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Universal Diesel M3 20b Technical Manual




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Ril
4
SERVICE MANUAL
DIESEL ENGINE
M320B
PUBLICATION NO 200562
1st EditionJuly 2001
WESTERBEKE CORPORATION MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD TAUNTON MA 027807319 USA
TEL FAX WEBSITE
IlIMMA Member National Marine Manufacturers Association
CALIFORNIA
PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer birth defects and other
reproductive harm
A gasses contain Carbon Monoxide an odorless and
colorless gas Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can and death Symptoms of Carbon can include
Dizziness Throbbing in Temples
Nausea Muscular Twitching
Headache Vomiting
Weakness and Sleepiness Inability to Think YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS
GET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY If symptoms persist
seek medical attention Shut down the unit and do not restart
until it has been inspected and repaired
This WARNING DECAL is provided by
UNIVERSAL and should be fixed to a
bulkhead near your engine or generator
UNIVERSAL also recommends installing
CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the
quarters of your vessel
They are inexpensive and easily
obtainable at your local marine store
SAFETY PREVENT BURNS FIRE
Read these safety instructions carefully before servicing your
engine Most accidents are caused by failure to follow fun A WARNING Fire can cause injury or rules and precautions Know when dangerous
ditions exist and take the necessary precautions to protect Prevent flash fires Do not smoke or permit flames or
yourself your personnel and your machinery sparks to occur near the fuel line filter fuel pump or
other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel vapors Use
The following safety instructions are in compliance with the
a suitable container to catch all fuel when removing the
American Boat and Yacht Council ABYC standards fuel line or fuel filters
Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved flame
PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK arrester removed Backfire can cause severe injury or
death
A WARNING 00 not touch AC electrical connections Do not operate with the air removed
while engine is running or when connected to shore Backfire can cause severe injury or death
power Lethal voltage is present at these connections Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near
the fuel system Keep the compartment and the engine
Do not operate this machinery without electrical clean and free of debris to minimize the chance of fire
enclosures and covers in place Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil
Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical Be aware diesel fuel will burn
equipment
Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical PREVENT BURNS EXPLOSION
equipment
Make sure your clothing and skin are dry not damp A WARNING Explosions from fuel vapors can cause
particularly shoes when handling electrical equipment injury or death
Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
electrical equipment Follow refueling safety instructions Keep the vessels
hatches closed when fueling Open and ventilate cabin
Do not connect utility shore power to vessels AC after fueling Check below for fumesvapor before run
circuits except through a shiptoshore double throw ning the blower Run the blower for four minutes before
transfer switch Damage to vessels AC generator may starting your engine
result if this procedure is not followed
All fuel vapors are highly explosive Use extreme care
Electrical shock results from handling a charged when handling and storing fuels Store fuel in a wellven
capacitor Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals tilated area away from equipment and
together with an insulated tool out of the reach of children
Do not fill the fuel tanks while the engine is BURNS HOT ENGINE
Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing
the fuel system Take care in catching any fuel that might
A WARNING 00 not touch hot engine parts or spill DO NOT allow any smoking open flames or other
exhaust system components A running engine gets sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servic
very hot ing Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the
fuel system
Do not alter or modifY the fuel system
Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant
recovery tank Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve
Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and
free of leaks
A WARNING Steam can cause injury or death Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is
properly maintained Be familiar with its proper use
Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate
In case of an engine overheat allow the engine to cool for all applications encountered in this environment
before touching the engine or checking the coolant
Unlvarsal
2 SAFETY STARTING TOXIC EXHAUST GASES
A WARNING Accidental starting can cause injury A WARNING Carbon monoxide CO is a deadly gas
or death
Disconnect the battety cables before servicing the engine Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
Remove the negative lead first and reconnect it last discharged from the engine Check the exhaust system
regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifold
Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before exhaust elbow is securely attached
starting
Make certain all covers guards and hatches are Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated
reinstalled before starting the engine Run blowers when running the generator set or engine
Dont run the generator set or engine unless the boat is
BATTERY EXPLOSION equipped with a functioning marine carbon monoxide
detector that complies with ABYC A24 Consult your
A WARNING Battery explosion can cause injury
boat builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors
For additional information refer to ABYC T22
or death
educational information on Carbon Monoxide
Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
being serviced Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen a high
ly explosive gas which can be ignited by electrical arcing
A WARNING Carbon monoxide CO is an invisible
or by lit tobacco products Shut off all electrical equip odorless gas Inhalation produces flulike symptoms
ment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing nausea or death
during servicing
Never connect the negative battery cable to the Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems Diesel
positive connection terminal of the starter solenoid fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust
Do not test the battery condition by shorting the terminals systems Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of
together Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapors copper tubing resulting in exhaustwater leakage
Ventilate any compartment containing batteries to prevent Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
accumulation of explosive gases To avoid sparks do not through portholes vents or air conditioners If the engine
disturb the battery charger connections while the battery exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline water could
is being charged enter the exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
Avoid contacting the terminals with tools etc to prevent flow of exhaust Avoid overloading the craft
burns or sparks that could cause an explosion Remove Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as toxic as
wristwatch rings and any other jewelry before handling exhaust fumes from gasoline engines carbon monoxide
the battery gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes Some of the
Always turn the battery charger offbefore disconnecting symptoms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or
the battery connections Remove the negative lead first poisoning are
and reconnect it last when servicing the battery Dizziness Throbbing in temples
Headache Muscular ACID Nausea Weakness and sleepiness
Vomiting Inability to think coherently
A WARNING Sulfuric acid in batteries can cause AVOID MOVING PARTS
severe injury or death
When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
A WARNING Rotating parts can cause injury
level wear rubber gloves a rubber apron and eye or death
protection Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is
destructive If it comes in contact with your skin wash it Do not service the engine while it is running If a
off at once with water Acid may splash on the skin or situation arises in which it is absolutely necessary to
into the eyes inadvertently when removing make operating adjustments use extreme care to avoid
electrolyte caps touching moving parts and hot exhaust system
SAFETY Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing ABYC NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR
equipment tie back long hair and avoid wearing loose
jackets shirts sleeves rings necklaces or bracelets that INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES
could be caught in moving parts Read the following ABYC NFPA and USCG Make sure all attaching hardware is
properly tightened for safety codes and standards Follow their recommenda
Keep protective shields and guards in their respective tions when installing your engine
places at all times ABYC American Boat and Yacht Council
Do not check fluid levels or the drive belts tension while Safety Standards for Small Craft
the engine is operating Order from
Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling ABYC
when the engine is running hair and clothing can easily 3069 Solomons Island Rd
be caught in these rotating parts Edgewater MD 21037
NFPA National Fire Protection NOISE Fire Protection Standard for Motor Craft
Order from
A WARNING High noise levels can cause hearing NFPA
loss 11 Tracy Drive
Avon Industrial Park
Never operate an engine without its muffler installed Avon MA 02322
Do not run an engine with the air intake silencer USCG United States Coast Guard
removed USCG 33CFR183
Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures Order from
open
US Government Printing Office
Washington DC 20404
A WARNING Do not work on machinery when you are
mentally or physically incapacitated by MANUAL
Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
notes to highlight critical information Read your maintain your equipment and follow all safety to install an engine should begin with a thor
ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht standards These standards are a combination of
sources including the USCG and the of the ABYC standards of particular interest are
H2 Ventilation
PI Exhaust systems
P4 Inboard engines
E9 DC Electrical systems
All installations must comply with the Federal Code FCR
4 Univarsal
installing UNIVERSAL engines it is important that strict attention be paid to
the following AND regulations ABYC guidelines and safety codes must be complied with engines and generators in a marine installations where the
exhaust exhaust elbow is close to
or will be below the vessels waterline provisions must be made to install a siphon
break in the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow This hose must be looped a
minimum of 20 in 51 cm above the vessels waterline Failure to use a siphon
break when the exhaust manifold injection port is at or below the load result in raw water damage to the engine and possible flooding of the boat
If you have any doubt about the position of the exhaust elbow relative
to the vessels waterline under any of the vessels various operating conditions or
when the vessel is not underway install a siphonbreak This precaution is necessary
to protect your engine
NOTE A siphonbreak requires periodic inspection and cleaning to ensure Failure to properly maintain a siphonbreak can result in damage Consult the
siphonbreak manufacturer for a proper SYSTEM
The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use The system must be designed to
prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any angle of
the vessels hull
A detailed 40page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and diesel
engines and generators is available from your UNIVERSAL dealer
Unlvarsal
2 iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction 2
Parts 3
Testing for OverhauL 6
Engine 7
Service Standards 15
Engine Description 18
Engine Disassembly 21
Engine Service 31
Engine Adjustments Manifold Service System Description System Service 52
Cooling System Description 54
Cooling System Service 56
Fuel System Description 58
Fuel System Disassembly 63
Fuel System Service 64
Admiral Control PaneL 67
Captain Control PaneL 68
Control Panel 69
Glow Plug Service 71
Starter Service 72
Mando Alternator Service 78
Prestolite Alternator Service 88
Wiring Diagram 39144 100
Wiring Schematic 39144 101
Wiring Diagram 200360 Catalina yachts 102
Wiring Schematic 200360 Catalina yachts 103
Hurth HBW Transmissions 107
Special Tools 108
Torques 110
Standard Hardware Sealants Lubricants 111
Metric Conversions 112
Standard and Metric Conversion Data 113
Index 114
OVERHAUL CUSTOMER CARD
This service manual contains detailed information relating
to the servicing and overhaul of the Universal M320B
marine diesel engine Information about the function of the various systems and components can be
found in the Description sections For the major procedure refer to the ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Customer and ENGINE SERVICE sections
information for specific components and systems UNIVERSAL OWNER
may be found by referring to the TABLE OF CONTENTS MAIN STREET
and the INDEX Refer also to your UNIVERSAL HOMETOWN USA
These service procedures are intended for the guidance of
suitably equipped and staffed marine engine service and Model M320B Ser facilities and should only be
undertaken by and their personnel Expires software tech data parts lists manuals brochures The
UNIVERSAL engine serial number is an catalogs provided from sources other than UNIVER number that can assist in determining the date
of manufac
SAL are not within UNIVERSALS CONTROL ture of your UNIVERSAL engine The date
code is placed at the end of the engine serial number and
UNIVERSAL CANNOT BE RESPONSmLE FOR THE consists of a character followed by three numbers The
CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE MAKES NO WAR character indicates the decade D1990s E20oos the first
RANTIES OR WITH RESPECT number represents the year in the decade and the INCLUDING ACCURACY TIMELINESS OR
and third numbers represent the month of THEREOF AND WILL IN NO EVENT
BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR INJURY ORDERING PARTSSERIAL NUMBER IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT
Whenever replacement parts are needed always provide
OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE the engine model number and engine serial number as customers should also keep in
mind the time appear on the silver and black between printings of UNIVERSAL product software located on the side of
the engines exhaust manifold The
and the unavoidable existence of earlier UNIVERSAL manu engine serial number can also be found stamped into the
als Product software provided with UNIVERSAL products engine block on the left side of the engine below the from UNIVERSAL or other
suppliers must not and der head cover You must provide us with this be relied upon exclusively as the definitive authority so we
may properly identify your engine In addition
on the respective product It not only makes good sense but include a complete part description and part number for
is imperative that appropriate of UNIVER each part needed see the separately furnished Parts List
SAL or the supplier in question be consulted to determine Also insist upon UNIVERSAL packaged parts because will
the accuracy and currentness of the product software being fit or generic parts are frequently not made to the by the customer
as original
NOTES CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
As this manual takes you through the service of your marine engine critical informa
tion will be highlighted by NOTES CAUTIONS and WARN
INGS An explanation follows
NOTE Component locations in this manual are An operating procedure essential to note from the front of the engine which is the
pulleydrive belt
end Left and right sides are determined as follows imag
ine straddling the engine facing in the same direction as
A CAUTION Procedures which if not strictly the front of the engine the left side is at your left the right
observed can result in the damage or destruction of side is at your right The cylinder number sequence starts
your engine with the No I cylinder located at thefront of the engine
A WARNING Procedures which if not properly fol
lowed can result in personal injury or loss of life
Unlvanal
MARINE POWER
PARTS MODEL STARTER
SOLENOID
yrI COOLANT PUMP
SHEAVE
FUEL LIFT
PUMP
UNIVERSAL MODEL Engine Type Diesel fourcycle fresh water cooled vertical inline overhead valve mechanism
Horsepower 203600 rpm
Cylinders 3
Aspiration Naturally aspirated
Bore Stroke 264 x 268 in 67 x 68 mm
Combustion Chamber Spherical type three vortex combustion system
Displacement 438 cu in 07177 liters
Compression Ratio 231
Firing Order 1 2 3
Crankshaft Direction of Rotation as viewed from flywheel end
Maximum Torque 33 ftIbs 46 kgm 2500 rpm
Dry Weight with Transmission 241 Ibs 110 kg
Dimensions Length 264 in 6706 mm Width 188 in 4775 mm Height 201 in 5106 mm
Maximum Angle of Installation Not to exceed 14 24 rad
Maximum Angle of Rotation Not to exceed 25 44 rad
Engine Speed Idle speed 1000 1200 rpm Cruise Speed 2500 3000 rpm Maximum Speed 3500 3600 rpm
Engine Timing 18 0314 rad before lDC
Engine Stop SYSTEM
Type of System Forced lubrication by gear pump
Oil Grade API Specification CF or CG4 SAE 30 10W30 15W40
Oil Filter Fullflow spinon filter element
Lubricant Capacity 40 qts 38 liters
Operating Oil Pressure Engine Hot 4060 psi 28 42 kgcm2 276414 kPa
FUEL SYSTEM
Type of System Open flow self priming
Fuel No2 Diesel Oil cetane rating of 45 or higher
Fuel Injection Pump Bosch inline plunger type
Fuel Injectors Bosch throttle type
Governor Centrifugal ball mechanical type
Fuel Lift Pump 12 volt 5 ft lift capacity solid state
Fuel Filter Full flow spinon element
Fuel Supply Return Piping 18 in ID 318 mm minimum 38 in ID 952 mm maximum
Typical Fuel Consumption 075 gaLhr 283 litershr
3000 rpm
Air Intake Silencer Cleanable replaceable filter element
Air Flow 3600 rpm 458 cubic feeVminute 13 cubic Engine Combustion
UNIVERSAL MODEL SYSTEM
Type of System Fresh water cooled block controlled with raw water heat exchanger and
centrifugal fresh water pump
Operating Temperature 170 190 F 77 88C
Coolant Pump Centrifugal type metal impeller beltdriven
Coolant Capacity 375 quarts 350 liters
Raw Water Pump Positive displacement neoprene impeller gear driven
Raw Water Flow 3000 rpm 70 galmin 265 litersmin
before discharge into exhaust SYSTEM
Starting Battery 12 volt DC negative ground
Battery Capacity 400 600 cold cranking amps CCA
Mando 51 amp 12 volt beltdriven with internal regulator
Starter Motor 12 volt reduction gear actuated shift with solenoid
Starting Aid 12 volt sheathed type glow Model HURTH HBW502R
Type of Transmission Casehardened helical gears with a multiple disc clutch
Gear Ratio Forward Std 2051
Propeller Shaft Rotation Right hand standard transmission
Lubrication Fluid ATF type A Dextron II or Dextron III
Transmission Sump Capacity 037 qt 035 liter
TESTING FOR OVERHAUL
HOW TO DETERMINE WHEN Measuring Compression Pressure
TO OVERHAUL THE ENGINE To check the compression pressure see ENGINE of Low Compression
SION TEST under ENGINE the time at which an engine should be overhauled NOTE Do not guess the conditions of
other cylinders from a
is determined by various conditions such as lowered engine result of testing one cylinder Be sure to measure the com
power output decreased compression pressure and increased pression pressure for each cylinder Look for cylinders with
fuel and oil consumption The lowered engine power output dramatically at least 20 lower compression than the aver
in the case of diesel engines is not necessarily due to trouble age of the other cylinders If the weak cylinder is flanked by
with the engine itself but is sometimes caused by injector healthy cylinders the problem is either valve or wear or injection pump wear It
is most reasonable to related Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder indi
judge by a decrease in compression pressure The decrease in cates gasket failure Abnormally high readings on all pressure is caused by many
factors It is there ders indicate heavy carbon a condition that
fore necessary to determine a cause or causes on the basis of might be accompanied by high pressures and noise
data produced by periodic inspection and maintenance Oil NOTE In case of severe vibrations and detonation on a seasonal basis is a good
means of monitoring have the injectors overhauled by an authorized fuel internal wear When caused by worn cylinders or pis
service center Poor fuel quality contaminants and loss of
ton rings the following symptoms will occur positive fuel pressure to the injection pump will result in
Low engine power output injector faults
Increased fuel consumption OVERHAUL CONDITIONS
Increased oil consumption Compression pressure tends to increase a little in a new
Hard engine starting engine until the piston rings and valve seats have been bro
ken in Thereafter it decreases gradually with the progressive
Noisy engine operation wear of these parts
These symptoms often appear together Increased fuel con
When the decrease of compression pressure reaches its and hard engine starting can also result from exces
see SERVICE STANDARDS the engine must be over
sive fuel injection improper injection timing and wear of the
injection pump and nozzles They are also caused by defec hauled The engine also requires an overhaul when oil con
sumption is high when blowby is evident and when
tive electrical components such as the battery alternator
compression values are at a minimum or and glow plugs Therefore it is desirable to judge the
optimum engine overhaul time by the lowered compression NOTE Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS chart during an
pressure caused by worn cylinders and piston rings plus engine overhaul It gives the measurements and values for
increased oil consumption In diesel engines satisfactory the repair or replacement of the engine is obtained only under sufficient
compression NOTE The ENGINE section may be
pressure If an engine lacks compression pressure incomplete helpful in determining the need for an engine of fuel will take place even if
other parts of the
engine are operating properly To determine the period of
engine overhaul it is important to measure the engine com
pression pressure regularly At the same time the engine
speed at which the measurement of compression pressure is
made should be checked because the compression with engine rpm The engine rpm can be measured at
the front end of the 6
ENGINE following table describes certain problems NOTE The engineV electrical system is protected by a 20
relating to engine service the probable causes of these prob ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on a and the to overcome these
problems The preheat solenoid is mounted on the same bracket
PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE HARD STARTING LOW CRANKING SPEED
1 Engine oil viscosity too high 1 Replace engine oil with less viscous oil
2 Rundown battery 2 Recharge battery
3 Worn battery 3 Replace battery
4 Battery terminals loosely connected 4 Clean terminals and tighten cables
5 Defective starter 5 Repair or replace starter
DEFECTIVE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
1 No fuel at injectors 1 Check a through e
a No fuel in fuel tank andor fuel shutoff a Fill fuel tank Open shutoff and bleed system
b Fuel filter or fuel line clogged b Replace filter and bleed Clean fuel line
c Injection pump faulty c Inspect pump Repair or replace pump as
needed
d Loose injection line retaining nut d Tighten nut
2 Fuel injectors faulty inadequate spray 2 Remove and test nozzles Repair nozzles as
needed
3 Low injection pressure 3 Adjust injection pressure
4 Injection timing incorrect 4 Check and adjust timing
5 Poor quality fuel 5 Drain and replace with proper fuel
6 Water andor air in fuel system 6 Remove water andor bleed air from fuel system
Check fuel system for leaks and fuel tank for
water MAIN ENGINE TROUBLES
1 Low compression 1 Check a through k
a Leaking compression from fuel injector gasket a Tighten fuel injector or replace gasket
b Incorrect valve clearance b Adjust valve clearance
c Inadequate contact of valve seat c Lap valve
d Valve stem seized d Replace valve and valve guide
e Weak or broken valve spring e Replace valve spring
f Bent push rod f Replace push rod
g Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket g Replace gasket
h Cracked or worn piston h Replace piston
i Piston ring seized i Replace piston and piston ring
j Worn piston ring or cylinder liner j Replace piston ring or cylinder liner
It Cracked or distorted cylinder head It Replace cylinder head
I Fuel camshaft worn I Replace fuel camshaft
2 Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber 2 Clean
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE IDLING 1 Idle speed too low
1 Adjust idle stop as needed
TOO LOW 2 Fuel filter clogged 2 Replace filter and bleed fuel system
3 Incorrect injection pump timing 3 Check timing and adjust as needed
4 High pressure injection line leaking 4 Slacken attaching nut and retighten
5 Fuel injector leaking at sealing gasket in head 5 Retighten injector andor replace sealing washer
6 Injection nozzle not operating properly 6 Check nozzle and adjust as needed
7 Engine air intake obstructed 7 Check air intake silencer and air flow into
engine IDLING MALFUNCTION OF COMPONENTS
1 Improper valve clearance 1 Adjust clearance
2 Poor valve to valve seat contact 2 Repair or replace valve
3 Failure of cylinder head gasket 3 Replace gasket
4 Governor 4 Repair governor
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEM
1 Faulty idling speed 1 Adjust idling speed
2 Faulty injection timing 2 Adjust injection timing
3 Clogged fuel line or fuel filter 3 Clean fuel line or replace fuel filter
4 Leak in fuel line or fuel filter 4 Repair fuel line or replace fuel filter
5 Air in injector fuel line injection pump fuel filter 5 Bleed air
or fuel filterwater separator
6 Seized or leaky delivery valve 6 Clean or replace delivery valve
7 Faulty injection starting pressure 7 Adjust starting pressure
8 Injection nozzle malfunction 8 Clean or replace injection nozzle
9 Feed pump malfunction 9 Clean or replace feed pump
10 Injection pump malfunction 10 Take to a fuel injection pump service facility
or replace the SLOWS 1 Fuel lift pump failure 1 Check fuel lift pump STOPS
2 Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose
2 Switches andor wiring loose or connections Inspect switches for
proper
operation
3 Fuel starvation 3 Check fuel supply fuel valves fuel lift pump
4 20 amp circuit breaker tripping 4 Check for high DC amperage draw during
operation Ensure breaker is not overly sensi
tive to heat which would cause tripping
5 Exhaust system is restricted 5 Check for blockage collapsed hose carbon
buildup at exhaust elbow
6 Water in fuel 6 Pump water from fuel tanks change filters
and bleed fuel system
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE OUTPUT LOW COMPRESSION See Low
Compression under HARD STARTING
INJECTION SYSTEM OUT OF ADJUSTMENT
1 Incorrect injection timing 1 Adjust injection timing
2 Insufficient injection 2 Repair or replace injection pump
3 Low injection pressure 3 Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure
INSUFFICIENT FUEL
1 Air trapped in fuel system 1 Bleed and check for source
2 Clogged filter 2 Clean or replace filter element
3 Contaminated or inferior fuel 3 Purge fuel system and replace with quality
fuel
4 Contaminated fuel tank 4 Clean fuel tank
OVERHEATING
1 Low coolant level 1 Add coolant
2 Loose Vbelt 2 Adjust or replace Vbelt
3 Incorrect injection timing 3 Adjust injection timing
4 Low engine oil level 4 Add engine oil
OTHER
1 Insufficient intake air 1 Increase engine compartment air ENGINE KNOCKS WITHOUT MUCH SMOKE
1 Main engine troubles 1 Check a and b
a Overheated cylinder a See ENGINE DOWN LOW OUTPUT
b Carbon deposits in cylinder b Clean
2 Injection timing too early 2 Correct the timing
3 Injection pressure too high 3 Correct the pressure
4 Improper fuel 4 Replace with proper fuel
KNOCKING WITH DARK SMOKE
1 Poor compression 1 See Low Compression under HARD
STARTING
2 Injection pump 2 3 Nozzle 3 Check a through d
a Poor spray a Clean or replace nozzle
b Chattering b Repair or replace nozzle
c drip c Repair or replace nozzle
d Nozzle needle valve seized d Replace needle SOUND CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARING
OR NOISE 1 Badly worn main bearing 1 Replace bearing and grind crankshaft
2 Badly worn crankshaft 2 Grind crankshaft
3 Melted bearing 3 Replace bearing and check lubrication system
4 Excessive crankshaft end play 4 Repair or replace crankshaft
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE SOUND CONNECTING ROD AND CONNECTING ROD BEARING
OR NOISE Contd
1 Worn connecting rod big end bearing 1 Replace bearing
2 Worn crankpin 2 Grind crankshaft
3 Bent connecting rod 3 Correct bend or replace
4 Excessive connecting rod bearing oil clearance 4 Repair or replace bearing
5 Connecting rod bearing seized or heatdamaged 5 Replace bearing
PISTON PISTON PIN PISTON RING CYLINDER LINER
1 Worn cylinder liner 1 Repair or replace liner
2 Worn piston or piston pin 2 Replace piston
3 Piston seized 3 Replace piston and rebore cylinder
4 Piston seized and ring worn or damaged 4 Replace piston and rings
VALVES OR PARTS
1 Worn camshaft 1 Replace camshaft
2 Excessive valve clearance 2 Adjust valve clearance
3 Worn timing gear 3 Replace timing gear
4 Broken valve spring 4 Replace valve spring
5 Excessive clearance between rocker arm and 5 Replace bushing
bushing
6 Excessive clearance between idler gear bushing and 6 Replace bushing
spindle
FUEL SYSTEM
1 Poor quality andor incorrect fuel 1 Use No2 diesel fuel
2 Incorrect injection timing Timing too advanced 2 Check and correct injection timing
3 Fuel injector stuck open 3 Locate and remove faulty injector Rebuild or
replace
OTHER
1 Coolant pump bearing worn or seized 1 See Coolant Pump under COOLING SYSTEM
2 Improper drivebelt tension 2 Adjust
3 Malfunction of alternator bearing 3 See Alternator under
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
4 Exhaust gas leakage 4 OPERATION INJECTION 1 Uneven injection
1 Adjust injection or replace parts
2 Inadequate injection nozzle spray 2 Replace injection nozzle
GOVERNING SYSTEM
1 Governor lever 1 Check governor shaft and adjust
2 Fatigued governor spring 2 Replace spring
Unlvanal
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE EXHAUST WHITISH OR PURPLISH
1 Engine is running cold 1 Warmup engine
2 Excessive engine oil 2 Correct oil level
3 Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber 3 Check 3 through f
3 Poor piston contact 3 Check
b Piston ring or liner worn or seized b Clean or replace
c Excessive clearance c Correct or replace
d Worn valve stem and valve guide d Replace valve stem and guide
e Low engine oil viscosity e Replace engine oil
f Excessive oil pressure f Inspect the lubrication system See
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
4 Injection timing is too late 4 Adjust timing
5 Insufficient compression 5 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING
BLUE
1 Incorrect grade of engine oil 1 Use the correct grade of oil see Oil Grade
under 2 Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil oil is blow 2 Decrease oil level
ing out through the exhaust
BLACKISH OR DARK GRAYISH
1 Poor compression 1 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING
2 Improper valve clearance 2 Adjust valve clearance
3 Improper injection timing 3 Adjust injection timing
4 Improper fuel 4 Replace with proper fuel
5 High backpressure in exhaust 5 Check for restrictions in exhaust system
6 Insufficient intake air 6 Increase engine compartment air supply
7 Overload 7 Reduce load
BLACK LARGE AMOUNT
1 Clogged fuel filter 1 Replace fuel filter and bleed system
2 Restricted air intake 2 Remove air obstruction
3 Engine overloaded 3 Check engine propeller size and engine
performance noload through fully loaded
4 Injection timing 4 Check the injection pump timing and adjust as
needed
5 Fuel injectors not operating properly 5 Check nozzle spray pressure setting
6 Improper grade of fuel 6 Use specified grade of SMOKE 1 Faulty injection timing
1 Adjust timing
2 Water in injection pump fuel filter or fuel filterwater 2 Drain fuel system
separator
3 Faulty injection starting pressure 3 Adjust starting pressure
4 Injection pump 4 Replace injection pump
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE SOUND
1 Clean or replace filter
1 Fuel filter clogged
2 Fuel line sucks air 2 Retighten fuel line joints or replace fuel line
3 Water mixed in fuel 3 Replace FUEL ENGINE 1 Noisy knocking 1 See
KNOCKING
2 Smoky exhaust 2 See SMOKY EXHAUST
3 Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn 3 Repair or replace
4 Poor compression 4 See Low Compression under HARD STARTING
5 Improper valve timing 5 Adjust timing
6 Improper valve clearance 6 Adjust clearance
INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR
1 Air intake obstructed 1 Remove FUEL INJECTION PROBLEMS
1 Injection timing incorrect 1 Adjust timing
2 Faulty injection starting pressure 2 Adjust starting pressure
3 Seized nozzle 3 Replace nozzle
4 Worn nozzle 4 Replace nozzle
5 Nozzle leaking 5 Tighten nozzle or replace sealing gasket
6 Injector not operating properly 6 Adjust nozzle spray pressure
7 Clogged fuel filter 7 Replace filter
8 High idling speed 8 Adjust idling speed
FUEL PROBLEMS
1 Improper fuel 1 Replace with proper fuel
2 Fuel leaks 2 Find fuel leaks
ENGINE OVERLOADED
1 Propeller size 1 Check propeller size and engine performance
at rated OIL OIL 1 Defective oil seals 1 Replace oil seals
2 Broken gear case gasket 2 Replace gasket
3 Loose gear case attaching bolts 3 Retighten bolts
4 Loose drain plug 4 Retighten plug
5 Loose oil line connector 5 Retighten oil line connections
6 Broken rocker cover gasket 6 Replace gasket
7 Loose rocker cover attaching bolts 7 Retighten attaching bolts
Unlvarsal
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE OIL OIL LEVEl 1 Incorrectly positioned
piston ring gaps 1 Correct ring gap 2 Displaced or twisted connecting rod 2 Replace connecting rod
3 Worn piston ring or piston ring groove 3 Replace ring or piston
4 Oil ring worn or stuck 4 Replace oil ring
5 Worn piston or cylinder liner 5 Repair or replace
6 Worn crankshaft bearing and crankpin bearing 6 Replace
OIL LEVEL FALLING
1 Defective stem seal 1 Replace stem seal
2 Worn valve and valve guide 2 Replace valve and valve guide
LOW OIL PRESSURE 1 Worn main or connecting rod bearings 1 Replace bearings
2 Relief valve malfunction 2 Overhaul oil pump
3 Diesel fuel is diluting the oil 3 Injection pump repair
4 Oil strainer clogged 4 Clean oil strainer
5 Excessive oil clearance of crankshaft bearing 5 Replace crankshaft bearing
6 Excessive oil clearance of crankpin bearing 6 Replace crankpin bearing
7 Excessive oil clearance of rocker arm bearing 7 Replace rocker arm bearing
8 Oil passage clogged 8 Clean oil passage
9 Improper grade of oil 9 Replace with specified grade of oil
10 Oil filter cartridge clogged 10 Replace
11 Oil pump defective 11 Repair or OIL PRESSURE 1 Relief valve defective 1 Overhaul oil
pump
2 Improper grade of oil 2 Replace with specified grade of oil
FUEL MIXED INTO 1 Injection pump plunger worn 1 Replace pump element or injection pump
LUBE OIL 2 Deficient nozzle injection 2 Repair or replace nozzle
3 Injection pump malfunction 3 Replace injection MIXED INTO 1 Defective cylinder head gasket 1 Replace
cylinder head gasket
LUBE OIL 2 Defective cylinder head or cylinder block 2 Replace cylinder head or cylinder OVERHEATS 1 Vbelt slackening or
slippery with oil 1 Adjust replace or clean belt
SHUTS DOWN 2 Low oil level or poor oil quality 2 Add or change oil
3 Knocking 3 See KNOCKING
4 Moving parts seized or damaged 4 Replace
5 Lack of coolant 5 Add coolant
6 Raw water not Circulating 6 Check a and b
a Raw water pump failure Check impeller
replace if necessary
b Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water
filter
Unlvarsal
ENGINE PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE OVERHEATS 7 Coolant not circulating 7 Check a
through d
SHUTS DOWN
contd a Thermostat remove and test in hot water
Replace thermostat
b Loss of cpolant check hoses hose clamps
drain plug etc for leaks
c Broken or loose belt d Air leak in system run engine and open the
pressure cap to bleed air Add coolant as
needed
Unlvarsal
SERVICE service standards specify the values at which the Valve Spring
engine components will require adjustment repair It is important to observe these standards for DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE
LIMIT
your engine and to take action when necessary to maintain
a high level of safety dependability and performance Free Length 1244 in 1118 in
316 mm 284 mm
ENGINE COMPONENTS Setting Loadl 146 Ibs I 1063 in 123 Ibs I 1063 in
Cylinder Head Setting Length 66 kgf 127 mm 56 kgf I 27 mm
647N27mm 549N27mm
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Tilt 0047 in
Cylinder Head 0002 in 12 mm
Surface Flatness 005 mm
Top Clearance 0019 0027 in
050 070 mm Rocker Arm
Cylinder Head
Gasket Thickness Clearance between 00006 00017 in 00059 in
Grommet Section Rocker Arm Shaft 0016 0045 mm 015mm
Free 0041 0051 in and Shaft Hole
115130mm Rocker Arm 04120412 in
Tightened 0041 0045 in Shaft 00 10473 10484 mm
105 115 mm 04130414 in
Rocker Arm
Compression 412 469 psi 327 psi Shaft Hole 10 mm
Pressure 29 33 kgfCm2 23 kgfcm 2
284 324 MPa 226 MPa
Clearance between 00006 00020 in 00039 in
Valve Clearance 0005 0007 in Tappet and Guide 0016 0052 mm 010 mm
Cold 0145 0185 mm
Valve Seat Width 0083 in
Tappet 00 0707 0708 in
212 mm
Valve Seat Angle 45
Tappet Guide 10 0708 0709 in
0785 rad
Valve Face Angle 45
0785 rad Camshaft
Valve Recessing 0003 0003 in 0011 in
010 010 mm 030 mm Camshaft Side 0005 0012 in 0020 in
Clearance 015 031 mm 05 mm
Clearance between 0001 0002 in 0003 in
Valve Stem and 0030 0057 mm 010 mm Camshaft Alignment 00004 in
Valve Guide 001 mm
Valve Stem 00 0234 0235 in Cam Height 1058 in 1056 in
5968 5980 mm I ntake Exhaust 2688mm 2683 mm
Valve Guide 10 0236 0237 in Camshaft Oil 0002 0003 in 0005 in
6010 6025 mm Clearance 0050 0091 mm 015 mm
camshaft 1296 1297 in
JoumaIOD 32934 32950 mm
Valve Timing
Camshaft 1299 1300 in
Intake Valve Open 20 035 rad BTDC Bearing 10 33000 33025 mm
Intake Valve Closed 45 079 rad ABDC
Exhaust Valve Open 50 087 rad BBDC
Exhaust Valve Closed 15 026 rad ATDC
SERVICE Gear Crankshaft
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Timing Gear Crankshaft Alignment 0003 in
Backlash 002 mm
Crank Gear 0001 0004 in 0005 in Oil Clearance between 0001 0004 in 0007 in
Oil Pump 00410123 mm 015 mm Crankshaft and 0034 0106 mm 020 mm
Drive Gear Crankshaft Bearing No1
Idler Gear 0001 0004 in 0005 in Crankshaft 00 15722 15728 in
Cam Gear 0047 0123 mm 015 mm 39934 39950 mm
Idler Gear 0001 0004 in 0005 in Crankshaft 1574 1576 in
Injection Pump 0046 0124 mm 015 mm Bearing No1 10 39984 40040 mm
Gear
Oil Clearance between 0001 0003 in 0007 in
Idler Gear 0001 0004 in 0005 in Crankshaft and 0034 0092 mm 020 mm
Crank Gear 0043 0124 mm 015 mm Crankshaft Bearing No2
Idler Gear Side 0007 0020 in 10023 in Crankshaft 00 17291730 in
Clearance 0020 051 mm 060 mm 43934 43950 mm
Clearance between 00007 00033 in 00039 in Crankshaft 1731 1733 in
Idler Gear Shaft and 0020 0084 mm 010 mm Bearing No2 10 43984 44026 mm
Idler Gear Bushing
Oil Clearance between 0001 0003 in 0007 in
Idler Gear 0786 0786 in Crankshaft and 0034 0092 mm 020 mm
Shaft 00 19967 19980 mm Crankshaft Bearing No3
Idler Gear 0787 0789 in Crankshaft 00 15722 15728 in
Bushing 10 20000 20051 mm 39934 39950 mm
Crankshaft 1574 1575 in
Bearing No3 10 39984 40026 mm
Cylinder Liner
Oil Clearance between 00007 00031 in 00059 in
Cylinder Liner 10 2637 2638 in 2644 in Crank Pin and 0019 0081 mm 015 mm
67000 67019 mm 67169 mm Crank Pin Bearing
Oversized Cylinder 2647 2648 in 2654 in Crankshaft 00 1336 1337 in
Liner 10 67250 67269 mm 67419mm 33959 33975 mm
Crank Pin 1338 1340 in
Bearing 10 33994 34040 mm
Piston Piston Ring Crankshaft Side 0005 0012 in 0019 in
Clearance 015 031 mm 050 mm
Piston Pin Hole 10 07874 07879 in 07894 in
20000 20013 mm 2005 mm
Piston Ring Connecting Rod
Clearance
Second 0003 0004 in 0005 in Connecting Rod 0002 in
Compression 0085 0115 mm 015 mm Alignment 005 mm
Ring No2 Clearance between 00005 00015 in 00039 in
Oil Ring 00008 00024 in 00059 in Piston Pin and Small 0014 0038 mm 010 mm
002 006 mm 015mm End Bushing
Ring Gap Piston Pin 00 07874 07878 in
Top Compression 0005 0011 in 0047 in
Ring and 015 030 mm 12 mm Small End 07883 07889 in
Oil Ring Bushing 10 20025 20040 mm
Second 0011 0017 in 0047 in
Compression 030 045 mm 12 mm
Ring
Oversize of 0009 in
Piston Rings 025 mm
Unlvarsal
SERVICE SYSTEM ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Oil Pump Starter
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Engine Oil Pressure Commutator 00 1102 in 1063 in
14 psi 280 mm 270 mm
At Idle Speed
10 kgfcm2 Mica Undercut 0020 0031 in 0008 in
98 kPa 05 08 mm 02 mm
At Rated Speed 28 64 psi 14 psi Brush Length 0630 in 0413 in
20 45 kgfcm2 10 kgfcm 2
160 mm 105 mm
196441 kPa 98 kPa
Clearance between 0012 0005 in Alternator
Inner Rotor and 003 014 mm
Outer Rotor
Noload Voltage 137 141 Vat 1500 2000 rpm
Clearance between 0002 0005 in
Outer Rotor and 007 015 mm Stator Resistance 41 47 Q at 70 80F 21 27C
Pump Body Brush Length minimum 025 in 6 mm
End Clearance 0002 0005 in
between Inner Rotor 0075 0135 mm
and Cover Glow Plug
COOLING SYSTEM I Glow Plug Resistance I Approx 09 Valve 1571 1625F

Opening Temperature 695 at 185F
which Thermostat Opens
FUEL Pump
Injection Timing 2022 BTDC
035 038 rad
Fuel TIghtness 2133 psi
of Pump Element 150 kgfcm 2
1471 MPa
Fuel Tightness 5 seconds
of Delivery Valve 2133 1990 psi
50 140 kgfIcm2
147 137 Nozzle
Fuel Injection 1991 2133 psi
Pressure 14O 150 kgfcrn2
373 1471 MPa
Fuel TIghtness of When the pressure is
Nozzle Valve Seat 1849 psi 130 kgfcrn2
1275 MPa
the valve seat must
be fuel tight
Unlvarsal
ENGINE PISTON
CRANKSHAFT
PULLEY
CONNECTING
BLOCK CYLINDER HEAD
The engine has a high durability tunneltype cylinder block The crossflow type intake and exhaust ports in this engine
in which the crank bearing component is a constructed body have their openings at both sides of the cylinder head
Because the overlaps of the intake and exhaust ports are
smaller than in the ports of other types of engines which have
their openings on one side the intake air is protected from
being heated and expanded by the heated exhaust air The
cool highdensity intake air has high volume efficiency and
increases the power of the engine Distortion of the cylinder
head by heated exhaust gas is reduced because the intake
ports are arranged alternately
INTAKE PORTS
CRINDER BLOCK
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
EXHAUST PORTS
ENGINE into the precombustion chamber are a throttle type PISTON AND PISTON RINGS
fuel injector and a rapidheating sheathedtype glow plug
The piston is made of an aluminum alloy Two recesses for
The glow plugs assure easier engine starts even at 5 F
the valves are provided on top of the piston A C GLOW PLUG depression is also on top of the piston
in order to allow com
bustion gas to flow smoothly The piston pin is slightly off
center With this design the runout of the piston at the top
and bottom dead points is reduced thereby resulting in
FUEL
lower operating noise
INJECTOR
The piston has a slightly oval shape when cold due to ther
mal expansion and a concave head Three rings are installed
in grooves in the The top ring is a keystone type which can stand heavy
loads and the barrelshaped facing on this ring fits well to
AIR the cylinder wall
THROAT
The second ring is an undercut type which effectively pre
vents the oil from being carried up
In the precombustion chamber the intake air is whirled The oil ring has chamfered contact faces and an expander
and mixed efficiently with the fuel assuring proper com ring which increases the pressure of the oil ring against the
bustion and reducing fuel consumption The shape of the cylinder wall
throat in the air inlet to the combustion chamber compression an ideal mixture of air and fuel
FUEL INJECTOR
NOZZLE fr rJ TOP RING
grJ SECOND RING
OILRING
PISTON
Several grooves are cut into the pistons crown to swirl the
fueVair mixture for complete combustion and to allow a smooth
ejection of the exhaust gas
AIR INLET
crankshaft with the connecting rod converts the recip J motion of the piston into a rotating motion The
crank
shaft is made of tough special alloy steel and the journals pins
and oil seal sliding portions are for higher
wear resistance The front journal is supported by a solid type
bearing the intermediate journal by a split type bearing and the
rear journal by a split type bearing with thrust bearings has an oil gallery through which engine oil is fed to
the crankpin to lubricate it
VALVE
RECESSES
0 1DO
DOsJ
CRANKSHAFT
f BEARINGS
UnIvarsaI
MARINE POWER
ENGINE ROD FUEL CAMSHAFT
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft The fuel camshaft controls the reciprocating movement of
The big end of the connecting rod has a split type crankpin the injection pump The fuel camshaft is made of and the small end has a solid
type bushing steel and the cam sections are quenched and tempered to
provide greater wear resistance
SMALL END
BUSHING
CONNECTING ROD
CRANKPIN
BEARING
FUEL CAMSHAFT ASSEMBLY
CONNECTING ROD
FLYWHEEL
The flywheel stores the rotating force of the ARM stroke as inertial energy reduces
crankshaft rotating speed
The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms rocker fluctuation and maintains smooth rotating conditions The
arm brackets and rocker arm shaft This assembly converts flywheels periphery is inscribed with marks showing the top
the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an dead center mark Te The flywheel has gear teeth movement of the intake and
exhaust valves its outer rim that mesh with the starters drive oil is forcefed through the bracket to the rock
er arm shaft which by its reciprocating motion oil throughout the entire rocker arm assembly
ROCKER ARM
SHAFT
VALVE TIMING
The timing for opening and closing the valves is extremely
important in order to achieve effective air intake and suffi
cient gas exhaust
The appropriate timing can be obtained by aligning the
ROCKER ARM marks on the crank gear and the cam gear when assembling
J ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
1 Inlet valve opens 20 035 rad before 2 Inlet valve closes 45 079
rad after BDC
The camshaft is made of special cast iron and the journal 3 Exhaust valve opens 50 087 rad before BDC
and cam sections are hardened to resist wear The are 4 Exhaust valve closes 15 026 rad after lDC
CD TDC
VALVE TIMING
CAMSHAFT ASSEMBLY
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY disassembling your engine read the following Replace plain bearings if they are peeling burned or
GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES and GENERAL otherwise PROCEDURES They will provide impor
Reassemble parts eg pistons piston rings information to ensure the proper servicing of your bearing caps in their proper order
positions and
engine directions relative to the engine block Avoid reversed
The EXTERNAL COMPONENTS DISASSEMBLY orientation note that the cylinder head gasket section gives the order of
removal of the bolt washers and thermostat are assymetrical Any
engines external components alternator heat exchanger mating marks that were drawn or scribed during disas
air intake silencer etc These components are reinstalled sembly should be positioned correctly for the reverse of their order of
disassembly Position gaskets carefully especially the head information is provided so they will not be
damaged during assembly
for the main engine parts bearings crankshaft pistons Inspect all critical clearances end plays oil in individual sections
and bends Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS
DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES
Use liquid sealants when specified or needed on nuts
NOTE Before disassembly and cleaning carefully check bolts and gaskets Use Permatex No2 or defects which cannot be found after
disassembly and Dont use tape sealants Refer to SEAlANTS
cleaning LUBRICANTS in this manual
All disassembled parts should be carefully arranged in Tighten the bolts and nuts on the important parts of the
the order of reassembly Mark or label the parts as engine to the specified torques using a reliable torque
needed to insure proper mating and reassembly in the wrench Tighten fasteners in the specified torque
proper directions and positions sequences and in three steps 12 23 and 111 torque
If the disassembly procedure is complex requiring many Exceptions are head bolts and rocker
parts to be disassembled the parts should be disassem arm shaft fasteners The former are torqued as indicat
bled in a way that will allow them to be efficiently ed The latter rocker shaft fasteners should be
reassembled without any change in the engines exter brought down in very small increments working from
nal appearance or its performance the center bolts out Where a tightening torque is not
Do not remove or disassemble parts that require no specified tighten evenly to an ordinary torque
disassembly After completion of reassembly recheck for any abnor
Carefully inspect each part after removal for damage malities Then fill the engine cooling system with
deformation and other problems premixed coolant 5050 good quality antifreeze and
distilled water Fill the engine oil sump to the mark on
Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals even if the dipstick with lube oil API spec CF or CG4
checking is not specified Replace with new ones if
defective Test run the engine under load prior to reinstalling At
this time readjust the valve clearances on the hot
Be careful not to damage the disassembled parts Keep engine
the parts clean
Allow the engine to cool to room temperature and
Use the proper tools Apply oil when necessary Take retorque the cylinder head bolts and recheck the valve
special care to keep the fuel system parts free from the clearances see ENGINE intrusion of dust and dirt
REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES 1 Unplug the instrument panel wiring harness
Clean or wash the parts to be reassembled Apply lubri
2 Drain the transmission fluid
cating oil when specified or as needed to the surfaces
of moving parts during reassembly Heavily oil sliding 3 Unbolt the transmission from the engine
turning rotating and reciprocating parts lightly oil NOTE For transmission service and maintenance refer to
head bolts and other fasteners except those that pene your transmission owners manual To rebuild a transmis
trate into the water jacket These fasteners should be sion contact your UNIVERSAL dealer or a qualified
sealed with Permatex No2 or a hightack equivalent marine transmission service facility
Make sure that moving parts after assembly onto the
engine are not subject to binding or excessive tension If the transmission is not being rebuilt it should be visually
inspected Inspect and lubricate the gear shift linkage and
Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals even if the propeller shaft coupling Clean and repaint the trans
checking is not specified Use new gaskets lockwash mission and change the transmission fluid Refer to the
ers and Orings TRANSMISSIONS section in this manual
Be careful not to mix bolts and nuts Both metric and
SAE bolts are used on various engine 21
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY After servicing the engine reinstall the in the reverse of their order of removal
With the transmission separated from the engine begin the
following stepbystep disassembly procedure
1 Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt
and oil
2 Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand for
Drain the coolant from the engine and engine hoses
and from the heat exchanger Drain the fuel and drain
or pump out the engine oil
4 Remove the engine wiring harness in its entirety Label
the terminal connections to insure proper DAMPER
PLATE
LABEL THE TERMINAL
CONNECTIONS
11 Remove the exhaust manifold
When Retighten the exhaust manifold using the same torque
after idling for 20 minutes
When Check all AC and DC wiring connections by referring
to the UNIVERSAL wiring diagrams and Remove the engine heat exchanger If possible leave
one end of each hose connection attached to the heat
exchanger The heat exchanger should be serviced
when the engine is overhauled see HEAT EXCHANG
ER under COOliNG SYSTEM for inspection and
servicing information 12 Remove the drive belt alternator and alternator adjust
ing strap
See ALTERNATOR for testing
information
When A CAUTION Connect the alternator properly
Should the polarity be reversed a powerful cur
rent would flow from the battery into the alterna
tor damaging the diodes and wiring harness
a Install the alternator cap screw through the alternator
leg underside and spacer into the alternator bracket
b Swing the alternator into position on the adjusting
strap and fasten Lightly tighten
6 Remove the starter motor
c Install the drive belt and adjust the belt tension
7 Remove the engine bellhousing
d Tighten both bolts and recheck the belt tension
8 Remove the transmission damper plate
NOTE Make certain the belts are perfectly aligned with
9 Remove the flywheel and flywheel washer
the alternator and engine pulleys If not insert or
10 Remove the engine back plate remove spacers as needed to align the alternator
sUnlvarsal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
CYLINDER
HEAD COVER
13 Remove the raw water pump
14 Remove the oil level dipstick
15 Remove the oil filter
16 Remove the fuel supply line from the fuel lift pump to
the fuel filter
17 Remove the fuel supply line from the fuel filter to the 26 Remove the glow plugs
fuel injection pump note the arrangement of the seal CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
ing washers on the banjo bolts at the fuel filter and
injection pump
Cylinder Head Cover
1 Remove the cylinder head cover cap nuts
18 Remove the fuel lift pump
19 Remove the fuel filter and fuel filter 2 Remove the cylinder head cover
bracket When Remove the thermostat housing gasket and the ther 1 Check the cylinder
head cover gasket if it is defective
mostat Leave the temperature sender in place replace it
DRAIN Tightening torque Cylinder head 29 43 ftIbs
CDCK cover nuts 04 06 kgfm
39 59 TEMPERATURE
SENDER CYLINDER
HEAD COVER
Nozzle Holder Assembly
1 Loosen the screws on the fuel injection line clamps
2 Remove the fuel injection lines from the injection pump to
the injectors
THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY NOTE Cap the ends of the lines and the connections
at the injection pump and at the injectors to prevent
entry offoreign material
21 Remove the air intake silencer 3 Remove the fuel overflow lines from the tops of the injec
tors and the fuel return line from the injectors to the
22 Remove the front and rear lifting eyes
injection pump Note the washer arrangement on the
23 Remove the intake manifold banjo bolts Cap all openings on these fuel lines on the
24 Remove the alternator bracket injectors and the injection pump
25 Remove the crankcase breather hose
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
4 Loosen the fuel injectors and unscrew them from the Rocker Arm Assembly and Push Rods
cylinder head
1 Remove the rocker arm bracket mounting nuts
5 Remove the COPI gaskets on the seats 2 Detach the rocker arm as an assembly
3 Remove the push rods
CLAMPS
RETURN
LINE
111 When 1 When installing the push rods onto the
tappets make
FUEL
OVERFLOW sure their ends are properly engaged with the grooves
LINES
Tightening torque Rocker arm 72 83 ftIbs
bracket nut 100115 kgfm
98113 Nm
STANDARD VALUE
Valve clearance 0005 0007 in
0145 0185 mm
NOTE After reassembling the rocker arm assembly be sure
to adjust the valve Remove the nozzle heat seals applies only to engines
having Serial No 489291 or higher
NOTE Use a Phillips screwdriver that has a diameter
larger than the heat seal hole 025 in 6 mm
a Insert the screwdriver lightly into the heat seal hole
b Tum the screwdriver three or four times in each
direction While turning the screwdriver slowly
pull the heat seal out together with the injection
nozzle copper washer
c If the heat seal drops repeat the above procedure
The heat seal and injection nozzle copper washer
must be changed when the injection nozzle is ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY AND PUSH RODS
removed for cleaning or for service
Cylinder Head
PHILLIPS
SCREWDRIVER 1 Remove the crankcase breather hose
2 Remove the cylinder head screws in a descending
sequence from 14 to 1 see Then remove the
cylinder head
3 Remove the cylinder head gasket and Oring
When 1 Replace the head gasket with a new one
2 Install the cylinder head using care not to damage the
Oring
FUEL INJECTOR 3 After applying engine oil tighten the cylinder head
screws gradually in an ascending sequence from 1 to 14
When Reassembling see Injection line 181 253 ft Ibs
4 Retighten the cylinder head screws after running the
retaining nuts 25 35 kgfm engine for 30 minutes
245 343 Nm
Tightening torque
Fuel injector 362 506 ftIbs
50 70 kgfm
490 686 Nm
4 Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
Glow plugs 58 108 ftIbs TIMING GEARS AND CAMSHAFT
08 15 kgfm Injection Pump and Speed Control Plate
78 147 Nm
Tightening torque 1 Remove the socket head screws and nuts and remove
Cylinder head 289 325 ftIbs
screws 40 45 kgfm the injection pump
392 441 Nm NOTE The fuel injection pump is a very important com
ponent of the diesel engine requiring the utmost care in
handling It has been thoroughly benchtested and the
2 7 is cautioned not to attempt to service it
1966g6
GEAR FLYWHEEL
If the fuel injection pump requires servicing remove it and
CASE I SIDE take it to an authorized fuel injection pump service facility
SIDE
Do not attempt to disassemble and repair it If the pump is
o 0 0 0 defective UNIVERSAL recommends that you replace the
13 09 5 01 4 08 12 entire pump
CYLINDER HEAD The only adjustments the servicing mechanic should make
Tappets to the fuel injection pump are the adjustments for idle
1 Remove the cylinder head gasket and Oring speed see IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE
ADJUSTMENTS and injection timing see INJECTION
2 Remove the tappets from the crankcase
TIMING ADJUSTMENT below
NOTE Mark the cylinder numbers on the tappets to
2 Remove the screws and separate the speed control
prevent plate taking care not to damage the spring
When 3 Disconnect the spring and remove the speed control
1 Before installing the tappets apply engine oil thinly plate
around them
Remove the valve cap
2 Remove the valve spring collet with a valve lifter
3 Remove the valve spring retainers valve spring and
valve
NOTE When reassembling dont change the Wash the valve stem and valve guide hole and apply
sufficient engine oil INJECTIOII PUMP AND SPEED CONTROL PLATE
2 After installing the valve spring collet lightly tap the
valve stem with a plastic hammer to assure a proper fit
ALVE
VALVE
SPRING
COLLET
VALVE
VALVE SPRING
Unlvarsal
VALVE CAP ER MARINE POWER
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Hook the spring to the lever first then install the speed
control plate
2 Be sure to place the copper washers underneath the two
screws see Position the slot on the fork lever just under the slot on
the crankcase
4 Insert the injection pump so that the control rod is pushed 2 Unscrew the drive pulley mounting bolt and remove
by the spring at its end and the pin on the rod engages the drive pulley
with the slot on the fork lever see 3 Unscrew the screw and disconnect the
start spring in the
speed control plate mounting hole
4 Unscrew the mounting screws and remove the gear case
DRIVE
PULLEY
INJECTION PUMP AND SPEED CONTROL PLATE
S Install the shims as follows
Engine Serial Numbers up to 489290
1 Insert the same number of shims as used before
between the crankcase and the injection pump
2 The addition or subtraction of a shim 00059 in
015 mm delays or advances the injection timing
by approx IS 0026 rad
3 Apply a liquidtype gasket HIGH TACK or equiva
lent to both sides of the injection pump shim before
Engine Serial Numbers 489291 and up
1 Apply sealant to both sides of the soft metal gasket
shim Liquid gasket is not required
When 2 The addition or subtraction of a shim 00020 in
1 Apply a liquidtype gasket Three Bond 1215 or
005 mm delays or advances the injection timing
equivalent to both sides of the gear case gasket
by approx OS 00087 rad
2 Be sure to set the three Orings inside the gear case
3 In disassembling and replacing shims be sure to
use the same number of new gasket shims having 3 Install the drive pulley to the crankshaft aligning the
the same thickness marks on them see Tightening Injection pump 723 732 ftIbs
Drive pulley 8680 9403 ftIbs
torque retaining screws 10 15 kgfm mounting screw 120 130 kgfm
and nuts 981 113 Nm 1177 1275 Nm
Tightening torque
Gear case 723 832 ftIbs
screws 10 115 kgfm
Drive Pulley and Gear Case 981 113 Nm
1 Remove the fuel lift pump
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Gear
1 Remove the external snap ring the collar and the idler
gear
When Install the idler gear aligning the marks on the three
gears that mesh with it see
INJECTION
PUMP GEAR
FUEL CAMSHAFT
Oil Pump and Crankshaft Gears
1 Unscrew the flange nut and remove the oil pump gear
2 Unscrew the mounting screws and remove the oil
IDLER GEAR
pump
3 Remove the collar Oring and oil slinger
4 Remove the crankshaft gear with a puller
Fuel Camshaft
When Remove the screws and draw out the camshaft with the
gear on it 1 Install the collar after aligning the marks on the gears
see illustration at Idle Gear
2 Remove the retaining plate
3 Remove the screws then pull out the injection pump
gear and fuel camshaft with the governor fork Hook the spring to the fork lever 2 see before installing the fork lever assembly to the
PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
Oil Pan and Oil Strainer
1 Unscrew the oil pan mounting screws and remove the
oil pan
2 Unscrew the oil strainer mounting screw and remove
the oil strainer
When 1 Install the oil strainer taking care not to damage the 0
2 Using the hole numbered 3 install the oil strainer
using the mounting screw
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
Ill V
r Piston and Connecting Rod
Y
JTA
1 Unscrew the connecting rod screws and remove the
ORING r
15 r SCREW connecting rod cap
2 Tum the crankshaft to bring the piston to top dead
center
3 Push the connecting rod out from the bottom of the
OIL PAN cylinder block with a handle of a hammer then pull out
MOUNTING
SCREWS the piston and connecting rod
OIL STRAINER NOTE Do not change the combinations of cylinder and
piston Make sure of the location of each piston by marking
it For example mark 1 on the No1 piston
When LEN02 1 Before inserting the piston into the cylinder apply
enough engine oil to the inside surface of the cylinder
2 Apply engine oil to the crankpin bearings and connect
ing rod screws
3 Be sure to install the piston and connecting rod into the
OIL STRAINER
cylinder so that the number on the piston head is on
the side opposite the injection pump
4 Align the alignment marks on the connecting rod and
connecting rod cap
3 Apply liquid gasket GE RTV 100 Silicon Rubber Adhesive
Sealant or equivalent to the oil pan as follows see illus 5 When inserting the piston into the cylinder face the
tration mark on the connecting rod toward the injection pump
a Scrape off the old adhesive completely Wipe the seal Tightening torque Connecting rod 195 224 ftJbs
ing surface clean using a waste cloth soaked with screws 27 31 kgfm
gasoline Now apply the new adhesive 118 316 in 265 304 Nm
3 5 mm thick all over the contact surface Apply the
adhesive also on the center of the flange as well as on
the inner wall of each bolt hole
h Cut the nozzle of the fluid sealant container at its sec o
ond notch Apply fluid sealant about 316 in 5 mm J 0 0
thick
Within 20 minutes after the application of the fluid
sealant reassemble the components Wait for about 30 CONNECTING minutes then pour oil in the crankcase
ROO
NUMBER
CONNECTING
OIL PAN
CONNECTING ROD CAP
CONNECTING ROD SCREWS
PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Rings and Connecting Rod 6 When inserting the piston into the cylinder place the
gap of compression ring No1 on the side opposite the
1 Remove the piston rings using a piston ring tool
combustion chamber and stagger the gaps of compres
2 Position the alignment mark on the piston head see sion ring No2 and the oil ring from the gap of com
pression ring No1 see Remove the piston pin and separate the connecting rod
from the piston
NOTE Do not change the combinations of connecting
rod and piston Mark an identifying number on each
pair of connecting rod and piston
ALIGNMENT F RING
PISTON PIN MARK GAP
SNAP RINGS 2
PISTON
079 rad
MO 7 Carefully insert the pistons using a piston ring com
pressor otherwise their chromeplated sections may be
ALIGNMENT
MARK A NUMBER I scratched causing trouble inside the liner
RING NO2 FLYWHEEL AND CRANKSHAFT
Flywheel
When 1 Lock the flywheel using the flywheel stopper so it will
1 When installing the rings assemble them so that the not tum
mark near the gap faces the top of the
piston 2 Remove the flywheel screws except for two which
must be loosened and left as they are
3 Use a flywheel puller and remove the flywheel or
work the flywheel off using two When
1 Apply engine oil to the flywheel screws
Tightening torque Flywheel bolts 398 434 ftIbs
2 When installing the oil ring onto the piston place the 55 60 kgfm
expander joint on the opposite side of the oil ring gap 539 588 Nm
EXP OIL RING GAP
3 Apply engine oil to the piston pin and small end bushing
4 Before installing the piston pin immerse the piston in
1760 F 80 0 C oil for 10 to 15 minutes then insert the
piston pin into the piston REMOVING THE FLYWHEEL
5 Install the connecting rod to the piston so that the align
ment mark on the connecting rod is on the opposite side
of the alignment mark on the piston head see 29
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY Case Cover Main Bearing Case Assembly
1 Unscrew the bearing case cover mounting screws 1 Remove the two main bearing case screws 1 and remove
2 Remove the bearing case cover the main bearing case assembly 1 being careful with the
thrust bearings and crankshaft bearing 2
When 2 Remove the main bearing case assemblies 2 and 3
1 Apply a liquidtype gasket Three Bond 1215 or its
equivalent to both sides of a new bearing case cover When gasket 1
Clean the oil passage in the main bearing case
2 Install the bearing case cover with the casting mark on it 2 Apply clean engine oil on crankshaft bearing 2 and the
pointing upward thrust bearings
3 Tighten the bearing case cover mounting screws with 3 Install the main bearing case assemblies in their original
even force on the diagonal line positions Since the diameters of the main bearing cases
vary install them in the order of the markings 1 2
Tightening torque Bearing case 723 832 ftJbs from the gear case side
cover mounting 100 115 kgfm
981 1128 Nm 4 When installing the main bearing case assemblies 2
screws and 3 face the mark FLYWHEEL toward the fly
wheel
CASTING
MARK 5 Be sure to install the thrust bearings with their oil
grooves facing outward
BEARING
CASE Unscrew the bearing case screws 2 and pullout the
Install the crankshaft subassembly aligning the
screw hole of main bearing case 2 with the screw hole of
the cylinder block
2 Apply engine oil to the seat and threads of bearing case MAIN BEARING
CASE ASSEMBLY 2
screw 2 then tighten it
Tightening torque Bearing case 195 224 ft Jbs
screws 2 27 31 kgfm
265 304 Nm
MAIN BEARING MAIN BEARING
CASE ASSEMBLY 2 CASE ASSEMBLY 1
CRANKSHAFT
JJnlvarsal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE SERVICE
NOTE Servicing are included in this section Cylinder Head Flaw
Also refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS section 1 Prepare an air spray red check
NOTE Cylinder heads with serial numbers 489291 on up 2 Clean the surface of the cylinder head with partially modified because of the
introduction of the
3 Spray the cylinder head surface with red heat seal When replacing the cylinder head see
liquid Wait five to ten minutes after spraying
the parts list and choose the right one in reference to its
serial number 4 Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder
head surface with the HEAD AND VALVES
5 Spray the cylinder head surface with white Head Distortion
6 If the surface is flawed the flaws will be identified as
1 Thoroughly clean the cylinder head surface red marks
2 Place a straightedge on the cylinder head and measure
for distortion in the six directions A through F as shown
in the illustration Measure the clearance with a feeler
gauge
1IIilarnr InI1JIl
NOTE Do not place the straightedge on the combustion
chamber
3 If the measurement exceeds the limit correct it with a
surface grinder
RCAA
RED PERMEATIVE
ftCAS
DETERGENT
ReAC
WHITE
NOTE Be sure to check the valve recession after L1aUID DEVELOPER
Valve Recession
1 Clean the cylinder head valve face and seat
2 Insert the valve into the valve guide
3 Measure the valve recession with a depth gauge
4 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the valve
If the measurement still exceeds the limit after replacing
the valve correct the valve seat face of the cylinder
head with a valve seat cutter or valve seat grinder Then
correct the cylinder head surface with a surface grinder
or replace the cylinder head
MEASURING FOR DISTORTION
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Valve recession 0003 0003 in 0011 in
Intake and exhaust 010 010 mm 030 mm
0 000
Cylinder head
STANDARD VALUE
LIMIT
0002 in o
o 0
0 ooe
surface flatness 005 mm oOOoOOc
MEASURING VALVE RECESSION
Finishing 8l R max 8
Vl unit lm UnIVGrsal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE SERVICE
Valve Stem to Valve Guide Clearance Replacing Valve Guide
1 Remove carbon from the valve guide When removing
2 Measure the valve stem GD with an outside micro 1 Using a valve guide replacing tool see SPECIAL
meter TOOLS press out the existing valve guide
When installing
1 Clean a new valve guide and apply engine oil to it
2 Using a valve guide replacing tool see SPECIAL
TOOLS press in a new valve guide until it is flush
with the cylinder head as shown in the 3 Ream the ID of the valve guide precisely
to the speci
fied dimension
0 A CAUTION 00 not hit the valve guide with a
hammer during replacement only use the valve
t guide replacing tool
STANDARD VALUE
Valve guide 10 0236 0237 in
intake and exhaust 6010 6025 mm
CHECKING VALVE STEM
3 Using a small hole gauge measure the valve guide ID
where it shows maximum wear Then calculate the
clearance
4 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the valve If
it still exceeds the limit replace the valve guide
REMOVING INSTALLING
VALVE GUIDE VALVE GUIDE
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Clearance between 0001 0002 in 0003 in
valve stem and valve 0030 0057 mm 010 mm
guide
INTAKE EXHAUST
STANDARD VALUE VALVE VALVE
GUIDE GUIDE
Valve stem 00 0234 0235 in
5968 5980 mm
Valve guide 10 0236 0237 in
6010 6025 mm
ENGINE the Valve Seating
1 Check the contact between the valve face and the valve
seat
2 Coat the valve face lightly with prussian blue and put
the valve on its seat to check the contact
3 If the valve does not seat all the way around the seat
or the valve contact is less than 70 correct the
valve seating see Correcting Valve and Valve Seat
4 If the valve contact width A does not comply with the
standard value replace the valve or correct the valve
seating
LAPPING THE VALVE
STANDARD VALUE
Valve seat width A 0083 in
Correcting Valve and Valve Seat
212mm NOTE Before correcting the valve and seat check the valve
stem and the JD of the valve guide and repair them if nec
essary After correcting the valve seat be sure to check the
valve recession
1 Correcting the Valve
a Correct the valve with a valve refacer
STANDARD VALUE
Valve face angle 450 455
0785 0794 rad
o CORRECT
INCORRECT CORRECTING THE VALVE
WIDTH A
2 Correcting the Valve Seat
a Slightly correct the seat surface with a 45
079 rad valve seat cutter see illustration No1
b Install the valve and visually check the contact
CHECKING THE VALVE SEATING position of the valve face and seat surface using red
lead see illustration No2 If the valve has been
Valve Lapping used for a long period the seat tends to come in
1 Apply compound evenly to the valve lapping surface contact with the upper side of the valve face
2 Insert the valve into the valve guide Lap the valve c Grind the upper surface of the valve seat with a 15
onto its seat with a valve lapper or screwdriver 026 rad valve seat cutter illustration No3 until
3 After lapping the valve wash the compound away and the valve seat contact surface touches the center of
apply oil then repeat the valve lapping with the oil the valve face so that a equals b as shown in illus
tration No5
4 Apply red lead or prussian blue to the contact surface to
check the seated surface If it is less than 70 repeat d Grind the seat with a 45 079 rad valve seat
the valve lapping again cutter again illustration No4 and visually
recheck the contact between the valve and seat
NOTE When valve lapping is performed be sure to check illustration No5
the valve recession and adjust the valve clearance the valve
33
ENGINE SERVICE
e Repeat steps c and d until the correct contact is 3 Check the entire surface of the spring for scratches and
achieved replace the spring if there are any
f Continue lapping until the seating contact becomes
more than 70 of the total contact area STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Free length 1244 in 1118 in
STANDARD VALUE 316 mm 284 mm
Valve seat angle 450 0 Tilt 0047 in
0785 rad 12 mm
15 0262 rad
MEASURING VALVE SPRING
CORRECTING THE VALVE SEAT
Valve Spring Setting Load
ttL
1 SLIGHTLY CORRECT
THE SEAT SURFACE
2 CHECK THE
CONTACT POSITION
1 Place the valve spring on a tester and compress it to the
same length that it is compressed in the engine
2 Read the compression load on the gauge
3 If the measurement is less than the limit replace the
valve spring
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
tfl 2
Setting load 146 Ibs1063 in
66 kgft 27 mm
647 Nt 27 mm
Setting length 123 Ibs1063 in
3 CORRECT THE SEAT 4 CORRECT THE 56 kgft 27 mm
WIOTH SEAT SURFACE 549 Nt 27 mm
IDENTICAL
OIMENSIONS
VALVE SEAT WIDTH
5 RECHECK THE
Valve Spring
1 Measure the free length of the valve spring with
vernier calipers see If the measurement is
less than the limit replace it
2 Put the spring on a level surface place a square on the
side of the spring and check to see if the entire side is
in contact with the square Then rotate the spring and
measure the maximum tilt see If the VALVE SPRING SETTING LOAD
measurement exceeds the limit replace the spring
ENGINE SERVICE
Oil Clearance between Rocker Arm ShaH and Rocker Oil Clearance between Tappet and Tappet Guide Bore
Arm Bearing 1 Measure the tappet 00 with an outside Measure the rocker arm bearing 10 with an
inside 2 Measure the 10 of the tappet guide bore with a cylin
micrometer der gauge and calculate the oil clearance
2 Measure the rocker arm shaft 00 with an outside 3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit or the tappet is
micrometer then calculate the oil clearance damaged replace the tappet
3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the rocker
arm and measure the oil clearance again If it still
exceeds the limit replace the rocker arm shaft also
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Oil Clearance 00006 00017 in 00059 in
between rocker arm 0016 0045 mm 015 mm
shaft and rocker arm
bearing
STANDARD VALUE
Rocker arm shaft 04123 04127 in
00 10473 10484 mm
Rocker arm 10 0413 0414 in PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
10500 10518 mm
Piston Pin Bore 10
1 Measure the piston pin bore 10 in both the horizontal
and vertical directions with a cylinder gauge
2 If the measureinent exceeds the limit replace the
piston
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Piston pinhole 10 07874 07879 in 07894 in
20000 20013 mm 2005 mm
MEASURING ROCKER ARM SHAFT
AND BEARING OIL Rod Alignment
1 Check both ends of the push rod for cracks damage and
unusual wear
2 Measure the bending of the push rod with a dial
indicator MEASURING PISTON PIN BORE ID
3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the push
Oil Clearance between Piston Pin and Connecting
Rod Small End Bushing
1 Measure the 00 of the piston pin where it contacts
the bushing with an outside Unlvanal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE SERVICE
2 Measure the 10 of the piston pin bushing at the con
necting rod small end with an inside micrometer
Calculate the oil clearance
3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the bushing
If it still exceeds the limit replace the piston pin
STANDARD VALUE UMIT
Oil Clearance 00005 00015 in 00039 in
between piston pin 0014 0038 mm 010 mm
and small end
bushing
PRESSING OUT PRESSING IN
STANDARD VALUE EXISTING BUSHING NEW BUSHING
Piston pin OD 07874 07878 in REPLACING CONNECTING ROD SMALL END BUSHING
20002 20011 mm
Small end bushing 07883 07889 in Piston Ring Gap
ID 20025 20040 mm 1 Insert the piston ring into the lower part of the liner
the least worn out part of the liner using a piston ring
compressor and the piston
2 Measure the ring gap with a feeler gauge
3 If the gap exceeds the limit replace the piston ring
PISTON RING GAP
STANDARD VALUE UMIT
Ring No1 0005 0011 in 0047 in
top compression 015 030 mm 12 mm
ring and oil ring
Ring No2 0011 0017 in 0047 in
second com pres 030 045 mm 12 mm
sion ring
MEASURING PISTON PIN AND CONNECTING ROD
SMALL END BUSHING DR Connecting Rod Small End Bushing
When removing
1 Press out the existing bushing using a small end bush
ing replacing tool
When Clean a new small end bushing and bore and apply
engine oil to them
MEASURING PISTON RING GAP
2 Using a small end bushing replacing tool press in a
new bushing taking care to see that the connecting Clearance between Piston Ring and Groove
rod hole matches the bushing hole 1 Remove carbon from the ring grooves
STANDARD VALUE UMIT 2 Place the ring into the ring groove and measure the
clearance at several points around the ring groove with a
Oil Clearance 00005 00029 in 00039 in feeler gauge
between piston pin 0015 0075 mm 010 mm
and small end 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the piston ring
bushing If this is not done compression leakage and oil shortage
would result
4 If the clearance still exceeds the limit after replacing
the piston ring replace the piston
JJnlvarsai
ENGINE SERVICE
CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON RING AND GROOVE TIMING GEARS AND CAMSHAFT
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT Timing Gear Backlash
Ring No2 0003 0004 in 0005 in 1 Set a dial indicator lever type with its tip on the gear
second compres 00850115 mm 015 mm tooth
sion ring
2 Move the gear to measure the backlash holding its
Oil Ring 00008 00024 in 00059 in
002 006 mm 015 mm mating gear
3 If the backlash exceeds the limit check the oil clearance
of the shaft and gear
4 If the oil clearance is correct replace the gear
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Backlash between 0001 0004 in 0005 in
idler gear and crank 0043 0124 mm 015 mm
gear
Backlash between 0001 0004 in 0005 in
idler gear and cam 0047 0123 mm 015 mm
gear
MEASURING CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON
RING AND GROOVE RING NO2 AND OIL RING Backlash between 0001 0004 in 0005 in
idler gear and injec 0046 0124 mm 015 mm
tion pump Rod Alignment Backlash between 0001 0004 in 0005 in
NOTE Since the JD of the connecting rod small end bush oil pump gear and 0041 0123 mm 015 mm
ing is the basis of this check check this bushing for wear crank Remove the crankpin bearing and install the connecting
rod cap
2 Install the piston pin in the connecting rod
3 Install the connecting rod on the connecting rod align
ment tool
4 Put a gauge over the piston pin and move it against
the face plate
5 If the gauge does not fit squarely against the face plate
measure the space between the pins of the gauge and the
face plate
6 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the con MEASURIIIG TIMIIIG GEAR BACKLASH
necting rod
Camshaft Journal Oil Clearance
1 Measure the camshaft journal 00 with an outside
LIMIT
micrometer
Bend of connecting 0002 in
rod 005 mm 2 Measure the cylinder block bore 10 for the camshaft
gauge pin span at with an inside micrometer Calculate the oil clearance
94 in 100 mm 3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the camshaft
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Camshaft journal oil 0001 0003 in 0005 in
clearance 0050 0091 mm 015 mm
STANDARD VALUE
Camshaft journal 1296 1297 in
00 32934 32950 mm
Cylinder block bore 1299 1300 in
10 bearing portion 33000 33025 mm
s sUnlvarsal
ENGINE SERVICE
Intake and Exhaust Cam Height
1 Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with
an outside micrometer
2 If the measurement is less than the limit replace the
camshaft
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Intake and exhaust 1058 in 1056 in
cam heights 2688 mm 2683 mm
MEASURING INTAKE AND EXHAUST CAM HEIGHT
Idler Gear Side Clearance
1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the idler gear
MEASURING CYUNDER BLDCK BDRE ID FDR CAMSHAFT 2 Measure the side clearance by moving the idler gear to
the front and to the Alignment 3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the idler
gear or idler gear shaft
1 Support the camshaft with V blocks on the surface plate
and set a dial indicator with its tip on the intermediate
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
journal at a right angle
Idler gear side 0007 0020 in 0023 in
2 Rotate the camshaft on the V blocks and get the mis clearance 020 051 mm 060 mm
alignment half of the If the misalignment exceeds the limit replace the
camshaft
LIMIT
Misalignment 00004 in
001 mm
MEASURING THE IDlER GEAR SIDE CLEARANCE
CAMSHAFT AUGNMENT
Nnlvarsal
ENGINE Side Clearance Replacing the Idler Gear Bushing
1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the camshaft 1 Using an idler gear bushing replacing tool see
2 Measure the side clearance by moving the cam gear to SPECIAL TOOLS press out the existing bushing
the front and to the rear 2 Clean a new idler gear bushing and the idler gear bore
3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the and apply engine oil to them
camshaft stopper 3 Using the idler gear bushing replacing tool press in a
new bushing to the specified dimension see PRESSING OUT
PRESSING IN
EXISTING BUSHING NEW BUSHING
MEASURING CAMSHAFT SIDE CLEARANCE
0 0007 In
002 mm
Oil Clearance between Idler Gear Shaft and
Idler Gear Bushing
1 Measure the idler gear shaft 00 with an outside
Measure the idler gear bushings 10 with an inside
micrometer and calculate the oil clearance
3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the
bushing If it still exceeds the limit replace the idler REPLACING THE
IDLER GEAR BUSHING
gear shaft
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
00039 in
CRANKSHAFT
Oil Clearance 00007 00033 in
between idler gear 0020 0084 mm 010mm Crankshaft Alignment
shaft and idler gear 1 Support the crankshaft with V blocks on the surface
bushing
plate and set a dial indicator with its tip on the interme
diate journal at a right angle
STANDARD VALUE 2 Rotate the crankshaft on the V blocks and get the mis
Idler gear shaft 00 07861 07866 in alignment half of the 19967 19980 mm
3 If the misalignment exceeds the limit replace the
Idler gear bushing 0787 0789 in crankshaft
ID 20000 20051 mm
LIMIT
Misalignment 00008 in 002 mm
MEASURING OIl CLEARANCE BETWEEN
IDLER GEAR SHAFT AND IDLER GEAR BUSHING CRANKSHAFT
39
ENGINE Side Clearance
1 Set a dial indicator with its tip on the end of the
Measure the side clearance by moving the crankshaft
to the front and to the rear
3 If the measurement exceeds the limit replace the thrust
bearings
4 If a samesize thrust bearing is inadequate because of
crankshaft journal wear replace it with an oversize
thrust bearing see illustration and table c
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Oil Clearance between Crankpin and
Crankshaft 0005 0012 in 0019 in Crankpin Bearing
side clearance 015 031 mm 050 mm
1 Clean the crankpin and crankpin bearing
2 Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the crankpin
A CAUTION Never insert the plastigauge into
the crank pin oil hole
3 Install the connecting rod cap and tighten the connect
ing rod screws to the specified torque then remove the cap
Connecting rod cap screws tightening torque
195 224 ftIbs 27 31 kgfm 265 304 Nm
NOTE Be sure not to move the crankshaft while the
connecting rod screws are tightened
4 Measure the amount of flattening with the scale and
get the oil clearance
OVERSIZE THRUST BEARING
OVERSIZE BEARING MARKING
0008 in Thrust bearing No1 02
02 mm 020 OS
Thrust bearing No2 02
0016 in Thrust bearing No1 04 040 OS
04 mm Thrust bearing No2 04
OVERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAl
0008 in 0016 in
02 mm 04 0913 0915 in 0921 0923 in 5 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the
A 2340 2345 mm 2380 2385 mm crankpin bearing
B 1815 1823 in 1823 1831 in 6 If a samesize bearing is too big because of crankpin
461 463 mm 463 465 mm
wear replace it with an undersize bearing see illustra
C 0071 0087 in radius 0071 0087 in radius tion and table
18 22 mm radius 18 22 mm radius
O4S STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
The crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than VVVV Oil Clearance 00007 00031 in 00059 in
between crankpin 0019 0081 mm 015 mm
and crankpin bearing
t tUnlvarsal
ENGINE SERVICE
2 Measure the 10 of the crankshaft bearing No1 with
STANDARD VALUE
an inside micrometer and calculate the oil 00 1336 1337 in
33959 33975 mm
Crankpin bearing 1338 1340 in
10 33994 34040 mm
UNDERSIZE CRANKPIN BEARING
UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING
0008 in Crankpin bearing 02 020 US
02 mm
0016 in Crankpin bearing 04 040 US
04 mm
UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF OOOS in 0016 in
02 mm 04 MEASURING 10 OF
CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO1
0091 0106 in radius 0091 0106 in radius
A 23 27 mm radius 23 27 mm radius 3 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace crankshaft
016 in dia 016 in dia
bearing No1
B 4 mm dia 4 mm dia 4 If a samesize bearing is too big because of crankshaft
C 13291 13297 in 13212 13218 in journal wear replace it with an undersize bearing see
33759 33775 mm 33559 33575 mm illustration and table
The crankpin must be finefinished to higher than VVVV STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Oil Clearance 0001 0004 in 0007 in
A between crankshaft 0034 0106 mm 020 mm
journal and crank
shaft bearing No 1
STANDARD VALUE
Crankshaft journal 15722 15728 in
00 33934 39950 mm
Crankshaft bearing 1574 1576 in
No1 10 33984 40040 mm
UNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO1
UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING
Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and 0008 in 02 mm Crankshaft bearing No1 02 020 US
Crankshaft Bearing No1 0016 in 04 mm Crankshaft bearing No 1 04 040 US
1 Measure the 00 of the crankshafts front journal with
an outside micrometer
UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL
oooS in 0016 in
02 mm 04 mm
Dimension
020 in dia 020 in dia
A 5 mm dia 5 mm dia
B 15643 15649 in 1556 1557 in
39734 39534 mm 39534 39550 mm
C 0071 0087 in radius 0071 0087 in radius
18 22 mm radius 18 22 mm radius
The crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than VVVV
Chamfer the oil hole with an oilstone
MEASURING DO OF CRANKSHAFT FRONT JOURNAL
Unlvarsal
ENGINE Crankshaft Bearing No1
When removing 4 If the oil clearance exceeds the limit replace the
1 Press out the existing crankshaft bearing No1 using a crankshaft bearing No2 or No3
crankshaft bearing No 1 replacing tool 5 If a samesize bearing is too big because of the crank
When installing shaft journal wear use an undersize one see illustra
1 Clean a new crankshaft bearing No1 and the crank tion and table
shaft journal bore then apply engine oil to them
STANDARD VALUE UMIT
2 Using the crankshaft bearing No1 replacing tool
Oil Clearance 0001 0003 in 0007 in
press in a new bearing No1 so that its seam faces the between crankshaft 0034 0092 mm 020 mm
exhaust manifold side journal and crank
shaft bearing No2
and NO3
Crankshaft journal 1729 1730 in
00 flywheel side 43934 43950 mm
Crankshaft bearing 1731 1733 in
No2 10 43984 44026 mm
Crankshaft journal 15722 15728 in
00 39934 39950 mm
Crankshaft bearing 1574 1575 in
NO3 10 39984 40026 mm
SEAM
UNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARINGS NO2 NO3
UNDERSIZE BEARING MARKING
REPLACING CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO1 0008 in Crankshaft bearing No2 02
02 mm Crankshaft bearing NO3 02 020 US
Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and 0016 in Crankshaft bearing No2 04
Crankshaft Bearings No2 No3 04 mm Crankshaft bearing NO3 04 040 US
1 Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the journal
2 Install the bearing case and tighten the bearing case UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL
screws to the specified torque then remove the bearing 0008 in 0016 in
case O2 mm 04 mm
Dimension
Bearing case screws tightening torque
94 116 ftIbs 13 16 kgfm 127 157 Nm 012 in dia 012 in dia
A 3 mm dia 3 mm dia
NOTE Be sure not to move the the 0071 0087 in radius 0071 0087 in radius
bearing case screws are tightened B 18 22 mm radius 18 22 mm radius
3 Measure the amount of the flattening with the scale 15643 15649 in 1556 1557 in
and get the oil clearance C 39734 39750 mm 39534 39550 mm
D 1721 1722 in 1713 1714 in
43734 43750 mm 43534 43550 mm
The crankshaft journal must be finefinished to higher than ww
ENGINE SERVICE
STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
B Cylinder ID 2637 2638 in
67000 67019 mm
Maximum Wear 0005 in
o 015 mm
Correcting Cylinder
B 1 When the cylinder is worn beyond the limit bore and
hone it to the specified dimension
STANDARD VALUE Oversize
2647 2648 in
Cylinder Wear Cylinder ID 67250 67269 mm
1 Measure the ID of the cylinder at the six positions
0005 in
shown in the illustration with a cylinder gauge to find Maximum Wear
015 mm
the maximum and minimum IDs
CYLINDER ID
BEFORE
CORRECTION
OVERSIZE
CYLINDER ID
I f
I
MEASURING THE 10 OF THE CYLINDERS Lr
RIGHTANGLE CORRECTING THE CYLINDER
TO PISTON PIN
2 Replace the piston and the piston rings with oversize
rings
c OVERSIZE PART NAME
MARKING
00098 in Piston 025 as
025 mm
PISTON PIN 00098 in Piston Ring 025 as
DIRECTION 025 mm Assembly
A APPROX 0394 in 110 mm
B APPROX 1771 In 45 mm
C APPROX 3740 in 95 mm NOTE When an oversize cylinder is worn beyond the limit
sleeve the block to return the cylinder to the standard size
2 Determine the difference maximum wear between the
maximum and minimum IDs
3 If the maximum wear exceeds the limit bore and hone
to the oversize dimension see Correcting Cylinder
below
4 Visually check the cylinder wall for scratches If deep
scratches are found the cylinder should be bored see
Correcting Cylinder below
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine
adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic
The information below is provided to assist the CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
VALVE
NOTE Valve adjustments should not be necessary under operating conditions These
adjustments should be performed by an authorized mechanic
Remove the valve rocker cover to expose the engines valve
train Remove the glow plugs from each of the cylinders to
enable the engine to be easily rotated by hand to position
each cylinder for valve valves are adjusted with the piston in the cylinder posi
tioned at TDC Top Dead Center of its compression stroke STANDARD VALUE
Each cylinder is adjusted following the engines firing
Valve clearance 00059 00073 in
order engine cold 0145 0185 mm
Firing Order 1 2 3
Adjust the valves beginning with Cylinder No1 Rotate TOP CLEARANCE
the crankshaft slowly and observe the operation of the
valves for Cylinder No1 Watch for the intake valve to 1 Remove the cylinder head remove the cylinder head
open indicating the piston is on its intake stroke the piston gasket moving down in the cylinder Continue to rotate the 2
Bring the piston to its top dead center Measure the slowly and look for the intake valve to close clearance using a plastigauge
Position the piston is now starting its compression stroke the pis on the piston top
ton is moving up in the cylinder towards IDC
3 Bring the piston to its middle position install the cylin
Watch the timing hole in the bellhousing for the timing der head and tighten the cylinder head bolts to their
numbers to appear Position the 1TC mark in alignment specified torque The head gasket must be changed to
with the notch in the timing hole The piston in Cylinder anew one
No I is now at IDC Adjust the valves in Cylinder No1
4 Turn the crankshaft until the piston exceeds its top dead
Proceed to the next cylinder in the firing order
center
5 Remove the cylinder head and measure the clearance
6 If the measurement is not within the standard value
check the oil clearance of the crankpin journal and the
piston pin
STANDARD VALUE
Top clearance 00197 00276 in
050 070 mm
Tightening torque Cylinder head 289 325 ftIbs
mounting bolts 40 45 kgfm
392 441 Nm
TIGHTENING THE CYUNDER HEAD BOLTS
Pull off the air breather pipe from the rocker cover and
remove the rocker cover Retighten the cylinder head bolts
to their specified torque as shown in the diagram Make
sure the engine is cold when this is done Before the crankshaft 240 0 in the normal direction of rota the specified torque to a bolt loosen
it 114 to 112 a turn and
tion and adjust the No2 Cylinders valves Rotate the then apply the another 240 0 and adjust the No3
44
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine
adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic
The information below is provided to assist the the cylinder head bolts in an ascending sequence STANDARD VALUE
LIMIT
from 1 to 14 see Engine oil pressure
At idle speed 15 psi
GEAR
CASE
SIDE
goooO1
2 7
FLYWHEEL
SIDE
At rated speed
105 kgfcm2
1034 kPa
40 60 psi
28 42 kgfcrn2
276 414 kPa
15 psi
105 kgfcm2
1034 kPa
13 09 5 0 4 08 12 3 If the oil pressure is less than the specified limit check
the PRESSURE a Engine oil engines oil pressure during operation is indicated by
the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel During nor b Oil pump operation the oil pressure will range between 40
c Oil strainer clogged
60 psi 28 42 kglcm2 276 414 kPa d Oil filter A newly started cold engine can have an oil pres e Oil
gallery clogged
sure reading up to 60 psi 42 kgcm2 A warmed engine
can have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi 25 f Excessive oil clearance of These readings will vary depending upon the tem
g Foreign matter in the relief of the engine and the rpms When Oil Pressure
1 After checking the engine oil pressure tighten the
The specified safe minimum oil pressure is 5 10 psi 035 engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque
070 kglcm2 345 690 kPa A gradual loss of oil indicates worn bearings For additional information on
low oil pressure readings see ENGINE Tightening torque Oil pressure 108 145 ftIbs
switch t15 20 kgfm
147 196 Nm
TESTING ENGINE COMPRESSION
Make certain the oil level dipstick is at the correct level
and the air intake filter is clean The battery and starter motor
must also be in good condition
1 Warm the engine to normal operating temperature
2 Move the control lever to a position for shutting off the
OIL PRESSURE fuel Disconnect the wires if a fuel shutdown solenoid
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH is the Oil Pressure 3 Remove all the glow plugs from the
engine and install
1 Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical the compression gaugeadapter combination to the
oil pressure gauge in its place cylinder on which the compression is to be measured
2 Start the engine After warming up to operating temper
ature measure the oil pressure at both idling and rated
speeds
MEASURING
CHECKING THE OIl PRESSURE Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNNERS4L recommends that the following engine
adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic
The information below is provided to assist the mechanic
4 Close the raw water seacock thruhull
5 Crank the engine and allow the gauge to reach a maxi A WARNING Never attempt to check or adjust the
mum reading Record the reading drive belts tension while the engine is in operation
6 Repeat this process for each cylinder Look for cylin
ders with dramatically at least 20 lower compres Checking Belt Tension
sion than the average of the others
1 To check the belt tension press the belt at the midpoint
Compression pressure at cranking speed between the alternator pulley and the crankshaft pulley
Standard value 412 469 psi 29 33 kgflcm2 with a force of 22 lbs 10 kfg 98 N The belt deflec
284 324 MPa tion should be 38 in 112 in 10 12 rom deep
Limit 327 psi 23 kgflcm2 226 MPa
Maximum difference between cylinders
10 or less
NOTE If the readings are below the limit the engine
needs an overhaul
7 Reinstall the glow plugs use antiseize compound on COOLANT PUMP
the threads and reset the fuel shutoff to the run PULLEY
position
8 Open the raw water seacock a weak cylinder is flanked by healthy cylinders the prob
lem is either valve or piston related Check the valve CRANKSHAFT
for the weak cylinder adjust as needed and test
again If the cylinder is still low apply a small amount of
oil into the cylinder to seal the rings and repeat the test If
the compression comes up the rings are high readings on all cylinders indicate heavy
carbon accumulation a condition that might be accompa CHECKING BELT TENSION
nied by high pressures and noise
NOTE In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise
have the injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized Adjusting Belt Tension
fuel injection service center Poor fuel quality contami 1 To adjust the belt tension loosen the alternator and loss of positive fuel
pressure to the injection strap bolt and the base mounting bolt
pump will result in injector faults 2 With the belt loose inspect the belt for damage wear
When low compression is found determine the cause by cracks and frayed edges If the belt is damaged a small amount of oil in the
cylinder through the it If it is nearly worn out and deeply sunk in the pulley
glow plug hole Allow the oil to settle groove replace it
Install the pressure gauge and repeat the above test If reading rises dramatically the fault is with the
rings If the compression value does not rise the problem
is with the valves
A slight rise in compression would indicate a problem with
both the rings and the valves
GOOD BAD
BELT BELT
DRIVE BELT drive belt must be properly tensioned A loose drive 3 Pivot the alternator on the base mounting bolt to the left
belt will not provide proper alternator charging and will or right as required to loosen or damage the alternator A drive belt that
is too 4 Tighten the base mounting bolt and the adjusting strap
tight will pull the alternator out of alignment andor cause bolt securely
the alternator to wear out prematurely Excessive drive belt
5 Run the engine for about 5 minutes then shut down
tension can also cause rapid wear of the belt and reduce the
and recheck the belt life of the coolant pumps bearing A slack belt or
the presence of oil on the belt can cause belt in high operating temperatures and
ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
NOTE UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine
adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic
The information below is provided to assist the SPEED ADJUSTMENT Adjusting the Idle Speed
TACHOMETER CHECK New Installation 1 Loosen the locknut on the idle adjustment bolt on the
Checking the Idle Speed fuel injection pump
Use a tachometer to check the idle speed 2 Tum the idle adjustment bolt until the idling speed is
within the standard range The idle speed will In a new installation having new instrument panels
when the adjusting bolt is turned clockwise and
the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to
decrease when the bolt is turned engines rpm This calibration should be checked in all
new 3 Tighten the locknut
1 Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature 4 Race the engine several times to ensure the idle speed
Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a remains as set
clean cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape NOTE Should the engine rpm be in question verify the
on the pulley to facilitate the use of the tachometer tachometer readings as shown at the instrument panel with
2 Start and idle the engine a mechanical or strobetype tachometer at the engine
3 Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape crankshaft
to confirm the engine speed Check the instrument
panel tachometer reading Adjust the tachometer in the
panel by using the instrument calibration pod as needed
to bring the instrument panel tachometer into the same
rpm reading as the engine
4 Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within
the specified value
Normal idle speed 1000 1200 rpm
ADJUSTING THE IDLE SPEED
EXHAUST MANIFOLD MANIFOLD ASSEMBLY
The exhaust manifold which was disassembled from the 1 If the manifold was removed as an assembly and left
cylinder head should be inspected before reassembly intact it can be replaced on the cylinder head in the
1 Remove the exhaust nipples elbows and plugs from the reverse order of removal
manifold Do not reuse the gaskets install new ones
2 Examine all parts for defects corrosion and wear and a Loosely attach the manifold elbows to the cylinder
replace as needed head using new gaskets Do not use any gasket seal
3 Flush out the manifolds interior with a liquid cleaner and ant on these gaskets
rinse thoroughly with fresh water h Gradually tighten each fitting to ensure proper
4 Use a pipe cleaner to clear the passage that connects the alignment of all the parts This should be done in
filler neck to the coolant recovery tank tubing three steps
5 Flush out the coolant recovery tank and its connecting 2 Reinstall the exhaust connections Use new gaskets and
tube check the exhaust clamps condition
Replace it if necessary
3 Check the manifold pressure cap Open the valve by
pulling it and make sure it closes when released Make
certain the upper and lower seals are in good condition
If any doubt replace the cap
CHECKING THE PRESSURE CAP
LUBRICATION SYSTEM Some of the oil that lubricates these components or is
splashed by the crankshaft also reaches and lubricates the
The lubricating system consists of an oil strainer oil pump pistons cylinders small ends of the connecting rods tap
relief valve oil filter and oil pressure switch pets pushrods intake and exhaust valves and timing gears
The oil pump draws lubricating oil from the oil sump The oil then returns to the oil sump to repeat the the oil strainer to the oil
filter Then the oil is ous cycle When the oil pressure exceeds the under pressure to the crankshaft connecting rods pressure the
oil pushes open the relief valve in the oil
idler gear camshaft and rocker arm shaft through oil gal pump and returns to the oil sump keeping the oil in the engine block
within its specified range
ROCKER ARM
ROCKER ARM SHAFT
VALVE
CAMSHAFT
IDLER GEAR
PISTON
OIL PUMP
OIL FILTER LUBRICATION SYSTEM
LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
ROCKER ARM SHAFT
I I
I I
DRAIN DRAIN
I I
I I
CAMSHAFT CAMSHAFT
I SPLASH
I
PISTON PISTON
SPLASH SPLASH
f J
WBRICATION SYSTEM
OIL PUMP RELIEF VALVE
The oil pump is a trochoid type pump whose rotors have The relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication lobes The
inner rotor has 4 lobes and the outer due to high oil pressure This relief valve is a has 5 lobes and they are
eccentrically engaged with direct acting relief valve and is best suited for low pres
each other The inner rotor which is driven by the crank sures When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit the ball is
shaft through the gears rotates the outer rotor in the same pushed back by the oil pressure and the oil varying the space
between the lobes
While the rotors rotate from A to B see the
space leading to the inlet port increases which causes the
vacuum to draw in the oil from the inlet port
When the rotors rotate to C the space between both from the inlet port to the outlet port
SPRING
At D the space decreases and the drawn oil is discharged I BALL
from the outlet port
ABC 0
JVALVE SEAT
OUTER REUEFVALVE
INLET OUTlET ROTOR
PORT PORT
OIL PUMP
Unlvanal
MARINE POWER
LUBRICATION SYSTEM FILTER OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
After lubricating the engine components the lubricating oil The oil pressure switch is mounted on the cylinder block
brings various particles of grit and dirt back to the oil pan to warn the operator that the lubricating oil pressure is low
Those particles and other impurities in the lubricating oil can If the oil pressure falls below 15 psi 105 kgfcm2 1034
cause wear or seizure of the engine parts They may also kPa the oil alarm will sound alerting the operator If this
impair the physical and chemical properties of the oil itself happens stop the engine immediately and check the cause
The lubricating oil which is forcefed by the pump is of the oil pressure by the filter element in the filter cartridge
FILTER ELEMENT
OIL PRESSURE
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
NORMAL DlL the filter element accumulates an excessive amount of
dirt and the oil pressure in the inlet line builds up by 14 psi
10 kgfcm2 98 kPa more than the outlet line the bypass
valve opens and the oil flows from the inlet to the the filter element
FILTER ELEMENT BYPASS VALVE
LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE
OIL PRESSURE ENGINE OIL PRESSURE
The engines oil pressure during operation is indicated by STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel During At idle speed 15 psi
normal operation the oil pressure will range between 40 105 kgcm2
and 60 psi 28 42 kgcm2 276 414 kPa 1034 kPa
NOTE A newly started cold engine can have an oil pres At rated speed 40 60 psi 15 psi
sure reading up to 60 psi 42 kgcm2 A warmed engine 28 42 kgcm 2 105 kgcm2
276 414 kPa 1034 kPa
can have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi 25
kgcm2 These readings will vary depending upon of the engine and the rpms 3 If the oil pressure is less than the
specified limit check
the Oil Pressure
a Engine oil specified safe minimum oil pressure is 5 10 psi
035 070 kgcm2 345 690 kPa A gradual loss of b Oil pump pressure usually indicates worn bearings For additional c Oil
strainer on low oil pressure readings see ENGINE
d Oil filter e Oil gallery clogged
f Excessive oil clearance of bearing
g Foreign matter in the relief valve
When 1 After checking the engine oil pressure tighten the
engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque
OIL PRESSURE Tightening torque Oil pressure switch 108 145 ftIbs
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH 15 20 kgfm
147 196 Nm
Checking the Oil Pressure
1 Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical Oil Pressure Switch
oil pressure gauge in its place Oil Pressure Sender optional
2 Start the engine After warming up to operating tem When performing an engine overhaul replace the oil pres
perature measure the oil pressure at both idling and sure switch and the oil pressure sender if used
rated speeds When installing the new parts apply teflon sealant to the
threaded ends being careful not to close off the oil hole in
the sender
A CAUTION Oil Pressure Switch Do not use lock
pliers vise grips or pipe wrenches on the oil pressure
switch Use the correct socket which is available from
SnapOn Proto New Britain and others Damage to
the switch will cause oileaks andor switch failure
CHECKING THE OIL PRESSURE
PRESSURE
SENDER
OPTIONAL
l PLUG
UnIVQrsal
MARINE POWER OIL PRESSURE SWITCH AND SENDER
LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE
OIL PUMP Clearance Between Inner Rotor and Cover
Rotor Lobe Clearance 1 Put a strip of plastigauge onto the rotor face with grease
1 Measure the clearance between the lobes of the inner 2 Install the cover and tighten the screws
rotor and the outer rotor with a feeler gauge 3 Remove the cover carefully measure the amount of the
2 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the flattening with the scale and get the clearance
oil pump rotor assembly 4 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the
oil pump rotor assembly
STANDARD VALUE
Rotor lobe 0012 00055 in STANDARD VALUE
clearance 003 014 mm
Clearance between 00029 00053 in
inner rotor and cover 0075 0135 Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body
1 Measure the clearance between the outer rotor and the
pump body with a feeler gauge
2 If the clearance exceeds the standard value replace the
oil pump rotor assembly
STANDARD VALUE
Clearance between 00028 00059 in
outer rotor and 007 015 mm
pump body
COOLING SYSTEM DRAIN PETCDCK
The engine is cooled by a closed fresh water coolant circuit
The coolant is circulated by a beltdriven impeller pump The
coolant temperature is water is pumped by a geardriven impeller pump
through an heat exchanger to cool the coolant The raw water then enters the waterinject SWITCH
ed exhaust elbow where it mixes with and cools the This mixture then discharges overboard
TEMPERATURE
PUMP
The coolant pump is a metal impeller
pump mounted on the front of the engine It is driven from
the crankshaft by a Vbelt
IMPELLER
PULLEY
THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY
RAW WATER PUMP
COOLANT PUMP
The raw water pump is a gear driven positive displace
ment selfpriming rotary pump with a nonferrous and a neoprene impeller The impeller has
flexible vanes
which wipe against a curved cam plate within the impeller
A thermostat located near the manifold at the front of the housing producing the pumping action On no controls the coolant temperature as
it continuously should this pump be run dry as water acts as a lubricant for
flows through the closed cooling circuit the impeller There should always be a spare impeller and
The thermostat is a wax pellet type thermostat Wax is impeller cover gasket aboard an impeller kit Raw in the pellet The wax is solid
at low tempera pump impeller failures occur when lubricant raw water is
tures but turns liquid at high temperatures expands and not present during engine operation Such failures are not
opens the valve warrantable and operators are cautioned to make sure raw
When the engine is first started the closed thermostat pre water flow is present at coolant from flowing some coolant is a hole in the
thermostat to prevent the from overheating As the engine warms up gradually opens The thermostat is can be checked cleaned or replaced easily
WATER TEMPERATURE SWITCH
The water temperature switch is located on the see This switch is normally open
When activated it will close and sound an alarm
WATER TEMPERATURE SENDER Optional
water temperature sender if supplied is located on housing see It is a variable resis
tor affected by heat Voltage from the water is grounded through the sender to the block
RAW WATER on the resistance through the sender affected by IMPELLER
HDUSING
coolant heat the gauge will indicate a temperature reading
COOLING SYSTEM RECOVERY TANK ZINC ANODE
A coolant recovery tank allows for engine coolant expan A zinc anode or pencil is located in the raw water cool
sion and contraction during engine operation without any ing circuit within the heat exchanger The purpose of loss of coolant and without
introducing air into zinc anode is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking
the cooling system This tank is best located at or above place in the raw water cooling circuit thereby reducing the
the exhaust manifold level and should be easily accessible effects of electrolysis on other components of the system
The condition of the zinc anode should be checked month
ly and the anode cleaned or replaced as required Spare
anodes should be carried onboard The area in the
exchanger where the anode is located should periodically
be cleaned of anode debris
REPLACE
Z1NCAHODES
REPLACE ClEAN AND
REUSE
HEAT EXCHANGER
The heat exchanger is a copper tube which encloses a num
ber of small copper tubes Raw water is pumped through
the small copper tubes and the freshwater coolant from the
engine is circulated around the copper tubes The raw
water removes heat from the freshwater coolant To keep
the heat exchanger operating efficiently it should be
removed from the engine every 1000 hours to be thorough
ly cleaned and pressure tested
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
COOLING SYSTEM Checking the Thermostat Valve Opening Remove the thermostat housing
mounting screws then 1 Push down the thermostat valve and insert a string
remove the thermostat housing between the valve and the valve seat
2 Remove the thermostat 2 Place the thermostat and a thermometer in a container
with water and gradually heat the water
3 Hold the string to suspend the thermostat in the water
When the water temperature rises the thermostat valve
will open allowing it to fall down from the string
Read the temperature at this moment on the
thermometer
4 Continue heating the water and read the temperature
when the valve has completely opened about 0236 in
6 mm
S If these temperatures are not within the standard values
as shown in the chart below replace the thermostat
STANDARD VALUE
THERMOSTAT
Thermostats valve 1571 1625 0 F
opening temperature 695 725 0 C
WATER Temperature at which 1850 F
FLANGE
thermostat completely 85 0 C
opens
THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY
3 Remove the water flange mounting screws then remove
the water flange
4 Visually check the thermostat for damage Then put it
in water and raise the water temperature to test its valve
opening temperature as described below Replace if
defective
When 1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
A CAUTION The wax pellettype thermostat to both sides of a new thermostat housing gasket
remains closed if its heatsensing part is defec 2 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
tive Leaving this uncorrected would cause the to both sides of a new water flange gasket
engine to overheat
CHANGING THE RAW WATER PUMP IMPELLER
1 Close the raw water intake
2 Remove the inlet and outlet port hoses from the pump
noting the port location and positioning
3 Remove the pump assembly and its gasket from the
LEAK HOLE engine
4 Remove the three hex head screws that hold the
SPRING housing to the cover
S Tap the housingcover assembly on its side to loosen
and separate the cover from its housing
6 Remove the cover and its Oring and remove the
L WAX
LIQUID impeller gasket and plate
CLOSED OPEN 7 Remove the retaining ring circlip and pry out the
THERMOSTAT impeller Take care not to lose the key off the shafts
keyway
MARINE POWER
COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE
COOLANT PUMP
A CAUTION If any of the vanes have broken off 1 Loosen the alternator mounting bolts and remove the
the impeller they must be found to prevent bckage in drive belt
the cooling circuit They often can be found IR the
heat exchanger 2 Remove the coolant pump pulley
3 Remove the coolant pump assembly from the gear case
cover
8 Replace the gasket impeller and Oring
4 Remove the flange
9 Apply a film of petroleum jelly or silicon to the inner
surface of the impeller housing 5 Press out the shaft with the impeller on it
NOTE Just coat the suiface do not over apply 6 Remove the impeller from the shaft
10 Install the cover housing over the impeller 7 Remove the mechanical seal Install the three hex screws and tighten
8 Check every part for cracks damage and water leaks
Replace any parts that are Mount the pump to the engine taking care that the end
seal and gasket are in place Do not tighten the pump NOTE No rebuilding kits are available for the antifreeze
mounting screws just finger tight circulating pump however individual parts are avail
able to allow the pump to be rebuilt
13 Reassemble the hose connections and open the raw
water intake 9 Check the impeller and shaft for rotating condition If
they make a noise or rotate irregularly replace as an
14 Start the engine in idle this will allow the pump to assembly
align itself with its drive shaft
When Stop the engine and tighten the pump assembly
mounting screws 1 Apply a liquid gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent
to both sides of a new coolant pump gasket
16 Start and run the engine check for leaks and check for
a normal operating temperature 2 Replace the mechanical seal with a new one
RAW WATER PUMP
PULLEY
COOLANT PUMP
FUEL SYSTEM fuel lift pump draws fuel from the fuel fuel injectors is returned from the nozzle holders through
tank through an ownersuppled fuel filterwater separator to fuel lines to the fuel injection pump and the fuel tank
remove impurities such as dirt and water The lift pump NOTE Fuel supplied to the fuel lift pump must be filtered
then pumps the fuel through the engines primary fuel filter to 10 25 microns or smaller by the the fuel injection pump The fuel is
pressurized by the filterwater injection pump to the opening pressure of the 1991 2133 psi 140 150 kgfcm2 1373
1471 MPa and injected into the combustion chamber
Some of the fuel that is fed to the injection nozzles lubri
cates the plungers inside the nozzles Excess fuel from the
FUEL
LIFT
PUMP
FUEL RETURN
LINE FROM
FUEL INJECTORS
FROM FUEL TANK c TO INJECTIDN PUMP
TO FUEL TANK FUEL RETURN
LINE FROM FUEL
FUEL INJECTORS INJECTION
TO FUEL TANK PUMP
FUEL
FILTER FUEL PUMP Pump Element
The fuel injection pump is a Bosch MD type mini pump The pump element consists of the plunger and the cylinder
It is small lightweight and easy to handle The sliding surfaces are machined to main
tain injection pressures at low engine speeds The plunger
The plunger with a righthand lead reciprocates via the tap
is machined to have a slot and a control groove Since the
pet roller by means of the fuel camshaft causing the fuel to
driving face on the plunger fits in the control sleeve the
be delivered into the injection nozzle
plunger is rotated by the movement of the control rack to
DELIVERY VALVE
increase or decrease the fuel delivery
HOLDER
SLOT
CYLINDE
PUMP
ELEMENT
CYLINDER CONTROL PLUNGER
ROD
t PLUNGER
1lU1 SPRING
PUMP ELEMENT
INJECTION PUMP
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
FUEL SYSTEM Valve
The delivery valve consists of the valve and valve seat
The delivery valve performs the following functions
1 Reverse Flow Preventing Function
If the fuel flow should reverse from the injection nozzle
side when the plunger lowers the time lag between the
next delivery start and the nozzle injection start This is avoided by the delivery valve which pre
vents the fuel flow from the delivery chamber to the injec
tion line from reversing This keeps the nozzle and the fuel
line filled with fuel to maintain the prime
1 2
2 DrawBack completing the fuel delivery the delivery valve low
ers and the relief plunger end contacts the delivery valve
seat The valve further lowers until it seats finnly in the
delivery valve seat During this time the amount of to A is drawn back from inside the injec
tion line and the pressure inside the pipe is reduced thus
leading to an improved injection shutoff and VALVE
SEAT
SURFACE 3 4
A OPERATION OF THE PUMP ELEMENT
Injection Control
1 No Fuel Delivery
At the engine stop position of the control rack the length
wise slot on the plunger aligns with the feed hole The
1 2 delivery chamber is led to the feed hole during the entire
DELIVERY VALVE stroke of the plunger
The pressure in the delivery chamber does not build up and
Operation of the Pump Element no fuel can be forced to the injection nozzle
1 Before Delivery 2 Fuel Delivery
As the tappet lowers the plunger also lowers and fuel is
The plunger is rotated see illustration by the control rack
drawn into the delivery chamber through the feed hole
from the fuel chamber When the plunger is pushed up the feed hole is closed
The pressure in the delivery chamber builds up and force
2 Beginning of Delivery feeds the fuel to the injection nozzle until the control groove
When the plunger is pushed up by the cam and the head of meets the feed hole
the plunger closes the feed hole the pressure in the The amount of the fuel corresponds to the distance A
delivery chamber rises to push the relief plunger open
Fuel is then forcefed into the injection line
3 Delivery
While the plunger is rising the delivery of fuel continues
4 End of Delivery
When the plunger rises further and the control groove on
its periphery meets the feed hole the fuel returns to the
fuel chamber from the delivery chamber through the con
trol groove and the feed hole
MARINE POWER
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
DELIVERY CHAMBER
FUEL FILTER
The fuel filter prevents dirty fuel from reaching the injec
1Ttw64 FEED HOLE
tion pump and the injection nozzles Each moving part of
the injection pump and nozzle is extremely precision
machined and the clearances of their sliding parts are
extremely small Fuel itself serves as lubricating oil For
this reason it is extremely important to completely remove
any water and dirt contained in the fuel
The fuel filter cartridge will require occasional replacement
to maintain an adequate flow of fuel to the injection pump
The frequency of this service will vary according to the
cleanliness of the available fuel and the care used in its
FEED HOLE storage The fuel filter eliminates any foreign matter com
ing from the fuel tank and protects the injection pump and
injection nozzles When fuel enters the filter it passes
from the filter elements circumference toward the center
for filtering
There is an air vent plug on the filter body Before start
ing or after disassembling and reassembling loosen this
SLOT
plug and bleed the air in the fuel system
INJECTION CONTROL CONTROL
NomE
This nozzle is a The needle valve is AIR VENT
pushed against the nozzle body by the nozzle spring via the PLUG
push rod Fuel pressurized by the injection pump pushes
the needle valve up and then is injected into the fuel flow passes from the nozzle holder the eye joint and the fuel overflow line to the
injection pressure is 1991 2133 psi 1373 1471
MPa 140 150 kgfcm2 and is adjusted with FUEL FILTER
FUEL LIFT PUMP
The onengine fuel system is virtually self priming Under
ADJUSTING ordinary circumstances the engines electric fuel lift pump
WASHER
which is energized by the key button will
supply a continuous flow of fuel from the tank This fuel is
drawn through the fuel filterwater separator to the engine
NOZZLE
HOLDER
l lift pump the primary spinon fuel filter and the injection
BODY PUSH ROD pump
NOZZLE
BODY
iII NEEDLE
VALVE
BIJECTION NOmE
FUEL UFT PUMP
FUEL SYSTEM At Start
This mechanism maintains engine speed at a constant rate The steel balls have no centrifugal force Fork lever 1 is
even under fluctuating loads provides stable idling and reg pulled by the start spring and the control rod moves to the
ulates maximum engine speed by controlling the fuel injec maximum injection position for easy rate
At Idling
Fork lever 1 is held where two forces on it are balanced When the speed control lever is set at the idling position
One is the force that fork lever 2 pushes which is caused the governor spring is pulled slightly As the camshaft
by the tension of the governor spring between the governor rotates the steel balls increase their centrifugal force and
lever and fork lever 2 Another is the component of the push the governor sleeve Fork lever 1 pushed by the force produced by the steel
balls which are ernor sleeve pushes the control rod and the control rod
rotated by the fuel camshaft compresses the idling adjusting spring The control rod is
kept at a position where the centrifugal force is balanced
with the spring tensions on the control rod providing stable
idling
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
At Medium or High Speed Running To Stop the Engine
When the speed control lever is turned further the governor When the stop lever is moved to the stop position fork lever
spring increases the tension and control rod is pulled to 1 is pushed and the control rod is moved to stop the fuel
increase the engine speed The steel balls increase their cen injection
trifugal force and the control rod is pushed decreasing the
engine speed until the centrifugal force and the spring tension
are balanced
When the engine speed is dropped A B with the increase
of the load a b the centrifugal force of the steel balls
decreases and the control rod is pulled The amount of fuel
delivered to the injection nozzle is increased to produce the
higher engine torque required for the CONTROL
At Maximum Speed Running with an Overload
When the engine is overloaded at a high speed and the engine
speed drops the centrifugal force of the steel balls decreases
and the governor spring pulls fork levers 1 and 2
When fork lever 2 contacts the adjusting screw the spring that
is built into fork lever 1 begins to push fork lever 1 to pull the
control rod The amount of fuel delivered to the injection noz
zle is increased to run the engine at a high speed and torque
FUEL SYSTEM DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY
INJECTION NomE
A WARNING Do not allow smoking Dr open flames Nozzle Holder
near the fuel system when servicing Also provide
1 Secure the nozzle retaining nut in a vise
proper ventilation
2 Remove the nozzle holder and take out the parts inside
the nozzle PUMP When replacing the pump element the amount of fuel injection 1 Assemble
the nozzle in clean fuel oil
should be bench tested and adjusted
2 Install the push rod noting its direction
DELIVERY VALVE 3 After assembling the nozzle be sure to adjust the fuel
HOLDER injection pressure
AOJUSTING
WASHER
NOZZLE
SPRING
PUSH ROO
CYLINDER DISTANCE
PIECE
PLUNGER
NOZZLE
HOLDER NOZZLE
BI PLUNGER PIECE
SPRING
IIU TAPPET
INJECTION PUMP
INJECTION NOZZLE
FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
FUEL INJECTORS Nozzle Spraying Condition
1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester and
check the nozzle spraying condition
A CAUTION The spray nozzle velocity is such that 2 If the spraying condition is defective replace the nozzle
it may penetrate deeply into the skin of the fingers piece
and hands destroying tissue If it enters the blood
stream it may cause blood Injection Pressure
1 Install the injection nozzle to the nozzle tester
2 Slowly move the tester handle to measure the pressure
at which fuel begins jetting out from the nozzle
GOOD BAD
Valve Seat Tightness
1 Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester
2 Raise the fuel pressure and keep it at 1849 psi 130
kgfcm2 1275 MPa for 10 seconds
3 If any fuel leak is found replace the nozzle piece
STANDARD VALUE
Valve seat tightness No fuel leak at 1849 psi
130 kgfcm 2 1275 MPa
3 If the measurement is not within the standard value
disassemble the injection nozzle and change the adjusting
washer until the proper injection pressure is obtained
STANDARD VALUE
Fuel injection 1991 2133 psi
pressure 140 150 kgfcm 2
1373 1471 MPa
Adjusting washers are provided for every 000098 in
Fuel Injectors Service
0025 mm of thickness from 003543 in 0900 mm to In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise have the
007677 in 1950 mm injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized fuel
injection service center Poor fuel quality contaminants
AOJUSTING
and loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection pump
can result in injector faults Since fuel injectors must WASHER
serviced in a clean room environment it is best to carry at
LINE NUT
NOZZLE least one extra injector as a spare should a problem occur
SPRING
Before rmoving the old injector clean the area around the
PLAIN PUSH ROO base of the injector to help prevent any rust or debris from
WASHER
falling down into the injector hole If the injector will not
DISTANCE
PIECE lift out easily and is held in by carbon buildup or the like
work the injector sidetoside with the aid of the socket
NOZZLE wrench to free it and then lift it out
HOLOER NOZZLE
PIECE
The injector seats in the cylinder head on a copper sealing
washer Remove this washer with the injector and replace
it with a new washer when the new injector is installed
Injector to cylinder head tightening torque
362 506 ftIb 50 70 mkg 490 686 Nm
INJECTION NOZZLE MARINE POWER
FUEL SYSTEM PUMP Shim up to Engine Serial Number Timing
1 Shims are available in thicknesses of 00059 in 015
mm and 00118 in 030 mm Combine these shims
1 Remove the injection lines for Set the speed control lever to the maximum fuel
2 The addition or reduction of a shim 00059 in 015
discharge position mm delays or advances the injection timing by approx
3 Turn the flywheel until the fuel fills up to the hole of the 15 0026 rad
delivery valve holder 3 After adjusting the injection timing apply a liquidtype
DELIVERY VALVE
HOLDER gasket Three Bond 1215 or equivalent to both sides of
the injection pump shim before Shim Engine Serial Number 489291 on
1 The sealant is applied to both sides of the soft metal
gasket shim The liquid gasket is not required for
assembling
2 Shims are available in thicknesses of 00079 in 020
mm 00098 in 025 mm and 00118 in 030 mm
Combine these shims for adjustments
3 The addition or reduction of a shim 00020 in 005
mm delays or advances the injection timing by approx
05 00087 rad
4 In disassembling and replacing be sure to use the same
4 Turn the flywheel further to check the injection timing number of new gasket shims with the same thicknesses
and stop turning when the fuel begins to flow over again
Fuel Tightness of Pump Element
S Check to see if the ITC mark on the flywheel is
1 Remove the injection lines and injection nozzles
aligned with the punch mark on the back plate
2 Install a pressure tester to the injection pump
6 If the timing is out of adjustment readjust the timing
with shims 3 Set the speed control lever to the maximum fuel
discharge position
INJECTION
PUMP
4 Tum the flywheel to raise the fuel
pressure
SHIM S If the fuel pressure can not reach the allowable limit
replace the pump element or injection pump assembly
LIMIT
Pump element 2133 psi
fuel tightness 150 kgfcm 2
fuel pressure 1471 MPa
A B c
Shim A TWO holes 00079 In 020 mm
Shim B One hole 00098 In 025 mm
Shim C Without a hole 00118 In 030 mm
FUEL SYSTEM the Fuel Injection Delivery Valve Fuel After replacing the pump element be sure to
1 Remove the injection lines and injection the amount of the fuel injection using a pump tester 2 Install a
pressure tester to the injection pump
and a test bench DIESEL KIKI CO LTD Code 50 Hz or 1057600020 60Hz 3 Set the speed control lever to the maximum fuel
discharge Condition
Driving strand Code No 1057814160 DIESEL KIKI CO LTDl
SPEED
Nozzle DN4PD62 CDNTRDL
LEVER
Opening pressure 1707 psi 120 kgfcm 2 1177 MPa
Injection line 024 in dia x 008 in dia x 2362 in lon
6 mm dia x 16 mm dia x 255 mm long
Fuel feed pressure 7 psi 02 kofcm2 49 kPa
Test fuel Diesel fuel No 2D
Prestroke 00728 00768 in with valve
05 15 mm with valve
Cam profile PFMTEOO see 4 Turn the flywheel to raise the fuel
pressure to 2133 psi 150 kglcm2 1471 MPa
A 20 035 rad
B 0551 in 14 mml 5 Set the plunger of the injection pump at the bottom dead
C 1181 in 30 mm center to reduce the delivery chamber pressure to zero
D 0118in3mm
E 0591 in 15 mm 6 Measure the falling time of the fuel pressure from 2133
F 0709 in 18 mm
G 0472 in 12 mm 1991 psi 150 140 kglcm2 1471 1373 MPa
7 If the measurement is less than the limit replace the
delivery valve or injection pump assembly
c LIMIT
Pressure falling time 5 for Adjustment
Control rack position Camshaft Amount of fuel
from stop position speed
01969 in 1800 rpm 00714 00751 cu inl100 st
50mm 117 123 cc100 st
00591 in 1800 rpm less than 0006 cu inl100 st
15 mm less than 01 cc100 st
ADMIRAL CONTROL offers two optional panels Refer to the When the engine is shut down with the Key Switch page that applies to
the panel you purchased off the water temperature gauge will continue to register the
last temperature reading indicated by the gauge before elec
ADMIRAL PANEL trical power was turned off The oil pressure gauge will fall
to zero when the Key Switch is turned off The control panel is equipped with a Key gauge will once again register the engines true and
RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME meter when electrical power is restored to the gauge
which measures the engines running time in hours and in
110 hours The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERA A separate alann buzzer with harness is supplied with every
TURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees Admiral Panel The installer is responsible for an OIL PRESSURE gauge which
measures the connecting the buzzer to the fourpin connection on the
engines oil pressure in pounds per square inch and a DC engines electrical harness The installer is also circuit VOLTAGE gauge which
measures the sys for installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and
tems voltage All gauges are illuminated when the key where it will be audible to the operator should it sound while
switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine the engine is running The buzzer will sound when the igni
is in operation The panel also contains two rubberbooted tion key is turned on and should silence when the engine has
push buttons one for PREHEAT and one for START started and the engines oil pressure rises above 15 psi
Note Refer to the WIRING DIAGRAM in this manual for the
installation of two engine sendors
OIL PRESSURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS GRADU
ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH PSI AND IS
WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE THIS GAUGE IS ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS
GRADUATED IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT AND IS TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING
ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 3060 PSI
TURNED ON THE ENGINES NORMAL OPERATING
TEMPERATURE IS 170190 F GAUGE REGIS
TERS MINUTE OF THE
ENGINE AND CAN FOR
ACCURACY FROM THE
REAR OF THE ELAPSED KEY SWITCH AND SHOULD BE
POWER ONLY TO THE
USED AS A GUIDE FOR INSTRUMENT PANEL
THE MAINTENANCE
DC VOLTMETER
INDICATES THE AMOUNT THE
BATIERY IS BEING CHARGED
SHOULD SHOW 13V TO 14V
PREHEAT BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES REGULATOR THE FUEL LIFT PUMP AND AUTOMATIC ALARM SYSTEM
THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES THE HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM AN ALARM BUZZER HAS SEEN
ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDI SUPPLIED WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL IF THE ENGINES FRESH
TION THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES THE START SUTION WATER COOLANT REACHES 210 F 98C THIS SWITCH WILL CLOSE
SOUNDING THE ALARM WHICH WILL EMIT A
START BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE CONTINUOUS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE
THIS BUTION WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM A LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH
UNLESS THE PREHEAT SUTTON IS PRESSED AND HELD IS LOCATED OFF THE ENGINES OIL GALLERY THIS SWITCH MONITORS
AT THE SAME TIME THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE SHOULD THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE
FALL TO 5 10 PSI THE SWITCH WILL OPEN SOUNDING THE ALARM
IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL
UnivQrsal
rot 67
CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL
CAPTAIN PANEL and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE It
also includes an alarm buzzer for low OIL PRESSURE or
This control panel is equipped with a Key high WAJER TEMPERATURE The RPM gauge is an RPM gauge PREHEAT and START buttons an
nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains JEST button and three indicator lamps one nated while the engine is in
AL1ERNATOR DISCHARGE one for low OIL ALARM THE ALARM WILL SOUND IF THE ENGINES
OIL PRESSURE FALLS
BELOW 5 10 PSI IN THIS EVENT THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING
SIGNAL THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOU NO IF THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN
THE FRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 210F IN THIS EVENT THE
RPM GAUGE ALARM WILL EMIT A REVOLUTIONS PER
NOTE THE ALARM WILL SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON
MINUTE OF THE ENGINE AND CAN BE THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAL ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE FOR ACCURACY FROM
OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI THE ALARM WILL SILENCE
THE REAR OF THE PANEL
TEST BUTTON WHEN
PRESSED TESTS THE
ALTERNATOR THE OIL
PRESSURE AND THE
WATER TEMPERATURE
CONTROL CIRCUITS
WHEN PRESSED THE
ALTERNATOR THE OIL
PRESSURE AND THE
WATER TEMPERATURE
INDICATOR LIGHTS
ILLUMINATE IN ADDI
TION TO SOUNDING
THE ALARM BUZZER
KEY SWITCH
PROVIDES POWER TO
THE INSTRUMENT
PANEL CLUSTER AND
THE DC ALTERNATOR
REGULATOR TERMINAL
WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM
UGHT
START BUTTON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE
STARTERS SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE THIS PREHEAT BUnON WHEN PRESSED ENERGIZES THE FUEL
BUnON WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE LIFT PUMP AND THE ENGINES GLOW PLUGS AND BYPASSES
PREHEAT BunON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH IN ADDITION
TIME THIS BUnON ENERGIZES THE START BUnON
CONTROL PANEL NOTE Current model tachometers use a coarse used in propulsion engine instru
dial to set the tachometer to the crankshaft pulley rpms The
ment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a calibrating screw is then used for fine ground One circuit operates the
hourmeter and
the other the tachometer The hourmeter circuit operates on
12 volts alternator charging voltage supplied to the ter
minal on the back of the tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6 8 volts
fed from one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to
the tachometer input terminal while the engine is running
and the alternator producing battery charging voltage
130 148 volts DC
The following are procedures to follow when a fault in either of the two circuits in a Inoperative
for the proper DC voltage between and IDLE
SPEED ADJUSTMENT
1 Voltage present meter is defective repair or replace
TACHOMETER CHECK New Voltage not present trace and electrical con
nections for fault Jump 12 volts DC to meter Checking the idle speed
terminal to verify the operation NOTE In a new installation having new instrument panels
the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to Inoperative engines rpm This calibration
should be checked in all new
Check for the proper AC voltage between tachometer input and terminal with the engine running 1 Warm up the engine
to normal operating Voltage present attempt adjusting meter through calibra Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a clean
tion access hole No results repair or replace meter cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape on the
2 AC voltage not present check for proper alternator DC pulley to facilitate use of a photoelectric type tachometer
output voltage 2 Start and idle the engine
3 Check for AC voltage at tach terminal on alternator to 3 Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape to
ground confIrm the engine speed Check the instrument panel
4 Check electrical connections from tachometer input ter tachometer reading Adjust the tachometer in the panel by
minal to alternator connection using the instrument coarse adjustment to calibrate the
instrument reading to the closest RPM that the photo Sticking is showing Then use the fIne
calibration adjustment to
1 Check for proper AC voltage between tach inp termi bring the instrument to the exact reading as the photo tach
nal and terminal The fIne calibration adjustment is made using a 564 Allen
2 Check for good ground connection between meter ter head wrench
minal and alternator 4 Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within the
3 Check that alternator is well grounded to engine block at specifIed value
alternator pivot bolt
Normal idle speed 1000 1200 Inaccurate
a With a handheld tach on the front of the crankshaft
pulley retaining nut or with a strobetype tach read the
front crankshaft pulley rpm at idle
h Adjust the tachometer with a small Phillips type screw
driver through the calibration access hole in the rear of
the tachometer Zero the tach and bring it to the rpm
indicated by the strobe or hand tach Verify the rpm at
idle and at high speed Adjust the tach as needed
2d 69
CONTROL PANEL MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT TOGGLE SWITCHES
NOTE The engine control system is protected by a 20 amp manual reset circuit breaker
located on the engine as close as possible to the power source
Problem Probable Cause PREHEAT depressed no panel indications 1 Oil Pressure
switch 1 Check switches andor battery connections
fuel solenoid electric fuel pump and
preheat solenoid not energized 2 20 amp circuit breaker tripped 2 Reset breaker If opens again check preheat solenoid circuit
and run circuit for shorts to ground
START SWITCH DEPRESSED no starter 1 Connection to solenoid faulty 1 Check connection
engagement
2 Faulty switch 2 Check switch with ohmmeter
3 Faulty sOlenoid 3 Check that 12 volts are present at the solenoid connection
4 Loose battery connections 4 Check battery connections
5 Low battery 5 Check battery charge state
NO IGNITION cranks does not start 1 Faulty fueling system 1 Check for fuel
2 Check for air in the fuel system 2 Allow system to bleed
3 Faulty fuel lift pump 3 Replace fuel lift pump
NOT CHARGING BATTERY 1 Faulty alternator drive 1 Check the drive belt and its tension Be sure the alternator
tums freely Check for loose connections Check the
output with a voltmeter Ensure 12V are present at the
regulator terminal
BATTERY RUNS DOWN 1 Oil pressure switch 1 Observe if the gauges and panel lights are activated when
engine is not running Test the oil pressure switch
2 High resistance leak to ground 2 Check the wiring Insert sensitive 025 amp meter in battery
lines Do NOT start engine Remove connections and replace
after short is located
3 Low resistance leak to ground 3 Check all wires for temperature rise to locate the fault
4 Faulty alternator 4 After a good battery charging disconnect alternator at output
If leakage stops Remove altemator and bench test Repair or
replace
WATER TEMPERATURE AND 01 PRESSURE GAUGES
If the gauge reading is other than what is nonnally indicated If both of the above gauge tests are positive the gauge is
by the gauge when the instrument panel is energized the fIrst undoubtedly OK and the problem lies either with the conduc
step is to check for 12 volts DC between the ignition B tor from the sender to the gauge or with the sender
and the Negative B terminals of the gauge
If either of the above gauge tests are negative the gauge is
Assuming that there is 12 volts as required leave the instru probably defective and should be panel energized key switch on and
perfonn the
following steps Assuming the gauge is OK check the conductor from the
sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the
gauge reads zero which is the nonnal reading for this situa Check that the engine block is connected to the ground
tion Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the bat
tery is connected to the starter both plus and minus termi
2 Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and nals the ground side will not necessarily be connected to the
see if the gauge reads full scale which is the nonnal reading block
for this 70
GLOW PLUG SERVICE
GLOW PLUGS TERMINAL
The glow plugs are wired through the preheat PREHEAT is pressed at the control panel this sole
noid should click on and the glow plug should begin to
get inspect the plug remove the electrical terminal then unscrew or unclamp each plug from the Thoroughly clean each plugs tip and threads with a
TIP
soft brush and cleaning solution to remove all the carbon
and oil deposits While cleaning examine the tip for wear
and bum erosion if it has eroded too much replace the
plug
TESTING AGLOW PLUG
Testing WITH AN OHMMETER
An accurate way to test glow plugs is with an method can be used with the plug in or out of the
engine You can also use an ammeter to test the power
drain 8 9 amps per plug
A WARNING These glow plugs will become vary
hot to the touch Be careful not to burn your fingers
when testing the plugs
1 Disconnect the leads from the glow plugs
2 Measure the resistance with the ohmmeter across the
glow plug terminal and the body of the glow plug see
If 0 ohm is indicated the screw at the tip of the glow
plug and the body of the glow plug are If the standard value is not indicated the glow plug is
faulty replace the glow plug
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE
Glow plug resistance Approx 09 to 12 Q
Reinstall the plugs in the engine and test them again The
plugs should get very hot at the terminal end within 7 to
15 seconds If the plugs dont heat up quickly check for a
short circuit When reinstalling the glow plugs use anti
seize compound on the threads
Glow plug 58 108 ft Ibs
tightening torque 08 15 kgm
78 147 Nm
AWARNING Do not keep a glow plug on for more
than 30 seconds
Unlvarsal
STARTER SERVICE
STARTER DESCRIPTION Solenoid Switch
The starter is of the drive type It is com The solenoid switch forces out the pinion for engaging
posed of a starting motor and a solenoid switch with the ring gear and operates as a relay to drive the
armature
SOLENOIO SWITCH PLUNGER
It consists of a pullin coil a holding coil and a plunger
Starter When Main Switch is Turned to START
The contacts of the main switch close and the holding coil
is connected to the battery to pull the plunger
The pullin coil and the starting motor are also connected to
the battery
The pinion is pushed against the ring gear with the overrun
ning clutch by the drive lever and the solenoid switch is
closed
SWITCH
SOLENOID
OVERRUNNING SWITCH
CLUTCH PINION
SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT
Overrunning Clutch
The overrunning clutch is so constructed that the power
transmission relationship is automatically severed when the
clutch pinion shaft speed exceeds the clutch gear outer
speed at increased engine speeds Therefore the armature
drives the ring gear and is never driven by the engine GEAR
When Solenoid Switch is Closed
The current from the battery flows through the solenoid
switch to the starting motor
The pinion which is pushed against the ring gear and rotat
ed along the spline meshes with the ring gear to crank the
engine
The engine starts and increases its speed
While the pinion spins faster than the armature the overrun
ning clutch allows the pinion to spin independently from the
armature
WHEII POWER IS TRANSMITTED IDUNG ROTATION WITH CWTCH The pullin coil is through the solenoid
PINION SHAFT SPEED EXCEEDING switch and the main switch
THAT OF CWTCH GEAR OUTER
MARINE POWER
STARTER SERVICE
PUllIN COil
Magnet Switch
MAIN SWITCH
NOTE Each test should be carried out for a start time 3 to
5 seconds and at half of the rated voltage 6V
I SOlENOIO Checking PullIn Coil
SWITCH
1 Connect jumper lead from the batterys negative termi
nal post to the C terminaL
2 The plunger should be attracted strongly when a jumper
lead is connected from the battery positive terminal to
the S terminaL
ARMATURE SPIRAL SPLINE OVERRUNNING
CLUTCH
When Main Switch is Released
The current from the battery flows to the holding coil
through the pun in coil to diminish the magnetism plunger is pushed by the spring to pull in the pinion
Checking Holding Coil
1 Connect jumper leads from the batterys negative termi
nal post to the body and the batterys positive terminal
post to the S terminaL
2 Push the plunger in by hand and release it Then the
plunger should remain being TESTING
Motor Test
1 Disconnect the connecting lead from the C terminal of
the starter and connect a jumper lead from the connect
ing lead to the positive battery terminaL
2 Connect a jumper lead momentarily between the starter
body and the negative battery terminaL
3 If the motor does not run check the motor
STARTER DISASSEMBLY REASSEMBLY 7 Remove the brush holder 20
1 Unscrew the mounting nut 6 and disconnect the con 8 Draw out the yoke 18 from the starter drive housing 2
necting lead 11 9 Draw out the armature 9 with the drive lever 3
2 Unscrew the solenoid switch mounting nuts 1 and NOTE Do not damage the brush or commutator
remove the solenoid switch 5
When Remove the end frame cap 16
Apply grease to the following parts shown in the Remove the brake shoe 15 brake spring 14 and gasket
13 a Joint of solenoid switch d Collar
b Bushing e Teeth of pinion gear
5 Unscrew the through bolts 21 and remove the rear end c Drive lever f Armature shaft
frame 12
6 Remove the brush from the brush holder while holding 6 NUT
5 SOLENOID
the spring up SWITCH
2 STARTER DRIVE 4
HOUSING
3 DRIVE LEVE
1 SOLENOID SWITCH
MOUNTING NUT
ARMATURE
SNAP RING OVERRUNNING SCREW
CLUTCH
END FRAME
BRAKE
SHOE
21 THROUGHBOLT
12 REAR END
FRAME
19 Coil
1 Check the continuity across the commutator and armature
shaft with an ohmmeter
2 replace the Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
STARTER between Armature Shaft and Bushing Commutator and Mica
1 Measure the bushing LD on the drive side and commu 1 If the commutator surface is dirty or dusty clean it with
tator side sandpaper
2 Measure the armature shaft OD on the drive side and 2 Measure the commutator OD with vernier calipers at
commutator side and calculate the clearance several places
3 If the clearance exceeds the limit replace the bushing 3 If the difference of the OD s exceeds the limit correct
the commutator on a lathe to the standard value
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT 4 If the minimum OD is less than the limit replace the
Clearance between armature
armature shaft and
bushing 5 Measure the mica undercut depth
Commutator 0001 0003 in 0007 in 6 If the undercut is less than the limit correct it with a
side 003 010 mm 020 mm saw blade and chamfer the segment edges
Drive side 0002 0003 in 0007 in
005 010 mm 020 mm DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Commutator 00 1102 in 1063 in
2BO mm 270 mm
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE
Difference of ODs Less than 0002 in 0016 in
Armature shaft 00 0492 in 005 mm 04 mm
1250 mm
Mica Undercut 0020 0031 in OOOB in
Bushing 10 0493 0496 in 05 OB mm 02 mm
commutator side 1253 1260 mm
Bushing 10 0494 0496 in
drive side 1255 1260 mm
MEASURING COMMUTATOR 00
MEASURING BUSHING 10
BAD GOOD
J SEGMENT
MEASURING MICA UNDERCUT DEPTH
MEASURING ARMATURE SHAFT 00
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
STARTER SERVICE
Field Coil
1 Check the continuity across the yoke and brush with an
ohmmeter
2 If either are not conducting replace the yoke Brush Holder
1 Check the continuity across the brush holder and the
holder support with an ohmmeter
2 If it conducts replace the brush Wear
1 If the contact face of the brush is dirty or dusty clean it
with sandpaper
2 Measure the brush length with vernier calipers
3 If the length is less than the limit replace the yoke
assembly and brush holder
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Brush Length 0630 in 413 in
160 mm 105 mm
Overrunning Clutch
1 Inspect the pinion for wear or damage
2 If there is any defect replace it
3 Check that the pinion turns freely and smoothly in
the overrunning direction and does not slip in the
cranking position
4 If the pinion slips or does not tum in both directions
replace the overrunning clutch Spring
1 Pull the brush in the brush holder with a spring scale
2 Measure the brush spring tension required to raise the
spring from contact position with the If the tension is less than the limit replace the spring
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE LIMIT
Spring Tension 31 57 Ibs 20Ibs
14 26 kg 09 kg f
137 255 88 N
STARTER Switch Pinion Clearance
1 Check the continuity across Band M terminals with 1 Reassemble the starter with the connecting leads
an ohmmeter pushing in the plunger If not continuous or if a certain value is indicated 2 Connect a cable from
the negative terminal of the bat
replace the solenoid switch tery to the starter body and a cable from S terminal of
3 Pull the pullrod to check the spring built in the the starter to the positive terminal of the battery to
plunger force out the pinion
3 Push back the pinion slightly to kill the play and
1 measure the pinion clearance
4 If the clearance is not within the specified values add
or remove the washer between the solenoid switch and the
front end frame
DESCRIPTION STANDARD VALUE
Pinion Clearance 0020 0079 in
005 20 mm
jUnlvarsai
MARINE POWER
MANDO ALTERNATOR FOR TESTING ALTERNATOR TORQUE
TORQUE Fastener IbH Ibin
Location Nm Nm
Alternator front 25 35 Ibin
housing screws 28 40 Nm
Alternator end 35 65 Ibin
frame screws 40 73 Nm
Alternator 35 50 IbH
pulley nut 47 68 Nm
Regulator 25 45 Ibin
mounting screws 28 51 Nm
PREPARING TO CHECK ALTERNATOR
Before starting the alternator tests check these items
MANDo ALTERNATOR
1 If the problem is an undercharged battery check to
ensure that the undercharged condition has not been
caused by an excessive accessory current draw or by
A WARNING Be sure that the engine compartment accessories which have accidentally been left on Also
is well ventilated and that there is no gasoline vapor check that the undercharged condition has not been
present This is to prevent the possibility of an explo caused by running the engine at too low a speed for
sion andor fire should a spark occur extended periods of time
2 Check the physical condition and the state of charge of
the battery The battery must be fully charged to obtain
A WARNING Keep fingers and clothing away from valid results in the following tests If not charge the
battery before testing the system
the alternator belt and pulley severe bodily harm can
occur 3 Inspect the entire alternator system wiring for defects
Check all connections for tightness and cleanliness par
ticularly the battery cable clamps and battery terminals
A CAUTION
1 Do not attempt to polarize the alternator
2 Do not short across or ground any of the terminals
on the alternator except as specifically instructed
in the tests
3 Never disconnect the or
battery cables when the alternator is being driven
by the engine
4 Never disconnect the regulator lead from the
terminal when the alternator
is being driven by the engine
5 Always remove the negative battery cable from
the battery before working on the alternator
system
6 When installing the battery be sure to connect ALTERNATOR WIRING
the negative grounded battery cable to the CONNECTIONS
negative battery terminal and the positive
battery cable to the positive battery terminal 4 Check the alternator drive belt for excessive wear
7 If a charger or booster battery is to be used be cracks fraying and glazed surfaces and replace it if
sure to connect it in parallel with the existing necessary Also check the drive belt tension and adjust
battery positive to positive negative to negative it if necessary see DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT under
ENGINE 78
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
TEST OUTPUT CIRCUIT 2 Turn the ignition switch to the on position and note the
voltmeter reading The reading should be 13 to 25
1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the alternator volts see output terminal and the negative lead to the ground ter
minal on the alternator see 3 If the reading is between 75 and 11 volts the rotor
field circuit probably is shorted or grounded Disas
2 Wiggle the engine wiring harness while observing the semble the alternator and test the rotor as described
voltmeter The meter should indicate the approximate under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPO
battery voltage and should not vary If no reading is NENTS in this section
obtained or if the reading varies check the alternator
output circuit for loose or dirty connections or damaged 4 If the reading is between 60 and 70 volts the rotor
wiring field circuit probably is open Remove the regulator
and inspect it for worn brushes or dirty slip rings
Replace the brushes if they are less than 114 in 6 rom
long If the brushes and slip rings are in good condi
tion disassemble the alternator and test the rotor as
outlined under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR
COMPONENTS in this section
5 If no reading is obtained an open exists in the alterna
lead or in the excitation circuit of the
regulator Disconnect the lead from the regulator
Connect the positive voltmeter lead to this lead and the
negative voltmeter lead to ground If the voltmeter now
indicates an approximate battery voltage the voltage
regulator is defective and must be replaced If no
voltage is indicated check the excitation circuit for
loose or dirty connections or damaged wiring see
EXCITATION
WIRE TESTING ALTERNATOR OUTPUT CIRCUIT
TEST EXCITATION CIRCUIT
1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the excitation
terminal on the alternator and the negative lead to
the ground terminal on the alternator
EXCITATION
TERMINAL
TESTING EXCITER LEAD
TESTING EXCITER CIRCUIT
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
TEST ALTERNATOR CURRENT OUTPUT 7 If the reading is now within the the
diode trio is faulty Disassemble the alternator and
Perform this test to check if the alternator is capable of replace the diode trio as explained in this the rated current output
using a 0 55 amp DC
ammeter 8 If the reading is still low with the jumper lead connect
ed perfonn the Voltage Regulator Test to determine if
1 Disconnect the negative battery cable from the the fault is in the regulator or the alternator
battery
2 Disconnect the output lead from the terminal and connect the ammeter in series between the
lead and the output terminal Connect the positive
side of the ammeter toward the output terminal
3 Reconnect the negative battery cable
4 Diesel Operate the engine stop lever Perform this so
the engine can be cranked with the starter motor and not
start Turn on all accessories and crank the engine over
with the starter motor for 15 20 seconds
5 Turn off the accessories Return the stop lever to the
run position Start the engine and adjust the engine
speed to 1500 2000 rpm Quickly observe the
ammeter The reading should be at least 30 amps see
AMMETER d MODE
NEGATIVE
LEAD
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 2
TEST VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Perform this test to determine if the voltage regulator is
operating correctly using a 0 20 volt DC voltmeter
NOTE The battery must be fully charged 1265 or above
specific gravity to obtain a proper voltage reading in this
test If necessary charge the battery with a battery charger
or allow the engine to run a sufficient length of time to fully
charge the battery before taking a reading
1 Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the positive
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 1 battery terminal and the negative voltmeter lead to
the negative terminal see If the reading is low stop the engine and connect a
jumper lead between the terminal and
the indicator light terminal Repeat Steps 4 and 5 see
t Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
c Remove the nut from the output terminal and the
nut from the sensing terminal and remove Jumper
d Remove another nut from the sensing terminal and
the nut from the excitation terminal
e Remove the regulator cover
f Temporarily install Jumper A and all associated
nuts Leave Jumper B installed
g Remove the plastic plug from the side of the
NEGATIVE
regulator
LEAD r h Connect a jumper between the top brush lead from
the brush and ground see
BATTERY
SYSTEM VOLTAGE CHECK
2 Start the engine and run it at fast idle until the engine JUMPER
SENSING
reaches its normal operating temperature Adjust the TERMINAL
engine speed to 1500 2000 rpm and observe the volt
meter for the highest reading The reading should be
between 137 and 147 volts
3 If the reading is high check for a loose or dirty regula
tor ground lead connection If the connection is good
the voltage regulator is faulty and must be replaced Be
sure to disconnect the battery cables before attempting
to remove the regulator
PLASTIC PLUG If the reading is low
END VIEW OF REGULATOR WITH COVER REMOVED
a Stop the engine
h i Repeat steps 1 and 2
NOTE Do not let the voltage exceed 16 volts
j If a voltmeter reading of 145 volts or above is
now obtained the voltage regulator is faulty and
must be replaced If the voltmeter reading is below
145 volts inspect the brushes and slip rings for
wear dirt or damage If the brushes and slip rings
are good the alternator is faulty internally Disassem
ble the alternator and test the components as out
lined in this section
REMOVE ALTERNATOR
1 Disconnect the negative battery ground cable
PHILLIPS 2 Disconnect the wiring leads
COVER
SCREW 3 Loosen the screws Holding the alternator rotate it
toward the engine and lift the belt off the pulley
4 Remove the screws and washers and remove the alternator
REGULATOR COVER REMOVAL
MANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
10 Place an oversized Vbelt around the pulley and fasten
the pulley in a vise
11 Use a 78 in box wrench to loosen and remove the
pulley nut
ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR
1 Remove the tenninal nuts to remove the jumper see
Remove the remaining terminal nuts
3 Remove the capacitor
4 Remove the Phillips screw from the regulator cover
PULLEY REMOVAL
5 Remove the cover
6 Remove the nut from the tenninal 12 Remove the pulley nut lockwasher pulley fan and
7 Remove the jumper spacer see
FAN
S Remove the tenninal Remove the two Phillips screws and remove the
assembly
JUMPER
PULLEY AND FAN A CAUTION DO NOT insert screwdriver blades
more than 116 in 16 mm Damage to the stator
winding could result from deeper NOTE Score the stator and the front and rear housings so
the unit may be reassembled correctly
13 Remove the four throughbolts and carefully pry the
front housing away from the rear housing using two
TERMINAL
NUTINSULATOR screwdrivers see ALTERNATOR 82
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
16 Remove the rectifier assembly by removing the Phillips
screw and lifting out the HOUSING AND STATOR REMOVAL
14 Carefully push the rotor assembly out of the front
housing and rear housing see RECTIFIER REMOVAL
CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS
1 Inspect and test the assembly The
brush set may be reused if the brushes are 114 in
6 mm or longer The brushes must not be oil soaked
ROTOR REMOVAL cracked or grooved
Test for continuity between 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 using
NOTE If the bearing is removed from the housing a new a test lamp or an ohmmeter These checks will must be installed
a good assembly replace the complete
15 After removing the three bearing locking screws care assembly if necessary see fully press the front bearing out of the housing
Press
against the inner race of the bearing see TEST BRUSHI
REGULATOR
ASSEMBLY
BEARING
LOCKING
SCREWS
TESTING ASSEMBLY
2 Inspect and test the diodetrio assembly
a Using a commercial diode tester a l2volt DC test
lamp or an ohmmeter check the resistance between
each of the three diode terminals and the indicator
light stud see INDICATOR
LIGHT STUD
DIODETRIO ASSEMBLY
FRONT FRONT
BEARING HOUSING
FRONT HOUSING BEARING REMOVAL
MARINE POWER
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
b Reverse the tester leads and repeat the resistance NOTE If the rear rotor bearing needs replacement
checks replace the entire rotor
c A very low resistance should be indicated in one 6 Inspect the belt pulley for rough or badly worn belt
direction and a very high resistance should be indi grooves or keyway and for cracks or breaks Remove
cated in the other direction if the diodes are normal minor burrs and correct minor surface damage replace
d If any diode appears to be defective replace the a badly worn or damaged pulley
complete assembly Do not attempt to replace an
individual diode
3 Test the bridge as follows
a Using a commercial diode tester check for continu
ity from each of three terminals to the output termi
nal see GROUND RECTIFIER
TERMINAL DIODES
BRIDGE
b Reverse the tester leads and repeat Step a
c Continuity should exist in only one direction and all
diodes should check alike
d Perform the same continuity checks between the
three terminals and strap ground terminal This
should show continuity in only one direction
through the diodes and all diodes should check
alike
e If any diode appears to be defective replace the
ALTERNATOR BEARINGS
rectifier assembly
4 Clean and inspect the front and rear housings 7 Test the stator windings as follows
a Inspect the rear housing for cracks or breaks in the a Using an ohmmeter or test lamp check for continu
casting stripped threads or a damaged bearing bore ity between all three leads 1 2 and 3 A low ohm
Replace the housing if any of these conditions exist reading or lit test lamp should be observed see
b Inspect the front housing for cracks stripped or
LEADS
damaged threads in the adjusting ear or an outof
round bore in the mounting foot If possible
correct slightly damaged threads using a tap
Replace the housing if necessary
c If the housings are to be reused clean them in
solvent and dry with compressed air
5 Clean and inspect the rotor shaft bearings
NOTE Do not use a solvent on the rear rotor bearing
since it is serviced as a unit with the rotor
a The bearings should be wiped clean with a lintfree
cloth containing a moderate amount of commercial
solvent Do not immerse a bearing in solvent or STATOR WINDINGS
LAMINATIONS
use pressurized solvent or air
b Check the bearings for obvious damage looseness b Check the resistance from each lead 1 2 and 3 to
or rough rotation Replace a bearing if any doubt the laminations 4 There should be no continuity
exists as to its condition if the insulation is good
MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
c Inspect the stator windings for signs of e If the windings are defective or physical damage
A discolored winding should be replaced cannot be corrected replace the rotor assembly
d If a winding shows a high resistance or an open cir 9 Use a commercial capacitor checker to test the capaci
cuit between any two of the three winding terminals tor for capacity shorts leakage and series resistance
or indicates poor insulation between the windings
and the laminations the stator must be replaced
8 Check the rotor assembly as follows
NOTE If slip rings need to be replaced you must CAPACITOR
replace the entire rotor
ASSEMBLE ALTERNATOR
a Visually inspect for physical defects such as dam
aged shaft threads worn or damaged bearing areas 1 Carefully press the front bearing into the front housing
burned or pitted slip rings or scuffed pole fingers pushing against the bearings outer race using a bearing
see driver Lock the bearing in place with screws see
b Measure the winding resistance across the slip rings
A Place the ohmmeter leads on the edges of the
slip rings not on the brush contact surfaces The
cOITect winding resistance at 70 80 F 21
27 C is 41 to 47 ohms see c Minor burning or pitting of the slip ring surfaces
can be removed using a crocus cloth Thoroughly
wipe the slip rings clean after polishing removing
all grit and dust
d Check for a grounded slip ring or rotor winding by
measuring the resistance from each slip ring to the
rotor body or pole finger B An open circuit should
be indicated in both cases for a good rotor see illus
tration
FRONT BEARING INSTALLING BEARING RETAINERS
2 Place the rotor pulley end up on the bed of an arbor
press on two steel blocks
3 Press the front housing and bearing assembly down
onto the rotor shaft Press against the bearings inner
TESTING ROTOR race only using a sleeve driver Take care to insure that
the rotor leads clear the steel blocks see 85
MANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
STATOR
WINDING
SLEEVE DRIVER
INSTAWNG FRONT HOUSING ON ROTOR ASSEMBLY
4 Install the rectifier assembly into the rear housing
5 Insert the Phillips screw and tighten it see ASSEMBUNG
HOUSINGS
7 Install the spacer and the fan Then push the pulley
lockwasher and nut onto the shaft Turn the nut a few
turns FAN
INSTALLING RECTIFIER ASSEMBLY
6 Assemble the front and rear housings as follows
a Put the stator winding in the front housing with the
stator leads away from the front housing and the
notches in the stator laminations aligned with the
four throughbolt holes in the housing
h Align the scribe marks you made In the stator and PULLEY AND FAN COMPONENTS
front and rear housings during disassembly
c Slip the rear housing into place over the rotor shaft
Align the mounting holes and put the stator leads
through the holes at the top of the rear housing
d Install the four bolts and tighten them see
NOTE If the front housing is new the throughbolt
will not be tapped
MANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
8 Place an oversized Vbelt around the pulley and fasten INSTALL ALTERNATOR
the pulley in a vise see 1 Install the alternator screws and washers
2 Connect the wiring leads
3 Put the belt on the alternator crankshaft and coolant
pump pulleys
4 Adjust the alternator belts tension see DRIVE BELT
ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE JUMPER
INSTAWNG PULLEY AND FAN NUT
9 Use a torque wrench to tighten the nut
10 Carefully install the assembly on the
rear housing with the two mounting screws
11 Install the small terminal Install the large terminal Install the jumper
14 Install the nut on the terminal
TERMINAL
15 Install the assembly cover Install the Phillips screw for the ALTERNATDR
ASSEMBLY
assembly cover
17 Install the Install the terminal nuts MANDO ALTERNATOR Install the jumper
Battery Voltage 12 volt
20 Install the last terminal nut
Maximum Speed 13500 rpm
Cut In Speed Max 2000 rpm at Exc
Max 1500 rpm at L2
Reg Set Voltage 141 volts
Ambient Temperature 20C to 100C
Ground Negative
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR DC VOLTMETER 020 volt scale
The charging system consists of an alternator with a mount HYDROMETER Any commercial type having a
ed voltage regulator an engine DC wiring harness a mount temperature correction scale
ed DC circuit breaker and a battery and connection of the use of integrated circuits ICs the electronic
Storage regulator is very compact and is mounted internally The starting battery circuit supplies a continuous although
or on the back of the alternator variable electrical load to the alternator If the circuit
positive or negative is opened or broken while the alterna
It is desirable to test the charging system alternator and
tor is charging the loss of the battery will result in the
voltage regulator in the boat using the wiring harness and
charging voltage rising to unsafe levels
electrical loads that are a permanent part of the system In
boat testing will then provide the technician with an opera Battery Inspection
tional test of the charging system as well as the major com
The following table illustrates typical ranges of specific
ponents of the electrical system
gravity for a cell in various states of charge The CHECKS AND TESTS must be at least 75 offull charge for
effective alternator
starting the actual alternator and voltage procedures the charging system batteries and wiring
1260 SPECIFIC 1280 SPECIFIC CHARGE
should be checked to eliminate possible problem areas The GRAVITY BATTERY GRAVITY BATTERY checks are recommended
1260 Specific Gravity 1280 Specific Gravity 100 Charged
1230 Specific Gravity 1250 Specific Gravity 75 Charged
A WARNING A failed alternator can become 1200 Specific Gravity 1220 Specific Gravity 50 Charged
very hot Do not touch until the alternator has cooled 1170 Specific Gravity 1190 Specific Gravity 25 Charged
down 1140 Specific Gravity 1160 Specific Gravity Very Low Capacity
1110 Specific Gravity 1130 Specific Gravity Discharged
1 Make certain your alternator is securely mounted
2 Check the drive belt for proper tension Replace the After completing these preliminary checks and tests pro
belt if it is worn or glazed ceed with the tests as outlind in the Check that all terminals connectors and
plugs are clean GUIDE
and tight Loose or corroded connections cause high Cbecking for Proper Voltage
resistance and this could cause overcharging under
If you suspect the alternator has failed perform the follow
charging or damage to the charging system Badly cor
roded battery cables CQuld prevent the battery from ing tests with the engine off
reaching a fully charged condition 1 Using a voltmeter connect the voltmeter red wire clip
to the output terminal B
4 Check the condition of the battery and change if neces
sary A low or discharged battery may cause false or 2 Connect the voltmeter negative wire to any ground
misleading readings on the invessel tests on the engine
NOTE An isolator with a diode a solenoid or a bat 3 Check the battery voltage It should read 12 to 13 volts
tery selector switch is usually mounted in the circuit to 4 Check the voltage between the alternator positive
isolate the batteries so the starting battery is not dis terminal B and any engine ground If the circuit is
charged along with the house batteries If the isolator good the voltage at the alternator should be the same
is charging the starting battery but not the house bat as the battery unless theres an isolator in the circuit
tery the alternator is OK and the problem is in the then the reading would be zero
battery charging circuit
A CAUTION To avoid damage to the battery charg
A WARNING Shut off the engine battery switch or ing circuit never shut off the engine battery switch
disconnect from the battery when working on the when the engine is running
engine electrical system
Test Equipment Requirements
AWARNING Before starting the engine make cer
The alternator and regulator tests described in this section tain that everyone is clear of moving parts Keep
require electrical test equipment to measure voltage only away from sheaves and belts during test procedures
however most commercial test equipment incorporates
several testing devices in a single unit The following test
equipment will be necessary S Start the engine
PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
6 The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator
should be between 135 and 145 volts If your alterna 14 GRAY
tor is over or have it repaired at a reli
able service shop
NOTE Before removing the alternator for repair use your W 14 to ensure that 12 volts DC excitation is
present at 114 PINKBLUE
the R terminal if the previous test showed only battery volt
age at the B output DESCRIPTION Sb 10 RED
The stator is connected to a threephase fullwave package which contains six diodes The bridge
the AC generated in the stator to a DC output for charging and accessories such as radio
heater lights 51 depth sounder etc See the illustrations below
to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator is provided by the field diode
or diode trio pack 14 BROWN
age contained in the alternator i 10 RED
14 RED
The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 output is achieved at approximately 6000 at an ambient temperature of 75P 238C The alter
nator is designed to operate in an ambient temperature range
of 40 to 212P 40 to 100C To ensure proper cooling
of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alterna
tor it must be used with the proper cooling fan
0 B
14 PINKBLUE
EXCITE
14 PINKBLUE
REGULATOR
ICI GROUND Il 14 BROWN
a ACTAP
TACH
ALTERNATOR SENSE INTEGRAL REG OPTIONAL
72 AMP
ALTERNATOR
0 B CONNECTIONS
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
SENSE EXCITE
The integral voltage regulator is an electronic switching
device which senses the system voltage level and switches
the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain a proper
system voltage
REGULATOR The regulator design utilizes allsilicon semi conductors and
ICI GROUND
thickfilm assembly techniques After the voltage has been
adjusted to the proper regulating value the entire circuit is
encapsulated to protect the circuit and the components from
AC TAP possible damage due to handling or vibration and moisture
TACH encountered in a vessel
BATTERY SENSE INTEGRAL REG
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to TESTING a slightly higher voltage at low temperatures and a
AC TAP BACK
lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide for the TACH requirements of the battery under
these conditions
D INDICATOR
LIGHT TERM
INTEGRAL
REGULATOR GROUND
ALTERNATOR
12 VOLT 51 AMP SENSE
ffi 80
c W
E J ACTAP BACK
ct TACH COVER
60 3
II II
II 40 2 0
J 100
J II
D INDICATOR
LIGHT TERM
1000
V 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
GROUND SENSE
TO BATT
INTEGRAL
ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM REGULATOR
REMOTE
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVE BATTERY
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 750 F EXCITE SENSE
2380 C SAE TEST METHOD
ALTERNATOR TERMINAL GUIDE
PROBLEM PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION
A Battery undercharged 1 Defective cables dirty battery 1 Check clean repair or replace
Ammeter if used indicates posts corroded terminals etc as needed
constant discharge 2 Loose or broken belt 2 Check belt
Indicator lamp remains on 3 Worn or broken brushes 3 Replace brush assembly
4 Defective alternator system 4 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
section
B Battery undercharged 1 Indicator lamp burned out or 1 Check bulb and harness
Indicator lamp off with key defective wire harness
on and engine stopped 2 Broken brush 2 Replace brush assembly
Normal condition is lamp on 3 Defective alternator system 3 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
section
C Battery overcharges 1 Defective wire harness 1 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
Excessive use of water 2 Defective alternator system 2 Refer to LOCATING THE PROBLEM
Ammeter if used shows constant 3 Poor ground 3 Check ground
excessive charge 4 Broken sense lead remote battery 4 Check clean repair or replace as
Voltmeter indicates greater than sense only needed
145 volts connected across battery
with no load with engine idling
D Battery charges at idle but discharges 1 Slipping belt 1 Check belt and adjust tension or
under load conditions 2 Alternator defective replace as necessary
2 Disassemble check diodes
E Indicator lamp glows slightly under 1 Defective diodetrio 1 Remove and replace
moderate load battery appears
charged
Unlvarsal
MARINE POWER
PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR THE PROBLEM Test No2Open Regulator Test
NOTE The engine must be idling for all tests unless other NOTE This test requires the removal of the back cover of
wise specified the alternator To remove disconnect the wires from the
terminals extending through the back cover Remove the
A BATIERY UNDERCHARGED back cover two screws and reconnect all wires
1 Remove battery sense only With the ignition on and the engine not running and the
a Perform the Harness Voltage Test Test No3 jumper not attached check for battery voltage at terminal A
2 Indicator lamp on and terminal B The indicator light will be off Add
jumper JUI between the field and ground If 15 to 30
a Perform the Open DiodeTrio Test Test No1 volts is present at terminal B and the indicator light is on
3 Indicator lamp off ignition on and engine stopped an open defective regulator is indicated If the lamp is
a Perform Regulator Test Test No2 still not on an open field circuit brushes sliprings etc is
indicated and alternator repair is required
b If the regulator is OK the cause is probably an
AC TAP TACH
open field circuit and the alternator must be
removed for repair
4 Further investigation requires alternator removal and
repair diodes
B BATTERY OVERCHARGED
1 Regulator shorted replace Tests
Test No 1Open DiodeTrio Test Ivoas I
With the ignition on and the engine not running and the BLK
jumper not attached no electrical load check for at terminal A and for 15 to 30 volts at terminal B RED
STEP TEST PDIN jumper JUI between terminals A and B Start the r 1 A B BAmRY
VOlJAGE
J 2 B REG BATIERY VOlJAGE WITH
engine and run at idle If the indicator lamp now goes off r IND LIGHT OFF
BATIERY
and charging voltage is present at terminal A the diodetrio 1L JUMPER ATIACHED 15 TO
is probably open defective and the alternator should be 3 B 0 30 voas IND LIGHT ON
REMaTE BATT
SENSE ONLY
removed for repair JUMPER NaT ATIACHED
IGN IND REGULATOR TEST BACK COVER REMOVED
SW LIGHT
Test No3Harness Voltage Test remove battery sense
only
Remove the harness sense lead from the sense terminal and
connect the voltmeter leads as shown in the The
voltmeter should indicate the battery voltage approx
126 volts for a fully charged battery with the ignition key
off If the voltage is zero the hardness sense lead is
I I
voas
EXCITE
TO IGN SW OR
Oil PRESS SW
open and should be repaired or replaced
RED STEP TEST POIN INDICATION
1 A B BATTERY VOlJAGE INTEGRAL
REGULATOR
C Z B REG 15 TO 30 VOIlS WITH
IND LIGHT ON BATIERY
t 3 A B
135 TO 150 VOIlS IND
UGHT OFF JUMPER
ATIACHED ENGINE IDLING
REMaTE BATI
SENSE ONLY
I I
voas
EXCITE
TO IGN SN OR
Oil PRESS SW
JUMPER NOT ATIACHED 8LK
OPEN DIODETRIO TEST RED
REMOTE 8ATIERY SENSE ONLY
BATIERY
CABLE HARNESS VOLTAGE TEST
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
Test Output Test
NO LOW NOISY
After the voltmeter is connected as shown in the illustra ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR
OUTPUT OUTPUT
tion start and run the engine at a fast idle of approximately t t t
1500 rpm Check for a nominal system output voltage of DEFECTIVE DEFECTIVE LOOSE DRIVE
REGULATOR PULLEY
between 138148 volts for a properly operating charging REGULATOR
system Voltages may vary a few tenths of a volt higher t CRACKED OR
or lower due to ambient temperature variations DEFECTIVE WORN
DAMAGED
BRUSHES BRUSHES
HOUSING
If the alternator output voltage does not fall within the t t
proper range the alternator should be disassembled for fur OPEN GROUNDEDI
FIELD SHORTED WORN
ther inspection and tests DIODE ROTOR WINDINGS BEARINGS
IGN INO
t t t
GROUNDEDI SHORTED
sw UGHT
At TAP TACH
OPEN
SHORTED RECTIFIER
ROTOR
STATOR WINDINGS DIODE
t t
SHORTEDOPEN SHORTED OR
RECTIFIER DIODE GROUNDED STATOR
WINDINGS
INTEGRAL ALTERNATOR DIAGRAM
REGULATOR I ALTERNATOR DISASSEMBLY TESTING
BlK 1 Detach the back cover
RED PDS OUTPUT Remove the nuts from the terminals Remove the two
138 TO 148V screws that secure the back cover to the rear housing
BATTERY
REMOTE BATTERY SENSE ONLY
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST
ALTERNATOR REPAIR PROCEDURE
The following instructions provide a general overall proce
dure for the complete disassembly of an alternator
However it should be pointed out that following the com
plete procedure whenever a repair is necessary will seldom
if ever be required In cases where the causes of the mal
function are known it will only be necessary to follow that BACK COVER
MOUNTING SCREWS 2
portion of the procedure directly related to resolving the
problem Similarly when the reasons for the malfunction REMOVING BACK COVER
are uncertain it will be necessary to follow the procedure
in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem
The following diagram should help identify
some of the more common problems encountered during
the 92
PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
2 Remove the brush holder 4 Remove the integral voltage regulator
Remove the two locknuts securing the brush holder Remove the two screws securing the integral voltage
Pull out the brush holder see regulator to the rear housing
BRUSHOLDER
MOUNTING REGULATOR
LOCKNUTS 2 MOUNTING
SCREWS 2
REMOVING BRUSH HOLDER REMOVING VOLTAGE REGULATOR
5 Remove the diodetrio field diode and rectifier
3 Inspect and test the brush assembly diode bridge
The illustration below shows the terminals brush The diodetrio and rectifier diode bridge are detached
arrangement and testing procedure The original brush as an assembly Remove the cone lockout from the
set may be reused if the brushes are 316 in 5 mm or positive output B terminal Straighten the B strap
longer and if the brushes are not oil soaked cracked or Remove the three terminal screws and the four diode
show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes trio mounting screws Detach the assembly from the
caused by vibration rear housing and separate the diodetrio assembly from
the rectifier bridge see RECTIFIER 1
BRIDGE
TEST
CONTINUITY CONE
FROM A TO B
FROM C TO D LOCKNUT
TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC AND B
TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER NO CIRCUIT STRAP
FROM A OR B
TO C OR D
BRUSH TEST
REMOVING DIODETRIO AND
RECfIFIER DIODE BRiDGE
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
6 Test the diodetrio assembly 8 Separate the statorrear housing assembly from the
Using a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test front housing
lamp check for continuity from each terminal separate Remove the four thrubolts see ly to the D stud continuity should be observed in
one Carefully insert two screwdriver blades in opposite
direction polarity only and all diodes should check openings between the stator and the front housing as
alike If any diode is defective replace the entire diode shown in the illustration Pry the units apart
trio assembly See COMMERCIAL
DIODE TESTER
A CAUTION Do not insert the screwdriver
blades deeper than 116 in 15 mm to avoid
damaging the stator winding
THROUGH
BOLTS 4
0 STUD
i IND UGHT TERMINAL
TESTING Test the diode rectifier bridge assembly
Using a commercial diode tester check for continuity
Check between point A and each of the three terminals
C for negative diodes Continuity should be observed THRUBOLT REMOVAL
in one direction polarity only and all diodes should
check alike Then check between point B B strap
and each of three terminals C for positive diodes SCREWDRIVER BLADES
Continuity should be observed in one direction only AT OPPOSITE OPENINGS
and all diodes should check alike see If any diode is defective replace the entire diode rectifi
er bridge CAUTION DO NOT
INSERT BLADE OF
e e SCREWDRIVER MORE
THAN 116 15 mm
Q 9 STATORREAR HOUSING SEPARATION
9 Inspect the rear housing
Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken
casting stripped threads or evidence of severe wear
in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing
TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE If the casting is to be reused clean it in solvent dry with
compressed air and install a new rear bearing retainer if
the retainer is damaged
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
10 Test the stator 12 Separate the rotor from the front housing
The stator assembly consists of three individual wind Position the front housing on support blocks placed on
ings terminated in the delta type connections Using an arbor press Push the rotor assembly from the
an ohmmeter or a test lamp check for winding continu housing see ity between terminals A Band C There should be no
continuity from any terminal to point D Also stators showing any signs of winding should be discarded see
C
SEPARATING ROTOR
STATOR WINDING TESTS FROM FRONT HOUSING
11 Remove the pulley fan and spacer 13 Remove the front bearing from the housing
The pulley is a slipfit on the rotor shaft positioned with Remove the three bearing retainer screws Position the
a woodruff key Remove the nut and lockwasher from housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press
the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool Using a tool that contacts the inner race of the bearing
After the nut and lockwasher are removed the alternator press out the front bearing see can be separated from the pulley
The fan will slide over the key The key may be remove
ed with diagonal pliers or with a screwdriver OL BEARING RETAINER
SCREWS 3
Inspect the fan for cracked or broken fins and note the
condition of the mounting hole If it is worn from run FRONT
HOUSING
ning loose replace the fan to insure balance
Inspect the pulley for possible faults as shown in the
REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS
PULLEY REMOVAL
FRONT
CHECK FOR WORN
HOUSING
DRIVE SURFACES HUB
CHECK FOR POLISHED
SURFACE HERE
NOTE CONDITION OF KEY GROOVE to
CHECK BORE
FOR WEAR
BEARING INNER RACE
PRESSING OUT BEARING
PULLEY INSPECTION POINTS
Univarsal
YL 95
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
14 Inspect the front housing D Rotor shaft and pole pieces
Check the housing for cracks Check the condition of 1 Stripped threads on shaft
the threads in the adjusting ear Check the bore in the 2 Worn key slot
mounting foot Discard the housing if the bore shows
signs of elongation oval or 3 Worn bearing surface
15 Rotor inspection electrical testing 4 Scuffed pole fingers
Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical 5 Worn or dry rear bearing
properties see Replace the rotor assembly if any of the above faults
A Current draw or resistance of the winding are noted with the exception of item DS
NOTE New rotors include a new rear bearing and new
slip rings as part of the assembly If the rear bearing
A CAUTION Turn off the DC power source requires replacement follow the instructions for this
before removing the test leads to avoid avc dam operation
age to the slip ring surfaces 16 Remove the slip rings from the rotor assembly
Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals
1 Current Draw in amperes at 7080F Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil leads from
2127C the slip ring terminals as shown in the 12 Volt Models Correct Current
Draw
Rated At 150V REMOVE ALL RESIDUE
FROM BETWEEN
51 Amperes 3236 Amperes SLIP RINGS
2 Resistance of winding in Ohms at 7080F
2127C UNSOLDER 12 Volt Models Correct Winding
CAUTION DO NOT
Rated At Resistance OVERHEAT
51 Amperes 4147 Ohm UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS
POLE FINGERS
BEARING
Straighten the rotor leads Insert a No 10 x 1 cap
screw into the opening at the center of the slip ring
AREA
assembly Position the bearing puller as shown in the
KEY SLOT
illustration and pull the slip ring assembly off the rotor
shaft
TEST CURRENT SHAFT THREADS
A CAUTION When holding the rear end of the
DRAW OR RESISTANCE rotor shaft in a vise be sure not to grip the bear
BEWEEN RINGS NOTE PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES ing area of the rotor shaft
OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING
LRCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES
STRAIGHTEN NO 10 X 1
ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING CAP SCREW
ROTOR LEADS
B Grounded slip ring or winding
Use a 12 volt DC test amp ohmmeter or nov AC
test lamp Place one test lead to the rotor body and
the other on either slip ring An open circuit from
either slip ring to the rotor body is a correct
condition
C Condition of the slip rings
1 Clean the brush contacting surfaces with a fine
crocus cloth wipe the dust and residue away
2 If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration REMOVING SLIP RING ASSY
replace the entire rotor assembly
PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
17 Remove the rear bearing from the rotor 2 Install the slip ring assembly
Dress the rotor leads away from the bearing puller con Guide the rotor leads through one of the oval passages
tact area Adjust the puller to contact the inner bearing in the slip ring assembly Be sure the oval passage is
race then carefully remove the bearing from the shaft in line with the groove in the rotor shaft Place the
see rotor on a press as shown in the illustration Choose a
This completes the disassembly of the alternator driver sleeve having a diameter that clears the leads
Press the slip ring assembly onto the shaft Solder the
rotor leads to the leads on the slip ring Trim excess
slip ring leads extending above the solder PRESS
SLIP RING
ASSEMBLY
REMOVING REAR reassembly sequence generally is the reverse of the
order of disassembly therefore only information pertaining
to special reassembly requirements will be covered in Install the rear bearing
INSTALLING SLIP RING ASSEMBLY
Place the rotor on a press as shown in the Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure on the inner 3 Install the front bearing
race only and press the bearing onto the rotor shaft
Place the front bearing and housing in an arbor press as
until it contacts the shoulder New replacement bear
shown in the illustration Select a drive tool to contact
ings should be used whenever the bearing is removed
the outer race only and press the bearing into the
during repair procedures or when the bearing is rough
housing bore Bearing replacement is recommended
dry or noisy
whenever a bearing is removed during alternator repair
procedures or when the bearing is rough dry or noisy
REAR Install three bearing retainer screws Torque to 2530
BEARING ftlbs 339407 Nm
ROTOR PRESS
DRIVER TOOL
CONTACTS
OUTER BEARING
RACE ONLY
FRONT
BEARING
FRONT
HOUSING
INSTALLING REAR BEARING
INSTALLING FRONT BEARING
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
4 Assemble the rotor and front housing compound to the back of the diode rectifier bridge and
Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press using two to the mating area on the rear housing
steel blocks for support as shown in the illustration Install the assembly to the rear housing four screws
Place the front housing over the shaft Using a driver Place the strap AC tap in position and connect the
sleeve that contacts the inner bearing race only press stator leads three screws
the front housing down until the inner bearing race Install the capacitor where applicable
contacts the shoulder on the shaft
8 Install the integral regulator
Install the brush mounting screws two though the
A CAUTION Be sure the rotor leads clear the openings in the regulator body Secure the regulator to
blocks the rear housing two screws
9 Install the brush assembly
Insert the brush holder into the grooves in the hub of
the rear housing Place the D strap or male terminal
where applicable on the stud and secure the brush
holder with locknuts two places Secure the other
FRONT end of the D strap
HOUSING
10 Install the rear cover
Be sure the felt gasket is in place see Position the rear cover on the rear
housing and secure
it with two screws
ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO ROTOR
5 Assemble the spacer fan and pulley
FELT
Place the pulley spacer over the shaft Install the GASKET
woodruff key Install the fan Install the pulley lock
washer and nut Mount the pulley as shown in the illus
tration and tighten to 3550 ftIbs 475678 Nm
Spin the rotor by hand to test the freedom of the
bearing INSTALLING REAR COVER
6 Assemble the front and rear housings
Place the stator into the front housing with the stator ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS
leads at the top and the notches in the laminations
aligned with the bolt holes Position the rear housing The following tests will determine the current producing
over the slip rings with the housing bolt holes aligned capability of the repaired alternator Mount the alternator
and the stator leads extending through the openings at in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator rpm
the top of the rear housing Select the required battery voltage and circuit polarity
Install the throughbolts and tighten them evenly to Tum the drive motor on and adjust to obtain 5000 alterna
5060 inIbs 5768 Nm Spin the rotor by hand to tor rpm Slowly reduce the field rheostat resistance the
test the freedom of the bearings alternator should develop a charge Continue to reduce
resistance until the alternator reaches its rated current out
NOTE New front housings contain throughbolt holes put in amperes CAUTION Limit the output voltage to
that are not tapped Therefore a socket wrench rather 15V maximum DO NOT operate the alternator for more
that a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient than a few minutes in this manner due to the lack of volt
torque to drive the thread forming age controL If the alternator will deliver its rated output
7 Install the diode rectifier bridge and diode trio end the test
Insert the B strap through the slot in the diode trio Connect the fixture leads and instruments to the alternator
body Bend the strap over the B terminal and secure terminals as shown in the following it with a cone locknut Apply a thin film of heat
sink TOR PERFORMANCE TEST diagram
Univarsal
MARINE POWER
PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
The carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must
0 AC TAP TACH
be capable of handling the alternators rated output at rated
A CAUTION Make sure the connections are well
secured and tight to avoid possible damage to the
instruments alternator or wiring due to short circuits
EXCITE
TO IGNSW OR
Starting with the carbon pile off slowly increase the load OIL PRESS SW
while observing the ammeter and maintaining 5000 rpm
Increase the load until a minimum output voltage 137 volts is obtained Record the at this point and refer to the chart for minimum RED
POS ratings
REMOTE BAIT
MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT SENSE ONLY
VALUES AT 70 80F 21 27 C
RATING OUTPUT TYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TEST
51 AMP 46 AMP
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING DIAGRAM 39144
II A GRA
These diagrams illustrate the 12 volt negative ground
1 JNt
electrical circuit The Iwo optional instrument panels
the CAPTAIN PANEL and the ADMIRAL PANEL are
diagramed below
When an ADMIRAL PANEL is installed two additional
instrument senders are assembled to the engine 10
provide data for the panel gauges refer to the illustra
tions below
II 1 1
1u5l
allIlli
REMOVE THE PLUG
AND INSTALL
THE SENDER
ADMIRAL
PANEL
1 AO I
CAPTAIN
PANEL
NOTE An onoff switch
should be installed in this
circuit to disconnect the
starter from the battery in
an emergency and when
1 leaving the boat Twelve
01 1
volt diesel engine starters
typically draw 200 to 300
I amps when cranking A
I switch with a continuous
1 rating of 175 amps at 12
VDC will normally serve
this function but a switch
e must never be used to
l Lj
make the starter circuit
UnivQrsal
Jiii 100
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING SCHEMATIC 39144
STARTER f
iUiJi
I 2iS2
FUEl 1lItlil
I I
208 c 1
SENDU
s S GNO
VOLTMETeR
CJ ALARM
GAUGE
ADMIRAL
PANE L
MITSUBISHI
50 AMP AIT
NOTE An onoff switch
NOTE
should be installed in this
WRE roll AnERY
ATTACNN1iIT WILL
circuit to disconnect the
NEtO TO Bt UGRAOD
TO AN a GAUGE rROM
10 from the battery in
an emergency and when
leaving the boat Twelve
volt diesel engine draw 200 to 300 E
amps when cranking A 90 AMP ALT
switch with a of 175 amps at 12
II LT BlU
VDC will normally serve CAPTAIN I PI
this function but a switch PANEL
must never be used to
make the starter circuit
51 MP I TERNAIQR
STANDARD ALTERNATOR ON THE
6lS Cl 6lC 01 716 01 B26 01
1088 lZJ 10BC JZ o PRESTQI ITE 72 AMP AI T
t 14 SRN
4 GRA
I 4 PINK
114 IT S
0UN IVERSAI PRQPlll S IQN
PRESIQI I TE 51 AMP AI T
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING DIAGRAM 200360 CATALINA YACHTS
110 RED 51A
1FT PUMPS
OIL PRESS CL
BATTERY SWITCH
rnKH
r
210
L BATTERY CIRCUIT
BREAKER
4 9
An onoff switch should be installed between the battery and c
the starter to disconnect the battery in an emergency and
when leaving the boat A switch with a continuous rating of
175 amps at 12 volts will serve the function This switch
should not be used to make or break this circuit
114 GRA
u Q
z
u
u
t GRA
NOT USEO tI PINK
co co
III BRN
0 0
0 110 RED
u Z Z
Z 0
Z 0 0
Z E i
Il 0 RED
t 14 BRN
0
U
pRESTOI ITE 12 AMP ALT
0 0
0 AI TERNATOR
51A MANOO
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
WIRING SCHEMATIC 200360 CATALINA YACHTS
STARTER
12 VDC SOLENOID
r STARTER
I I
I I
PREHEAT
SOLENOID
r GLOWPLUGS
II I I
RESISTOR
IK 112W
AL TERNATOR
OUTPUT
5r il rJ
0 col
C I
LIFT PUMP
WATER TEMP
o CJ
WATER TEMP
SWITCH
rHIH
I I
TO THE B TO THE TO THES TO THE I TO THE TO THE P TO THES TO THE S TO THE C TO THE TACH
TERN OF START TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF TERN OF GROUND
KETSITCH SWITCH KETSWITCH KETSITCH THE ALARN THE ALARN THE TACH T GUAGE THE ALARN
BUllER BUZZER BUZZER
HURTH HBW gearbox of the HURTH Model HBWS02R is A Caution The position of the mechanism with a positively driven
mechanically operated helical the actuating lever is to ensure equal
gearing system The multipledisc clutch requires actuating lever travel from Neutral position N to Reverse
only minimum effort for gear changing making this transmission position A and Forward position B If this mechanism is
suitable for singlelever remote control via rod linkage or a in any way tampered with the transmission warranty will
Bowden cable This transmission permits direct reversing at full be void
engine speed important in an torque transmission capacity of the clutch is exactly rated The control cable or rod should be arranged at
a right angle to
preventing shock loads from exceeding a predetermined value and the actuating lever when in the neutral position The neutral posi
thus insuring maximum protection of the engine The gearbox tion of the shift lever on the control console should coincide with
casting is made of a highstrength aluminum the neutral position of the actuating lever
alloy chromized for improved sea water resistance and optimum
The shifting travel as melSured at the pivot points of the of paint The shafts are supported by heavy duty taper
ing lever between the neutral position and end positions A and B
roller bearings and the gearbox is designed to take the axial pro
should be at least 35 mm for the outer pivot point and 30 mm for
peller thrust The rotation of the input shaft is righthand R
the inner pivot point
This transmission is characterized by low weight and small over
A greater amount of shift lever travel is in no way detrimental and
all dimensions A high efficiency rating and lownoise operation
is recommended However if the lever travel is shorter proper
are other prominent features The transmission is immersion
clutch engagement might be impeded which in turn would Maintenance is restricted to oil level checks
premature wear excessive heat generation and clutch plate operation maintenance and informa This would be indicated by slow clutch
engagement or no engage
tion for this transmission is included in the following instructions ment at all
NOTE Check for proper actuating lever travel at least season
NOTE When installing the transmission make certain that shift NEUTRAL
ing is not impeded by restricted movability of the cable or rod N
linkage by unsuitably positioned guide sheaves too small a bend
ing radius or other restrictions In order to mount a support for
shift control cable connections use the two threaded holes located
above the cable bracket mounted on the gear housing Refer to
the UNIVERSAL Parts List
Shaft recommends a flexible connection between and the propeller shaft if the engine is in order to compensate for angular deflections of a
special propeller thrust bearing is not the propeller thrust will be absorbed by the provided the value specified under is
not exceeded However the output shaft should be additional loads Special care should be taken to prevent tor
sional vibration When using a universal joint shaft make certain
to observe the with the engine solidly mounted the use of a flexible cou
pling or DRIVESAVER will reduce stress in the gearbox by hull distortions especially in wooden boats or where
ACTUATING
the distance between the transmission output flange and the stern LEVER
gland is less than about 32 in 812 mm COVER
Shift Control and Actuating Lever
The transmission is suitable for single lever remote control the retaining screw the actuating lever can be moved to
LO02 in 05 mm
I MINIMUM DISTANCE
any position required for the shift control cable or rod certain that the actuating lever does not contact the actuat
ing lever cover plate the minimum distance between lever and
cover should be 002 in OS mm see is a product of Globe Marine Rockland MA
AJlnivanai MARINE POWER
HURTH HBW OPERATION LOCKING THE PROPELLER
All HBW maine transmissions are testrun on a test stand with the Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not
engine at the factory prior to delivery For safety reasons the fluid required use the gear shift lever position opposite your direction
is drained before shipment of travel for this purpose Never put the gear shift in the position
Fill the gearbox with Automatic Transmission Fluid DEXTRON corresponding to the direction of travel of the boat
Ill The fluid level should be up to the index mark on the dip
stick To check the fluid level just insert the dipstick do not WHEN UNDER SAIL OR BEING TOWED
screw it in Screw the dipstick into the case after the fluid level is Rotation of the propeller without a load such as when the boat is
checked and tighten Do not forget the sealing ring under the being sailed being towed or anchored in a river as well as of the dipstick
Check for leaks and make a visual tion of the engine with the propeller stopped for charging the of the coupling and shift cables
tery will have no detrimental effects on the DIPSTICK DAILY
OPERAnON
D Check the transmission fluid level
D sually check the gear shift linkage and ISSION
D Start the engine in neutral allowing a few minutes at idle to
OPERATING warm the fluid
D Shift into gear
NOTE Too low an idle speed will produce a chattering noise
from the transmission gear and damper plate In such cases the
idle speed should be increased
For additional information refer to the following text in this
FlUID LEVEL
Transmission section SHAff COUPliNGS MAINTENANCE
and TRANSMISSION Operating CHANGE
A WARNING if the transmission fluid temperature is
too high stop the engine immediately and check the
Change the fluid for the first time after about 25 hours of opera transmission fluid
tion then every 300 operating hours or at winterizing
Normal operating temperature of the transmission fluid should be
Removing the Fluid in the range of 1220 F 500 C to 2120 F 1000 C A maximum
temperature of 2660 F 1300 C may be only reached for a short
Push a suction pump hose down through the dipstick hole to the time
bottom of the housing and suck out the fluid If space allows use
the transmission drain Remove the drain plug from the bottom Make certain there is enough space around the transmission to
of the transmission and allow the fluid to drain mto a container provide good ventilation and cooling
then reinstall the plug with its sealing washer Wipe down and properly dispose of the used fluid After running engine shut down and recheck
the fluid level
plug torque 20 25 Mb 277 346 Nm
General HURTH HBW5D2R Standard When changing the fluid take care not to lose the drain case
hardened helical gears with a servo
plug sealing washer The drain plug will leak without this sealing operated multiple disc
Gear Ratio optional 2051
Lubricating Ruid ATF type A or DEXTRON I or III
A WARNING Never pull out the dipstick while the Transmission Sump 037 qts 035 liters
engine is running Hot fluid will splash from the dipstick Capacity
hole This could cause sever burns
Propeller Shaft Right handstandard transmission
Direction of Rotation
JJnlvarsal
HURTH HBW maintenance is minimal Keep the exterior check the fluid level as part of your regular routine and
change the fluid every 300 operating inspect the transmission for leaks and the cable requires special care Follow these procedures
o Clean up the transmission and touch up unpainted areas use
heat resistant paint
o Fill the transmission with Dextron III ATF fluid to prevent
internal corrosion extended storage only twelve months or
more
o Loosen attaching hardware from the transmission output
flange and propeller shaft coupling flange before removing the
boat from the water Separate the flanges and spray with
lubricant
o Inspect the gear shift cable linkage and attachments Look
for corrosion of the end fittings cracks or cuts in the conduit
and bending of the cable rods Lubricate all moving parts
NOTE If the transmission is to be stored for a long time
twelve months or more it should be topped off with fluid to
prevent internal corrosion Reduce the fluid level before put
ting the engine back into service
For additional information contact
HURTH MARINE GEAR
ZF Industries
Marine US Headquarters
3131 SW 42nd Street
Fort Lauderdale FL 33312
Tel Fax 106
HURTH HBW TRANSMISSION CABLES A new cable and perhaps a new linkage mechanism may
be need
ed While the cable is loose shift the transmission in and out of
The majority of transmission difficulties arise as a result of prob gear using the actuating lever on the side of the transmission to
lems with control cables rather than from problems with the trans make sure theres no binding inside the case
mission itself
If the transmission passes these tests crank the engine and have a
If you experience operating problems with the transmission shut
helper put it in forward and reverse while you observe the pro
the engine down First check the transmission fluid level then peller shaft if the shaft isnt turning the transmission needs pro
have a helper move the cockpit shift lever through the full range fessional attention If it does tum but theres no thrust check to
from neutral to full forward back to neutral into full reverse see if you still have a propeller on the end of the shaft or if you
and back to neutral while you observe the actuating lever on have a folding or feathering propeller that it isnt stuck in the no
the transmission If the remote is stiff to operate break the cable pitch at the transmission and try again If it is still stiff check
cable for kinks or excessively tight bends and check any linkage NOTE Ifyou suspect a major problem in your binding
immediately contact your UNIVERSAL dealer or an authorized
marine transmission facility
Problem Probable Cause Remedy
Transmission gears cannot 1 Actuating lever is loose 1 Tighten damping bolt on actuating lever
be shifted Fails to move 2 Shifting cable is broken bent or unattached 2 Check the cable reattach or replace
into gear Cable radius is too severe
3 Actuating lever is binding against cover 3 Detach the shift cable and operate the actuating lever by
plate hand Clearance should be 002 in 05 mm
Transmission shifts into 1 Output coupling is not tuming 1 Transmission needs professional attention
gear but fails to propel 2 Propeller shaft is not turning Output 2 The coupling bolts are sheared or the coupling is Slipping
the boat coupling is turning on the propeller shaft Tighten or replace set screws keys
pins and coupling bolts as necessary
3 Output coupling and propeller shaft are 3 Inspect the propeller it may be missing or damaged A
both turning folding propeller may be jammed Avariable pitch propeller
may be in no pitch position
Delay of gear engagement 1 Actuating lever travel Nto Bnot equal to 1 Adjust cover plate until the lever is exact mid position
or engages only after an Nto A Refer to diagram Refer to actuating lever text and diagram
increase in speed 2 Actuating lever travel is insufficient 2 Check actuating lever cable length Refer to lever diagram
3 Actuating lever is binding against cover plate 3 Check clearance adjust if necessary
Chattering transmission 1 The engine or propeller generates torsional 1 Mount aflexible coupling with another stiffness factor
noise mainly at low engine vibrations in the drive unit which produces between the transmission coupling and the driveshaft A
speed a chattering noise in the transmission higher stiffness factor might be sufficient
2 Inspect the damper plate between the engine and the
transmission Replace if necessary
Transmission noise becomes 1 Damage starting on flexible coupling due to 1 Check alignment inspect flexible coupling If noise
louder wear or fatigue possibly due to misalign persists inspect the damper plate between the trans
ment between engine and the drive shaft mission and the engine Replace if necessary
2 Beginning damage of bearings in trans 2 Transmission needs professional attention
mission due to torsional vibrations running
without fluid overload wrong alignment
of transmission or excessive engine output
Boat fails to attain specified 1 Operating temperature is high 1 Wrong type of fluid use ATF type A or DEXTRON I or III
max speed Check fluid level
Oil leakage 1 Corrosion at radial sealing ring and shaft 1 Transmission needs professional attention
Damaged sealing ring
2 Misalignment of output flanges 2 Check alignment Must be within 0003 in 008 mm
SPECIAL TOOLS
The special tools shown in this section are not provided Use Crankshaft Bearing No1 Replacing Tool
the following plans and for field fabrication
Application Use to press out and to press fit the crank
Valve Guide Replacing Tool shaft bearing Use to press out and to press fit the valve A 512 in
130 mm
guide
B 256 in 65 mm
A 079 in dia 20 mm dia C 157 in radius 40 mm radius
B 03921 03929 in dia 996 998 mm dia D 039 in 10 mm
C 0216 0224 in dia 55 57 mm dia E 087 in 22 mm
D 787 in 200 mm F 079 in dia 20 mm dia
E 315 in 80 mm G 1728 1730 in dia 4390 4395 mm dia
F 158 in 40 mm H 1570 1572 in dia 3990 3995 mm dia
G 059 in dia15 mm dia C1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mm
H 0197 in 5 mm C2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 dia
I 0236 0240 in dia 60 61 mm dia CO3 Chamfer 0012 in 03 mm
J 071 in dia 18 mm dia
K 0417 0421 in dia 106 107 mm dia
L 0276 in 7 mm
C1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mm
C2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mm
CO3 Chamfer 0012 in 03 mm
SPECIAL Rod Small End Bushing Tool Idler gear Bushing Replacing Use to press out and to press fit the connect
Application Use to press out and to press fit the idler gear
ing rod small end bushing bushing
A 571 in 145 mm A 591 in 150 mm
B 098 in 25 mm B 118 in 30 mm
C 079 in 20 mm C 079 in 20 mm
D 098 in dia25 mm dia D 098 in dia25 mm dia
E 0862 0864 in dia 2190 2195 mm dia E 0862 0864 in dia 2190 2195 mm dia
F 0783 0785 in dia 1990 1995 mm dia F 0783 0785 in dia 1990 1995 mm dia
C1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mm C1 Chamfer 0039 in 10 mm
C2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mm C2 Chamfer 0079 in 20 mm
C3 Chamfer 0118 in 30 mm CO3 Chamfer 0012 in 03 mm
C4 Chamfer 0157 in 40 mm A
A B C
B C
D
Ell H
TORQUES
NOTE Screws bolts and nuts must be tightened to the specified torque using a
torque wrench Some screws bolts and nuts such as those used on the cylin
der head must be tightened in a certain sequence and at the proper Torques for Specific Engine marked screws bolts and nuts in the table apply
engine oil to their threads and seats before tightening
COMPONENT SIZE x PITCH ftIb kgm Nm
Cylinder head cover cap nuts M6 x 10 29 43 04 06 39 59
Cylinder head bolts M8 x 125 289 325 40 45 392 441
Main bearing case bolts 1 M6 x 10 94 116 13 16 127 157
Main bearing case bolts 2 M7 x 10 195 224 27 31 265 304
Flywheel bolts M10 x 125 398 434 55 60 539 588
Connecting rod bolts M7 x 075 195 224 27 31 265 304
Rocker arm bracket nuts M6 x 10 723 832 100 115 981 1128
Idler gear shaft bolts M6 x 10 723 832 100115 981 1128
Crankshaft end bolt M14 x 15 868 940 120 130 1177 1275
Bearing case cover screws M6 x 15 72 83 100115 98 112
Glow plugs M8 x 10 58 108 08 15 78 147
Nozzle holder assembly M20 x 15 362 506 50 70 490 686
Oil switch taper screw PT 18 108 145 15 20 147 196
Injection line retaining nuts M12 x 15 181 253 25 35 245 343
Starters terminal B mounting nut M8 65 87 09 12 88 118
Apply engine oil to threads and seats before Torques for General
Use Screws Bolts and Nuts
When the tightening torques are not specified tighten the
screws bolts and nuts according to the following table
STANDARD SCREW AND BOLT SPECIAL SCREW AND BOLT
NOMINAL
DIAMETER GRADE GRADEj
ftIb kgm Nm ftIb kgm Nm
M6 58 69 08 095 79 93 723 832 10115 98 113
M8 130 152 18 21 177 206 174 203 24 28 235 275
M10 289 333 40 46 392 451 354 412 49 57 481 559
M12 463 535 64 74 628 726 571 665 79 92 775 902
Screw and bolt material grades are shown by on the screw and bolt heads Prior to sure to check the numbers as shown below
Punched Number Screw and Bolt Material Grade
None or 4 Standard screw and bolt SS41 s20C
7 Special screw and bolt S43C S48C 110
STANDARD HARDWARE
BOLT HEAD MARKINGS
Metric bolt class numbers identify bolts by their strength with 109 the
1 Use the torque values listed below when specific torque values are not available
2 These torques are based on clean dry threads Reduce torque by 10 when engine oil is used
3 Reduce torques by 30 or more when threading capscrews into aluminum
STANDARD BOLT NUT TORQUE METRIC BOLT NUT TORQUE SAE Grade 5 SAE
Grade 67 SAE Grade 8
Capsrew Body Size Toltlue Toltlua Tltlua Bolt Grade 46 Grade 48 Grade 88 98 Grade
Inches Thread RUJ Nm RUJ Nm RlbNm OIa Wrench Size RUJ Nm FtUJ Nm FtUJ Nm FtUJ Nm
1420 8 11 10 14 12 16
28 10 14 14 19 M3 55mm 03 05 05 07 1 13 15 2
M4 7mm 08 11 1 15 2 3 3 45
511618 17 23 19 26 24 33 M5 8mm 15 25 2 3 45 6 65 9
24 19 26 27 37
318 16 31 42 3446 44 60 M8 10mm 3 4 4 55 75 10 11 15
24 35 47 49 66 M9 13mm 7 95 10 13 18 25 35 26
716 14 49 66 55 15 70 95 Ml0 16mm 14 19 18 25 37 50 55 75
20 55 15 78 106
112 13 75 102 85 115 105 142 M12 18 mm 26 35 33 45 63 85 97 130
20 85 115 120 163 M14 21 mm 37 50 55 15 103 140 151 205
M16 24mm 59 80 85 115 159 215 232 315
911612 110 149 120 163 155 210
18 120 163 170 231
M18 27mm 81 110 118160 225 305 321 435
51811 150 203 167 226 210 285 M20 30mm 118 160 166 225 321 435 457 620
18 170 231 240 325 M22 33mm 159 215 225 305 435 590 620 840
31410 270 366 280 380 375 50B
16 295 400 421f569 M24 36mm 203275 288 390 553 750 789 1070
M27 41 mm 295 400 417 565 811 1100 1154 1565
78 9 395 536 440 597 605 820 M30 46mm 402 545 568 170 1103 1495 1571 2130
14 435 590 675 915
1 8 590 800 660 895 910 1234 M33 51 mm 546 140 774 1050 1500 2035 2139 2900
14 660 895 990 1342 M36 55 mm 700 950 992 1345 1925 2610 2744 3720
SEALANTS Use LIQUID TEFLON for sealing pipe plugs and fillings that connect
coolant
passages Do not use tape sealants
Oil based PERMATEX 2 and irs HIGH TACK equivalent are excellent all
purpose sealers They are effective in just about any joint in contact with BOLTS raw water oil or fuel
Ughtly oil head bolts and other fasteners as you assemble them Bolts and
A light coating of OIL or LIQUID TEFLON can be used on rubber gaskets
plugs that penetrate the water jacket should be sealed with PERMATEX 2 or
and Orings HIGH TACK
LOCTITE hydraulic red sealant should be used on oil adapter hoses and the oil
When assembling the flywheel coat the bolt threads with LOCTITE blue
filter assembly
Antiseize compounds and thread locking adhesives such as LOCTITE protect
Coat both surfaces of the oil pan gasket with high temp RED SILICONE sealer
threaded components yet allows them to came apart when installing gaskets that seal around water coolant passages coat both LOCTITE offers
levels of locking according to the job
sides with WHITE SILICONE grease
LITHIUM based grease is waterproof ideal for water pump bearings and ADHESIVE SPRAYS are useful for holding gaskets in pOSition dur ing boxes
ing assembly Heavily oil all sliding and reCiprocating components when
assembling gasket sealers such as HYLOMAR work well in applications requir use clean engine oil
ing nonhardening properties HYLOMAR is particlarly effective on
copper cylinderhead gaskets as it resists fuel oil and water
METRIC CONVERSIONS
INCHES TO MILLIMETERS MILLIMETERS TO INCHES
Inches mm Inches mm mm Inches mm Inches
1 2540 15 38100 1 00394 15 05906
2 5080 20 50800 2 00787 20 07874
3 7620 25 63500 3 01181 25 09843
4 10160 30 76200 4 01575 30 11811
5 12700 35 88900 5 01969 35 13780
10 25400 40 101600 10 03937 40 15748
10 MIlliMETERS 1 CENTIMETER 100 CENTIMETERS 1 METER 3937 INCHES 33 FEET
INCHES TO METERS METERS TO INCHES
Inches Meters Inches Meters Meters Inches Meters Inches
1 00254 7 01778 01 3937 07 27559
2 00508 8 02032 02 7874 08 31496
3 00762 9 02286 03 11811 09 35433
4 01016 10 02540 04 15748 10 39370
5 01270 11 02794 05 19685 11 43307
6 01524 12 03048 06 23622 12 47244
TO CONVERT METERS TO CENTIMETERS MOVE DECIMAL POINT TWO PLACES TO THE RIGHT
YARDS TO METERS METERS TO YARDS
Yards Meters Yards Meters Meters Yards Meters Yards
1 091440 6 548640 1 109361 6 656168
2 182880 7 640080 2 218723 7 765529
3 274320 8 731520 3 328084 8 874891
4 365760 9 822960 4 437445 9 984252
5 457200 10 914400 5 546807 10 1093614
MOVE DECIMAL POINT FOR HIGHER VALUES eg 6000 METERS 656168 YARDS
POUNDS TO KILOGRAMS KILOGRAMS TO POUNDS
Ib kg Ib kg kg Ib kg Ib
1 0454 6 2722 1 2205 6 13228
2 0907 7 3175 2 4409 7 15432
3 1361 8 3629 3 6614 8 17637
4 1814 9 4082 4 8818 9 19842
5 2268 10 4536 5 11023 10 22046
GALLONS TO LITERS LITERS TO Liters Gallons Liters Liters Gallons
Liters Gallons
1 379 10 3786 1 026 60 1566
2 757 20 7571 2 053 90 2377
3 1136 30 11357 5 132 120 3132
4 1514 40 15142 10 264 150 3962
5 1893 50 18928 20 528 180 4754
PINTS TO LITERS LITERS TO PINTS
Pints Liters Pints Liters Liters Pints Liters Pints
1 047 6 284 1 211 6 1268
2 095 7 331 2 423 7 1479
3 142 8 379 3 634 8 1691
4 189 9 426 4 845 9 1902
5 237 10 473 5 1057 10 2113
TEMPERATURE
32 40 50 60 70 75 85 95 105 140 175 212 OF
I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 60 80 100 C
STANDARD AND METRIC CONVERSION Inches in x 254 Millimeters mm x 0394 Inches
Feet tt x 305 Meters m x 3281 Feet
Miles x 1609 Kilometers km x 0621 Cubic Inches inl x 16387 Cubic Centimeters x 061 in 3
Imperial Pints IMP pt x 568 Liters L x 176 IMP pt
Imperial Quarts IMP qt x 1137 Liters L x88 IMP qt
Imperial Gallons IMP gal x 4546 Liters L x 22 IMP gal
Imperial Quarts IMP qt x 1201 US Quarts US qt x 833 IMP qt
Imperial Gallons IMP gal x 1201 US Gallons US gal x 833 IMP gal
Fluid Ounces x 29573 Milliliters x 034 Ounces
US Pints US pt x 473 LitersL x 2113 Pints
US Quarts US qt x 946 Liters L x 1057 Quarts
US Gallons US gal x 3785 Liters L x 264 Ounces oz x 2835 Grams g x 035 Ounces
Pounds Ib x 454 Kilograms kg x 2205 Pounds Per Sq In psi x 6895 Kilopascals kPa x 145 psi
Inches of Mercury Hg x 4912 psi x 2036 Hg
Inches of Mercury Hg x 3377 Kilopascals kPa x 2961 Hg
Inches of Water H20 x 07355 Inches of Mercury x 13783 H20
Inches of Water H20 x 03613 psi x 27684 H20
Inches of Water H20 x 248 Kilopascals kPa x 4026 H20
TORQUE
PoundsForce Inches inIb x 113 Newton Meters Nm x 885 inIb
PoundsForce Feet ftIb x 1356 Newton Meters Nm x 738 Miles Per Hour MPH x 1609 Kilometers Per Hour KPH x 621 MPH
POWER
Horsepower Hp x 745 Kilowatts Kw x 134 MPH
FUEL CONSUMPTION
Miles Per Hour IMP MPG x 354 Kilometers Per Liter KmL
Kilometers Per Liter KmL x 2352 IMP MPG
Miles Per Gallons US MPG x 425 Kilometers Per Liter KmL
Kilometers Per Liter KmL x 2352 US Degree Fahrenheit OF OC X 18 32
Degree Celsius OC OF 32 x 56
INDEX
Adapter Plate 22 Engine Continued
Admiral Control PaneL 67 100 21 22
Air Intake 23 Service 31
23 4
Alarm Light 68 7
Mando 78 Exhaust Manifold 22 48
Prestolite 88 Flywheel 20 22 29
Alternator Bracket 23 Fuel Camshaft 20 27
Anode Zinc 55 Fuel System
Back Plate 22 Description 58
Bearing Case 30 22 60
Belt Adjustment 46 Injection Nozzle 60 63 20 25 37 38 39 Injection Pump 58 63 65
Captain Control PaneL 68 100 Injectors 24 58 Test 6 45 Lift Pump 26 58 60
Connecting Rod 20 27 28 29 35 3637 63
Control Panel AdmiraL 67 100 Return Lines 24 58
Control Panel Captain 68 100 Service 64
Control Panel Gear Case 26
Coolant Pump 54 57 Gears 27
Coolant Recovery 55 Glow Plug 71
Cooling System 61
54 Heat 22 55
Service 56 67 69
Crankcase Breather Hose 23 Hurth HBW Transmissions 19 29 30 3940 Idler Gear Bushing 39
Crankshaft Bearing No 1 42 Gears 27 Idler Gear Shaft 43 Idle Speed Adjustment 47 69
Cylinder 18 Injection Pump 25 58 63
Cylinder Head 18232431 Intake Manifold 23
Cylinder Head Bolts 44 Key Switch Head 23 Lubrication Head Distortion 31 Description 49
Damper Plate 22 Service 52
DC Electrical 100 Main Bearing Case 30
DC 67 Mando Alternator Service 78
Drive Belt Adjustment 46 Metric Conversions 112 113
Drive 26 Nozzle Holder Oil
Adjustments 44 51
Description 18 Pan 27 28
2122 Pan 28
Overhaul 2 Pressure 4552
Parts 3 Pressure Alarm 6768
INDEX
Oil Continued 47616869
Pressure Gauge 67 70 Tappets 2535
Pressure 52 100 Test Button 68
Pressure 5152 100 Testing for OverhauL 6
Pump 275053 Thermostat 235456 100
2728 Timing Gears 25 37
Oil Clearance Top Clearance 44
Camshaft JournaL 37 Torques
Crankpin Crankpin Bearing 40 Standard Hardware 110111
Crankshaft Journal Crankshaft Bearing No 1 41 Universal Engine 110
Crankshaft Journal Transmission Hurth HBW 22 104
Crankshaft Bearings No2 No3 42 Damper Plate 22
Idler Gear Shaft Idler Gear Bushing 39 Removal 22
Piston Pin Connecting Rod Small End Bushing 35 105
Rocker Arm Shaft Bearing 35 107
Tappet Tappet Guide Bore 35 3 Control Panel 70
Piston and Piston Rings 19 27 28 29 35 36 Engine 7
Preheat Button 67 68 Transmission Alternator Service 88 Valves
Clearance Adjustment 44
Coolant 25 54 57 Guide 32
Fuel Lift 26 58 60 Lapping 33
Injection 58 63 65 Recession 31
Oil 275053 Seating 33
Raw 54 Spring 34
Push 24 35 Stem to Valve Guide Clearance 32
Raw Water Pump 54 56 Timing 20
Relief Valve 50 Water Arm and Shaft 20 2435 Alarm 67 68
RPM Gauge 67 68 Gauge 67 70
Sealants and Lubricants 111 2354 100
Service Standards 15 2354
Special Tools 108 Wiring 4 Wiring Diagram 39144 100
Speed Control Plate 25 Wiring Schematic 39144 101
Standard Hardware 111 Wiring Diagram 200360 Catalina Yachts 102
Start Button 6768 Wiring Schematic 200360 Catalina Yachts 103
Starter 22 30 72 Zinc Anode 55
Starter Service 72
Univarsal
1044 82001

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The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.