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Universal Diesel M3 20b Technical Manual



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 SERVICE MANUAL
  Univarsal
MARINE DIESEL ENGINE
                        M3·20B



              PUBLICATION NO. 200562
                1st Edition/July 2001




   WESTERBEKE CORPORATION. MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
   150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319 U.S.A.
   TEL: (508)823-7677· FAX: (508)884-9688· WEBSITE: www.WESTERBEKECOM


        ~~~~

     .,.,..,
      IlIMMA      Member National Marine Manufacturers Association
                     CALIFORNIA
               PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
       Diesel engine exhaust and some
       of its constituents are known to
       the State of California to cause
       cancer, birth defects, and other
       reproductive harm.




                      A WARNING:
Exhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide. an odorless and
colorless gas. Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can cause
unconsciousness and death. Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide
exposure can include:
· Dizziness                  · Throbbing in Temples
· Nausea                     · Muscular Twitching
· Headache                   · Vomiting
· Weakness and Sleepiness · Inability to Think Coherently

IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS.
GET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY. If symptoms persist.
seek medical attention. Shut down the unit and do not restart
until it has been inspected and repaired.


                        This WARNING DECAL is provided by
                        UNIVERSAL and should be fixed to a
                        bulkhead near your engine or generator.
                        UNIVERSAL also recommends installing
                        CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the
                        living/sleeping quarters of your vessel.
                        They are inexpensive and easily
                        obtainable at your local marine store.
                                              SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
INTRODUCTION                                                           PREVENT BURNS - FIRE
Read these safety instructions carefully before servicing your
engine. Most accidents are caused by failure to follow fun-                A WARNING: Fire can cause injury or death!
damental rules and precautions. Know when dangerous con-
ditions exist and take the necessary precautions to protect            ·     Prevent flash fires. Do not smoke or permit flames or
yourself, your personnel, and your machinery.                                sparks to occur near the fuel line, filter, fuel pump, or
                                                                             other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel vapors. Use
The following safety instructions are in compliance with the
                                                                             a suitable container to catch all fuel when removing the
American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) standards.                            fuel line or fuel filters.
                                                                       ·     Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved flame
PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK                                                       arrester removed. Backfire can cause severe injury or
                                                                             death.
    A WARNING: 00 not touch AC electrical connections                  ·     Do not operate with the air cleaner/silencer removed.
    while engine is running, or when connected to shore                      Backfire can cause severe injury or death.

    power. Lethal voltage is present at these connections!             ·     Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near
                                                                             the fuel system. Keep the compartment and the engine
·    Do not operate this machinery without electrical                        clean and free of debris to minimize the chance of fire.
     enclosures and covers in place.                                         Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil.
·    Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical             ·     Be aware -   diesel fuel will burn.
     equipment.
·    Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical                 PREVENT BURNS - EXPLOSION
     equipment.
·    Make sure your clothing and skin are dry, not damp                    A WARNING: Explosions from fuel vapors can cause
     (particularly shoes) when handling electrical equipment.              injury or death!
·    Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
     electrical equipment.                                             ·     Follow re-fueling safety instructions. Keep the vessel's
                                                                             hatches closed when fueling. Open and ventilate cabin
·    Do not connect utility shore power to vessel's AC                       after fueling. Check below for fumes/vapor before run-
     circuits, except through a ship-to-shore double throw                   ning the blower. Run the blower for four minutes before
     transfer switch. Damage to vessel's AC generator may                    starting your engine.
     result if this procedure is not followed.
                                                                       ·     All fuel vapors are highly explosive. Use extreme care
·    Electrical shock results from handling a charged                        when handling and storing fuels. Store fuel in a well-ven-
     capacitor. Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals                    tilated area away from spark-producing equipment and
     together with an insulated tool.                                        out of the reach of children.
                                                                       ·     Do not fill the fuel tank(s) while the engine is running.
PREVENT BURNS - HOT ENGINE
                                                                       ·     Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing
                                                                             the fuel system. Take care in catching any fuel that might
    A WARNING: 00 not touch hot engine parts or                              spill. DO NOT allow any smoking, open flames, or other
    exhaust system components. A running engine gets                         sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when servic-
    very hot!                                                                ing. Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing the
                                                                             fuel system.
                                                                       ·     Do not alter or modifY the fuel system.
·     Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant
      recovery tank.                                                   ·     Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve.
                                                                       ·     Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and
                                                                             free of leaks.
    A WARNING: Steam can cause injury or death!                        ·     Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is
                                                                             properly maintained. Be familiar with its proper use.
                                                                             Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate
·     In case of an engine overheat, allow the engine to cool                for all applications encountered in this environment.
      before touching the engine or checking the coolant.




                                                             ;. ;..Unlvarsal
                                                         £2      6'·'i1WJa·iW3i-
                                               SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
ACCIDENTAL STARTING                                                      TOXIC EXHAUST GASES

    A WARNING: Accidental starting can cause injury                          A WARNING: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly gas!
    or death!
·     Disconnect the battety cables before servicing the engine.         ·     Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
      Remove the negative lead first and reconnect it last.                    discharged from the engine. Check the exhaust system
                                                                               regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust manifold!
·     Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before                water-injected exhaust elbow is securely attached.
      starting.
·     Make certain all covers, guards, and hatches are                   ·     Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated.
      re-installed before starting the engine.                                 Run blowers when running the generator set or engine.
                                                                         ·     Don't run the generator set or engine unless the boat is
BATTERY EXPLOSION                                                              equipped with a functioning marine carbon monoxide
                                                                               detector that complies with ABYC A-24. Consult your
    A WARNING: Battery explosion can cause injury                        ·
                                                                               boat builder or dealer for installation of approved detectors.
                                                                               For additional information refer to ABYC T-22
    or death!
                                                                               (educational information on Carbon Monoxide).
· Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
  being serviced. Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen, a high-
  ly explosive gas, which can be ignited by electrical arcing
                                                                                A WARNING: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible
  or by lit tobacco products. Shut off all electrical equip-                    odorless gas. Inhalation produces flu-like symptoms,
  ment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing                             nausea or death!
  during servicing.
· Never connect the negative (-) battery cable to the                    ·     Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems. Diesel
  positive (+) connection terminal of the starter solenoid.                    fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust
  Do not test the battery condition by shorting the terminals                  systems. Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of
  together. Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapors.                  copper tubing resulting in exhaust/water leakage.
  Ventilate any compartment containing batteries to prevent              ·     Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
  accumulation of explosive gases. To avoid sparks, do not                     through portholes, vents, or air conditioners. If the engine
  disturb the battery charger connections while the battery                    exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline, water could
  is being charged.                                                            enter the exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
· Avoid contacting the terminals with tools, etc., to prevent                  flow of exhaust. Avoid overloading the craft.
  burns or sparks that could cause an explosion. Remove                  ·     Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as toxic as
  wristwatch, rings, and any other jewelry before handling                     exhaust fumes from gasoline engines, carbon monoxide
  the battery.                                                                 gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes. Some of the
· Always turn the battery charger offbefore disconnecting                      symptoms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or
  the battery connections. Remove the negative lead first                      poisoning are:
  and reconnect it last when servicing the battery.                               Dizziness       Throbbing in temples
                                                                                  Headache        Muscular twitching
BATTERY ACID                                                                      Nausea          Weakness and sleepiness
                                                                                  Vomiting        Inability to think coherently
    A WARNING: Sulfuric acid in batteries can cause                      AVOID MOVING PARTS
    severe injury or death!

·     When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
                                                                             A WARNING: Rotating parts can cause injury
      level, wear rubber gloves, a rubber apron, and eye                     or death!
      protection. Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is
      destructive. If it comes in contact with your skin, wash it        ·     Do not service the engine while it is running. If a
      off at once with water. Acid may splash on the skin or                   situation arises in which it is absolutely necessary to
      into the eyes inadvertently when removing                                make operating adjustments, use extreme care to avoid
      electrolyte caps.                                                        touching moving parts and hot exhaust system
                                                                               components.




                                                                    ii
                                             SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
· Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing                 ABYC, NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR
  equipment; tie back long hair and avoid wearing loose
  jackets, shirts, sleeves, rings, necklaces or bracelets that         INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES
  could be caught in moving parts.                                     Read the following ABYC, NFPA and USCG publications
· Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened.              for safety codes and standards. Follow their recommenda-
  Keep protective shields and guards in their respective               tions when installing your engine.
  places at all times.                                                 ABYC (American Boat and Yacht Council)
· Do not check fluid levels or the drive belt's tension while          Safety Standards for Small Craft
  the engine is operating.                                             Order from:
· Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling             ABYC
  when the engine is running; hair and clothing can easily                3069 Solomons Island Rd.
  be caught in these rotating parts.                                      Edgewater, MD 21037
                                                                       NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
HAZARDOUS NOISE                                                        Fire Protection Standard for Motor Craft
                                                                       Order from:
    A WARNING: High noise levels can cause hearing                        NFPA
    loss!                                                                  11 Tracy Drive
                                                                          Avon Industrial Park
· Never operate an engine without its muffler installed.                  Avon, MA 02322
· Do not run an engine with the air intake (silencer)                  USCG (United States Coast Guard)
  removed.                                                             USCG 33CFR183
· Do not run engines for long periods with their enclosures            Order from:
  open.
                                                                          U.S. Government Printing Office
                                                                          Washington, D.C. 20404
    A WARNING: Do not work on machinery when you are
    mentally or physically incapacitated by fatigue!

OPERATORS MANUAL
Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
notes to highlight critical information. Read your manual
carefully, maintain your equipment, and follow all safety pro-
cedures.

ENGINE INSTALLATIONS
Preparations to install an engine should begin with a thor-
ough examination of the American Boat and Yacht Council's
(ABYC) standards. These standards are a combination of
sources including the USCG and the NFPA.
Sections of the ABYC standards of particular interest are:
      H-2 Ventilation
      P-I Exhaust systems
      P-4 Inboard engines
      E-9 DC Electrical systems
All installations must comply with the Federal Code of
Regulations (FCR).




                                                       4   .Univarsal
                                                                 iii
                              INSTALLATION

When installing UNIVERSAL engines, it is important that strict attention be paid to
the following information:
CODES AND REGULATIONS
Federal regulations, ABYC guidelines and safety codes must be complied with when
installing engines and generators in a marine environment.
SIPHON-BREAK
For installations where the exhaust manifold/water-injected exhaust elbow is close to
or will be below the vessel's waterline, provisions must be made to install a siphon-
break in the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow. This hose must be looped a
minimum of 20 in. (51 cm) above the vessel's waterline. Failure to use a siphon-
break when the exhaust manifold injection port is at or below the load waterline
will result in raw water damage to the engine and possible flooding of the boat.
If you have any doubt about the position of the water-injected exhaust elbow relative
to the vessel's waterline under any of the vessel's various operating conditions or
when the vessel is not underway, install a siphon-break. This precaution is necessary
to protect your engine.
NOTE: A siphon-break requires periodic inspection and cleaning to ensure proper
operation. Failure to properly maintain a siphon-break can result in catastrophic
engine damage. Consult the siphon-break manufacturer for a proper maintenance
schedule.

EXHAUST SYSTEM
The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use. The system must be designed to
prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any angle of
the vessel's hull.



   A detailed 40-page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and diesel,
   engines and generators, is available from your UNIVERSAL dealer.




                                 ... ...Unlvarsal
                                £2     1'&'i!@ja·VN3i-
                                         iv
                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 2
 Parts Identification ............................................................................................... 3
 Specifications ....................................................................................................... 4
Testing for OverhauL ........................................................................................... 6
 Engine Troubleshooting ....................................................................................... 7
 Service Standards ............................................................................................... 15
Engine Description ............................................................................................. 18
Engine Disassembly & Reassembly................................................................... 21
Engine Service ................................................................................................... 31
Engine Adjustments ............................................................................................44
Exhaust Manifold Service .................................................................................. 48
Lubrication System Description ......................................................................... 49
Lubrication System Service ............................................................................... 52
Cooling System Description .............................................................................. 54
Cooling System Service ..................................................................................... 56
Fuel System Description .................................................................................... 58
Fuel System Disassembly & Reassembly.......................................................... 63
Fuel System Service ........................................................................................... 64
Admiral Control PaneL ..................................................................................... 67
Captain Control PaneL ...................................................................................... 68
Control Panel Troubleshooting .......................................................................... 69
Glow Plug Service ............................................................................................. 71
Starter Service .................................................................................................... 72
Mando Alternator Service .................................................................................. 78
Prestolite Alternator Service .............................................................................. 88
Wiring Diagram #39144 ................................................................................... 100
Wiring Schematic #39144 ................................................................................ 101
Wiring Diagram #200360 - Catalina yachts .................................................... 102
Wiring Schematic #200360 - Catalina yachts ................................................. 103
Hurth HBW Transmissions .............................................................................. 104
Transmission Troubleshooting ......................................................................... 107
Special Tools .................................................................................................... 108
Torques ............................................................................................................. 110
Standard Hardware; Sealants & Lubricants ..................................................... 111
Metric Conversions .......................................................................................... 112
Standard and Metric Conversion Data ............................................................. 113
Index ................................................................................................................. 114




                                                          1
                                                  INTRODUCTION
ENGINE OVERHAUL                                                      CUSTOMER IDENTIFICATION CARD
This service manual contains detailed information relating
to the servicing and overhaul of the Universal M3-20B
marine diesel engine. Information about the construction
and function of the various systems and components can be
found in the Description sections. For the major engine
overhaul procedure, refer to the ENGINE DISASSEMBLY &                   Customer Identification
REASSEMBLY and ENGINE SERVICE sections. Additional
service information for specific components and systems                 UNIVERSAL OWNER
may be found by referring to the TABLE OF CONTENTS                      MAIN STREET
and the INDEX. Refer also to your UNIVERSAL parts
Catalog.                                                                HOMETOWN, USA
These service procedures are intended for the guidance of
suitably equipped and staffed marine engine service and                 Model M3-20B                          Ser. #XXXX-D608
rebuilding facilities, and should only be undertaken by such
facilities and their personnel.                                         Expires 9/12101

PRODUCT SOFTWARE
Product software (tech data, parts lists, manuals, brochures          The UNIVERSAL engine serial number is an alphanumeric
and catalogs) provided from sources other than UNIVER-                number that can assist in determining the date of manufac-
SAL are not within UNIVERSAL'S CONTROL.                               ture of your UNIVERSAL engine. The manufacturer's date
                                                                      code is placed at the end of the engine serial number and
UNIVERSAL CANNOT BE RESPONSmLE FOR THE                                consists of a character followed by three numbers. The
CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE, MAKES NO WAR-                               character indicates the decade (D=1990s, E=20oos), the first
RANTIES OR REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT                               number represents the year in the decade, and the second
THERETO, INCLUDING ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR                            and third numbers represent the month of manufacture.
COMPLETENESS THEREOF AND WILL IN NO EVENT
BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR INJURY                            ORDERING PARTS/SERIAL NUMBER LOCATION
INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT                           Whenever replacement parts are needed, always provide
OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.                           the engine model number and engine serial number as they
UNIVERSAL customers should also keep in mind the time                appear on the silver and black identification nameplate
span between printings of UNIVERSAL product software                 located on the side of the engine's exhaust manifold. The
and the unavoidable existence of earlier UNIVERSAL manu-             engine serial number can also be found stamped into the
als. Product software provided with UNIVERSAL products,              engine block on the left side of the engine below the cylin-
whether from UNIVERSAL or other suppliers, must not and              der head cover. You must provide us with this information
cannot be relied upon exclusively as the definitive authority        so we may properly identify your engine. In addition,
on the respective product. It not only makes good sense but          include a complete part description and part number for
is imperative that appropriate representatives of UNIVER-            each part needed (see the separately furnished Parts List).
SAL or the supplier in question be consulted to determine            Also insist upon UNIVERSAL packaged parts because will
the accuracy and currentness of the product software being           fit or generic parts are frequently not made to the same
consulted by the customer.                                           specifications as original equipment.




                                                                         ~
NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
As this manual takes you through the service procedures
and troubleshooting of your marine engine, critical informa-
tion will be highlighted by NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARN-
INGS. An explanation follows:
                                                                      NOTE: Component locations in this manual are referenced
NOTE: An operating procedure essential to note.                      from the front of the engine which is the pulley/drive belt
                                                                     end. Left and right sides are determined as follows: imag-
                                                                      ine straddling the engine, facing in the same direction as
  A CAUTION: Procedures, which if not strictly                       the front of the engine: the left side is at your left, the right
 observed, can result in the damage or destruction of                side is at your right. The cylinder number sequence starts
 your engine.                                                        with the No. I cylinder located at thefront of the engine.



 A WARNING:        Procedures, which if not properly fol-
  lowed, can result in personal injury or loss of life·

                                                     · ·Unlvanal
                                                               MARINE POWER


                                                                 2
               PARTS IDENTIFICATION
                      MODEL M3-20B




OIL
FILTER




         STARTER
         SOLENOID




                                                     ALTERNATOR




                                      ;;:yr~~I--- COOLANT PUMP
                                                   SHEAVE




          FUEL LIFT
          PUMP




                           3
                                                      SPECIFICATIONS

                                                                          UNIVERSAL MODEL M3-20B

ENGINE
 Engine Type                           Diesel, four-cycle, fresh water cooled, vertical, in-line overhead valve mechanism
 Horsepower                            20@3600 rpm
 Cylinders                             3
 Aspiration                            Naturally aspirated
 Bore & Stroke                         2.64 x 2.68 in. (67 x 68 mm)
 Combustion Chamber                    Spherical type; three vortex combustion system
 Displacement                          43.8 cu. in. (0.7177 liters)
 Compression Ratio                     23:1
 Firing Order                          1- 2- 3
 Crankshaft Direction of Rotation      Counterclockwise as viewed from flywheel end
 Maximum Torque                        33 ft-Ibs (4.6 kg-m) @2500 rpm
 Dry Weight, with Transmission         241 Ibs (110 kg)
 Dimensions                            Length: 26.4 in. (670.6 mm)       Width: 18.8 in. (477.5 mm)         Height: 20.1 in. (510.6 mm)
 Maximum Angle of Installation         Not to exceed 14° (24 rad.)
 Maximum Angle of Rotation             Not to exceed 25° (44 rad.)
 Engine Speed                          Idle speed: 1,000 - 1,200 rpm. Cruise Speed: 2,500 - 3,000 rpm. Maximum Speed: 3,500 - 3,600 rpm.
 Engine Timing                         18° (0.314 rad.) before lD.C.
 Engine Stop                           Manual
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
 Type of System                        Forced lubrication by gear pump
 Oil Grade                             API Specification CF or CG-4, SAE 30, 10W-30, 15W-40
 Oil Filter                            Full-flow, spin-on filter element
 Lubricant Capacity                    4.0 qts (3.8 liters)
 Operating Oil Pressure (Engine Hot)   40-60 psi (2.8 - 4.2 kg/cm2) (276-414 kPa)
FUEL SYSTEM
 Type of System                        Open flow, self priming
 Fuel                                  No.2 Diesel Oil, cetane rating of 45 or higher
 Fuel Injection Pump                   Bosch in-line plunger type
 Fuel Injectors                        Bosch throttle type
 Governor                              Centrifugal ball mechanical type
 Fuel Lift Pump                        12 volt 5 ft. lift capacity, solid state
 Fuel Filter                           Full flow, spin-on element
 Fuel Supply & Return Piping           1/8 in. I.D. (3.18 mm) minimum; 3/8 in. I.D. (9.52 mm) maximum
 Typical Fuel Consumption              0.75 gaL/hr. (2.83 liters/hr.)
 @3000 rpm
 Air Intake Silencer                   Cleanable, replaceable filter element
 Air Flow @3600 rpm                    45.8 cubic feeVminute (1.3 cubic meters/minute)
 (Engine Combustion)

                                                                                                                               (continued)




                                                            ......Unlvarsal
                                                                      4
                                                          SPECIFICATIONS

                                                                           UNIVERSAL MODEL M3-20B

COOLING SYSTEM
 Type of System                        Fresh water cooled block, thermostatically controlled with raw water heat exchanger and
                                       centrifugal fresh water pump
 Operating Temperature                 170° - 190° F (77° - 88°C)
 Coolant Pump                          Centrifugal type, metal impeller, belt-driven
 Coolant Capacity                      3.75 quarts (3.50 liters)
 Raw Water Pump                        Positive displacement, neoprene impeller, gear driven
 Raw Water Flow @ 3000 rpm             7.0 gal/min. (26.5 liters/min.)
 before discharge into exhaust elbow
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
 Starting Battery                      12 volt DC, negative ground
 Battery Capacity                      400 - 600 cold cranking amps (CCA)
 Alternator/Regulator                  Mando, 51 amp, 12 volt, belt-driven, with internal regulator
 Starter Motor                         12 volt, reduction gear, actuated shift, with solenoid
 Starting Aid                          12 volt sheathed type glow plugs
TRANSMISSION
 Model                                 HURTH HBW-50-2R
 Type of Transmission                  Case-hardened helical gears, with a servo-operated multiple disc clutch
 Gear Ratio Forward (Std)              2.05:1
 Propeller Shaft Rotation              Right hand - standard transmission
 Lubrication Fluid                     ATF type A, Dextron II or Dextron III
 Transmission Sump Capacity            0.37 qt. (0.35 liter)




                                                                        5
                                           TESTING FOR OVERHAUL
HOW TO DETERMINE WHEN                                                  Measuring Compression Pressure
TO OVERHAUL THE ENGINE                                                 To check the compression pressure, see ENGINE COMPRES-
Cause of Low Compression                                               SION TEST under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS.
Generally, the time at which an engine should be overhauled            NOTE: Do not guess the conditions of other cylinders from a
is determined by various conditions such as lowered engine             result of testing one cylinder. Be sure to measure the com-
power output, decreased compression pressure, and increased            pression pressure for each cylinder. Look for cylinders with
fuel and oil consumption. The lowered engine power output,             dramatically (at least 20%) lower compression than the aver-
in the case of diesel engines, is not necessarily due to trouble       age of the other cylinders. If the weak cylinder is flanked by
with the engine itself, but is sometimes caused by injector            healthy cylinders, the problem is either valve- or head-gasket
nozzle wear or injection pump wear. It is most reasonable to           related. Very low compression in an adjacent cylinder indi-
judge by a decrease in compression pressure. The decrease in           cates gasket failure. Abnormally high readings on all cylin-
compression pressure is caused by many factors. It is, there-          ders indicate heavy carbon accumulations, a condition that
fore, necessary to determine a cause or causes on the basis of         might be accompanied by high pressures and noise.
data produced by periodic inspection and maintenance. Oil              NOTE: In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise,
analysis on a seasonal basis is a good means of monitoring             have the injectors overhauled by an authorized fuel injection
engine internal wear. When caused by worn cylinders or pis-            service center. Poor fuel quality, contaminants, and loss of
ton rings, the following symptoms will occur:                          positive fuel pressure to the injection pump will result in
    ·   Low engine power output                                        injector faults.
    ·   Increased fuel consumption                                     OVERHAUL CONDITIONS
    ·   Increased oil consumption                                      Compression pressure tends to increase a little in a new
    · Hard engine starting                                             engine until the piston rings and valve seats have been bro-
                                                                       ken in. Thereafter, it decreases gradually with the progressive
    · Noisy engine operation                                           wear of these parts.
These symptoms often appear together. Increased fuel con-
                                                                       When the decrease of compression pressure reaches its limit
sumption and hard engine starting can also result from exces-
                                                                       (see SERVICE STANDARDS), the engine must be over-
sive fuel injection, improper injection timing, and wear of the
injection pump and nozzles. They are also caused by defec-             hauled. The engine also requires an overhaul when oil con-
                                                                       sumption is high, when blowby is evident, and when
tive electrical components such as the battery, alternator,
                                                                       compression values are at a minimum or below.
starter and glow plugs. Therefore it is desirable to judge the
optimum engine overhaul time by the lowered compression                NOTE: Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS chart during an
pressure caused by worn cylinders and piston rings plus                engine overhaul. It gives the measurements and values for
increased oil consumption. In diesel engines, satisfactory             the repair or replacement of the engine components.
combustion is obtained only under sufficient compression               NOTE: The ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING section may be
pressure. If an engine lacks compression pressure, incomplete          helpful in determining the need for an engine overhaul.
combustion of fuel will take place even if other parts of the
engine are operating properly. To determine the period of
engine overhaul, it is important to measure the engine com-
pression pressure regularly. At the same time, the engine
speed at which the measurement of compression pressure is
made should be checked because the compression pressure
varies with engine rpm. The engine rpm can be measured at
the front end of the crankshaft.




                                                                   6
                                        ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
The following troubleshooting table describes certain problems            NOTE: The engine:V electrical system is protected by a 20
relating to engine service, the probable causes of these prob-            ampere manual reset circuit breaker located on a bracket.
lems, and the recommendations to overcome these problems.                 The preheat solenoid is mounted on the same bracket.

        PROBLEM                               PROBABLE CAUSE                                        VERIFICATION/REMEDY

  HARD STARTING             LOW CRANKING SPEED
                            1. Engine oil viscosity too high.                           1. Replace engine oil with less viscous oil.
                            2. Run-down battery.                                        2. Recharge battery.
                            3. Worn battery.                                            3. Replace battery.
                            4. Battery terminals loosely connected.                     4. Clean terminals and tighten cables.
                            5. Defective starter.                                       5. Repair or replace starter.

                            DEFECTIVE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
                            1. No fuel at injectors.                                    1. Check a. through e.
                               a. No fuel in fuel tank and/or fuel shutoff.                a. Fill fuel tank. Open shutoff and bleed system.
                               b. Fuel filter or fuel line clogged.                        b. Replace filter and bleed. Clean fuel line.
                               c. Injection pump faulty.                                   c. Inspect pump. Repair or replace pump as
                                                                                              needed.
                               d. Loose injection line retaining nut.                      d. Tighten nut.
                            2. Fuel injectors faulty; inadequate spray.                 2. Remove and test nozzles. Repair nozzles as
                                                                                           needed.
                            3. Low injection pressure.                                  3. Adjust injection pressure.
                            4. Injection timing incorrect.                              4. Check and adjust timing.
                            5. Poor quality fuel.                                       5. Drain and replace with proper fuel.
                            6. Water and/or air in fuel system.                         6. Remove water and/or bleed air from fuel system.
                                                                                           Check fuel system for leaks and fuel tank for
                                                                                           water contamination.

                            MAIN ENGINE TROUBLES
                            1. Low compression.                                         1. Check a. through k.
                               a. Leaking compression from fuel injector gasket.           a. Tighten fuel injector or replace gasket.
                               b. Incorrect valve clearance.                               b. Adjust valve clearance.
                               c. Inadequate contact of valve seat.                        c. Lap valve.
                               d. Valve stem seized.                                       d. Replace valve and valve guide.
                               e. Weak or broken valve spring.                             e. Replace valve spring.
                               f. Bent push rod.                                           f. Replace push rod.
                               g. Compression leaks through cylinder head gasket.          g. Replace gasket.
                               h. Cracked or worn piston.                                  h. Replace piston.
                               i. Piston ring seized.                                      i. Replace piston and piston ring.
                               j. Worn piston ring or cylinder liner.                      j. Replace piston ring or cylinder liner.
                               It Cracked or distorted cylinder head.                      It Replace cylinder head.
                               I. Fuel camshaft worn.                                      I. Replace fuel camshaft.
                            2. Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber.               2. Clean.
                                                                                                                                  (continued)




                                                          + ,;"UnlvQI'sal

                                                                    7
                             ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
     PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                                         VERIFICATION/REMEOY
ENGINE IDLING   1. Idle speed too low.                                        1. Adjust idle stop as needed.
TOO LOW         2. Fuel filter clogged.                                       2. Replace filter and bleed fuel system.
                3. Incorrect injection pump timing.                           3. Check timing and adjust as needed.
                4. High pressure injection line leaking.                      4. Slacken attaching nut and retighten.
                5. Fuel injector leaking at sealing gasket in head.           5. Retighten injector and/or replace sealing washer.
                6. Injection nozzle not operating properly.                   6. Check nozzle and adjust as needed.
                7. Engine air intake obstructed.                              7. Check air intake silencer and air flow into
                                                                                 engine compartment.

ROUGH IDLING    MALFUNCTION OF ENGINE-RELATED COMPONENTS
                1. Improper valve clearance.                                  1. Adjust clearance.
                2. Poor valve to valve seat contact.                          2. Repair or replace valve.
                3. Failure of cylinder head gasket.                           3. Replace gasket.
                4. Governor malfunctioning.                                   4. Repair governor.

                 FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEM
                 1. Faulty idling speed.                                      1. Adjust idling speed.
                 2. Faulty injection timing.                                  2. Adjust injection timing.
                 3. Clogged fuel line or fuel filter.                         3. Clean fuel line or replace fuel filter.
                 4. Leak in fuel line or fuel filter.                         4. Repair fuel line or replace fuel filter.
                 5. Air in injector, fuel line, injection pump, fuel filter   5. Bleed air.
                    or fuel filter/water separator.
                 6. Seized or leaky delivery valve.                            6. Clean or replace delivery valve.
                 7. Faulty injection starting pressure.                        7. Adjust starting pressure.
                 8. Injection nozzle malfunction.                              8. Clean or replace injection nozzle.
                 9. Feed pump malfunction.                                     9. Clean or replace feed pump.
                10. Injection pump malfunction.                               10. Take to a fuel injection pump service facility,
                                                                                   or replace the pump.


ENGINE SLOWS     1. Fuel lift pump failure.                                   1. Check fuel lift pump operation.
AND STOPS                                                                     2. Inspect wiring for short circuits and loose
                 2. Switches and/or wiring loose or disconnected.
                                                                                 connections. Inspect switches for proper
                                                                                 operation.
                 3. Fuel starvation.                                          3. Check fuel supply, fuel valves, fuel lift pump.
                 4. 20 amp circuit breaker tripping.                          4. Check for high DC amperage draw during
                                                                                 operation. Ensure breaker is not overly sensi-
                                                                                 tive to heat which would cause tripping.
                 5. Exhaust system is restricted.                             5. Check for blockage, collapsed hose, carbon
                                                                                 buildup at exhaust elbow.
                 6. Water in fuel.                                            6. Pump water from fuel tank(s); change filters
                                                                                 and bleed fuel system.
                                                                                                                            (continued)




                                                           8
                              ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
    PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                     VERIFICATION/REMEOY

LOW OUTPUT       LOW COMPRESSION                          See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.

                 INJECTION SYSTEM OUT OF ADJUSTMENT
                 1. Incorrect injection timing.           1. Adjust injection timing.
                 2. Insufficient injection.               2. Repair or replace injection pump.
                 3. Low injection pressure.               3. Check injection nozzle and adjust pressure.

                 INSUFFICIENT FUEL
                 1. Air trapped in fuel system.           1. Bleed and check for source.
                 2. Clogged filter.                       2. Clean or replace filter element.
                 3. Contaminated or inferior fuel.        3. Purge fuel system and replace with quality
                                                             fuel.
                 4. Contaminated fuel tank.               4. Clean fuel tank.

                 OVERHEATING
                 1. Low coolant level.                    1. Add coolant.
                 2. Loose V-belt.                         2. Adjust or replace V-belt.
                 3. Incorrect injection timing.           3. Adjust injection timing.
                 4. Low engine oil level.                 4. Add engine oil.

                 OTHER
                 1. Insufficient intake air.              1. Increase engine compartment air supply.

KNOCKING         ENGINE KNOCKS WITHOUT MUCH SMOKE
                 1. Main engine troubles.                 1. Check a. and b.
                    a. Overheated cylinder.                  a. See ENGINE OVERHEATS/SHUTS
                                                                DOWN; LOW OUTPUT.
                    b. Carbon deposits in cylinder.          b. Clean.
                 2. Injection timing too early.           2. Correct the timing.
                 3. Injection pressure too high.          3. Correct the pressure.
                 4. Improper fuel.                        4. Replace with proper fuel.

                 KNOCKING WITH DARK SMOKE
                 1. Poor compression.                     1. See Low Compression under HARD
                                                             STARTING.
                 2. Injection pump malfunctioning.        2. AdjusVRepair.
                 3. Nozzle malfunctioning.                3. Check a. through d.
                    a. Poor spray.                           a. Clean or replace nozzle.
                    b. Chattering.                           b. Repair or replace nozzle.
                    c. After-injection drip.                  c. Repair or replace nozzle.
                    d. Nozzle needle valve seized.            d. Replace needle valve.

ABNORMAL SOUND   CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARING
OR NOISE         1. Badly worn main bearing.              1. Replace bearing and grind crankshaft.
                 2. Badly worn crankshaft.                2. Grind crankshaft.
                 3. Melted bearing.                       3. Replace bearing and check lubrication system.
                 4. Excessive crankshaft end play.        4. Repair or replace crankshaft.

                                                                                                  (continued)



                                                      9
                               ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
     PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                                     VERIFICATION/REMEOY

ABNORMAL SOUND      CONNECTING ROD AND CONNECTING ROD BEARING
OR NOISE (Cont'd)
                    1. Worn connecting rod big end bearing.                 1. Replace bearing.
                    2. Worn crankpin.                                       2. Grind crankshaft.
                    3. Bent connecting rod.                                 3. Correct bend or replace.
                    4. Excessive connecting rod bearing oil clearance.      4. Repair or replace bearing.
                    5. Connecting rod bearing seized or heat-damaged.       5. Replace bearing.

                    PISTON, PISTON PIN, PISTON RING, CYLINDER LINER
                    1. Worn cylinder liner.                                 1. Repair or replace liner.
                    2. Worn piston or piston pin.                           2. Replace piston.
                    3. Piston seized.                                       3. Replace piston and rebore cylinder.
                    4. Piston seized and ring worn or damaged.              4. Replace piston and rings.

                    VALVES OR TIMING-RELATED PARTS
                    1. Worn camshaft.                                       1. Replace camshaft.
                    2. Excessive valve clearance.                           2. Adjust valve clearance.
                    3. Worn timing gear.                                    3. Replace timing gear.
                    4. Broken valve spring.                                 4. Replace valve spring.
                    5. Excessive clearance between rocker arm and           5. Replace bushing.
                       bushing.
                    6. Excessive clearance between idler gear bushing and   6. Replace bushing.
                       spindle.

                    FUEL SYSTEM
                    1. Poor quality and/or incorrect fuel.                  1. Use No.2 diesel fuel.
                    2. Incorrect injection timing. Timing too advanced.     2. Check and correct injection timing.
                    3. Fuel injector stuck open.                            3. Locate and remove faulty injector. Rebuild or
                                                                               replace.

                    OTHER
                    1. Coolant pump bearing worn or seized.                 1. See Coolant Pump under COOLING SYSTEM.
                    2. Improper drive-belt tension.                         2. Adjust.
                    3. Malfunction of alternator bearing.                   3. See Alternator Troubleshooting under
                                                                               DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.
                    4. Exhaust gas leakage.                                 4. Repair.

ROUGH OPERATION     INJECTION PUMP
(HUNTING)
                    1. Uneven injection.                                    1. Adjust injection or replace parts.
                    2. Inadequate injection nozzle spray.                   2. Replace injection nozzle.

                    GOVERNING SYSTEM
                    1. Governor lever malfunctioning.                       1. Check governor shaft and adjust.
                    2. Fatigued governor spring.                            2. Replace spring.
                                                                                                                     (continued)




                                                ··Unlvanal
                                                            10
                            ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
    PROBLEM                       PROBABLE CAUSE                                           VERIFICATION/REMEDY

SMOKY EXHAUST   WHITISH OR PURPLISH
                1. Engine is running cold.                                     1. Warm-up engine.
                2. Excessive engine oil.                                       2. Correct oil level.
                3. Excessive rise of oil into combustion chamber.              3. Check 3. through f.
                   3. Poor piston contact.                                        3. Check.
                   b. Piston ring or liner worn or seized.                        b. Clean or replace.
                   c. Excessive piston-to-cylinder clearance.                     c. Correct or replace.
                   d. Worn valve stem and valve guide.                            d. Replace valve stem and guide.
                   e. Low engine oil viscosity.                                   e. Replace engine oil.
                   f. Excessive oil pressure.                                     f. Inspect the lubrication system. See
                                                                                     LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
                4. Injection timing is too late.                               4. Adjust timing.
                5. Insufficient compression.                                   5. See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.

                BLUE
                1. Incorrect grade of engine oil.                              1. Use the correct grade of oil; see Oil Grade
                                                                                  under SPECIFICATIONS.
                2. Crankcase is overfilled with engine oil (oil is blow-       2. Decrease oil level.
                   ing out through the exhaust).

                BLACKISH OR DARK GRAYISH
                1. Poor compression.                                           1. See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.
                2. Improper valve clearance.                                   2. Adjust valve clearance.
                3. Improper injection timing.                                  3. Adjust injection timing.
                4. Improper fuel.                                              4. Replace with proper fuel.
                5. High back-pressure in exhaust.                              5. Check for restrictions in exhaust system.
                6. Insufficient intake air.                                    6. Increase engine compartment air supply.
                7. Overload.                                                   7. Reduce load.

                BLACK, LARGE AMOUNT
                1. Clogged fuel filter.                                        1. Replace fuel filter and bleed system.
                2. Restricted air intake.                                      2. Remove air obstruction.
                3. Engine overloaded.                                          3. Check engine propeller size and engine
                                                                                  performance no-load through fully loaded.
                4. Injection timing.                                           4. Check the injection pump timing and adjust as
                                                                                  needed.
                5. Fuel injectors not operating properly.                      5. Check nozzle spray pressure setting.
                6. Improper grade of fuel.                                     6. Use specified grade of fuel.

EXCESSIVE
EXHAUST SMOKE   1. Faulty injection timing.                                    1. Adjust timing.
                2. Water in injection pump, fuel filter or fuel filter/water   2. Drain fuel system.
                   separator.
                3. Faulty injection starting pressure.                         3. Adjust starting pressure.
                4. Injection pump malfunctioning.                              4. Replace injection pump.

                                                                                                                        (continued)




                                                       11
                             ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
     PROBLEM                       PROBABLE CAUSE                                  VERIFICATION/REMEDY

INTERMITTENT
EXHAUST SOUND                                                         1. Clean or replace filter.
                 1. Fuel filter clogged.
                 2. Fuel line sucks air.                              2. Retighten fuel line joints or replace fuel line.
                 3. Water mixed in fuel.                              3. Replace fuel.

EXCESSIVE FUEL   ENGINE PROBLEMS
CONSUMPTION
                 1. Noisy knocking.                                   1. See KNOCKING.
                 2. Smoky exhaust.                                    2. See SMOKY EXHAUST.
                 3. Moving parts nearly seized or excessively worn.   3. Repair or replace.
                 4. Poor compression.                                 4. See Low Compression under HARD STARTING.
                 5. Improper valve timing.                            5. Adjust timing.
                 6. Improper valve clearance.                         6. Adjust clearance.

                 INSUFFICIENT INTAKE AIR
                 1. Air intake obstructed.                            1. Remove obstruction.

                 FUEL INJECTION PROBLEMS
                 1. Injection timing incorrect.                       1. Adjust timing.
                 2. Faulty injection starting pressure.               2. Adjust starting pressure.
                 3. Seized nozzle.                                    3. Replace nozzle.
                 4. Worn nozzle.                                      4. Replace nozzle.
                 5. Nozzle leaking.                                   5. Tighten nozzle or replace sealing gasket.
                 6. Injector not operating properly.                  6. Adjust nozzle spray pressure.
                 7. Clogged fuel filter.                              7. Replace filter.
                 8. High idling speed.                                8. Adjust idling speed.

                 FUEL PROBLEMS
                 1. Improper fuel.                                    1. Replace with proper fuel.
                 2. Fuel leaks.                                       2. Find fuel leaks.

                 ENGINE OVERLOADED
                 1. Propeller size.                                   1. Check propeller size and engine performance
                                                                         at rated rpm.

EXCESSIVE OIL    OIL LEAKAGE
CONSUMPTION
                 1. Defective oil seals.                              1. Replace oil seals.
                 2. Broken gear case gasket.                          2. Replace gasket.
                 3. Loose gear case attaching bolts.                  3. Retighten bolts.
                 4. Loose drain plug.                                 4. Retighten plug.
                 5. Loose oil line connector.                         5. Retighten oil line connections.
                 6. Broken rocker cover gasket.                       6. Replace gasket.
                 7. Loose rocker cover attaching bolts.               7. Retighten attaching bolts.

                                                                                                                  (continued)




                                               ··Unlvarsal
                                                          12
                                 ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
      PROBLEM                          PROBABLE CAUSE                                  VERIFICATION/REMEDY

EXCESSIVE OIL        OIL LEVEl RISING
CONSUMPTION          1. Incorrectly positioned piston ring gaps.          1. Correct ring gap positions.
(cont'd)
                     2. Displaced or twisted connecting rod.              2. Replace connecting rod.
                     3. Worn piston ring, or piston ring groove.          3. Replace ring or piston.
                     4. Oil ring worn or stuck.                           4. Replace oil ring.
                     5. Worn piston or cylinder liner.                    5. Repair or replace.
                     6. Worn crankshaft bearing and crankpin bearing.     6. Replace.

                     OIL LEVEL FALLING
                     1. Defective stem seal.                              1. Replace stem seal.
                     2. Worn valve and valve guide.                       2. Replace valve and valve guide.

LOW OIL PRESSURE      1. Worn main or connecting rod bearings.             1. Replace bearings.
                      2. Relief valve malfunction.                         2. Overhaul oil pump.
                      3. Diesel fuel is diluting the oil.                  3. Injection pump repair.
                      4. Oil strainer clogged.                             4. Clean oil strainer.
                      5. Excessive oil clearance of crankshaft bearing.    5. Replace crankshaft bearing.
                      6. Excessive oil clearance of crankpin bearing.      6. Replace crankpin bearing.
                      7. Excessive oil clearance of rocker arm bearing.    7. Replace rocker arm bearing.
                      8. Oil passage clogged.                              8. Clean oil passage.
                      9. Improper grade of oil.                            9. Replace with specified grade of oil.
                     10. Oil filter cartridge clogged.                    10. Replace.
                     11. Oil pump defective.                              11. Repair or replace.

HIGH OIL PRESSURE    1. Relief valve defective.                           1. Overhaul oil pump.
                     2. Improper grade of oil.                            2. Replace with specified grade of oil.

FUEL MIXED INTO      1. Injection pump plunger worn.                      1. Replace pump element or injection pump.
LUBE OIL             2. Deficient nozzle injection.                       2. Repair or replace nozzle.
                     3. Injection pump malfunction.                       3. Replace injection pump.

COOLANT MIXED INTO   1. Defective cylinder head gasket.                   1. Replace cylinder head gasket.
LUBE OIL             2. Defective cylinder head or cylinder block.        2. Replace cylinder head or cylinder block.

ENGINE OVERHEATS!    1. V-belt slackening or slippery with oil.           1. Adjust, replace or clean belt.
SHUTS DOWN           2. Low oil level or poor oil quality.                2. Add or change oil.
                     3. Knocking.                                         3. See KNOCKING.
                     4. Moving parts seized or damaged.                   4. Replace.
                     5. Lack of coolant.                                  5. Add coolant.
                     6. Raw water not Circulating.                        6. Check a. and b.
                                                                             a. Raw water pump failure. Check impeller;
                                                                                replace if necessary.
                                                                             b. Obstruction at raw water intake or raw water
                                                                                filter.

                                                                                                                     (continued)


                                                   ··Unlvarsal
                                                            13
                                ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
     PROBLEM                         PROBABLE CAUSE                         VERIFICATION/REMEDY

ENGINE OVERHEATS!   7. Coolant not circulating.                  7. Check a. through d.
SHUTS DOWN
(cont'd)                                                            a. Thermostat - remove and test in hot water.
                                                                       Replace thermostat.
                                                                    b. Loss of cpolant - check hoses, hose clamps,
                                                                       drain plug, etc. for leaks.
                                                                    c. Broken or loose belt - tighten/replace.
                                                                    d. Air leak in system; run engine and open the
                                                                       pressure cap to bleed air. Add coolant as
                                                                       needed .




                                                  · ·Unlvarsal
                                                      14
                                               SERVICE STANDARDS
These service standards specify the values at which the             Valve Spring
engine components will require adjustment, repair or
replacement. It is important to observe these standards for                 DESCRIPTION   STANDARD VALUE                 LIMIT
your engine, and to take action when necessary to maintain
a high level of safety, dependability and performance.               Free Length                1.244 in.               1.118 in.
                                                                                               (31.6 mm)               (28.4 mm)
ENGINE COMPONENTS                                                    Setting Loadl        14.6 Ibs. I 1.063 in.   12.3 Ibs. I 1.063 in.
Cylinder Head                                                        Setting Length         ~6.6 kgf 127 mm~        ~5.6 kgf I 27 mm~
                                                                                             64.7N/27mm              54.9N/27mm
   DESCRIPTION          STANDARD VALUE             LIMIT             Tilt                          -                    0.047 in.
 Cylinder Head                  -                0.002 in.                                                              (1.2 mm)
 Surface Flatness                               (0.05 mm)
 Top Clearance           0.019 - 0.027 in.         -
                         (0.50 - 0.70 mm)                           Rocker Arm
 Cylinder Head
 Gasket Thickness                                                    Clearance between     0.0006 - 0.0017 in.        0.0059 in.
 (Grommet Section)                                                   Rocker Arm Shaft     (0.016 - 0.045 mm)          (0.15mm)
      Free                0.041 - 0.051 in.         -                and Shaft Hole
                         (1.15-1.30mm)                               Rocker Arm             0.412-0.412 in.                -
     Tightened            0.041 - 0.045 in.         -                Shaft 0.0.           (10.473 -10.484 mm)
                         (1.05 -1.15 mm)                                                    0.413-0.414 in.                -
                                                                     Rocker Arm
 Compression                412 - 469 psi         327 psi            Shaft Hole 1.0.      (10.500-10.518 mm)
 Pressure                [29 - 33 kgf/Cm2~     (23 kgf/cm 2)
                          2.84 - 3.24 MPa       (2.26 MPa)

                                                                    Tappet
Valves
                                                                     Clearance between      0.0006 - 0.0020 in.        0.0039 in.
 Valve Clearance          0.005 - 0.007 in.         -                Tappet and Guide      (0.016 - 0.052 mm)          (0.10 mm)
 (Cold)                 (0.145 - 0.185 mm)
 Valve Seat Width              0.083 in.            -
                                                                     Tappet 0.0.             0.707 - 0.708 in.             -
                                                                                          (17.966-17.984 mm)
                              (2.12 mm)
 Valve Seat Angle                 45°               -
                                                                     Tappet Guide 1.0.       0.708 - 0.709 in.             -
                                                                                           (18.000-18.018 mm)
                             (0.785 rad.)
 Valve Face Angle                 45°               -
                             (0.785 rad.)                           Camshaft
 Valve Recessing         -0.003 - 0.003 in.      0.011 in.
                         (-0.10 - 0.10 mm)      (0.30 mm)            Camshaft Side         0.005 - 0.012 in.             0.020 in.
                                                                     Clearance             (0.15 - 0.31 mm)             (0.5 mm)
 Clearance between        0.001 - 0.002 in.      0.003 in.
 Valve Stem and         (0.030 - 0.057 mm)      (0.10 mm)            Camshaft Alignment            -                   0.0004 in.
 Valve Guide                                                                                                            (0.01 mm)
 Valve Stem 0.0.          0.234 - 0.235 in.         -                Cam Height                 1.058 in.                1.056 in.
                        (5.968 - 5.980 mm)                           (I ntake, Exhaust)        (26.88mm)               (26.83 mm)
 Valve Guide 1.0.         0.236 - 0.237 in.         -                Camshaft Oil            0.002 - 0.003 in.           0.005 in.
                        (6.010 - 6.025 mm)                           Clearance             (0.050 - 0.091 mm)           (0.15 mm)
                                                                           camshaft          1.296 -1.297 in.              -
                                                                           JoumaIO.D.     (32.934- 32.950 mm)
Valve Timing
                                                                           Camshaft          1.299 -1.300 in.              -
 Intake Valve Open      20° (0.35 rad.) BTDC        -                      Bearing 1.0.   (33.000 - 33.025 mm)
 Intake Valve Closed    45° (0.79 rad.) ABDC        -
 Exhaust Valve Open     50° (0.87 rad.) BBDC        -
 Exhaust Valve Closed   15° (0.26 rad.) ATDC        -




                                                        ....Unlvarsal
                                                               15
                                               SERVICE STANDARDS
Timing Gear                                                       Crankshaft
     DESCRIPTION       STANDARD VALUE            LIMIT                 DESCRIPTION         STANDARD VALUE             LIMIT
 Timing Gear                                                       Crankshaft Alignment            -                0.003 in.
 Backlash                                                                                                          (0.02 mm)
      Crank Gear-     0.001 - 0.004 in.         0.005 in.          Oil Clearance between      0.001 - 0.004 in.     0.007 in.
      Oil Pump        (0.041-0.123 mm)         (0.15 mm)           Crankshaft and           (0.034 - 0.106 mm)     (0.20 mm)
      Drive Gear                                                   Crankshaft Bearing No.1
      Idler Gear-     0.001 - 0.004 in.         0.005 in.               Crankshaft 0.0.      1.5722 -1.5728 in.       -
      Cam Gear        (0.047 - 0.123 mm)       (0.15 mm)                                   (39.934 - 39.950 mm)
      Idler Gear-     0.001 - 0.004 in.         0.005 in.               Crankshaft             1.574 -1.576 in.       -
      Injection Pump (0.046 - 0.124 mm)        (0.15 mm)                Bearing No.1 1.0. (39.984 - 40.040 mm)
      Gear
                                                                   Oil Clearance between      0.001 - 0.003 in.     0.007 in.
      Idler Gear-     0.001 - 0.004 in.         0.005 in.          Crankshaft and           (0.034 - 0.092 mm)     (0.20 mm)
      Crank Gear      (0.043 - 0.124 mm)       (0.15 mm)           Crankshaft Bearing No.2
 Idler Gear Side      0.007 - 0.020 in.        (10.023 in.              Crankshaft 0.0.        1.729-1.730 in.        -
 Clearance            (0.020 - 0.51 mm)         0.60 mm)                                   (43.934 - 43.950 mm)
 Clearance between    0.0007  - 0.0033 in.     0.0039 in.               Crankshaft             1.731 -1.733 in.       -
 Idler Gear Shaft and (0.020 - 0.084 mm)       (0.10 mm)                Bearing No.2 1.0. (43.984 - 44.026 mm)
 Idler Gear Bushing
                                                                   Oil Clearance between       0.001 - 0.003 in.    0.007 in.
      Idler Gear      0.786 - 0.786 in.            -               Crankshaft and           (0.034 - 0.092 mm)     (0.20 mm)
      Shaft 0.0.      (19.967 -19.980 mm)                          Crankshaft Bearing No.3
      Idler Gear      0.787 - 0.789 in.            -                    Crankshaft 0.0.      1.5722 -1.5728 in.       -
      Bushing 1.0.    (20.000 - 20.051 mm)                                                 (39.934 - 39.950 mm)
                                                                        Crankshaft             1.574 -1.575 in.       -
                                                                        Bearing No.3 1.0. (39.984 - 40.026 mm)
Cylinder Liner
                                                                   Oil Clearance between 0.0007 - 0.0031 in.       0.0059 in.
 Cylinder Liner 1.0.      2.637 - 2.638 in.      2.644 in.         Crank Pin and            (0.019 - 0.081 mm)     (0.15 mm)
                        (67.000 - 67.019 mm)   (67.169 mm)         Crank Pin Bearing
 Oversized Cylinder       2.647 - 2.648 in.      2.654 in.              Crankshaft 0.0.        1.336 -1.337 in.       -
 Liner 1.0.             (67.250 - 67.269 mm)   (67.419mm)                                  (33.959 - 33.975 mm)
                                                                        Crank Pin              1.338 - 1.340 in.      -
                                                                        Bearing 1.0.       (33.994 - 34.040 mm)
Piston & Piston Ring                                               Crankshaft Side            0.005 - 0.012 in.     0.019 in.
                                                                   Clearance                  (0.15 - 0.31 mm)     (0.50 mm)
 Piston Pin Hole 1.0.    0.7874 - 0.7879 in.    0.7894 in.
                        (20.000 - 20.013 mm)   (20.05 mm)
 Piston Ring                                                      Connecting Rod
 Clearance
     Second               0.003 - 0.004 in.      0.005 in.         Connecting Rod                  -                0.002 in.
     Compression        (0.085 - 0.115 mm)      (0.15 mm)          Alignment                                       (0.05 mm)
      Ring No.2                                                    Clearance between        0.0005 - 0.0015 in.    0.0039 in.
      Oil Ring          0.0008 - 0.0024 in.     0.0059 in.         Piston Pin and Small    (0.014 - 0.038 mm)       0.10 mm)
                         (0.02 - 0.06 mm)       (0.15mm)           End Bushing
 Ring Gap                                                               Piston Pin 0.0.    0.7874 - 0.7878 in.         -
                                                                                          (20.002-20.011 mm)
     Top Compression      0.005 - 0.011 in.     0.047 in.
     Ring and            (0.15 - 0.30 mm.)      (1.2 mm)               Small End           0.7883 - 0.7889 in.         -
     Oil Ring                                                          Bushing 1.0.       (20.025 - 20.040 mm)
     Second               0.011 - 0.017 in.     0.047 in.
     Compression         (0.30 - 0.45 mm.)      (1.2 mm)
      Ring
 Oversize of                 +0.009 in.            -
 Piston Rings               +(0.25 mm)




                                                       ··Unlvarsal
                                                             16
                                                 SERVICE STANDARDS
LUBRICATION SYSTEM                                                          ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Oil Pump                                                                    Starter
   DESCRIPTION          STANDARD VALUE                 LIMIT                   DESCRIPTION             STANDARD VALUE          LIMIT
 Engine Oil Pressure                                                         Commutator 0.0.                 1.102 in.       1.063 in.
                                14 psi                  -                                                  (28.0 mm)        (27.0 mm)
     At Idle Speed
                            (1.0 kgf/cm2)                                    Mica Undercut              0.020 - 0.031 in.    0.008 in.
                               (98 kPa)                                                                  (0.5 - 0.8 mm)      (0.2 mm)
     At Rated Speed          28 - 64 psi               14 psi                Brush Length                    0.630 in.       0.413 in.
                        (2.0 - 4.5 kgf/cm2)        (1.0 kgf/cm 2
                                                               )                                            (16.0 mm)       (10.5 mm)
                          (196-441 kPa)               (98 kPa)
 Clearance between       0.012 - 0.005 in.              -                   Alternator
 Inner Rotor and         (0.03 - 0.14 mm)
 Outer Rotor
                                                                             No-load Voltage          13.7 -14.1 Vat 1500 - 2000 rpm
 Clearance between       0.002 - 0.005 in.              -
 Outer Rotor and         (0.07 - 0.15 mm)                                    Stator Resistance      4.1 - 4.7 Q at 70 - 80°F (21 - 27°C)
 Pump Body                                                                   Brush Length (minimum)            0.25 in. (6 mm)
 End Clearance           0.002 - 0.005 in.              -
 between Inner Rotor   (0.075 - 0.135 mm)
 and Cover                                                                  Glow Plug

COOLING SYSTEM                                                              I Glow Plug Resistance I     Approx. 0.9 Q

Thermostat
Thermostat's Valve       157.1 -162.5°F                  -
Opening Temperature      (69.5 - 72.5°C)
Temperature at                185°F                      -
which Thermostat              (85°C)
Completely Opens

FUEL SYSTEM
Injection Pump
 Injection Timing         20-22° BTDC                    -
                         (0.35 - 0.38 rad.)
 Fuel TIghtness                  -                     2133 psi
 of Pump Element                                     150 kgf/cm 2
                                                      14.71 MPa
 Fuel Tightness                  -                    5 seconds
 of Delivery Valve                               2133 --+ 1990 psi
                                                 ~50 --+140 kgfIcm2)
                                                  (14.7 -13.7 MPa)

Injection Nozzle
 Fuel Injection          1991 - 2133 psi                 -
 Pressure               ~14O -150 kgf/crn2)
                        ( 3.73 -14.71 MPa)
 Fuel TIghtness of      When the pressure is             -
 Nozzle Valve Seat     1849 psi (130 kgf/crn2)
                           (12.75 MPa),
                        the valve seat must
                            be fuel tight.




                                                             :+.   .Unlvarsal
                                                                       17
                                          ENGINE DESCRIPTION




                                                                               --,CjIJ.I~rtrrl- PISTON



          CRANKSHAFT
          PULLEY
                                                                             ,,-;/I-.:::~~f-- CONNECTING
                                                                                                        ROD




CYLINDER BLOCK                                                . CYLINDER HEAD
The engine has a high durability tunnel-type cylinder block    The cross-flow type intake and exhaust ports in this engine
in which the crank bearing component is a constructed body.    have their openings at both sides of the cylinder head.
                                                               Because the overlaps of the intake and exhaust ports are
                                                               smaller than in the ports of other types of engines which have
                                                               their openings on one side, the intake air is protected from
                                                               being heated and expanded by the heated exhaust air. The
                                                               cool, high-density intake air has high volume efficiency· and
                                                               increases the power of the engine. Distortion of the cylinder
                                                               head by heated exhaust gas is reduced because the intake
                                                               ports are arranged alternately.
                                                                                    INTAKE PORTS




                       CRINDER BLOCK



                                                   ··Unlvarsal
                                                         MARINE POWER
                                                                                               EXHAUST PORTS


                                                          18
                                             ENGINE DESCRIPTION
Installed into the precombustion chamber are a throttle type         PISTON AND PISTON RINGS
fuel injector and a rapid-heating sheathed-type glow plug.
                                                                     The piston is made of an aluminum alloy. Two recesses for
The glow plugs assure easier engine starts, even at 5° F
                                                                     the valves are provided on top of the piston. A fan-shaped
(-15° C).                           GLOW PLUG                        depression is also on top of the piston in order to allow com-
                                                                     bustion gas to flow smoothly. The piston pin is slightly off
                                                                     center. With this design, the run-out of the piston at the top
                                                                     and bottom dead points is reduced, thereby resulting in
       FUEL
                                                                     lower operating noise.
       INJECTOR
                                                                     The piston has a slightly oval shape when cold due to ther-
                                                                     mal expansion and a concave head. Three rings are installed
                                                                     in grooves in the piston.
PRECOMBUSTION
CHAMBER                                                              The top ring is a keystone type, which can stand heavy
                                                                     loads, and the barrel-shaped facing on this ring fits well to
      AIR INLET_-I=~F-M~~~"""'.s.~!                                  the cylinder wall.
      THROAT
                                                                     The second ring is an undercut type, which effectively pre-
                                                                     vents the oil from being carried up.
In the precombustion chamber, the intake air is whirled              The oil ring has chamfered contact faces and an expander
and mixed efficiently with the fuel, assuring proper com-            ring, which increases the pressure of the oil ring against the
bustion and reducing fuel consumption. The shape of the              cylinder wall.
throat in the air inlet to the combustion chamber produces,
under compression, an ideal mixture of air and fuel.

  FUEL INJECTOR
  NOZZLE                                                                               f?r-------./" r:J TOP RING
                                                                                       ~~~~~~g~"rJ SECOND RING
                                                                                                            ~~
PRECOMBUSTION
CHAMBER
                                                                                                                          OILRING




                                                                                               PISTON


                                                                     Several grooves are cut into the piston's crown to swirl the
                                                                     fueVair mixture for complete combustion and to allow a smooth
                                                                     ejection of the exhaust gas.
                                       AIR INLET
                                       THROAT

CRANKSHAFT
The crankshaft with the connecting rod converts the recip-                                          --J_-~- ,DEPRESSION
rotating motion of the piston into a rotating motion. The crank-
shaft is made of tough special alloy steel, and the journals, pins
and oil seal sliding portions are induction-hardened for higher
wear resistance. The front journal is supported by a solid type
bearing, the intermediate journal by a split type bearing and the
rear journal by a split type bearing with thrust bearings. The
crankshaft has an oil gallery, through which engine oil is fed to
the crankpin to lubricate it.

                                                                                               VALVE
                                                                                               RECESSES




                             0:; 1'DO.'
                  'DO~s-J
                        CRANKSHAFT
                                         f   BEARINGS
                                                        .."
                                                              UnIvarsaI
                                                               MARINE POWER



                                                                19
                                               ENGINE DESCRIPTION
CONNECTING ROD                                                       FUEL CAMSHAFT
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft.            The fuel camshaft controls the reciprocating movement of
The big end of the connecting rod has a split type crankpin          the injection pump. The fuel camshaft is made of carbon
bearing and the small end has a solid type bushing.                  steel and the cam sections are quenched and tempered to
                                                                     provide greater wear resistance.
               SMALL END
               BUSHING



         CONNECTING ROD




           CRANKPIN
           BEARING    ~
                             ~
                                                                                          FUEL CAMSHAFT ASSEMBLY
                           CONNECTING ROD
                                                                     FLYWHEEL
                                                                     The flywheel stores the rotating force of the combustion
ROCKER ARM                                                           stroke as inertial energy, reduces crankshaft rotating speed
The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms, rocker             fluctuation and maintains smooth rotating conditions. The
arm brackets and rocker arm shaft. This assembly converts            flywheel's periphery is inscribed with marks showing the top
the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an                    dead center mark Te. The flywheel has gear teeth around
open/close movement of the intake and exhaust valves.                its outer rim that mesh with the starter's drive pinion.
Lubricating oil is force-fed through the bracket to the rock-
er arm shaft, which by its reciprocating motion, distributes
lubricating oil throughout the entire rocker arm assembly.
                                                    $)




          ROCKER ARM
          SHAFT


                                                                     VALVE TIMING
                                                                     The timing for opening and closing the valves is extremely
                                                                     important in order to achieve effective air intake and suffi-
                                                                     cient gas exhaust.
                                                                     The appropriate timing can be obtained by aligning the
  ROCKER ARM                                                         marks on the crank gear and the cam gear when assembling.
          #J                  ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
                                                                      1. Inlet valve opens            20° (0.35 rad.) before lD.C.
CAMSHAFT                                                              2. Inlet valve closes            45° (0.79 rad.) after B.D.C.
The camshaft is made of special cast iron, and the journal            3. Exhaust valve opens          50° (0.87 rad.) before B.D.C.
and cam sections are hardened to resist wear. The journal
sections are force-lubricated.                                        4. Exhaust valve closes          15° (0.26 rad.) after lD.C.

                                                                                                CD   T.D.C.   ®


                                                                                                                   VALVE TIMING




                                                                                                                     @
               CAMSHAFT ASSEMBLY

                                                                                                     B.D.C.

                                                                20
                            ENGINE DISASSEMBLY &REASSEMBLY
Before disassembling your engine, read the following                ·   Replace plain bearings if they are peeling, burned or
GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES and GENERAL                              otherwise damaged.
REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES. They will provide impor-                     ·   Reassemble parts (e.g. pistons, piston rings, bearings,
tant information to ensure the proper servicing of your                 bearing caps) in their proper order, positions and
engine.                                                                 directions relative to the engine block. Avoid reversed
The EXTERNAL COMPONENTS DISASSEMBLY/                                    orientation - note that the cylinder head gasket, head
REASSEMBLY section gives the order of removal of the                    bolt washers and thermostat are assymetrical. Any
engine's external components (alternator, heat exchanger,               mating marks that were drawn or scribed during disas-
air intake silencer, etc.). These components are reinstalled            sembly should be positioned correctly for reassembly.
in the reverse of their order of disassembly.                           Position gaskets carefully, especially the head gasket,
Specific disassembly/reassembly information is provided                 so they will not be damaged during assembly.
for the main engine parts (bearings, crankshaft, pistons,           ·   Inspect all critical clearances, end plays, oil clearances,
etc.) in individual sections.                                           and bends. Refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS
                                                                        section.
GENERAL DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURES
                                                                    ·   Use liquid sealants when specified or needed on nuts,
NOTE: Before disassembly and cleaning, carefully check                  bolts and gaskets. Use Permatex No.2 or equivalent.
for defects which cannot be found after disassembly and                 Don't use tape sealants. Refer to SEAlANTS &
cleaning.                                                               LUBRICANTS in this manual.
·   All disassembled parts should be carefully arranged in          ·   Tighten the bolts and nuts on the important parts of the
    the order of reassembly. Mark or label the parts as                 engine to the specified torques using a reliable torque
    needed to insure proper mating and reassembly in the                wrench. Tighten fasteners in the specified torque
    proper directions and positions.                                    sequences, and in three steps: 1/2, 2/3, and 111 torque.
·   If the disassembly procedure is complex requiring many              Exceptions are torque-to-yield head bolts and rocker
    parts to be disassembled, the parts should be disassem-             arm shaft fasteners. The former are torqued as indicat-
    bled in a way that will allow them to be efficiently                ed. The latter - rocker shaft fasteners - should be
    reassembled without any change in the engine's exter-               brought down in very small increments, working from
    nal appearance or its performance.                                  the center bolts out. Where a tightening torque is not
·   Do not remove or disassemble parts that require no                  specified, tighten evenly to an ordinary torque.
    disassembly.                                                    ·   After completion of reassembly, recheck for any abnor-
·   Carefully inspect each part after removal for damage,               malities. Then fill the engine cooling system with
    deformation, and other problems.                                    pre-mixed coolant (50/50 good quality antifreeze and
                                                                        distilled water). Fill the engine oil sump to the mark on
·   Carefully check gaskets packings and oil seals, even if             the dipstick with lube oil (A.P.I. spec. CF or CG-4).
    checking is not specified. Replace with new ones, if
    defective.                                                          Test run the engine under load prior to reinstalling. At
                                                                        this time readjust the valve clearances on the hot
·   Be careful not to damage the disassembled parts. Keep               engine.
    the parts clean.
                                                                        Allow the engine to cool to room temperature and
·   Use the proper tools. Apply oil when necessary. Take                retorque the cylinder head bolts and re-check the valve
    special care to keep the fuel system parts free from the            clearances (see ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS).
    intrusion of dust and dirt.
                                                                     TRANSMISSION
GENERAL REASSEMBLY PROCEDURES                                        1. Unplug the instrument panel wiring harness.
·   Clean or wash the parts to be reassembled. Apply lubri-
                                                                     2. Drain the transmission fluid.
    cating oil when specified or as needed to the surfaces
    of moving parts during reassembly. Heavily oil sliding,          3. Unbolt the transmission from the engine.
    turning, rotating and reciprocating parts; lightly oil            NOTE: For transmission service and maintenance, refer to
    head bolts and other fasteners except those that pene-            your transmission owners manual. To rebuild a transmis-
    trate into the water jacket. These fasteners should be          , sion, contact your UNIVERSAL dealer or a qualified
    sealed with Permatex No.2 or a high-tack equivalent.              marine transmission service facility.
    Make sure that moving parts, after assembly onto the
    engine, are not subject to binding or excessive tension.         If the transmission is not being rebuilt, it should be visually
                                                                     inspected. Inspect and lubricate the gear shift linkage and
·   Carefully check gaskets, packings and oil seals, even if         the propeller shaft coupling. Clean and repaint the trans-
    checking is not specified. Use new gaskets, lockwash-            mission and change the transmission fluid. Refer to the
    ers and O-rings.                                                 TRANSMISSIONS section in this manual.
·   Be careful not to mix bolts and nuts. Both metric and
    S.A.E. bolts are used on various engine assemblies.




                                                               21
                              ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
NOTE: After servicing the engine, reinstall the external
components in the reverse of their order of removal.
With the transmission separated from the engine, begin the
following step-by-step disassembly procedure.
1. Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt
   and oil.
2. Mount the engine on a suitable engine stand for
   disassembly.
3. Drain the coolant from the engine and engine hoses,
   and from the heat exchanger. Drain the fuel, and drain
   or pump out the engine oil.
4. Remove the engine wiring harness in its entirety. Label
   the terminal connections to insure proper reattachment.

                                                                   DAMPER
                                                                   PLATE
         LABEL THE TERMINAL
            CONNECTIONS
                                                                    11. Remove the exhaust manifold.
                                                                        When Reassembling:
                                                                        Retighten the exhaust manifold using the same torque
                                                                        after idling for 20 minutes.

   When Reassembling:
   Check all AC and DC wiring connections by referring
   to the UNIVERSAL wiring diagrams and schematics.
5. Remove the engine heat exchanger. If possible, leave
   one end of each hose connection attached to the heat
   exchanger. The heat exchanger should be serviced
   when the engine is overhauled (see HEAT EXCHANG-
   ER under COOliNG SYSTEM for inspection and
   servicing information).                                           12. Remove the drive belt, alternator and alternator adjust-
                                                                         ing strap.
                                                                         See ALTERNATOR TROUBLESHOOTING for testing
                                                                         information.
                                                                         When Reassembling:


                                                                             A CAUTION:       Connect the alternator properly.
                                                                             Should the polarity be reversed, a powerful cur-
                                                                             rent would flow from the battery into the alterna-
                                                                             tor, damaging the diodes and wiring harness.

                                                                        a. Install the alternator cap screw through the alternator
                                                                           leg (underside) and spacer into the alternator bracket.
                                                                        b. Swing the alternator into position on the adjusting
                                                                           strap and fasten. Lightly tighten.
6. Remove the starter motor.
                                                                        c. Install the drive belt and adjust the belt tension.
7. Remove the engine bellhousing.
                                                                        d. Tighten both bolts and recheck the belt tension.
8. Remove the transmission damper plate.
                                                                        NOTE: Make certain the belts are perfectly aligned with
9. Remove the flywheel and flywheel washer.
                                                                        the alternator and engine pulleys. If not, insert or
10. Remove the engine back plate.                                       remove spacers as needed, to align the alternator.

                                                       ... s+Unlvarsal
                                                              MARINE POWER


                                                               22
                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY &REASSEMBLY
                                                                                          CYLINDER
                                                                                          HEAD COVER




13. Remove the raw water pump.
14. Remove the oil level dipstick.
15. Remove the oil filter.
16. Remove the fuel supply line from the fuel lift pump to
    the fuel filter.
17. Remove the fuel supply line from the fuel filter to the         26. Remove the glow plugs.
    fuel injection pump (note the arrangement of the seal-          CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
    ing washers on the banjo bolts at the fuel filter and
    injection pump).
                                                                    Cylinder Head Cover
                                                                    1. Remove the cylinder head cover cap nuts.
18. Remove the fuel lift pump.
19. Remove the engine-mounted fuel filter and fuel filter           2. Remove the cylinder head cover.
    bracket.                                                        When Reassembling:
20. Remove the thermostat housing, gasket, and the ther-            1. Check the cylinder head cover gasket; if it is defective,
    mostat. Leave the temperature sender in place.                     replace it.

                 DRAIN                                                Tightening torque    Cylinder head        2.9 - 4.3 ft.-Ibs.
                 CDCK                                                                      cover nuts          (0.4 - 0.6 kgf-m)
                                                                                                                 (3.9 - 5.9 Nm)


TEMPERATURE
SWITCH

 TEMPERATURE
 SENDER                                                                                                               CYLINDER
                                                                                                                      HEAD COVER




    THERMOSTAT



                                                                     Nozzle Holder Assembly
                                                                     1. Loosen the screws on the fuel injection line clamps.
                                                                     2. Remove the fuel injection lines from the injection pump to
                                                                        the injectors.
                              THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY                        NOTE: Cap the ends of the lines, and the connections
                                                                         at the injection pump and at the injectors, to prevent
                                                                         entry offoreign material.
21. Remove the air intake silencer.                                  3. Remove the fuel overflow lines from the tops of the injec-
                                                                        tors, and the fuel return line from the injectors to the
22. Remove the front and rear lifting eyes.
                                                                        injection pump. Note the washer arrangement on the
23. Remove the intake manifold.                                         banjo bolts. Cap all openings on these fuel lines, on the
24. Remove the alternator bracket.                                      injectors, and the injection pump.
25. Remove the crankcase breather hose.
                                                     ... ...Unlvarsal
                                                              MARINE POWER


                                                               23
                            ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
4. Loosen the fuel injectors and unscrew them from the                     Rocker Arm Assembly and Push Rods
   cylinder head.
                                                                           1. Remove the rocker arm bracket mounting nuts.
5. Remove the COPI><' gaskets on the seats~                                2. Detach the rocker arm as an assembly.
                                                                           3. Remove the push rods.

    CLAMPS
                                       ~UEL
                                             RETURN
                                             LINE
                                                   111                     When Reassembling:
                                                                           1. When installing the push rods onto the tappets, make
                                        FUEL
                                        OVERFLOW            ~                 sure their ends are properly engaged with the grooves.
                                        LINES                  ~
                                                                            Tightening torque     Rocker arm           7.2 - 8.3 ft.-Ibs.
                                            \ \-                                                  bracket nut        (1.00-1.15 kgf-m)
                                                                                                                       (9.8-11.3 Nm)


                                                                                                    STANDARD VALUE
                                                                            Valve clearance          0.005 - 0.007 in.
                                                                                                   (0.145 - 0.185 mm)

                                                                           NOTE: After reassembling the rocker arm assembly, be sure
                                                                           to adjust the valve clearances.


6. Remove the nozzle heat seals (applies only to engines
   having Serial No. 489291 or higher).
   NOTE: Use a Phillips screwdriver that has a diameter
   larger than the heat seal hole (0.25 in. (6 mm)).
   a. Insert the screwdriver lightly into the heat seal hole.
   b. Tum the screwdriver three or four times in each
      direction. While turning the screwdriver, slowly
      pull the heat seal out together with the injection
      nozzle copper washer.
   c. If the heat seal drops, repeat the above procedure.
      The heat seal and injection nozzle copper washer
      must be changed when the injection nozzle is                                     ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY AND PUSH RODS
      removed for cleaning or for service.
                                                                           Cylinder Head
 PHILLIPS
 SCREWDRIVER                                                               1. Remove the crankcase breather hose.
                                                                           2. Remove the cylinder head screws in a descending
                                                                              sequence from 14 to 1 (see illustration). Then remove the
                                                                              cylinder head.
                                                                           3. Remove the cylinder head gasket and O-ring.
                                                                           When Reassembling:
                                                                           1. Replace the head gasket with a new one.
                                                                           2. Install the cylinder head, using care not to damage the
                                                                              O-ring.
                                  FUEL INJECTOR                            3. After applying engine oil, tighten the cylinder head
                                                                              screws gradually in an ascending sequence from 1 to 14
When Reassembling:                                                            (see illustration).
                       Injection line        18.1 - 25.3 ft. -Ibs.         4. Retighten the cylinder head screws after running the
                       retaining nuts         (2.5 - 3.5 kgf-m)               engine for 30 minutes.
                                              (24.5 -34.3 Nm)
 Tightening torque
                       Fuel injector         36.2 - 50.6 ft.-Ibs.
                                              (5.0 - 7.0 kgf-m)
                                              (49.0 -68.6 Nm)

                                                           4   .Unlvarsal
                                                                     MARINE POWER


                                                                      24
                                   ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                            Glow plugs                  5.8 -10.8 ft.-Ibs.           TIMING GEARS AND CAMSHAFT
                                                         (0.8 - 1.5 kgf-m)           Injection Pump and Speed Control Plate
                                                          (7.8 -14.7 Nm)
 Tightening torque                                                                   1. Remove the socket head screws and nuts, and remove
                             Cylinder head              28.9 - 32.5 ft.-Ibs.
                             screws                      ~4.0 - 4.5 kgf-m~                the injection pump.


          ,
                                                          39.2 - 44.1 Nm             NOTE: The fuel injection pump is a very important com-

                      10
                                                        - ....                       ponent of the diesel engine, requiring the utmost care in
                                                                                     handling. It has been thoroughly bench-tested, and the
                                   2                7                                owner/operator is cautioned not to attempt to service it.

              196~6g6~
   GEAR                                                          FLYWHEEL
                                                                                     If the fuel injection pump requires servicing, remove it and
   CASE   I                                                      SIDE                take it to an authorized fuel injection pump service facility.
   SIDE
                                                                                     Do not attempt to disassemble and repair it. If the pump is
              o             0                0         0                             defective, UNIVERSAL recommends that you replace the
              13      09        5 01          4     08 12                            entire pump.
                             CYLINDER HEAD                                           The only adjustments the servicing mechanic should make
Tappets                                                                              to the fuel injection pump are the adjustments for idle
1. Remove the cylinder head gasket and O-ring.                                       speed (see IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE
                                                                                     ADJUSTMENTS), and injection timing (see INJECTION
2. Remove the tappets from the crankcase.
                                                                                     TIMING ADJUSTMENT), below.
   NOTE: Mark the cylinder numbers on the tappets to
                                                                                     2. Remove the screws and separate the speed control
   prevent interchanging.
                                                                                          plate, taking care not to damage the spring.
When Reassembling:
                                                                                     3. Disconnect the spring and remove the speed control
1. Before installing the tappets, apply engine oil thinly                                 plate.
   around them.




                                  TAPPETS
Valves
1. Remove the valve cap.
2. Remove the valve spring collet with a valve lifter.
3. Remove the valve spring retainers, valve spring and
   valve.
NOTE: When reassembling, don't change the valve/valve
guide combinations.
When Reassembling:
1. Wash the valve stem and valve guide hole, and apply
   sufficient engine oil.                                                                            INJECTIOII PUMP AND SPEED CONTROL PLATE
2. After installing the valve spring collet, lightly tap the
   valve stem with a plastic hammer to assure a proper fit.

                                       ~
                                             ALVE


              VALVE
              SPRING~
              COLLET


              (\\~
              ~~                  VALVE
                                             VALVE SPRING
                                                                     ~ .Unlvarsal
                      VALVE CAP   ~~~~~~ER                                     MARINE POWER


                                                                                25
                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY &REASSEMBLY
When Reassembling:
1. Hook the spring to the lever first, then install the speed
   control plate.
2. Be sure to place the copper washers underneath the two
   screws (see illustration).
3. Position the slot on the fork lever just under the slot on
   the crankcase.
4. Insert the injection pump so that the control rod is pushed         2. Unscrew the drive pulley mounting bolt and remove
   by the spring at its end, and the pin on the rod engages               the drive pulley.
   with the slot on the fork lever (see illustration).
                                                                       3. Unscrew the screw and disconnect the start spring in the
                                                                          speed control plate mounting hole.
                                                                       4. Unscrew the mounting screws and remove the gear case.




                                                                           DRIVE
                                                                           PULLEY

                INJECTION PUMP AND SPEED CONTROL PLATE



S. Install the shims as follows:
   Engine Serial Numbers up to 489290:
   1. Insert the same number of shims as used before,
      between the crankcase and the injection pump.
   2. The addition or subtraction of a shim 0.0059 in.
      (0.15 mm) delays or advances the injection timing
      by approx. IS (0.026 rad.).
   3. Apply a liquid-type gasket (HIGH TACK or equiva-
      lent) to both sides of the injection pump shim before
      reassembling.
   Engine Serial Numbers 489291 and up:
   1. Apply sealant to both sides of the soft metal gasket
      shim. Liquid gasket is not required.
                                                                       When Reassembling:
   2. The addition or subtraction of a shim (0.0020 in.
                                                                       1. Apply a liquid-type gasket (Three Bond 1215 or
      (0.05 mm» delays or advances the injection timing
                                                                          equivalent) to both sides of the gear case gasket.
      by approx. OS (0.0087 rad.).
                                                                       2. Be sure to set the three O-rings inside the gear case.
   3. In disassembling and replacing shims, be sure to
      use the same number of new gasket shims having                   3. Install the drive pulley to the crankshaft, aligning the
      the same thickness.                                                 marks on them (see illustration).

         Tightening        Injection pump      7.23 - 7.32 ft.-Ibs.                           Drive pulley      86.80 - 94.03 ft.-Ibs.
         torque            retaining screws     (1.0 - 1.5 kgf-m)                             mounting screw     (12.0 -13.0 kgf-m)
                           and nuts             (9.81 -11.3 Nm)                                                  (117.7 -127.5 Nm)
                                                                        Tightening torque
                                                                                              Gear case           7.23 - 8.32 ft.-Ibs.
                                                                                              screws              (1.0 -1.15 kgf-m)
    Drive Pulley and Gear Case                                                                                     (9.81 - 11.3 Nm)
    1. Remove the fuel lift pump.




                                                                  26
                             ENGINE DISASSEMBLY &REASSEMBLY
Idler Gear
1. Remove the external snap ring, the collar and the idler
   gear.
When Reassemblillg:
1. Install the idler gear, aligning the marks on the three
   gears that mesh with it (see illustration).



                                                                                                          /



                                                                                    RETAe\I0ffNING.Pl~;--;
                                                                         "INJECTION
                                                                            PUMP GEAR
                                                                                                      FUEL CAMSHAFT

                                                                  Oil Pump and Crankshaft Gears
                                                                  1. Unscrew the flange nut and remove the oil pump gear.
                                                                  2. Unscrew the mounting screws and remove the oil
                                            IDLER GEAR
                                                                     pump.
                                                                  3. Remove the collar, O-ring and oil slinger.
                                                                  4. Remove the crankshaft gear with a puller.
Fuel Camshaft
                                                                  When Reassembling:
1. Remove the screws and draw out the camshaft with the
    gear on it.                                                   1. Install the collar after aligning the marks on the gears
                                                                      (see illustration at Idle Gear) .
.2.. Remove the retaining plate.
3. Remove the screws, then pull out the injection pump
   gear and fuel camshaft with the governor fork assembly.
When Reassembling:
1. Hook the spring to the fork lever 2 (see illustration)
   before installing the fork lever assembly to the
   crankcase.




                                                                  PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
                                                                  Oil Pan and Oil Strainer
                                                                  1. Unscrew the oil pan mounting screws, and remove the
                                                                     oil pan.
                                                                  2. Unscrew the oil strainer mounting screw, and remove
                                                                     the oil strainer.
                                                                  When Reassembling:
                                                                  1. Install the oil strainer, taking care not to damage the 0-
                                                                     nng.
                                                                  2. Using the hole numbered "3", install the oil strainer
                                                                     using the mounting screw.




                                                             27
                                 ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                  " \ , (I!ll/"".'.' V'
                (~~r'
                r'                                    :~                    Piston and Connecting Rod
                      ."'-..,~,-..~ Y[    ).
                       --.JTA           /
                                                                            1. Unscrew the connecting rod screws, and remove the
             O-RING       r
                      --"15 "",_r   -~),;SCREW                                 connecting rod cap.
                                                                            2. Tum the crankshaft to bring the piston to top dead
                                                                               center.
                                                                            3. Push the connecting rod out from the bottom of the
                                                            OIL PAN            cylinder block with a handle of a hammer, then pull out
                                                            MOUNTING
                                                            SCREWS             the piston and connecting rod.
     OIL STRAINER                                                           NOTE: Do not change the combinations of cylinder and
                                                                            piston. Make sure of the location of each piston by marking
                                                                            it. For example, mark "1" on the No.1 piston.
                                                                            When Reassembling:
                          ~LEN02                                            1. Before inserting the piston into the cylinder, apply
                                                                               enough engine oil to the inside surface of the cylinder.
                                                                            2. Apply engine oil to the crankpin bearings and connect-
                                                                               ing rod screws.
                                                                            3. Be sure to install the piston and connecting rod into the
                                                 OIL STRAINER
                                                                               cylinder so that the number on the piston head is on
                                                                               the side opposite the injection pump.
                                                                            4. Align the alignment marks on the connecting rod and
                                                                               connecting rod cap.
3. Apply liquid gasket (GE RTV 100 Silicon Rubber Adhesive
   Sealant or equivalent) to the oil pan as follows (see illus-             5. When inserting the piston into the cylinder, face the
   tration):                                                                   mark on the connecting rod toward the injection pump.
   a. Scrape off the old adhesive completely. Wipe the seal-                 Tightening torque           Connecting rod        19.5 - 22.4 ft.-Jbs.
      ing surface clean using a waste cloth soaked with                                                  screws                 (2.7 - 3.1 kgf-m)
      gasoline. Now apply the new adhesive 118 - 3/16 in.                                                                       (26.5 -30.4 Nm)
      (3 -5 mm) thick all over the contact surface. Apply the
      adhesive also on the center of the flange as well as on
      the inner wall of each bolt hole.
                                                                                           ~
   h. Cut the nozzle of the fluid sealant container at its sec-                                                      o
      ond notch. Apply fluid sealant about 3/16 in. (5 mm)                                J 0                    0
      thick.
       Within 20 minutes after the application of the fluid
       sealant, reassemble the components. Wait for about 30                 CONNECTING -l..LL---+H..,.....'-1
       minutes, then pour oil in the crankcase.                              ROO




                                                                                                                                  NUMBER




                                                                                        CONNECTING
                                                                                        ROD


                                    OIL PAN



                                                                                     CONNECTING ----loJ.-.'\,
                                                                                     ROD CAP

                                                                                       CONNECTING _-'\c:~""-....~~
                                                                                       ROD SCREWS

                                                                                                   PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD




                                                                       28
                                  ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
Piston Rings and Connecting Rod                                       6. When inserting the piston into the cylinder, place the
                                                                         gap of compression ring No.1 on the side opposite the
1. Remove the piston rings using a piston ring tool.
                                                                         combustion chamber, and stagger the gaps of compres-
2. Position the alignment mark on the piston head (see                   sion ring No.2 and the oil ring from the gap of com-
   illustration).                                                        pression ring No.1 (see illustration).
3. Remove the piston pin and separate the connecting rod
   from the piston.
   NOTE: Do not change the combinations of connecting
   rod and piston. Mark an identifying number on each
   pair of connecting rod and piston.          ~
                                                                       Oil
                                           ALIGNMENT /     F",         RING
     PISTON PIN                            MARK                        GAP
     SNAP RINGS (2)
                              PISTON


                 b
                                                                                              45·
                                                                                           (0.79 rad.)




                         \                ~MO'"'                      7. Carefully insert the pistons using a piston ring com-
                                                                         pressor, otherwise their chrome-plated sections may be
                        ALIGNMENT                  ,,_
                        MARK (A NUMBER)            '.::I                 scratched, causing trouble inside the liner.
                  RING NO.2                                           FLYWHEEL AND CRANKSHAFT
                                                                      Flywheel
When Reassembling:
                                                                      1. Lock the flywheel using the flywheel stopper so it will
1. When installing the rings, assemble them so that the                       not tum.
   manufacturer's mark near the gap faces the top of the
   piston.                                                            2. Remove the flywheel screws, except for two which
                                                                         must be loosened and left as they are.
                                                                      3. Use a flywheel puller and remove the flywheel, or
                                                                         work the flywheel off using two screwdrivers.
                                                                      When Reassembling:
                                                                      1. Apply engine oil to the flywheel screws.

                                                                       Tightening torque      Flywheel bolts       39.8 - 43.4 ft.-Ibs.
2. When installing the oil ring onto the piston, place the                                                          ~5.5 - 6.0 kgf-m~
   expander joint on the opposite side of the oil ring gap.                                                          53.9 - 58.8 Nm
                                          /




           EXP,"'"    JO,,,-------,-O           OIL RING GAP




3. Apply engine oil to the piston pin and small end bushing.
4. Before installing the piston pin, immerse the piston in
   1760 F (80 0 C) oil for 10 to 15 minutes, then insert the
   piston pin into the piston.                                                             REMOVING THE FLYWHEEL
5. Install the connecting rod to the piston so that the align-
   ment mark on the connecting rod is on the opposite side
   of the alignment mark on the piston head (see illustration).




                                                                 29
                            ENGINE DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
Bearing Case Cover                                                      Main Bearing Case Assembly
1. Unscrew the bearing case cover mounting screws.                      1. Remove the two main bearing case screws 1, and remove
2. Remove the bearing case cover.                                          the main bearing case assembly 1, being careful with the
                                                                           thrust bearings and crankshaft bearing 2.
When Reassembling:
                                                                        2. Remove the main bearing case assemblies 2 and 3.
1. Apply a liquid-type gasket (Three Bond 1215 or its
   equivalent) to both sides of a new bearing case cover                When Reassembling:
   gasket.                                                              1. Clean the oil passage in the main bearing case.
2. Install the bearing case cover, with the casting mark on it          2. Apply clean engine oil on crankshaft bearing 2 and the
   pointing upward.                                                        thrust bearings.
3. Tighten the bearing case cover mounting screws with                  3. Install the main bearing case assemblies in their original
   even force on the diagonal line.                                        positions. Since the diameters of the main bearing cases
                                                                           vary, install them in the order of the markings (1, 2)
 Tightening torque     Bearing case       7.23 - 8.32 ft.-Jbs.             from the gear case side.
                       cover mounting    (1.00 -1.15 kgf-m)
                                          (9.81 -11.28 Nm)              4. When installing the main bearing case assemblies 2
                       screws                                              and 3, face the mark "FLYWHEEL" toward the fly-
                                                                           wheel.
                                               CASTING
                                               MARK                     5. Be sure to install the thrust bearings with their oil
                                                                           grooves facing outward.
                                                   BEARING
                                                   CASE COVER




Crankshaft
1. Unscrew the bearing case screws 2, and pullout the
   crankshaft.
When Reassembling:
1. Install the crankshaft sub-assembly, aligning the
   screw hole of main bearing case 2 with the screw hole of
   the cylinder block.
2. Apply engine oil to the seat and threads of bearing case                                                MAIN BEARING
                                                                                                           CASE ASSEMBLY 2
   screw 2, then tighten it.

 Tightening torque     Bearing case       19.5 - 22.4 ft. -Jbs.
                       screws 2            ~2.7 - 3.1 kgf-m~
                                            26.5 - 30.4 Nm




                                                                                   MAIN BEARING                  MAIN BEARING
                                                                                  CASE ASSEMBLY 2               CASE ASSEMBLY 1




                      CRANKSHAFT


                                                         ;., JJnlvarsal
                                                                  MARINE POWER


                                                                   30
                                                   ENGINE SERVICE
NOTE: Servicing specifications are included in this section.           Cylinder Head Flaw
Also refer to the SERVICE STANDARDS section.                           1. Prepare an air spray red check.
NOTE: Cylinder heads with serial numbers 489291 on up                  2. Clean the surface of the cylinder head with detergent.
are partially modified because of the introduction of the
                                                                       3. Spray the cylinder head surface with red permeative
nozzle heat seal. When replacing the cylinder head, see
                                                                          liquid. Wait five to ten minutes after spraying.
the parts list and choose the right one in reference to its
serial number.                                                         4. Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder
                                                                          head surface with the detergent.
CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
                                                                       5. Spray the cylinder head surface with white developer.
Cylinder Head Distortion
                                                                       6. If the surface is flawed, the flaws will be identified as
1. Thoroughly clean the cylinder head surface.                            red marks.
2. Place a straightedge on the cylinder head and measure
   for distortion in the six directions A through F as shown
   in the illustration. Measure the clearance with a feeler
   gauge.
                                                                                     ~              1IIila::rn:r         InI[1£!JIl
   NOTE: Do not place the straightedge on the combustion
   chamber.
3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, correct it with a
   surface grinder.
                                                                                     RC-AA
                                                                                      'M ··


                                                                                        8
                                                                                 RED PERMEATIVE
                                                                                                     ~J -
                                                                                                     ftC-AS


                                                                                                    DETERGENT
                                                                                                                             .-
                                                                                                                             Re-AC
                                                                                                                             [~
                                                                                                                         WHITE
   NOTE: Be sure to check the valve recession after                              L1aUID                                  DEVELOPER

                                                                       Valve Recession
                                                                       1. Clean the cylinder head, valve face and seat.
                                                                       2. Insert the valve into the valve guide.
                                                                       3. Measure the valve recession with a depth gauge.
                                                                       4. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the valve.
                                                                          If the measurement still exceeds the limit after replacing
                                                                          the valve, correct the valve seat face of the cylinder
                                                                          head with a valve seat cutter or valve seat grinder. Then
                                                                          correct the cylinder head surface with a surface grinder,
                                                                          or replace the cylinder head.
                     MEASURING FOR DISTORTION
                                                                                                      STANDARD VALUE                     LIMIT
                                                                         Valve recession              -0.003 - 0.003 in.                0.011 in.
                                                                         (Intake and exhaust)         (-0.10 - 0.10 mm)                (0.30 mm)




                                                                                                       Ii..o""::>'--O"   0    000
 Cylinder head
                          STANDARD VALUE
                                  -
                                                      LIMIT
                                                     0.002 in.                      o
                                                                                     o                  0
                                                                                                         0           ~oo~e
                                                                                                                                0
 surface flatness                                   (0.05 mm)                           °oOOoOOc
                                                                                        ~                          ~                  e:::
                                                                                              MEASURING VALVE RECESSION
  Finishing            8)..l R max.   8
                       'V\l           ~ unit: )..lm ()..lin.)




                                                         ··UnIVGrsal
                                                                 MARINE POWER


                                                                  31
                                                ENGINE SERVICE
Valve Stem to Valve Guide Clearance                                 Replacing Valve Guide
1. Remove carbon from the valve guide.                              When removing:
2. Measure the valve stem G.D. with an outside micro-               1. Using a valve guide replacing tool (see SPECIAL
   meter.                                                              TOOLS), press out the existing valve guide.
                                                                    When installing:
                                                                    1. Clean a new valve guide, and apply engine oil to it.
                                                                    2. Using a valve guide replacing tool (see SPECIAL
                                                                       TOOLS), press in a new valve guide until it is flush
                                                                       with the cylinder head as shown in the illustration.
                                                                    3. Ream the I.D. of the valve guide precisely to the speci-
                                                                       fied dimension.

                             t
                        -0-                                          A CAUTION:       00 not hit the valve guide with a
                                                                     hammer during replacement; only use the valve
                             t                                       guide replacing tool.

                         -- -                                                                 STANDARD VALUE
                                                                     Valve guide 1.0.          0.236 - 0.237 in.

                        - -                                          (intake and exhaust)    (6.010 - 6.025 mm)




                          -
                    CHECKING VALVE STEM

3. Using a small hole gauge, measure the valve guide I.D.
   where it shows maximum wear. Then calculate the
   clearance.
4. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the valve. If
   it still exceeds the limit, replace the valve guide.




                                                                                REMOVING               INSTALLING
                                                                               VALVE GUIDE            VALVE GUIDE




                           STANDARD VALUE           LIMIT
 Clearance between          0.001 - 0.002 in.     0.003 in.
 valve stem and valve     (0.030 - 0.057 mm)     (0.10 mm)
 guide

                                                                                INTAKE           EXHAUST
                           STANDARD VALUE                                       VALVE            VALVE
                                                                                GUIDE            GUIDE
 Valve stem 0.0.            0.234 - 0.235 in.
                          (5.968 - 5.980 mm)
 Valve guide 1.0.           0.236 - 0.237 in.
                          (6.010 - 6.025 mm)



                                                               32
                                                      ENGINE SERVICE
Checking the Valve Seating
1. Check the contact between the valve face and the valve
   seat.
2. Coat the valve face lightly with prussian blue and put
   the valve on its seat to check the contact.
3. If the valve does not seat all the way around the seat
   or the valve contact is less than 70%, correct the
   valve seating (see Correcting Valve and Valve Seat).
4. If the valve contact width A does not comply with the
   standard value, replace the valve or correct the valve
   seating.
                                                                                        o
                                                                                        ~         LAPPING THE VALVE
                             STANDARD VALUE
 Valve seat width A              0.083 in.
                                                                    Correcting Valve and Valve Seat
                                (2.12mm)                            NOTE: Before correcting the valve and seat, check the valve
                                                                    stem and the J.D. of the valve guide, and repair them if nec-
                                                                    essary. After correcting the valve seat, be sure to check the
                                                                    valve recession.
                                                                    1. Correcting the Valve
                                                                       a. Correct the valve with a valve refacer.

                                                                                               STANDARD VALUE
                                                                     Valve face angle             45.0° - 45.5°
                                                                                              (0.785 - 0.794 rad.)




    o  CORRECT
                       (-''to
                       ".~J
                         INCORRECT        INCORRECT




                                                                                        CORRECTING THE VALVE
             WIDTH "A"
                                                                    2. Correcting the Valve Seat

       ~                                                                a. Slightly correct the seat surface with a 45°
                                                                           (0.79 rad.) valve seat cutter (see illustration No.1).
                                                                        b. Install the valve and visually check the contact
                      CHECKING THE VALVE SEATING                           position of the valve face and seat surface using red
                                                                           lead (see illustration No.2). If the valve has been
Valve Lapping                                                              used for a long period, the seat tends to come in
1. Apply compound evenly to the valve lapping surface.                     contact with the upper side of the valve face.
2. Insert the valve into the valve guide. Lap the valve                 c. Grind the upper surface of the valve seat with a 15°
   onto its seat with a valve lapper or screwdriver.                       (0.26 rad.) valve seat cutter (illustration No.3) until
3. After lapping the valve, wash the compound away and                     the valve seat contact surface touches the center of
   apply oil, then repeat the valve lapping with the oil.                  the valve face (so that a equals b as shown in illus-
                                                                           tration No.5).
4. Apply red lead or prussian blue to the contact surface to
   check the seated surface. If it is less than 70%, repeat             d. Grind the seat with a 45° (0.79 rad.) valve seat
   the valve lapping again.                                                cutter again (illustration No.4), and visually
                                                                           recheck the contact between the valve and seat
NOTE: When valve lapping is performed, be sure to check                    (illustration No.5).
the valve recession, and adjust the valve clearance after
assembling the valve.                                     InlhlDI~rll



                                                               33
                                                             ENGINE SERVICE
   e. Repeat steps c and d until the correct contact is                 3. Check the entire surface of the spring for scratches, and
      achieved.                                                            replace the spring if there are any.
   f. Continue lapping until the seating contact becomes
      more than 70% of the total contact area.                                                     STANDARD VALUE               LIMIT
                                                                         Free length                   1.244 in.              1.118 in.
                                 STANDARD VALUE                                                       (31.6 mm)              (28.4 mm)
    Valve seat angle                   45.0 0                            Tilt                                -                0.047 in.
                                    (0.785 rad.)                                                                              (1.2 mm)




            15' (0.262 rad.)




                                                                                            MEASURING VALVE SPRING

                   CORRECTING THE VALVE SEAT
                                                                        Valve Spring Setting Load


       ttL. ,
       1. SLIGHTLY CORRECT
         THE SEAT SURFACE
                                           2. CHECK THE
                                              CONTACT POSITION
                                                                        1. Place the valve spring on a tester and compress it to the
                                                                           same length that it is compressed in the engine.
                                                                        2. Read the compression load on the gauge.
                                                                        3. If the measurement is less than the limit, replace the
                                                                           valve spring.

                                                                                                 STANDARD VALUE              LIMIT



       tfl~ ':)'2~ ·. ,
                                                                         Setting load            14.6 Ibs'/1.063 in.           -
                                                                                                  ~6.6 kgft 27 mm~
                                                                                                   64.7 Nt 27 mm
                                                                         Setting length                  -             12.3 Ibs./1.063 in.
       3. CORRECT THE SEAT                 4. CORRECT THE                                                               ~5.6 kgft 27 mm~
          WIOTH                               SEAT SURFACE                                                               54.9 Nt 27 mm



                              IDENTICAL
                              OIMENSIONS
                  VALVE SEAT WIDTH

       5. RECHECK THE
          CONTACT



Measuring Valve Spring
1. Measure the free length of the valve spring with
   vernier calipers (see illustration). If the measurement is
   less than the limit, replace it.
2. Put the spring on a level surface, place a square on the
   side of the spring, and check to see if the entire side is
   in contact with the square. Then rotate the spring and
   measure the maximum tilt (see illustration). If the                                    VALVE SPRING SETTING LOAD
   measurement exceeds the limit, replace the spring.




                                                                   34
                                                ENGINE SERVICE
Oil Clearance between Rocker Arm ShaH and Rocker                   Oil Clearance between Tappet and Tappet Guide Bore
Arm Bearing                                                        1. Measure the tappet 0.0. with an outside micrometer.
1. Measure the rocker arm bearing 1.0. with an inside              2. Measure the 1.0. of the tappet guide bore with a cylin-
   micrometer.                                                        der gauge, and calculate the oil clearance.
2. Measure the rocker arm shaft 0.0. with an outside               3. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit or the tappet is
   micrometer, then calculate the oil clearance.                      damaged, replace the tappet.
3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the rocker
   arm and measure the oil clearance again. If it still
   exceeds the limit, replace the rocker arm shaft also.

                         STANDARD VALUE           LIMIT
 Oil Clearance           0.0006 - 0.0017 in.    0.0059 in.
 between rocker arm      (0.016 - 0.045 mm)     (0.15 mm)
 shaft and rocker arm
 bearing


                         STANDARD VALUE
 Rocker arm shaft         0.4123 - 0.4127 in.
 0.0.                   (10.473 -10.484 mm)
 Rocker arm 1.0.           0.413 - 0.414 in.                        PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
                        (10.500 -10.518 mm)
                                                                    Piston Pin Bore 1.0.
                                                                    1. Measure the piston pin bore 1.0. in both the horizontal
                                                                       and vertical directions with a cylinder gauge.
                                                                    2. If the measureinent exceeds the limit, replace the
                                                                       piston.

                                                                                               STANDARD VALUE           LIMIT
                                                                     Piston pin-hole 1.0.      0.7874 - 0.7879 in.    0.7894 in.
                                                                                             (20.000 - 20.013 mm)    (20.05 mm)




         MEASURING ROCKER ARM SHAFT
          AND BEARING OIL CLEARANCES

Push Rod Alignment
1. Check both ends of the push rod for cracks, damage and
   unusual wear.
2. Measure the bending of the push rod with a dial
   indicator.                                                                   MEASURING PISTON PIN BORE I.D.
3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the push
   rod.
                                                                   Oil Clearance between Piston Pin and Connecting
                                                                   Rod Small End Bushing
                                                                   1. Measure the 0.0. of the piston pin where it contacts
                                                                      the bushing with an outside micrometer.




                                                     · ·Unlvanal
                                                             MARINE POWER


                                                              35
                                                   ENGINE SERVICE
2. Measure the 1.0. of the piston pin bushing at the con-
   necting rod small end with an inside micrometer.
   Calculate the oil clearance.
3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the bushing.
   If it still exceeds the limit, replace the piston pin.
                                                                                                                  "
                          STANDARD VALUE              UMIT
 Oil Clearance           0.0005 - 0.0015 in.       0.0039 in.
 between piston pin      (0.014 - 0.038 mm)        (0.10 mm)
 and small end
 bushing

                                                                                PRESSING OUT                   PRESSING IN
                          STANDARD VALUE                                        EXISTING BUSHING               NEW BUSHING

 Piston pin O.D.          0.7874 - 0.7878 in.                                 REPLACING CONNECTING ROD SMALL END BUSHING
                        (20.002 - 20.011 mm)
 Small end bushing        0.7883 - 0.7889 in.                        Piston Ring Gap
 I.D.                   (20.025 - 20.040 mm)                         1. Insert the piston ring into the lower part of the liner
                                                                        (the least worn out part of the liner) using a piston ring
                                                                        compressor and the piston.
                                                                     2. Measure the ring gap with a feeler gauge.
                                                                     3. If the gap exceeds the limit, replace the piston ring.
                                                                                           PISTON RING GAP
                                                                                                   STANDARD VALUE              UMIT
                                                                      Ring No.1                     0.005 - 0.011 in.        0.047 in.
                                                                      (top compression              (0.15- 0.30 mm)          (1.2 mm)
                                                                      ring) and oil ring
                                                                      Ring No.2                    0.011 - 0.017 in.         0.047 in.
                                                                      (second com pres-            (0.30 - 0.45 mm)          (1.2 mm)
                                                                      sion ring)


         MEASURING PISTON PIN AND CONNECTING ROD
            SMALL END BUSHING DR. CLEARANCE

Replacing Connecting Rod Small End Bushing
When removing:
1. Press out the existing bushing using a small end bush-
   ing replacing tool.
When installing:
1. Clean a new small end bushing and bore, and apply
   engine oil to them.
                                                                                        MEASURING PISTON RING GAP
2. Using a small end bushing replacing tool, press in a
   new bushing taking care to see that the connecting                Clearance between Piston Ring and Groove
   rod hole matches the bushing hole.                                1. Remove carbon from the ring grooves.

                           STANDARD VALUE             UMIT           2. Place the ring into the ring groove, and measure the
                                                                        clearance at several points around the ring groove with a
 Oil Clearance            0.0005 - 0.0029 in.      0.0039 in.           feeler gauge.
 between piston pin       (0.015 - 0.075 mm)       (0.10 mm)
 and small end                                                       3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the piston ring.
 bushing                                                                If this is not done, compression leakage and oil shortage
                                                                        would result.
                                                                     4. If the clearance still exceeds the limit after replacing
                                                                        the piston ring, replace the piston.


                                                        ,. JJnlvarsai
                                                                36
                                                   ENGINE SERVICE
   CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON RING AND GROOVE                          TIMING GEARS AND CAMSHAFT
                           STANDARD VALUE             LIMIT          Timing Gear Backlash
Ring No.2                   0.003 - 0.004 in.       0.005 in.        1. Set a dial indicator (lever type) with its tip on the gear
(second compres-          (0.085-0.115 mm)         (0.15 mm)            tooth.
sion ring)
                                                                     2. Move the gear to measure the backlash, holding its
Oil Ring                  0.0008 - 0.0024 in.      0.0059 in.
                           (0.02 - 0.06 mm)        (0.15 mm)            mating gear.
                                                                     3. If the backlash exceeds the limit, check the oil clearance
                                                                        of the shaft and gear.
                                                                     4. If the oil clearance is correct, replace the gear.

                                                                                                 STANDARD VALUE            LIMIT
                                                                      Backlash between            0.001 - 0.004 in.      0.005 in.
                                                                      idler gear and crank      (0.043 - 0.124 mm)      (0.15 mm)
                                                                      gear
                                                                      Backlash between            0.001 - 0.004 in.      0.005 in.
                                                                      idler gear and cam        (0.047 - 0.123 mm)      (0.15 mm)
                                                                      gear
   MEASURING CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON
  RING AND GROOVE (RING NO.2 AND OIL RING)                            Backlash between            0.001 - 0.004 in.      0.005 in.
                                                                      idler gear and injec-     (0.046 - 0.124 mm)      (0.15 mm)
                                                                      tion pump gear
Connecting Rod Alignment                                              Backlash between            0.001 - 0.004 in.      0.005 in.
NOTE: Since the J.D. of the connecting rod small end bush-            oil pump gear and         (0.041 - 0.123 mm)      (0.15 mm)
ing is the basis of this check, check this bushing for wear           crank gear
beforehand.
1. Remove the crankpin bearing, and install the connecting
   rod cap.
2. Install the piston pin in the connecting rod.
3. Install the connecting rod on the connecting rod align-
   ment tool.
4. Put a gauge over the piston pin, and move it against
   the face plate.
5. If the gauge does not fit squarely against the face plate,
   measure the space between the pins of the gauge and the
   face plate.
6. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the con-                           MEASURIIIG TIMIIIG GEAR BACKLASH
   necting rod.
                                                                     Camshaft Journal Oil Clearance
                                                                     1. Measure the camshaft journal 0.0. with an outside
                                   LIMIT
                                                                        micrometer.
 Bend of connecting              0.002 in.
 rod                            (0.05 mm)                            2. Measure the cylinder block bore 1.0. for the camshaft
                            ~gauge pin span at                          with an inside micrometer. Calculate the oil clearance.
                             .94 in., 100 mm)                        3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the camshaft.

                                                                                                 STANDARD VALUE            LIMIT
                                                                      Camshaft journal oil        0.001 - 0.003 in.      0.005 in.
                                                                      clearance                 (0.050 - 0.091 mm)      (0.15 mm)


                                                                                                 STANDARD VALUE
                                                                      Camshaft journal            1.296 - 1.297 in.
                                                                      0.0.                     (32.934 - 32.950 mm)
                                                                      Cylinder block bore         1.299 - 1.300 in.
                                                                      1.0. (bearing portion)   (33.000 - 33.025 mm)


                                                        s+ s+Unlvarsal
                                                                37
                                                ENGINE SERVICE
                                                                 Intake and Exhaust Cam Height
                                                                 1. Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with
                                                                    an outside micrometer.
                                                                 2. If the measurement is less than the limit, replace the
                                                                    camshaft.

                                                                                             STANDARD VALUE              LIMIT
                                                                  Intake and exhaust              1.058 in.             1.056 in.
                                                                  cam heights                   (26.88 mm)            (26.83 mm)




                                                                                       MEASURING INTAKE AND EXHAUST CAM HEIGHT


                                                                 Idler Gear Side Clearance
                                                                 1. Set a dial indicator with its tip on the idler gear.
       MEASURING CYUNDER BLDCK BDRE I.D. FDR CAMSHAFT            2. Measure the side clearance by moving the idler gear to
                                                                    the front and to the rear.
Camshaft Alignment                                               3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the idler
                                                                    gear or idler gear shaft.
1. Support the camshaft with V blocks on the surface plate
   and set a dial indicator with its tip on the intermediate
                                                                                              STANDARD VALUE                 LIMIT
   journal at a right angle.
                                                                   Idler gear side             0.007 - 0.020 in.           0.023 in.
2. Rotate the camshaft on the V blocks and get the mis-            clearance                  (0.20 - 0.51 mm)            (0.60 mm)
   alignment (half of the measurement).
3. If the misalignment exceeds the limit, replace the
   camshaft.

                                LIMIT
 Misalignment                0.0004 in.
                             (0.01 mm)




                                                                                MEASURING THE IDlER GEAR SIDE CLEARANCE

                         CAMSHAFT AUGNMENT



                                                        ,.. Nnlvarsal
                                                            38
                                                     ENGINE SERVICE
Camshaft Side Clearance                                                Replacing the Idler Gear Bushing
1. Set a dial indicator with its tip on the camshaft.                  1. Using an idler gear bushing replacing tool (see
2. Measure the side clearance by moving the cam gear to                   SPECIAL TOOLS), press out the existing bushing.
   the front and to the rear.                                          2. Clean a new idler gear bushing and the idler gear bore,
3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the                      and apply engine oil to them.
   camshaft stopper.                                                   3. Using the idler gear bushing replacing tool, press in a
                                                                          new bushing to the specified dimension (see illustration).




                                                                                  PRESSING OUT                  PRESSING IN
                                                                                  EXISTING BUSHING              NEW BUSHING
                 MEASURING CAMSHAFT SIDE CLEARANCE
                                                                                                             0- 0.007 In.
                                                                                                             (0-0.2 mm)
Oil Clearance between Idler Gear Shaft and
Idler Gear Bushing
1. Measure the idler gear shaft 0.0. with an outside
   micrometer.
2. Measure the idler gear bushing's 1.0. with an inside
   micrometer, and calculate the oil clearance.
3. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace the
   bushing. If it still exceeds the limit, replace the idler                        REPLACING THE
                                                                                    IDLER GEAR BUSHING
   gear shaft.

                           STANDARD VALUE              LIMIT
                                                     0.0039 in.
                                                                       CRANKSHAFT
 Oil Clearance            0.0007 - 0.0033 in.
 between idler gear       (0.020 - 0.084 mm)         (0.10mm)          Crankshaft Alignment
 shaft and idler gear                                                  1. Support the crankshaft with V blocks on the surface
 bushing
                                                                          plate and set a dial indicator with its tip on the interme-
                                                                          diate journal at a right angle.
                           STANDARD VALUE                              2. Rotate the crankshaft on the V blocks and get the mis-
 Idler gear shaft 0.0.     0.7861 - 0.7866 in.                            alignment (half of the measurement).
                         (19.967 -19.980 mm)                           3. If the misalignment exceeds the limit, replace the
 Idler gear bushing         0.787 - 0.789 in.                             crankshaft.
 I.D.                    (20.000 - 20.051 mm)
                                                                                                         LIMIT
                                                                         Misalignment            0.0008 in. (0.02 mm)




              MEASURING OIl CLEARANCE BETWEEN
           IDLER GEAR SHAFT AND IDLER GEAR BUSHING                                       CRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT




                                                                  39
                                                      ENGINE SERVICE
Crankshaft Side Clearance
1. Set a dial indicator with its tip on the end of the
   crankshaft.
2. Measure the side clearance by moving the crankshaft
   to the front and to the rear.
                                                                                      o
3. If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the thrust
   bearings.
4. If a same-size thrust bearing is inadequate because of
   crankshaft journal wear, replace it with an oversize
   thrust bearing (see illustration and table).                                                            c
                             STANDARD VALUE               LIMIT
                                                                           Oil Clearance between Crankpin and
 Crankshaft                   0.005 - 0.012 in.         0.019 in.          Crankpin Bearing
 side clearance               (0.15 - 0.31 mm)         (0.50 mm)
                                                                           1. Clean the crankpin and crankpin bearing.
                                                                           2. Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the crankpin.


                                                                                A CAUTION: Never insert the plastigauge into
                                                                                the crank pin oil hole.

                                                                           3. Install the connecting rod cap and tighten the connect-
                                                                              ing rod screws to the specified torque, then remove the cap.
                                                                               Connecting rod cap screws tightening torque:
                                                                                  19.5 - 22.4 ft-Ibs (2.7 - 3.1 kgf-m) (26.5 - 30.4 Nm)
                                                                               NOTE: Be sure not to move the crankshaft while the
                                                                               connecting rod screws are tightened.
                                                                           4. Measure the amount of flattening with the scale, and
                                                                              get the oil clearance.
                   OVERSIZE THRUST BEARING
       OVERSIZE                    BEARING               MARKING
       0.008 in.            Thrust bearing No.1 02
       (0.2 mm)                                           020 OS
                            Thrust bearing No.2 02
       0.016 in.            Thrust bearing No.1 04        040 OS
       (0.4 mm)             Thrust bearing No.2 04

   OVERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAl


~
                          0.008 in                 0.016 in
                         (0.2 mm)                 (0.4 mm)
Dimension
                      0.913 - 0.915 in.         0.921 - 0.923 in.          5. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace the
      A             (23.40 - 23.45 mm)        (23.80 - 23.85 mm)              crankpin bearing.                    .
       B              1.815 -1.823 in.         1.823 -1.831 in.            6. If a same-size bearing is too big because of crankpin
                     (46.1 -46.3 mm)           (46.3 - 46.5 mm)
                                                                              wear, replace it with an undersize bearing (see illustra-
       C          0.071 - 0.087 in. radius 0.071 - 0.087 in. radius           tion and table).
                   (1.8 - 2.2 mm radius)    (1.8 - 2.2 mm radius)
                                                            (O.4-S)                                  STANDARD VALUE            LIMIT
 The crankshaft journal must be fine-finished to higher than VV'V'V         Oil Clearance           0.0007 - 0.0031 in.     0.0059 in.
                                                                            between crankpin        (0.019 - 0.081 mm)      (0.15 mm)
                                                                            and crankpin bearing




                                                              ,t" ,t"Unlvarsal
                                                                      40
                                                           ENGINE SERVICE
                                                                                2. Measure the 1.0. of the crankshaft bearing No.1 with
                           STANDARD VALUE
                                                                                   an inside micrometer, and calculate the oil clearance.
Crankpin 0.0.               1.336 -1.337 in.
                         (33.959 - 33.975 mm)
Crankpin bearing            1.338 - 1.340 in.
1.0.                     (33.994 - 34.040 mm)

            UNDERSIZE CRANKPIN BEARING
    UNDERSIZE                         BEARING                 MARKING
     0.008 in.               Crankpin bearing 02               020 US
     (0.2 mm)
     0.016 in.               Crankpin bearing 04               040 US
     (0.4 mm)

         UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKPINS


~
                      O.OOS in.                       0.016 in.
                      (0.2 mm)                        (0.4 mm)
Dimension
                                                                                                MEASURING 1.0. OF CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO.1
                0.091 - 0.106 in. radius        0.091 - 0.106 in. radius
     A           (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)           (2.3 - 2.7 mm radius)          3. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace crankshaft
                      0.16 in. dia.                  0.16 in. dia.
                                                                                   bearing No.1.
     B                (4 mm dia.)                    (4 mm dia.)                4. If a same-size bearing is too big because of crankshaft
     C            1.3291 -1.3297 in.          1.3212 -1.3218 in.                   journal wear, replace it with an undersize bearing (see
                (33.759 - 33.775 mm)        (33.559 - 33.575 mm)                   illustration and table).
                                                      (O.4-S)
    The crankpin must be fine-finished to higher than VV"V'V                                                 STANDARD VALUE                LIMIT
                                                                                 Oil Clearance                0.001 - 0.004 in.          0.007 in.
                               A                                                 between crankshaft         (0.034 - 0.106 mm)          (0.20 mm)
                                                                                 journal and crank-
                                                                                 shaft bearing No. 1
                8
                                                                                                             STANDARD VALUE
                                                                                 Crankshaft journal          1.5722 - 1.5728 in.
                                                                                 0.0.                      (33.934 - 39.950 mm)
                                                                                 Crankshaft bearing           1.574 -1.576 in.
                                                                                 No.1 1.0.                 (33.984 - 40.040 mm)

                                                                                           UNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO.1
                                                                                      UNDERSIZE                BEARING                    MARKING
Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and                                      0.008 in. (0.2 mm) Crankshaft bearing No.1 02            020 US
Crankshaft Bearing No.1                                                           0.016 in. (0.4 mm) . Crankshaft bearing No. 1 04         040 US
1. Measure the 0.0. of the crankshaft's front journal with
   an outside micrometer.
                                                                                  UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL


                                                                                ~
                                                                                                        o.ooS in                   0.016 in.
                                                                                                       (0.2 mm)                    (0.4 mm)
                                                                                 Dimension
                                                                                                       0.20 in. dia.              0.20 in. dia.
                                                                                      A                (5 mm dia.)                (5 mm dia.)

                                                                                       B            1.5643 - 1.5649 in.        1.556 - 1.557 in.
                                                                                                  (39.734 - 39.534 mm)       (39.534 - 39.550 mm)
                                                                                       C        0.071 - 0.087 in. radius (0.071 - 0.087 in. radius)
                                                                                                 (1.8 - 2.2 mm radius)     (1.8 - 2.2 mm radius)
                                                                                                                                            (O.4-S)
                                                                                 The crankshaft journal must be fine-finished to higher than VV"V'V.
                                                                                 Chamfer the oil hole with an oilstone .


     MEASURING D.O. OF CRANKSHAFT FRONT JOURNAL
                                                                     · ·Unlvarsal
                                                                           41
                                                 ENGINE SERVICE




Replacing Crankshaft Bearing No.1
When removing:                                                     4. If the oil clearance exceeds the limit, replace the
1. Press out the existing crankshaft bearing No.1 using a             crankshaft bearing No.2 or No.3.
   crankshaft bearing No 1 replacing tool.                         5. If a same-size bearing is too big because of the crank-
When installing:                                                      shaft journal wear, use an undersize one (see illustra-
1. Clean a new crankshaft bearing No.1 and the crank-                 tion and table).
   shaft journal bore, then apply engine oil to them.
                                                                                                 STANDARD VALUE                 UMIT
2. Using the crankshaft bearing No.1 replacing tool,
                                                                    Oil Clearance                 0.001 - 0.003 in.           0.007 in.
   press in a new bearing No.1 so that its seam faces the           between crankshaft          (0.034 - 0.092 mm)           (0.20 mm)
   exhaust manifold side.                                           journal and crank-
                                                                    shaft bearing No.2
                                                                    and NO.3
                                                                    Crankshaft journal           1.729 -1.730 in.                 -
                                                                    0.0. (flywheel side)      (43.934 - 43.950 mm)
                                                                    Crankshaft bearing           1.731 -1.733 in.                 -
                                                                    No.2 1.0.                 (43.984 - 44.026 mm)
                                                                    Crankshaft journal          1.5722 -1.5728 in.                -
                                                                    0.0. (intermediate)       (39.934 - 39.950 mm)
                                                                    Crankshaft bearing           1.574 -1.575 in.                 -
                                                                    NO.3 1.0.                 (39.984 - 40.026 mm)

        SEAM
                                                                      UNDERSIZE CRANKSHAFT BEARINGS NO.2 & NO.3
                                                                        UNDERSIZE                    BEARING                    MARKING
                  REPLACING CRANKSHAFT BEARING NO.1                      0.008 in.           Crankshaft bearing   No.2 02
                                                                         (0.2 mm)            Crankshaft bearing   NO.3 02         020 US
Oil Clearance between Crankshaft Journal and                             0.016 in.           Crankshaft bearing   No.2 04
Crankshaft Bearings No.2 & No.3                                          (0.4 mm)            Crankshaft bearing   NO.3 04         040 US
1. Put a strip of plastigauge on the center of the journal.
2. Install the bearing case and tighten the bearing case             UNDERSIZE DIMENSIONS OF CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL


                                                                   ~
   screws to the specified torque, then remove the bearing                                 0.008 in.                    0.016 in.
   case.                                                                                   (O.2 mm)                     (0.4 mm)
                                                                    Dimension
   Bearing case screws tightening torque:
      9.4 -11.6 ft-Ibs (1.3 -1.6 kgf-m) (12.7 -15.7 Nm)                                    0.12 in. dia.                0.12 in. dia.
                                                                         A                 (3 mm dia.)                  (3 mm dia.)
    NOTE: Be sure not to move the crankshaftwhile the                               0.071 - 0.087 in. radius      0.071 - 0.087 in. radius
    bearing case screws are tightened.                                   B           (1.8 - 2.2 mm radius)         (1.8 - 2.2 mm radius)
3. Measure the amount of the flattening with the scale,                               1.5643 - 1.5649 in.         1.556 - 1.557 in.
   and get the oil clearance.                                             C         (39.734 - 39.750 mm)       (39.534 - 39.550 mm)
                                                                         D             1.721 -1.722 in.           1.713 -1.714 in.
                                                                                    (43.734 - 43.750 mm)       (43.534 - 43.550 mm)
                                                                                                                              (O.4-S)
                                                                   The crankshaft journal must be fine-finished to higher than ww




                                                              42
                                                            ENGINE SERVICE
                                                                                                                   STANDARD VALUE                           LIMIT
              B                                                                     Cylinder I.D.                   2.637 - 2.638 in.                        -
          }/
                                                                                                                 (67.000 - 67.019 mm)
                                                                                    Maximum Wear                            -                              0.005 in.
                                         o                                                                                                                (0.15 mm)
      A
                                                                                   Correcting Cylinder
                                           B                                       1. When the cylinder is worn beyond the limit, bore and
                                                                                      hone it to the specified dimension.

                                                                                                                    STANDARD VALUE                          LIMIT
CYLINDER
                                                                                    Oversize                         2.647 - 2.648 in.                       -
Cylinder Wear                                                                       Cylinder I.D.                 (67.250 - 67.269 mm)
1. Measure the I.D. of the cylinder at the six positions                                                                    -                              0.005 in.
   shown in the illustration with a cylinder gauge to find                          Maximum Wear                                                          (0.15 mm)
   the maximum and minimum I.D.'s.
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,                                    ,
                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,            CYLINDER I.D.
                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                                                                              ,..,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,            BEFORE                   ,
                                                                                                                                          ,
                                                                                                                 CORRECTION
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    '01(
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                                                      .. ,'
                                                                                                    ,                                     ,
                                                                                                                                          ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,                                     ,
                                                                                                    ,                                     ,
                                                                                                                 OVERSIZE
                                                                                                    ,            CYLINDER I.D.
                                                                                                                                                     ~


                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                    I                                                f-
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    I

                                                                                                    I

                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    I

                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,
                                                                                                    ,                                    .
                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                    I                                    .
                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                                                                              '-'
                  MEASURING THE 1.0. OF THE CYLINDERS                                          ....Lr
                                                              RIGHT·ANGLE                                  CORRECTING THE CYLINDER     "'.,
                                                              TO PISTON PIN
          1
          A
                                                                                   2. Replace the piston and the piston rings with oversize
                                                                                      rings.
          B
  c                                                                                      OVERSIZE                        PART NAME                          MARKING
                                                                                         0.0098 in.                          Piston                          0.25   as
                                                                                         (0.25 mm)
                                               PISTON PIN                                0.0098 in.                       Piston Ring                        0.25   as
                                               DIRECTION                                 (0.25 mm)                         Assembly
                                               A: APPROX. 0.394 in. 110 mm!
                                               B: APPROX. 1.771 In. 45 mm
              ~                     ~          C: APPROX. 3.740 in. 95 mm          NOTE: When an oversize cylinder is worn beyond the limit,
                                                                                   sleeve the block to return the cylinder to the standard size.
2. Determine the difference (maximum wear) between the
   maximum and minimum I.D.'s.
3. If the maximum wear exceeds the limit, bore and hone
   to the oversize dimension (see Correcting Cylinder,
   below).
4. Visually check the cylinder wall for scratches. If deep
   scratches are found, the cylinder should be bored (see
   Correcting Cylinder, below).




                                                                              43
                                           ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                                  NOTE: UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine
                                  adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic.
                                  The information below is provided to assist the mechanic.

VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT                                                                                         VALVE
NOTE: Valve adjustments should not be necessary under                                                              CLEARANCE
normal operating conditions. These adjustments, when
required, should be performed by an authorized mechanic.
                                                                                                                    t
Remove the valve rocker cover to expose the engine's valve
train. Remove the glow plugs from each of the cylinders to
enable the engine to be easily rotated by hand to position
each cylinder for valve adjustment.
The valves are adjusted with the piston in the cylinder posi-
tioned at TDC (Top Dead Center) of its compression stroke.                                                   STANDARD VALUE
Each cylinder is adjusted following the engine's firing
                                                                        Valve clearance                     0.0059 - 0.0073 in.
order.                                                                  (engine cold)                       (0.145 - 0.185 mm)
Firing Order: 1 - 2 - 3
Adjust the valves beginning with Cylinder No.1. Rotate                TOP CLEARANCE
the crankshaft slowly and observe the operation of the
valves for Cylinder No.1. Watch for the intake valve to               1. Remove the cylinder head (remove the cylinder head
open indicating the piston is on its intake stroke (the piston           gasket completely).
is moving down in the cylinder). Continue to rotate the               2. Bring the piston to its top dead center. Measure the top
crankshaft slowly and look for the intake valve to close.                clearance using a plastigauge. Position the plastigauge
The piston is now starting its compression stroke (the pis-              on the piston top.
ton is moving up in the cylinder towards IDC).
                                                                      3. Bring the piston to its middle position, install the cylin-
Watch the timing hole in the bellhousing for the timing                  der head, and tighten the cylinder head bolts to their
numbers to appear. Position the 1TC mark in alignment                    specified torque.. (The head gasket must be changed to
with the notch in the timing hole. The piston in Cylinder                 anew one.)
No. I is now at IDC. Adjust the valves in Cylinder No.1.
                                                                      4. Turn the crankshaft until the piston exceeds its top dead
Proceed to the next cylinder in the firing order.
                                                                         center.
                                                                      5. Remove the cylinder head and measure the clearance.
                                                                      6. If the measurement is not within the standard value,
                                                                         check the oil clearance of the crankpin journal and the
                                                                         piston pin.

                                                                                                            STANDARD VALUE
                                                                        Top clearance                       0.0197- 0.0276 in.
                                                                                                             (0.50 - 0.70 mm)


                                                                       Tightening torque   Cylinder head            28.9 - 32.5 ft-Ibs
                                                                                           mounting bolts           ~4.0 - 4.5 kgf/m~
                                                                                                                     39.2 - 44.1 Nm


                                                                      TIGHTENING THE CYUNDER HEAD BOLTS
                                                                      Pull off the air breather pipe from the rocker cover and
                                                                      remove the rocker cover. Retighten the cylinder head bolts
                                                                      to their specified torque as shown in the diagram. Make
                                                                      sure the engine is cold when this is done. Before applying
Rotate the crankshaft 240 0 in the normal direction of rota-          the specified torque to a bolt, loosen it 114 to 112 a turn and
tion and adjust the No.2 Cylinder's valves. Rotate the·               then apply the torque.
crankshaft another 240 0 and adjust the No.3 Cylinder's
valves.




                                                                 44
                                               ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                                  NOTE: UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine
                                  adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic.
                                  The information below is provided to assist the mechanic.

Tighten the cylinder head bolts in an ascending sequence,                                       STANDARD VALUE                LIMIT
from 1 to 14 (see illustration).
                                                                       Engine oil pressure
                                                                         At idle speed                15 psi.                   -

  GEAR
  CASE
  SIDE
         \~oo
         000
               10

                         goo~oO~1
                             2             7



                                                 0
                                                     FLYWHEEL
                                                     SIDE
                                                                          At rated speed
                                                                                                  (1.05 kgf/cm2)
                                                                                                    (103.4 kPa)
                                                                                                   40 - 60 psi.
                                                                                                (2.8 - 4.2 kgf/crn2)
                                                                                                 (276 - 414 kPa)
                                                                                                                              15 psi.
                                                                                                                          (1.05 kgf/cm2)
                                                                                                                           (103.4 kPa)

         13     09       5 0'        4 08 12                          3. If the oil pressure is less than the specified limit, check
                                                                         the following:
OIL PRESSURE                                                              a. Engine oil insufficient.
The engine's oil pressure, during operation, is indicated by
the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel. During nor-               b. Oil pump defective.
mal operation, the oil pressure will range between 40 -                   c. Oil strainer clogged.
60 psi (2.8 - 4.2 kglcm2) (276 - 414 kPa).                                d. Oil filter clogged.
NOTE: A newly started, cold engine can have an oil pres-                  e. Oil gallery clogged.
sure reading up to 60 psi (4.2 kg/cm2). A warmed engine
can have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi (2.5                    f. Excessive oil clearance of bearing.
kg/cm2). These readings will vary depending upon the tem-                 g. Foreign matter in the relief valve.
perature of the engine and the rpms.                                  When Reassembling:
Low Oil Pressure                                                      1. After checking the engine oil pressure, tighten the
The specified safe minimum oil pressure is 5 - 10 psi (0.35              engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque.
- 0.70 kglcm2) (34.5 - 69.0 kPa). A gradual loss of oil pressure
usually indicates worn bearings. For additional information on
low oil pressure readings, see ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING.                  Tightening torque    Oil pressure              10.8 - 14.5 ft-Ibs
                                                                                             switch                    t1.5 - 2.0 kgf/m)
                                                                                                                        14.7 -19.6 Nm)
     +
                                                                      TESTING ENGINE COMPRESSION
                                                                      Make certain the oil level (dipstick) is at the correct level
                                                                      and the air intake filter is clean. The battery and starter motor
                                                                      must also be in good condition.
                                                                      1. Warm the engine to normal operating temperature.
                                                                      2. Move the control lever to a position for shutting off the
          OIL PRESSURE                                                   fuel. (Disconnect the wires if a fuel shutdown solenoid
                           OIL PRESSURE SWITCH                           is used.)
Checking the Oil Pressure                                             3. Remove all the glow plugs from the engine and install
1-. Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical              the compression gauge/adapter combination to the
    oil pressure gauge in its place.                                     cylinder on which the compression is to be measured.

2. Start the engine. After warming up to operating temper-
   ature, measure the oil pressure at both idling and rated
   speeds.                                .




                                                                                                                MEASURING
                                                                                                               COMPRESSION



               CHECKING THE OIl PRESSURE               ··Unlvarsal
                                                                MARINE POWER


                                                                 45
                                            ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                                  NOTE: UNNERS;4L recommends that the following engine
                                  adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic.
                                  The information below is provided to assist the mechanic.
4. Close the raw water seacock (thru-hull). '
5. Crank the engine and allow the gauge to reach a maxi-                 A WARNING: Never attempt to check or adjust the
   mum reading. Record the reading.                                      drive belt's tension while the engine is in operation.
6. Repeat this process for each cylinder. Look for cylin-
   ders with dramatically (at least 20%) lower compres-                 Checking Belt Tension
   sion than the average of the others.
                                                                        1. To check the belt tension, press the belt at the midpoint
   Compression pressure at cranking speed:                                 between the alternator pulley and the crankshaft pulley
      Standard value: 412 - 469 psi (29 - 33 kgflcm2)                      with a force of 22 lbs. (10 kfg) (98 N). The belt deflec-
         (2.84 - 3.24 MPa)                                                 tion should be 3/8 in. - 112 in. (10 - 12 rom) deep.
      Limit: 327 psi (23 kgflcm2) (2.26 MPa)
      Maximum difference between cylinders:
          10% or less.
   NOTE: If the readings are below the limit, the engine
    needs an overhaul.
7. Re-install the glow plugs (use anti-seize compound on                                         COOLANT PUMP
   the threads) and reset the fuel shut-off to the run                                           PULLEY
   position.
8. Open the raw water seacock (thru-hull).
If a weak cylinder is flanked by healthy cylinders, the prob-
lem is either valve- or piston- related. Check the valve                           CRANKSHAFT
                                                                                   PULLEY
clearances for the weak cylinder, adjust as needed, and test
again. If the cylinder is still low, apply a small amount of
oil into the cylinder to seal the rings, and repeat the test. If
the compression comes up, the rings are faulty.
Abnormally high readings on all cylinders indicate heavy
carbon accumulation, a condition that might be accompa-                                               CHECKING BELT TENSION
nied by high pressures and noise.
NOTE: In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise,
have the injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized              Adjusting Belt Tension
fuel injection service center. Poor fuel quality, contami-              1. To adjust the belt tension, loosen the alternator adjusting
nants and loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection                  strap bolt and the base mounting bolt.
pump will result in injector faults.                                    2. With the belt loose, inspect the belt for damage, wear,
When low compression is found, determine the cause by                      cracks and frayed edges. If the belt is damaged, replace
applying a small amount of oil in the cylinder through the                 it. If it is nearly worn out and deeply sunk in the pulley
glow plug hole. Allow the oil to settle.                                   groove, replace it.
Install the pressure gauge and repeat the above test. If the
compression reading rises dramatically, the fault is with the
rings. If the compression value does not rise, the problem
is with the valves.
A slight rise in compression would indicate a problem with
both the rings and the valves.
                                                                                          GOOD                    BAD
                                                                                          BELT                    BELT
DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT
The drive belt must be properly tensioned. A loose drive                3. Pivot the alternator on the base mounting bolt to the left
belt will not provide proper alternator charging and will                  or right as required, to loosen or tighten.
eventually damage the alternator. A drive belt that is too              4. Tighten the base mounting bolt and the adjusting strap
tight will pull the alternator out of alignment and/or cause               bolt securely.
the alternator to wear out prematurely. Excessive drive belt
                                                                        5. Run the engine for about 5 minutes, then shut down
tension can also cause rapid wear of the belt and reduce the
                                                                           and recheck the belt tension.
service life of the coolant pump's bearing. A slack belt or
the presence of oil on the belt can cause belt slipping,
resulting in high operating temperatures and tachometer
variations.



                                                                   46
                                          ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS
                                 NOTE: UNIVERSAL recommends that the following engine
                                 adjustments be performed by a competent engine mechanic.
                                 The information below is provided to assist the mechanic.

IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT                                               Adjusting the Idle Speed
& TACHOMETER CHECK (New Installation)                               1. Loosen the locknut on the idle adjustment bolt on the
Checking the Idle Speed                                                fuel injection pump.
Use a photoelectric-type tachometer to check the idle speed.        2. Tum the idle adjustment bolt until the idling speed is
                                                                       within the standard range. The idle speed will increase
NOTE: In a new installation having new instrument panels,
                                                                       when the adjusting bolt is turned clockwise and
the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to
                                                                       decrease when the bolt is turned counterclockwise.
the engine's rpm. This calibration should be checked in all
new installations.                                                  3. Tighten the locknut.
1. Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature.              4. Race the engine several times to ensure the idle speed
   Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a                   remains as set.
   clean cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape        NOTE: Should the engine rpm be in question, verify the
   on the pulley to facilitate the use of the tachometer.           tachometer readings as shown at the instrument panel with
2. Start and idle the engine.                                       a mechanical or strobe-type tachometer at the engine
3. Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape         crankshaft·
   to confirm the engine speed. Check the instrument
   panel tachometer reading. Adjust the tachometer in the
   panel by using the instrument calibration pod as needed
   to bring the instrument panel tachometer into the same
   rpm reading as the engine.
4. Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within
   the specified value.
   Normal idle speed: 1000 - 1200 rpm




                                                                                          ADJUSTING THE IDLE SPEED




                                                               47
                                     EXHAUST MANIFOLD SERVICE
EXHAUST MANIFOLD                                                      ASSEMBLY
The exhaust manifold, which was disassembled from the                 1. If the manifold was removed as an assembly and left
cylinder head, should be inspected before reassembly.                    intact, it can be replaced on the cylinder head in the
1. Remove the exhaust nipples, elbows and plugs from the                 reverse order of removal.
   manifold.                                                             Do not reuse the gaskets; install new ones.
2. Examine all parts for defects, corrosion and wear, and                a. Loosely attach the manifold elbows to the cylinder
   replace as needed.                                                        head using new gaskets. Do not use any gasket seal-
3. Flush out the manifold's interior with a liquid cleaner and               ant on these gaskets.
   rinse thoroughly with fresh water.                                    h. Gradually tighten each fitting to ensure proper
4. Use a pipe cleaner to clear the passage that connects the                alignment of all the parts. This should be done in
   filler neck to the coolant recovery tank tubing.                         three steps.
5. Flush out the coolant recovery tank and its connecting             2. Reinstall the exhaust connections. Use new gaskets and
   tube.                                                                 check the exhaust elbow-to-manifold clamp's condition.
                                                                         Replace it if necessary.
                                                                      3. Check the manifold pressure cap. Open the valve by
                                                                         pulling it, and make sure it closes when released. Make
                                                                         certain the upper and lower seals are in good condition.
                                                                         If any doubt, replace the cap.




                                                                                        CHECKING THE PRESSURE CAP




                                                                 48
                                  LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION                                                           Some of the oil that lubricates these components or is
                                                                      splashed by the crankshaft also reaches and lubricates the
The lubricating system consists of an oil strainer, oil pump,         pistons, cylinders, small ends of the connecting rods, tap-
relief valve, oil filter and oil pressure switch.                     pets, pushrods, intake and exhaust valves, and timing gears.
The oil pump draws lubricating oil from the oil sump                  The oil then returns to the oil sump to repeat the continu-
through the oil strainer to the oil filter. Then the oil is           ous cycle. When the oil pressure exceeds the specified
delivered under pressure to the crankshaft, connecting rods,          pressure, the oil pushes open the relief valve in the oil
idler gear, camshaft and rocker arm shaft through oil gal-            pump and returns to the oil sump, keeping the oil pressure
leries in the engine block.                                           within its specified range.

                                                                ROCKER ARM
                          ROCKER ARM                            SHAFT




             VALVE




                                                                                                                   CAMSHAFT




             IDLER GEAR
                                                                                         PISTON




               CRANKSHAFT




                  OIL PUMP
                                                                                              -
                                                                                                  OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE




                                                                LUBRICATION SYSTEM




                                                                49
                              LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
                                                                          ROCKER ARM SHAFT




                                                                                  I                                 I
                                                                                  I                                 I
                                                                                  I
                                                                            DRAIN: .                           DRAIN:
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                  I                                 I
                                                                                  I                                 I

                           CAMSHAFT                                                                 CAMSHAFT




                               I   SPLASH
                                        r------.
                                                                            $     I
                                                                                                               $    I



                    ~
                                                                                  I                                 :
                                                PISTON                            :                  PISTON:
                                                                           SPLASH :                                 : SPLASH


                    L?
                     I
                     I
                     I
                                                                                  I
                                                                                  I
                                                                                  I
                                                                                  I
                                                                                  I
                                                                                  I

                                                                 -----------....J.--., f-------- ...-.-...... _-.-J
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    I


                                            ........--...-....
                     I
                     I
                     I
                     I




                                                                         WBRICATION SYSTEM



OIL PUMP                                                                               RELIEF VALVE
The oil pump is a trochoid type pump, whose rotors have                                The relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system
trochoid lobes. The inner rotor has 4 lobes and the outer                              due to high oil pressure. This relief valve is a ball-type
rotor has 5 lobes, and they are eccentrically engaged with                             direct acting relief valve, and is best suited for low pres-
each other. The inner rotor, which is driven by the crank-                             sures. When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit, the ball is
shaft through the gears, rotates the outer rotor in the same                           pushed back by the oil pressure, and the oil escapes.
direction varying the space between the lobes.
While the rotors rotate from A to B (see illustration), the
space leading to the inlet port increases, which causes the
vacuum to draw in the oil from the inlet port.
When the rotors rotate to C, the space between both rotors
switches from the inlet port to the outlet port.                                                                                  SPRING
At D, the space decreases and the drawn oil is discharged                                                                         I   BALL
from the outlet port.
          ABC                                                        0
                                                                                                                                ~/JVALVE SEAT
  ~~~~                                                                                                                                ~




                                                                            OUTER                                              REUEFVALVE
  INLET    OUTlET                                                           ROTOR
  PORT     PORT
                           OIL PUMP
                                                                         ,., .Unlvanal
                                                                              MARINE POWER


                                                                                50
                                 LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
OIL FILTER                                                         OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
After lubricating the engine components, the lubricating oil       The oil pressure switch is mounted on the cylinder block,
brings various particles of grit and dirt back to the oil pan.     to warn the operator that the lubricating oil pressure is low.
Those particles and other impurities in the lubricating oil can    If the oil pressure falls below 15 psi (1.05 kgf/cm2) (103.4
cause wear or seizure of the engine parts. They may also           kPa) the oil alarm will sound, alerting the operator. If this
impair the physical and chemical properties of the oil itself.     happens, stop the engine immediately and check the cause
The lubricating oil, which is force-fed by the pump, is            of the oil pressure drop.
filtered by the filter element in the filter cartridge.

                      FILTER ELEMENT
                                                                       +



                                                                            OIL PRESSURE
                                                                                            OIL PRESSURE SWITCH




                                          NORMAL DlL FILTER



When the filter element accumulates an excessive amount of
dirt and the oil pressure in the inlet line builds up by 14 psi
(1.0 kgf/cm2) (98 kPa) more than the outlet line, the bypass
valve opens and the oil flows from the inlet to the outlet,
bypassing the filter element.

 FILTER ELEMENT   BYPASS VALVE




                                                              51
                                        LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE
OIL PRESSURE                                                                              ENGINE OIL PRESSURE
The engine's oil pressure, during operation, is indicated by                                    STANDARD VALUE                  LIMIT
the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel. During                At idle speed                    15 psi                     -
normal operation, the oil pressure will range between 40                                           (1.05 kg/cm2)
and 60 psi (2.8 - 4.2 kg/cm2) (276 - 414 kPa).                                                      (103.4 kPa)
NOTE: A newly started, cold engine can have an oil pres-              At rated speed                40 - 60 psi                 15 psi
sure reading up to 60 psi (4.2 kg/cm2). A warmed engine                                         (2.8 - 4.2 kg/cm 2)         (1.05 kg/cm2)
                                                                                                 (276 - 414 kPa)             (103.4 kPa)
can have an oil pressure reading as low as 35 psi (2.5
kg/cm2). These readings will vary depending upon the
temperature of the engine and the rpms.                              3. If the oil pressure is less than the specified limit, check
                                                                        the following:
Low Oil Pressure
                                                                         a. Engine oil insufficient.
The specified safe minimum oil pressure is 5 - 10 psi
(0.35 - 0.70 kg/cm2) (34.5 - 69.0 kPa). A gradual loss of                b. Oil pump defective.
oil pressure usually indicates worn bearings. For additional             c. Oil strainer clogged.
information on low oil pressure readings, see ENGINE
                                                                         d. Oil filter clogged.
TROUBLESHOOTING.
                                                                         e. Oil gallery clogged.
   +                                                                     f. Excessive oil clearance of bearing.
                                                                         g. Foreign matter in the relief valve.
                                                                      When Reassembling:
                                                                      1. After checking the engine oil pressure, tighten the
                                                                         engine oil pressure switch to the specified torque.

            ...
        OIL PRESSURE                                                  Tightening torque    Oil pressure switch        10.8 - 14.5 ft-Ibs.
                             OIL PRESSURE SWITCH                                                                      ~1.5 - 2.0 kgf-m~
                                                                                                                       14.7 -19.6 Nm
Checking the Oil Pressure
1. Remove the oil pressure switch and install a mechanical           Oil Pressure Switch
   oil pressure gauge in its place.                                  Oil Pressure Sender (optional)
2. Start the engine. After warming up to operating tem-              When performing an engine overhaul, replace the oil pres-
   perature, measure the oil pressure at both idling and             sure switch, and the oil pressure sender if used.
   rated speeds.                                                     When installing the new parts, apply teflon sealant to the
                                                                     threaded ends being careful not to close off the oil hole in
                                                                     the sender.


                                                                       A CAUTION: Oil Pressure Switch - Do not use lock
                                                                       pliers, vise grips, or pipe wrenches on the oil pressure
                                                                       switch. Use the correct socket which is available from
                                                                       Snap-On, Proto, New Britain and others. Damage to
                                                                       the switch will cause oil/eaks and/or switch failure.


                       CHECKING THE OIL PRESSURE



                                                                                                                             OIL
                                                                                                                             PRESSURE
                                                                                                                             SENDER
                                                                                                           ~~                (OPTIONAL)

                                                                                                       l         .   ~PLUG


                                                     ... ;.UnIVQrsal
                                                               MARINE POWER                  OIL PRESSURE SWITCH AND SENDER

                                                                52
                                  LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE
OIL PUMP                                                           Clearance Between Inner Rotor and Cover
Rotor Lobe Clearance                                               1. Put a strip of plastigauge onto the rotor face with grease.
1. Measure the clearance between the lobes of the inner            2. Install the cover and tighten the screws.
   rotor and the outer rotor with a feeler gauge.                  3. Remove the cover carefully, measure the amount of the
2. If the clearance exceeds the standard value, replace the           flattening with the scale, and get the clearance.
   oil pump rotor assembly.                                        4. If the clearance exceeds the standard value, replace the
                                                                      oil pump rotor assembly.
                        STANDARD VALUE
 Rotor lobe             0.012 - 0.0055 in.                                                   STANDARD VALUE
 clearance               (0.03 - 0.14 mm)
                                                                    Clearance between       0.0029 - 0.0053 in.
                                                                    inner rotor and cover   (0.075 - 0.135 mm)




Clearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body
1. Measure the clearance between the outer rotor and the
   pump body with a feeler gauge.
2. If the clearance exceeds the standard value, replace the
   oil pump rotor assembly.

                        STANDARD VALUE
 Clearance between      0.0028 - 0.0059 in.
 outer rotor and         (0.07 - 0.15 mm)
 pump body




                                                              53
                                  COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION                                                                         DRAIN PETCDCK
The engine is cooled by a closed fresh water coolant circuit.
The coolant is circulated by a belt-driven impeller pump. The
coolant temperature is thermostatically controlled.
Raw water is pumped by a gear-driven impeller pump
through an engine-mounted heat exchanger to cool the                  TEMPERATURE
engine coolant. The raw water then enters the water-inject-           SWITCH    .
ed exhaust elbow where it mixes with and cools the exhaust
gasses. This mixture then discharges overboard.
                                                                      TEMPERATURE
                                                                      SENDER
COOLANT PUMP
The coolant pump is a centrifugal-type metal impeller
pump mounted on the front of the engine. It is driven from
the crankshaft by a V-belt.




                                                          IMPELLER
    PULLEY



                                                                                                     THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY


                                                                       RAW WATER PUMP
                           COOLANT PUMP
                                                                       The raw water pump is a gear driven, positive displace-
                                                                       ment, self-priming rotary pump with a non-ferrous housing
THERMOSTAT                                                             and a neoprene impeller. The impeller has flexible vanes
                                                                       which wipe against a curved cam plate within the impeller
A thermostat, located near the manifold at the front of the            housing, producing the pumping action. On no account
engine, controls the coolant temperature as it continuously            should this pump be run dry as water acts as a lubricant for
flows through the closed cooling circuit.                              the impeller. There should always be a spare impeller and
The thermostat is a wax pellet type thermostat. Wax is                 impeller cover gasket aboard (an impeller kit). Raw water
enclosed in the pellet. The wax is solid at low tempera-               pump impeller failures occur when lubricant (raw water) is
tures, but turns liquid at high temperatures, expands and              not present during engine operation. Such failures are not
opens the valve.                                                       warrantable, and operators are cautioned to make sure raw
When the engine is first started, the closed thermostat pre-           water flow is present at start-up.
vents coolant from flowing (some coolant is by-passed
through a hole in the thermostat to prevent the exhaust
manifold from overheating). As the engine warms up, the
thermostat gradually opens. The thermostat is accessible
and can be checked, cleaned, or replaced easily.
WATER TEMPERATURE SWITCH
The water temperature switch is located on the thermostat
housing (see illustration). This switch is normally open.
When activated, it will close and sound an alarm.
WATER TEMPERATURE SENDER (Optional)
                                                                                                                           'i:<·\--f--CAM
The water temperature sender (if supplied) is located on the
thermostat housing (see illustration). It is a variable resis-
tor affected by heat. Voltage from the water temperature
gauge is grounded through the sender to the block.
                                                                                    RAW WATER PUMP
Depending on the resistance through the sender affected by                                                                 IMPELLER
                                                                                                                           HDUSING .
coolant heat, the gauge will indicate a temperature reading.




                                                                 54
                                  COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
COOLANT RECOVERY TANK                                               ZINC ANODE
A coolant recovery tank allows for engine coolant expan-            A zinc anode or "pencil", is located in the raw water cool-
sion and contraction during engine operation, without any           ing circuit within the heat exchanger. The purpose of the
significant loss of coolant and without introducing air into        zinc anode is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking
the cooling system. This tank is best located at or above           place in the raw water cooling circuit, thereby reducing the
the exhaust manifold level, and should be easily accessible.        effects of electrolysis on other components of the system.
                                                                    The condition of the zinc anode should be checked month-
                                                                    ly and the anode cleaned or replaced, as required. Spare
                                                                    anodes should be carried onboard. The area in the
                                                                    exchanger where the anode is located should periodically
                                                                    be cleaned of anode debris .




                                                                       NEW
                                                                                      ·
                                                                                      ·REPLACE

                                                                                             Z1NCAHODES
                                                                                                          REPLACE       ClEAN AND
                                                                                                                        REUSE

HEAT EXCHANGER
The heat exchanger is a copper tube which encloses a num-
ber of small copper tubes. Raw water is pumped through
the small copper tubes and the freshwater coolant from the
engine is circulated around the copper tubes. The raw
water removes heat from the freshwater coolant. To keep
the heat exchanger operating efficiently, it should be
removed from the engine every 1000 hours to be thorough-
ly cleaned and pressure tested.




                                                     ;. .Unlvarsal
                                                           MARINE POWER


                                                               55
                                         COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE
THERMOSTAT                                                              Checking the Thermostat Valve Opening Temperature
1. Remove the thermostat housing mounting screws, then                  1. Push down the thermostat valve and insert a string
   remove the thermostat housing.                                          between the valve and the valve seat.
2. Remove the thermostat.                                               2. Place the thermostat and a thermometer in a container
                                                                           with water and gradually heat the water.
                                                                        3. Hold the string to suspend the thermostat in the water.
                                                                           When the water temperature rises, the thermostat valve
                                                                           will open, allowing it to fall down from the string.
                                                                           Read the temperature at this moment on the
                                                                           thermometer.
                                                                        4. Continue heating the water and read the temperature
                                                                           when the valve has completely opened [about 0.236 in.
                                                                           (6 mm)].
                                                                        S. If these temperatures are not within the standard values
                                                                           as shown in the chart below, replace the thermostat.

                                                                                                    STANDARD VALUE
      THERMOSTAT
                                                                            Thermostat's valve      157.1 -162.5 0 F
                                                                            opening temperature     (69.5 - 72.5 0 C)
   WATER                                                                    Temperature at which         1850 F
   FLANGE
                                                                            thermostat completely        (85 0 C)
                                                                            opens



                               THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY


3. Remove the water flange mounting screws, then remove
   the water flange.
4. Visually check the thermostat for damage. Then put it
   in water and raise the water temperature to test its valve
   opening temperature as described below. Replace if
   defective.
                                                                        When Reassembling:
                                                                        1. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
     A CAUTION:       The wax pellet-type thermostat                       to both sides of a new thermostat housing gasket.
     remains closed if its heat-sensing part is defec-                  2. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
     tive. Leaving this uncorrected would cause the                        to both sides of a new water flange gasket.
     engine to overheat.
                                                                        CHANGING THE RAW WATER PUMP IMPELLER
                                                                        1. Close the raw water intake.
                                                                        2. Remove the inlet and outlet port hoses from the pump,
                                                                           noting the port location and positioning.
                                                                        3. Remove the pump assembly and its gasket from the
                             LEAK HOLE                                     engine.
                                                                        4. Remove the three hex head screws that hold the
                             SPRING                                        housing to the cover.
                                                                        S. Tap the housing/cover assembly on its side to loosen
                                                                           and separate the cover from its housing.
                                                                        6. Remove the cover and its O-ring and remove the
                                                  .L    WAX
                                                  ,     (LIQUID)           impeller gasket and plate.
             CLOSED                              OPEN                   7. Remove the retaining ring (circlip) and pry out the
                             THERMOSTAT                                    impeller. Take care not to lose the key off the shaft's
                                                                           keyway.
                                                        ,. ., ,...,Unlvarsal
                                                               MARINE POWER


                                                                   56
                                       COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE
                                                                    COOLANT PUMP
 A CAUTION: If any of the vanes have broken off                     1. Loosen the alternator mounting bolts, and remove the
 the impeller they must be found to prevent b/~ckage in                drive belt.
 the cooling circuit. They often can be found IR the
 heat exchanger.                                                    2. Remove the coolant pump pulley.
                                                                    3. Remove the coolant pump assembly from the gear case
                                                                       cover.
8. Replace the gasket, impeller, and O-ring.
                                                                    4. Remove the flange.
9. Apply a film of petroleum jelly or silicon to the inner
   surface of the impeller housing.                                 5. Press out the shaft with the impeller on it.

NOTE: Just coat the suiface; do not over apply.                     6. Remove the impeller from the shaft.

10. Install the cover housing over the impeller.                    7. Remove the mechanical seal assembly.

11. Install the three hex screws and tighten.                       8. Check every part for cracks, damage and water leaks.
                                                                       Replace any parts that are defective.
12. Mount the pump to the engine taking care that the end
    seal and gasket are in place. Do not tighten the pump              NOTE: No rebuilding kits are available for the antifreeze
    mounting screws, just finger tight.                                circulating pump, however individual parts are avail-
                                                                       able to allow the pump to be rebuilt.
13. Reassemble the hose connections and open the raw
    water intake.                                                   9. Check the impeller and shaft for rotating condition. If
                                                                       they make a noise or rotate irregularly, replace as an
14. Start the engine in idle; this will allow the pump to              assembly.
    align itself with its drive shaft.
                                                                    When Reassembling:
15. Stop the engine and tighten the pump assembly
    mounting screws.                                                1. Apply a liquid gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent)
                                                                       to both sides of a new coolant pump gasket.
16. Start and run the engine, check for leaks, and check for
    a normal operating temperature.                                 2. Replace the mechanical seal with a new one.




                      RAW WATER PUMP



                                                                                              PULLEY
                                                                                                         COOLANT PUMP




                                                               57
                                          FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION
An electromagnetic fuel lift pump draws fuel from the fuel                 fuel injectors is returned from the nozzle holders through
tank through an owner-suppled fuel filter/water separator to               fuel lines to the fuel injection pump and the fuel tank.
remove impurities such as dirt and water. The lift pump                    NOTE: Fuel supplied to the fuel lift pump must be filtered
then pumps the fuel through the engine's primary fuel filter               to 10 - 25 microns or smaller by the (owner-supplied)fuel
to the fuel injection pump. The fuel is pressurized by the                 filter/water separator.
fuel injection pump to the opening pressure of the injection
nozzles [1991 - 2133 psi (140 - 150 kgf/cm2) (13.73 -
14.71 MPa)] and injected into the combustion chamber.
Some of the fuel that is fed to the injection nozzles lubri-
cates the plungers inside the nozzles. Excess fuel from the



                                        FUEL
                                        LIFT
                                        PUMP

                                                                                                                   FUEL RETURN
                                                                                                                   LINE FROM
                                                                                                                   FUEL INJECTORS
      FROM FUEL TANK   ~ c======~                                                                                  TO INJECTIDN PUMP

        TO FUEL TANK   ~ c=::::;============~
                                FUEL RETURN
                                LINE FROM                                                           FUEL
                                FUEL INJECTORS                                                   INJECTION
                                TO FUEL TANK                                                       PUMP



                                                              FUEL
                                                             FILTER                FUEL SYSTEM




INJECTION PUMP                                                             Pump Element
The fuel injection pump is a Bosch MD type mini pump.                      The pump element consists of the plunger and the cylinder.
It is small, lightweight and easy to handle.                               The sliding surfaces are super-precision machined to main-
                                                                           tain injection pressures at low engine speeds. The plunger
The plunger with a right-hand lead reciprocates via the tap-
                                                                           is machined to have a slot and a control groove. Since the
pet roller by means of the fuel camshaft, causing the fuel to
                                                                           driving face on the plunger fits in the control sleeve, the
be delivered into the injection nozzle.
                                                                           plunger is rotated by the movement of the control rack to
   DELIVERY VALVE
                                                                           increase or decrease the fuel delivery.
   HOLDER




                                                                                       SLOT
                                                                                                                 CYLINDE}
                                                                                                                              PUMP
                                                                                                                              ELEMENT
                                                 CYLINDER                            CONTROL                     PLUNGER
                                                                                     GROOVE
CONTROL ROD _...---,
                             ~'C:t-+--PLUNGER

                               ~-t---            PLUNGER
                         1_~!l.U1                SPRING



                       ~I~~U~--TAPPET                                                            PUMP ELEMENT



                       INJECTION PUMP
                                                            . ., .Unlvarsal
                                                                  MARINE POWER


                                                                      58
                                      FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Delivery Valve
The delivery valve consists of the valve and valve seat.
The delivery valve performs the following functions:
1. Reverse Flow Preventing Function
If the fuel flow should reverse from the injection nozzle
side when the plunger lowers, the time lag between the
next delivery start and the nozzle injection start would
increase. This is avoided by the delivery valve, which pre-
vents the fuel flow from the delivery chamber to the injec-
tion line from reversing. This keeps the nozzle and the fuel
line filled with fuel to maintain the prime.
                                                                                        1                           2
2. Draw-Back Function
After completing the fuel delivery, the delivery valve low-
ers and the relief plunger end contacts the delivery valve
seat. The valve further lowers until it seats finnly in the
delivery valve seat. During this time, the amount of fuel
corresponding to "A" is drawn back from inside the injec-
tion line, and the pressure inside the pipe is reduced, thus
leading to an improved injection shut-off and preventing
after-leakage dribbling.

DELIVERY VALVE


 SEAT
 SURFACE                                                                            3                               4
                                     A                                                  OPERATION OF THE PUMP ELEMENT

                                                                     Injection Control
                                                                     1. No Fuel Delivery
                                                                     At the engine stop position of the control rack, the length-
                                                                     wise slot on the plunger aligns with the feed hole. The
                   1                              2                  delivery chamber is led to the feed hole during the entire
                            DELIVERY VALVE                           stroke of the plunger.
                                                                     The pressure in the delivery chamber does not build up and
Operation of the Pump Element                                        no fuel can be forced to the injection nozzle.
1. Before Delivery                                                   2. Fuel Delivery
    As the tappet lowers, the plunger also lowers, and fuel is
                                                                     The plunger is rotated (see illustration) by the control rack.
    drawn into the delivery chamber through the feed hole
    from the fuel chamber.                                           When the plunger is pushed up, the feed hole is closed.
                                                                     The pressure in the delivery chamber builds up and force-
2. Beginning of Delivery                                             feeds the fuel to the injection nozzle until the control groove
    When the plunger is pushed up by the cam and the head of         meets the feed hole.
    the plunger closes the feed hole, the pressure in the            The amount of the fuel corresponds to the distance "A".
    delivery chamber rises to push the relief plunger open.
    Fuel is then force-fed into the injection line.
3. Delivery
    While the plunger is rising, the delivery of fuel continues.
4. End of Delivery
    When the plunger rises further and the control groove on
    its periphery meets the feed hole, the fuel returns to the
    fuel chamber from the delivery chamber through the con-
    trol groove and the feed hole.




                                                               MARINE POWER


                                                                59
                                           FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
                                         DELIVERY CHAMBER
                                                                    FUEL FILTER
                                                                    The fuel filter prevents dirty fuel from reaching the injec-
                        1T't:;:w~-64- FEED HOLE
                                                                    tion pump and the injection nozzles. Each moving part of
                                                                    the injection pump and nozzle is extremely precision
                                                                    machined, and the clearances of their sliding parts are
                                                                    extremely small. Fuel itself serves as lubricating oil. For
                                                                    this reason, it is extremely important to completely remove
                                                                    any water and dirt contained in the fuel.
                                                                    The fuel filter cartridge will require occasional replacement
                                                                    to maintain an adequate flow of fuel to the injection pump.
                                                                    The frequency of this service will vary according to the
                                                                    cleanliness of the available fuel and the care used in its
                                                 FEED HOLE          storage. The fuel filter eliminates any foreign matter com-
                                                                    ing from the fuel tank and protects the injection pump and
                                                                    injection nozzles. When fuel enters the filter, it passes
                                                                    from the filter element's circumference toward the center
                                                                    for filtering.
                                                                    There is an air vent plug on the filter body. Before start-
                                                                    ing, or after disassembling and reassembling, loosen this
                                         SLOT
                                                                    plug and bleed the air in the fuel system.
    INJECTION CONTROL               CONTROL
                                    GROOVE


INJECTION NomE
This nozzle is a throttle-type. The needle valve is                       AIR VENT
pushed against the nozzle body by the nozzle spring via the               PLUG

push rod. Fuel pressurized by the injection pump pushes
the needle valve up, and then is injected into the precom-
bustion chamber.
Excessive fuel flow passes from the nozzle holder center
through the eye joint and the fuel overflow line to the fuel
tank.
The injection pressure is 1991 - 2133 psi (13.73 - 14.71
MPa) (140 - 150 kgf/cm2) and is adjusted with adjusting
washers.




                                                                                                 FUEL FILTER

                                                                    FUEL LIFT PUMP
                                                                    The on-engine fuel system is virtually self priming. Under
                                                 ADJUSTING          ordinary circumstances the engine's electric fuel lift pump,
                                                 WASHER
                                                                    which is energized by the key switCh/preheat button, will
                                                                    supply a continuous flow of fuel from the tank. This fuel is
                                                                    drawn through the fuel filter/water separator to the engine
          NOZZLE
          HOLDER
                   --'-'l'"                                         lift pump, the primary spin-on fuel filter, and the injection
          BODY                                   PUSH ROD           pump.


                                                NOZZLE
                                 "~~-BODY

                              ~i+-II"---        NEEDLE
                                                VALVE




                        BIJECTION NOmE
                                                                                              FUEL UFT PUMP

                                                               60
                                      FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
GOVERNOR                                                             At Start
This mechanism maintains engine speed at a constant rate             The steel balls have no centrifugal force. Fork lever 1 is
even under fluctuating loads, provides stable idling and reg-        pulled by the start spring and the control rod moves to the
ulates maximum engine speed by controlling the fuel injec-           maximum injection position for easy starting.
tion rate.                                                           At Idling
Fork lever 1 is held where two forces on it are balanced.            When the speed control lever is set at the idling position,
One is the force that fork lever 2 pushes, which is caused           the governor spring is pulled slightly. As the camshaft
by the tension of the governor spring between the governor           rotates, the steel balls increase their centrifugal force and
lever and fork lever 2. Another is the component of the              push the governor sleeve. Fork lever 1, pushed by the gov-
centrifugal force produced by the steel balls which are              ernor sleeve, pushes the control rod, and the control rod
rotated by the fuel camshaft.                                        compresses the idling adjusting spring. The control rod is
                                                                     kept at a position where the centrifugal force is balanced
                                                                     with the spring tensions on the control rod, providing stable
                                                                     idling .




                                                     .. ·Unlvarsal
                                                            MARINE POWER


                                                                61
                                        FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
 At Medium or High Speed Running                                      To Stop the Engine
 When the speed control lever is turned further, the governor         When the stop lever is moved to the stop position, fork lever
 spring increases the tension and control rod is pulled to            1 is pushed and the control rod is moved to stop the fuel
 increase the engine speed. The steel balls increase their cen-       injection.
 trifugal force and the control rod is pushed, decreasing the
 engine speed until the centrifugal force and the spring tension
 are balanced.
 When the engine speed is dropped (A -+ B) with the increase
 of the load (a -+ b), the centrifugal force of the steel balls
 decreases and the control rod is pulled. The amount of fuel
 delivered to the injection nozzle is increased to produce the
 higher engine torque required for the load.




SPEED CONTROL




 At Maximum Speed Running with an Overload
 When the engine is overloaded at a high speed and the engine
 speed drops, the centrifugal force of the steel balls decreases
 and the governor spring pulls fork levers 1 and 2.
 When fork lever 2 contacts the adjusting screw, the spring that
 is built into fork lever 1 begins to push fork lever 1 to pull the
 control rod. The amount of fuel delivered to the injection noz-
 zle is increased to run the engine at a high speed and torque.




                                                                62
                      FUEL SYSTEM DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY
                                                                   INJECTION NomE
 A WARNING:        Do not allow smoking Dr open flames             Nozzle Holder
 near the fuel system when servicing. Also provide
                                                                   1. Secure the nozzle retaining nut in a vise.
 proper ventilation.
                                                                   2. Remove the nozzle holder, and take out the parts inside
                                                                      the nozzle holder.
INJECTION PUMP                                                     When Reassembling:
If replacing the pump element, the amount of fuel injection        1. Assemble the nozzle in clean fuel oil.
should be bench tested and adjusted.
                                                                   2. Install the push rod, noting its direction.
     DELIVERY VALVE                                                3. After assembling the nozzle, be sure to adjust the fuel
     HOLDER                                                           injection pressure.


                                                                                                                   AOJUSTING
                                                                                                                   WASHER


                                                                                                                  NOZZLE
                                                                                                                  SPRING

                                                                                                                  PUSH ROO

                                          CYLINDER                                                                DISTANCE
                                                                                                                  PIECE
                            ~~-+-- PLUNGER
                                                                    NOZZLE
                                                                    HOLDER                                        NOZZLE
                               B+--I--- PLUNGER                                                                   PIECE
                                         SPRING



                      ~I~IU--            TAPPET




                      INJECTION PUMP

                                                                                         INJECTION NOZZLE




                                                              63
                                              FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
FUEL INJECTORS                                                        Nozzle Spraying Condition
                                                                      1. Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester and
                                                                         check the nozzle spraying condition.
 A CAUTION:       The spray nozzle velocity is such that              2. If the spraying condition is defective, replace the nozzle
 it may penetrate deeply into the skin of the fingers                    piece.
 and hands, destroying tissue. If it enters the blood-
 stream, it may cause blood poisoning.

Nozzle Injection Pressure
1. Install the injection nozzle to the nozzle tester.
2. Slowly move the tester handle to measure the pressure
    at which fuel begins jetting out from the nozzle.

                                                                                             GOOD               BAD

                                                                      Valve Seat Tightness
                                                                      1. Install the injection nozzle to a nozzle tester.
                                                                      2. Raise the fuel pressure, and keep it at 1849 psi (130
                                                                         kgf/cm2) (12.75 MPa) for 10 seconds.
                                                                      3. If any fuel leak is found, replace the nozzle piece.

                                                                                                          STANDARD VALUE
                                                                               Valve seat tightness     No fuel leak at 1849 psi
                                                                                                      (130 kgf/cm 2) (12.75 MPa)



3. If the measurement is not within the standard value,
   disassemble the injection nozzle and change the adjusting
   washer until the proper injection pressure is obtained.

                              STANDARD VALUE
      Fuel injection           1991 - 2133 psi
      pressure               (140 - 150 kgf/cm 2)
                             (13.73 -14.71 MPa)

    Adjusting washers are provided for every 0.00098 in.
                                                                      Fuel Injectors Service
    (0.025 mm) of thickness, from 0.03543 in. (0.900 mm) to           In case of severe vibrations and detonation noise, have the
    0.07677 in. (1.950 mm).                                           injectors checked and overhauled by an authorized fuel
                                                                      injection service center. Poor fuel quality, contaminants
                 ~                                  AOJUSTING
                                                                      and loss of positive fuel pressure to the injection pump
                                                                      can result in injector faults. Since fuel injectors must be
FUELOVERFLOW~                                       WASHER
                                                                      serviced in a clean room environment, it is best to carry at
LINE NUT
                                                    NOZZLE            least one extra injector as a spare should a problem occur.
                                                    SPRING
                                                                      Before r~moving the old injector, clean the "area around the
       PLAIN                                        PUSH ROO          base of the injector to help prevent any rust or debris from
       WASHER
                                                                      falling down into the injector hole. If the injector will not
                                                    DISTANCE
                                                    PIECE             lift out easily and is held in by carbon build-up or the like,
                                                                      work the injector side-to-side with the aid of the socket
   NOZZLE                                                             wrench to free it, and then lift it out.
   HOLOER                                           NOZZLE
                                                    PIECE
                                                                      The injector seats in the cylinder head on a copper sealing
                                                                      washer. Remove this washer with the injector, and replace
                                                                      it with a new washer when the new injector is installed.
                                                                      Injector to cylinder head tightening torque:
                                                                      36.2 - 50.6 ft-Ib (5.0 -7.0 m-kg) (49.0 - 68.6 Nm)



                           INJECTION NOZZLE                     MARINE POWER


                                                                 64
                                                    FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
INJECTION PUMP                                                                    Shim Specifications - up to Engine Serial Number 489290.
Injection Timing                                                                  1. Shims are available in thicknesses of 0.0059 in. (0.15
                                                                                     mm) and 0.0118 in. (0.30 mm). Combine these shims
1. Remove the injection lines.                                                       for adjustments.
2. Set the speed control lever to the maximum fuel                                2. The addition or reduction of a shim 0.0059 in. (0.15
   discharge position.                                                               mm) delays or advances the injection timing by approx.
3. Turn the flywheel until the fuel fills up to the hole of the                      1.5° (0.026 rad.).
   delivery valve holder.                                                         3. After adjusting the injection timing, apply a liquid-type
                                                            DELIVERY VALVE
                                                            HOLDER                   gasket (Three Bond 1215 or equivalent) to both sides of
                                                                                     the injection pump shim before reassembling.
                                                                                  Shim Specifications - Engine Serial Number 489291 on up.
                                                                                  1. The sealant is applied to both sides of the soft metal
                                                                                     gasket shim. The liquid gasket is not required for
                                                                                     assembling.
                                                                                  2. Shims are available in thicknesses of 0.0079 in. (0.20
                                                                                     mm), 0.0098 in. (0.25 mm) and 0.0118 in. (0.30 mm).
                                                                                     Combine these shims for adjustments.
                                                                                  3. The addition or reduction of a shim 0.0020 in. (0.05
                                                                                     mm) delays or advances the injection timing by approx.
                                                                                     0.5° (0.0087 rad.).
                                                                                  4. In disassembling and replacing, be sure to use the same
4. Turn the flywheel further to check the injection timing,                          number of new gasket shims with the same thicknesses.
   and stop turning when the fuel begins to flow over again.
                                                                                  Fuel Tightness of Pump Element
S. Check to see if the "ITC" mark on the flywheel is
                                                                                  1. Remove the injection lines and injection nozzles.
   aligned with the punch mark on the back plate.
                                                                                  2. Install a pressure tester to the injection pump.
6. If the timing is out of adjustment, readjust the timing
   with shims.       ®                                                            3. Set the speed control lever to the maximum fuel
                        ~                                                            discharge position.



                                               INJECTION
                                               PUMP




                                                                                  4. Tum the flywheel counterclockwise to raise the fuel
                                                                                     pressure.
                                                            SHIM                  S. If the fuel pressure can not reach the allowable limit,
                                                                                     replace the pump element or injection pump assembly.

                                                                                                                      LIMIT
                                                                                        Pump element                 2133 psi
                                                                                        fuel tightness            (150 kgf/cm 2)
                                                                                        (fuel pressure)            (14.71 MPa)




                    A            B           c
             Shim A !TWO holes): 0.0079 In. (0.20 mm)
             Shim B One hole): 0.0098 In. (0.25 mm)
             Shim C Without a hole): 0.0118 In. (0.30 mm)
                                                                             65
                                               FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
Adjusting the Fuel Injection                                                  Delivery Valve Fuel Tightness
Important: After replacing the pump element, be sure to                       1. Remove the injection lines and injection nozzles.
adjust the amount of the fuel injection using a pump tester                   2. Install a pressure tester to the injection pump.
and a test bench [DIESEL KIKI CO. LTD: Code No.
105760-0010 (50 Hz) or 105760-0020 (60Hz)].                                   3. Set the speed control lever to the maximum fuel
                                                                                 discharge position.
Test Condition
 Driving strand        Code No. 105781-4160 (DIESEL KIKI CO. LTDl
                                                                                                                                    SPEED
 Nozzle                DN4PD62                                                                                                      CDNTRDL
                                                                                                                                    LEVER
 Opening pressure      1707 psi (120 kgf/cm 2) (11.77 MPa)
 Injection line        0.24 in. dia. x 0.08 in. dia. x 23.62 in. lon~)
                       (6 mm dia. x 1.6 mm dia. x 2.55 mm long
 Fuel feed pressure    7 psi (0.2 kof/cm2) (49 kPa)
 Test fuel             Diesel fuel No. 2-D
 Pre-stroke            0.0728 - 0.0768 in. (with valve)
                       (0.5 -1.5 mm (with valve)
 Cam profile           PFM-TE-OO (see illustration)


                                                                              4. Turn the flywheel counterclockwise to raise the fuel
                                                                                 pressure to 2133 psi (150 kglcm2) (14.71 MPa)
    A   20' (0.35 rad.)
    B   0.551 in. 14 mml                                                      5_ Set the plunger of the injection pump at the bottom dead
    C   1.181 in. 30 mm                                                          center to reduce the delivery chamber pressure to zero.
    D   0.118in.3mm)
    E   0.591 in. 15 mm!                                                      6. Measure the falling time of the fuel pressure from 2133
    F   0.709 in. 18 mm
    G   0.472 in. 12 mm                                                          - 1991 psi (150 - 140 kglcm2) (14.71 - 13.73 MPa).
                                                                              7. If the measurement is less than the limit, replace the
                                                                                 delivery valve or injection pump assembly.
                           c                                                                                  LIMIT
                                                                               Pressure falling time        5 seconds




Data for Adjustment
 Control rack position Camshaft          Amount of fuel
 (from stop position)    speed
      0.1969 in.       1800 rpm 0.0714 - 0.0751 cu. in.l100 st.
      (5.0mm)                        (1.17 -1.23 cc/100 st.)
      0.0591 in.       1800 rpm less than 0.006 cu. in.l100 st.
       (1.5 mm                     (less than 0.1 cc./100 st.)




                                                             ......Unlvcarsal
                                                                         66
                                              ADMIRAL CONTROL PANEL
UNIVERSAL offers two optional panels. Refer to the                     When the engine is shut down with the Key Switch turned
instruction page that applies to the panel you purchased.              off, the water temperature gauge will continue to register the
                                                                       last temperature reading indicated by the gauge before elec-
ADMIRAL PANEL                                                          trical power was turned off. The oil pressure gauge will fall
                                                                       to zero when the Key Switch is turned off. The temperature
This manually-operated control panel is equipped with a Key            gauge will once again register the engine's true temperature
Switch and RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME meter                        when electrical power is restored to the gauge.
which measures the engine's running time in hours and in
1/10 hours. The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERA-                   A separate alann buzzer with harness is supplied with every
TURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees                Admiral Panel. The installer is responsible for electrically
Fahrenheit, an OIL PRESSURE gauge which measures the                   connecting the buzzer to the four-pin connection on the
engine's oil pressure in pounds per square inch, and a DC              engine's electrical harness. The installer is also responsible
control circuit VOLTAGE gauge which measures the sys-                  for installing the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and
tem's voltage. All gauges are illuminated when the key                 where it will be audible to the operator should it sound while
switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine            the engine is running. The buzzer will sound when the igni-
is in operation. The panel also contains two rubber-booted             tion key is turned on and should silence when the engine has
push buttons, one for PREHEAT and one for START.                       started and the engine's oil pressure rises above 15 psi.
                                                                       Note: Refer to the WIRING DIAGRAM in this manual for the
                                                                       installation of two engine sendors.
                                                                                                OIL PRESSURE GAUGE: THIS GAUGE IS GRADU-
                                                                                                ATED IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (PSI) AND IS
                                WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE: THIS GAUGE IS                          ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS
                                GRADUATED IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT AND IS                          TURNED ON. THE ENGINE'S NORMAL OPERATING
                                ILLUMINATED WHILE THE KEY SWITCH IS                             OIL PRESSURE RANGES BETWEEN 30-60 PSI.
                                TURNED ON. THE ENGINE'S NORMAL OPERATING
                                TEMPERATURE IS 170°-190° F (77°-88°C).

RPM GAUGE: REGIS-
TERS REVOLUTIONS
PER MINUTE OF THE
ENGINE AND CAN BE
RECALIBRATED FOR
ACCURACY FROM THE
REAR OF THE PANEL.



HOURMillR:
REGISTERS ELAPSED                                                                                                         KEY SWITCH: PROVIDES
TIME, AND SHOULD BE                                                                                                       POWER ONLY TO THE
USED AS A GUIDE FOR                                                                                                       INSTRUMENT PANEL
THE MAINTENANCE                                                                                                           CLUSTER.
SCHEDULE.




                                                                                                                          DC VOLTMETER:
                                                                                                                          INDICATES THE AMOUNT THE
                                                                                                                          BATIERY IS BEING CHARGED.
                                                                                                                          SHOULD SHOW 13V TO 14V.
PREHEAT BUTTON: WHEN PRESSED, ENERGIZES THE
ALTERNATOR'S REGULATOR, THE FUEL LIFT PUMP, AND                               AUTOMATIC ALARM SYSTEM
THE ENGINE'S GLOW PLUGS, AND BYPASSES THE                                     HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM: AN ALARM BUZZER HAS SEEN
ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH. IN ADDI-                                  SUPPLIED WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL. IF THE ENGINE'S FRESH
TION, THIS BUTTON ENERGIZES THE START SUTION.                                 WATER COOLANT REACHES 210° F (98°C), THIS SWITCH WILL CLOSE
                                                                              SOUNDING THE ALARM WHICH WILL EMIT A
START BUTTON: WHEN PRESSED, ENERGIZES THE                                     CONTINUOUS SIGNAL.
STARTER'S SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE.
THIS BUTION WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY                                     LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM: A LOW OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH
UNLESS THE PREHEAT SUTTON IS PRESSED AND HELD                                 IS LOCATED OFF THE ENGINE'S OIL GALLERY. THIS SWITCH MONITORS
AT THE SAME TIME.                                                             THE ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE. SHOULD THE ENGINES OIL PRESSURE
                                                                              FALL TO 5 - 10 PSI, THE SWITCH WILL OPEN SOUNDING THE ALARM.
                                                                              IN THIS EVENT, THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING SIGNAL.




                                                        ~UnivQrsal
                                                        rot     1~"';MI:t#·'W3;.

                                                                 67
                                           CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL
CAPTAIN PANEL                                                          and one for high ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE. It
                                                                       also includes an alarm buzzer for low OIL PRESSURE or
This manually-operated control panel is equipped with a Key            high WAJER TEMPERATURE. The RPM gauge is illumi-
Switch, an RPM gauge, PREHEAT and START buttons, an                    nated when the Key Switch is turned on and remains illumi-
INSTRUMENT JEST button and three indicator lamps, one                  nated while the engine is in operation.
for AL1ERNATOR DISCHARGE, one for low OIL PRES-
SURE,




                                                                       ALARM: THE ALARM WILL SOUND IF THE ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE FALLS
                                                                       BELOW 5 -10 PSI. IN THIS EVENT, THE ALARM WILL EMIT A PULSATING
                                                                       SIGNAL. THE ALARM WILL ALSO SOU NO IF THE WATER TEMPERATURE IN
                                                                       THE FRESHWATER COOLING CIRCUIT RISES TO 210°F. IN THIS EVENT, THE
RPM GAUGE:                                                             ALARM WILL EMIT A SIGNAL.
REGISTERS REVOLUTIONS PER                                              NOTE: THE ALARM WILL SOUND WHEN THE KEY SWITCH IS TURNED ON.
MINUTE OF THE ENGINE AND CAN BE                                        THIS SOUNDING IS NORMAL. ONCE THE ENGINE STARTS AND THE ENGINE'S
RECALIBRATED FOR ACCURACY FROM                                         OIL PRESSURE REACHES 15 PSI, THE ALARM WILL SILENCE.
THE REAR OF THE PANEL.




                                                                                                                     TEST BUTTON: WHEN
                                                                                                                     PRESSED, TESTS THE
                                                                                                                     ALTERNATOR, THE OIL
                                                                                                                     PRESSURE, AND THE
                                                                                                                     WATER TEMPERATURE
                                                                                                                     CONTROL CIRCUITS.
                                                                                                                     WHEN PRESSED, THE
                                                                                                                     ALTERNATOR, THE OIL
                                                                                                                     PRESSURE, AND THE
                                                                                                                     WATER TEMPERATURE
                                                                                                                     INDICATOR LIGHTS
                                                                                                                     ILLUMINATE IN ADDI-
                                                                                                                     TION TO SOUNDING
                                                                                                                     THE ALARM BUZZER.




                                                                                                                     KEY SWITCH:
                                                                                                                     PROVIDES POWER TO
                                                                                                                     THE INSTRUMENT
                                                                                                                     PANEL CLUSTER AND
                                                                                                                     THE DC ALTERNATOR
                                                                                                                     REGULATOR TERMINAL.

                                  WATER TEMPERATURE ALARM
                                  UGHT


                    START BUTTON: WHEN PRESSED, ENERGIZES THE
                    STARTER'S SOLENOID WHICH CRANKS THE ENGINE. THIS                  PREHEAT BUnON: WHEN PRESSED, ENERGIZES THE FUEL
                    BUnON WILL NOT OPERATE ELECTRICALLY UNLESS THE                    LIFT PUMP AND THE ENGINE'S GLOW PLUGS, AND BYPASSES
                    PREHEAT BunON IS PRESSED AND HELD AT THE SAME                     THE ENGINE'S OIL PRESSURE ALARM SWITCH. IN ADDITION,
                    TIME.                                                             THIS BUnON ENERGIZES THE START BUnON.




                                                                  68
                                CONTROL PANEL TROUBLESHOOTING
TACHOMETER/HOURMETER                                                  NOTE: Current model tachometers use a coarse adjustment
The tachometerlhourmeter used in propulsion engine instru-            dial to set the tachometer to the crankshaft pulley rpms. The
ment panels contains two separate electrical circuits with a          calibrating screw is then used for fine tuning.
common ground. One circuit operates the hourmeter and
the other the tachometer. The hourmeter circuit operates on
12 volts alternator charging voltage supplied to the (+) ter-
minal on the back of the instrument.
The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6 - 8 volts,
fed from one of the diodes in the alternator and supplied to
the tachometer input terminal while the engine is running,
and the alternator producing battery charging voltage
13.0 - 14.8 volts DC.
The following are procedures to follow when troubleshoot-
ing a fault in either of the two circuits in a tachometer/
hourmeter.
Hourmeter Inoperative                                                                                    CALIBRATION
Check for the proper DC voltage between (+) and (-)
terminals.
                                                                      IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT
1. Voltage present - meter is defective - repair or replace.
                                                                      & TACHOMETER CHECK (New Installation)
2. Voltage not present - trace (+) and (-) electrical con-
   nections for fault. (Jump 12 volts DC to meter (+)                 Checking the idle speed
   terminal to verify the operation.)                                 NOTE: In a new installation having new instrument panels,
                                                                      the tachometer may not always be correctly calibrated to the
Tachometer Inoperative                                                engine's rpm. This calibration should be checked in all new
Check for the proper AC voltage between tachometer input              installations.
terminal and (-) terminal with the engine running.                    1. Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature.
1. Voltage present - attempt adjusting meter through calibra-             Remove any specks on the crankshaft pulley with a clean
   tion access hole. No results, repair or replace meter.                 cloth and place a piece of suitable reflecting tape on the
2. AC voltage not present - check for proper alternator DC                pulley to facilitate use of a photoelectric type tachometer.
   output voltage.                                                    2. Start and idle the engine.
3. Check for AC voltage at tach terminal on alternator to             3. Aim the light of the tachometer onto the reflecting tape to
   ground.                                                                confIrm the engine speed. Check the instrument panel
4. Check electrical connections from tachometer input ter-                tachometer reading. Adjust the tachometer in the panel by
   minal to alternator connection.                                        using the instrument coarse adjustment to calibrate the
                                                                          instrument reading to the closest R.P.M. that the photo tach
Tachometer Sticking                                                       is showing. Then use the fIne calibration adjustment to
1. Check for proper AC voltage between "tach inp." termi-                 bring the instrument to the exact reading as the photo tach.
   nal and (-) terminal.                                                  The fIne calibration adjustment is made using a 5/64 Allen
2. Check for good ground connection between meter (-) ter-                head wrench.
   minal and alternator.                                              4. Adjust the idle speed if the engine speed is not within the
3. Check that alternator is well grounded to engine block at             specifIed value.
   alternator pivot bolt.
                                                                          Normal idle speed: 1,000 - 1,200 rpm
Tachometer Inaccurate
a. With a hand-held tach on the front of the crankshaft
   pulley retaining nut or with a strobe-type tach, read the
   front crankshaft pulley rpm at idle.
h. Adjust the tachometer with a small Phillips type screw-
   driver through the calibration access hole in the rear of
   the tachometer. Zero the tach and bring it to the rpm
   indicated by the strobe or hand tach. (Verify the rpm at
   idle and at high speed). (Adjust the tach as needed.)




                                                       ....Unlvarsal
                                                      2d       "&!j@'ja'C43i-
                                                                 69
                                        CONTROL PANEL TROUBLESHOOTING
                                 MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (TOGGLE SWITCHES)
                     NOTE: The engine control system is protected by a 20 amp manual reset circuit breaker
                     located on.. the engine as close as possible to the power source.
              Problem                               Probable Cause                                          Verification/Remedy
 PREHEAT depressed, no panel indications   1. Oil Pressure switch.                         1. Check switches and/or battery connections.
 fuel solenoid, electric fuel pump and
 preheat solenoid not energized.           2. 20 amp circuit breaker tripped.              2. Reset breaker. If opens again, check preheat solenoid circuit
                                                                                              and run circuit for shorts to ground.
 START SWITCH DEPRESSED, no starter        1. Connection to solenoid faulty.               1. Check connection.
 engagement.
                                           2. Faulty switch                                2. Check switch with ohmmeter.
                                           3. Faulty sOlenoid.                             3. Check that 12 volts are present at the solenoid connection.
                                           4. Loose battery connections.                   4. Check battery connections.
                                           5. Low battery.                                 5. Check battery charge state.
 NO IGNITION, cranks, does not start.      1. Faulty fueling system.                       1. Check for fuel.
                                           2. Check for air in the fuel system.            2. Allow system to bleed.
                                           3. Faulty fuel lift pump.                       3. Replace fuel lift pump.
 NOT CHARGING BATTERY                      1. Faulty alternator drive.                     1. Check the drive belt and its tension. Be sure the alternator
                                                                                               tums freely. Check for loose connections. Check the
                                                                                               output with a voltmeter. Ensure 12V are present at the
                                                                                               regulator terminal.
 BATTERY RUNS DOWN                         1. Oil pressure switch.                         1. Observe if the gauges and panel lights are activated when the
                                                                                               engine is not running. Test the oil pressure switch.
                                           2. High resistance leak to ground.              2. Check the wiring. Insert sensitive (0-.25 amp) meter in battery
                                                                                              lines (Do NOT start engine). Remove connections and replace
                                                                                              after short is located.
                                           3. Low resistance leak to ground.               3. Check all wires for temperature rise to locate the fault.
                                           4. Faulty alternator.                           4. After a good battery charging, disconnect alternator at output.
                                                                                              If leakage stops. Remove altemator and bench test. Repair or
                                                                                              replace.


                          TROUBLESHOOTING WATER TEMPERATURE AND 01. PRESSURE GAUGES
If the gauge reading is other than what is nonnally indicated                     If both of the above gauge tests are positive, the gauge is
by the gauge when the instrument panel is energized, the fIrst                    undoubtedly OK and the problem lies either with the conduc-
step is to check for 12 volts DC between the ignition (B+)                        tor from the sender to the gauge or with the sender.
and the Negative (B-) terminals of the gauge.
                                                                                  If either of the above gauge tests are negative, the gauge is
Assuming that there is 12 volts as required, leave the instru-                    probably defective and should be replaced.
ment panel energized (key switch on) and perfonn the
following steps:                                                                  Assuming the gauge is OK, check the conductor from the
                                                                                  sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for continuity.
1. Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the
gauge reads zero, which is the nonnal reading for this situa-                     Check that the engine block is connected to the ground.
tion.                                                                             Some starters have isolated ground terminals and if the bat-
                                                                                  tery is connected to the starter (both plus and minus termi-
2. Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and                         nals), the ground side will not necessarily be connected to the
see if the gauge reads full scale, which is the nonnal reading                    block.
for this situation.




                                                                           70
                                                  GLOW PLUG SERVICE
GLOW PLUGS                                                                                 TERMINAL
                                                                                           END
The glow plugs are wired through the preheat solenoid.
When PREHEAT is pressed at the control panel this sole-
noid should "click" on and the glow plug should begin to
get hot.
Inspection
To inspect the plug, remove the electrical terminal connec-
tions, then unscrew or unclamp each plug from the cylinder
head. Thoroughly clean each plug's tip and threads with a                                  TIP
soft brush and cleaning solution to remove all the carbon
and oil deposits. While cleaning, examine the tip for wear
and bum erosion; if it has eroded too much, replace the
plug.
                                                                      TESTING AGLOW PLUG
Testing                                                                WITH AN OHMMETER
An accurate way to test glow plugs is with an ohmmeter.
This method can be used with the plug in or out of the
engine. You can also use an ammeter to test the power
drain (8 - 9 amps per plug).


 A WARNING:         These glow plugs will become vary
  hot to the touch. Be careful not to burn your fingers
  when testing the plugs.

1. Disconnect the leads from the glow plugs.
2. Measure the resistance with the ohmmeter across the
   glow plug terminal and the body of the glow plug (see
   illustration).
3. If 0 ohm is indicated, the screw at the tip of the glow
   plug and the body of the glow plug are short-circuited.
4. If the standard value is not indicated, the glow plug is
    faulty; replace the glow plug.

     DESCRIPTION           STANDARD VALUE
   Glow plug resistance   Approx. 0.9 to 1.2 Q

 Re-install the plugs in the engine and test them again. The
 plugs should get very hot (at the terminal end) within 7 to
 15 seconds. If the plugs don't heat up quickly, check for a
 short circuit. When reinstalling the glow plugs, use anti-
 seize compound on the threads.

  Glow plug                5.8 - 10.8 ft. -Ibs.
  tightening torque        (0.8 -1.5 kg-m)
                            (7.8 -14.7 Nm)



  AWARNING: Do not keep a glow plug on for more
  than 30 seconds.




                                                      ,. .Unlvarsal
                                                               71
                                                         STARTER SERVICE
  STARTER DESCRIPTION                                                         Solenoid Switch
  The starter is of the electromagnetic drive type. It is com-                The solenoid switch forces out the pinion for engaging
  posed of a starting motor and a solenoid switch.                            with the ring gear, and operates as a relay to drive the
                                                                              armature.
         SOLENOIO SWITCH    PLUNGER
                                                                              It consists of a pull-in coil, a holding coil and a plunger.




                                                                              Starter Operation
KEY
                                                                              When Main Switch is Turned to "START" Position
SWITCH                                                                        The contacts of the main switch close and the holding coil
                                                                              is connected to the battery to pull the plunger.
                                                                              The pull-in coil and the starting motor are also connected to
                                                                              the battery.
                                                                              The pinion is pushed against the ring gear with the overrun-
                                                                              ning clutch by the drive lever, and the solenoid switch is
                                                                              closed.

                                                                                          SWITCH


                                                                                          SOLENOID
                                                  OVERRUNNING                             SWITCH
                                                  CLUTCH      PINION
                                   SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT

  Overrunning Clutch
  The overrunning clutch is so constructed that the power
  transmission relationship is automatically severed when the
  clutch pinion shaft speed exceeds the clutch gear outer
  speed at increased engine speeds. Therefore, the armature
  drives the ring gear and is never driven by the engine.                                                                                    GEAR
                                                                              When Solenoid Switch is Closed
                                                                              The current from the battery flows through the solenoid
                                                                              switch to the starting motor.
                                                                              The pinion, which is pushed against the ring gear and rotat-
                                                                              ed along the spline, meshes with the ring gear to crank the
                                                                              engine.
                                                                              The engine starts and increases its speed.
                                                                              While the pinion spins faster than the armature, the overrun-
                                                                              ning clutch allows the pinion to spin independently from the
                                                                              armature.
      WHEII POWER IS TRANSMITTED               IDUNG ROTATION WITH CWTCH      The pull-in coil is short-circuited through the solenoid
                                              PINION SHAFT SPEED EXCEEDING    switch and the main switch.
                                                THAT OF CWTCH GEAR OUTER



                                                                       MARINE POWER


                                                                         72
                                                   STARTER SERVICE
                                   PUll·IN COil
                                                                  Magnet Switch
 -MAIN SWITCH
                                                                  NOTE: Each test should be carried out for a start time (3 to
                                                                  5 seconds), and at half of the rated voltage (6V).
I.   SOlENOIO~                                                    Checking Pull-In Coil
     SWITCH
                                                                  1. Connect jumper lead from the battery's negative termi-
                                                                     nal post to the C terminaL
                                                                  2. The plunger should be attracted strongly when a jumper
                                                                     lead is connected from the battery positive terminal to
                                                                     the S terminaL


                ARMATURE   SPIRAL SPLINE   OVERRUNNING
                                           CLUTCH
When Main Switch is Released
The current from the battery flows to the holding coil
through the pun in coil to diminish the magnetism between
them.
The plunger is pushed by the spring to pull in the pinion.
                                                                  Checking Holding Coil
                                                                  1. Connect jumper leads from the battery's negative termi-
                                                                     nal post to the body, and the battery's positive terminal
                                                                     post to the S terminaL
                                                                  2. Push the plunger in by hand and release it. Then, the
                                                                     plunger should remain being attracted.




STARTER TESTING
Motor Test
1. Disconnect the connecting lead from the C terminal of
   the starter and connect a jumper lead from the connect-
   ing lead to the positive battery terminaL
2. Connect a jumper lead momentarily between the starter
   body and the negative battery terminaL
3. If the motor does not run, check the motor.




                                                             73
                                                      STARTER SERVICE
STARTER DISASSEMBLY & REASSEMBLY                                              7. Remove the brush holder 20.
1. Unscrew the mounting nut 6 , and disconnect the con-                       8. Draw out the yoke 18 from the starter drive housing 2.
   necting lead 11.                                                           9. Draw out the armature 9 with the drive lever 3.
2. Unscrew the solenoid switch mounting nuts 1, and                           NOTE: Do not damage the brush or commutator.
   remove the solenoid switch 5.
                                                                              When Reassembling:
3. Remove the end frame cap 16.
                                                                              Apply grease to the following parts shown in the illustration:
4. Remove the brake shoe 15, brake spring 14 and gasket
   13.                                                                           a Joint of solenoid switch       d Collar
                                                                                 b Bushing                        e Teeth of pinion gear
5. Unscrew the through bolts 21, and remove the rear end                         c Drive lever                    f Armature shaft
   frame 12.
6. Remove the brush from the brush holder while holding                                                   __. . .~~_6.                   NUT
                                                                              5.       SOLENOID
   the spring up.                                                                      SWITCH




                2.     STARTER DRIVE                             4.
                       HOUSING
                                       3.   DRIVE LEVE
1.   SOLENOID SWITCH
     MOUNTING NUT




              ~                                                                                                                         ARMATURE




                                                                                              SNAP RING     OVERRUNNING                        SCREW
                                                                                                            CLUTCH




     o
                                                                                                                                               END FRAME
                                                                                                                                               CAP




                                                                      "., "'. .,,!
                                                                                                                                      BRAKE
                                                                                                                                      SHOE




                                                                                                                          21.   THROUGH·BOLT
      18.
                                                                        12.        REAR END
                                                                                   FRAME
                                                19.      BRUSH



STARTER SERVICE
Armature Coil
 1. Check the continuity across the commutator and armature
    shaft with an ohmmeter.
2. Ifirt:onducts, replace the armature.




                                                                 · .Unlvarsal
                                                                      MARINE POWER


                                                                       74
                                                  STARTER SERVICE
Clearance between Armature Shaft and Bushing                         Commutator and Mica
1. Measure the bushing LD. on the drive side and commu-              1. If the commutator surface is dirty or dusty, clean it with
   tator side.                                                          sandpaper.
2. Measure the armature shaft O.D. on the drive side and             2. Measure the commutator O.D. with vernier calipers at
   commutator side, and calculate the clearance.                        several places.
3. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace the bushing.          3. If the difference of the O.D. 's exceeds the limit, correct
                                                                        the commutator on a lathe to the standard value.
    DESCRIPTION          STANDARD VALUE             LIMIT            4. If the minimum O.D. is less than the limit, replace the
 Clearance between                                                      armature.
 armature shaft and
 bushing                                                             5. Measure the mica undercut depth.
     Commutator           0.001 - 0.003 in.        0.007 in.         6. If the undercut is less than the limit, correct it with a
     side                 (0.03 - 0.10 mm)        (0.20 mm)             saw blade and chamfer the segment edges.
     Drive side           0.002 - 0.003 in.        0.007 in.
                          (0.05 - 0.10 mm)        (0.20 mm)              DESCRIPTION              STANDARD VALUE          LIMIT
                                                                      Commutator 0.0.                   1.102 in.        1.063 in.
                                                                                                      (2B.O mm)         (27.0 mm)
    DESCRIPTION           STANDARD VALUE
                                                                       Difference of O.D.'s       Less than 0.002 in.    0.016 in.
 Armature shaft 0.0.            0.492 in.                                                              (0.05 mm)         (0.4 mm)
                              (12.50 mm)
                                                                       Mica Undercut               0.020 - 0.031 in.     O.OOB in.
 Bushing 1.0.              0.493 - 0.496 in.                                                        (0.5 - O.B mm)       (0.2 mm)
 (commutator side)       (12.53 - 12.60 mm)
 Bushing 1.0.              0.494 - 0.496 in.
 (drive side)            (12.55 - 12.60 mm)




                                                                               MEASURING COMMUTATOR 0.0.


                       MEASURING BUSHING 1.0.
                                                                                     BAD                       GOOD




                                                                                 ~~
                                                                                · ern...
                                                                                              J     SEGMENT




                                                                                                         ~

                                                                                     MEASURING MICA UNDERCUT DEPTH
                  MEASURING ARMATURE SHAFT 0.0.


                                                         ~ ~Unlvarsal
                                                               MARINE POWER


                                                                75
                                                STARTER SERVICE
Field Coil
1. Check the continuity across the yoke and brush with an
   ohmmeter.
2. If either are not conducting, replace the yoke assembly.




                                                                       Brush Holder
                                                                       1. Check the continuity across the brush holder and the
                                                                          holder support with an ohmmeter.
                                                                       2. If it conducts, replace the brush holder.

Brush Wear
1. If the contact face of the brush is dirty or dusty, clean it
   with sandpaper.
2. Measure the brush length with vernier calipers.
3. If the length is less than the limit, replace the yoke
   assembly and brush holder.

    DESCRIPTION         STANDARD VALUE             LIMIT
 Brush Length                0.630 in.            .413 in.
                            (16.0 mm)           (10.5 mm)




                                                                       Overrunning Clutch
                                                                       1. Inspect the pinion for wear or damage.
                                                                       2. If there is any defect, replace it.
                                                                       3. Check that the pinion turns freely and smoothly in
                                                                          the overrunning direction and does not slip in the
                                                                          cranking position.
                                                                       4. If the pinion slips or does not tum in both directions,
                                                                          replace the overrunning clutch assembly.
Brush Spring
1. Pull the brush in the brush holder with a spring scale.
2. Measure the brush spring tension required to raise the
   spring from contact position with the commutator.
3. If the tension is less than the limit, replace the spring.

   DESCRIPTION          STANDARD VALUE             LIMIT
 Spring Tension            3.1 - 5.7 Ibs.         2.0Ibs.
                          (1.4 - 2.6 kg~         (0.9 kg f)
                         (13.7 - 25.5 )           (8.8 N)




                                                                  76
                                                STARTER SERVICE
Solenoid Switch                                                   Pinion Clearance
1. Check the continuity across Band M terminals with              1. Reassemble the starter with the connecting leads
   an ohmmeter, pushing in the plunger.                              unconnected.
2. If not continuous or if a certain value is indicated,          2. Connect a cable from the negative terminal of the bat-
   replace the solenoid switch.                                      tery to the starter body, and a cable from S terminal of
3. Pull the pull-rod to check the spring built in the                the starter to the positive terminal of the battery, to
   plunger.                                                          force out the pinion.
                                                                  3. Push back the pinion slightly to kill the play, and
                                 ,·.1'=                              measure the pinion clearance.
                                                                  4. If the clearance is not within the specified values, add
                                                                     or remove the washer between the solenoid switch and the
                                                                     front end frame.

                                                                      DESCRIPTION          STANDARD VALUE
                                                                    Pinion Clearance       0.020 - 0.079 in.
                                                                                           (0.05 - 2.0 mm)




                                                                                       +




                                                        ,;" "j"Unlvarsai
                                                            MARINE POWER


                                                             77
                                   MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
PRECAUTIONS FOR TESTING ALTERNATOR                             TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
                                                                                      TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
                                                                   Fastener                    Ib-H                Ib-in.
                                                                   Location                     Nm                  Nm
                                                                   Alternator front             -              25 - 35 Ib-in.
                                                                   housing screws                             (2.8 - 4.0 Nm)
                                                                   Alternator end               -              35 - 65 Ib-in.
                                                                   frame screws                               (4.0 - 7.3 Nm)
                                                                   Alternator               35 - 50 Ib-H            -
                                                                   pulley nut              (47 - 68 Nm)
                                                                   Regulator                    -              25 - 45 Ib-in.
                                                                   mounting screws                            (2.8 - 5.1 Nm)

                                                               PREPARING TO CHECK ALTERNATOR
                                                               Before starting the alternator tests, check these items:
                       MANDo ALTERNATOR
                                                               1. If the problem is an undercharged battery, check to
                                                                  ensure that the undercharged condition has not been
                                                                  caused by an excessive accessory current draw or by
A WARNING: Be sure that the engine compartment                    accessories which have accidentally been left on. Also,
is well ventilated and that there is no gasoline vapor            check that the undercharged condition has not been
present. This is to prevent the possibility of an explo-          caused by running the engine at too low a speed for
sion and/or fire should a spark occur.                            extended periods of time.
                                                               2. Check the physical condition and the state of charge of
                                                                  the battery. The battery must be fully charged to obtain
 A WARNING:        Keep fingers and clothing away from            valid results in the following tests. If not, charge the
                                                                  battery before testing the system.
 the alternator belt and pulley; severe bodily harm can
 occur~                                                        3. Inspect the entire alternator system wiring for defects.
                                                                  Check all connections for tightness and cleanliness, par-
                                                                  ticularly the battery cable clamps and battery terminals.

 A CAUTION:
 1.   Do not attempt to polarize the alternator.
 2.   Do not short across or ground any of the terminals
      on the alternator, except as specifically instructed
      in the troubleshooting tests.
 3.   Never disconnect the alternator-output/ead or
      battery cables when the alternator is being driven
      by the engine.
 4.   Never disconnect the regulator lead from the
      alternator-regulator terminal when the alternator
      is being driven by the engine.
 5.   Always remove the negative (-) battery cable from
      the battery before working on the alternator
      system.
 6.   When installing the battery, be sure to connect                     ALTERNATOR WIRING
      the negative (-) (grounded) battery cable to the                       CONNECTIONS
      negative (-) battery terminal and the positive (+)
      battery cable to the positive (+) battery terminal.      4. Check the alternator drive belt for excessive wear,
 7.   If a charger or booster battery is to be used, be           cracks, fraying and glazed surfaces, and replace it if
      sure to connect it in parallel with the existing            necessary. Also check the drive belt tension and adjust
      battery (positive to positive; negative to negative).       it if necessary (see DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT under
                                                                  ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS).




                                                              78
                                     MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
TEST OUTPUT CIRCUIT                                                2. Turn the ignition switch to the on position and note the
                                                                      voltmeter reading. The reading should be 1.3 to 2.5
1. Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the alternator              volts (see illustration).
   output terminal and the negative lead to the ground ter-
   minal on the alternator (see illustration).                     3. If the reading is between .75 and 1.1 volts, the rotor
                                                                      field circuit probably is shorted or grounded. Disas-
2. Wiggle the engine wiring harness while observing the               semble the alternator and test the rotor as described
   voltmeter. The meter should indicate the approximate               under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPO-
   battery voltage, and should not vary. If no reading is             NENTS in this section.
   obtained, or if the reading varies, check the alternator-
   output circuit for loose or dirty connections or damaged        4. If the reading is between 6.0 and 7.0 volts, the rotor
   wiring.                                                            field circuit probably is open. Remove the regulator
                                                                      and inspect it for worn brushes or dirty slip rings.
                                                                      Replace the brushes if they are less than 114 in. (6 rom)
                                                                      long. If the brushes and slip rings are in good condi-
                                                                      tion, disassemble the alternator and test the rotor, as
                                                                      outlined under CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR
                                                                      COMPONENTS in this section.
                                                                   5. If no reading is obtained, an open exists in the alterna-
                                                                      tor-excitation lead or in the excitation circuit of the
                                                                      regulator. Disconnect the lead from the regulator.
                                                                      Connect the positive voltmeter lead to this lead, and the
                                                                      negative voltmeter lead to ground. If the voltmeter now
                                                                      indicates an approximate battery voltage, the voltage
                                                                      regulator is defective and must be replaced. If no
                                                                      voltage is indicated, check the excitation circuit for
                                                                      loose or dirty connections or damaged wiring (see
                                                                      illustration).
                                                                                          EXCITATION
                                                                                          WIRE DISCONNECTED


               TESTING ALTERNATOR OUTPUT CIRCUIT

TEST EXCITATION CIRCUIT
1. Connect the positive (+) voltmeter lead to the excitation
   terminal on the alternator and the negative (-) lead to
   the ground terminal on the alternator.
                                                   EXCITATION
                                                   TERMINAL (+)




                                                                                         TESTING EXCITER LEAD




                     TESTING EXCITER CIRCUIT




                                                                  79
                                    MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
TEST ALTERNATOR CURRENT OUTPUT                                           7. If the reading is now within the specifications, the
                                                                            diode trio is faulty. Disassemble the alternator and
Perform this test to check if the alternator is capable of                  replace the diode trio, as explained in this section.
producing the rated current output, using a 0 - 55 amp DC
ammeter.                                                                 8. If the reading is still low with the jumper lead connect-
                                                                            ed, perfonn the Voltage Regulator Test to determine if
1. Disconnect the negative (-) battery cable from the                       the fault is in the regulator or the alternator.
   battery.
2. Disconnect the output lead from the alternator-output
   terminal and connect the ammeter in series between the
   lead and the output terminal. Connect the positive
   side of the ammeter toward the output terminal.
3. Reconnect the negative battery cable.
4. Diesel: Operate the engine stop lever. Perform this so
   the engine can be cranked with the starter motor and not
   start. Turn on all accessories and crank the engine over
   with the starter motor for 15 - 20 seconds.
5. Turn off the accessories. Return the stop lever to the
   run position. Start the engine and adjust the engine
   speed to 1500 - 2000 rpm. Quickly observe the
   ammeter. The reading should be at least 30 amps (see
   illustration).


                     AMMETER _ _d    n-..,-...,."...---,
                     MODE




                         NEGATIVE
                         LEAD (-)




                                                                                                ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 2



                                                                         TEST VOLTAGE REGULATOR
                                                                         Perform this test to determine if the voltage regulator is
                                                                         operating correctly, using a 0 - 20 volt DC voltmeter.
                                                                          NOTE: The battery must be fully charged, 1.265 or above
                                                                          specific gravity, to obtain a proper voltage reading in this
                                                                          test. If necessary, charge the battery with a battery charger
                                                                          or allow the engine to run a sufficient length of time to fully
                                                                          charge the battery before taking a reading.
                                                                          1. Connect the positive (+) voltmeter lead to the positive
                     ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST 1                                battery terminal and the negative (-) voltmeter lead to
                                                                             the negative terminal (see illustration).


6. If the reading is low, stop the engine and connect a
   jumper lead between the alternator-output terminal and
   the indicator light terminal. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 (see
   illustration).




                                                           .t..   .Unlvarsal
                                                                   MARINE POWER



                                                                      80
                                        MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
                                                                     c. Remove the nut from the output terminal and the
                                                                        nut from the sensing terminal, and remove Jumper
                                                                           (A).
                                                                     d. Remove another nut from the sensing terminal, and
                                                                        the nut from the excitation terminal.
                                                                     e. Remove the regulator cover.
                                                                     f. Temporarily install Jumper (A) and all associated
                                                                        nuts. Leave Jumper (B) installed.
                                                                     g. Remove the plastic plug from the side of the
           NEGATIVE
                                                                        regulator.
           LEAD (-) ~=:::::::r                                       h. Connect a jumper between the top brush lead from
                                                                        the brush and ground (see illustration).



                                               +

                              BATTERY




                        SYSTEM VOLTAGE CHECK

2. Start the engine and run it at fast idle until the engine                                                             JUMPER
                                                                           SENSING
   reaches its normal operating temperature. Adjust the                    TERMINAL
   engine speed to 1500 - 2000 rpm and observe the volt-
   meter for the highest reading. The reading should be
   between 13.7 and 14.7 volts.
3. If the reading is high, check for a loose or dirty regula-
   tor ground lead connection. If the connection is good,
   the voltage regulator is faulty and must be replaced. Be
   sure to disconnect the battery cables before attempting
   to remove the regulator.
                                                                          PLASTIC PLUG   ~==~I...._r---...I
4. If the reading is low:
                                                                                  END VIEW OF REGULATOR WITH COVER REMOVED
   a. Stop the engine.
   h.                                                                i.    Repeat steps 1 and 2.
                                                                     NOTE: Do not let the voltage exceed 16 volts.
                                                                     j. If a voltmeter reading of 14.5 volts or above is
                                                                        now obtained, the voltage regulator is faulty and
                                                                        must be replaced. If the voltmeter reading is below
                                                                        14.5 volts, inspect the brushes and slip rings for
                                                                        wear, dirt or damage. If the brushes and slip rings
                                                                        are good, the alternator is faulty internally. Disassem-
                                                                        ble the alternator and test the components, as out-
                                                                        lined in this section.
                                                                 REMOVE ALTERNATOR
                                                                 1. Disconnect the negative (-) battery ground cable.
     PHILLIPS                                                    2. Disconnect the wiring leads.
     COVER
     SCREW                                                       3. Loosen the screws. Holding the alternator, rotate it
                                                                    toward the engine and lift the belt off the pulley.
                                                                 4. Remove the screws and washers and remove the alternator.

                      REGULATOR COVER REMOVAL



                                                                81
                                      MANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
                                                          10. Place an oversized V-belt around the pulley and fasten
                                                              the pulley in a vise.
                                                          11. Use a 7/8 in. box wrench to loosen and remove the
                                                              pulley nut.




                   ALTERNATOR MOUNTING

DISASSEMBLE ALTERNATOR
1. Remove the tenninal nuts to remove the jumper (see
   illustration).
2. Remove the remaining terminal nuts.
3. Remove the capacitor.
4. Remove the Phillips screw from the regulator cover.
                                                                                   PULLEY REMOVAL
5. Remove the brush/regulator-assembly cover.
6. Remove the nut from the tenninal.                      12. Remove the pulley nut, lockwasher, pulley, fan, and
7. Remove the jumper.                                         spacer (see illustration).
                                                                                    FAN
S.· Remove the tenninal insulators.
9. Remove the two Phillips screws and remove the
   brush/regulator assembly.
                            JUMPER




                                                                     NUT
                                                                                 PULLEY AND FAN COMPONENTS




                                                              A CAUTION: DO NOT insert screwdriver blades
                                                              more than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm). Damage to the stator
                                                              winding could result from deeper penetration.

                                                          NOTE: Score the stator; and the front and rear housings so
                                                          the unit may be reassembled correctly.
                                                          13. Remove the four through-bolts and carefully pry the
                                                              front housing away from the rear housing using two
                      TERMINAL
                      NUT/INSULATOR                           screwdrivers (see illustration).
                 ALTERNATOR DISASSEMBLY




                                                         82
                                     MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
                                                                       16. Remove the rectifier assembly by removing the Phillips
                                                                           screw and lifting out the assembly.




              HOUSING AND STATOR REMOVAL

14. Carefully push the rotor assembly out of the front
    housing and rear housing (see illustration).




                                                                                                       RECTIFIER REMOVAL



                                                                       CLEAN AND TEST ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS
                                                                       1. Inspect and test the brush/regulator assembly. The
                                                                          brush set may be reused if the brushes are 114 in.
                                                                          (6 mm) or longer. The brushes must not be oil soaked,
                           ROTOR REMOVAL                                  cracked or grooved.
                                                                          Test for continuity between 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 using
NOTE: If the bearing is removed from the housing, a new                   a test lamp or an ohmmeter. These checks will indicate
bearing must be installed.                                                a good brush/regulator assembly; replace the complete
15. After removing the three bearing locking screws, care-                assembly, if necessary (see illustration).
    fully press the front bearing out of the housing. Press
    against the inner race of the bearing (see illustration).                                                          TEST BRUSHI
                                                                                                                       REGULATOR
                                                                                                                       ASSEMBLY



                                                     BEARING
                                                     LOCKING
                                                     SCREWS



                                                                                    TESTING BRUSH/REGULAToR ASSEMBLY

                                                                       2. Inspect and test the diode-trio assembly:
                                                                           a. Using a commercial diode tester, a l2-volt DC test
                                                                              lamp or an ohmmeter, check the resistance between
                                                                              each of the three diode terminals and the indicator
                                                                              light stud (see illustration).

                                                                                                                   INDICATOR
                                                                                                                   LIGHT STUD




                                                                                          DIODE·TRIO ASSEMBLY

                      FRONT                FRONT
                      BEARING              HOUSING

                  FRONT HOUSING BEARING REMOVAL
                                                        ~      ,;"Unlvcarsal
                                                                 MARINE POWER



                                                                   83
                                        MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
   b. Reverse the tester leads and repeat the resistance               NOTE: If the rear rotor bearing needs replacement,
      checks.                                                          replace the entire rotor.
   c. A very low resistance should be indicated in one          6. Inspect the belt pulley for rough or badly worn belt
      direction and a very high resistance should be indi-         grooves or keyway, and for cracks or breaks. Remove
      cated in the other direction if the diodes are normal.       minor burrs and correct minor surface damage; replace
   d. If any diode appears to be defective, replace the            a badly worn or damaged pulley.
      complete assembly. Do not attempt to replace an
      individual diode.
3. Test the diode-rectifier bridge as follows:
   a. Using a commercial diode tester, check for continu-
      ity from each of three terminals to the output termi-
      nal (see illustration).




           GROUND                              RECTIFIER
           TERMINAL                            DIODES

                      DIODE-RECTIFIER BRIDGE

   b. Reverse the tester leads and repeat Step a.
   c. Continuity should exist in only one direction and all
      diodes should check alike.
   d. Perform the same continuity checks between the
      three terminals and strap ground terminal. This
      should show continuity in only one direction
      through the diodes and all diodes should check
      alike.
   e. If any diode appears to be defective, replace the
                                                                                        ALTERNATOR BEARINGS
      rectifier assembly.
4. Clean and inspect the front and rear housings:               7. Test the stator windings as follows:
   a. Inspect the rear housing for cracks or breaks in the          a. Using an ohmmeter or test lamp, check for continu-
      casting, stripped threads or a damaged bearing bore.             ity between all three leads (1, 2, and 3). A low ohm
      Replace the housing if any of these conditions exist.            reading or lit test lamp should be observed (see
   b. Inspect the front housing for cracks, stripped or                illustration).
                                                                                            LEADS
       damaged threads in the adjusting ear, or an out-of-
     . round bore in the mounting foot. If possible,
       correct slightly damaged threads using a tap.
       Replace the housing, if necessary.
   c. If the housings are to be reused, clean them in
      solvent and dry with compressed air.
5. Clean and inspect the rotor shaft bearings:
   NOTE: Do not use a solvent on the rear rotor bearing
   since it is serviced as a unit with the rotor.
   a. The bearings should be wiped clean with a lint-free
      cloth containing a moderate amount of commercial
      solvent. Do not immerse a bearing in solvent, or                                               STATOR WINDINGS
                                                                              LAMINATIONS
      use pressurized solvent or air.
   b. Check the bearings for obvious damage, looseness              b. Check the resistance from each lead (1, 2, and 3) to
      or rough rotation. Replace a bearing if any doubt                the laminations (4). There should be no continuity
      exists as to its condition.                                      if the insulation is good.




                                                               84
                                   MANDO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
   c. Inspect the stator windings for signs of discoloration.        e. If the windings are defective or physical damage
      A discolored winding should be replaced.                          cannot be corrected, replace the rotor assembly.
   d. If a winding shows a high resistance or an open cir-       9. Use a commercial capacitor checker to test the capaci-
      cuit between any two of the three winding terminals           tor for capacity, shorts, leakage, and series resistance.
      or indicates poor insulation between the windings
      and the laminations, the stator must be replaced.
8. Check the rotor assembly as follows:
   NOTE: If slip rings need to be replaced, you must                                         CAPACITOR
   replace the entire rotor.
                                                                 ASSEMBLE ALTERNATOR
   a. Visually inspect for physical defects such as dam-
      aged shaft threads, worn or damaged bearing areas,         1. Carefully press the front bearing into the front housing,
      burned or pitted slip rings or scuffed pole fingers           pushing against the bearing's outer race using a bearing
      (see illustration).                                           driver. Lock the bearing in place with screws (see
                                                                    illustration).
   b. Measure the winding resistance across the slip rings
      (A). Place the ohmmeter leads on the edges of the
      slip rings, not on the brush contact surfaces. The
      cOITect winding resistance at 70 - 80° F (21 -
      27° C) is 4.1 to 4.7 ohms (see illustration).
   c. Minor burning or pitting of the slip ring surfaces
      can be removed using a crocus cloth. Thoroughly
      wipe the slip rings clean after polishing, removing
      all grit and dust.
   d. Check for a grounded slip ring or rotor winding by
      measuring the resistance from each slip ring to the
      rotor body or pole finger (B). An open circuit should
      be indicated in both cases for a good rotor (see illus-
      tration).

                                                                                    FRONT BEARING INSTAllATION




                                                                                     INSTALLING BEARING RETAINERS
                                                                 2. Place the rotor (pulley end up) on the bed of an arbor
                                                                    press, on two steel blocks.
                                                                 3. Press the front housing and bearing assembly down
                                                                    onto the rotor shaft. Press against the bearing's inner
              TESTING ROTOR                                         race only, using a sleeve driver. Take care to insure that
                                                                    the rotor leads clear the steel blocks (see illustration).




                                                                85
                                         MANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
                                                                                     STATOR
                                                                                     WINDING

        SLEEVE DRIVER




            INSTAWNG FRONT HOUSING ON ROTOR ASSEMBLY

4. Install the rectifier assembly into the rear housing.
5. Insert the Phillips screw and tighten it (see illustration).



                                                                                        ASSEMBUNG HOUSINGS

                                                                   7. Install the spacer and the fan. Then push the pulley,
                                                                      lockwasher and nut onto the shaft. Turn the nut a few
                                                                      turns.                  FAN




                        INSTALLING RECTIFIER ASSEMBLY

6. Assemble the front and rear housings as follows:
    a. Put the stator winding in the front housing with the
       stator leads away from the front housing and the
       notches in the stator laminations aligned with the
       four through-bolt holes in the housing.
                                                                               NUT
    h. Align the scribe marks you made In the stator, and                                 PULLEY AND FAN COMPONENTS
       front and rear housings during disassembly.
    c. Slip the rear housing into place over the rotor shaft.
        Align the mounting holes and put the stator leads
       through the holes at the top of the rear housing.
    d. Install the four bolts and tighten them (see
       illustration).
       NOTE: If the front housing is new, the through-bolt
       will not be tapped.




                                                                  86
                                       MANOO ALTERNATOR SERVICE
8. Place an oversized V-belt around the pulley and fasten    INSTALL ALTERNATOR
   the pulley in a vise (see illustration).                  1. Install the alternator, screws and washers.
                                                             2. Connect the wiring leads.
                                                             3. Put the belt on the alternator, crankshaft and coolant
                                                                pump pulleys.
                                                             4. Adjust the alternator belt's tension (see DRIVE BELT
                                                                ADJUSTMENT under ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS).
                                                                                               JUMPER




                     INSTAWNG PULLEY AND FAN NUT

9. Use a torque wrench to tighten the nut.
10. Carefully install the brush/regulator assembly on the
    rear housing with the two mounting screws.
11. Install the small terminal insulators.
12. Install the large terminal insulator.
13. Install the jumper.
14. Install the nut on the terminal.
                                                                                        TERMINAL
15. Install the brush/regulator assembly cover.                                         NUT/INSULATOR
16. Install the Phillips screw for the brush/regulator                              ALTERNATDR ASSEMBLY
    assembly cover.
17. Install the capacitor.
18. Install the terminal nuts.                               MANDO ALTERNATOR SPECIFICATIONS
19. Install the jumper.
                                                                 Battery Voltage      12 volt
20. Install the last terminal nut.
                                                                 Maximum Speed        13500 rpm
                                                                 Cut In Speed        Max. 2000 rpm ~at Exc.}
                                                                                     Max. 1500 rpm at L2}
                                                                 Reg. Set Voltage    14.1 volts
                                                                 Ambient Temperature -20°C to 100°C
                                                                 Ground              Negative




                                                            87
                                 PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
GENERAL                                                                   DC VOLTMETER: 0-20 volt scale
The charging system consists of an alternator with a mount-               HYDROMETER: Any commercial type having a
ed voltage regulator, an engine DC wiring harness, a mount-               temperature correction scale.
ed DC circuit breaker, and a battery and connection wires.
Because of the use of integrated circuits (IC's) the electronic
                                                                   Storage Battery
voltage regulator is very compact and is mounted internally        The starting battery circuit supplies a continuous, although
or on the back of the alternator.                                  variable, electrical load to the alternator. If the circuit,
                                                                   positive or negative, is opened or broken while the alterna-
  It is desirable to test the charging system (alternator and
                                                                   tor is charging, the loss of the battery will result in the
. voltage regulator) in the boat using the wiring harness and
                                                                   charging voltage rising to unsafe levels.
  electrical loads that are a permanent part of the system. In-
  boat testing will then provide the technician with an opera-     Battery Inspection
  tional test of the charging system as well as the major com-
                                                                   The following table illustrates typical ranges of specific
  ponents of the electrical system.
                                                                   gravity for a cell in various states of charge. The battery
PRELIMINARY CHECKS AND TESTS                                       must be at least 75% offull charge for effective alternator
                                                                   testing.
Before starting the actual alternator and voltage regulator
test procedures, the charging system, batteries and wiring
                                                                       1.260 SPECIFIC           1.280 SPECIFIC           CHARGE
should be checked to eliminate possible problem areas. The             GRAVITY BATTERY          GRAVITY BATTERY          STATE
following checks are recommended:
                                                                       1.260 Specific Gravity   1.280 Specific Gravity   100% Charged
                                                                       1.230 Specific Gravity   1.250 Specific Gravity   75% Charged
  A WARNING: A failed alternator can become                            1.200 Specific Gravity   1.220 Specific Gravity   50% Charged
  very hot. Do not touch until the alternator has cooled               1.170 Specific Gravity   1.190 Specific Gravity   25% Charged
  down.                                                                1.140 Specific Gravity   1.160 Specific Gravity   Very Low Capacity
                                                                       1.110 Specific Gravity   1.130 Specific Gravity   Discharged
1. Make certain your alternator is securely mounted.
2. Check the drive belt for proper tension. Replace the                After completing these preliminary checks and tests, pro-
   belt if it is worn or glazed.                                       ceed with the tests as outlin~d in the TROUBLESHOOTING
3. Check that all terminals, connectors and plugs are clean            GUIDE.
   and tight. Loose or corroded connections cause high                 Cbecking for Proper Voltage
   resistance and this could cause overcharging, under-
                                                                       If you suspect the alternator has failed, perform the follow-
   charging or damage to the charging system. Badly cor-
   roded battery cables CQuld prevent the battery from                 ing tests with the engine off:
   reaching a fully charged condition.                                 1. Using a voltmeter, connect the voltmeter red wire clip
                                                                          to the output terminal B+.
4. Check the condition of the battery and change if neces-
   sary. A low or discharged battery may cause false or                2. Connect the voltmeter negative wire to any ground
   misleading readings on the in-vessel tests.                            on the engine.
    NOTE: An isolator with a diode, a solenoid, or a bat-              3. Check the battery voltage. It should read 12 to 13 volts.
    tery selector switch is usually mounted in the circuit to          4. Check the voltage between the alternator (+) positive
    isolate the batteries so the starting battery is not dis-             terminal B and any engine ground. If the circuit is
    charged along with the house batteries. If the isolator               good, the voltage at the alternator should be the same
    is charging the starting battery but not the house bat-               as the battery (unless there's an isolator in the circuit,
    tery, the alternator is OK and the problem is in the                  then the reading would be zero).
    battery charging circuit.

                                                                        A CAUTION: To avoid damage to the battery charg-
  A WARNING: Shut off the engine battery switch or                      ing circuit, never shut off the engine battery switch
  disconnect from the battery when working on the                       when the engine is running!
  engine electrical system.

 Test Equipment Requirements
                                                                        AWARNING: Before starting the engine make cer-
 The alternator and regulator tests described in this section           tain that everyone is clear of moving parts! Keep
 require electrical test equipment to measure voltage only;             away from sheaves and belts during test procedures.
 however, most commercial test equipment incorporates
 several testing devices in a single unit. The following test
 equipment will be necessary:                                      S. Start the engine.




                                                                  88
                                PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
6. The voltage reading for a properly operating alternator
   should be between 13.5 and 14.5 volts. If your alterna-               .14 GRAY ==~=~_~~
   tor is over- or undercharging, have it repaired at a reli-
   able service shop.
NOTE: Before removing the alternator for repair; use your                                                 W~~===· .14 BROWN
voltmeter to ensure that 12 volts DC excitation is present at          114 PINK/BLUE
the R terminal if the previous test showed only battery volt-
age at the B output terminal.
ALTERNATOR DESCRIPTION                                                                               S~~~b== #10 RED
The stator is connected to a three-phase, full-wave bridge
rectifier package which contains six diodes. The bridge                                                          TYPICAL
converts the AC generated in the stator to a DC output for                                                      UNIVERSAL
battery charging and accessories such as radio, heater, lights,                                                   51 AMP
refrigerator, depth sounder, etc. See the illustrations below.                                                 ALTERNATOR
Power to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator                                                 CONNECTIONS
alternator is provided by the field diode (or diode trio) pack-        .14 BROWN ==::;.&@}
age contained in the alternator.                                                                         {i~~~~' .10 RED
                                                                          .14 RED ==¢==-~~~
The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 amperes.
Rated output is achieved at approximately 6000 alternator
rpm at an ambient temperature of 75°P (23.8°C). The alter-
nator is designed to operate in an ambient temperature range
of -40° to 212°P (-40° to 100°C). To ensure proper cooling
of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alterna-
tor, it must be used with the proper cooling fan.
                   0+           B+
                                                                                 .14 PINK/BLUE


          EXCITE




                                                                                                       =~~F         1*    A (B+)      BAmRY VOlJAGE
                                                                                                '!.._...J'>     2"    B (REG)     BATIERY VOlJAGE WITH
engine and run at idle. If the indicator lamp now goes off                                      :r-"                              IND. LIGHT OFF                 BATIERY
and charging voltage is present at terminal A, the diode-trio                                   1.!:.==L'>                        JUMPER ATIACHED. 1.5 TO
is probably "open" (defective) and the alternator should be                                                    3      B (0+)      3.0 voas IND. LIGHT ON     **REMaTE BATT
                                                                                                                                                                SENSE ONLY
removed for repair.                                                                                           "JUMPER NaT ATIACHED

                             IGN.         IND.                                                     REGULATOR TEST (BACK COVER REMOVED)
                             SW          LIGHT

                                                                                              Test No.3-Harness Voltage Test (remove battery sense
                                                                                              only)
                                                                                              Remove the harness sense lead from the sense terminal and
                                                                                              connect the voltmeter leads as shown in the illustration.
                                                                                              The voltmeter should indicate the battery voltage (approx.
                                                                                              12.6 volts for a fully charged battery with the ignition key
                                                                                              off). If the voltage is zero, the hardness "sense" lead is
 I+ - I
   voas
                                        EXCITE
                                    (TO IGN. SW. OR
                                    Oil PRESS. SW.)
                                                                                              open and should be repaired or replaced.



   RED             STEP TEST POIN                INDICATION
       ...J-
  :.-=..., . .'>     1"   A (B+)         BATTERY VOlJAGE                                                                  INTEGRAL
                                                                                                                         REGULATOR
  ~~=::C>            Z"   B (REG)        1.5 TO 3.0 VOIlS WITH
                                         IND. LIGHT ON                 BATIERY       -
  " >
  &==t:'             3    A (B+)
                                         13.5 TO 15.0 VOIlS & IND.
                                         UGHT OFF. (JUMPER
                                         ATIACHED. ENGINE IDLING)
                                                                     -"REMaTE BATI
                                                                        SENSE ONLY
                                                                                                I+ - I
                                                                                                  voas
                                                                                                                         EXCITE
                                                                                                                     (TO IGN. SN. OR
                                                                                                                     Oil PRESS. SW.)

                   "JUMPER NOT ATIACHED                                                                         8LK

                                   OPEN DIODE-TRIO TEST                                                         RED

                                                                                                                     'REMOTE 8ATIERY SENSE ONLY
                                                                                                                                                                   BATIERY


                                                                                                                      CABLE HARNESS VOLTAGE TEST




                                                                                         91
                                    PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
 Test No.4-Alternator Output Test
                                                                              NO                  LOW                 "NOISY··
 After the voltmeter is connected as shown in the illustra-               ALTERNATOR          ALTERNATOR            ALTERNATOR
                                                                            OUTPUT              OUTPUT
 tion, start and run the engine at a fast idle of approximately               t                    t                    t
 1,500 rpm. Check for a nominal system output voltage of                  DEFECTIVE            DEFECTIVE           LOOSE DRIVE
                                                                                               REGULATOR             PULLEY
 between 13.8-14.8 volts for a properly operating charging                REGULATOR
                                                                                                                         t
 system. (Voltages may vary a few tenths of a volt (higher                    +                    t               CRACKED OR
 or lower) due to ambient temperature variations).                        DEFECTIVE              WORN
                                                                                                                    DAMAGED
                                                                           BRUSHES              BRUSHES
                                                                                                                    HOUSING
 If the alternator output voltage does not fall within the                    t                    t
 proper range, the alternator should be disassembled for fur-               OPEN              GROUNDEDI
                                                                                                                        t
                                                                            FIELD              SHORTED                WORN
 ther inspection and tests.                                                 DIODE           ROTOR WINDINGS           BEARINGS

                   IGN.     INO
                                                                              t                    t                    t
                                                                                               GROUNDEDI             SHORTED
                   sw.     UGHT
                                               At TAP (TACH)
                                                                            OPEN
                                                                                                SHORTED              RECTIFIER
                                                                            ROTOR
                                                                                            STATOR WINDINGS           DIODE

                                                                                                   t                    t
                                                                                            SHORTED/OPEN           SHORTED OR
                                                                                            RECTIFIER DIODE      GROUNDED STATOR
                                                                                                                    WINDINGS




                    INTEGRAL --~. . .                                     ALTERNATOR TROUBLESHOOTING DIAGRAM
                   REGULATOR       Xi_IIil!K
I+voas- I                                                             ALTERNATOR DISASSEMBLY &TESTING
            BlK                                                       1. Detach the back cover:
   RED            PDS + OUTPUT                                            Remove the nuts from the terminals. Remove the two
                   13.8 TO 14.8V                                          screws that secure the back cover to the rear housing.
                                                   BATTERY

                                        *REMOTE BATTERY SENSE ONLY

                  ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST




 ALTERNATOR REPAIR PROCEDURE
 The following instructions provide a general overall proce-
 dure for the complete disassembly of an alternator.
 However, it should be pointed out that following the com-
 plete procedure whenever a repair is necessary will seldom,
 if ever, be required. In cases where the causes of the mal-
 function are known, it will only be necessary to follow that                                                 BACK COVER
                                                                                                           MOUNTING SCREWS (2)
 portion of the procedure directly related to resolving the
 problem. Similarly, when the reasons for the malfunction                              REMOVING BACK COVER
 are uncertain, it will be necessary to follow the procedure
 in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem.
 The following troubleshooting diagram should help identify
 some of the more common problems encountered during
 the overhaul/repair procedure.




                                                                     92
                              PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
2. Remove the brush holder:                                     4. Remove the integral voltage regulator:
   Remove the two locknuts securing the brush holder.                 Remove the two screws securing the integral voltage
   Pull out the brush holder (see illustration).                      regulator to the rear housing.




                                                BRUSHOLDER
                                                MOUNTING                                                         REGULATOR
                                                LOCKNUTS (2)                                                     MOUNTING
                                                                                                                 SCREWS (2)

           REMOVING BRUSH HOLDER                                            REMOVING VOLTAGE REGULATOR

                                                                5. Remove the diode-trio (field diode) and rectifier
3. Inspect and test the brush assembly:                            diode bridge:
   The illustration below shows the terminal's brush                  The diode-trio and rectifier diode bridge are detached
   arrangement and testing procedure. The original brush              as an assembly. Remove the cone lockout from the
   set may be reused if the brushes are 3/16 in. (5 mm) or            positive output (B+) terminal. Straighten the B+ strap.
   longer, and if the brushes are not oil soaked, cracked or          Remove the three terminal screws and the four diode-
   show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes               trio mounting screws. Detach the assembly from the
   caused by vibration.                                               rear housing and separate the diode-trio assembly from
                                                                      the rectifier bridge (see illustration).




                                                                    RECTIFIER _~<1
                                                                    BRIDGE
                                                  TEST
                                               CONTINUITY                                                            CONE
                                              FROM A TO B
                                              FROM C TO D                                                            LOCKNUT
            TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC                                                                                     AND B+
          TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER                NO CIRCUIT:                                                           STRAP
                                              FROM A OR B
                                               TO C OR D
                    BRUSH TEST



                                                                                REMOVING DIODE-TRIO AND
                                                                                 RECfIFIER DIODE BRiDGE




                                                               93
                                  PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
6. Test the diode-trio assembly:                                   8. Separate the stator/rear housing assembly from the
   Using a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test                 front housing:
   lamp, check for continuity from each terminal separate-               Remove the four thru-bolts (see illustration).
   ly to the D+ stud; continuity should be observed in one               Carefully insert two screwdriver blades in opposite
   direction (polarity) only, and all diodes should check                openings between the stator and the front housing as
   alike. If any diode is defective, replace the entire diode            shown in the illustration. Pry the units apart.
   trio assembly. See illustration.

        COMMERCIAL
        DIODE TESTER
                                                                       A CAUTION:      Do not insert the screwdriver
                                                                       blades deeper than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) to avoid
                                                                       damaging the stator winding.


                                                                                                                      THROUGH
                                                                                                                      BOLTS (4)




                     ...- - - 0 + STUD
        '---'~:..i        (IND. UGHT TERMINAL)


                  TESTING DIODE-TRIO


7. Test the diode rectifier bridge assembly:
   Using a commercial diode tester, check for continuity.
   Check between point A and each of the three terminals
   C for negative diodes. Continuity should be observed                              THRU-BOLT REMOVAL
   in one direction (polarity) only, and all diodes should
   check alike. Then check between point B (B+ strap)
   and each of three terminals C for positive diodes.                       SCREWDRIVER BLADES--~
   Continuity should be observed in one direction only,                     AT OPPOSITE OPENINGS
   and all diodes should check alike (see illustration).
   If any diode is defective, replace the entire diode rectifi-
   er bridge assembly.




                                                                         CAUTION: DO NOT
                                                                         INSERT BLADE OF
    e                                                  e                 SCREWDRIVER MORE
                                                                         THAN 1/16" (1.5 mm)
    Q                                                 9                          STATOR-REAR HOUSING SEPARATION

                                                                   9. Inspect the rear housing:
                                                                         Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken
                                                                         casting, stripped threads or evidence of severe wear
                                                                         in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing.
               TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE                                  If the casting is to be reused, clean it in solvent, dry with
                                                                         compressed air, and install a new rear bearing retainer if
                                                                         the retainer is damaged.




                                                                  94
                               PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
10. Test the stator:                                                12. Separate the rotor from the front housing:
   The stator assembly consists of three individual wind-               Position the front housing on support blocks placed on
   ings terminated in the delta type connections. Using                 an arbor press. Push the rotor assembly from the
   an ohmmeter or a test lamp, check for winding continu-               housing (see illustration).
   ity between terminals A, Band C. There should be no
   continuity from any terminal to point D (laminations).
   Also, stators showing any signs of winding discoloration
   should be discarded (see illustration).




                                               C



                                                                                              SEPARATING ROTOR
             STATOR WINDING TESTS                                                           FROM. FRONT HOUSING

11. Remove the pulley, fan and spacer:                              13. Remove the front bearing from the housing:
   The pulley is a slip-fit on the rotor shaft, positioned with         Remove the three bearing retainer screws. Position the
   a woodruff key. Remove the nut and lockwasher from                   housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press.
   the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool.             Using a tool that contacts the inner race of the bearing,
   After the nut and lockwasher are removed, the alternator             press out the front bearing (see illustrations).
   can be separated from the pulley.
   The fan will slide over the key. The key may be remove-
   ed with diagonal pliers, or with a screwdriver.                                         ___--_OL   BEARING RETAINER
                                                                                                      SCREWS (3)

   Inspect the fan for cracked or broken fins, and note the
   condition of the mounting hole. If it is worn from run-                                                        FRONT
                                                                                                                 HOUSING
   ning loose, replace the fan to insure balance.
   Inspect the pulley for possible faults as shown in the
   illustration.




                                                                               REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS

                   PULLEY REMOVAL
                                                                                   FRONT
          CHECK FOR WORN
                                                                                  HOUSING
          DRIVE SURFACES. ~_ _"                                                     HUB

           CHECK FOR POLISHED
                                                                                       \
           SURFACE HERE.


         NOTE CONDITION OF -----.~:;===t
         KEY GROOVE.             to-
              CHECK BORE
              FOR WEAR.
                                                                                    BEARING              INNER RACE
                                                                                   PRESSING OUT BEARING
         PULLEY INSPECTION POINTS
                                                      ~Univarsal
                                                      YL      Mt"i@I#lU'W3i-

                                                                  95
                                   PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
  14. Inspect the front housing:                                      D. Rotor shaft and pole pieces.
      Check the housing for cracks. Check the condition of                1. Stripped threads on shaft.
      the threads in the adjusting ear. Check the bore in the            2. Worn key slot.
      mounting foot. Discard the housing if the bore shows
      signs of elongation (oval or out-of-roundness).                    3. Worn bearing surface.
  15. Rotor inspection & electrical testing:                             4. Scuffed pole fingers.
      Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical              5. Worn or dry rear bearing.
      properties (see illustration).                                  Replace the rotor assembly if any of the above faults
      A. Current draw or resistance of the winding.                   are noted, with the exception of item D,S.
                                                                      NOTE: New rotors include a new rear bearing and new
                                                                      slip rings as part of the assembly. If the rear bearing
       A CAUTION:         Turn off the DC power source                requires replacement, follow the instructions for this
       before removing the test leads to avoid avc dam-               operation.
       age to the slip ring surfaces.                            16. Remove the slip rings from the rotor assembly:
                                                                      Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals.
         1. Current Draw in amperes, at 70°-80°F                      Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil leads from
             (21°-27°C):                                              the slip ring terminals, as shown in the illustration.
              12 Volt Models,            Correct Current Draw
              Rated At:                  @15.0V:                          REMOVE ALL RESIDUE
                                                                          FROM BETWEEN ""'-
               51 Amperes                3.2-3.6 Amperes                  SLIP RINGS       ~


         2. Resistance of winding in Ohms, at 70°-80°F
            (21°-27°C):                                              UNSOLDER _-===~--'~\.Lv/-,~-.-

               12 Volt Models,           Correct Winding
                                                                                 CAUTION: DO NOT
               Rated At:                 Resistance:                                OVERHEAT
               51 Amperes                4.1-4.7 Ohm                 UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS

                            POLE FINGERS
                             ~            . BEARING
                                                                      Straighten the rotor leads. Insert a No. 10 x 1" cap
                                                                      screw into the opening at the center of the slip ring
                                             AREA
                                                                      assembly. Position the bearing puller as shown in the
                                        /     KEY SLOT
                                                                      illustration and pull the slip ring assembly off the rotor
                                                                      shaft.


   TEST CURRENT                        SHAFT THREADS
                                                                        A CAUTION:        When holding the rear end of the
DRAW OR RESISTANCE ""--;::::::::::_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---,                 rotor shaft in a vise, be sure not to grip the bear-
   BEWEEN RINGS          NOTE: PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES                ing area of the rotor shaft.
                             OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING
                            L-:RCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES.

                                                                                      STRAIGHTEN              NO. 10 X 1"
       ROTOR INSPECTION .AND ELECTRICAL TESTING                                                               CAP SCREW
                                                                                      ROTOR LEADS

      B. Grounded slip ring or winding.
         Use a 12 volt DC test ~amp, ohmmeter, or nov AC
         test lamp. Place one test lead to the rotor body and
         the other on either slip ring. An open circuit from
         either slip ring to the rotor body is a correct
         condition.
      C. Condition of the slip rings.
          1. Clean the brush contacting surfaces with a fine
             crocus cloth; wipe the dust and residue away.
         2. If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration,                            REMOVING SLIP RING ASSY.
            replace the entire rotor assembly.



                                                                96
                               PRESTO LITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
17. Remove the rear bearing from the rotor:                     2. Install the slip ring assembly:
   Dress the rotor leads away from the bearing puller con-          Guide the rotor leads through one of the oval passages
   tact area. Adjust the puller to contact the inner bearing        in the slip ring assembly. Be sure the oval passage is
   race, then carefully remove the bearing from the shaft           in line with the groove in the rotor shaft. Place the
   (see illustration).                                              rotor on a press as shown in the illustration. Choose a
   This completes the disassembly of the alternator.                driver sleeve having a diameter that clears the leads.
                                                                    Press the slip ring assembly onto the shaft. Solder the
                                                                    rotor leads to the leads on the slip ring. Trim excess
                                                                    slip ring leads extending above the solder connections.

                                                                                                    ______ PRESS




                                                                        SLIP RING
                                                                        ASSEMBLY




                  REMOVING REAR BEARING

ALTERNATOR REASSEMBLY
The reassembly sequence, generally, is the reverse of the
order of disassembly, therefore, only information pertaining
to special reassembly requirements will be covered in this
section.
1. Install the rear bearing:
                                                                         INSTALLING SLIP RING ASSEMBLY
   Place the rotor on a press as shown in the illustration.
   Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure on the inner     3. Install the front bearing:
   race only, and press the bearing onto the rotor shaft
                                                                    Place the front bearing and housing in an arbor press as
   until it contacts the shoulder. New replacement bear-
                                                                    shown in the illustration. Select a drive tool to contact
   ings should be used whenever the bearing is removed
                                                                    the outer race only, and press the bearing into the
   during repair procedures or when the bearing is rough,
                                                                    housing bore. Bearing replacement is recommended
   dry or noisy.
                                                                    whenever a bearing is removed during alternator repair
                                                                    procedures or when the bearing is rough, dry or noisy.
          REAR                                                      Install three bearing retainer screws. Torque to 25-30
         BEARING                                                    ft-lbs (33.9-40.7 Nm).


            ROTOR~                                                                                       PRESS

                ~                                                                                            DRIVER TOOL
                                                                                                              CONTACTS
                                                                                                            OUTER BEARING
                                                                                                              RACE ONLY

                                                                                                                FRONT
                                                                                                               BEARING



                                                                                                              FRONT
                                                                                                             HOUSING
               INSTALLING REAR BEARING
                                                                          INSTALLING FRONT BEARING




                                                               97
                               PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
4. Assemble the rotor and front housing:                               compound to the back of the diode rectifier bridge and
   Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press using two              to the mating area on the rear housing.
   steel blocks for support, as shown in the illustration.             Install the assembly to the rear housing (four screws).
   Place the front housing over the shaft. Using a driver              Place the strap (AC tap) in position and connect the
   sleeve that contacts the inner bearing race only, press             stator leads (three screws).
   the front housing down until the inner bearing race                 Install the capacitor (where applicable).
   contacts the shoulder on the shaft.
                                                                   8. Install the integral regulator:
                                                                       Install the brush mounting screws (two) though the
     A CAUTION: Be sure the rotor leads clear the                      openings in the regulator body. Secure the regulator to
     blocks.                                                           the rear housing (two screws).
                                                                   9. Install the brush assembly:
                                                                       Insert the brush holder into the grooves in the hub of
                                                                       the rear housing. Place the D+ strap (or male terminal
                                                                       where applicable) on the stud and secure the brush
                                                                       holder with locknuts (two places). Secure the other
                                              FRONT                    end of the D+ strap.
                                          /HOUSING
                                                                   10. Install the rear cover:
                                                                       Be sure the felt gasket is in place (see illustration).
                                                                       Position the rear cover on the rear housing and secure
                                                                       it with two screws.




   ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO ROTOR

5. Assemble the spacer, fan and pulley:
                                                                                                                     FELT
   Place the pulley spacer over the shaft. Install the                                                              GASKET
   woodruff key. Install the fan. Install the pulley, lock
   washer and nut. Mount the pulley as shown in the illus-
   tration and tighten to 35-50 ft-Ibs (47.5-67.8 Nm).
   Spin the rotor by hand to test the freedom of the
   bearing.                                                                     INSTALLING REAR COVER
6. Assemble the front and rear housings:
   Place the stator into the front housing with the stator         ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS
   leads at the top and the notches in the laminations
   aligned with the bolt holes. Position the rear housing          The following tests will determine the current producing
   over the slip rings with the housing bolt holes aligned         capability of the repaired alternator. Mount the alternator
   and the stator leads extending through the openings at          in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator rpm.
   the top of the rear housing.                                    Select the required battery voltage and circuit polarity.
   Install the through-bolts and tighten them evenly to            Tum the drive motor on, and adjust to obtain 5000 alterna-
   50-60 in-Ibs (5.7-6.8 Nm). Spin the rotor by hand to            tor rpm. Slowly reduce the field rheostat resistance; the
   test the freedom of the bearings.                               alternator should develop a charge. Continue to reduce
                                                                   resistance until the alternator reaches its rated current out-
   NOTE: New front housings contain through-bolt holes             put in amperes. CAUTION: Limit the output voltage to
   that are not tapped. Therefore, a socket wrench rather          15V maximum. DO NOT operate the alternator for more
   that a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient         than a few minutes in this manner, due to the lack of volt-
   torque to drive the "thread forming " through-bolts.            age controL If the alternator will deliver its rated output,
7. Install the diode rectifier bridge and diode trio:              end the test.
   Insert the B+ strap through the slot in the diode trio          Connect the fixture leads and instruments to the alternator
   body. Bend the strap over the B+ terminal and secure            terminals as shown in the following TYPICALALTERNA-
   it with a cone locknut. Apply a thin film of heat sink          TOR PERFORMANCE TEST diagram.


                                                       ~ ;.,Univarsal
                                                             MARINE POWER


                                                               98
                                PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR SERVICE
The carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must
                                                                                              0+   AC TAP (TACH)
be capable of handling the alternator's rated output at rated
rpm.


 A CAUTION: Make sure the connections are well
 secured and tight to avoid possible damage to the
 instruments, alternator or wiring due to short circuits.
                                                                                EXCITE
                                                                            (TO IGN.SW. OR
Starting with the carbon pile off, slowly increase the load                 OIL PRESS. SW.)
while observing the ammeter and maintaining 5000 rpm.
Increase the load until a minimum output voltage of
approximately 13.7 volts is obtained. Record the output
current at this point, and refer to the chart for minimum            RED     POS + OUTPUT
acceptable ratings.
                                                                              *REMOTE BAIT
          MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT                                            SENSE ONLY
         VALUES AT 70° - 80°F (21° - 27° C)

         RATING                   OUTPUT                             TYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TEST
         51 AMP                   46 AMP




                                                                99
                                                                DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
                                                                    WIRING DIAGRAM #39144
                                                                                         II A GRA




                                                                                                                     These diagrams illustrate the 12 volt negative ground
                                                                                                    '1" J>'Nt(
                                                                                                                     electrical circuit. The Iwo optional instrument panels,
                                                                                                                     the CAPTAIN PANEL and the ADMIRAL PANEL are
                                                                                                                     diagramed below.

                                                                                                                     When an ADMIRAL PANEL is installed, two additional
                                                                                                                     instrument senders are assembled to the engine 10
                                                                                                                     provide data for the panel gauges (refer to the illustra-
         , - - - - - 
                                                                                                                                    OIL PRESS                     CL




 BATTERY       SWITCH~
                                                                                                                                      rn.KH.
                                                                                                                                                                --
        r---,                                                                                                                                                              21--+-0
    r~_~----------
    I


    L&  BATTERY   -=                                   CIRCUIT
                                                       BREAKER                                                                                              III--...!:::::==~
                                                                                                                                                  4   9




                                                                                                     :>                       ...
~
                                                               ... ®
                                                                 . ..  '"
                                                                     . .
                                                                       ...   ..
                                                                             ... .          .....
                                                                                                     .....
                                                                                                                  z
                                                                                                                              ::
                                                                                                                              ~
                                                                                                                                    z
An on-off switch should be installed between the battery and   :c
                                                               ·
                                                               . .   .
                                                                        ~
                                                                           .  ::l
                                                                             '" .
                                                                              co
                                                                                      '"
                                                                                      :>
                                                                                      CL
                                                                                            ~
                                                                                                     .....        ;!                '"
the starter to disconnect the battery in an emergency and
when leaving the boat. A switch with a continuous rating of
175 amps at 12 volts will serve the function. This switch
should not be used to make or break this circuit.
                                                               "
                                                                 - -
                                                                   -
                                                                   "
                                                                       -   - --                                               '"
                                                                                                                                                                             114 GRA



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                                                                                                            ...  ... ::>
    t" GRA
(NOT USEO?<                              tI~   PINK
                                                                '" <.0 '"
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                                                                                                                                        :Z
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                                                                                                                                             %
                                                                                                                                             a:
                                                                                                                                             -<
                                                                                                                                                                                       III BRN


                                                                '"      %       0      0                 -<        '" .....
                                                                                                                      -<        0            -<                                        110 RED
                                                                .....
                                                                 x
                                                                        0
                                                                        ::
                                                                        u       :Z     :Z
                                                                                               0
                                                                                                             :Z       0
                                                                                                                       ...
                                                                .... ....
                                                                     -<                        :Z        0                                   0
                                                                          '"    '"                           '"
                                                                                                             ..... '"
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                                                                ~ ...                          '"
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                                                                                                     .....
                                                                                                             - ....= ...
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                                   t 14 BRN
                                                                     ;:
                                                                     0    '" '"                '"
                                                                                                     ....    .     e
                                                                                                                      ~                      0-



                                                                     .... ..... .....          ...       0.. .....
                                                                                                             x
                                                                                                                      U                      +
                                                                          ;: ;:                ;: ..... .... ....
 @pRESTOI ITE                12     AMP         ALT                       ...
                                                                          0     0
                                                                                ....           ~
                                                                                                              =
                                                                                                         .... ....              ~
                                                                                                                                             ~
                                                                                                                                             0-                   AI    TERNATOR
                                                                                                                                                                       51A MANOO
                                                                                                         ~            ....
                                                                                                                      0
                                                                                                                                             ~




                                                                                      102
                                               DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
                          WIRING SCHEMATIC #200360 - CATALINA YACHTS


                                                                    STARTER
    +        12 VDC                                                SOLENOID
                                                                         r----,                                        STARTER

    ~--------------------+I~
                          I
                             ~~'----------~M
                               I
                                                                         I              I
                                                                         I              I
                                                                         I~i



                                                                    PREHEAT
                                                                   SOLENOID
                                                                         r----,                                              GLOWPLUGS
    __----~--------------------~I~J                                               Ir-rl------------~
                                                                    II          I I
                                                                   sl~l


                                                                             RESISTOR
                                                                  IK                        112W
                                                                                                                AL TERNATOR
                                                                                                              OUTPUT
                                        0::.
                                        W
                                        ~
                                                                                                                              ~
                                                                                                                            ....    '1.
                                   .;:5r- il                                                       r-----.J(.,
                                Q..0::1
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                                                C    I
                                                     I
                                                                                                                       ~


                                

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