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Westerbeke Diesel W 18 Technical Manual




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OPERATORS MANUAL
MARINE DIESEL ENGINES
W13 W21 W27 W33
PUBLICATION NO 32363
t rWESTERBEKE
WESTERBEKE CORPORA TlON 150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD
I MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK TAUNTON MA 02780
WEBSITE
NAMIA Member National Marine Manufacturers Association
CALIFORNIA
PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer birth defects and other
reproductive harm
A gasses contain Carbon Monoxide an odorless and
colorless gas Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can and death Symptoms of Carbon can include
Dizziness Throbbing in Muscular Vomiting
Weakness and Sleepiness Inability to Think YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS
6ET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY If symptoms persist
seek medical attention Shut down the unit and do not restart
until it has been inspected and repaired
This WARNING DECAL is provided by
WESTERBEKE and should be fixed to a
bulkhead near your engine or generator
WESTERBEKE also recommends installing
CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the
quatters of your vessel
They are inexpensive and easily
obtainable at your local marine store
FOREWORD
Thank you for having selected a Westerbeke Diesel Engine for your
This manual describes the procedures for proper handling and main
tenance of the Engine Models W13 W21 W27 and W33
To maintain your engine always in its best operating condition and
to enable it to perform best it is important to handle it properly
and carry out complete maintenance according to this manual
If you have any questions about your engine or in the event of a
failure please contact your nearest distributor or dealer
We look forward to your continued LEFT SIDE W21 WITH 21 HBW50 I
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
GENERAL 3
CAUTIONS IN HANDLING ENGINE 4
1 BREAKING 5
2 PREPARATIONS 6
3 STARTING PROCEDURES 7
4 STOPPING PROCEDURES 10
5 CAUTIONS ON STARTING
AND OPERATION 10
6 REQUIREMENTS FOR PROPER
OPERATION
61 Lubrication System 12
62 Fuel System 13
63 Cooling Systern 15
64 Wiring diagrarn 1S
7 RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE TRANSMISSIONS 22
9 23
10 SERVICE DATA 25
11 TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES 26
GENERAL W13 W2l W27 W33
Type Vert4 cyclewater cooled diesel enine
Combustion chamber Swirl chamber type
z No of cylinders 2 3 4 4
rxIE
Z Bore stroke inches 276x307 287x307 287x307 Cu In displacement 37 60 80
91
rxIH
Compression ratio 23 23 23 23
Firing order 12 132 1342 1342
Dry weight std lbs 298 374 434 498
Fuel 2 diesel fuel only
1 Injection pump Bosch Nozzle Throttling type
Injection pressure All models 1707 lbs
Governor Centrifugal weight type
H Lubrication system Pressure Oil filter FilterpQer Engine oil capacity
25 qts I
40 qts I
40 qts 42 qts I
For accuracy depend on dipstick markings
Ejcooling system Forced circulation water cooling by
Hrxl1
heat Coolant capacity 6 qts I
5 qts I
8 qts 8 qts
Always fill to top of filler neck
t Starter VHP 122 122 122 Alternator VA 1250 1250
1250 Glow plug Sheathed trpe all models
rxI I
lBattery capacity 60 AH 75 AH 90 AH 90 AH
CAUTIONS IN HANDLING ENGINE
Always use proper engine oil and watch oil pressure during opera
tion
Use clean fuel free from impurities and water content
Prevent entry of air and water into the fuel system
In case the starter motor pinion fails to engage wi th the ring
gear at the time of starting turn on the starter swi tch again
after the starter motor has come to a complete stop
Prevent the temperature of cooling water from falling too low
Pay attention to the color of exhaust gas
Clean or replace the fuel filter and oil filter Replenish or replace oil as Never put the engine in oeration in improperly ventilated
places
Do not touch moving parts during operation
Do not touch hot parts such as exhaust pipe and do not place com
bustible materials there
Inspect and adjust parts of the engine only after it is stopped
Check and refill engine oil cooling water and fuel after the
engine is brought to a stop
In checking the level of and refilling cooling water remove thie
pressure cap after the temperature of the water has fallen enough
Always use tools of proper sizes and full caution during sel
vicing
BREAKING IN
Service life of your engine is dependent upon how your engine is
operated and serviced during the initial 50 hours of Your new engine needs 50 hours
of conditioning operation for
breaking each moving part in
and maximizing performance and
life of engine Perform this
conditioning carefully bearing
the following points in Idle and warm up your engine from 3 to 5 minutes
Avoid hasty Use caution not to overload the engine
Inspect maintain and service your engine in accordance wi th the
instructions in this in a new engine is basically a seating of the piston rings
to the cylinder walls This is not accomplished by long periods of
running idle nor by early running under full load nor by varying
loads with intervals of fast acceleration andor excessive speed
Idle running may glaze the cylinder walls causing oil consumption and
smoky operation Excessive speeds and loads may score cylinder walls
with similar results
As indicated above use a short warm up at idle and put engine load and speed for the first ten hours of operation For
the next forty hours use approximately 70 load This kind of care
ful operation will result in best results from your engine
steps as shown below in starting your engine for the first time
or after a prolonged Fill your engine with oil up to
or near the upper limit on the
dipstick Use a good grade of
oil wi th API specification of
CC or better For quantity of
oil you may refer to the
General page
However it is best always to
be guided by dipstick measure
ment as angle of installation
has some effect
2 Your eng ine is suppl ied wi th a
coolant recovery system to
which the following instruc tions apply
a Fill engine completely to
the neck of the manifold cap
b Then fill the recovery
tank to the bottom level line
Need for adding coolant is
indicated when a cold engine
has coolant level below the
bottom level line
c In winter add antifreeze
as described on page 16 Anti
freeze may be used year round
if changed annually
3 Fill the fuel tank with Diesel
fuel The interior of the fuel
tank must be maintained clean
Be careful not to allow intro
duction of dirt when filling
fuel
4 Engine oil coolant and
transmission levels should be
checked at least once a day
prior to engine use
STARTING panel description and use of
Note 1 When engine is stopped after use the water temperature and
oil pressure gauges may stay at their running 2 When engine is next to be used turn start switch to ON
The temperature and pressure gauges will ZERO and the volt
meter will register battery voltage The electric fuel pump
mounted on the engine will also begin to operate purging
any air accumulated in the system
Note 3 The engine is now prepared for 7
STARTING Turn the starter swi tch to the
ON position If making an
ini tial star t after layup
fuel filter servicing or
repairs allow fuel pump to
work 1525 seconds to purge the
system of any air Check that
clutch is in neutral and that
throttle is in full forward
2 Glow plug preheating
with key in ON position push
in about 14 inch or enough so
that voltmeter indicates dis
charge Hold key in depressed
posi tion until glow plugs are
sufficiently hot Follow Table
below for preheating time
Quickheat type Yl14T
Atmospheric temperature Preheating time
sc 4lF or higher Approx 10 sec
SC 4lF to SC 23F Arox 20 sec
SoC 23F or lower Approx 30 sec
Limit of continuous use 1 minute
3 Proper glow plug function is
indicated by voltmeter drop
when key is depressed This
drop will be slight but dis
cernible If no voltage drop
is noted it may indicate
defective glow plugs or a
faulty preheat circuit check
for loose 8
4 Starting
Continuing to hold the key
depressed turn to the START
position The starter motor
will run ther eby cr ank ing the
engine Hold throttle open
until engine runs and then
reduce the eng ine not star t even when the star ter swi tch is left at
5 position for 10 seconds take your hand off the starter switch for
30 seconds and then attempt to start the engine again by the glow plug The starter motor should never be allowed
to run for more than 30 seconds at a time
5 Operation
As soon as the engine has
started release the key The
key will automatically return
to the ON position Leave
the key at ON dur ing oper a
tion Check that with engine
running oil pressure and bat
tery charge voltage are
registering and that raw water
is discharging with the
engine operation do not turn the key to 5 11 position This
may damage the starter motor
6 Warmup operation
Run a few minutes at II IDLE
position to assure that all
functions are operating Then
operate under reduced load
until water temperature rises
into the 140150 range
STOPPING Stop
To stop the engine move the
throttle control through the
idle position to stop As the
throttle is moved past idle
there will be increased
resistance to movement because
a spring loading must be over
come Hold the throttle firmly
against the pressure until the W13 W212733
engine comes to a complete
stop
2 Starter switch off
Wi th the eng ine stopped turn
the star ter key back to OFF
position The battery will be
discharged if the key is left
at ON position An engine
alarm buzzer is provided to
warn the operator of this
possibili ty Best precaution
is always to remove the key
CAUTIONS ON STARTING AND OPERATION
1 Normal starting
Follow the procedures below for routine starting of your engine
1 Check the engine and transmission oil levels and refill if
necessary
2 Insure that you have sufficient fuel Keep tank as full as
possible
3 Check coong water level and refill if necessary
Note Check for leaks of water or oil particularly when
signs of such leak are found on the bottom of the engine or
in the drip tray
4 Start the engine in accordance with the procedures given on
the preceding pages
5 Allow the engine to warm up to 140150 F before placing the
engine under heavy load
2 Starting under cold conditions
The following three adverse condi tions concur as the atmospher ic
temper ature drops exceedingly and the engine must under such
conditions be started by taking steps described below
LUBRICATING OIL TURNS VISCOUS Make certain that oil used
is adequate for the prevailing atmospheric temperature
Check the oil also for VOLTAGE ACROSS BATTERY TERMINALS DROPS Check that the
battery is fully charged
THE TEMPERATURE OF INTAKE AIR IS LOW AND COMPRESSION
TEMPERATURE DOES NOT RISE ENOUGH Allow the glow plug to
operate sufficiently to aid starting See table on page 8
3 Cautions during operation
Confirm that the oil pressure is normal during normal operation
Confirm that exhaust gas is as follows
While engine is cold White smoke
When the engine grows warm Almost smokeless
When the engine is overloaded Some black smoke
Check for abnormal noise such as knocking fr iction or leaking
sounds and vibration and blowback sounds
Check for leaks of fuel and engine oil
A knocking sound is heard while the engine is cold during quick
acceleration and at idle Confirm that no knocking sound is heard
in other cases
LEFT SIDE W33 WITH 21 VEE DRIVE
REQUIREMENTS FOR PROPER SYSTEM
1 Engine oil
For engine lubrication use diesel engine oil Diesel engine oils
are classified according to the API into grades CA
CB CC and CD Anyone of them is usable but use of CC or higher
grades prepared by wellknown makers is Engine oil viscosity
Use oil having viscosity best suited to the atmospheric tem
perature Use of an allseason oil SAEIOW30 with minimum visco
sity change under different temperatures is Atmospheric temperature Viscosity
20C 6aF or higher SAE 30 or lOW30
SAE 20 or 10W30
SC 41F or lower SAE 10W30
3 Oil pressure
The oil pressure dur ing operation of the engine is indicated by
the oil pressure gauge
During normal operation Oil pressure will range between
50 and 70 PSI
At the time of cranking Pressure will rise proportion
ately with speed
4 Engine oil change
To renew engine oil discharge old oil through the sump drain hose
attached at front of engine while engine is still warm
Drain old oil completely replace the hose plug the end securely
and add fresh oil through the oil inlet port on the valve cover
After refilling oil idle the engine for several minutes and stop
Then check the quanti ty of oil by the oil level gauge F ill to
but not over the high mark on the 12
5 Replacement of oil filter
Being a replaceable cartridge
type the oil filter requires
no cleaning inside
In installing the oil filter
apply engine oil thinly on to
the Oring and then tighten it
by hand firmly
When removing the used filter
cover over with a plastic bag
This will allow both filter
element and spilled oil to be
collected cleanly without
spilling oil in the bilge
Note A After market filters are not recommended since the
material standard or diameters of important items might
be entirely different from genuine parts
Note B Immediately after filter change and oil fill run engine
to ensure that oil pressure is normal and that there are
no oil leaks
FUEL SYSTEM
1 Diesel fuel
USE 2 DIESEL FUEL NEVER USE KEROSENE OR HEAVY OIL
In cold weather particularly much water vapor is produced when
much air is present in the fuel tank The tank therefore should
be kept full as much as possible
The fuel tank furthermore needs to be kept completely free of
dirt and water
2 To this end it is most
desirable that a primary fuel
filter of the water entrapment
type be installed between the
fuel tank and engine Such a
filter is available under part
32974 See your local
dealer
Water entrapment filter 32974
is shown opposite Inspect
frequently for presence of
water in the clear bowl Drain
it off by loosening the air
vent and opening the drain
3 Notes on fuel system
See below a typical exploded view of a fuel system The one shown
is for the W13 Those for the W21 W27 and W33 are similar except
for the number of The Westerbeke selfbleeding fuel system is automatic in opera
tion Therefore it is unlikely that the operator will be forced
to service the system at sea
For that unlikely possibility however it is recommended that the
following parts be carried onboard
Banjo washers 11 30 31 33 34 45
Injector seat washers 42
Lift pump filter and gaskets 6 7 8
Fuel filter element and gaskets 13 14 15
If a leak should develop at a banjo or washer that cannot be
remedied by a simple tightening of the screw renew the washers
The engine can be started by taking the steps described on pages 8
and 9 In cases where the engine cannot be started easily loosen
two injection nuts on the nozzle side turn the speed control
lever to full open position turn the starter motor and then
tighten the nuts firmly
4 Cleaning fuel filter and replacing filter element
After the first 50 hours of operation loosen the retainer ring
16 and discard filter element 15 Clean bowl 17 and reinstall
new filter using new gasket 13 and 14
This same treatment is required of the filter element 6 in the
fuel lift pump Similarly replace new filter element 6 using
new gasket 7 and 8
After the first 50 hour change the change period may be increased
to 200 hours or once per season
5 Fuel injection pump
The fuel injection pump is one of the most important components of
the diesel engine and thus it calls for the utmost caution in
handling Furthermore the fuel injection pump has been
thoroughly shopadjusted and should never be readjusted care
lessly
Such adjustment whenever necessary should be performed at an
author i zed service station as a precision pump tester and skills
are required
To obtain long and satisfactory use of your injection pump
Always use fuel which is free from impurities
Clean and renew the fuel filter Inspect water entrapment filter SYSTEM
1 Cooling water
As cooling water use soft water with least impurity content such
as tap water potable water or rainwater and never use hard
water or foul water Use of hard water or water containing much
impurity will lead to collection of scale in the engine and heat
exchanger with resultant decline in cooling effects
2 Antifreeze
In cold districts care should be takeri to prevent cooling water
from freezing Cooling water when frozen expands to break the
heat exchanger and the cylinder block and it is essential that
antifreeze be added to cooling water in a quantity being propor
tional to the lowest temperature of the dstr ict It is recom
mended that the antifreeze mixture be used throughout the year
Antifreeze of poor quality will cause corrosion of the
cooling system and thus always use antifreeze prepared by a
reliable maker and never use it mixed with antifreeze of a
different brand
Make sure that the cooling system of the engine is cleaned
well before adding antifreeze
Recommended antifreeze for year round use is ZEREX Long Life
Coolant antirust ANTIFREEZE ADDITION DATA
Antifreeze
Concentration 13 23 30 35 45 50 60
Freezing C 5 1 IS 20 30 40 50
temperature F 23 14 5 4 22 40 58
Note It is advisable that antifreeze concentration be
selected on the basis of a temperature which is about
5C lOF lower than the actual atmospheric tem
perature
3 Alternator belt tension
The alternator belt is properly
tense if it deflects 10 to
12 mm 039 to 047 in as it
is depressed with a finger be
tween the pulley and pulley of
the long distance side
Excess i ve tens ion can cause
quick wear of the belt and
bearings of the water pump and
the alternator Excessive
slackness or presence of oil on
the belt on the other hand
can lead to engine overheating
and insufficient charging due
to a slipping belt
CAUTION
Never attempt to adjust tension of the fan belt while the
engine is in 16
4 Fresh water cooling system See Note 5 on page 6
The system consists of a sea water pump which pumps raw sea water
through a heat exchanger to remove heat from the coolant The raw
water is discharged overboard through the exhaust line
The engine coolant fresh water with or without antifreeze is
circulated by the fresh water pump in continuous circuit Pumped
through the cylinder block cylinder head heat exchanger and back
to the fresh water pump
The total system is very reliable and requires only a daily check
of the water level in the system plus routine check of hose clamps
and fittings
It is likely that zinc electrodes will waste away from contact
wi th sea water It is also possible for the raw water pump
impeller to fail due to lack of sea water or An
early sign of impeller failure is less water and more steam at the
exhaust through hull fitting
I t is recommended therefore that zinc electrodes an impeller
kit a pump belt and a thermostat with gasket be kept onboard at
all times These parts should be ordered from your nearest
stocking dealer and used as inspection dictates
WIRING DIAGRAM
Your engine is of l2V system and its electric circuit is as shown in
the diagram below
For installing electrical parts connect them correctly by referring
to the diagram and at the same time check for damaged wire sheathing
and confirm that grounding is provided properly Care must always be
taken while working on the electrica system
Never shut the engine battery switch off while the engine is running
Damage to the alternator will result should this be done
CYEMAnc DIAGRAM
IZVDe fI iTf
SToRT 500L STArtA
11 WIP NG DIAGRAM OUTPUT
Cjw1
ioU NOTE CIoQ l SoO
WTcNOER IHI RH
JIHj
ALrERNATOR
PRHAT SOL
SIOTEa
1
OT 150
RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE and service your engine at specified intervals to maintain it in
its best conditions and permit it to perform as it should As for
those asterisked items it is suggested that you have them performed
by an authorized distributor or dealer
1 Daily inspection before use
A Checkup of engine oil level and refilling
No refill is required if the level is near the upper limit
line of the gauge
B Checkup of cooling water and refilling
Refill up to the filler cap neck
C Check your fuel supply
D Checkup of gauges and meters
After starting your eng ine check oil pressure water tem
perature and voltage reading
E Checkup for loose parts fan belt or bolt etc damage and
leaks
F Checkup for abnormality with exhaust gas noise and Servicing following initial 50 hours of operation
A Renewal of engine oil
B Replacement of oil filter
C Renewal of cooling water
D Adjustment of valve clearance See SERVICE DATA
E Tightening of bolts and nuts
F Adjustment of engine idle
3 Servicing at every 100 hours of operation
A Renewal of engine oil
B Replacement of oil filter
C Cleaning of fuel filter
D Adjustment of engine idle
4 Servicing at every 200 hours of operation
A Replacement of engine mounted fuel filter elements
B Replacement of fuel filter cartridge type
5 Servicing at every 400 hours of operation
A Cleaning of fuel tank
B Adjustment of valve clearance
C Checkup of starter motor alternator and regulator
Check the brush and surface of commutator for the degree of
wear Replace the brush if it is worn beyond the limits of
wear
D Checkup of glow plugs
Check the glow plugs for blowout
E Removal of cooling water and flushing is Servicing at every 800 hours of operation
A Checkup of nozzles
Set the injection starting
pressure to 1707 0 psi
and eliminate undesirable
injection conditions in
cluding after dr ipping
GOOD
B Checkup of compression pressure
Remove each glow plug and check cylinders one by one using
a compression pressure gauge If the pressure differs by
more than 25 kgcm 2 356 psi between cylinders or if the
cylinder pressure is less than 26 kgcm 2 3698 psi at
320 RPM for the W13 and at 280 RPM for the W21 W27 and W33
correct it
C Fuel injection adjustment
In case of severe vibration during idling have it repaired
at an authorized distributor or dealer which is equipped with
a pump tester
D Checkup of alternator and regulator
Regulate the voltage and current by use of a circuit tester
E Checkup of starter motor pinion and flywheel ring gear
Rectify the chamfered area that has been severely damaged by
use of an oil stone or some pencil grinder and replace the
part if it is damaged allover
F Tightening of bolts and nuts
RIGHT FRONT QUARTER 1 W21 WITH 21 REDUCTION GEAR
engine model may be fitted with a variety of For ratio andor type see table below
VDrive
Model 11 151 21 251 21
W13 SlOOO HBW100 HBW50 HBW50 HBW150V
W21 SlOOO HBW100 HBW50 HBW100 HBW150V
RD60 SlOOO HBW100 HBW50 HBW100 HBW150V
W27 SlOOO HBW100 HBW100 HBW150 HBW150V
RD80 SlOOO HBW100 HBW100 HBW150 HBW150V
W33 SlOOO HBW100 HBW100 HBW150 HBW150V
Left
Rotation Hand transmissions have their own oil sumps and dipsticks s and
HBW units use ATF lubricant while BW units may use either ATF or
30 weight engine oil
The their dipsticks and markings are illustrated in the
sketches below For dipsticks that are threaded in the case measure
oil by dropping dipstick on the case Do not screw in
51000
HBW100
VORIVE
ENGINE DOES NOT START
PROBLEM REMEDY
a Starting switch is defective Correct connections and contacts
b Deficient drive torque f The battery is exhausted trouble
the starter motor with the starter motor or dirty or
loose wiring
c Improper viscosity of engine Check the viscosity and renew oil
oil if necessary
d Engine too cold Use glowplug starting aid
e Seizure of moving parts Rectify
f Air present in fuel system Purge thoroughly with electric fuel
pump
g No fuel in fuel tank Refill
h Fuel filter clogged Clean or renew
2 ENGINE STALLS WHILE IN OPERATION
PROBLEM REMEDY
a Fuel tank is empty Refill
b Fuel filter clogged Clean or renew
c Air present in fuel system Retighten fuel line connections to
allow electric fuel pump to run long
enough to purge air IMPROPER OIL PRESSURE
PROBLEM REMEDY
a Oil shortage Refill
b Oil leak through connections Repair
c Oil pressure switch Replace
4 ENGINE PROBLEM REMEDY
a Cooling water shortage Refill
b Water leaks Repair
c Belt loose or smeared with Clean or renew
d Raw water QumQ defective ReQair or renew
5 BATTERY IS PROBLEM REMEDY
a Belt tension improper Rectify
b Faulty wiring circuit Rectify
c Alternator not functioning Replace
observe Battery faulty Replace
e Faulty voltage or renew
RIGHT SIDE W27 WITH 21 VEE DRIVE
SERVICE DATA
1 Valve clearance engine cold 025 rom 0010 in
both intake and exhaust
2 Compression pressure
W13 32 kgcm 2 at 320 RPM
W21 W27 W33 32 kgcm 2 at 280 RPM
3 Engine oil capacity including
oil filter
W13 28 liters 074 U S gal
W21 35 liters 093 U S gal
W27 45 liters 119 U S gal
W33 50 liters 132 U S gal
4 Firing order
W13 12
W21 132
W27 W33 1342
5 Injection timing BTDC of compression stroke when started at
smoke set position
Marine Engine 23 15
19 15
Generator
6 Injection starting pressure 142
1707 0 psi
7 Cooling water capacity in engine
body alone
W13 21 liters 056 U S gal
W21 30 liters 079 U S gal
W27 35 liters 092 U S gal
W33 37 liters 098 U S gal
TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES
head bolt MI0 W21 W27 W33 78 SO7S79
M12 W21 1112 796868
W13 W27 1213 868940
M14 W33 lS16 pulley nut W13 lS20 10851446
W21 W27 W33 2025 bearing cap bolt W21 W27 W33 SOSS rod cap nut W13 W21 W27 323S rod cap bolt W33
11S12S bolt 11S125 pan drain plug S6 filter
1113 valve holder injection pump 4S mounting bolt nozzle 1S20 body and retaining nut
nozzle 68 plug 1S20 screw tightening torque M6 07 51
M8 17 123
MI0 3S 253
M12 64 463
M14 9S 687
WESTERBEKE GENUINE PARTS
WESTERBEKE GENUINE PARTS II are super ior and
reliable because they have been produced under an
excellent quali ty control system and have passed
the standard after strict inspection
After market parts are not recommended from
the viewpoint of their material standard and method which may be entirely those of genuine parts
WESTERBEKE GENUINE PARTS II are available from
our authorized distributors and dealers Please
order your spare parts from your nearest distribu
tor or dealer
LEFT SIDE W13 WITH 21 BW3 27

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