterys positive terminal and the negative probe
to the starters B terminal
2 Connect the batterys negative terminal to the starter body
3 Connect the voltmeters positive probe to the starters B terminal and the negative probe to the
starter body
4 Set a tachometer
5 Connect the starters B terminal to the magnet switchs S terminal
6 Check to see that the magnet switch is operating and that the specified speed current and
voltage are FOR CHECKING Use a fully charged battery Use an ammeter and leads of about
200A rating because a large current flows when the starter is connections for noload testing
Current Voltage Rotational speed
M30 45A or less 110 V 6000 rpm or more
gOA or less 115 V 3000 rpm or more
Motor Test
1 Remove the connecting leads from the starters C terminal and connect them directly to the
batterys positive terminal Then connect the batterys negative terminal to the starter body
2 If the starter runs normally the magnet switch is defective if not the motor is connections for motor test
b C terminal
Coil Attraction Test
1 Apply 12 the rated voltage approx 6V across the S terminal and C terminal
2 If the plunger is attracted strongly the pullin coil is good if not it is defective
Reference value The plunger should be attracted 134
Holding Coil Retention Test
1 Apply 12 the rated voltage approx 6V across the S terminal and the body push the plunger
in by hand and then release it
2 If the plunger stays attracted the holding coil is good if not it is Reference value The plunger remains
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY OF MAGNET SWITCH TYPE Magnet Switch
1 Remove the connecting lead
2 Remove the set screws
3 Detach the magnet switch by lifting it up while taking care that it does not contact the drive
lever
Removing Armature Brake
1 Remove the end frame cap
2 Remove the washers
3 Remove the End Frame
1 Remove the through bolts
2 Remove the end Brush Holder
1 Draw out the brush from the holder while holding the spring up
2 Take off the brush holder
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Be sure not to mistake the direction and position of the spring
Do not contact the body with the positive brushs lead
Remove Yoke
1 Draw out the yoke from the drive end frame
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING Take care for yoke knock Armature
1 Remove the set bolt from the drive lever
2 Draw out the armature from the drive end frame
3 Detach the drive When reassembling be sure not to mistake the installing direction of the 137
REDUCTION TYPE Motor
1 Disconnect the connecting lead
2 Remove the through bolts
3 Remove the motor Brush Holder
1 Release the spring and draw the brush out from the holder
2 Remove the brush Armature
1 Draw the armature out
Removing Drive End Frame
1 Remove the drive end frame
2 Remove the gears drive pinion idler gear and Plunger
1 Remove the end cover from the magnet switch
2 Draw the plunger out
3 Remove steel balls
SERVICING or Burning of Commutator
1 Check to see if the commutator surface is stained or burnt
2 If it is burnt grind off with finegrain sand Commutator Wear
1 Check to see if the contact face of the brush is scored
2 If scored grind off with sand paper or on a lathe
3 If the commutator diameter must be ground to below the allowable limit replace it
Commutator diameter
Model Reference value Allowable limit
M30 327 mm 325 mm
12874 in 12795 in
M40 300 mm 290 mm
M50 11811 in 11417 in
Checking Mica Undercut
1 Check to see the mica undercut
2 If it has high mica rectify with a saw blade As the edge of the segment will be rough
chamfer it
Mica depth
Model Reference value Allowable limit
01102B 05 to 08 mm
01302B 00197 to 0315 in 02 mm
00079 in
01402B
V1502B 05 to 09 mm
V1702B 00197 to 00354 in
V1902B
al Bad bl Good
of Armature Coil
1 Check conduction across the commutator and the armature shaft
2 If conducting replace
Reference value Should not be 141
Checking Armature Flexure
1 Measure the amount of flexure if the measurement exceeds the reference value replace
Carefully check to see if the core is scratch
Reference value 01 mm
00039 Armature Coil 1 Set the armature on the armature tester Rotate the armature while touching it with steel piece
2 If the steel piece starts to vibrate or to be attracted somewhere on the armature this suggests
that the coil contains a layer short at the point
3 If faulty replace
Reference value
The armature should not be 142
Checking Field Coil Breakage
1 To check conduction place the tester probes onto the lead and brush
2 If either are not conducting replace
I Reference value Should be conducted of Field Coil
1 To check the conduction Place the tester probes onto the field coil and yoke
2 If either are conducting replace
Reference value Should not be 143
Checking Brush Wear
1 Check to see if the brush has worn to more than 23 below the standard dimensions
2 If wear exceeds the allowable limit replace
Reference value
Allowable limit Longer than 127 mm
Model Length Width Thickness
M30 19 mm 12 mm 7mm
07480 in 04724 in 02756 in
M40 19 mm 25 mm 8mm
M50 07480 in 09843 in 03150 in
I I
I I I
l Brush Spring Tension
1 Measure the tension with a new brush in place
2 Replace if the tension is under the reference value
Reference value
Model Spring tension Commutator diameter
M30 118 N 327 mm
1200 g 12874 in
264lb
M40 175 to 237 N
M50 1785 to 2415 g 300 mm
394 to 553 Ib 11811 in
la Spring hanger
Ib Attach the brush spring
in this method
Ie Brush
of Brush Holder
1 Check the insulation of the positive brush holder
2 If the insulation is defective replace
Reference value Should not be Clutch
1 Check to see if the clutch gear is worn or damaged
2 Check to see if the gear locks in the driving direction and rotates smoothly in reverse
Checking and Adjusting Pinion Gap Magnet Switch Type
1 Disconnect the connecting lead from C terminal
2 Energize the magnet switch and measure the gap between the pinion tip and the stop collar
3 To adjust the gap change the length of the magnet switch jOint to the specified one
Reference value 01 to 04 mm
00039 to 00157 in
Adjustment of pinion gap
la Pinion gap
Pinion juts Id Turning the joint
out to this position alters its length
Checking Gap between Shaft and Bush Magnet Switch Type
1 Measure the inside diameters of the bearing bushings on the side of the drive and
commutator
2 Measure the driveside and shaft diameters and calculate the gap
3 If the gap exceeds the allowable limit use an undersize bush
Model M30
Model M30
Drive shaft dia 125 mm 04921 in Reference value Allowable limit
Commutator side 006 mm
Commutator shaft dia 125 mm 04921 in 00024 in 02 mm
Drive bushing ID Drive 004 mm 00079 in
1254 mm 04937 in
0Q16 in
Commutator bushing ID 1256 mm 04945 in
Checking Bearing Reduction type
1 Apply torque to the inner ring with your finger tips and check to see if it turns smoothly
2 Check to see if there are any strange noises when driven quickly
Battery charging dynamo runs is equal to or exceeds the
reference check 1
lower than the reference value
dynamo does not run slow running
does not run at all
Faulty battery
AC dynamos noload
voltage is equal or superior
Conductivity between
Faulty regulator connector
to the reference value Faulty wiring between regulator and
AC lead wires
AC dynamo side main sw
check 2 check 3
L not conductive
Faulty wiring between dynamo and
No reference value 1 Faulty 1
Fan belt slips
Slow engine speed
Starter runs but DOES NOT
does not
DRIVE ENGINE
PROPERLY
No meshing sound from
pinion and ring gear
Pinion shifts r Does not turn red at all
GIOWPLUG INDICATOR
meS NOT TURN RED
Turns red too quickly
Battery not sufficiently charged
r1 Faulty battery
Terminal contact poor
Poor grounding
Overrunning clutch slips
Poor contact of contact plate
Faulty starter Poor contact between brush and commutator
Armature and field coil shorted
Bearing worn
Pinion and ring gear worn
Pinion and ring gear do not mesh
H Plunger and shaft r1 Clutch slips I Overrunning clutch worn
Main switch or starter switch faulty
I Pinion does not pop out by the Faulty magnet switch
attractive force of magnet switch
I Screw spline rusted
Battery not sufficiently charged
r1 Faulty battery
Poor terminal contact
Grounded poorly
r1 Faulty magnet switch
Holding coil broken
Battery not charged Faulty battery Poor terminal contact
Poorly grounded
Incorrect wiring between battery and glow plug
Glow plug indicator Incorrect wiring
Glow plug Main switch or starter switch faulty
Shorted between glow plug indicator and glow plug
Circuit shorted
Glow plug indicator shorted
Glow plug shorted
Glow plug cable shorted
Crankshaft does not turn
No or small fuel injection
sounds
Crankshaft turns
Fuel injection sounds
Crankshaft and camshaft have seized up
Frictional resistance of moving parts Piston and cylinder liner have seized up
is too much Bearings are oilstuck
Lubrication system not working properly
Starter faulty
Battery capacity is low or terminal loose
r Fuel pipe broken
rl Fuel supply to injection pump
is r r
Air erlters fuel pipe through connection
Fuel filter clogged
Fuel pump faulty
r Plunger has worn or seized up
Injection pump does not send Delivery valve spring broken
on fuel
Delivery valve not cQmpletely oiltight
Needle valve stuck
Fuel does not inject through Nozzle spring injection nozzle I
Injection pressure maladjusted
Injection pipe mounting nut loose
rl Injection mistimed
Injection timing Contact between valve and seat
r not tight
r valve spring broken
valve stuck
Gasket faulty
I Compressed air leaks I Tightness torque of cylinder head not enough
I I
Piston riR stCk
Piston ring worn
Cylinder liner worn
Tightness torque of injection nozzle and glow
plug not enough
y Valve action timing improper I
I Valve clearance 153
Revolution is not smooth
at high speeds
ENGINE DOES NOT Revolution irregular
TURN Idling not ENGINE OUTPUT Slow engine revolutions
Fuel filter clogged
Fuel pipes broken or loose
Air in pump
Pump capacity noi constant
Injection pump wrong f
Tappet roller and pin worn
Delivery valve not completely H Injection nozzle faulty
Fuel leaks from nozzle tip
Fuel not spraying properly
Governor spring deformed
Valve clearance incorrect
Injection pump or nozzle not functioning
normally
Compression pressure is different among Governor sleeve not sliding properly
Governor not functioning f Fork lever not functioning normally
normally
Start spring deformed
Control rack not sliding properly
L Idling maladjusted r Idling regulator Accelerator rod
Main moving parts have almost seized up
r Engine overheated
Injection mistimed
Governor not functioning normally
Filter clogged
Fuel supply 1 Fuel pipe broken or loose
Injection pumps capacity not enough
L Nozzle needle valve worn
I Compression pressure not Air leaking
I enough
L Air cleaner clogged
c White or blue exhaust fumes
COLOR OF EXHAUST
FUMES NOT NORMAL
Black or dark gray exhaust
fumes
MruTJ
CONSUMPTION
LUBRICANT
Piston ring stuck
I Lubricant rises through piston gap I Piston ring worn
I 1
Excessive gap between cylinder liner and piston
Too much oil
r Injection delayed
I Compression pressure r Injection mistimed l J Injection too early
1 I I
Injection delayed
Fuel pumps injecting capacity
Plunger does not return completely because
spring is stuck or broken
varies
Plunger worn
Needle valve stuck
I Nozzle does not inject fuel
Nozzle spring broken
properly
1
Too much carbon sticks to nozzle tip
Injection pressure too Y Not enough air
Excessive gap between piston and liner
Piston ring stuck
Piston ring worn
Excessive gap between valve and
valve stem
Valve stem seal broken
Oil leaks from defective packings
Fuel mixed with oil rf
Injection pump plunger leaks much fuel
Fuel pump leaks much fuel
1 1 r
Head gasket packing faulty
Water mixed with oil
I I Crankcase cracked
Gear oil mixed with oil Hydraulic pumps oil seal broken

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Disclaimer:
The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.