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International Code Of Signals



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                                  PUB. 102


   INTERNATIONAL
  CODE OF SIGNALS
FOR VISUAL, SOUND, AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS


       UNITED STATES EDITION


         1969 Edition
        (Revised 2003)




   NATIONAL IMAGERY AND MAPPING AGENCY
                                       PUB. 102


        International Code of Signals
As adopted by the Fourth Assembly of the Inter-Governmental Maritime
                  Consultative Organization in 1965




           For Visual, Sound, and Radio Communications

                 United States Edition, 1969
                            (Revised 2003)




                        Prepared and published by the
                 NATIONAL IMAGERY AND MAPPING AGENCY
                            Bethesda, Maryland


          COPYRIGHT 2003 BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
             NO COPYRIGHT CLAIMED UNDER TITLE 17 U.S.C.


               For sale by the Superintendant of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
           Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800
                    Fax: (202) 512-2250 Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001
                                                     PREFACE

   Pub 102, the 1969 edition of the International Code of Signals, became effective on 1 April 1969, and at that time
superseded H.O. Pubs. 103 and 104, International Code of Signals, Volumes I and II. All signals are contained in a single
volume suitable for all methods of communication.
   The First International Code was drafted in 1855 by a Committee set up by the British Board of Trade. It contained 70,000
signals using eighteen flags and was published by the British Board of Trade in 1857 in two parts; the first containing
universal and international signals and the second British signals only. The book was adopted by most seafaring nations.
   This early edition was revised by a Committee set up in 1887 by the British Board of Trade. The Committee's proposals
were discussed by the principal maritime powers and at the International Conference in Washington in 1889. As a result,
many changes were made. The Code was completed in 1897 and was distributed to all maritime powers. That edition of
the International Code of Signals, however, did not stand the test of World War I.
   The International Radiotelegraph Conference at Washington in 1927 considered proposals for a new revision of the Code
and decided that it should be prepared in seven languages, namely in English, French, Italian, German, Japanese, Spanish
and in one Scandinavian language which was chosen by the Scandinavian Governments to be the Norwegian language. The
new edition was completed in 1930 and was adopted by the International Radiotelegraph Conference held in Madrid in
1932. The new Code was compiled in two volumes, one for use by visual signaling and the other by radiotelegraphy. Words
and phrases applicable to aircraft were introduced in Volume II together with a complete Medical Section and a Code for
accelerating the granting of pratique. The Medical Section and the pratique signals were prepared with the assistance and
by the advice of the Office International d'Hygiene Publique. The Code, particularly Volume II, was primarily intended for
use by ships and aircraft and, via coastal radio stations, between ships or aircraft and authorities ashore. A certain number
of signals were inserted for communications with shipowners, agents, repair yards, etc. The same Conference (Madrid,
1932) established a Standing Committee to review the Code, if and when necessary, to give guidance on questions of use
and procedure, and to consider proposals for modifications. Secretarial duties were undertaken by the Government of the
United Kingdom. The Standing Committee met only once in 1933 and introduced certain additions and amendments.
   The Administrative Radio Conference of the International Telecommunication Union suggested in 1947 that the
International Code of Signals should fall within the competence of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative
Organization (IMCO). In January 1959, the First Assembly of IMCO decided that the Organization should assume all the
functions then being performed by the Standing Committee of the International Code of Signals. The Second Assembly in
1961 endorsed plans for a comprehensive review of the International Code of Signals intended to meet the present day
requirements of mariners. A Subcommittee of the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization was established to revise
the Code, to prepare it in nine languages, namely the original seven (English, French, Italian, German, Japanese, Spanish,
and Norwegian) together with Russian and Greek, and to consider proposals for a new radiotelephone Code and its relation
to the International Code of Signals. The Subcommittee consisted of representatives of the following countries: Argentina,
Germany, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, and the United States of America.
The following international governmental and nongovernmental organizations contributed to, and assisted in, the
preparation of the revised Code: the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Civil Aviation Organization,
the International Labor Organization, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization,
the World Health Organization, the International Chamber of Shipping, the International Confederation of Free Trade
Unions, and the International Radio Maritime Committee.
   The Subcommittee completed the revision of the Code in 1964, taking into account Recommendation 42 of the 1960
Conference on Safety of Life at Sea and Recommendation 22 of the Administrative Radio Conference, Geneva 1959. The
Code was adopted by the Fourth Assembly of IMCO in 1965.
   The revised Code is intended to cater primarily for situations related essentially to safety of navigation and persons,
especially when language difficulties arise. It is suitable for transmission by all means of communication, including
radiotelephony and radiotelegraphy, thus obviating the necessity for a separate radiotelephone Code and dispensing with
Volume II for Radiotelegraphy. The revised Code embodies the principle that each signal has a complete meaning. It thus
leaves out the vocabulary method which was part of the old Code. The Geographical Section, not being considered
essential, was omitted. By these means it was possible to reduce considerably the volume of the Code and achieve
simplicity.
   Changes and corrections for this product will appear in the NIMA weekly Notice to Mariners and must be applied to keep
it current. Users should refer information and comments to: MARITIME SAFETY INFORMATION DIVISION, ST D 44,
NATIONAL IMAGERY AND MAPPING AGENCY, 4600 SANGAMORE ROAD, BETHESDA MD 20816-5003.



                                                                                                                           iii
                                                                     CONTENTS
                                                                                                                                                                      PAGE

CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

CHAPTER 2.-- GENERAL SIGNAL CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105

CHAPTER 4.--DISTRESS AND LIFESAVING SIGNALS AND
             RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137

APPENDIX: U.S./Russia Supplementary Signals for Naval Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151

INDEXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Index for Signaling Instructions and General Signal Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Index for Medical Signal Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159




                                                                                                                                                                                 v
                                                                                                                            CHAPTER                             1
                                                             CHAPTER 1
                                          SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS
                                                                                                                                                       PAGE

SECTION 1: EXPLANATION AND GENERAL REMARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
SECTION 2: DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
SECTION 3: METHODS OF SIGNALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
SECTION 4: GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
SECTION 5: FLAG SIGNALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
SECTION 6: FLASHING LIGHT SIGNALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
SECTION 7: SOUND SIGNALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
SECTION 8: RADIOTELEPHONY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
SECTION 9: SIGNALING BY HAND FLAGS OR ARMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
              MORSE SIGNALING BY HAND FLAGS OR ARMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
SECTION 10: MORSE SYMBOLS--PHONETIC TABLES--PROCEDURE SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
              MORSE SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
              PROCEDURE SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
              SINGLE LETTER SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
              SINGLE LETTER SIGNALS WITH COMPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
              SINGLE LETTER SIGNALS BETWEEN ICEBREAKER AND ASSISTED VESSELS . . . .24




                                                                                                                                                                    1
                                                      CHAPTER 1
                  SECTION 1: EXPLANATION AND GENERAL REMARKS
1. The purpose of the International Code of Signals is to provide ways and means of communication in situations related essen-
tially to safety of navigation and persons, especially when language difficulties arise. In the preparation of the Code, account
was taken of the fact that wide application of radiotelephony and radiotelegraphy can provide simple and effective means of
communication in plain language whenever language difficulties do not exist.
2. The signals used consist of:
   (a) Single-letter signals allocated to significations which are very urgent, important, or of very common use;
   (b) Two-letter signals for General Signal Code, Chapter 2, Pages 29 through 104;
   (c) Three-letter signals beginning with "M" for Medical Signal Code, Chapter 3, pages 107 through 135.
3. The Code follows the basic principle that each signal should have a complete meaning. This principle is followed throughout
the Code; in certain cases complements are used, where necessary to supplement the available groups.
4. Complements express:
   (a) Variations in the meaning of the basic signal.
        Examples:
        "CP" = "I am (or vessel indicated is) proceeding to your assistance."
        "CP 1" = "SAR aircraft is coming to your assistance."
   (b) Questions concerning the same basic subject or basic signal.
        Examples:
        "DY" = "Vessel (name or identity signal) has sunk in lat . . . long. . . .".
        "DY 4" = "What is the depth of water where vessel sank?"
   (c) Answers to a question or request made by the basic signal.
        Examples:
        "HX" = "Have you received any damage in collision?"
        "HX 1" = "I have received serious damage above the waterline".
   (d) Supplementary, specific or detailed information.
        Examples:
        "IN" = "I require a diver".
        "IN 1" = "I require a diver to clear propeller".
5. Complements appearing in the text more than once have been grouped in three tables. These tables should be used only as
and when specified in the text of the signals.
6. Text in brackets indicates:
   (a) an alternative, e.g.:". . . (or survival craft). . .";
   (b) information which may be transmitted if it is required or if it is available, e.g.: ". . . (position to be indicated if necessary)";
   (c) an explanation of the text.
7. The material is classified according to subject and meaning. Extensive cross referencing of the signals in the right-hand col-
umn is used to facilitate coding.




                                                                                                                                         3
                                                    CHAPTER 1
                                           SECTION 2: DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Code the following terms shall have the meanings defined below:

Visual signaling is any method of communication, the transmission of which is capable of being seen.

Sound signaling is any method of passing Morse signals by means of siren, whistle, foghorn, bell, or other sound apparatus.

Originator is the authority who orders a signal to be sent.

Identity signal or call sign is the group of letters and figures assigned to each station by its administration.

Station means a ship, aircraft, survival craft, or any place at which communications can be effected by any means.

Station of origin is that station where the originator submits a signal for transmission, irrespective of the method of com-
    munication employed.

Transmitting station is the station by which a signal is actually being made.

Addressee is the authority to whom a signal is addressed.

Station of destination is that station in which the signal is finally received by the addressee.

Receiving station is the station by which a signal is actually being read.

Procedure denotes the rules drawn up for the conduct of signaling.

Procedure signal is a signal designed to facilitate the conduct of signaling. (See Chapter 1, Section 10, Pages 17, 20, and 21.)

Time of origin is the time at which a signal is ordered to be made.

Group denotes more than one continuous letter and/or numeral which together compose a signal.

A numeral group consists of one or more numerals.

A hoist consists of one or more groups displayed from a single halyard. A hoist or signal is said to be at the dip when it is
    hoisted about half of the full extent of the halyards. A hoist or signal is said to be close up when it is hoisted to the full
    extent of the halyards.

Tackline is a length of halyard about 2 m (6 ft.) long, used to separate each group of flags.




4
                                                   CHAPTER 1
                               SECTION 3: METHODS OF SIGNALING
1. The methods of signaling which may be used are:
   (a) Flag signaling, the flags used being those shown inside the front cover.
   (b) Flashing light signaling, using the Morse symbols shown in Chapter 1, Section 10, Page 17.
   (c) Sound signaling, using the Morse symbols shown in Chapter 1, Section 10 Page 17.
   (d) Voice over a loud hailer.
   (e) Radiotelegraphy.
   (f) Radiotelephony.
   (g) Morse signaling by hand flags or arms.

Flag signaling
2. A set of signal flags consists of twenty-six alphabetical flags, ten numeral pennants, three substitutes, and the answering pen-
nant. Detailed instructions for signaling by flags are given in Chapter 1, Section 5, Pages 9 and 10.
Flashing light and sound signaling
3. The Morse symbols representing letters, numerals, etc., are expressed by dots and dashes which are signaled either singly or
in combination. The dots and dashes and spaces between them should be made to bear the following ratio, one to another, as
regards their duration:
   (a) A dot is taken as the unit;
   (b) A dash is equivalent to three units;
   (c) The space of time between any two elements of a symbol is equivalent to one unit; between two complete symbols it is
        equivalent to three units; and between two words or groups it is equivalent to seven units.
4. In flashing light and sound signaling, while generally obeying the instructions laid down here, it is best to err on the side of
making the dots rather shorter in their proportion to the dashes as it then makes the distinction between the elements plainer.
The standard rate of signaling by flashing light is to be regarded as forty letters per minute. Detailed instructions for signaling
by flashing light and sound are given in Chapter 1, Sections 6 and 7, Pages 11 through 13.
Voice over a loud hailer
5. Whenever possible plain language should be used but where a language difficulty exists groups from the International Code
of Signals could be transmitted using the phonetic spelling tables.
Radiotelegraphy and radiotelephony
6. When radiotelegraphy or radiotelephony is used for the transmission of signals, operators should comply with the Radio Reg-
ulations of the International Telecommunication Union then in force. (See Radiotelephony in Chapter 1, Section 8, Page 14.)




                                                                                                                                 5
                                                    CHAPTER 1
                               SECTION 4: GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
Originator and addressee of message
1. Unless otherwise indicated all signals between vessels are made from the Master of the vessel of origin to the Master of the
vessel of destination.

Identification of ships and aircraft
2. Identity signals for ships and aircraft are allocated on an international basis. The identity signal may therefore indicate the
nationality of a ship or aircraft.

Use of identity signals
3. Identity signals may be used for two purposes:
   (a) to speak to, or call, a station;
   (b) to speak of, or indicate, a station.
       Examples:
       "YP LABC" = "I wish to communicate with vessel LABC by . . ." (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page
               104).
       "HY 1 LABC" = "The vessel LABC with which I have been in collision has resumed her voyage".

Names of vessels and/or places
4. Names of vessels and/or places are to be spelled out.
      Example:
      "RV Gibraltar" = "You should proceed to Gibraltar".
How to signal numbers
5. Instructions for signaling numbers:
   (a) Numbers are to be signaled as follows:
     (i) Flag signaling: by the numeral pennants of the Code.
     (ii) Flashing light or sound signaling: usually by the numerals in the Morse Code; they may also be spelled out.
     (iii) Radiotelephony or loud hailer: by the Code words of the Figure Spelling Table in Chapter 1, Section 10, Page 19.
   (b) Figures which form part of the basic signification of a signal are to be sent together with the basic group.
           Examples:
           "DI 20" = "I require boats for 20 persons."
           "FJ 2" = "Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by sea marker".
   (c) A decimal point between numerals is to be signaled as follows:
     (i) Flag signaling: by inserting the answering pennant where it is desired to express the decimal point.
     (ii) Flashing light and sound signaling: by "decimal point" signal "AAA".
     (iii) Voice: by use of the word "DECIMAL" as indicated in the Figure Spelling Table.
   (d) Wherever the text allows depths, etc., to be signaled in feet or in meters, the figures should be followed by "F" to indicate
        feet or by "M" to indicate meters.

Azimuth or bearing
6. They are to be expressed in three figures denoting degrees from 000 to 359, measured clockwise. If there is any possibility
of confusion, they should be preceded by the letter "A". They are always to be true unless expressly stated to be otherwise in
the context.
       Examples:
       "LW 005" = "I receive your transmission on bearing 005".
       "LT A120 T1540" = "Your bearing from me is 120 at (local time) 1540".



6
                                         SECTION 4.--GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS




Course
7. Course is to be expressed in three numerals denoting degrees from 000 to 359, measured clockwise. If there is any possibility
of confusion, they should be preceded by the letter "C". They are always to be true unless expressly stated to be otherwise in
the context.
       Examples:
       "MD 025" = "My course is 025".
       "GR C240 S18" = "Vessel coming to your rescue is steering course 240, speed 18 knots".

Date
8. Dates are to be signaled by two, four, or six numerals preceded by the letter "D". The first two numerals indicate the day of
the month. When they are used alone they refer to the current month.
       Example:
       "D15" transmitted on the 15th or any other date in April means "15 April".

       The two numerals which follow indicate the month of the year.
       Example:
       "D1504" means "15 April".

       Where necessary the year may be indicated by two further numerals.
       Example:
       "D181063" means "18 October 1963".

Latitude
9. Latitude is expressed by four figures preceded by the Letter "L". The first two figures denote the degrees and the last two
the minutes. The letters "N" (North) or "S" (South) follow if they are needed; however, for reasons of simplicity they may be
omitted if there is no risk of confusion.
       Example:
       "L3740S" = "Latitude 3740'S".

Longitude
10. Longitude is expressed by four or, if necessary, five figures preceded by the letter "G". The first two (or three) figures de-
note the degrees and the last two the minutes. When the longitude is more than 99, no confusion will normally arise if the figure
indicating hundreds of degrees is omitted. However, where it is necessary to avoid confusion the five figures should be used.
The letters "E" (East) or "W" (West) follow if they are needed, otherwise they may be omitted, as in the case of latitude.
       Example:
       "G13925E" = "Longitude 13925' E".
       A signal requiring the indication of position to complete its signification should be signaled as follows:
       "CH L2537N G4015W" = "Vessel indicated is reported as requiring assistance in lat 2537' N, long 4015' W".

Distance
11. Figures preceded by the letter "R" indicate distance in nautical miles.
       Example:
       "OV A080 R10" = "Mine(s) is (are) believed to be bearing 080 from me, distance 10 miles".
The letter "R" may be omitted if there is no possibility of confusion.

Speed
12. Speed is indicated by figures preceded by:
  (a.) the letter "S" to denote speed in knots, or
  (b.) the letter "V" to denote speed in kilometers per hour.




                                                                                                                                7
                                        CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




       Examples:
       "BQ S300" = "The speed of my aircraft in relation to the surface of the earth is 300 knots".
       "BQ V300" = "The speed of my aircraft in relation to the surface of the earth is 300 kilometers per hour".

Time
13. Times are to be expressed in four figures, of which the first two denote the hour, from 00 (midnight) up to 23 (11 p.m.), and
the last two denote the minutes (from 00 to 59). The figures are preceded by:
  (a) the letter "T" indicating "Local time", or
  (b) the letter "Z" indicating "Greenwich Mean Time".
       Examples:
       "BH T1045 L2015N G3840W C125" = "I sighted an aircraft at local time 1045 in lat 2015' N, long 3840' W flying
              on course 125".
       "RX Z0830" = "You should proceed at GMT 0830".

Time of origin
14. The time of origin may be added at the end of the text. It should be given to the nearest minute and expressed by four figures.
Apart from indicating at what time a signal originated, it also serves as a convenient reference number.

Communication by local signal codes
15. If a vessel or a coast station wishes to make a signal in a local code, the signal "YV 1" = "The groups which follow are from
the local code" should precede the local signal, if it is necessary, in order to avoid misunderstanding.




8
                                                        CHAPTER 1
                                          SECTION 5: FLAG SIGNALING
1. As a general rule only one hoist should be shown at a time. Each hoist or group of hoists should be kept flying until it has
been answered by the receiving station (see paragraph 3). When more groups than one are shown on the same halyard they must
be separated by a tackline. The transmitting station should always hoist the signal where it can be most easily seen by the re-
ceiving station, that is, in such a position that the flags will blow out clear and be free from smoke.
How to call
2. The identity signal of the station(s) addressed is to be hoisted with the signal (see Chapter 1, Section 4, Paragraph 3, Page 6).
If no identity signal is hoisted it will be understood that the signal is addressed to all stations within visual signaling distance.
If it is not possible to determine the identity signal of the station to which it is desired to signal, the group "VF" = "You should
hoist your identity signal" or "CS" = "What is the name or identity signal of your vessel (or station)?" should be hoisted first;
at the same time the station will hoist its own identity signal. The group "YQ" = "I wish to communicate by . . . (Complements
Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104) with vessel bearing . . . from me" can also be used.
How to answer signals
3. All stations to which signals are addressed or which are indicated in signals are to hoist the answering pennant at the dip as
soon as they see each hoist and close up immediately, when they understand it; it is to be lowered to the dip as soon as the hoist
is hauled down at the transmitting station, being hoisted close up again as soon as the next hoist is understood.
How to complete a signal
4. The transmitting station is to hoist the answering pennant singly after the last hoist of the signal to indicate that the signal is
completed. The receiving station is to answer this in a similar manner to all other hoists (see paragraph 3 on this page).
How to act when signals are not understood
5. If the receiving station cannot clearly distinguish the signal made to it, it is to keep the answering pennant at the dip. If it can
distinguish the signal but cannot understand the meaning of it, it can hoist the following signals: "ZQ" = "Your signal appears
incorrectly coded. You should check and repeat the whole", or "ZL" = "Your signal has been received but not understood".
The use of substitutes
6. The use of substitutes is to enable the same signal flag, either alphabetical flag or numeral pennant, to be repeated one or more times in
the same group, in case only one set of flags is carried on board. The first substitute always repeats the uppermost signal flag of that class
of flags which immediately precedes the substitute. The second substitute always repeats the second and the third substitute repeats the
third signal flag, counting from the top of that class of flags which immediately precedes them. No substitute can ever be used more than
once in the same group. The answering pennant when used as a decimal point is to be disregarded in determining which substitute to use.
        Example:
        The signal "VV" would be made as follows:
        V
        first substitute
        The number "1100" would be made by numeral pennants as follows:
        1
        first substitute
        0
        third substitute
        The signal "L 2330" would be made as follows:
        L
        2
        3
        second substitute
        0
In this case, the second substitute follows a numeral pennant and therefore it can only repeat the second numeral in the group.



                                                                                                                                            9
                                      CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




How to spell
7. Names in the text of a signal are to be spelled out by means of the alphabetical flags. The signal "YZ" = "The words which
follow are in plain language" can be used, if necessary.
Use of the Code pennant by ships of war
8. When a ship of war wishes to communicate with a merchant vessel she will hoist the Code pennant in a conspicuous position,
and keep it flying during the whole of the time the signal is being made.




10
                                                      CHAPTER 1
                             SECTION 6: FLASHING LIGHT SIGNALING
1. A signal made by flashing light is divided into the following parts:
   (a) The call.--It consists of the general call or the identity signal of the station to be called. It is answered by the answering
         signal.
   (b) The identity.--The transmitting station makes "DE" followed by its identity signal or name. This will be repeated back
         by the receiving station which then signals its own identity signal or name. This will also be repeated back by the trans-
         mitting station.
   (c) The text.--This consists of plain language or Code groups. When Code groups are to be used they should be preceded
         by the signal "YU". Words of plain language may also be in the text, when the signal includes names, places, etc. Receipt
         of each word or group is acknowledged by "T".
   (d) The ending.--It consists of the ending signal "AR" which is answered by "R".
2. If the entire text is in plain language the same procedure is to be followed. The call and identity may be omitted when two
stations have established communications and have already exchanged signals.
3. A list of procedure signals appears in Chapter 1, Section 10, Pages 20 and 21. Although the use of these signals is self-ex-
planatory, the following notes might be found useful:
   (a) The General call signal (or call for unknown station) "AA AA AA" etc., is made to attract attention when wishing to
         signal to all stations within visual signaling distance or to a station whose name or identity signal is not known. The call
         is continued until the station addressed answers.
   (b) The Answering signal "TTTT" etc., is made to answer the call and it is to be continued until the transmitting station
         ceases to make the call. The transmission starts with the "DE" followed by the name or identity signal of the transmitting
         station.
   (c) The letter "T" is used to indicate the receipt of each word or group.
   (d) The Erase signal "EEEEEE" etc., is used to indicate that the last group or word was signaled incorrectly. It is to be
         answered with the erase signal. When answered, the transmitting station will repeat the last word or group which was
         correctly signaled and then proceed with the remainder of the transmission.
   (e) The Repeat signal "RPT" is to be used as follows:
      (i) by the transmitting station to indicate that it is going to repeat ("I repeat"). If such a repetition does not follow imme-
            diately after "RPT", the signal should be interpreted as a request to the receiving station to repeat the signal received
            ("Repeat what you have received");
      (ii) by the receiving station to request for a repetition of the signal transmitted ("Repeat what you have sent");
      (iii) The Special Repetition signals "AA", "AB", "WA", "WB", and "BN" are made by the receiving station as appro-
            priate. In each case they are made immediately after the repeat signal "RPT".
            Examples:
            "RPT AB KL"--"Repeat all before group KL".
            "RPT BN 'boats' 'survivors' "--"Repeat all between words 'boats' and 'survivors' ".
            If a signal is not understood, or, when decoded, it is not intelligible, the repeat signal is not used. The receiving station
            must then make the appropriate signal from the Code, e.g., "Your signal has been received but not understood".
   (f) A correctly received repetition is acknowledged by the signal "OK". The same signal may be used as an affirmative
         answer to a question ("It is correct").
   (g) The Ending signal "AR" is used in all cases to indicate the end of a signal or the end of the transmission. The receiving
         station answers with the signal "R" = "Received" or "I have received your last signal".
   (h) The transmitting station makes the signal "CS" when requesting the name or identity signal of the receiving station.
   (i) The Waiting signal or Period signal "AS" is to be used as follows:
      (i) When made independently or after the end of a signal it indicates that the other station must wait for further commu-
            nications (waiting signal);
      (ii) When it is inserted between groups it serves to separate them (period signal) to avoid confusion.
   (j) The signal "C" should be used to indicate an affirmative statement or an affirmative reply to an interrogative signal; the
         signal "RQ" should be used to indicate a question. For a negative reply to an interrogative signal or for a negative state-
         ment, the signal "N" should be used in visual or sound signaling and the signal "NO" should be used for voice or radio
         transmission.
   (k) When the signals "N" or "NO", and "RQ" are used to change an affirmative signal into a negative statement or into a



                                                                                                                                      11
                                   CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




     question, respectively, they should be transmitted after the main signal.
     Examples:
     "CY N" (or "NO" as appropriate) = "(Boat(s) is(are) not coming to you." "CW RQ" = "Is boat/raft on board?"
     The signals "C", "N" or "NO", and "RQ" cannot be used in conjunction with single-letter signals.




12
                                                   CHAPTER 1
                                     SECTION 7: SOUND SIGNALING
1. Owing to the nature of the apparatus used (whistle, siren, foghorn, etc.) sound signaling is necessarily slow. Moreover, the
misuse of sound signaling is of a nature to create serious confusion at sea. Sound signaling in fog should therefore be reduced
to a minimum. Signals other than the single letter signals should be used only in extreme emergency and never in frequented
navigational waters.
2. The signals should be made slowly and clearly. They may be repeated, if necessary, but at sufficiently long intervals to ensure
that no confusion can arise and that one letter signals cannot be mistaken as two-letter groups.
3. Masters are reminded that the one letter signals of the Code, which are marked by an asterisk(*), when made by sound, may
only be made in compliance with the requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. Reference
is also made to the single letter signals provided for exclusive use between an icebreaker and assisted vessels.




                                                                                                                               13
                                                   CHAPTER 1
                                     SECTION 8: RADIOTELEPHONY
1. When using the International Code of Signals in cases of language difficulties, the principles of the Radio Regulations of the
International Telecommunication Union then in force have to be observed. Letters and figures are to be spelled in accordance
with the phonetic spelling tables in Chapter 1, Section 10, Pages 18 through 20.
2. When coast and ship stations are called, the identity signals (call signs) or names shall be used.
Method of calling
3. The call consists of:
   (a) The call sign or name of the station called, not more than three times at each call;
   (b) The group "DE" (DELTA ECHO);
   (c) The call sign or name of the calling station, not more than three times at each call.
Difficult names of stations should also be spelled. After contact has been established, the call sign or name need not be sent
more than once.

Form of reply to calls
4. The reply to calls consists of:
   (a) The call sign or name of the calling station, not more than three times;
   (b) The group "DE" (DELTA ECHO);
   (c) The call sign or name of the station called, not more than three times.
Calling all stations in the vicinity
5. The group "CQ" (CHARLIE QUEBEC) shall be used, but not more than three times at each call.
6. In order to indicate that Code groups of the International Code of Signals are to follow, the word "INTERCO" is to be in-
serted. Words of plain language may also be in the text when the signal includes names, places, etc. In this case the group "YZ"
(YANKEE ZULU) is to be inserted if necessary.
7. If the station called is unable to accept traffic immediately, it should transmit the signal "AS" (ALFA SIERRA), adding the
duration of waiting times in minutes whenever possible.
8. The receipt of a transmission is indicated by the signal "R" (ROMEO).
9. If the transmission is to be repeated in total or in part, the signal "RPT" (ROMEO PAPA TANGO) shall be used, supple-
mented as necessary by:
   "AA" (ALFA ALFA) = all after . . .
   "AB" (ALFA BRAVO) = all before . . .
   "BN" (BRAVO NOVEMBER) = all between . . .and . . .
   "WA" (WHISKEY ALFA) = word or group after . . .
   "WB" (WHISKEY BRAVO) = word or group before . . .
10. The end of a transmission is indicated by the signal "AR" (ALFA ROMEO).




14
                                                  CHAPTER 1
                   SECTION 9: SIGNALING BY HAND FLAGS OR ARMS

                            MORSE SIGNALING BY HAND FLAGS OR ARMS
1. A station which desires to communicate with another station by Morse signaling by hand flags or arms may indicate the re-
quirement by transmitting to that station the signal "K1" by any method. The call signal "AA AA AA" may be made instead.
2. On receipt of the call the station addressed should make the answering signal, or, if unable to communicate by this means,
should reply with the signal "YS1" by any available method.
3. The call signal "AA AA AA" and the signal "T" should be used respectively by the transmitting station and the addressed
station.
4. Normally both arms should be used for this method of transmission but in cases where this is difficult or impossible one arm
can be used.
5. All signals will end with the ending signal "AR".




                                                                                                                            15
                                      CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




Note: The space of time between dots and dashes and between letters, groups, or words should be such as to facilitate correct
reception.


16
                           CHAPTER 1
SECTION 10: MORSE SYMBOLS--PHONETIC TABLES--PROCEDURE SIGNALS

                           MORSE SYMBOLS

                              ALPHABET
             A                   N     

             B                 O     

             C                 P       

             D                  Q     

             E                    R     

             F                 S       

             G                  T     

             H                 U     

             I                   V     

             J                 W     

             K                  X     

             L                 Y     

             M                   Z     

                              NUMERALS
             1                6     

             2                7     

             3                8     

             4                9     

             5                0     

                          PROCEDURE SIGNALS
             AR               AAA     

             AS    




                                                            17
                                       CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




                                                    PHONETIC TABLES
For the pronunciation of letters and figures by radiotelephony or by voice over a loud hailer.

                                            LETTER SPELLING TABLE
               Letter                     Code Word                   Pronunciation
               A                          Alfa                        AL FAH
               B                          Bravo                       BRAH VOH
               C                          Charlie                     CHAR LEE (or SHAR LEE)
               D                          Delta                       DELL TAH
               E                          Echo                        ECK OH
               F                          Foxtrot                     FOKS TROT
               G                          Golf                        GOLF
               H                          Hotel                       HOH TELL
               I                          India                       IN DEE AH
               J                          Juliett                     JEW LEE ETT
               K                          Kilo                        KEY LOH
               L                          Lima                        LEE MAH
               M                          Mike                        MIKE
               N                          November                    NO VEM BER
               O                          Oscar                       OSS CAH
               P                          Papa                        PAH PAH
               Q                          Quebec                      KEH BECK
               R                          Romeo                       ROW ME OH
               S                          Sierra                      SEE AIR RAH
               T                          Tango                       TANG GO
               U                          Uniform                     YOU NEE FORM (or OO NEE FORM)
               V                          Victor                      VIK TAH
               W                          Whiskey                     WISS KEY
               X                          X-ray                       ECKS RAY
               Y                          Yankee                      YANG KEY
               Z                          Zulu                        ZOO LOO


               Note: The Boldfaced syllables are emphasized.




18
SECTION 10.--MORSE SYMBOLS--PHONETIC TABLES--PROCEDURE SIGNALS




                    FIGURE SPELLING TABLE
           Figure or
          Mark to be        Code Word            Pronunciation
          Transmitted

               0         NADAZERO           NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH

               1         UNAONE             OO-NAH-WUN

               2         BISSOTWO           BEES-SOH-TOO

               3         TERRATHREE         TAY-RAH-TREE

               4         KARTEFOUR          KAR-TAY-FOWER

               5         PANTAFIVE          PAN-TAH-FIVE

               6         SOXISIX            SOK-SEE-SIX

               7         SETTESEVEN         SAY-TAY-SEVEN

               8         OKTOEIGHT          OK-TOH-AIT

               9         NOVENINE           NO-VAY-NINER

          DECIMAL        DECIMAL            DAY-SEE-MAL
           POINT

             FULL        STOP               STOP
             STOP



          Note: Each syllable should be equally emphasized. The sec-
          ond component of each Code word is the Code word used in
          the Aeronautical Mobile Service.




                                                                       19
                                       CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




                                               PROCEDURE SIGNALS
A bar over the letters composing a signal denotes that the letters are to be made as one symbol.

1. Signals for voice transmissions (radiotelephony or loud hailer):

                    Signal         Pronunciation           Meaning
                    Interco        IN-TER-CO               International Code group(s) follows(s).
                    Stop           STOP                    Full stop.
                    Decimal        DAY-SEE-MAL             Decimal point.
                    Correction     KOR-REK-SHUN            Cancel my last word or group. The correct
                                                           word or group follows.

2. Signals for flashing light transmission:

                     AA AA AA          Call for unknown station or general call.
                     etc.

                     EEEEEE etc.       Erase signal.

                     AAA               Full stop or decimal point.

                     TTTT etc.         Answering signal.

                     T                 Word or group received.

3. Signals for flags, radiotelephony, and radiotelegraphy transmissions:

                     CQ                Call for unknown station(s) or general call to all stations.
                                       Note: When this signal is used in voice transmission, it should be
                                       pronounced in accordance with the letter spelling table.

4. Signals for use where appropriate in all forms of transmission:

                     AA                "All after . . ." (used after the "Repeat signal" (RPT)) means
                                       "Repeat all after . . .".
                     AB                "All before . . ." (used after the "Repeat signal" (RPT)) means
                                       "Repeat all before . . .".
                     AR                Ending signal or End of Transmission or signal.
                     AS                Waiting signal or period.
                     BN                "All between . . . and . . ."(used after the "Repeat signal" (RPT))
                                       means "Repeat all between . . . and . . .".
                     C                 Affirmative--YES or "The significance of the previous group
                                       should be read in the affirmative".
                     CS                "What is the name or identity signal of your vessel (or station)?".
                     DE                "From . . ." (used to precede the name or identity signal of the
                                       calling station).
                     K                 "I wish to communicate with you" or "Invitation to transmit".




20
                 SECTION 10.--MORSE SYMBOLS--PHONETIC TABLES--PROCEDURE SIGNALS




                     NO                Negative--NO or "The significance of the previous group should
                                       be read in the negative". When used in voice transmission the
                                       pronunciation should be "NO".
                     OK                Acknowledging a correct repetition or "It is correct".
                     RQ                Interrogative, or, "The significance of the previous group should
                                       be read as a question".
                     R                 "Received" or "I have received your last signal".
                     RPT               Repeat signal "I repeat" or "Repeat what you have sent" or
                                       "Repeat what you have received".
                     WA                "Word or group after . . ." (used after the "Repeat signal" (RPT))
                                       means "Repeat word or group after . . .".
                     WB                "Word or group before . . ." (used after the "Repeat signal"
                                       (RPT)) means "Repeat word or group before . . .".
Notes:
 (a) The procedure signals "C", "N", "NO", and "RQ" cannot be used in conjunction with single-letter signals.
 (b) Signals on COMMUNICATIONS appear in Chapter 2, Section 8, Pages 100 through 102.
 (c) When these signals are used by voice transmission the letters should be pronounced in accordance with the letter-spelling
       table, with the exception of "NO" which in voice transmission should be pronounced as "NO".




                                                                                                                           21
                                        CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




                                              SINGLE LETTER SIGNALS
                                      May be made by any method of signaling.
                                          See Note 1 for those marked by an asterisk (*)
         A    I have a diver down; keep well clear at slow speed.
        *B    I am taking in, or discharging, or carrying dangerous goods.
        *C    Yes (affirmative or "The significance of the previous group should be read in the affirmative").
        *D    Keep clear of me; I am maneuvering with difficulty.
        *E    I am altering my course to starboard.
         F    I am disabled; communicate with me.
        *G    I require a pilot. When made by fishing vessels operating in close proximity on the fishing grounds it means: "I
              am hauling nets".
        *H    I have a pilot on board.
         *I   I am altering my course to port.
          J   I am on fire and have dangerous cargo on board: keep well clear of me, or I am leaking dangerous cargo.
         K    I wish to communicate with you.
         L    You should stop your vessel instantly.
         M    My vessel is stopped and making no way through the water.
         N    No (negative or "The significance of the previous group should be read in the negative"). This signal may be given
              only visually or by sound. For voice or radio transmission the signal should be "NO".
         O    Man overboard.
         P    In harbor.--All persons should report on board as the vessel is about to proceed to sea.
              At sea.--It may be used by fishing vessels to mean: "My nets have come fast upon an obstruction". It may also
              be used as a sound to mean: "I require a pilot".
         Q    My vessel is "healthy" and I request free pratique.
        *S    I am operating astern propulsion.
        *T    Keep clear of me; I am engaged in pair trawling.
         U    You are running into danger.
         V    I require assistance.
        W     I require medical assistance.
         X    Stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals.
         Y    I am dragging my anchor.
        *Z    I require a tug. When made by fishing vessels operating in close proximity on the fishing grounds it means: "I am
              shooting nets".
     Notes:      1. Signals of letters marked by an asterisk (*) when made by sound may only be made in compliance with the
                 requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972.
                 2. Signals "K" and "S" have special meanings as landing signals for small boats with crews or persons in dis-
                 tress. (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, Chapter V, Regulation 16.)




22
                        SECTION 10.--MORSE SYMBOLS--PHONETIC TABLES--PROCEDURE SIGNALS




                                      SINGLE LETTER SIGNALS WITH COMPLEMENTS
                                                    May be made by any method of signaling.

A--with three numerals........................................................              AZIMUTH or BEARING.
C--with three numerals........................................................              COURSE.
D--with two, four, or six numerals ......................................                   DATE.
G--with four or five numerals..............................................                 LONGITUDE (the last two numerals denote minutes and
                                                                                            the rest degrees).
K--with one numeral ...........................................................             I wish to COMMUNICATE with you by . . . (Complements
                                                                                            Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).
L--with four numerals .........................................................             LATITUDE (the first two denote degrees and the rest min-
                                                                                            utes).
R--with one or more numerals ............................................                   DISTANCE in nautical miles.
S--with one or more numerals .............................................                  SPEED in knots.
T--with four numerals .........................................................             LOCAL TIME (the first two denote hours and the rest min-
                                                                                            utes).
V--with one or more numerals ............................................                   SPEED in kilometers per hour.
Z--with four numerals .........................................................             GMT (the first two denote hours and the rest minutes).
Z--with one numeral............................................................             To call or address shore visual stations (Numeral to be
                                                                                            approved by local port authority).




AZIMUTH or BEARING.....................................................                     A with three numerals.

COMMUNICATE, I wish to communicate with you by . . .
(Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104) ...                                  K with one numeral.

COURSE...............................................................................       C with three numerals.

DATE ....................................................................................   D with two, four, or six numerals.

DISTANCE in nautical miles ...............................................                  R with one or more numerals.

GMT (the first two denote hours and the rest minutes) ........                              Z with four numerals.

LATITUDE (the first two denote degrees and the rest
minutes) ................................................................................   L with four numerals.

LONGITUDE (the last two numerals denote minutes and
the rest degrees) ....................................................................      G with four or five numerals.

LOCAL TIME (the first two denote hours and the rest
minutes) ................................................................................   T with four numerals.

SPEED in kilometers per hour..............................................                  V with one or more numerals.

SPEED in knots ....................................................................         S with one or more numerals.




                                                                                                                                                   23
                                       CHAPTER 1.--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS




       SINGLE LETTER SIGNALS BETWEEN ICEBREAKER AND ASSISTED VESSELS
The following single letter signals, when made between an icebreaker and assisted vessels, have only the significations given
in this table and are only to be made by sound, visual, or radiotelephony signals.


 WM       Icebreaker support is now commencing. Use special icebreaker support signals and keep continuous watch for
          sound, visual, or radiotelephony signals.
 WO        Icebreaker support is finished. Proceed to your destination.




     Code Letters or
                                               Icebreaker                                    Assisted Vessel(s)
       Numerals

 A                      Go ahead (proceed along the ice channel).             I am going ahead (I am proceeding along
                                                                                the ice channel).

 G                     I am going ahead; follow me.                          I am going ahead; I am following you.


 J                    Do not follow me (proceed along the ice channel).     I will not follow you (I will proceed along
                                                                                the ice channel).

 P                    Slow down.                                            I am slowing down.


 N                      Stop your engines.                                    I am stopping my engines.


 H                    Reverse your engines.                                 I am reversing my engines.


 L                    You should stop your vessel instantly.                I am stopping my vessel.


 4                   Stop. I am icebound.                                  Stop. I am icebound.


 Q                    Shorten the distance between vessels.                 I am shortening the distance.


 B                    Increase the distance between vessels.                I am increasing the distance.


 5                   Attention.                                            Attention.


 Y                    Be ready to take (or cast off) the towline.           I am ready to take (or cast off) the towline.




24
                   SECTION 10.--MORSE SYMBOLS--PHONETIC TABLES--PROCEDURE SIGNALS




Notes:        1. The signal "K"   by sound or light may be used by an icebreaker to remind ships of their obligation to
              listen continuously on their radio.
              2. If more than one vessel is assisted, the distances between vessels should be as constant as possible. Watch
              speed of your own vessel and vessel ahead; should speed of your own vessel go down, give attention signal to
              the following vessel.
              3. The use of these does not relieve any vessel from complying with the International Regulations for Preventing
              Collisions at Sea.

              4.                Stop your headway (given only to a ship in an      I am stopping headway.
                                     ice-channel ahead of and approaching or going
                                     away from icebreaker).
              Note: This signal should not be made by radiotelephone.

 Single-letter signals which may be used during icebreaking operations:
 *E              I am altering my course to starboard.
 *I             I am altering my course to port.
 *S            I am operating astern propulsion.
 M              My vessel is stopped and making no way through the water.

    Notes:         1. Signals of letters marked by an asterisk*, when made by sound, may only be made in compliance with the
                   requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.
                   2. Additional signals for icebreaking support can be found in Chapter 2, Section 6, Page 93 and 94.




                                                                                                                           25
                                                                                                                                 CHAPTER                              2
                                                     CHAPTER 2
                                                 GENERAL SIGNAL CODE

                                                                                                                                                             PAGE

SECTION 1: DISTRESS--EMERGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       29
              ABANDON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          29
              ACCIDENT--DOCTOR--INJURED/SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       29
              AIRCRAFT-HELICOPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        31
              ASSISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             33
              BOATS--RAFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               36
              DISABLED--DRIFTING--SINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  38
              DISTRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         39
              POSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         41
              SEARCH AND RESCUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      43
              SURVIVORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            47
SECTION 2: CASUALTIES--DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       49
              COLLISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          49
              DAMAGES--REPAIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       49
              DIVER--UNDERWATER OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       51
              FIRE--EXPLOSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  51
              GROUNDING--BEACHING--REFLOATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                            53
              LEAK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     56
              TOWING--TUGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 56
SECTION 3: AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                         62
              AIDS TO NAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     62
              BAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    62
              BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         62
              CANAL--CHANNEL--FAIRWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  63
              COURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       64
              DANGERS TO NAVIGATION--WARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                            65
              DEPTH--DRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               68
              ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            70
              MINES--MINESWEEPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          71
              NAVIGATION LIGHTS--SEARCHLIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                         72
              NAVIGATING AND STEERING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                               73
              TIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   74
SECTION 4: MANEUVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         76
              AHEAD--ASTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  76
              ALONGSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            77
              TO ANCHOR--ANCHOR(S)--ANCHORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                            77
              ENGINES--PROPELLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       79
              LANDING--BOARDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        79
              MANEUVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              80
              PROCEED--UNDERWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          80
              SPEED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      82



                                                                                                                                                                      27
              STOP--HEAVE TO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
SECTION 5: MISCELLANEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
              CARGO--BALLAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
              CREW--PERSONS ON BOARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
              FISHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
              PILOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
              PORT--HARBOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
              MISCELLANEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
SECTION 6: METEOROLOGY--WEATHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
              CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
              GALE--STORM--TROPICAL STORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
              ICE--ICEBERGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
              ICEBREAKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
              ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE--TEMPERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
              SEA--SWELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
              VISIBILITY--FOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
              WEATHER--WEATHER FORECAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
              WIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
SECTION 7: ROUTING OF SHIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
SECTION 8: COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
              ACKNOWLEDGE--ANSWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
              CALLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
              CANCEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
              COMMUNICATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
              EXERCISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
              RECEPTION--TRANSMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
              REPEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
SECTION 9: INTERNATIONAL HEALTH REGULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
              PRATIQUE MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
SECTION 10: TABLES OF COMPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104




28
                                                                 CHAPTER 2
                                     SECTION 1: DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                                                      Cross
Code                                                                           Meaning                                                                              Reference
                                                                         ABANDON

*AA                    Repeat all after...
*AB                    Repeat all before...

AC                     I am abandoning my vessel.

AD                     I am abandoning my vessel which has suffered a nuclear accident and is a possible source of
                       radiation danger.

AE                     I must abandon my vessel.

            AE 1             I (or crew of vessel indicated) wish to abandon my (or their) vessel, but have not the
                             means.

            AE 2             I shall abandon my vessel unless you will remain by me, ready to assist.

AF                     I do not intend to abandon my vessel.

            AF 1             Do you intend to abandon your vessel?

AG                     You should abandon your vessel as quickly as possible.

AH                     You should not abandon your vessel.

AI                     Vessel (indicated by position and/or name or identity signal if necessary) will have to be aban-
                       doned.

     *   Procedural signals for repetition.

                                          ACCIDENT--DOCTOR--INJURED/SICK

                                                                              Accident

AJ                     I have had a serious nuclear accident and you should approach with caution.

AK                     I have had a nuclear accident on board.

                       I am abandoning my vessel which has suffered a nuclear accident and is a possible source of
                       radiation danger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      AD

                       I am proceeding to the position of accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     SB

                       I am proceeding to the position of accident at full speed. Expect to arrive at time indicated . .                                               FE

                       Are you proceeding to the position of accident? If so, when do you expect to arrive? . . . . . . .                                              FE 1

                       You should steer course... (or follow me) to reach position of accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     FL

                       I am circling over the area of accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 BJ

                       An aircraft is circling over the area of accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     BJ 1

                       Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        FJ


                                                                                                                                                                              29
                                         CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                    Cross
 Code                                                              Meaning                                                                        Reference

                                                                 Accident

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by flame or smoke float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            FJ 1

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by sea marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      FJ 2

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by sea marker dye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          FJ 3

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by radiobeacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       FJ 4

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by wreckage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      FJ 5

               Is position of accident (or survival craft) marked?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              FK

               I have searched area of accident but have found no trace of derelict or survivors . . . . . . . . . . .                               GC 2

               Man overboard. Please take action to pick him up (position to be indicated if necessary) . . . .                                      GW

                                                                   Doctor

 AL            I have a doctor on board.

 AM            Have you a doctor?

 AN            I need a doctor.

        AN 1         I need a doctor; I have severe burns.

        AN 2         I need a doctor; I have radiation casualties.

               I require a helicopter urgently, with a doctor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          BR 2

               Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated) with a doctor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           BT 2

                                                               Injured/Sick

 AO            Number of injured and/or dead not yet known.

        AO 1         How many injured?

        AO 2         How many dead?

 AP            I have... (number) casualties.

 AQ            I have injured/sick person (or number of persons indicated) to be taken off urgently. I cannot
               alight but I can lift injured/sick person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      AZ 1

               You cannot alight on the deck; can you lift injured/sick person?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       BA 2

               I require a helicopter urgently to pick up injured/sick person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    BR 3

               You should send a helicopter/boat with a stretcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                BS

               A helicopter/boat is coming to take injured/sick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              BU

 AT            You should send injured/sick persons to me.




30
                                      SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                        Cross
Code                                                         Meaning                                                                  Reference

                                           AIRCRAFT-HELICOPTER

                                                        Alight-Landing

AU            I am forced to alight near you (or in position indicated).

AV            I am alighting (in position indicated if necessary) to pick up crew of vessel/aircraft

AW            Aircraft should endeavor to alight where flag is waved or light is shown.

AX            You should train your searchlight nearly vertical on a cloud, intermittently if possible, and, if
              my aircraft is seen, deflect the beam upwind and on the water to facilitate my landing.

       AX 1        Shall I train my searchlight nearly vertical on a cloud, intermittently if possible, and, if
                   your aircraft is seen, deflect the beam upwind and on the water to facilitate your landing?

AY            I will alight on your deck; (you should steer course... speed... knots).

AZ            I cannot alight but I can lift crew.

       AZ 1        I cannot alight but I can lift injured/sick person.

BA            You cannot alight on the deck.

       BA 1        You cannot alight on the deck; can you lift crew?

       BA 2        You cannot alight on the deck; can you lift injured/sick person?

BB            You may alight on my deck.

       BB 1        You may alight on my deck; I am ready to receive you forward.

       BB 2        You may alight on my deck; I am ready to receive you amidship.

       BB 3        You may alight on my deck; I am ready to receive you aft.

       BB 4        You may alight on my deck but I am not yet ready to receive you.

                                                       Communications

BC            I have established communications with the aircraft in distress on 2182 kHz.

       BC 1        Can you communicate with the aircraft?

BD            I have established communications with the aircraft in distress on... kHz.

BE            I have established communications with the aircraft in distress on... MHz.

                                                  Ditched-Disabled-Afloat

BF            Aircraft is ditched in position indicated and requires immediate assistance.

              I sighted disabled aircraft in lat... long... at time indicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      DS

BG            Aircraft is still afloat.



                                                                                                                                              31
                                                 CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                        Cross
 Code                                                                     Meaning                                                                     Reference


                                                                          Flying

 BH                     I sighted an aircraft at time indicated in lat... long... flying on course...

             BH 1            Aircraft was flying at high altitude.

             BH 2            Aircraft was flying at low altitude.

 BI                     I am flying to likely position of vessel in distress.

             BI 1            I am flying at low altitude near the vessel.

 BJ                     I am circling over the area of accident.

             BJ 1            An aircraft is circling over the area of accident.

 BK                     You are overhead.

             BK 1            Am I overhead?

 BL                     I am having engine trouble but am continuing flight.

                                                                       Parachute

 BM                     You should parachute object to windward. Mark it by smoke or light signal.

             BM 1            I am going to parachute object to windward, marking it by smoke or light signal.

             BM 2            I am going to parachute equipment.

             BM 3            Inflatable raft will be dropped to windward by parachute.
 *BN                    Repeat all between... and...

 BO                     We are going to jump by parachute.


      *   Procedural signal for repetition.

                                                                 Search--Assistance

 BP                     Aircraft is coming to participate in search. Expected to arrive over the area of accident at time
                        indicated.

                        The search area of the aircraft is between lat... and... , and long... and. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    FU

                        Search by aircraft/helicopter will be discontinued because of unfavorable conditions . . . . . . .                               FV

                        SAR aircraft is coming to your assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      CP 1

                                                                           Speed

 BQ                     The speed of my aircraft in relation to the surface of the earth is... (knots or kilometers per
                        hour).



32
                                      SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                          Cross
Code                                                          Meaning                                                                   Reference

                                                               Speed

       BQ 1        What is the speed of your aircraft in relation to the surface of the earth?

                                                            Helicopter

BR            I require a helicopter urgently.

       BR 1        I require a helicopter urgently to pick up persons.

       BR 2        I require a helicopter urgently with a doctor.

       BR 3        I require a helicopter urgently to pick up injured/sick person.

       BR 4        I require a helicopter urgently with inflatable raft.

BS            You should send a helicopter/boat with stretcher.

BT            Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated).

       BT 1        Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated) to pick up persons.

       BT 2        Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated) with a doctor.

       BT 3        Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated) to pick up injured/sick person.

       BT 4        Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated) with inflatable raft.

BU            A helicopter/boat is coming to take injured/sick.

BV            I cannot send a helicopter.

BW            The magnetic course for you to steer towards me (or vessel or position indicated) is... (at time
              indicated).

BX            The magnetic course for the helicopter to regain its base is...

BY            Will you indicate the magnetic course for me to steer towards you (or vessel or position indi-
              cated)?

BZ            Your magnetic bearing from me (or from vessel or position indicated) is... (at time indicated).

CA            What is my magnetic bearing from you (or from vessel or position indicated)?


                                                       ASSISTANCE

                                                             Required

              I am in distress and require immediate assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      NC

CB            I require immediate assistance.

       CB 1        I require immediate assistance; I have a dangerous list.

       CB 2        I require immediate assistance; I have damaged steering gear.



                                                                                                                                                33
                                           CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                              Cross
 Code                                                                  Meaning                                                                              Reference

                                                                     Required

        CB 3         I require immediate assistance; I have a serious disturbance on board.

        CB 4         I require immediate assistance; I am aground.

        CB 5         I require immediate assistance; I am drifting.

        CB 6         I require immediate assistance; I am on fire.

        CB 7         I require immediate assistance; I have sprung a leak.

        CB 8         I require immediate assistance; propeller shaft is broken.

 CC            I am (or vessel indicated is) in distress in lat... long... (or bearing... from place indicated, dis-
               tance...) and require immediate assistance (Complements Table 2, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page
               104 if required).

               I require assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      V

 CD            I require assistance in the nature of... (Complements Table 2, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page
               104).

               I require medical assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            W

               I request assistance from fishery protection (or fishery assistance) vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    TY

 CE            I will attempt to obtain for you the assistance required.

               Aircraft is ditched in position indicated and requires immediate assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       BF

 CF            Signals from vessel/aircraft requesting assistance are coming from bearing...from me (lat...
               long... if necessary).

 CG            Stand by to assist me (or vessel indicated).

        CG 1         I will stand by to assist you (or vessel indicated).

               Survivors are in bad condition. Medical assistance is urgently required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     HM

 CH            Vessel indicated is reported as requiring assistance in lat... long... (or bearing... from place
               indicated, distance...).

        CH 1         Lightvessel (or lighthouse) indicated requires assistance.

        CH 2         Space ship is down in lat... long... and requires immediate assistance.

 CI            Vessel aground in lat... long... requires assistance.

 CJ            Do you require assistance?

        CJ 1         Do you require immediate assistance?

        CJ 2         Do you require any further assistance?

        CJ 3         What assistance do you require?

        CJ 4         Can you proceed without assistance?




34
                                      SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                         Cross
Code                                                          Meaning                                                                  Reference


                                                  Not Required--Declined

CK            Assistance is not (or is no longer) required by me (or vessel indicated).

CL            I offered assistance but it was declined.

                                                      Given--Not Given

CM            One or more vessels are assisting the vessel in distress.

       CM 1        Vessel/aircraft reported in distress is receiving assistance.

CN            You should give all possible assistance.

       CN 1        You should give immediate assistance to pick up survivors.

       CN 2        You should send survival craft to assist vessel indicated.

CO            Assistance cannot be given to you (or vessel/aircraft indicated).

       CO 1        I cannot give the assistance required.

                                                  Proceeding to Assistance

CP            I am (or vessel indicated is) proceeding to your assistance.

       CP 1        SAR aircraft is coming to your assistance.
*CQ           Call for unknown station(s) or general call to all stations.

CR            I am proceeding to the assistance of vessel (lat... long...).
*CS           What is the name or identity signal of your vessel (or station)?

CT            I (or vessel indicated) expect to reach you at time indicated.

CU            Assistance will come at time indicated.

       CU 1        I can assist you.

CV            I am unable to give assistance.

       CV 1        Will you go to the assistance of vessel indicated (in lat... long...)?

       CV 2        May I assist you?

       CV 3        Can you assist me (or vessel indicated)?

       CV 4        Can you assist?

              Can you offer assistance? (Complements Table 2, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104). . . . . . . .                             TZ

              I shall abandon my vessel unless you will remain by me, ready to assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   AE 2

              I cannot get the fire under control without assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      IX 1




                                                                                                                                                 35
                                                   CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                                         Cross
 Code                                                                          Meaning                                                                                 Reference

                                                                 Proceeding to Assistance

                      I can get the fire under control without assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           IY

                      Can you get the fire under control without assistance? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                IY 1

                      I have placed the collision mat. I can proceed without assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     KA 1

                      I cannot take you (or vessel indicated) in tow, but I will report you and ask for immediate
                      assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      KN 1

                      I cannot steer without assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   PK


     *   Procedural signals.

                                                                    BOATS--RAFTS

 CW                   Boat/raft is on board.

           CW 1             Boat/raft is safe.

           CW 2             Boat/raft is in sight.

           CW 3             Boat/raft is adrift.

           CW 4             Boat/raft is aground.

           CW 5             Boat/raft is alongside.

           CW 6             Boat/raft is damaged.

           CW 7             Boat/raft has sunk.

           CW 8             Boat/raft has capsized.

 CX                   Boats cannot be used.

           CX 1             Boats cannot be used because of prevailing weather conditions.

           CX 2             Boats cannot be used on the starboard side because of list.

           CX 3             Boats cannot be used on the port side because of list.

           CX 4             Boats cannot be used to disembark people.

           CX 5             Boats cannot be used to get alongside.

           CX 6             Boats cannot be used to reach you.

           CX 7             I cannot send a boat.

 CY                   Boat(s) is(are) coming to you.

           CY 1             Boat/raft is making for the shore.

           CY 2             Boat/raft has reached the shore.



36
                                               SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                                    Cross
Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                    Reference


CZ                     You should make a lee for the boat(s)/raft(s).

            CZ 1            You should discharge oil to smooth sea.

DA                     Boat(s)/raft(s) should approach vessel as near as possible to take off persons.

                       A boat/helicopter is coming to take injured/sick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      BU

DB                     Veer a boat or raft on a line.

DC                     Boat should endeavor to land where flag is waved or light is shown.

DD                     Boats are not allowed to come alongside.

            DD 1            Boats are not allowed to land (after time indicated).
*DE                    From...


     *   Procedural signal used to precede the name or identity signal of the calling station.

                                                                      Available

DF                     I have... (number) serviceable boats.

DG                     I have a motor boat [or... (number) motor boats].

DH                     I have no boat/raft.

            DH 1            I have no motor boat.

            DH 2            Have you any boats with radiotelegraph installation or portable radio equipment?

            DH 3            How many serviceable motor boats have you?

            DH 4            How many serviceable boats have you?

                                                                      Required

DI                     I require boats for... (number) persons.

DJ                     Do you require a boat?

                                                                         Send

DK                     You should send all available boats/rafts.

            DK 1            You should send back my boat.

            DK 2            Can you send a boat?

                       You should send a boat/helicopter with stretcher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       BS

                       You should send survival craft to assist vessel indicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         CN 2

                       You should stop, or heave to; I am going to send a boat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           SQ 2



                                                                                                                                                          37
                                           CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                             Cross
 Code                                                                 Meaning                                                                              Reference

                                                                        Send

 DL            I can send a boat.

        DL 1         I am sending a boat.

               I cannot send a boat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       CX 7

                                                                       Search

 DM            You should search for the boat(s)/raft(s).

 DN            I have found the boat/raft.

        DN 1         Have you seen or heard anything of the boat/raft?

 DO            Look out for boat/raft in bearing... distance... from me (or from position indicated).

 DP            There is a boat/raft in bearing... distance... from me (or from position indicated).

 DQ            An empty boat/raft has been sighted in lat... long... (or bearing... from place indicated, dis-
               tance...).


                                        DISABLED--DRIFTING--SINKING

                                                                     Disabled

 DR            Have you sighted disabled vessel/aircraft in approximate lat... long...?

 DS            I sighted disabled aircraft in lat... long... at time indicated.

 DT            I sighted disabled vessel in lat... long... at time indicated.

        DT 1         I sighted disabled vessel in lat... long... at time indicated, apparently without a radio.

               I am disabled; communicate with me. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    F

                                                                      Drifting

 DU            I am drifting at... (number) knots, towards... degrees.

 DV            I am drifting.

        DV 1         I am adrift.

 DW            Vessel (name or identity signal) is drifting near lat... long....

               I require immediate assistance; I am drifting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     CB 5

               I am (or vessel indicated is) breaking adrift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  RC

               I have broken adrift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      RC 1




38
                                          SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                                         Cross
Code                                                                 Meaning                                                                           Reference


                                                                     Sinking

DX            I am sinking (lat... long... if necessary).

DY            Vessel (name or identity signal) has sunk in lat... long...

       DY 1         Did you see vessel sink?

       DY 2         Where did vessel sink?

       DY 3         Is it confirmed that vessel (name or identity signal) has sunk?

       DY 4         What is the depth of water where vessel sunk?


                                                                DISTRESS

                                                      Vessel/Aircraft in Distress

              I am in distress and require immediate assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       NC

DZ            Vessel (or aircraft) indicated appears to be in distress.

       DZ 1         Is vessel (or aircraft) indicated in distress?

       DZ 2         What is the name (or identity signal) of vessel in distress?

EA            Have you sighted or heard of a vessel in distress? (Approximate position lat... long... or bear-
              ing... from place indicated, distance...).

       EA 1         Have you any news of vessel/aircraft reported missing or in distress in this area?

              I am (or vessel indicated is) in distress in lat... long... (or bearing... from place indicated, dis-
              tance...) and require immediate assistance (Complements Table 2, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page
              104, if required) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   CC

EB            There is a vessel (or aircraft) in distress in lat... long... (or bearing... distance... from me, or
              Complements Table 3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

EC            A vessel which has suffered a nuclear accident is in distress in lat... long...

                                                               Distress Signal

*ED           Your distress signals are understood.

       ED 1         Your distress signals are understood; the nearest life-saving station is being informed.

EF            SOS/MAYDAY has been cancelled.

       EF 1         Has the SOS/MAYDAY been cancelled?

              I have intercepted SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (name or identity signal) (or aircraft) in posi-
              tion lat... long... at time indicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            FF




                                                                                                                                                                 39
                                                CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                       Cross
 Code                                                                    Meaning                                                                     Reference

                                                                   Distress Signal

 EG                    Did you hear SOS/MAYDAY given at time indicated?

             EG 1           Will you listen on 2182 kHz for signals of emergency position-indicating radiobeacons?

             EG 2           I am listening on 2182 kHz for signals of emergency position-indicating radiobeacons.

             EG 3           Have you received the signal of an emergency position-indicating radiobeacon on 2182
                            kHz?

             EG 4           I have received the signal of an emergency position-indicating radiobeacon on 2182 kHz.

             EG 5           Will you listen on... MHz for signals of emergency position-indicating radiobeacons?

             EG 6           I am listening on... MHz for signals of emergency position-indicating radiobeacons.

             EG 7           Have you received the signal of an emergency position-indicating radiobeacon on...
                            MHz?

             EG 8           I have received the signal of an emergency position-indicating radiobeacon on... MHz.

 EJ                    I have received distress signal transmitted by coast station indicated.

             EJ 1           Have you received distress signal transmitted by coast station indicated?

 EK                    I have sighted distress signal in lat... long...

             EK 1           An explosion was seen or heard (position or direction and time to be indicated).

             EK 2           Have you heard or seen distress signal from survival craft?


      *   Reference is made to signals prescribed by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (Regu-
          lation 16(a), Chapter V) as replies from lifesaving stations or maritime rescue units to distress signals made by a
          ship or person.

                                                                Position of Distress

 EL                    Repeat the distress position.

             EL 1           What is the position of vessel in distress?

                       Position given with SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (or aircraft) was lat... long... (or
                       bearing... from place indicated, distance...) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      FG

                       What was the position given with SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (or aircraft)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               FG 1

                       Position given with SOS/MAYDAY is wrong. The correct position is lat... long.... . . . . . . . .                                 FH

                       Position given with SOS/MAYDAY by vessel is wrong. I have her bearing by radio direction
                       finder and can exchange bearings with any other vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               FI

                       Survival craft are believed to be in the vicinity of lat... long... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..             GI

 EM                    Are there other vessels/aircraft in the vicinity of vessel/aircraft in distress?




40
                                       SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                             Cross
Code                                                           Meaning                                                                     Reference


                                                        Contact or Locate

EN            You should try to contact vessel/aircraft in distress.

EO            I am unable to locate vessel/aircraft in distress because of poor visibility.

EP            I have lost sight of you.

              I have located (or found) wreckage from the vessel/aircraft in distress (position to be indicated
              if necessary by lat... long... or by bearing... from specified place, and distance...) . . . . . . . .                          GL

EQ            I expect to be at the position of vessel/aircraft in distress at time indicated.

       EQ 1        Indicate estimated time of your arrival at position of vessel/aircraft in distress.

              I am flying to likely position of vessel in distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      BI

              One or more vessels are assisting the vessel in distress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           CM

              Vessel/aircraft reported in distress is receiving assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           CM 1

              I am proceeding to the assistance of vessel/aircraft in distress in lat... long.... . . . . . . . . . . . .                     CR

              I have found vessel/aircraft in distress in lat... long... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        GF


                                                           POSITION

ER            You should indicate your position at time indicated.

ET            My position at time indicated was lat... long...

EU            My present position is lat... long... (or bearing... from place indicated, distance...).

       EU 1        What is your present position?

EV            My present position, course, and speed are lat... long... ,... , knots...

       EV 1        What are your present position, course, and speed?

EW            My position is ascertained by dead reckoning.

       EW 1        My position is ascertained by visual bearings.

       EW 2        My position is ascertained by astronomical observations.

       EW 3        My position is ascertained by radiobeacons.

       EW 4        My position is ascertained by radar.

       EW 5        My position is ascertained by electronic position-fixing system.

EX            My position is doubtful.

EY            I am confident as to my position.

       EY 1        Are you confident as to your position?



                                                                                                                                                   41
                                         CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                     Cross
 Code                                                              Meaning                                                                         Reference


 EZ            Your position according to bearings taken by radio direction finder stations which I control is
               lat... long... (at time indicated).

        EZ 1         Will you give me my position according to bearings taken by radio direction finder sta-
                     tions which you control?

 FA            Will you give me my position?

 FB            Will vessels in my immediate vicinity (or in the vicinity of lat... long...) please indicate posi-
               tion, course, and speed.

                                                            Position of Distress

 FC            You should indicate your position by visual or sound signals.

        FC 1         You should indicate your position by rockets or flares.

        FC 2         You should indicate your position by visual signals.

        FC 3         You should indicate your position by sound signals.

        FC 4         You should indicate your position by searchlight.

        FC 5         You should indicate your position by smoke signal.

 FD            My position is indicated by visual or sound signals.

        FD 1         My position is indicated by rockets or flares.

        FD 2         My position is indicated by visual signals.

        FD 3         My position is indicated by sound signals.

        FD 4         My position is indicated by searchlight.

        FD 5         My position is indicated by smoke signal.

               I expect to be at the position of vessel/aircraft in distress at time indicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          EQ

               Indicate estimated time of your arrival at position of vessel/aircraft in distress . . . . . . . . . . . .                             EQ 1

               Position given with SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (or aircraft) was lat... long... (or bearing...
               from place indicated, distance...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      FG

               What was position given with SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (or aircraft)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                   FG 1

               Position given with SOS/MAYDAY is wrong. The correct position is lat... long... . . . . . . . .                                        FH

               Position given with SOS/MAYDAY by vessel is wrong. I have her bearing by radio direction
               finder and can exchange bearings with any other vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     FI

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              FJ

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by flame (or smoke float) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             FJ 1

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by sea marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       FJ 2

               Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by sea marker dye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           FJ 3



42
                                          SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                                             Cross
Code                                                                  Meaning                                                                              Reference

                                                              Position of Distress

              Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by radiobeacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  FJ 4

              Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by wreckage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 FJ 5

              Is position of accident (or survival craft) marked? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         FK

              You should transmit your identification and series of long dashes or your carrier frequency to
              home vessel (or aircraft) to your position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   FQ

              Shall I home vessel (or aircraft) to my position? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       FQ 1

              You should indicate position of survivors by throwing pyrotechnic signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                         HT

                                                   SEARCH AND RESCUE

                                                         Proceeding to Assistance

              I am proceeding to the assistance of vessel/aircraft in distress (lat... long...) . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     CR

FE            I am proceeding to the position of accident at full speed. Expect to arrive at time indicated.

       FE 1         Are you proceeding to the position of accident? If so, when do you expect to arrive?

              I am unable to give assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              CV

              Can you assist?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      CV 4

                                                   Position of Distress or Accident

FF            I have intercepted SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (name or identity signal) (or aircraft) in posi-
              tion lat... long... at time indicated.

       FF 1         I have intercepted SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (name or identity signal) (or aircraft) in
                    position lat... long... at time indicated; I have heard nothing since.

FG            Position given with SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (or aircraft) was lat... long... (or bearing...
              from place indicated, distance...).

       FG 1         What was position given with SOS/MAYDAY from vessel (or aircraft)?

FH            Position given with SOS/MAYDAY is wrong. The correct position is lat... long...

FI            Position given with SOS/MAYDAY by vessel is wrong. I have her bearing by radio direction
              finder and can exchange bearings with any other vessel.

FJ            Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked.

       FJ 1         Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by flame or smoke float.

       FJ 2         Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by sea marker.

       FJ 3         Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by sea marker dye.




                                                                                                                                                                     43
                                              CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                               Cross
 Code                                                                    Meaning                                                                             Reference

                                                       Position of Distress or Accident

        FJ 4             Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by radiobeacon.

        FJ 5             Position of accident (or survival craft) is marked by wreckage.

 FK                Is position of accident (or survival craft) marked?

                                                          Information--Instructions

 FL                You should steer course... (or follow me) to reach position of accident.

                   Course to reach me is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MF

                   What is the course to reach you? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             MF1

 FM                Visual contact with vessel is not continuous.

 FN                I have lost all contact with vessel.

                   I have lost sight of you. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      EP

 FO                I will keep close to you.

        FO 1             I will keep close to you during the night.

 FP                Estimated set and drift of survival craft is... degrees and... knots.

        FP 1             What is the estimated set and drift of survival craft?

 FQ                You should transmit your identification and series of long dashes or your carrier frequency to
                   home vessel (or aircraft) to your position.

        FQ 1             Shall I home vessel (or aircraft) to my position?

                                                                          Search

 FR                I am (or vessel indicated is) in charge of coordinating search.
        *FR    1         Carry out search pattern... starting at... hours. Initial course... search speed... knots.
        *FR    2         Carry out radar search, ships proceeding in loose line abreast at intervals between
                         ships...miles. Initial course... search speed... knots.
        *FR    3         Vessel indicated (call sign or identity signal) is allocated track number...
        *FR    4         Vessel(s) indicated adjust interval between ships to... miles.
        *FR    5         Adjust track spacing to... miles.
        *FR    6         Search speed will now be... knots.
        *FR    7         Alter course as necessary to next leg of track now (or at time indicated).

 FS                Please take charge of search in sector stretching between bearings... and... from vessel in dis-
                   tress.




44
                                              SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                                                                     Cross
Code                                                                       Meaning                                                                                 Reference

                                                                           Search

FT               Please take charge of search in sector between lat... and... , and long... and...

FU               The search area of the aircraft is between lat... and... , and long... and...

FV               Search by aircraft/helicopter will be discontinued because of unfavorable conditions.

FW               You should search in the vicinity of lat... long...

FX               Shall I search in the vicinity of lat... long...?

FY               I am in the search area.

       FY 1            Are you in the search area?

                 Aircraft is coming to participate in search. Expected arrive over the area of accident at time
                 indicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      BP

FZ               You should continue search according to instructions and until further notice.

       FZ 1            I am continuing to search.

       FZ 2            Are you continuing to search?

       FZ 3            Do you want me to continue to search?

GA               I cannot continue to search.

GB               You should stop search and return to base or continue your voyage.


 *   These signals are intended for use in connection with the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR).

                                                                   Results of Search

GC               Report results of search.

       GC 1            Results of search negative. I am continuing to search.

       GC 2            I have searched area of accident but have found no trace of derelict or survivors.

       GC 3            I have noted patches of oil at likely position of accident.

GD               Vessel/aircraft missing or being looked for has not been heard of since.

       GD 1            Have you anything to report on vessels/aircraft missing or being looked for?

       GD 2            Have you seen wreckage (or derelict)?

GE               Vessel/aircraft has been located at lat... long...

GF               I have found vessel/aircraft in distress in lat... long...

GG               Vessel/aircraft was last reported at time indicated in lat... long... steering course...

GH               I have sighted survival craft in lat... long... (or bearing... distance... from me).




                                                                                                                                                                           45
                                           CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                             Cross
 Code                                                                 Meaning                                                                              Reference

                                                              Results of Search

 GI            Survival craft are believed to be in the vicinity of lat... long...

 GJ            Wreckage is reported in lat... long...

        GJ 1         Wreckage is reported in lat... long... No survivors appear to be in the vicinity.

 GK            Aircraft wreckage is found in lat... long...

 GL            I have located (or found) wreckage from the vessel/aircraft in distress (position to be indicated
               if necessary by lat... and long... or by bearing... from specified place and distance...).

                                                                       Rescue

 GM            I cannot save my vessel.

        GM 1         I cannot save my vessel; keep as close as possible.

 GN            You should take off persons.

        GN 1         I wish some persons taken off. Skeleton crew will remain on board.

        GN 2         I will take off persons.

        GN 3         Can you take off persons?

 GO            I cannot take off persons.

 GP            You should proceed to the rescue of vessel (or ditched aircraft) in lat... long...

 GQ            I cannot proceed to the rescue owing to weather. You should do all you can.

 GR            Vessel coming to your rescue (or to the rescue of vessel or aircraft indicated) is steering
               course... , speed... knots.

        GR 1         You should indicate course and speed of vessel coming to my rescue (or to the rescue of
                     vessel or aircraft indicated).

 GS            I will attempt rescue with whip and breeches buoy.
 *GT           I will endeavor to connect with line throwing apparatus.

        GT 1         Look out for rocket line.

 GU            It is not safe to fire a rocket.

 GV            You should endeavor to send me a line.

        GV 1         Have you a line throwing apparatus?

        GV 2         Can you connect with line throwing apparatus?

        GV 3         I have not a line throwing apparatus.

 GW            Man overboard. Please take action to pick him up (position to be indicated if necessary).

               Man overboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      O



46
                                       SECTION 1.--DISTRESS--EMERGENCY
                                                                                                                      Cross
Code                                                       Meaning                                                  Reference



 *   Reference is made to signals prescribed by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (Regu-
     lation 16(c) Chapter V) in connection with the use of shore lifesaving apparatus.

                                                    Results of Rescue

GX                Report results of rescue.

       GX 1            What have you (or rescue vessel/aircraft) picked up?

GY                I (or rescue vessel/aircraft) have picked up wreckage.

GZ                All persons saved.

       GZ 1            All persons lost.

HA                I (or rescue vessel/aircraft) have rescued... (number) injured persons.

HB                I (or rescue vessel/aircraft) have rescued... (number) survivors.

HC                I (or rescue vessel/aircraft) have picked up... (number) bodies.

HD                Can I transfer rescued persons to you?


                                                     SURVIVORS

HF                I have located survivors in water, lat...long...(or bearing...from place indicated, distance...).

HG                I have located survivors in survival craft lat... long... (or bearing... from place indicated, dis-
                  tance...).

HJ                I have located survivors on drifting ice, lat... long...

HK                I have located bodies in lat... long... (or bearing... from place indicated, distance...).

HL                Survivors not yet located.

       HL 1            I am still looking for survivors.

       HL 2            Have you located survivors? If so, in what position?

HM                Survivors are in bad condition. Medical assistance is urgently required.

       HM 1            Survivors are in bad condition.

       HM 2            Survivors are in good condition.

       HM 3            Condition of survivors not ascertained.

       HM 4            What is condition of survivors?

HN                You should proceed to lat... long... to pick up survivors.

HO                Pick up survivors from drifting ice, lat... long...




                                                                                                                            47
                                      CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                    Cross
 Code                                                       Meaning                                                               Reference


        HO 1        Pick up survivors from sinking vessel/aircraft.

 HP            Survivors have not yet been picked up.

        HP 1        Have survivors been picked up?

               You should give immediate assistance to pick up survivors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      CN 1

 HQ            Transfer survivors to my vessel (or vessel indicated).

        HQ 1        Have you any survivors on board?

 HR            You should try to obtain from survivors all possible information.

 HT            You should indicate position of survivors by throwing pyrotechnic signals.




48
                                                     CHAPTER 2
                           SECTION 2: CASUALTIES--DAMAGES
                                                                                                                                                    Cross
Code                                                              Meaning                                                                         Reference
                                                            COLLISION

HV            Have you been in collision?

HW            I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with surface craft.

       HW 1         I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with light vessel.

       HW 2         I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with submarine.

       HW 3         I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with unknown vessel.

       HW 4         I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with underwater object.

       HW 5         I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with navigation buoy.

       HW 6         I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with iceberg.

       HW 7         I have (or vessel indicated has) collided with floating ice.

HX            Have you received any damage in collision?

       HX 1         I have received serious damage above the waterline.

       HX 2         I have received serious damage below the waterline.

       HX 3         I have received minor damage above the waterline.

       HX 4         I have received minor damage below the waterline.

HY            The vessel (name or identity signal) with which I have been in collision has sunk.

       HY 1         The vessel (name or identity signal) with which I have been in collision has resumed her
                    voyage.

       HY 2         I do not know what has happened to the vessel with which I collided.

       HY 3         Has the vessel with which you have been in collision resumed her voyage?

       HY 4         What is the name (or identity signal) of the vessel with which you collided?

       HY 5         What is the name (or identity signal) of vessel which collided with me? My name (or
                    identity signal) is...

       HY 6         Where is the vessel with which you collided?

HZ            There has been a collision between vessels indicated (names or identity signals).

              I urgently require a collision mat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      KA

              I have placed the collision mat. I can proceed without assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         KA 1

              Can you place the collision mat? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       KA 2


                                                  DAMAGES--REPAIRS

IA            I have received damage to stem.


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                                       CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                            Cross
 Code                                                          Meaning                                                                    Reference


        IA 1        I have received damage to stern frame.

        IA 2        I have received damage to side plate above water.

        IA 3        I have received damage to side plate below water.

        IA 4        I have received damage to bottom plate.

        IA 5        I have received damage to boilerroom.

        IA 6        I have received damage to engineroom.

        IA 7        I have received damage to hatchways.

        IA 8        I have received damage to steering gear.

        IA 9        I have received damage to propellers.

 IB            What damage have you received?

        IB 1        My vessel is seriously damaged.

        IB 2        I have minor damage.

        IB 3        I have not received any damage.

        IB 4        The extent of the damage is still unknown.

               Have you received any damage in collision? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      HX

               I have received serious damage above the waterline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          HX 1

               I have received serious damage below the waterline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          HX 2

               I have received minor damage above the waterline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          HX 3

               I have received minor damage below the waterline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          HX 4

 IC            Can damage be repaired at sea?

        IC 1        Can damage be repaired at sea without assistance?

        IC 2        How long will it take you to repair damage?

 ID            Damage can be repaired at sea.

        ID 1        Damage can be repaired at sea without assistance.

        ID 2        Damage has been repaired.

 IF            Damage cannot be repaired at sea.

        IF 1        Damage cannot be repaired at sea without assistance.

 IG            Damage can be repaired in... (number) hours.

 IJ            I will try to proceed by my own means but I request you to keep in contact with me by...
               (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 IK            I can proceed at... (number) knots.



50
                                                 SECTION 2.--CASUALTIES--DAMAGES
                                                                                                                                                                 Cross
Code                                                                        Meaning                                                                            Reference


IL                    I can only proceed at slow speed.

            IL 1            I can only proceed with one engine.

            IL 2            I am unable to proceed under my own power.

            IL 3            Are you in a condition to proceed?

IM                    I request to be escorted until further notice.

                      Propeller shaft is broken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       RO

                      My propeller is fouled by hawser or rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  RO 1

                      I have lost my propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      RO 2

                                          DIVER--UNDERWATER OPERATIONS

IN                    I require a diver.

            IN 1            I require a diver to clear propeller.

            IN 2            I require a diver to examine bottom.

            IN 3            I require a diver to place collision mat.

            IN 4            I require a diver to clear my anchor.

IO                    I have no diver.

IP                    A diver will be sent as soon as possible (or at time indicated).

IQ                    Diver has been attacked by diver's disease and requires decompression chamber treatment.
*IR                   I am engaged in submarine survey work (underwater operations). Keep clear of me and go
                      slow.

                      I have a diver down; keep well clear at slow speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      A

     *   The use of this signal does not relieve any vessel from compliance with the International Regulations for Prevent-
         ing Collisions at Sea 1972.

                                                              FIRE--EXPLOSION

                                                                               Fire

IT                    I am on fire.

            IT 1            I am on fire and have dangerous cargo on board; keep well clear of me . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     J

            IT 2            Vessel (name or identity signal) is on fire.

            IT 3            Are you on fire?



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                                        CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                               Cross
 Code                                                            Meaning                                                                     Reference

                                                                   Fire

 IU            Vessel (name or identity signal) on fire is located at lat... long...

               I require immediate assistance; I am on fire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      CB 6

 IV            Where is the fire?

        IV 1        I am on fire in the engineroom.

        IV 2        I am on fire in the boilerroom.

        IV 3        I am on fire in hold or cargo.

        IV 4        I am on fire in passenger's or crew's quarters.

        IV 5        Oil is on fire.

 IW            Fire is under control.

 IX            Fire is gaining.

        IX 1        I cannot get the fire under control without assistance.

        IX 2        Fire has not been extinguished.

 IY            I can get the fire under control without assistance.

        IY 1        Can you get the fire under control without assistance?

 IZ            Fire has been extinguished.

        IZ 1        I am flooding compartment to extinguish fire.

        IZ 2        Is fire extinguished?

 JA            I require firefighting appliances.

        JA 1        I require foam fire extinguishers.

        JA 2        I require CO2 fire extinguishers.

        JA 3        I require tetrachloride fire extinguishers.

        JA 4        I require material for foam fire extinguishers.

        JA 5        I require material for CO2 fire extinguishers.

        JA 6        I require material for carbon tetrachloride fire extinguishers.

        JA 7        I require water pumps.

                                                                Explosion

 JB            There is danger of explosion.

 JC            There is no danger of explosion.




52
                                      SECTION 2.--CASUALTIES--DAMAGES
                                                                                                                                           Cross
Code                                                          Meaning                                                                    Reference

                                                              Explosion

       JC 1        Is there any danger of explosion?

JD            Explosion has occurred in boiler.

       JD 1        Explosion has occurred in tank.

       JD 2        Explosion has occurred in cargo.

       JD 3        Further explosions are possible.

       JD 4        There is danger of toxic effects.

JE            Have you any casualties owing to explosion?

              An explosion was seen or heard (position or direction and time to be indicated) . . . . . . . . . . .                         EK 1

                            GROUNDING--BEACHING--REFLOATING

                                                             Grounding

JF            I am (or vessel indicated is) aground in lat... long... (also the following complements, if nec-
              essary):

       0           On rocky bottom.

       1           On soft bottom.

       2           Forward.

       3           Amidship.

       4           Aft.

       5           At high water forward.

       6           At high water amidship.

       7           At high water aft.

       8           Full length of vessel.

       9           Full length of vessel at high water.

JG            I am aground; I am in dangerous situation.

JH            I am aground; I am not in danger.

              I require immediate assistance; I am aground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      CB 4

              Vessel aground in lat... long... require assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      CI

JI            Are you aground?

       JI 1        What was your draft when you went aground?




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                                      CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                              Cross
 Code                                                 Meaning                                               Reference

                                                     Grounding

        JI 2       On what kind of ground have you gone aground?

        JI 3       At what state of tide did you go aground?

        JI 4       What part of your vessel is aground?

 JJ            My maximum draft when I went aground was... (number) feet or meters.

 JK            The tide was high water when the vessel went aground.

        JK 1       The tide was half water when the vessel went aground.

        JK 2       The tide was low water when the vessel went aground.

 JL            You are running the risk of going aground.

        JL 1       You are running the risk of going aground; do not approach me from the starboard side.

        JL 2       You are running the risk of going aground; do not approach me from the port side.

        JL 3       You are running the risk of going aground; do not approach me from forward.

        JL 4       You are running the risk of going aground; do not approach me from aft.

 JM            You are running the risk of going aground at low water.

                                                     Beaching

 JN            You should beach the vessel in lat... long...

        JN 1       You should beach the vessel where flag is waved or light is shown.

        JN 2       I must beach the vessel.

                                                    Refloating

 JO            I am afloat.

        JO 1       I am afloat forward.

        JO 2       I am afloat aft.

        JO 3       I may be got afloat if prompt assistance is given.

        JO 4       Are you (or vessel indicated) still afloat?

        JO 5       When do you expect to be afloat?

 JP            I am jettisoning to refloat (the following complements should be used if required):

        1          Cargo.

        2          Bunkers.

        3          Everything movable forward.



54
                                  SECTION 2.--CASUALTIES--DAMAGES
                                                                                                               Cross
Code                                                   Meaning                                               Reference

                                                     Refloating

       4          Everything movable aft.

JQ            I cannot refloat without jettisoning (the following complements should be used if required):

       1          Cargo.

       2          Bunkers.

       3          Everything movable forward.

       4          Everything movable aft.

JR            I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat.

       JR 1       I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat at time indicated.

       JR 2       I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat in daylight.

       JR 3       I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat when tide rises.

       JR 4       I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat when visibility improves.

       JR 5       I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat when weather moderates.

       JR 6       I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat when draft is lightened.

       JR 7       I expect (or vessel indicated expects) to refloat when tugs arrive.

JS            Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat?

       JS 1       Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat at time indicated?

       JS 2       Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat in daylight?

       JS 3       Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat when tide rises?

       JS 4       Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat when visibility improves?

       JS 5       Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat when weather moderates?

       JS 6       Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat when draft is lightened?

       JS 7       Is it likely that you (or vessel indicated) will refloat when tugs arrive?

JT            I can refloat if an anchor is laid out for me.

       JT 1       I may refloat without assistance.

       JT 2       Will you assist me to refloat?

JU            I cannot be refloated by any means now available.

JV            Will you escort me to lat... long... after refloating?




                                                                                                                     55
                                            CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                                 Cross
 Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                                Reference

                                                                       LEAK

 JW            I have sprung a leak.

        JW 1         Leak is dangerous.

        JW 2         Leak is causing dangerous heel.

        JW 3         Leak is beyond the capacity of my pumps.

               I require immediate assistance; I have sprung a leak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             CB 7

 JX            Leak is gaining rapidly.

        JX 1         I cannot stop the leak.

 JY            Leak can be controlled, if it does not get any worse.

        JY 1         I require additional pumping facilities to control the leak.

        JY 2         Leak is under control.

        JY 3         Leak has been stopped.

 JZ            Have you sprung a leak?

        JZ 1         Can you stop the leak?

        JZ 2         Is the leak dangerous?

 KA            I urgently require a collision mat.

        KA 1         I have placed the collision mat. I can proceed without assistance.

        KA 2         Can you place the collision mat?

 KB            I have... (number) feet or meters of water in the hold.

 KC            My hold(s) is (are) flooded.

        KC 1         How many compartments are flooded?

 KD            There are... (number) compartments flooded.

 KE            The watertight bulkheads are standing up well to the pressure of the water.

        KE 1         I need timber to support bulkheads.


                                                           TOWING--TUGS

                                                                            Tug

 KF            I require a tug (or... (number) tugs).

               I require a tug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      Z




56
                                 SECTION 2.--CASUALTIES--DAMAGES
                                                                                                                 Cross
Code                                                 Meaning                                                   Reference

                                                         Tug

KG            Do you require a tug(s)?

       KG 1       I do not require tug(s).

KH            Tug(s) is (are) coming to you. Expect to arrive at time indicated.

       KH 1       Tug with pilot is coming to you.

       KH 2       You should wait for tugs.

KI            There are no tugs available.

       KI 1       Tugs cannot proceed out.

                                              Towing--Taking in Tow

KJ            I am towing a submerged object.

       KJ 1       I am towing a float.

       KJ 2       I am towing a target.

KK            Towing is impossible under present weather conditions.

       KK 1       Towing is very difficult.

       KK 2       I cannot connect at present but will attempt when conditions improve.

       KK 3       I cannot connect tonight. I will try in daylight.

       KK 4       Can you assist with your engines?

KL            I am obliged to stop towing temporarily.

       KL 1       You should stop towing temporarily.

KM            I can take you (or vessel indicated) in tow.

       KM 1       Shall I take you in tow?

KN            I cannot take you (or vessel indicated) in tow.

       KN 1       I cannot take you (or vessel indicated) in tow but I will report you and ask for immediate
                  assistance.

       KN 2       I cannot take you (or vessel indicated) in tow but can take off persons.

KO            You should endeavor to take vessel (name or identity signal) in tow.

       KO 1       You should report whether you have taken vessel (name or identity signal) in tow.

       KO 2       Can you take me (or vessel indicated) in tow?

KP            You should tow me to the nearest port or anchorage (or place indicated).

       KP 1       I will tow you to the nearest port or anchorage (or place indicated).



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                                  CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                            Cross
 Code                                                Meaning              Reference

                                              Towing--Taking in Tow

        KP 2       I must get shelter or anchorage as soon as possible.

 KQ            Prepare to be taken in tow.

        KQ 1       I am ready to be taken in tow.

        KQ 2       Prepare to tow me (or vessel indicated).

        KQ 3       I am ready to tow you.

        KQ 4       Prepare to resume towing.

        KQ 5       I am ready to resume towing.

 KR            All is ready for towing.

        KR 1       I am commencing to tow.

        KR 2       You should commence towing.

        KR 3       Is all ready for towing?

                                          Towing Line--Cable--Hawser

 KS            You should send a line over.

        KS 1       I have taken the line.

 KT            You should send me a towing hawser.

        KT 1       I am sending towing hawser.

 KU            I cannot send towing hawser.

        KU 1       I have no, or no other, hawser.

        KU 2       I have no wire hawser.

        KU 3       Have you a hawser?

 KV            I intend to use my towing hawser/cable.

        KV 1       I intend to use your towing hawser/cable.

 KW            You should have towing hawser/cable ready.

        KW 1       Towing hawser/cable is ready.

        KW 2       You should have another hawser ready.

        KW 3       You should have spare towing hawser/cable ready.

        KW 4       Spare towing hawser/cable is ready.

        KW 5       You should have wire hawser ready.




58
                                 SECTION 2.--CASUALTIES--DAMAGES
                                                                                                   Cross
Code                                                Meaning                                      Reference

                                       Towing Line--Cable--Hawser

       KW 6       Wire hawser is ready.

KX            You should be ready to receive the towing hawser.

       KX 1       I am ready to receive the towing hawser.

       KX 2       You should come closer to receive towing hawser.

       KX 3       I am coming closer to receive towing hawser.

       KX 4       I have received towing hawser.

KY            Length of tow is... (number) fathoms.

KZ            You should shorten the towing hawser (or shorten distance between vessels).

       KZ 1       I am shortening towing hawser (or I am shortening distance between vessels).

       KZ 2       You should haul in the hawser.

       KZ 3       I am hauling in the hawser.

       KZ 4       You should haul in the slack.

       KZ 5       I am hauling in the slack.

LA            Towing hawser/cable has parted.

       LA 1       Towing hawser/cable is in danger of parting.

       LA 2       Towing hawser/cable is damaged.

       LA 3       You should reinforce the hawsers.

       LA 4       I am reinforcing the hawsers.

                                                Make Fast--Veer

LB            You should make towing hawser fast to your chain cable.

       LB 1       Towing hawser is fast to chain cable.

       LB 2       You should make towing hawser fast to wire.

       LB 3       Towing hawser is fast to wire.

       LB 4       My towing hawser is fast.

       LB 5       Is your towing hawser fast?

LC            You should make fast astern and steer me.

LD            You should veer your hawser/cable... (number) fathoms.

LE            I am about to veer my hawser/cable.




                                                                                                         59
                                           CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                               Cross
 Code                                                                  Meaning                                                                               Reference

                                                               Make Fast--Veer

        LE 1         I am veering my hawser/cable.

        LE 2         I have veered my hawser/cable.

        LE 3         I shall veer cable attached to hawser.

        LE 4         How much cable should I veer?

 LF            You should stop veering your hawser/cable.

        LF 1         I cannot veer any more hawser/cable.

                                                                      Cast Off

 LG            You should prepare to cast off towing hawser(s).

        LG 1         I am preparing to cast off towing hawser(s).

        LG 2         I am ready to cast off towing hawser(s).

        LG 3         You should cast off starboard towing hawser.

        LG 4         I have cast off starboard towing hawser.

        LG 5         You should cast off port towing hawser.

        LG 6         I have cast off port towing hawser.

        LG 7         You should cast off hawser(s).

        LG 8         I must cast off towing hawser(s).

                                                               Engine Maneuvers

               I am going ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         QD

               My engines are going ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               QD 1

               I will keep going ahead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           QD 2

               I will go ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      QD 3

               I will go ahead dead slow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            QD 4

               I have headway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       QE

               I cannot go ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        QF

               You should go ahead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           QG

               You should go slow ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               QG 1

               You should go full speed ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 QG 2

               You should keep going ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                QG 3



60
                                          SECTION 2.--CASUALTIES--DAMAGES
                                                                                                                                                               Cross
Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                               Reference

                                                               Engine Maneuvers

              You should keep your engines going ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          QG 4

              You should not go ahead any more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      QH

              I am going astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         QI

              My engines are going astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 QI 1

              I will keep going astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            QI 2

              I will go astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      QI 3

              I will go astern dead slow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             QI 4

              I have sternway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         QJ

              I cannot go astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        QK

              You should go astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            QL

              You should go slow astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               QL 1

              You should go full speed astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 QL 2

              You should keep going astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  QL 3

              You should keep your engines going astern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          QL 4

              You should not go astern any more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     QM

              You should stop your engines immediately . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          RL

              You should stop your engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  RL 1

              My engines are stopped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              RM

              I am stopping my engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                RM 1

LH            Maximum speed in tow is... (number) knots.

LI            I am increasing speed.

       LI 1         Increase speed.

LJ            I am reducing speed.

       LJ 1         Reduce speed.




                                                                                                                                                                       61
                                                  CHAPTER 2
     SECTION 3: AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                                       Cross
 Code                                                        Meaning                                                                 Reference
                                              AIDS TO NAVIGATION

                                                        Buoys--Beacons

 LK            Buoy (or beacon) has been established in lat... long...

 LL            Buoy (or beacon) in lat... long... has been removed.

               You should steer directly for the buoy (or object indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       PL

               You should keep buoy (or object indicated) on your starboard side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              PL 1

               You should keep buoy (or object indicated) on your port side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          PL 2

               You can pass the buoy (or object indicated) on either side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       PL 3

 LM            Radiobeacon indicated is out of action.

                                                      Lights--Lightvessels

 LN            Light (name follows) has been extinguished.

        LN 1        All lights are out along this coast (or the coast of...).

 LO            I am not in my correct position (to be used by a lightvessel).

        LO 1        Lightvessel (name follows) is out of position.

        LO 2        Lightvessel (name follows) has been removed from her station.

               Lightvessel (or lighthouse) indicated requires assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      CH 1


                                                              BAR

 LP            There is not less than... (number) feet or meters of water over the bar.

 LQ            There will be... (number) feet or meters of water over the bar at time indicated.

 LR            Bar is not dangerous.

        LR 1        What is the depth of water over the bar?

        LR 2        Can I cross the bar?

 LS            Bar is dangerous.


                                                        BEARINGS

 LT            Your bearing from me [or from... (name or identity signal)] is... (at time indicated).

 LU            The bearing of... (name or identity signal) from... (name or identity signal) is... (at time indi-
               cated).

 LV            Let me know my bearings from you. I will flash searchlight.

62
                SECTION 3.--AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                                                                 Cross
Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                                 Reference


       LV 1         What is my bearing from you [or from... (name or identity signal)]?

       LV 2         What is the bearing of... (name or identity signal) from... (name or identity signal)?

              Your magnetic bearing from me (or from vessel or position indicated) is... (at time
              indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      BZ

              What is my magnetic bearing from you (or from vessel or position indicated)?. . . . . . . . . . . .                                                 CA

LW            I receive your transmission on bearing...

       LW 1         Can you take bearings from my radio signals?

              Your position according to bearings taken by radio direction finder stations which I control is
              lat... long... (at time indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                EZ

              Will you give me my position according to bearings taken by radio direction finder stations
              which you control?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             EZ 1

              Bearing and distance by radar of vessel (or object) indicated is bearing... ,
              distance... miles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          OM

              What is the bearing and distance by radar of vessel (or object) indicated? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          OM 1

                                          CANAL--CHANNEL--FAIRWAY

                                                                         Canal

LX            The canal is clear.

       LX 1         The canal will be clear at time indicated.

       LX 2         You can enter the canal at time indicated.

       LX 3         Is the canal clear?

       LX 4         When can I enter the canal?

LY            The canal is not clear.

LZ            The channel/fairway is navigable.

       LZ 1         I intend to pass through the channel/fairway.

       LZ 2         Is the channel/fairway navigable?

       LZ 3         What is the state of the channel/fairway?

       LZ 4         What is the least depth of water in the channel/fairway?

MA            The least depth of water in the channel/fairway is... (number feet or meters).

MB            You should keep in the center of the channel/fairway.

       MB 1         You should keep on the starboard side of the channel/fairway.




                                                                                                                                                                       63
                                            CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                                 Cross
 Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                                Reference

                                                                         Canal

        MB 2         You should keep on the port side of the channel/fairway.

        MB 3         You should leave the channel/fairway free.

 MC            There is an uncharted obstruction in the channel/fairway. You should proceed with caution.

        MC 1         The channel/fairway is not navigable.

        MC 2         The (--) lane of the traffic separation scheme is not navigable. (The direction of the traf-
                     fic flow is to be indicated.)

                                                                    COURSE

 MD            My course is....

        MD 1         What is your course?

               My present position, course, and speed are lat... long... ,... , knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                   EV

               What are your present position, course, and speed?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              EV 1

               Will vessels in my immediate vicinity (or in the vicinity of lat... long...) please indicate posi-
               tion, course, and speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            FB

               Vessel coming to your rescue (or to the rescue of vessel or aircraft indicated) is steering
               course... , speed... knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             GR

               You should indicate course and speed of vessel coming to my rescue (or to the rescue of vessel
               or aircraft indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         GR 1

 ME            The course to place (name follows) is...

        ME 1         What is the course to place (name follows)?

               The magnetic course for the helicopter to regain its base is. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                BX

 MF            Course to reach me is...

        MF 1         What is the course to reach you?

               The magnetic course for you to steer towards me (or vessel or position indicated)
               is... (at time indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          BW

               Will you indicate the magnetic course for me to steer towards you (or vessel or position
               indicated)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      BY

 MG            You should steer course...

        MG 1         What course should I steer?

               You should maintain your present course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         PI

               I am maintaining my present course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      PI 1




64
                SECTION 3.--AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                                                                    Cross
Code                                                                     Meaning                                                                                  Reference


              I cannot maintain my present course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          PJ

MH            You should alter course to... (at time indicated).

MI            I am altering course to...

              I am altering my course to starboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         E

              I am altering my course to port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      I

              You should alter your course, if possible, appreciably to starboard to facilitate location by
              radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      OJ 2

              You should alter your course, if possible, appreciably to port to facilitate location by radar . .                                                     OJ 3

                                DANGERS TO NAVIGATION--WARNINGS

                                                           Derelict--Wreck--Shoal

MJ            Derelict dangerous to navigation reported in lat... long... (or Complements Table 3, Chapter
              2, Section 10, Page 104).

MK            I have seen derelict (in lat... long... at time indicated).

       MK 1          Have you seen derelict (or wreckage)?

ML            Derelict is drifting near lat... long... (or bearing... from place indicated, distance...).

       ML 1          Hull of derelict is awash.

       ML 2          Hull of derelict is well out of the water.

MM            There is a wreck in lat... long...

       MM 1          Wreck is buoyed.

       MM 2          Wreck is awash.

MN            Wreck (in lat... long...) is not buoyed.

MO            I have struck a shoal or submerged object (lat... long...).

MP            I am in shallow water. Please direct me how to navigate.

                                                                 Radiation Danger

MQ            There is risk of contamination due to excessive release of radioactive material in this area (or
              in area around lat... long... ). Keep radio watch. Relay the message to vessels in your vicinity.

       MQ 1          The radioactive material is airborne.

       MQ 2          The radioactive material is waterborne.

MR            There is no, or no more, risk of contamination due to excessive release of radioactive material
              in this area (or in area around lat... long...).



                                                                                                                                                                          65
                                           CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                               Cross
 Code                                                                  Meaning                                                                               Reference

                                                                Radiation Danger

        MR 1         Is there risk of contamination due to excessive release of radioactive material in this area
                     (or in area around lat... long...)?

 MS            My vessel is a dangerous source of radiation.

        MS 1         My vessel is a dangerous source of radiation; you may approach from my starboard side.

        MS 2         My vessel is a dangerous source of radiation; you may approach from my port side.

        MS 3         My vessel is a dangerous source of radiation; you may approach from forward.

        MS 4         My vessel is a dangerous source of radiation; you may approach from aft.

 MT            My vessel is a dangerous source of radiation. You may approach from... (Complements Table
               3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 MU            My vessel is a dangerous source of radiation. Do not approach within... (number) cables.

               I am abandoning my vessel which has suffered a nuclear accident and is a possible source of
               radiation danger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      AD

               I have had a serious nuclear accident and you should approach with caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           AJ

               I have had a nuclear accident on board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    AK

               A vessel which has suffered a nuclear accident is in distress in lat... long... . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                        EC

 MV            My vessel is releasing radioactive material and presents a hazard.

 MW            My vessel is releasing radioactive material and presents a hazard. Do not approach within...
               (number) cables.

 MX            The radioactive material is airborne. Do not approach from leeward.

                                                                      Warnings

 MY            It is dangerous to stop.

        MY 1         It is dangerous to remain in present position.

        MY 2         It is dangerous to proceed on present course.

        MY 3         It is dangerous to proceed until weather permits.

        MY 4         It is dangerous to alter course to starboard.

        MY 5         It is dangerous to alter course to port.

        MY 6         It is dangerous to approach close to my vessel.

        MY 7         It is dangerous to let go an anchor or use bottom trawl.

        MY 8         It is dangerous to jettison inflammable oil.

               It is not safe to fire a rocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          GU




66
                SECTION 3.--AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                                                               Cross
Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                               Reference

                                                                      Warnings

MZ            Navigation is dangerous in the area around lat... long...

       MZ 1         I consider you are carrying out a dangerous navigational practice and I intend to report
                    you.

              Navigation is dangerous in the area around lat... long... owing to iceberg(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           VZ

              Navigation is dangerous in the area around lat... long... owing to floating ice . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           VZ 1

              Navigation is dangerous in the area around lat... long... owing to pack ice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          VZ 2

NA            Navigation is closed.

       NA 1         Navigation is possible only with tug assistance.

       NA 2         Navigation is possible only with pilot assistance.

       NA 3         Navigation is prohibited within 500m of this platform.

       NA 4         Navigation is prohibited within 500m of the platform bearing (--) from me.

       NA 5         You have been detected navigating within a 500m Safety Zone (about the platform bear-
                    ing (--) from me) and will be reported.

       NA 6         Anchors with buoys extend up to one mile from this vessel/rig. You should keep clear.

              You should navigate with caution. Small fishing boats are within... (number)
              miles of me. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      TH

              You should navigate with caution. You are drifting towards my set of nets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          TI

              You should navigate with caution. There are nets with a buoy in this area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          TJ

NB            There is fishing gear in the direction you are heading (or in direction indicated--Complements
              Table 3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

NC            I am in distress and require immediate assistance.

ND            Tsunami (phenomenal wave) is expected. You should take appropriate precautions.

              Tropical storm (cyclone, hurricane, typhoon) is approaching. You should take appropriate
              precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      VL

NE            You should proceed with great caution.

       NE 1         You should proceed with great caution; the coast is dangerous.

       NE 2         You should proceed with great caution; submarines are exercising in this area.

       NE 3         You should proceed with great caution; there is a boom across.

       NE 4         You should proceed with great caution; keep clear of firing range.

       NE 5         You should proceed with great caution; hostile vessel sighted (in lat... long...).

       NE 6         You should proceed with great caution; hostile submarine sighted (in lat... long...).




                                                                                                                                                                     67
                                            CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                                   Cross
 Code                                                                    Meaning                                                                                 Reference

                                                                        Warnings

        NE 7         You should proceed with great caution; hostile aircraft sighted (in lat... long...).

               There is an uncharted obstruction in the channel/fairway. You should proceed with
               caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MC

               You should change your anchorage/berth. It is not safe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  RE

               All vessels should proceed to sea as soon as possible owing to danger in port . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                              UL

 NF            You are running into danger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  U

        NF 1         You are running into danger; there is a radiation hazard.

 NG            You are in a dangerous position.

        NG 1         You are in a dangerous position; there is a radiation hazard.

 NH            You are clear of all danger.

        NH 1         Are you clear of all danger?

 NI            I have (or vessel indicated has) a list of... (number) degrees to starboard.

 NJ            I have (or vessel indicated has) a list of... (number) degrees to port.

                                                             DEPTH--DRAFT

                                                                           Depth

 NK            There is not sufficient depth of water.

 NL            There is sufficient depth of water.

        NL 1         Is there sufficient depth of water?

               The least depth of water in the channel/fairway is... (number feet or meters) . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                              MA

               What is the least depth of water in the channel/fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 LZ 4

               There is not less than... (number feet or meters) of water over the bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                        LP

               What is the depth of water over the bar? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         LR 1

               There will be... (number feet or meters) of water over the bar at time indicated. . . . . . . . . . . .                                              LQ

               The depth at high water here (or in place indicated) is... (number feet or meters). . . . . . . . . .                                                QA

               The depth at low water here (or in place indicated) is... (number feet or meters). . . . . . . . . . .                                               QB

               What is the depth at high and low water here (or in place indicated)?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                         PW 2

 NM            You should report the depth around your vessel.

 NN            I am in... (number feet or meters) of water.




68
                     SECTION 3.--AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                            Cross
Code                                                       Meaning                                                        Reference

                                                             Depth

*NO                Negative--"No" or "The significance of the previous group should be read in the negative".

NP                 The depth of water at the bow is... (number feet or meters).

NQ                 The depth of water at the stern is... (number feet or meters).

NR                 The depth of water along the starboard side is... (number feet or meters).

NS                 The depth of water along the port side is... (number feet or meters).


 *    Procedural signal.

                                                             Draft

NT                 What is your draft?

        NT 1               What is your light draft?

        NT 2               What is your ballast draft?

        NT 3               What is your loaded draft?

        NT 4               What is your summer draft?

        NT 5               What is your winter draft?

        NT 6               What is your maximum draft?

        NT 7               What is your least draft?

        NT 8               What is your draft forward?

        NT 9               What is your draft aft?

NU                 My draft is... (number feet or meters).

NV                 My light draft is... (number feet or meters).

NW                 My ballast draft is... (number feet or meters).

NX                 My loaded draft is... (number feet or meters).

NY                 My summer draft is... (number feet or meters).

NZ                 My winter draft is... (number feet or meters).

OA                 My maximum draft is... (number feet or meters).

OB                 My least draft is... (number feet or meters).

OC                 My draft forward is... (number feet or meters).

OD                 My draft aft is... (number feet or meters).

                   My maximum draft when I went aground was (number feet or meters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      JJ



                                                                                                                                  69
                                                 CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                           Cross
 Code                                                                     Meaning                                                                        Reference

                                                                             Draft

                       What was your draft when you went aground? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 JI 1

 OE                    Your draft must not exceed... (number feet or meters).

 OF                    I could lighten to... (number feet or meters) draft.

 OG                    To what draft could you lighten?

                                                    ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION

                                                                            Radar

 OH                    You should switch on your radar and keep radar watch.

            OH 1               The restrictions on the use of radar are lifted.

            OH 2               Does my radar cause interference?

 OI                    I have no radar.

            OI 1               Are you equipped with radar?

            OI 2               Is your radar in operation?

 OJ                    I have located you on my radar bearing... , distance... miles.

            OJ 1               I cannot locate you on my radar.

            OJ 2               You should alter your course, if possible, appreciably to starboard to facilitate location by
                               radar.

            OJ 3               You should alter your course, if possible, appreciably to port to facilitate location by radar.

            OJ 4               Can you locate me by radar?

                       My position is ascertained by radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      EW 4
 *OK                   Acknowledging a correct repetition or "It is correct".

 OL                    Is radar pilotage being effected in this port (or port indicated)?

 OM                    Bearing and distance by radar of vessel (or object) indicated, is bearing... , distance... miles.

            OM 1               What is the bearing and distance by radar of vessel (or object) indicated?

 ON                    I have an echo on my radar on bearing... , distance... miles.


      *   Procedural signal.

                                                                Radio Direction Finder

 OO                    My radio direction finder is inoperative.



70
                SECTION 3.--AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                                                          Cross
Code                                                                 Meaning                                                                            Reference

                                                         Radio Direction Finder

OP            I have requested... (name or identity signal) to send two dashes of ten seconds each or the car-
              rier of his transmitter followed by his call sign.

       OP 1         Will you request... (name or identity signal) to send two dashes of ten seconds each or the
                    carrier of his transmitter followed by his call sign?

       OP 2         Will you send two dashes of ten seconds each, or the carrier of your transmitter, followed
                    by your call sign?

              Your position according to bearings taken by radio direction finder stations which I control is
              lat... long... (at time indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         EZ

              Will you give me my position according to bearings taken by radio direction finder stations
              which you control?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      EZ 1

OQ            I am calibrating radio direction finder or adjusting compasses.

                                                 Electronic Position-Fixing System

              My position is ascertained by electronic position fixing system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               EW 5


                                               MINES--MINESWEEPING

OR            I have struck a mine.

              I have a mine in my sweep (or net) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               TO

OS            There is danger from mines in this area (or area indicated).

       OS 1         You should keep a lookout for mines.

       OS 2         You are out of the dangerous zone.

       OS 3         Am I out of the dangerous zone?

       OS 4         Are you out of the dangerous zone?

       OS 5         Is there any danger from mines in this area (or area indicated)?

OT            Mine has been sighted in lat... long... (or in direction indicated--Complements Table 3,
              Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

OU            Mine(s) has (have) been reported in the vicinity (or in approximate position lat... , long...).

OV            Mine(s) is (are) believed to be bearing... from me, distance... miles.

OW            There is a minefield ahead of you. You should stop your vessel and wait for instructions.

       OW 1         There is a minefield along the coast. You should not approach too close.

OX            The approximate direction of the minefield is bearing... from me.

OY            Port is mined.



                                                                                                                                                                71
                                          CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                               Cross
 Code                                                          Meaning                                                       Reference


            OY 1           Entrance is mined.

            OY 2           Fairway is mined.

            OY 3           Are there mines in the port entrance or fairway?

 OZ                   The width of the swept channel is... (number feet or meters).

 PA                   I will indicate the swept channel. You should follow in my wake.

            PA 1           You should keep carefully to the swept channel.

            PA 2           The swept channel is marked by buoys.

            PA 3           I do not see the buoys marking the swept channel.

            PA 4           Do you know the swept channel?
 *PB                  You should keep clear of me; I am engaged in minesweeping operations.

            PB 1           You should keep clear of me; I am exploding a floating mine.

 PC                   I have destroyed the drifting mine(s).

            PC 1           I cannot destroy the drifting mine(s).


     *   The use of this signal does not relieve any vessel from complying with the International Regulations for Preventing
         Collisions at Sea 1972.

                                    NAVIGATION LIGHTS--SEARCHLIGHT

 PD                   Your navigation light(s) is (are) not visible.

            PD 1           My navigation lights are not functioning.

 PE                   You should extinguish all the lights except the navigation lights.

 PG                   I do not see any light.

            PG 1           You should hoist a light.

            PG 2           I am dazzled by your searchlight. Extinguish it or lift it.

                      You should train your searchlight nearly vertical on a cloud, intermittently if possible, and, if
                      my aircraft is seen, deflect the beam upwind and on the water to facilitate my landing . . . . . .        AX

                      Shall I train my searchlight nearly vertical on a cloud, intermittently if possible, and, if your
                      aircraft is seen, deflect the beam upwind and on the water to facilitate your landing? . . . . . . .      AX 1




72
                SECTION 3.--AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                                             Cross
Code                                                           Meaning                                                                     Reference

                        NAVIGATING AND STEERING INSTRUCTIONS
                            (See also Pilot in Chapter 2, Section 5, Page 87.)

PH            You should steer as indicated.

       PH 1        You should steer towards me.

       PH 2        I am steering towards you.

       PH 3        You should steer more to starboard.

       PH 4        I am steering more to starboard.

       PH 5        You should steer more to port.

       PH 6        I am steering more to port.

PI            You should maintain your present course.

       PI 1        I am maintaining my present course.

       PI 2        Shall I maintain my present course?

PJ            I cannot maintain my present course.

              You should make fast astern and steer me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      LC

PK            I cannot steer without assistance.

PL            You should steer directly for the buoy (or object indicated).

       PL 1        You should keep buoy (or object indicated) on your starboard side.

       PL 2        You should keep buoy (or object indicated) on your port side.

       PL 3        You can pass the buoy (or object indicated) on either side.

PM            You should follow in my wake (or wake of vessel indicated).

       PM 1        You should go ahead and lead the course.

PN            You should keep to leeward of me (or vessel indicated).

       PN 1        You should keep to windward of me (or vessel indicated).

       PN 2        You should keep on my starboard side (or starboard side of vessel indicated).

       PN 3        You should keep on my port side (or port side of vessel indicated).

PO            You should pass ahead of me (or vessel indicated).

       PO 1        I will pass ahead of you (or vessel indicated).

       PO 2        You should pass astern of me (or vessel indicated).

       PO 3        I will pass astern of you (or vessel indicated).

       PO 4        You should pass to leeward of me (or vessel indicated).



                                                                                                                                                   73
                                      CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                    Cross
 Code                                                       Meaning                                                               Reference


        PO 5        I will pass to leeward of you (or vessel indicated).

        PO 6        You should pass to windward of me (or vessel indicated).

        PO 7        I will pass to windward of you (or vessel indicated).

        PO 8        You should come under my stern.

 PP            Keep well clear of me.

        PP 1        Do not overtake me.

        PP 2        Do not pass ahead of me.

        PP 3        Do not pass astern of me.

        PP 4        Do not pass on my starboard side.

        PP 5        Do not pass on my port side.

        PP 6        Do not pass too close to me.

        PP 7        You should give way to me.

 PQ            You should keep closer in to the coast.

        PQ 1        You should keep further away from the coast.

        PQ 2        You should follow the coast at a safe distance.

        PQ 3        How far out from the coast?

 PR            You should keep closer to me (or vessel indicated).

        PR 1        You should come as near as possible.

        PR 2        You should keep within visual signal distance from me (or vessel indicated).

        PR 3        You should come within hailing distance from me (or vessel indicated).

 PS            You should not come any closer.

        PS 1        You should keep away from me (or vessel indicated).

               I am calibrating radio direction finder or adjusting compasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      OQ

                                                            TIDE

 PT            What is the state of the tide?

        PT 1        The tide is rising.

        PT 2        The tide is falling.

        PT 3        The tide is slack.

 PU            The tide begins to rise at time indicated.



74
                SECTION 3.--AIDS TO NAVIGATION--NAVIGATION--HYDROGRAPHY
                                                                                                                                              Cross
Code                                                            Meaning                                                                     Reference


       PU 1        When does the tide begin to rise?

PV            The tide begins to fall at time indicated.

       PV 1        When does the tide begin to fall?

PW            What is the rise and fall of the tide?

       PW 1        What is the set and drift of the tide?

       PW 2        What is the depth at high and low water here (or in place indicated)?

PX            The rise and fall of the tide is... (number feet or meters).

PY            The set of the tide is... degrees.

PZ            The drift of the tide is... knots.

QA            The depth at high water here (or in place indicated) is... (number feet or meters).

QB            The depth at low water here (or in place indicated) is... (number feet or meters).

              The tide was high water when the vessel went aground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 JK

              The tide was half water when the vessel went aground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               JK 1

              The tide was low water when the vessel went aground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                JK 2

              At what state of tide did you go aground? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      JI 3

QC            You should wait until high water.

       QC 1        You should wait until low water.




                                                                                                                                                      75
                                                    CHAPTER 2
                                        SECTION 4: MANEUVERS
                                                                                                                                                   Cross
 Code                                                            Meaning                                                                         Reference
                                                    AHEAD--ASTERN

                                                         Ahead--Headway

 QD            I am going ahead.

        QD 1       My engines are going ahead.

        QD 2       I will keep going ahead.

        QD 3       I will go ahead.

        QD 4       I will go ahead dead slow.

 QE            I have headway.

 QF            I cannot go ahead.

 QG            You should go ahead.

        QG 1       You should go slow ahead.

        QG 2       You should go full speed ahead.

        QG 3       You should keep going ahead.

        QG 4       You should keep your engines going ahead.

 QH            You should not go ahead any more.

                                                          Astern--Sternway

 QI            I am going astern.

        QI 1       My engines are going astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      S

        QI 2       I will keep going astern.

        QI 3       I will go astern.

        QI 4       I will go astern dead slow.

 QJ            I have sternway.

 QK            I cannot go astern.

 QL            You should go astern.

        QL 1       You should go slow astern.

        QL 2       You should go full speed astern.

        QL 3       You should keep going astern.

        QL 4       You should keep your engines going astern.

 QM            You should not go astern any more.



76
                                               SECTION 4.--MANEUVERS
                                                                                                                                           Cross
Code                                                          Meaning                                                                    Reference

                                                        ALONGSIDE

QN            You should come alongside my starboard side.

       QN 1        You should come alongside my port side.

       QN 2        You should drop an anchor before coming alongside.

QO            You should not come alongside.

QP            I will come alongside.

       QP 1        I will try to come alongside.

QQ            I require health clearance. (See Pratique Messages in Chapter 2, Section 9, Page 103.)

QR            I cannot come alongside.

       QR 1        Can I come alongside?


                            TO ANCHOR--ANCHOR(S)--ANCHORAGE

                                                             To Anchor

QS            You should anchor at time indicated.

       QS 1        You should anchor (position to be indicated if necessary).

       QS 2        You should anchor to await tug.

       QS 3        You should anchor with both anchors.

       QS 4        You should anchor as convenient.

       QS 5        Are you going to anchor?

              You should heave to or anchor until pilot arrives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      UB

QT            You should not anchor. You are going to foul my anchor.

QU            Anchoring is prohibited.

QV            I am anchoring in position indicated.

       QV 1        I have anchored with both anchors.

QW            I shall not anchor.

       QW 1        I cannot anchor.

QX            I request permission to anchor.

       QX 1        You have permission to anchor.

QY            I wish to anchor at once.




                                                                                                                                                 77
                                         CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                       Cross
 Code                                                               Meaning                                                                          Reference

                                                                  To Anchor

        QY 1         Where shall I anchor?

                                                                   Anchor(s)

 QZ            You should have your anchors ready for letting go.

        QZ 1         You should let go another anchor.

 RA            My anchor is foul.

        RA 1         I have picked up telegraph cable with my anchor.

 RB            I am dragging my anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      Y

        RB 1         You appear to be dragging your anchor.

        RB 2         Where you have anchored (or intend to anchor) you are likely to drag.

 RC            I am (or vessel indicated is) breaking adrift.

        RC 1         I have broken adrift.

 RD            You should weigh (cut or slip) anchor immediately.

        RD 1         You should weigh anchor at time indicated.

        RD 2         I am unable to weigh my anchor.

                                                                  Anchorage

 RE            You should change your anchorage/berth. It is not safe.

 RF            Will you lead me into a safe anchorage?

               You should tow me to the nearest port or anchorage (or place indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                KP

               I will tow you to the nearest port or anchorage (or place indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           KP 1

               I must get shelter or anchorage as soon as possible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  KP 2

 RG            You should send a boat to where I am to anchor or moor.

        RG 1         At what time shall I come into anchorage?

               You should proceed to anchorage in position indicated (lat... long...) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             RW

               You should not proceed out of harbor/anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    RZ 1

 RH            There is no good holding ground in my area (or around lat... long...).

 RI            There is good holding ground in my area (or around lat... long...).

        RI 1         Is there good holding ground in your area (or around lat... long...)?




78
                                                    SECTION 4.--MANEUVERS
                                                                                                                                                    Cross
Code                                                                Meaning                                                                       Reference

                                                  ENGINES--PROPELLER

                                                                     Engines

RJ               You should keep your engines ready.

       RJ 1            You should have your engines ready as quickly as possible.

       RJ 2            You should report when your engines are ready.

       RJ 3            You should leave when your engines are ready.

       RJ 4            At what time will your engines be ready?

RK               My engines will be ready at time indicated.

       RK 1            My engines are ready.

RL               You should stop your engines immediately.

       RL 1            You should stop your engines.

RM               My engines are stopped.

       RM 1            I am stopping my engines.

       RM 2            I am obliged to stop my engines.

RN               My engines are out of action.

                 I can only proceed with one engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      IL 1

                                                                    Propeller

RO               Propeller shaft is broken.

       RO 1            My propeller is fouled by hawser or rope.

       RO 2            I have lost my propeller.

                 I require immediate assistance; propeller shaft is broken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 CB 8


                                                  LANDING--BOARDING

                                                                    Landing

*RP              Landing here is highly dangerous.
       *RP   1         Landing here is highly dangerous. A more favorable location for landing is at position
                       indicated.
**RQ             Interrogative or "the significance of the previous group should be read as a question".
*RR              This is the best place to land.



                                                                                                                                                            79
                                                CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                       Cross
 Code                                                                    Meaning                                                                     Reference

                                                                         Landing

             *RR   1        Lights will be shown or flag waved at the best landing place.

                       Boat should endeavor to land where flag is waved or light is shown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     DC

                       Boats are not allowed to land (after time indicated). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          DD 1


     *    Reference is made to landing signals prescribed by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974
          (Regulation 16(b), Chapter V), for the guidance of small boats with crews or persons in distress.
     **   Procedural signal.

                                                                        Boarding

 RS                    No one is allowed on board.

                       You should stop or heave to, I am going to board you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             SQ 3


                                                                 MANEUVERS

 RT                    Stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 X

             RT 1           What maneuvers do you intend to carry out?

 RU                    Keep clear of me; I am maneuvering with difficulty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             D

             RU 1           I am carrying out maneuvering trials.


                                                      PROCEED--UNDERWAY

                                                                         Proceed

 RV                    You should proceed (to place indicated if necessary).

             RV 1           You should proceed to destination.

             RV 2           You should proceed into port.

             RV 3           You should proceed to sea.

 RW                    You should proceed to anchorage in position indicated (lat... long...).

 RX                    You should proceed at time indicated.

 RY                    You should proceed at slow speed when passing me (or vessels making this signal).

                       You should proceed to the rescue of vessel (or ditched aircraft) in lat... long . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        GP

                       You should proceed to lat... long... to pick up survivors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              HN

                       You should proceed with great caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      NE




80
                                                  SECTION 4.--MANEUVERS
                                                                                                                                                   Cross
Code                                                              Meaning                                                                        Reference

                                                                  Proceed

              You should proceed with great caution; the coast is dangerous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        NE 1

              You should proceed with great caution; submarines are exercising in this area . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 NE 2

              You should proceed with great caution; there is a boom across . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         NE 3

              You should proceed with great caution; keep clear of firing range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         NE 4

              You should proceed with great caution; hostile vessel sighted (in lat... long...) . . . . . . . . . . .                               NE 5

              You should proceed with great caution; hostile submarine sighted (in lat... long...) . . . . . . . .                                  NE 6

              You should proceed with great caution; hostile aircraft sighted (in lat... long...) . . . . . . . . . .                               NE 7

RZ            You should not proceed (to place indicated if necessary).

       RZ 1         You should not proceed out of harbor/anchorage.

              All vessels should proceed to sea as soon as possible owing to danger in port . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               UL

SA            I can proceed at time indicated.

SB            I am proceeding to the position of accident.

              I am (or vessel indicated is) proceeding to your assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   CP

              I am proceeding to the assistance of vessel/aircraft in distress (lat... long...) . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           CR

              I am proceeding to the position of accident at full speed. Expect to arrive at time indicated . .                                     FE

              Are you proceeding to the position of accident? If so, when do you expect to arrive? . . . . . . .                                    FE 1

              I cannot proceed to the rescue owing to weather. You should do all you can . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                GQ

              I will try to proceed by my own means but I request you to keep in contact with me
              by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          IJ

              I can proceed at... (number) knots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       IK

              I can only proceed at slow speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      IL

              I can only proceed with one engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        IL 1

              I am unable to proceed under my own power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 IL 2

              Are you in a condition to proceed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       IL 3

              I have placed the collision mat. I can proceed without assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       KA 1

                                                               Underway

SC            I am underway.

       SC 1         I am ready to get underway.

       SC 2         I shall get underway as soon as the weather permits.



                                                                                                                                                           81
                                            CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                                     Cross
 Code                                                                    Meaning                                                                                   Reference

                                                                       Underway

 SD            I am not ready to get underway.

 SF            Are you (or vessel indicated) underway?

        SF 1          Are you ready to get underway?

        SF 2          At what time will you be underway?

                                                                        SPEED

 SG            My present speed is... (number) knots.

 SJ            My maximum speed is... (number) knots.

 SL            What is your present speed?

        SL 1          What is your maximum speed?

               The speed of my aircraft in relation to the surface of the earth is... (knots or kilometers per
               hour) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      BQ

               What is the speed of your aircraft in relation to the surface of the earth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          BQ 1

               My present position, course, and speed are lat... long... ,... , knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       EV

               What are your present position, course, and speed?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  EV 1

               Will vessels in my immediate vicinity (or in the vicinity of lat... long...) please indicate posi-
               tion, course, and speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                FB

               I can only proceed at slow speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       IL

               Maximum speed in tow is... (number) knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                LH

               I am increasing speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                LI

               Increase speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            LI 1

               I am reducing speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                LJ

               Reduce speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             LJ 1

               You should proceed at slow speed when passing me (or vessels making this signal) . . . . . . . .                                                       RY

               Take the way off your vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     SP

               My vessel is stopped and making no way through the water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                         SP 1

 SM            I am undergoing speed trials.




82
                                                 SECTION 4.--MANEUVERS
                                                                                                                                                Cross
Code                                                            Meaning                                                                       Reference

                                                    STOP--HEAVE TO

SN            You should stop immediately. Do not scuttle. Do not lower boats. Do not use the wireless. If
              you disobey I shall open fire on you.

SO            You should stop your vessel instantly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      L

       SO 1         You should stop. Head offshore.

       SO 2         You should remain where you are.

SP            Take the way off your vessel.

       SP 1         My vessel is stopped and making no way through the water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       M

SQ            You should stop or heave to.

       SQ 1         You should stop or heave to, otherwise I shall open fire on you.

       SQ 2         You should stop or heave to; I am going to send a boat.

       SQ 3         You should stop or heave to; I am going to board you.

              You should heave to or anchor until pilot arrives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           UB

              I am (or vessel indicated is) stopped in thick fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           XP




                                                                                                                                                      83
                                                         CHAPTER 2
                                       SECTION 5: MISCELLANEOUS
                                                                                                                                                                Cross
 Code                                                                  Meaning                                                                                Reference
                                                        CARGO--BALLAST
 ST            What is your cargo?

 SU            My cargo is agricultural products.

        SU 1         My cargo is coal.

        SU 2         My cargo is dairy products.

        SU 3         My cargo is fruit products.

        SU 4         My cargo is heavy equipment/machinery.

        SU 5         My cargo is livestock.

        SU 6         My cargo is lumber.

        SU 7         My cargo is oil/petroleum products.

        SU 8         I have a general cargo.

 SV            I am not seaworthy due to shifting of cargo or ballast.

 SW            I am taking in, or discharging, or carrying dangerous goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 B

 SX            You should not discharge oil or oily mixture.

 SY            The discharge of oil or oily mixture in this area is prohibited within... (number) miles from the
               nearest land.


                                             CREW--PERSONS ON BOARD
 SZ            Total number of persons on board is...

 TA            I have left... (number) men on board.

 TB            ... (number) persons have died.

 TC            ... (number) persons are sick.

               I am alighting (in position indicated if necessary) to pick up crew of vessel/aircraft . . . . . . . .                                            AV

               I cannot alight but I can lift crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               AZ

               You cannot alight on the deck. Can you lift crew?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            BA 1

               Boats(s)/raft(s) should approach vessel as near as possible to take off persons. . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          DA

               All persons saved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         GZ

               All persons lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      GZ 1

               I (or rescue vessel/aircraft) have rescued... (number) injured persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     HA

               Can I transfer rescued persons to you?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     HD




84
                                                   SECTION 5.--MISCELLANEOUS
                                                                                                                                                 Cross
Code                                                                  Meaning                                                                  Reference

                                                                  FISHERY
TD                   I am a fish catch carrier boat.

          TD 1            I am a mother ship for fishing vessel(s).

          TD 2            Are you a fishing vessel?

TE                   I am bottom trawling.

          TE 1            I am trawling with a floating trawl.

          TE 2            I am long-line fishing.

          TE 3            I am fishing with towing lines.

          TE 4            I am engaged in two-boat fishing operation.
          TE 5            I am drifting on my nets.

          TE 6            In what type of fishing are you engaged?

TF                   I am shooting purse seine.

          TF 1            I am shooting drift nets.

          TF 2            I am shooting seine net.

          TF 3            I am shooting trawl.

          TF 4            I am shooting long lines.

TG                   I am hauling purse seine.

          TG 1            I am hauling drift nets.

          TG 2            I am hauling seine net.

          TG 3            I am hauling trawl.

          TG 4            I am hauling long lines.

TH                   You should navigate with caution. Small fishing boats are within... (number) miles of me.

TI                   You should navigate with caution. You are drifting towards my set of nets.

TJ                   You should navigate with caution. There are nets with a buoy in this area.

                     There is fishing gear in the direction you are heading (or in direction indicated--Complements
                     Table 3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   NB

TK                   Is there fishing gear set up on my course?

TL                   My gear is close to the surface in a direction... (Complements Table 3, Chapter 2, Section 10,
                     Page 104) for a distance of... miles.


      Displaying any of the signals in this section does not relieve vessels from compliance with the International Regu-
      lations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972.



                                                                                                                                                        85
                                   CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                            Cross
 Code                                                  Meaning                                            Reference


 TM            My gear is well below the surface in a direction... (Complements Table 3, Chapter 2, Section
               10, Page 104) for a distance of... miles.

 TN            In what direction, distance, and depth does your fishing gear extend?

 TO            I have a mine in my sweep (or net).

 TP            Fishing gear has fouled my propeller.

 TQ            You have caught my fishing gear.

        TQ 1       It is necessary to haul in fishing gear for disentangling.

        TQ 2       I am clearing the fishing gear.

        TQ 3       You should take measures to recover the fishing gear.

 TS            You should take the following action with your warps:

        TS 1       Veer the port (stern) warp.

        TS 2       Veer the starboard (fore) warp.

        TS 3       Veer both warps.

        TS 4       Stop veering.

        TS 5       Haul the port (stern) warp.

        TS 6       Haul the starboard (fore) warp.

        TS 7       Haul both warps.

        TS 8       Stop hauling.

        TS 9       You may haul your warps; the trawl is clear.

 TU            I have to cut the warps. The trawls are entangled.

        TU 1       Give me your warp. I shall transfer your fishing gear on it.

        TU 2       Your warps are under mine.

        TU 3       Both my warps have parted.

        TU 4       My starboard (fore) warp has parted.

        TU 5       My port (stern) warp has parted.

 TV            Fishing in this area is prohibited.

        TV 1       Trawling in this area is dangerous because there is an obstruction.

 TW            Attention. You are in the vicinity of prohibited fishery limits.

 TX            A fishery protection (or fishery assistance) vessel is in lat... long...

 TY            I request assistance from fishery protection (or fishery assistance) vessel.

 TZ            Can you offer assistance? (Complements Table 2, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).



86
                                                  SECTION 5.--MISCELLANEOUS
                                                                                                                                                                Cross
Code                                                                    Meaning                                                                               Reference

                                                                       PILOT
        (See also Navigating and Steering instructions in Chapter 2, Section 3, Page 73.)

UA             Pilot will arrive at time indicated.

UB             You should heave to or anchor until pilot arrives.

               I have a pilot on board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           H

UC             Is a pilot available in this place (or place indicated)?

               I require a pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      G

UE             Where can I get a pilot (for destination indicated if necessary)?

UF             You should follow pilot boat (or vessel indicated).

UG             You should steer in my wake.

               You should follow in my wake (or wake of vessel indicated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    PM

               You should go ahead and lead the course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         PM 1

UH             Can you lead me into port?

UI             Sea is too rough; pilot boat cannot get off to you.

UJ             Make a starboard lee for the pilot boat.

       UJ 1          Make a port lee for the pilot boat.

UK             Pilot boat is most likely on bearing... from you.

       UK 1          Have you seen the pilot boat?

               Is radar pilotage being effected in this port (or port indicated)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                OL


                                                           PORT--HARBOR

UL             All vessels should proceed to sea as soon as possible owing to danger in port.

UM             The harbor (or port indicated) is closed to traffic.

               You should not proceed out of harbor/anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              RZ 1

UN             You may enter the harbor immediately (or at time indicated).

       UN 1          May I enter harbor?

       UN 2          May I leave harbor?

UO             You must not enter harbor.

UP             Permission to enter harbor is urgently requested. I have an emergency case.




                                                                                                                                                                      87
                                             CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                           Cross
 Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                          Reference


                   You should proceed into port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       RV 2

                   Can you lead me into port?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      UH

 UQ                You should wait outside the harbor (or river mouth).

        UQ 1             You should wait outside the harbor until daylight.

 UR                My estimated time of arrival (at place indicated) is (time indicated).

        UR 1             What is your estimated time of arrival (at place indicated)?

                                                           MISCELLANEOUS

 US                Nothing can be done until time indicated.

        US 1             Nothing can be done until daylight.

        US 2             Nothing can be done until tide has risen.

        US 3             Nothing can be done until visibility improves.

        US 4             Nothing can be done until weather moderates.

        US 5             Nothing can be done until draft is lightened.

        US 6             Nothing can be done until tugs have arrived.

 UT                Where are you bound for?

        UT 1             Where are you coming from?

 UU                I am bound for...

 UV                I am coming from...
        *UV    1         I am conducting innocent passage in the territorial sea.
        *UV    2         Your course leads into an area of the territorial sea in which the right of innocent passage
                         is temporarily suspended.
        *UV    3         You should leave the area of the territorial sea in which the right of innocent passage is
                         temporarily suspended.
        *UV    4         You are violating the conditions of innocent passage through the territorial sea (as indi-
                         cated in the table of complements below). Request you comply with the conditions of
                         innocent passage through the territorial sea.
        *UV    5         I am not violating the conditions of innocent passage through the territorial sea (as indi-
                         cated in the table of complements below).
        *UV    6         I have ceased violating the conditions of innocent passage through the territorial sea (as
                         indicated in the table of complements below).
        *UV    7         Having disregarded our request for compliance with the conditions of innocent passage
                         through the territorial sea, you are required to leave the territorial sea immediately.



88
                                                 SECTION 5.--MISCELLANEOUS
                                                                                                                                                    Cross
Code                                                                Meaning                                                                       Reference

        *UV   8         I am conducting transit passage through an international Strait.
        *UV   9         I am exercising freedom of navigation.


 *   Signals UV 1 - UV 9 are not mandatory. Use of these signals is not a precondition to the exercise of the right of
     innocent passage or freedom of navigation.

                        Conditions of innocent passage... (Complements 0-9 corresponding to the following table):

                        0    By threatening or using force against our/your sovereignty, territorial integrity, or political
                             independence.
                        1    By exercising or practicing with weapons.
                        2    By engaging in acts aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of our/your defense or
                             security.
                        3    By engaging in acts of propaganda aimed at affecting our/your defense or security.
                        4    By engaging in the launching, landing or taking on board of aircraft or a military device.
                        5    By engaging in the loading or unloading of a commodity, currency or person contrary to the
                             customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws or regulations of our/your country.
                        6    By engaging in willful and serious pollution.
                        7    By engaging in fishing activities.
                        8    By engaging in research or survey activities.
                        9    By engaging in acts aimed at interfering with our/your systems of communication or other
                             facilities or installations.


UW                I wish you a pleasant voyage.

        UW 1            Thank you very much for your cooperation. I wish you a pleasant voyage.

        UW 2            Welcome!

        UW 3            Welcome Home!

UX                No information available.

                  I am unable to answer your question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      YK

                                                                   Exercises

UY                I am carrying out exercises. Please keep clear of me.

                                                                    Bunkers

UZ                I have bunkers for... (number) hours.

VB                Have you sufficient bunkers to reach port?

VC                Where is the nearest place at which fuel oil is available?

        VC 1            Where is the nearest place at which diesel oil is available?



                                                                                                                                                          89
                                         CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                      Cross
 Code                                                              Meaning                                                                          Reference

                                                                   Bunkers

        VC 2         Where is the nearest place at which coal is available?

 VD            Bunkers are available at place indicated (or lat... long...).

                                                                  Fumigation

 VE            I am fumigating my vessel.

               No one is allowed on board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      RS

                                                                Identification

               What is the name or identity signal of your vessel (or station)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        CS

 VF            You should hoist your identity signal.




90
                                                      CHAPTER 2
                      SECTION 6: METEOROLOGY--WEATHER
                                                                                                                                                    Cross
Code                                                               Meaning                                                                        Reference
                                                                CLOUDS

VG            The coverage of low clouds is... (number of octants or eighths of sky covered).

VH            The estimated height of base of low clouds in hundreds of meters is...

VI            What is the coverage of low clouds in octants (eighths of sky covered)?

       VI 1         What is the estimated height of base of low clouds in hundreds of meters?


                                   GALE--STORM--TROPICAL STORM

                                                                     Gale

VJ            Gale (wind force Beaufort 8-9) is expected from direction indicated (Complements Table 3,
              Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

                                                                    Storm

VK            Storm (wind force Beaufort 10 or above) is expected from direction indicated (Complements
              Table 3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

                                                              Tropical Storm

VL            Tropical storm (cyclone, hurricane, typhoon) is approaching. You should take appropriate pre-
              cautions.

VM            Tropical storm is centered at... (time indicated) in lat... long... on course... , speed... knots.

VN            Have you latest information of the tropical storm (near lat... long... if necessary)?

              Very deep depression is approaching from direction indicated (Complements Table 3, Chapter
              2, Section 10, Page 104). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   WT

              There are indications of an intense depression forming in lat... long... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            WU


                                                        ICE--ICEBERGS

                                                                        Ice

VO            Have you encountered ice?

VP            What is the character of ice, its development, and the effects on navigation?

VQ            Character of ice:

       VQ 0         No ice.

       VQ 1         New ice (ice crystals, slush or sludge, pancake ice or ice rind).

       VQ 2         Young fast ice (5-15 cms thick or rotten fast ice).


                                                                                                                                                           91
                                          CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                        Cross
 Code                                                               Meaning                                                                           Reference

                                                                         Ice

        VQ 3         Open drift ice (not more than 5/8 of the water surface is covered by ice floes).

        VQ 4         A compressed accumulation of sludge (a compressed mass of sludge or pancake ice, the
                     ice cannot spread).

        VQ 5         Winter fast ice (more than 15 cms in thickness).

        VQ 6         Close drift ice (the area is covered by ice floes to a greater extent than 5/8).

        VQ 7         Very close drift ice on open sea.

        VQ 8         Pressure ice or big, vast, heavy ice floes.

        VQ 9         Shore lead along the coast.

               No information available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      UX

 VR            Ice development:

        VR 0         No change.

        VR 1         Ice situation has improved.

        VR 2         Ice situation has deteriorated.

        VR 3         Ice has been broken up.

        VR 4         Ice has opened or drifted away.

        VR 5         New ice has been formed and/or the thickness of the ice has increased.

        VR 6         Ice has been frozen together.

        VR 7         Ice has drifted into the area or has been squeezed together.

        VR 8         Warning of pressure ridges.

        VR 9         Warning of hummocking or ice screwing.

               No information available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      UX

 VS            Effects of the ice on navigation:

        VS 0         Unobstructed.

        VS 1         Unobstructed for power-driven vessels built of iron or steel, dangerous for wooden vessels
                     without ice protection.

        VS 2         Difficult for low-powered vessels without the assistance of an icebreaker, dangerous for
                     vessels of weak construction.

        VS 3         Possible without icebreaker only for high-powered vessels of strong construction.

        VS 4         Icebreaker assistance available in case of need.

        VS 5         Proceed in channel without the assistance of icebreaker.




92
                                          SECTION 6.--METEOROLOGY--WEATHER
                                                                                                                                                           Cross
Code                                                                   Meaning                                                                           Reference

                                                                            Ice

       VS 6             Possible only with the assistance of an icebreaker.

       VS 7             Icebreaker can give assistance only to ships strengthened for navigation in ice.

       VS 8             Temporarily closed for navigation.

       VS 9             Navigation has ceased.

                  No information available.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      UX

VT                Danger of ice accretion on superstructure (for example, black frost).

       VT 1             I am experiencing heavy icing on superstructure.

VU                I have seen icefield in lat... long...

VV                Ice patrol ship is not on station.

       VV 1             Ice patrol ship is on station.

                                                                       Icebergs

VW                I have seen icebergs in lat... long...

VX                I have encountered one or more icebergs or growlers (with or without position and time).

VY                One or more icebergs or growlers have been reported (with or without position and time).

VZ                Navigation is dangerous in the area around lat... long... owing to iceberg(s).

       VZ 1             Navigation is dangerous in the area around lat... long... owing to floating ice.

       VZ 2             Navigation is dangerous in the area around lat... long... owing to pack ice.


                                                              ICEBREAKER

*WA                Repeat word or group after...
*WB                Repeat word or group before...

WC                 I am (or vessel indicated is) fast on ice and require(s) icebreaker assistance.

       WC 1              Icebreaker is being sent to your assistance.

                   I require assistance in the nature of icebreaker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               CD 9

WD                 Icebreaker is not available.

       WD 1              Icebreaker cannot render assistance at present.



  Special single letter signals for use between icebreakers and assisted vessels can be found in Chapter 1, Section 10,
  Pages 24 and 25.



                                                                                                                                                                 93
                                                 CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                               Cross
 Code                                                                       Meaning                                                                          Reference


 WE                    Navigation channel is being kept open by icebreaker.

 WF                    I can give icebreaker support only up to lat... long...

 WG                    Open channel or open area is in the direction in which aircraft is flying.

 WH                    I can only assist if you will make all efforts to follow.

 WI                    At what time will you follow at full speed?

 WJ                    The convoy will start at time indicated from here (or from lat... long...).

 WK                    You (or vessel indicated) will be number... in convoy.

 WL                    Icebreaker is stopping work during darkness.
 *WM                   Icebreaker support is now commencing. Use special icebreaker support signals and keep con-
                       tinuous watch for sound, visual, or radiotelephony signals.

 WN                    Icebreaker is stopping work for... (number) hours or until more favorable conditions arise.

 WO                    Icebreaker support is finished. Proceed to your destination.

                       You should go astern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   QL


     *   Procedural signals.

                                   ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE--TEMPERATURE

                                                                 Atmospheric Pressure

 WP                   Barometer is steady.

           WP 1             Barometer is falling rapidly.

           WP 2             Barometer is rising rapidly.

 WQ                   The barometer has fallen... (number) millibars during the past three hours.

 WR                   The barometer has risen... (number) millibars during the past three hours.

 WS                   Corrected atmospheric pressure at sea level is... (number) millibars.

           WS 1             State corrected atmospheric pressure at sea level in millibars.

 WT                   Very deep depression is approaching from direction indicated (Complements Table 3, Chap-
                      ter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 WU                   There are indications of an intense depression forming in lat... long...

                                                                        Temperature

 WV                   The air temperature is sub-zero (centigrade).




94
                                 SECTION 6.--METEOROLOGY--WEATHER
                                                                                                                      Cross
Code                                                  Meaning                                                       Reference

                                                   Temperature

       WV 1         The air temperature is expected to be sub-zero (centigrade).

                                                SEA--SWELL

                                                         Sea

WW              What are the sea conditions in your area (or around lat... long...)?

WX              The true direction of the sea in tens of degrees is... (number following indicates tens of
                degrees).

WY              The state of the sea is... (Complements 0-9 corresponding to the following table which mea-
                sures wave height):

              0 Calm (glassy)                                              0m                 0 ft
              1 Calm (rippled)                                             0-0.1m             0-1/3 ft
              2 Smooth (wavelets)                                                             1/         2/
                                                                           0.1-0.5m                3-1     3   ft
              3 Slight                                                     0.5-1.2 m          1 2/3-4 ft
              4 Moderate                                                   1.25-2.5m          4-8 ft
              5 Rough                                                       2.5-4m            8-13 ft
              6 Very rough                                                 4-6m               13-20 ft
              7 High                                                       6-9m               20-30 ft
              8 Very high                                                  9-14m              30-45 ft
              9 Phenomenal                                                 over 14m           over 45 ft


WZ              What are the forecast sea conditions in my area (or area around lat... long...)?

XA              The true direction of the sea in tens of degrees is expected to be... (number following indi-
                cates tens of degrees).

XB              The state of the sea is expected to be... (Complements 0-9 as in the table above).

                                                        Swell

XC              What are the swell conditions in your area (or area around lat... long...)?

XD              The true direction of the swell in tens of degrees is... (number following indicates tens of
                degrees).

XE              The state of the swell is... (Complements 0-9 corresponding to the following table):




                                                                                                                            95
                                        CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                   Cross
 Code                                                      Meaning                                               Reference




                                                   } weak--approximate height <2 m (6 ft.)
                0 No swell...................
                1 short or middle.........
                2 Long..........................



                                                   } moderate--approximate height 2-4 m (6-12 ft.)
                3 Short.........................
                4 Middle......................
                5 Long.........................


                                                   } high--approximate height > 4 m (12 ft.)
                6 Short.........................
                7 Middle......................
                8 Long.........................
                9 Confused


 XF            What are the forecast swell conditions in my area (or area around lat... long...)?

 XG            The true direction of the swell in tens of degrees is expected to be... (number following indi-
               cates tens of degrees).

 XH            The state of the swell is expected to be... (Complements 0-9 as in the table above).

               Tsunami (phenomenal wave) is expected. You should take appropriate precautions. . . . . . . . .      ND


                                                   VISIBILITY--FOG

 XI            Indicate visibility.

 XJ            Visibility is... (number) tenths of nautical miles.

 XK            Visibility is variable between... and... (maximum and minimum in tenths of nautical miles).

 XL            Visibility is decreasing.

        XL 1        Visibility is increasing.

        XL 2        Visibility is variable.

 XM            What is the forecast visibility in my area (or area around lat... long...)?

 XN            Visibility is expected to be... (number) tenths of nautical miles.

 XO            Visibility is expected to decrease.

        XO 1        Visibility is expected to increase.

        XO 2        Visibility is expected to be variable.

 XP            I am (or vessel indicated is) stopped in thick fog.

        XP 1        I am entering zone of restricted visibility.




96
                                     SECTION 6.--METEOROLOGY--WEATHER
                                                                                                                 Cross
Code                                                    Meaning                                                Reference

                                  WEATHER--WEATHER FORECAST

XQ                What weather are you experiencing?

XR                Weather is good.

       XR 1           Weather is bad.

       XR 2           Weather is moderating.

       XR 3           Weather is deteriorating.

XS                Weather report is not available.

XT                Weather expected is bad.

       XT 1           Weather expected is good.

       XT 2           No change is expected in the weather.

       XT 3           What weather is expected?

XU                You should wait until the weather moderates.

       XU 1           I will wait until the weather moderates.

XV                Please give weather forecast for my area (or area around lat... long...) in *MAFOR Code.

 *   MAFOR is the prefix used to identify an International Coded Weather Forecast for Shipping.

                                                        WIND

XW                What is the true direction and force of wind in your area (or area around lat... long...)?

XX                True direction of wind is... (Complements Table 3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

XY                Wind force is Beaufort Scale... (numerals 0-12).

XZ                What is the wind doing?

       XZ 1           The wind is backing.

       XZ 2           The wind is veering.

       XZ 3           The wind is increasing.

       XZ 4           The wind is squally.

       XZ 5           The wind is steady in force.
       XZ 6           The wind is moderating.

YA                What wind direction and force is expected in my area (or area around lat... long...)?




                                                                                                                       97
                                 CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                             Cross
 Code                                               Meaning                                                Reference


 YB            True direction of wind is expected to be... (Complements Table 3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page
               104).

 YC            Wind force expected is Beaufort Scale... (numerals 0-12).

 YD            What is the wind expected to do?

        YD 1       The wind is expected to back.

        YD 2       The wind is expected to veer.

        YD 3       The wind is expected to increase.

        YD 4       The wind is expected to become squally.

        YD 5       The wind is expected to remain steady in force.

        YD 6       The wind is expected to moderate.




98
                                              CHAPTER 2
                           SECTION 7: ROUTING OF SHIPS
                                                                                                                                             Cross
Code                                                       Meaning                                                                         Reference


YG     You appear not to be complying with the traffic separation scheme.

       It is dangerous to proceed on present course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             MY 2

       You should proceed with great caution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            NE

       You are in a dangerous position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      NG




                                                                                                                                                   99
                                                             CHAPTER 2
                                          SECTION 8: COMMUNICATIONS
                                                                                                                                                          Cross
 Code                                                                     Meaning                                                                       Reference
                                                   ACKNOWLEDGE--ANSWER

 YH                    I have received the following from... (name or identity signal of vessel or station).

 YI                    I have received the safety signal sent by... (name or identity signal).

 YJ                    Have you received the safety signal sent by... (name or identity signal)?

 YK                    I am unable to answer your question.

                       Received, or I have received your last signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         R*


      *   Procedural signal.

                                                                      CALLING

 YL                    I will call you again at... hours (on... kHz or MHz).
 YM                    Who is calling me?

                                                                       CANCEL

 YN                    Cancel my last signal/message.

                       My last signal was incorrect. I will repeat it correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            ZP


                                                               COMMUNICATE

                       I wish to communicate with you by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).                                        K*
                       I wish to communicate with you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      K

 YO                    I am going to communicate by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 YP                    I wish to communicate with vessel or coast station (identity signal) by... (Complements Table
                       1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 YQ                    I wish to communicate by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104) with
                       vessel bearing... from me.

 YR                    Can you communicate by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104)?

 YS                    I am unable to communicate... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 YT                    I cannot read your... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).
 **YU                  I am going to communicate with your station by means of the International Code of Signals.
 **YV                  The groups which follow are from the International Code of Signals.

            YV 1               The groups which follow are from the local code.



100
                                                SECTION 8.--COMMUNICATIONS
                                                                                                                                                  Cross
Code                                                                Meaning                                                                     Reference


YW                 I wish to communicate by radiotelegraphy on frequency indicated.

YX                 I wish to communicate by radiotelephony on frequency indicated.

YY                 I wish to communicate by VHF radiotelephony on channel indicated.

YZ                 The words which follow are in plain language.

ZA                 I wish to communicate with you in... (language indicated by following complements).

        ZA 0            Dutch

        ZA 1            English

        ZA 2            French

        ZA 3            German

        ZA 4            Greek

        ZA 5            Italian

        ZA 6            Japanese

        ZA 7            Norwegian

        ZA 8            Russian

        ZA 9            Spanish

ZB                 I can communicate with you in language indicated (complements as above).

ZC                 Can you communicate with me in language indicated (complements as above)?

ZD                 Please communicate the following to all shipping in the vicinity.

        ZD 1            Please report me to Coast Guard New York.

        ZD 2            Please report me to Lloyd's London.

        ZD 3            Please report me to Minmorflot Moscow.

        ZD 4            Please report me to MSA Tokyo.

ZE                 You should come within visual signal distance.

                   You should keep within visual signal distance from me (or vessel indicated). . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          PR 2

                   I have established communications with the aircraft in distress on 2182 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           BC

                   Can you communicate with the aircraft? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      BC 1

                   I have established communications with the aircraft in distress on... kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       BD

                   I have established communications with the aircraft in distress on... MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         BE


 *    With one numeral.
 **   The abbreviation INTERCO may also be used to mean: "International Code group(s) follow(s)".



                                                                                                                                                        101
                                   CHAPTER 2.--GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                       Cross
 Code                                                  Meaning                                                       Reference

                                                   EXERCISE

 ZF            I wish to exercise signals with you by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page
               104).

 ZG            It is not convenient to exercise signals.

 ZH            Exercise had been completed.


                                    RECEPTION--TRANSMISSION

 ZI            I can receive but not transmit by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 ZJ            I can transmit but not receive by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104).

 ZK            I cannot distinguish your signal. Please repeat it by... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Sec-
               tion 10, Page 104).

 ZL            Your signal has been received but not understood.

               I cannot read your... (Complements Table 1, Chapter 2, Section 10, Page 104). . . . . . . . . . . .      YT

 ZM            You should send (or speak) more slowly.

        ZM 1       Shall I send (or speak) more slowly?

 ZN            You should send each word or group twice.

 ZO            You should stop sending.

        ZO 1       Shall I stop sending?


                                                    REPEAT

 ZP            My last signal was incorrect. I will repeat it correctly.

 ZQ            Your signal appears incorrectly coded. You should check and repeat the whole.

 ZR            Repeat the signal now being made to me by vessel (or coast station)... (name or identity sig-
               nal).




102
                                                             CHAPTER 2
               SECTION 9: INTERNATIONAL HEALTH REGULATIONS
                                                                                                                                                               Cross
Code                                                                       Meaning                                                                           Reference
                                                         PRATIQUE MESSAGES

ZS                 My vessel is "healthy" and I request free pratique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       Q
                   *I   require health clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      QQ

ZT                 My Maritime Declaration of Health has negative answers to the six Health Questions.

ZU                 My Maritime Declaration of Health has a positive answer to Health Question(s)... (Health
                   Questions are indicated by complements 1-6).

ZV                 I believe I have been in an infected area during the last thirty days.

ZW                 I require Port Medical Officer.

        ZW 1               Port Medical Officer will be available at (time indicated).

ZX                 You should make the appropriate pratique signal.

ZY                 You have pratique.

ZZ                 You should proceed to anchorage for health clearance (at place indicated).

        ZZ 1               Where is the anchorage for health clearance?

                   I have a doctor on board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        AL

                   Have you a doctor?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      AM


 *   By night a red light over a white light may be shown, where it can best be seen, by vessels requiring health clear-
     ance. These lights should only be about 6 feet apart, should be exhibited within the precincts of a port and should
     be visible all around the horizon as nearly as possible.




                                                                                                                                                                     103
                                              CHAPTER 2
                             SECTION 10: TABLES OF COMPLEMENTS
Table 1

1. Morse signaling by hand flags or arms
2. Loud hailer (megaphone)
3. Morse signaling lamp
4. Sound signals

Table 2

0. Water
1. Provisions
2. Fuel
3. Pumping equipment
4. Firefighting appliances
5. Medical assistance
6. Towing
7. Survival craft
8. Vessel to stand by
9. Icebreaker

Table 3

0. Direction unknown (or calm)
1. Northeast
2. East
3. Southeast
4. South
5. Southwest
6. West
7. Northwest
8. North
9. All directions (or confused or variable)




104
                                                                                                                                 CHAPTER                              3
                                                     CHAPTER 3
                                                 MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE

                                                                                                                                                               PAGE

SECTION 1: EXPLANATION AND INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  107
              INSTRUCTIONS TO MASTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              107
              INSTRUCTIONS TO DOCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              107
              EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           108
              CASE ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         108
              CASE TWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           108
SECTION 2: REQUEST FOR MEDICAL ASSISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    109
              REQUEST--GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       109
              DESCRIPTION OF PATIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         109
              PREVIOUS HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    110
              LOCALIZATION OF SYMPTOMS, DISEASES, OR INJURIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                        110
              GENERAL SYMPTOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       110
              PARTICULAR SYMPTOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          114
              PROGRESS REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    123
SECTION 3: MEDICAL ADVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              125
              REQUEST FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                             125
              DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          125
              SPECIAL TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      125
              TREATMENT BY MEDICAMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                   127
              DIET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   128
              CHILDBIRTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             128
              VACCINATION AGAINST SMALLPOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       129
              GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           129
SECTION 4: TABLES OF COMPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         130
              TABLE M-1--REGIONS OF THE BODY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     130
              TABLE M-2--LIST OF COMMON DISEASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           133
              TABLE M-3--LIST OF MEDICAMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     134




                                                                                                                                                                      105
                                                   CHAPTER 3
                      SECTION 1: EXPLANATION AND INSTRUCTIONS
General
1. Medical advice should be sought and given in plain language whenever it is possible but, if language difficulties are encoun-
tered, this Code should be used.
2. Even when plain language is used, the text of the Code and the instructions should be followed as far as possible.
3. Reference is made to the procedure signals "C", "N", or "NO" and "RQ" which, when used after the main signal, change
its meaning into affirmative, negative and interrogative, respectively. (See Chapter 1, Section 6, Paragraph 3.(j), Page 11.)
        Example:
        "MFE N" = "Bleeding is not severe".
        "MFE RQ" = "Is bleeding severe?"

INSTRUCTIONS TO MASTERS
Standard method of case description
1. The master should make a careful examination of the patient and should try to collect, as far as possible, information covering
the following subjects:
(a) Description of the patient (Chapter 3, Section 2., Page 109);
(b) Previous health (Chapter 3, Section 2., Page 110);
(c) Localization of symptoms, diseases, or injuries (Chapter 3, Section 2., Page 110);
(d) General symptoms (Chapter 3, Section 2., Page 110);
(e) Particular symptoms (Chapter 3, Section 2., Page 114);
(f) *Diagnosis (Chapter 3, Section 3., Page 125).
2. Such information should be coded by choosing the appropriate groups from the corresponding sections of this chapter. It
would help the recipients of the signal if the information is transmitted in the order stated in Paragraph 1.
3. Chapter 3, Section 2., Page 109, contains signals which can be used independently, i.e. with or without the description of the
case.
4. After a reply from the doctor has been received and the instructions therein followed, the master can give a progress report
by using signals from Chapter 3, Section 2., Page 123.

INSTRUCTIONS TO DOCTORS
1. Additional information can be requested by using Chapter 3, Section 3, Page 125.
        Example:
        "MQB" = "I cannot understand your signal, please use standard method of case description".
2. For diagnosis*, Chapter 3, Section 3., Page 125, should be used.
        Example:
        "MQE 26" = "My probable diagnosis is cystitis".
3. Prescribing should be limited to the "List of Medicaments" which comprises Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Pages 134
and 135, of the Code.
4. For special treatment, signals from Chapter 3, Section 3., Pages 125 through 127, should be used.
        Example:
        "MRP 4" = "Apply ice-cold compress and renew every 4 hours".
5. When prescribing a medicament (Chapter 3, Section 3., page 127) three signals should be used as follows:
   (a) the first (Chapter 3, Section 3., Page 127, and Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Pages 134 and 135) to signify the me-
        dicament itself.

    *   Chapter 3, Section 3, Page 125 , "Diagnosis", can be used by both the master ("request for medical assistance")
        and the doctor ("medical advice").



                                                                                                                              107
                                          CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE
        Example:
        "MTD 32" = "You should give aspirin tablets".
   (b) the second (Chapter 3, Section 3, Page 127) to signify the method of administration and dose.
        Example:
        "MTI 2" = "You should give by mouth 2 tablets/capsules".
   (c) the third (Chapter 3, Section 3, Page 127) to signify the frequency of the dose.
        Example:
        "MTQ 8" = "You should repeat every 8 hours".
6. The frequency of external applications is coded in Chapter 3, Section 3, Page 128.
        Example:
        "MTU 4" = "You should apply every 4 hours".
7. Advice concerning diet can be given by using signals from Chapter 3, Section 3, Page 128.
        Example:
        "MUC" = "Give water only in small quantities".

EXAMPLES
As an example, two cases of request for assistance and the corresponding replies are drafted below:

CASE ONE
Request for medical assistance
"I have a male age (44) years. Patient has been ill for (2) days. Patient has suffered from (bronchitis acute). Onset was sudden.
Patient is delirious. Patient has fits of shivering. Temperature taken in mouth is (40). Pulse rate per minute is (110). The rate of
breathing per minute is (30). Patient is in pain (chest). Part of the body affected is right (chest). Pain is increased on breathing.
Patient has severe cough. Patient has blood-stained sputum. Patient has been given (penicillin injection) without effect. Patient
has received treatment by medicaments in last (18) hours. My probable diagnosis is (pneumonia)."
Medical advice
"Your diagnosis is probably right. You should continue giving (penicillin injection). You should repeat every (12) hours. Put
patient to bed lying down at absolute rest. Keep patient warm. Give fluid diet, milk, fruit juice, tea, mineral water. Give water
very freely. Refer back to me in (24) hours or before if patient worsens."

CASE TWO
Request for medical assistance
"I have a male aged (31) years. Patient has been ill for (3) hours. Patient has had no serious previous illness. Pulse rate per
minute is (95). Pulse is weak. Patient is sweating. Patient is in pain in lumbar (kidney) region. The part affected is left lumbar
(kidney) region. Pain is severe. Pain is increased by hand pressure. Bowels are regular."
Request for additional information
"I cannot make a diagnosis. Please answer the following question(s). Temperature taken in the mouth is (number). Pain radiates
to groin and testicle. Patient has pain on passing water. Urinary functions normal. Vomiting is present."
Additional information
"Temperature taken in mouth is (37). Pain radiates to groin and testicle. Patient has pain on passing water. Patient is passing
small quantities of urine frequently. Vomiting is absent. Patient has nausea."
Medical advice
"My probable diagnosis is kidney stone (renal colic). You should give morphine injection. You should give by subcutaneous
injection (15) milligrams. Give water freely. Apply hot water bottle to lumbar (kidney) region. Patient should be seen by doctor
when next in port."




108
                                                 CHAPTER 3
       SECTION 2: REQUEST FOR MEDICAL ASSISTANCE
                                                                                                                                                       Cross
Code                                                           Meaning                                                                               Reference
                            REQUEST--GENERAL INFORMATION

MAA    I request urgent medical advice.

MAB    I request you to make rendezvous in position indicated.

MAC    I request you to arrange hospital admission.

MAD    I am . . . (indicate number) hours from the nearest port.

MAE    I am converging on nearest port.

MAF    I am moving away from nearest port.

       I require medical assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             W

       I have a doctor on board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            AL

       Have you a doctor?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          AM

       I need a doctor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      AN

       I need a doctor; I have severe burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 AN 1

       I need a doctor; I have radiation casualties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     AN 2

       I require a helicopter urgently with a doctor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      BR 2

       I require a helicopter urgently to pick up injured/sick person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               BR 3

       Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated) with a doctor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       BT 2

       Helicopter is coming to you now (or at time indicated) to pick up injured/sick person . . . . . .                                                BT 3

       I have injured/sick person (or number of persons indicated) to be taken off urgently. . . . . . . .                                              AQ

       You should send a helicopter/boat with a stretcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           BS

       A helicopter/boat is coming to take injured/sick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         BU

       You should send injured/sick persons to me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         AT


                                       DESCRIPTION OF PATIENT

MAJ    I have a male aged . . . (number) years.

MAK    I have a female aged . . . (number) years.

MAL    I have a female . . . (number) months pregnant.

MAM    Patient has been ill for . . . (number) days.

MAN    Patient has been ill for . . . (number) hours.

MAO    General condition of the patient is good.

MAP    General condition of the patient is serious.


                                                                                                                                                             109
                                             CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                        Cross
 Code                                                          Meaning                                                Reference


 MAQ                    General condition of the patient is unchanged.

 MAR                    General condition of the patient has worsened.

 MAS                    Patient has been given . . . (Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Pages 134 and 135) with effect.

 MAT                    Patient has been given . . . (Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Pages 134 and 135) without
                        effect.

 MAU                    Patient has received treatment by medicaments in last . . . (indicate number) hours.

                                                    PREVIOUS HEALTH

 MBA                    Patient has suffered from . . . (Table M-2 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 133).

 MBB                    Patient has had previous operation . . . (Table M-2 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 133).

 MBC                    Patient has had no serious previous illness.

 MBD                    Patient has had no relevant previous injury.


                        LOCALIZATION OF SYMPTOMS, DISEASES, OR INJURIES

 MBE                    The whole body is affected.

 MBF                    The part of the body affected is . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).
 *MBG                   The part of the body affected is right . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).
 *MBH                   The part of the body affected is left . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).


      *   To be used when right and left side of the body or limb need to be differentiated.

                                                  GENERAL SYMPTOMS

 MBP                    Onset was sudden.

 MBQ                    Onset was gradual.

                                                            Temperature

 MBR                    Temperature taken in mouth is . . . (number).

 MBS                    Temperature taken in rectum is . . . (number).

 MBT                    Temperature in the morning is . . . (number).

 MBU                    Temperature in the evening is . . . (number).




110
                   SECTION 2.--REQUEST FOR MEDICAL ASSISTANCE
                                                                                                        Cross
Code                                              Meaning                                             Reference

                                             Temperature

MBV    Temperature is rising.

MBW    Temperature is falling.

                                                   Pulse

MBX    The pulse rate per minute is . . . (number).

MBY    The pulse rate is irregular.

MBZ    The pulse rate is rising.

MCA    The pulse rate is falling.

MCB    The pulse is weak.

MCC    The pulse is too weak to count.

MCD    The pulse is too rapid to count.

                                                 Breathing

MCE    The rate of breathing per minute is . . . (number) (in and out being counted as one breath).

MCF    The breathing is weak.

MCG    The breathing is wheezing.

MCH    The breathing is regular.

MCI    The breathing is irregular.

MCJ    The breathing is strenuous (noisy).

                                                 Sweating

MCL    Patient is sweating.

MCM    Patient has fits of shivering (chills).

MCN    Patient has night sweats.

MCO    Patient's skin is hot and dry.

MCP    Patient is cold and clammy.

                                    Mental State and Consciousness

MCR    Patient is conscious.

MCT    Patient is semiconscious but can be roused.




                                                                                                             111
                                CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                      Cross
 Code                                            Meaning                            Reference

                                    Mental State and Consciousness

 MCU    Patient is unconscious.

 MCV    Patient found unconscious.

 MCW    Patient appears to be in a state of shock.

 MCX    Patient is delirious.

 MCY    Patient has mental symptoms.

 MCZ    Patient is paralyzed . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MDC    Patient is restless.

 MDD    Patient is unable to sleep.

                                                  Pain

 MDF    Patient is in pain . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MDG    Pain is a dull ache.

 MDJ    Pain is slight.

 MDL    Pain is severe.

 MDM    Pain is intermittent.

 MDN    Pain is continuous.

 MDO    Pain is increased by hand pressure.

 MDP    Pain radiates to . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MDQ    Pain is increased on breathing.

 MDR    Pain is increased by action of bowels.

 MDT    Pain is increased on passing water.

 MDU    Pain occurs after taking food.

 MDV    Pain is relieved by taking food.

 MDW    Pain has no relation to taking food.

 MDX    Pain is relieved by heat.

 MDY    Pain has ceased.

                                                 Cough

 MED    Cough is present.

 MEF    Cough is absent.



112
                   SECTION 2.--REQUEST FOR MEDICAL ASSISTANCE
                                                                                          Cross
Code                                           Meaning                                  Reference


                                               Bowels

MEG    Bowels are regular.

MEJ    Patient is constipated and bowels last opened . . . (indicate number of days).

MEL    Patient has diarrhea . . . (indicate number of times daily).

                                             Vomiting

MEM    Vomiting is present.

MEN    Vomiting is absent.

MEO    Patient has nausea.

                                                Urine

MEP    Urinary functions normal.

MEQ    Urinary functions abnormal.

                                              Bleeding

MER    Bleeding is present . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MET    Bleeding is absent.

                                                Rash

MEU    A rash is present . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MEV    A rash is absent.

                                               Swelling

MEW    Patient has a swelling . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MEX    Swelling is hard.

MEY    Swelling is soft.

MEZ    Swelling is hot and red.

MFA    Swelling is painful on hand pressure.

MFB    Swelling is discharging.

MFC    Patient has an abscess . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MFD    Patient has a carbuncle . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).




                                                                                               113
                              CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                         Cross
 Code                                              Meaning                                                             Reference

                                  PARTICULAR SYMPTOMS

                        Accidents, Injuries, Fractures, Suicide, and Poisons

        Bleeding is present . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MER

 MFE    Bleeding is severe.

 MFF    Bleeding is slight.

 MFG    Bleeding has been stopped by pad(s) and bandaging.

 MFH    Bleeding has been stopped by tourniquet.

 MFI    Bleeding has stopped.

 MFJ    Bleeding cannot be stopped.

 MFK    Patient has a superficial wound . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFL    Patient has a deep wound . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFM    Patient has penetrating wound . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFN    Patient has a clean-cut wound . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFO    Patient has a wound with ragged edges . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFP    Patient has a discharging wound . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFQ    Patient has contusion (bruising) . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFR    Wound is due to blow.

 MFS    Wound is due to crushing.

 MFT    Wound is due to explosion.

 MFU    Wound is due to fall.

 MFV    Wound is due to gunshot.

 MFW    Patient has a foreign body in wound.

 MFX    Patient is suffering from concussion.

 MFY    Patient cannot move the arm . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MFZ    Patient cannot move the leg . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MGA    Patient has dislocation . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MGB    Patient has simple fracture . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MGC    Patient has compound fracture . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MGD    Patient has comminuted fracture . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MGE    Patient has attempted suicide.



114
                   SECTION 2.--REQUEST FOR MEDICAL ASSISTANCE
                                                                                                        Cross
Code                                          Meaning                                                 Reference

                        Accidents, Injuries, Fractures, Suicide, and Poisons

MGF    Patient has cut throat.

MGG    Patient has superficial burn . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MGH    Patient has severe burn . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MGI    Patient is suffering from noncorrosive poisoning (no staining and burning of mouth and lips).

MGJ    Patient has swallowed corrosive (staining and burning of mouth and lips).

MGK    Patient has swallowed unknown poison.

MGL    Patient has swallowed a foreign body.

MGM    Emetic has been given with good results.

MGN    Emetic has been given without good results.

MGO    No emetic has been given.

MGP    Patient has had corrosive thrown on him . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MGQ    Patient has inhaled poisonous gases, vapors, dust.

MGR    Patient is suffering from animal bite . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MGS    Patient is suffering from snake bite . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MGT    Patient is suffering from gangrene . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

                                   Diseases of Nose and Throat

MGU    Patient has nasal discharge.

MGV    Patient has foreign body in nose.

MHA    Lips are swollen.

MHB    Tongue is dry.

MHC    Tongue is coated.

MHD    Tongue is glazed and red.

MHF    Tongue is swollen.

MHG    Patient has ulcer on tongue.

MHJ    Patient has ulcer in mouth.

MHK    Gums are sore and bleeding.

MHL    Throat is sore and red.

MHM    Throat has pinpoint white spots on tonsils.




                                                                                                             115
                                    CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE
                                                                                                                                                      Cross
 Code                                                          Meaning                                                                              Reference

                                               Diseases of Nose and Throat

 MHN    Throat has gray white patches on tonsils.

 MHO    Throat hurts and is swollen on one side.

 MHP    Throat hurts and is swollen on both sides.

 MHQ    Swallowing is painful.

 MHR    Patient cannot swallow.

 MHT    Patient has hoarseness of voice.

        Patient has swallowed a foreign body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   MGL

 MHV    Patient has severe toothache.

                                              Diseases of Respiratory System

 MHY    Patient has pain in chest on breathing . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

        Breathing is wheezing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          MCG

 MHZ    Breathing is deep.

 MIA    Patient has severe shortness of breath.

 MIB    Patient has asthmatical attack.

        Cough is absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MEF

 MIC    Patient has severe cough.

 MID    Cough is longstanding.

 MIF    Patient is coughing up blood.

 MIG    Patient has no sputum.

 MIJ    Patient has abundant sputum.

 MIK    Sputum is offensive.

 MIL    Patient has bloodstained sputum.

 MIM    Patient has blueness of face.

                                             Diseases of the Digestive System

 MIN    Patient has tarry stool.

 MIO    Patient has clay-colored stool.

        Patient has diarrhea . . . (indicate number of times daily) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          MEL

 MIP    Patient has diarrhea with frequent stools like rice water.



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Code                                                          Meaning                                                                             Reference

                                            Diseases of the Digestive System

MIQ    Patient is passing blood with stools.

MIR    Patient is passing mucus with stools.

       Patient has nausea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MEO

MIT    Patient has persistent hiccough.

MIU    Patient has cramp pains and vomiting.

       Vomiting is present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MEM

       Vomiting is absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MEN

MIV    Vomiting has stopped.

MIW    Vomiting is persistent.

MIX    Vomit is streaked with blood.

MIY    Patient vomiting much blood.

MIZ    Vomit is dark (like coffee grounds).

MJA    Patient vomits any food and liquid given.

MJB    Amount of vomit is . . . (indicate in deciliters: 1 deciliter equals one-sixth of a pint).

MJC    Frequency of vomiting is . . . (indicate number) daily.

MJD    Patient has flatulence.

MJE    Wind has not been passed per anus for . . . (indicate number of hours).

MJF    Wind is being passed per anus.

MJG    Abdomen is distended.

MJH    Abdominal wall is soft (normal).

MJI    Abdominal wall is hard and rigid.

MJJ    Abdominal wall is tender . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

       Patient is in pain . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                MDF

       Patient has a swelling . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    MEW

MJK    Hernia is present.

MJM    Hernia cannot be replaced.

MJN    Hernia is painful and tender.

MJO    Patient has bleeding hemorrhoids.

MJP    Hemorrhoids cannot be reduced (put back in place).




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 Code                                                        Meaning                                                                           Reference


                                      Diseases of the Genitourinary System

        Patient is in pain . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            MDF

 MJS    Patient has pain on passing water.

 MJT    Patient has pain in penis at end of passing water.

 MJU    Patient has pain spreading from abdomen to penis, testicles, or thigh.

 MJV    Patient is unable to hold urine (incontinent).

 MJW    Patient is unable to pass urine.

 MJX    Patient is passing small quantities of urine frequently.

 MJY    Amount of urine passed in 24 hours . . . (indicate number in deciliters: 1 deciliter equals one-
        sixth of a pint).

        Urinary functions normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MEP

 MKA    Urine contains albumen.

 MKB    Urine contains sugar.

 MKC    Urine contains blood.

 MKD    Urine is very dark brown.

 MKE    Urine is offensive and may contain pus.

 MKF    Penis is swollen.

 MKH    Foreskin will not go back to normal position.

 MKI    Patient has swelling of testicles.

 MKJ    Shall I pass a catheter?

 MKK    I have passed a catheter.

 MKL    I am unable to pass a catheter.

                           Diseases of the Nervous System and Mental Diseases

 MKP    Patient has headache . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MKQ    Headache is throbbing.

 MKR    Headache is very severe.

 MKS    Head cannot be moved forwards to touch chest.

 MKT    Patient cannot feel pinprick . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MKU    Patient is unable to speak properly.




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Code                                                           Meaning                                                                              Reference

                           Diseases of the Nervous System and Mental Diseases

MKV    Giddiness (vertigo) is present.

       Patient is paralyzed . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    MCZ

       Patient is conscious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        MCR

       Patient is semiconscious but can be roused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      MCT

       Patient is unconscious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          MCU

MKW    Pupils are equal in size.

MKX    Pupils are unequal in size.

MKY    Pupils do not contract in a bright light.

MKZ    Patient has no control over his bowels.

MLA    Patient has fits associated with rigidity of muscles and jerking of limbs--indicate number of
       fits per 24 hours.

       Patient has mental symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               MCY

MLB    Patient has delusions.

MLC    Patient is depressed.

       Patient is delirious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MCX

MLD    Patient is uncontrollable.

       Patient has attempted suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             MGE

MLE    Patient has had much alcohol.

MLF    Patient has delirium tremens.

MLG    Patient has bedsores . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

                                 Diseases of the Heart and Circulatory System

       Patient is in pain . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  MDF

MLH    Pain has been present for . . . (indicate number of minutes).

MLI    Pain in chest is constricting in character.

MLJ    Pain is behind the breastbone.

       Pain radiates to . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  MDP

       Patient has blueness of face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            MIM

MLK    Patient has pallor.




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 Code                                                             Meaning                                                                                  Reference

                                   Diseases of the Heart and Circulatory System

        The rate of breathing per minute is . . . (number) (in and out being counted as one
        breath). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MCE

        The pulse is weak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             MCB

        The pulse rate is irregular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               MBY

        The pulse is too weak to count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    MCC

        The pulse is too rapid to count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   MCD

 MLL    Breathing is difficult when lying down.

 MLM    Swelling of legs that pits on pressure.

 MLN    Patient has varicose ulcer.

                                               Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

 MLR    Rash has been present for . . . (indicate number of hours).

 MLS    Rash first appeared on . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MLT    Rash is spreading to . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MLU    Rash is fading.

 MLV    Rash is itchy.

 MLW    Rash is not itchy.

 MLX    Rash looks like general redness.

 MLY    Rash looks like blotches.

 MLZ    Rash looks like small blisters containing clear fluid.

 MMA    Rash looks like larger blisters containing pus.

 MMB    Rash is weeping (oozing).

 MMC    Rash looks like weals.

 MMD    Rash consists of rose-colored spots that do not blench on pressure.

 MME    Skin is yellow.

        Patient has an abscess . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                            MFC

 MMF    Patient has buboes . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MMJ    Patient has been isolated.

 MMK    Should patient be isolated?

 MML    I have had (indicate number) similar cases.



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Code                                                        Meaning                                                                         Reference

                                          Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

       Patient has diarrhea with frequent stools like rice water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   MIP

       Patient has never been successfully vaccinated against smallpox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           MUT

       Patient was last vaccinated . . . (date indicated). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             MUU

       Patient has vaccination marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       MUV

                   Venereal Diseases (See also Diseases of Genitourinary System.)

MMP    Patient has discharge from penis.

MMQ    Patient has previous history of gonorrhea.

MMR    Patient has single hard sore on penis.

MMS    Patient has multiple sores on penis.

       Patient has buboes . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            MMF

MMT    Patient has swollen glands in the groin.

MMU    End of penis is inflamed and swollen.

                                                    Diseases of the Ear

       Patient is in pain . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          MDF

MMW    Patient has boil in ear(s).

MMX    Patient has discharge of blood from ear(s).

MMY    Patient has discharge of clear fluid from ear(s).

MMZ    Patient has discharge of pus from ear(s).
MNA    Patient has hearing impaired.

MNB    Patient has foreign body in ear.

       Giddiness (vertigo) is present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MKV

MNC    Patient has constant noises in ear(s).

                                                    Diseases of the Eye

       Patient is in pain . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          MDF

MNG    Patient has inflammation of eye(s).

MNH    Patient has discharge from eye(s).

MNI    Patient has foreign body embedded in the pupil area of the eye.




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 Code                                                          Meaning                                                                             Reference

                                                       Diseases of the Eye

 MNJ    Eyelids are swollen.

 MNK    Patient cannot open eyes (raise eyelids).

 MNL    Patient has foreign body embedded in the white of the eye.

 MNM    Patient has double vision when looking at objects with both eyes open.

 MNN    Patient has sudden blindness in one eye.

 MNO    Patient has sudden blindness in both eyes.

        Pupils are equal in size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MKW

        Pupils are unequal in size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        MKX

        Pupils do not contract in a bright light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              MKY

        Patient has a penetrating wound . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130) . . . . . . . .                                           MFM

 MNP    Eyeball is yellow in color.

                                                     Diseases of the Skin

        See Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Chapter 3, Section 2, Page 120.

                                             Diseases of Muscles and Joints

 MNT    Patient has pain in muscles of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MNU    Patient has pain in joint(s) . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MNV    Patient has redness and swelling of joint(s) . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MNW    There is history of recent injury.

 MNX    There is no history of injury.

                                                   Miscellaneous Illnesses

        Patient has had much alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            MLE

 MOA    Patient is suffering from heat exhaustion.

 MOB    Patient is suffering from heat stroke.

 MOC    Patient is suffering from seasickness.

 MOD    Patient is suffering from exposure in lifeboat--indicate length of exposure (number) hours.

 MOE    Patient is suffering from frostbite . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MOF    Patient has been exposed to radioactive hazard.




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Code                                           Meaning             Reference


                                             Childbirth

MOK    I have a patient in childbirth aged . . . (number years).

MOL    Patient states she has had . . . (number) children.

MOM    Patient states child is due in . . . (number) weeks.

MON    Pains began . . . (number) hours ago.

MOO    Pains are feeble and produce no effect.

MOP    Pains are strong and effective.

MOQ    Pains are occurring every . . . (number) minutes.

MOR    The bag of membranes broke . . . (number) hours ago.

MOS    There is severe bleeding from the womb.

MOT    The head is coming first.

MOU    The buttocks are coming first.

MOV    A foot has appeared first.

MOW    An arm has appeared first.

MOX    The child has been born.

MOY    The child will not breathe.

MOZ    The placenta has been passed.

MPA    The placenta has not been passed.

MPB    I have a nonpregnant woman who is bleeding from the womb.


                                      PROGRESS REPORT



MPE    I am carrying out prescribed instructions.

MPF    Patient is improving.

MPG    Patient is not improving.

MPH    Patient is relieved of pain.

MPI    Patient still has pain.

MPJ    Patient is restless.

MPK    Patient is calm.




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                                                                Cross
 Code                                     Meaning             Reference




 MPL    Symptoms have cleared.

 MPM    Symptoms have not cleared.

 MPN    Symptoms have increased.

 MPO    Symptoms have decreased.

 MPP    Treatment has been effective.

 MPQ    Treatment has been ineffective.

 MPR    Patient has died.




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                       SECTION 3: MEDICAL ADVICE
                                                                                                         Cross
Code                                         Meaning                                                   Reference
                REQUEST FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION



MQB    I cannot understand your signal; please use standard method of case description.

MQC    Please answer the following question(s).


                                           DIAGNOSIS



MQE    My probable diagnosis is . . . (Table M-2 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 133).

MQF    My alternative diagnosis is . . . (Table M-2 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 133).

MQG    My probable diagnosis is infection or inflammation . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4,
       Page 130).

MQH    My probable diagnosis is perforation of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQI    My probable diagnosis is tumor of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQJ    My probable diagnosis is obstruction of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQK    My probable diagnosis is hemorrhage of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQL    My probable diagnosis is foreign body in . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQM    My probable diagnosis is fracture of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQN    My probable diagnosis is dislocation of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQO    My probable diagnosis is sprain of . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

MQP    I cannot make a diagnosis.

MQT    Your diagnosis is probably right.

MQU    I am not sure about your diagnosis.


                                 SPECIAL TREATMENT



MRI    You should refer to your International Ship's Medical Guide if available or its equivalent.

MRJ    You should follow treatment in your own medical guide.

MRK    You should follow the instructions for this procedure outlined in your own medical guide.

MRL    Commence artificial respiration immediately.

MRM    Pass catheter into bladder.


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 Code                                             Meaning                                             Reference




 MRN    Pass catheter again after . . . (number) hours.

 MRO    Pass catheter and retain it in bladder.

 MRP    Apply ice-cold compress and renew every . . . (number) hours.

 MRQ    Apply hot compress and renew every . . . (number) hours.

 MRR    Apply hot-water bottle to . . . (Table M-1 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 130).

 MRS    Insert ear drops . . . (number) times daily.

 MRT    Insert antiseptic eye drops . . . (number) times daily.

 MRU    Insert anesthetic eye drops . . . (number) times daily.

 MRV    Bathe eye frequently with hot water.

 MRW    Give frequent gargles one teaspoonful of salt in a tumblerful of water.

 MRX    Give enema.

 MRY    Do not give enema or laxative.

 MRZ    Was the result of the enema satisfactory?

 MSA    Give rectal saline slowly to replace fluid loss.

 MSB    Give subcutaneous saline to replace fluid loss.

 MSC    Apply well-padded splint(s) to immobilize limb. Watch circulation by inspection of color of
        fingers or toes.

 MSD    Apply cotton wool to armpit and bandage arm to side.

 MSF    Apply a sling and/or rest the part.

 MSG    Give light movements and massage daily.

 MSJ    Place patient in hot bath.

 MSK    To induce sleep give two sedative tablets.

 MSL    Reduce temperature of patient as indicated in general nursing chapter of Medical Guide.

 MSM    The swelling should be incised and drained.

 MSN    Dress wound with sterile gauze, cotton wool, and bandage.

 MSO    Dress wound with sterile gauze, cotton wool, and apply well-padded splint.

 MSP    Apply burn and wound dressing and bandage lightly.

 MSQ    Dress wound and bring edges together with adhesive plaster.

 MSR    The wound should be stitched.




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                                                                                                  Cross
Code                                          Meaning                                           Reference




MST    The wound should not be stitched.

MSU    Stop bleeding by applying more cotton wool, firm bandaging, and elevation of the limb.

MSV    Stop bleeding by manual pressure.

MSW    Apply tourniquet for not more than fifteen minutes.

MSX    Induce vomiting by giving an emetic.

MSY    You should pass a stomach tube.

MSZ    Do not try to empty stomach by any method.

                         TREATMENT BY MEDICAMENTS

                                           Prescribing

MTD    You should give . . . (Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 134 and 135).

MTE    You must not give . . . (Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Page 134 and 135).

                              Method of Administration and Dose

MTF    You should give one tablespoon (15 ml or 1/2 oz.).

MTG    You should give one dessertspoonful (7.5 ml or 1/4 oz.).

MTH    You should give one teaspoonful (4 ml or 1 drachm).

MTI    You should give by mouth . . . (number) tablets/capsules.

MTJ    You should give a tumblerful of water with each dose.

MTK    You should give by intramuscular injection . . . (number) milligrams.

MTL    You should give by subcutaneous injection . . . (number) milligrams.

MTM    You should give by intramuscular injection . . . (number) ampoule(s).

MTN    You should give by subcutaneous injection . . . (number) ampoule(s).

                                       Frequency of Dose

MTO    You should give once only.

MTP    You should repeat after . . . (number) hours.

MTQ    You should repeat every . . . (number) hours.

MTR    You should continue for . . . (number) hours.




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 Code                                                           Meaning                                                                                Reference


                                          Frequency of External Application

 MTT    You should apply once only.

 MTU    You should apply every . . . (number) hours.

 MTV    You should cease to apply.

 MTW    You should apply for . . . (number) minutes.


                                                                 DIET

 MUA    Give nothing by mouth.

 MUB    Give water very freely.

 MUC    Give water only in small quantities.

 MUD    Give water only as much as possible without causing the patient to vomit.

 MUE    Give ice to suck.

 MUF    Give fluid diet, milk, fruit, juices, tea, mineral water.

 MUG    Give light diet such as vegetable soup, steamed fish, stewed fruit, milk puddings, or equivalent.

 MUH    Give normal diet as tolerated.


                                                        CHILDBIRTH

 MUI    Has she had previous children?

 MUJ    How many months pregnant is she?

 MUK    When did labor pains start?

        Give enema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      MRX

 MUL    Encourage her to rest between pains.

 MUM    Encourage her to strain down during pains.

 MUN    What is the frequency of pains (indicate in minutes).

        To induce sleep give two sedative tablets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     MSK

 MUO    Patient should strain down and you exert steady but gentle pressure on lower part of the abdo-
        men but not on the womb to help expulsion of the placenta.

 MUP    You should apply tight wide binder around lower part of abdomen and hips.

 MUQ    You should apply artificial respiration gently by mouth technique on infant.




128
                                SECTION 3.--MEDICAL ADVICE
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Code                                            Meaning                                           Reference

                      VACCINATION AGAINST SMALLPOX

MUR    Has the patient been successfully vaccinated?

MUS    Has the patient been vaccinated during the past three years?

MUT    Patient has never been successfully vaccinated against smallpox.

MUU    Patient was last vaccinated . . . (indicate date).

MUV    Patient has vaccination marks.


                               GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

MVA    I consider the case serious and urgent.

MVB    I do not consider the case serious or urgent.

MVC    Put patient to bed lying down at absolute rest.

MVD    Put patient to bed sitting up.

MVE    Raise head of bed.

MVF    Raise foot of bed.

MVG    Keep patient warm.

MVH    Keep patient cool.

MVI    You should continue your local treatment.

MVJ    You should continue your special treatment.

MVK    You should continue giving . . . (Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Pages 134 and 135).

MVL    You should suspend your local treatment.

MVM    You should suspend your special treatment.

MVN    You should cease giving . . . (Table M-3 in Chapter 3, Section 4, Pages 134 and 135).

MVO    You should isolate the patient and disinfect his cabin.

MVP    You should land your patient at the earliest opportunity.

MVQ    Patient should be seen by a doctor when next in port.

MVR    I will arrange for hospital admission.

MVS    I think I should come on board and examine the case.

MVT    No treatment advised.

MVU    Refer back to me in . . . (number) hours or before if patient worsens.




                                                                                                         129
                                                   CHAPTER 3
                                SECTION 4: TABLES OF COMPLEMENTS

                                       TABLE M-1--REGIONS OF THE BODY

                          Side of body or limb affected should be clearly indicated--right, left
                                                   FIGURE 1 (Front)
  1.      Frontal region of head          13.   Arm upper                     25.   Scrotum
  2.       Side of head                   14.   Forearm                       26.   Testicles
  3.      Top of head                     15.   Wrist                         27.   Penis
  4.      Face                            16.   Palm of hand                  28.   Upper thigh
  5.      Jaw                             17.   Fingers                       29.   Middle thigh
  6.      Neck front                      18.   Thumb                         30.   Lower thigh
  7.      Shoulder                        19.   Central upper abdomen         31.   Knee
  8.      Clavicle                        20.   Central lower abdomen         32.   Patella
 *9.      Chest                          *21.   Upper abdomen                 33.   Front of leg
 10.      Chest, mid                     *22.   Lower abdomen                 34.   Ankle
 11.      Heart                          *23.   Lateral abdomen               35.   Foot
 12.      Armpit                         *24.   Groin                         36.   Toes
                                                   FIGURE 2 (Back)
 37.      Back of head                    44.   Back of hand                  51.   Buttock
 38.      Back of neck                   *45.   Lower chest region            52.   Anus
 39.      Back of shoulder                46.   Spinal column upper           53.   Back of thigh
 40.      Scapula region                  47.   Spinal column middle          54.   Back of knee
 41.      Elbow                           48.   Spinal column lower           55.   Calf
 42.      Back upper arm                 *49.   Lumbar (kidney) region        56.   Heel
 43.      Back lower arm                  50.   Sacral region
                                          OTHER ORGANS OF THE BODY
 57.      Artery                          69.   Lip, lower                    81.   Tongue
 58.      Bladder                         70.   Lip, upper                    82.   Tonsils
 59.      Brain                           71.   Liver                         83.   Tooth, teeth
 60.      Breast                          72.   Lungs                         84.   Urethra
 61.      Ear(s)                          73.   Mouth                         85.   Uterus, womb
 62.      Eye(s)                          74.   Nose                          86.   Vein
 63.      Eyelid(s)                       75.   Pancreas                      87.   Voice box (larynx)
 64.      Gall bladder                    76.   Prostate                      88.   Whole abdomen
 65.      Gullet (esophagus)              77.   Rib(s)                        89.   Whole arm
 66.      Gums                            78.   Spleen                        90.   Whole back
 67.      Intestine                       79.   Stomach                       91.   Whole chest
 68.      Kidney                          80.   Throat                        92.   Whole leg

      *   Indicate side as required.




130
SECTION 4.--TABLES OF COMPLEMENTS
           FIGURE 1




                                    131
      CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE
                FIGURE 2




132
                                    SECTION 4.--TABLES OF COMPLEMENTS
                                 TABLE M-2--LIST OF COMMON DISEASES
1.    Abscess                            32.   Duodenal ulcer               64.   Phlebitis
2.    Alcoholism                         33.   Eczema                       65.   Piles
3.    Allergic reaction                  34.   Erysipelas                   66.   Plague
4.    Amoebic dysentery                  35.   Fits                         67.   Pleurisy
5.    Angina pectoris                    36.   Gangrene                     68.   Pneumonia
6.    Anthrax                            37.   Gastric ulcer                69.   Poisoning (corrosive)
7.    Apoplexy (stroke)                  38.   Gastroenteritis              70.   Poisoning (noncorrosive)
8.    Appendicitis                       39.   Gonorrhea                    71.   Poisoning (barbiturates)
9.    Asthma                             40.   Gout                         72.   Poisoning (methyl alcohol)
10.   Bacillary dysentery                41.   Heat cramps                  73.   Poisoning (gases)
11.   Boils                              42.   Heat exhaustion              74.   Poliomyelitis
12.   Bronchitis (acute)                 43.   Heat stroke                  75.   Prolapsed intervertebral
13.   Bronchitis (chronic)               44.   Hepatitis                          disc (slipped disc)
14.   Brucellosis                        45.   Hernia                       76.   Pulmonary tuberculosis
15.   Carbuncle                          46.   Hernia (irreducible)         77.   Quinsy
16.   Cellulitis                         47.   Hernia (strangulated)        78.   Rheumatism
17.   Chancroid                          48.   Immersion foot               79.   Rheumatic fever
18.   Chicken pox                        49.   Impetigo                     80.   Scarlet fever
19.   Cholera                            50.   Insulin overdose             81.   Sciatica
20.   Cirrhosis of the liver             51.   Indigestion                  82.   Shingles (herpes zoster)
21.   Concussion                         52.   Influenza                    83.   Sinusitis
22.   Compression of brain               53.   Intestinal obstruction       84.   Shock
23.   Congestive heart failure           54.   Kidney stone (renal colic)   85.   Smallpox
24.   Constipation                       55.   Laryngitis                   86.   Syphilis
25.   Coronary thrombosis                56.   Malaria                      87.   Tetanus
26.   Cystitis (bladder                  57.   Measles                      88.   Tonsillitis
       inflammation)                     58.   Meningitis                   89.   Typhoid
27.   Dengue                             59.   Mental illness               90.   Typhus
28.   Diabetes                           60.   Migraine                     91.   Urethritis
29.   Diabetic coma                      61.   Mumps                        92.   Urticaria (nettle rash)
30.   Diptheria                          62.   Orchitis                     93.   Whooping cough
31.   Drug reaction                      63.   Peritonitis                  94.   Yellow fever




                                                                                                          133
                                            CHAPTER 3.--MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE
                                     TABLE M-3--LIST OF MEDICAMENTS*
                                                  FOR EXTERNAL USE
 1.       Auristillae Glyceris                                        7.   Naristillae Ephedrine
          Glycerin ear drops                                               Norephedrine hydrochloride drops
          EAR DROPS                                                        NASAL DROPS

 2.       Guttae Sulfacetamidi                                        8.   Paraffinum Molle Flavum
          Sulfacetamide eye drops                                          Yellow soft paraffin
          ANTISEPTIC EYE DROPS                                             SOFT PARAFFIN

 3.       Guttae Tetracainae                                          9.   Paraffinum Molle Flavum Carbasi Absorbentis
          Tetracaine eye drops                                             Tulle gras dressing (Paraffin gauze)
          ANAESTHETIC EYE DROPS                                            BURN/WOUND DRESSING

 4.       Linimentum Methylis Salicylatis                             10. Unguentum Bacitracini
          Methyl salicylate liniment                                      Bacitracin ointment
          SALICYLATE LINIMENT                                             ANTIBIOTIC OINTMENT

 5.       Lotio Calaminae                                             11. Unguentum Benzocaini Compositum
          Calamine Lotion                                                 Compund benzocaine ointment
          CALAMINE LOTION                                                 PILE OINTMENT

 6.       Lotio Cetrimidi                                             12. Unguentum Xylocaini Hydrochloridi
          Cetrimide lotion                                                Mylocaine ointment
          ANTISEPTIC LOTION                                               LOCAL ANAESTHETIC OINTMENT
                                                   FOR INTERNAL USE
                     Allergic Conditions                                   PENICILLIN TABLETS
 13. Compressi Promethazini Hydrochloridi                                  (125 mg per tablet)
     Promethazine hydrochloride tablets
     ANTIHISTAMINE TABLETS                                            17. Compressi Sulfadimidini
     (25 mg per tablet)                                                   Sulfadimidine tablets
                                                                          SULFONAMIDE TABLETS
 14. Injectic Adrenalini                                                  (500 mg per tablet)
     Adrenaline injection
     ADRENALINE (1 mg in "Ampins")                                    18. Injectio Benzylpenicillini
                                                                          Procaine penicillin G
CAUTION: THIS INJECTION NO. 14 TO BE USED ONLY                            PENICILLIN INJECTION
    ON MEDICAL ADVICE BY RADIO EXCEPT IN                                  (600,000 units per ampoule)
    CASE OF ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK DUE TO
    PENICILLIN INJECTION.                                             19. Injectio Streptomycini Sulfatis
                                                                          Streptomycin sulfate injection
                          Antibiotics                                     STREPTOMYCIN INJECTION
 15. Capsulae Tetracyclini Hydrochloridi                                  (1,000 mg per ampoule)
     Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules
     TETRACYCLINE CAPSULES
     (250 mg per capsule)                                             20. Injectio Tetracyclini hydrochloridi
                                                                          Tetracycline hydrochloride
 16. Compressi Phenoxymethylpenicillini                                   TETRACYCLINE INJECTION
     Phenoxymethylpenicillin                                              (100 mg per ampoule)



      *   Preparations listed may have been substituted by equivalent preparations in the ship's medicine chest. For the sake
          of uniformity, medicaments are indicated in the first place by their Latin denominations so that a correct transla-
          tion can be found in each language.



134
                                    SECTION 4.--TABLES OF COMPLEMENTS
                       Asthma                                   Counpound Colocynth and Jalap tablets
21. Compressi Aminophyllini                                     VEGETABLE LAXATIVE TABLETS
    Aminophylline tablets
    ASTHMA RELIEF TABLETS                                   30. Magnesii Hydroxidum
    (300 mg per tablet)                                         Magnesium hydroxide mixture
                                                                LIQUID LAXATIVE--"Milk of Magnesia"
CAUTION: THIS TABLET NO. 21 TO BE USED ONLY
       ON MEDICAL ADVICE BY RADIO.                                                Malaria
                                                            31. Compressi Chloroquini Sulfatis
22. Compressi Ephedrini Hydrochloridi                           Chloroquine sulfate tablets
    Ephedrine Hydrochloride tablets                             MALARIA TABLETS
    EPHEDRINE TABLETS                                           (200 mg per tablet)
    (30 mg per tablet)
                                                                                    Pain
23. Tinctura Benzoini Composita                             32. Compressi Acidi Acetylasalicylici
    Tincture of benzoin compound                                Acetylsalicylic acid tablets
    INHALATION MIXTURE                                          ASPIRIN TABLETS
                                                                (300 mg per tablet)
                        Cough
24. Compressi Codeini Phosphatis                            33. Injectio Morphini
    Codein phosphate tablets                                    Morphine sulfate injection
    CODEIN TABLETS                                              MORPHINE INJECTION
    (15 mg per tablet)                                          (15 mg per ampoule)

25. Linctus Scillae Opiata                                                       Sedation
    Linctus of squill, opiate                               34. Compressi Butobarbitali
    COUGH LINCTUS                                               Butobarbitone tablets
                                                                SEDATIVE TABLETS
                      Diarrhea                                  (100 mg per tablet)
26. Mistura Kaolini et Morphinae
    Kaolin and morphine mixture                             35. Compressi Phenobarbitali
    DIARRHEA MIXTURE                                            Phenobarbitone tablets
                                                                PHENOBARBITONE TABLETS
                         Heart                                  (30 mg per tablet)
27. Compressi Glycerylis Trinitratis
    Glycerin Trinitrate tablets                             36. Compressi Chlorpromazini Hydrochloridi
    HEART TABLETS                                               Chlorpromazine hydrochloride tablets
    (0.5 mg per tablet)                                         TRANQUILLIZER TABLETS (LARGACTIL)
                                                                (50 mg per tablet)
NOTE: For congestive heart failure the following prepara-
   tions are available on board ship, but they should be    CAUTION: THIS TABLET NO. 36 TO BE USED ONLY
   used only on medical advice transmitted in plain lan-       ON MEDICAL ADVICE BY RADIO.
   guage and not by Code:
                                                                    Salt Depletion or Heat Cramps
    Compressi Chlorothiazidi (Chlorothiazide) or equiva-    37. Compressi Natrii Chloridi Solv
    lent (500 mg per tablet)                                    Sodium chloride tablets
    Compressi Digoxin (Digoxin tablets) or equivalent           SALT TABLETS
    (0.25 mg per tablet)                                        (500 mg per tablet)

                     Indigestion                                                Seasickness
28. Compressi Magnesii Trisilicas                           38. Compressi Hyoscini Hydrobromidi
    Magnesium trisilicate                                       Hysocine Hydrobromide tablets
    STOMACH TABLETS                                             SEASICKNESS TABLETS
                                                                (0.3 mg per tablet)
                      Laxatives
29. Compressi Colocynthidis et Jalapae Compositae




                                                                                                         135
                                                                                                                      CHAPTER                           4
                                  CHAPTER 4
                      DISTRESS AND LIFESAVING SIGNALS AND
                         RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES

                                                                                                                                                PAGE

SECTION 1: DISTRESS SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
SECTION 2: TABLE OF LIFESAVING SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
SECTION 3: RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147




                                                                                                                                                        137
                                                    CHAPTER 4
                                     SECTION 1: DISTRESS SIGNALS

         (PRESCRIBED BY THE INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING
                              COLLISIONS AT SEA 1972)
To be used or displayed, either together or separately, by a vessel (or seaplane on the water) in distress requiring assistance from
other vessels or from the shore.
1. A gun or other explosive signal fire at intervals of about a minute.
2. A continuous sounding with any fog-signaling apparatus.
3. Rockets or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals.
4. A signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling method consisting of the group          SOS in the
    Morse Code.
5. A signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken word "MAYDAY".
6. The International Code Signal of distress indicated by NC.
7. A signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball.
8. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, etc.).
9. A rocket parachute flare or a hand flare showing a red light.
10. A smoke signal giving off a volume of orange-colored smoke.
11. Slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched to each side.
12. The radiotelegraph alarm signal.*
13. The radiotelephone alarm signal.**
14. Signals transmitted by emergency position-indicating beacons.***
NOTES: (a) Vessels in distress may use the radiotelegraph alarm signal or the radiotelephone alarm signal to secure attention
       to distress calls and messages. The radiotelegraph alarm signal, which is designed to actuate the radiotelegraph auto
       alarms of vessels so fitted, consists of a series of twelve dashes, sent in 1 minute, the duration of each dash being 4 sec-
       onds and the duration of the interval between 2 consecutive dashes being 1 second. The radiotelephone alarm signal con-
       sists of 2 tones transmitted alternately over periods of from 30 seconds to 1 minute.
       (b)The use of any of the foregoing signals, except for the purpose of indicating that a vessel or seaplane is in distress,
       and the use of any signals which may be confused with any of the above signals is prohibited.
       (c)Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual and the following signals:
          (i.)   a piece of orange-colored canvas with either a black square and circle or other appropriate symbol (for identi-
                 fication from the air);
          (ii.) a dye marker.




    *  A series of twelve four second dashes at intervals of one second.
    ** Two audio tones transmitted alternately at frequency of 2200 Hz and 1300 Hz for a duration of 30 seconds to one
       minute.
    *** Either the signal described in ** above or a series of single tones at a frequency of 1300 Hz.




                                                                                                                                139
                                                                 CHAPTER 4
                             SECTION 2: TABLE OF LIFESAVING SIGNALS
      I LANDING SIGNALS FOR THE GUIDANCE OF SMALL BOATS WITH CREWS OR
                             PERSONS IN DISTRESS

                   MANUAL SIGNALS                                LIGHT SIGNALS                             OTHER SIGNALS                            SIGNIFICATION




 Day
 Signals
                                                                                                    or code letter K given by light or
           Vertical motion of a white flag or of the      or firing of a green star signal          sound-signal apparatus
           arms
                                                                                                                                               This is the best place to land



 Night
 Signals
                                                                                                    or code letter K given by light or
           Vertical motion of a white light or flare      or firing of a green star signal          sound-signal apparatus

           A range (indication of direction) may be given by placing a steady white light or flare at a lower level and in line with the observer




 Day
 Signals
                                                                                                    or code letter S given by light or
           Horizontal motion of a white flag or of        or firing of a red star signal            sound-signal apparatus
           the arms extended horizontally                                                                                                      Landing here highly danger-
                                                                                                                                               ous


 Night
 Signals
                                                                                                    or code letter S given by light or
           Horizontal motion of a light or flare          or firing of a red star signal            sound-signal apparatus


                                                                                                    1 or signalling the code letter S (...)
                                                                                                    followed by the code letter R (. _ .) if
                                                                                                    a better landing place for the craft in
                                                                                                    distress is located more to the right
 Day       1 Horizontal motion of a white flag, fol-                                                in the direction of approach
 Signals   lowed by                                                                                 2 or signaling the code letter S (...)
           2 the placing of the white flag in the                                                   followed by the code letter L (. _ ..)
                                                          1 or firing of a red star signal verti-   if a better landing place for the craft
           ground and                                     cally and
           3 by the carrying of another white flag in                                               in distress is located more to the left
                                                          2 a white star signal in the direction    in the direction of approach
           the direction to be indicated                  towards the better landing place                                                     Landing here highly danger-
                                                                                                                                               ous. A more favorable loca-
                                                                                                                                               tion for landing is in the
                                                                                                    1 or signalling the code letter S (...)    direction indicated
                                                                                                    followed by the code letter R (. _.) if
                                                                                                    a better landing place for the craft in
                                                                                                    distress is located more to the right
 Night     1 Horizontal motion of a white                                                           in the direction of approach
 Signals   light or flare                                                                           2 or signaling the code letter S (...)
           2 followed by the placing of the white                                                   followed by the code letter L (. _ ..)
                                                          1 or firing of a red star signal verti-   if a better landing place for the craft
           light or flare on the ground and               cally and a
           3 the carrying of another white light or                                                 in distress is located more to the left
                                                          2 white star signal in the direction      in the direction of approach
           flare in the direction to be indicated         towards the better landing place




140
                                                SECTION 2.--TABLE OF LIFESAVING SIGNALS




          II SIGNALS TO BE EMPLOYED IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF SHORE
                               LIFESAVING APPARATUS

             MANUAL SIGNALS                         LIGHT SIGNALS                       OTHER SIGNALS                        SIGNIFICATION




Day
Signals
                                                                                                                         In general: affirmative
           Vertical motion of a white flag     or firing of a green star signal                                          Specifically: rocket line is
           or of the arms                                                                                                held -- tail block is made fast
                                                                                                                         -- hawser is made fast --
                                                                                                                         man is in the breeches buoy
                                                                                                                         -- haul away
Night
Signals
           Vertical motion of a white light
                                               or firing of a green star signal
           or flare

Day
Signals



           Horizontal motion of a white        or firing of a red star signal
           flag or of the arms extended
                                                                                                                         In general: negative
           horizontally
                                                                                                                         Specifically: slack away -
                                                                                                                         avast hauling
Night
Signals



           Horizontal motion of a white        or firing of a red star signal
           light or flare


          III REPLIES FROM LIFESAVING STATIONS OR MARITIME RESCUE UNITS
                    TO DISTRESS SIGNALS MADE BY A SHIP OR PERSON




Day
Signals
                                                                                    or combined light and sound
                                                                                    signal (thunder-light) consist-
                                                                                    ing of 3 single signals which
                                               Orange smoke signal                                                       You are seen - assistance will
                                                                                    are fired at intervals of approxi-
                                                                                                                         be given as soon as possible
                                                                                    mately one minute
                                                                                                                         (Repetition of such signal shall
                                                                                                                         have the same meaning)



Night
Signals
                                               White star rocket consisting of
                                               3 single signals which are fired
                                               at intervals of approximately
                                               one minute

           If necessary, the day signals may be given at night or the night signals by day




                                                                                                                                                            141
             CHAPTER 4.--DISTRESS AND LIFESAVING SIGNALS AND RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES




                                                IV AIR-TO-SURFACE VISUAL SIGNALS

 Signals used by aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations to direct ships towards an aircraft, ship or person in distress

 PROCEDURES PERFORMED IN SEQUENCE BY AN AIRCRAFT                                                                                 SIGNIFICATION




                                                                                                                           The aircraft is directing a vessel
                                                                                                                           towards an aircraft or vessel in
                                                                                                                           distress

                                                                                                                           (Repetition of such signals shall
 1 CIRCLE the vessel at least once.       2 CROSS the vessel's projected           3 HEAD in the direction in which        have the same meaning)
                                          course close AHEAD at a low alti-        the vessel is to be directed.
                                          tude while ROCKING the wings.
                                          (See Note)

 4 CROSS the vessel's wake close ASTERN at low altitude while ROCKING the wings. (See Note)


                                                                                                                           The assistance of the vessel is no
                                                                                                                           longer required

                                                                                                                           (Repetition of such signals shall
                                                                                                                           have the same meaning)
 NOTE - Opening and closing the throttle or changing the propeller pitch may also be practiced as an alternative means
 of attracting attention to that of rocking the wings. However, this form of sound signal may be less effective than the
 visual signal of rocking the wings owing to high noise level on board the vessel.



 Signals used by a vessel in response to an aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations                                     SIGNIFICATION




                                                                                                                           Acknowledges receipt of air-
                                                                                                                           craft's signal



 Hoist "Code and Answering" pen-          Change the heading to the required       Flash Morse Code signal "T" by sig-
 dant Close up; or                        direction; or                            nal lamp.




                                                                                                                           Indicates inability to comply



 Hoist international flag "N"                                                      Flash Morse Code signal "N" by sig-
 (NOVEMBER); or                                                                    nal lamp.




142
                                                 SECTION 2.--TABLE OF LIFESAVING SIGNALS




                                                V SURFACE-TO-AIR VISUAL SIGNALS

Communication from surface craft or survivors to an aircraft

Use International Code of Signals                                Use the following surface-to-air visual
or plain language by use of a                                    signals by displaying the appropriate
                                                 or
torch, signalling lamps or signal                                signal on the deck or on the ground.
flags.

Message                                                International Code of       ICAO* visual sym-
                                                       Signals                     bols

- Require assistance                                   V                           V

- Require medical assistance                           W                           X

- No or negative                                       N                           N

- Yes or affirmative                                   C                           Y

- Proceeding in this direction                                                     

* ICAO annex 12 -- Search and rescue

Reply from an aircraft observing the above signals from surface craft or survivors                                                  SIGNIFICATION




                                                                                                           Use any other suitable   Message understood
                                                                                                           signal
                                                      Flash the landing lights
                             Rock the wings (during   or navigation lights on    Flash Morse Code sig-
Drop a message or            daylight) or             and off twice (during      nal "T" or "R" by light
                                                      hours of darkness) or      or




                                                      Use any other suitable                                                        Message not under-
                                                      signal                                                                        stood (repeat)
Fly straight and level       Flash Morse Code Sig-
without rocking wings        nal "RPT" by light or
or




                                                                                                                                                         143
             CHAPTER 4.--DISTRESS AND LIFESAVING SIGNALS AND RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES




                                                    VI SIGNALS TO SURVIVORS

 Procedures performed by an aircraft                                          SIGNIFICATION



                                                  Drop communication
                                                                              The aircraft wishes to
                                                  equipment suitable for
 Drop a message or                                                            inform or instruct sur-
                                                  establishing direct con-
                                                                              vivors
                                                  tact



 * High visibility colored streamer




 Signals used by survivors in response to a message dropped by an aircraft    SIGNIFICATION


 Flash Morse Code sig-                                                        Dropped messages is
                                                  Use any other suitable
 nal "T" or "R" by light                                                      understood by the
                                                  signal
 or                                                                           survivors



                                                                              Dropped messages is
                                                                              not understood by the
 Flash Morse Code signal "RPT" by light                                       survivors




144
                                       SECTION 2.--TABLE OF LIFESAVING SIGNALS




            "CONFLICT AND PERMANENT IDENTIFICATION OF RESCUE CRAFT" *
                        Shape, color, and positioning of emblem for medical transports
1. The following emblems can be used separately or together to show that a vessel is protected as a medical transport under the
Geneva Convention:




2. The emblem, positioned on the vessel's sides, bow, stern, and deck, shall be painted dark red on a white background.
   a. On the vessel's sides the emblem shall extend from the waterline to the top of the ship's hull.
   b. The emblems on the vessel's bow and stern must, if necessary, be painted on a wooden structure so as to be clearly visible
       to other vessels ahead or astern.
   c. The deck emblem must be as clear of the vessel's equipment as possible to be clearly visible from aircraft.
3. In order to provide the desired contrast for infrared film or instruments, the red emblem must be painted on top of a black
primer paint.
4. Emblems may also be made of materials which make them recognizable by technical means of detecting.
Illumination
1. At night and in restricted visibility the emblems shall be illuminated or lit.
2. At night and in restricted visibility all deck and overside lights must be fully lit to indicate that the vessel is engaged in med-
ical operations.
Personal equipment
1. Subject to the instructions of the competent authority, medical and religious personnel carrying out their duties in the battle
area shall, as far as possible, wear headgear and clothing bearing the distinctive emblem.
Flashing blue light for medical transports
1. A vessel engaged in medical operations shall exhibit one or more all-around flashing blue lights of the color prescribed in
paragraph 4.
2. The visibility of the lights shall be as high as possible and not less than 3 nautical miles in accordance with Annex 1 to the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972.
3. The light or lights shall be exhibited as high above the hull as practical and in such a way that at least one light shall be visible
from any direction.
4. The recommended blue color is obtained by using, as trichromatic co-ordinates:

     green boundary               y = 0.065+0.805x
     white boundary               y = 0.400-x
     purple boundary              x = 0.133+0.600y

5. The frequency of the flashing light shall be between 60 and 100 flashes per minute.
Radar transponders
1. It should be possible for medical transports to be identified by other vessels equipped with radar by signals from a radar tran-


    *   In accordance with Article 27 of the Second Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949, this chapter also applies to
        coastal rescue craft.



                                                                                                                                   145
          CHAPTER 4.--DISTRESS AND LIFESAVING SIGNALS AND RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES




sponder fitted on the medical transport.
2. The signal from the medical transport transponder shall consist of the group YYY, in accordance with article 40 of the Radio
Regulations, followed by the call sign or other recognized means of identification.
Underwater acoustic signals
1. It should be possible for medical transports to be identified by submarines by appropriate underwater signals transmitted by
the medical transports.
2. The underwater signal shall consist of the call sign of the ship preceded by the single group YYY transmitted in Morse on an
appropriate acoustic frequency, e.g., 5 kHz.
Rescue craft carried by medical transports
1. Every rescue craft should be equipped with a mast on which a Red Cross flag measuring about 2 x 2 meters can be hoisted.
Flashing blue light for medical aircraft
1. The light signal, consisting of a flashing blue light, is established for the use of medical aircraft to signal their identity. No
other aircraft shall use this signal. The recommended flashing rate of the blue light is between sixty and one hundred flashes
per minute.
2. Medical aircraft should be equipped with such lights as may be necessary to make the light signal visible in as many directions
as possible.




146
                                                   CHAPTER 4
                         SECTION 3: RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES

                                     RECEPTION OF SAFETY MESSAGES
      Any message which you hear prefixed by one of the following words concerns SAFETY:

            MAYDAY                   Indicates that a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle is threatened by grave and
            (Distress)               imminent danger and requests immediate assistance.
            PAN                      Indicates that the calling station has a very urgent message to transmit con-
            (Urgency)                cerning the safety of a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle, or the safety of a person.
            SECURITE                 Indicates that the station is about to transmit a message concerning the safety
            (Safety)                 of navigation or giving important meteorological warnings.
If you hear these words, pay particular attention to the message and call the master or the officer on watch.

                                 DISTRESS TRANSMITTING PROCEDURES
                         To be used only if IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE is required:
USE PLAIN LANGUAGE WHENEVER POSSIBLE. If language difficulties are likely to arise use Tables 2 and 3 on Page
149, sending the word INTERCO to indicate that the message will be in the International Code of Signals.
Call out letters as in Table 1 on Page 148. Call out numbers figure by figure as in Table 1.
To indicate DISTRESS:
1. If possible transmit the ALARM SIGNAL (i.e., two-tone signal) for 30 seconds to one minute, but do not delay the message
if there is insufficient time in which to transmit the Alarm Signal.
2. Send the following DISTRESS CALL:
Mayday Mayday Mayday. This is . . . (name or call sign of ship spoken three times).
3. Then send the DISTRESS MESSAGE composed of:
Mayday followed by the name or call sign of ship;
Position of ship;
Nature of distress;
And, if necessary, transmit the nature of the aid required and any other information which will help the rescue.

                                   EXAMPLES OF DISTRESS PROCEDURE
1. Where possible, transmit ALARM SIGNAL followed by spoken words Mayday Mayday Mayday. This is . . . (name of ship
spoken three times, or call sign of ship spelled three times using TABLE 1, on Page 148) Mayday . . . (name or call sign of ship)
Position 54 25 North 016 33 West I am on fire and require immediate assistance.

2. Where possible, transmit ALARM SIGNAL followed by spoken words Mayday Mayday Mayday . . . (name of ship spoken
three times, or call sign of ship spelled three times using TABLE 1) Mayday . . . (name or call sign of ship) Interco Alfa Nadaz-
ero Unaone Pantafive Ushant Romeo Kartefour Nadazero Delta X-ray. "(Ship) in Distress Position 015 Degrees Ushant 40
miles I am sinking."

3. Where possible, transmit ALARM SIGNAL followed by spoken words Mayday Mayday Mayday . . . (name of ship spoken
three times, or call sign of ship spelled three times using TABLE 1) Mayday . . . (name or call sign of ship) Interco Lima Pan-
tafive Kartefour Bissotwo Pantafive November Golf Nadazero Unaone Soxisix Terrathree Terrathree Whiskey Charlie Bravo
Soxisix. "(Ship) in Distress Position Latitude 54 25 North Longitude 016 33 West I require immediate assistance I am on fire."




                                                                                                                             147
          CHAPTER 4.--DISTRESS AND LIFESAVING SIGNALS AND RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES




                                       TABLE 1
                     PHONETIC ALPHABET AND FIGURE SPELLING TABLES
                         (May be used when transmitting plain language or code.)

          Letter       Word          Pronounced as        Letter            Word             Pronounced as

      A            Alfa          AL FAH                   N          November             NO VEM BER
      B            Bravo         BRAH VOH                 O          Oscar                OSS CAH
      C            Charlie       CHAR LEE or              P          Papa                 PAH PAH
                                 SHAR LEE                 Q          Quebec               KEH BECK
      D       Delta              DELL TAH                 R          Romeo                ROW ME OH
      E       Echo               ECK OH                   S          Sierra               SEE AIR RAH
      F       Foxtrot            FOKS TROT                T          Tango                TANG GO
      G       Golf               GOLF                     U          Uniform              YOU NEE FORM or
      H       Hotel              HOH TELL                                                 OO NEE FORM
      I       India              IN DEE AH                V          Victor               VIK TAH
      J       Juliett            JEW LEE ETT              W          Whiskey              WISS KEY
      K       Kilo               KEY LOH                  X          X-ray                ECKS RAY
      L       Lima               LEE MAH                  Y          Yankee               YANG KEY
      M       Mike               MIKE                     Z          Zulu                 ZOO LOO
      NOTE: The syllables to be emphasized are boldfaced.

       Figure or                                               Figure or
      Mark to be             Word       Pronounced as         Mark to be           Word         Pronounced as
      Transmitted                                             Transmitted

      0               NADAZERO      NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH        6                 SOXISIX           SOK-SEE-SIX
      1               UNAONE        OO-NAH-WUN             7                 SETTESEVEN        SAY-TAY-
                                                                                               SEVEN
      2               BISSOTWO   BEES-SOH-TOO              8                 OKTOEIGHT         OK-TOH-AIT
      3               TERRATHREE TAY-RAH-TREE              9                 NOVENINE          NO-VAY-
                                                                                               NINER
      4               KARTEFOUR     KAR-TAY-FOWER          Decimal           DECIMAL           DAY-SEE-MAL
                                                           point
      5           PANTAFIVE         PAN-TAH-FIVE           Full stop         STOP              STOP
      NOTE: Each syllable should be equally emphasized.




148
          SECTION 3.--RADIOTELEPHONE PROCEDURES




                                TABLE 2
                             Position in Code

(1)       By Bearing and Distance from a Landmark
          Code letter A (Alfa) followed by a three-figure group for ship's
          TRUE bearing from landmark;
          Name of landmark:
          Code letter R (Romeo) followed by one or more figures for dis-
          tance in nautical miles.

                                         or

(2)       By Latitude and Longitude
          Latitude
          Code letter L (Lima) followed by a four-figure group; (2 figures
          for Degrees, 2 figures for Minutes) and either--N (November)
          for Latitude North, or S (Sierra) for Latitude South.
          Longitude
          Code letter G (Golf) followed by a five-figure group; (3 figures
          for Degrees, 2 figures for Minutes) and either--E (Echo) for
          Longitude East, or W (Whiskey) for Longitude West.


                                TABLE 3
                        Nature of Distress in Code

 Code       Words to be
Letters     transmitted                       Text of Signal
AE         Alfa Echo         I must abandon my vessel.
BF         Bravo Foxtrot     Aircraft is ditched in position indicated and
                             requires immediate assistance.
CB         Charlie Bravo     I require immediate assistance.
CB6        Charlie Bravo     I require immediate assistance, I am on fire.
           Soxisix
DX         Delta X-ray     I am sinking.
HW         Hotel Whiskey I have collided with surface craft.
                       Answer to Ship in Distress
CP         Charlie Papa    I am proceeding to your assistance.
ED         Echo Delta      Your distress signals are understood.
EL         Echo Lima       Repeat the distress position.

NOTE: A more comprehensive list of signals may be found in Chapter 2.




                                                                             149
                                                  APPENDIX
          US/RUSSIA SUPPLEMENTARY SIGNALS FOR NAVAL VESSELS
IR   1    I am engaged in oceanographic operations.
IR   2    I am streaming/towing hydrographic survey equipment . . . . meters astern.
IR   3    I am recovering hydrographic survey equipment.
IR   4    I am conducting salvage operations.
JH   1    I am attempting to retract a grounded vessel.
MH   1    Request you not to cross my course ahead of me.
NB   1    I have my unattached hydrographic survey equipment bearing in a direction from me as indicated. . . . (Table 3 of ICS).
PJ   1    I am unable to alter course to my starboard.
PJ   2    I am unable to alter course to my port.
PJ   3    Caution, I have a steering casualty.
PP   8    Dangerous operations in progress. Request you remain clear of the hazard which is in the direction from me as indicated.
          . . . (Table 3 of ICS).
QF   1    Caution, I have stopped engines.
QS   6    I am proceeding to anchorage on course. . . .
QV   2    I am in a fixed multiple leg moor using two or more anchors or buoys fore and aft. Request you remain clear.
QV   3    I am anchored in deep water with hydrographic survey equipment streamed.
RT   2    I intend to pass you on your port side.
RT   3    I intend to pass you on your starboard side.
RT   4    I will overtake you on your port side.
RT   5    I will overtake you on your starboard side.
RT   6    I am/Formation is maneuvering. Request you remain clear of the hazard which is in the direction from me as indicated. .
          . . (Table 3 of ICS).
RT   7    I shall approach your ship on starboard side to a distance of. . . . 100's of meters (yards).
RT   8    I shall approach your ship on port side to a distance of. . . . 100's of meters (yards).
RT   9    I shall cross astern at a distance of. . . . 100's of meters (yards).
RU   2    I am beginning a port turn in approximately. . . . minutes.
RU   3    I am beginning a starboard turn in approximately. . . . minutes.
RU   4    The formation is preparing to alter course to port.
RU   5    The formation is preparing to alter course to starboard.
RU   6    I am engaged in maneuvering exercises. It is dangerous to be inside the formation.
RU   7    I am preparing to submerge.
RU   8    A submarine will surface within two miles of me within 30 minutes. Request you remain clear.
TX   1    I am engaged in fisheries patrol.
SL   2    Request your course, speed, and passing intention.
UY   1    I am preparing to launch/recover aircraft on course. . . .
UY   2    I am preparing to conduct missile exercises. Request you remain clear of the hazard which is in the direction from me as
          indicated. . . . (Table 3 of ICS).
UY   3    I am preparing to conduct gunnery exercises. Request you remain clear of the hazard which is in the direction from me
          as indicated. . . . (Table 3 of ICS).
UY   4    I am preparing to conduct/am conducting operations employing explosive charges.
UY   5    I am maneuvering in preparation for torpedo launching exercises. Request you remain clear of the hazard which is in the
          direction from me as indicated . . . . (Table 3 of ICS).
UY   6    I am preparing to conduct/am conducting underway replenishment on course. . . . Request you remain clear.
UY   7    I am preparing to conduct extensive small boat and ship to shore amphibious training operations.
UY   8    I am maneuvering to launch/recover landing craft/boats.
UY   9    I am preparing to conduct/am conducting helicopter operations over my stern.
UY   10   I am testing my gun systems.
UY   11   I am testing my missile systems.
UY   12   I am preparing to conduct/am conducting gunnery/bombing exercises from aircraft on a towed target. Request you
          remain clear of the hazard which is in the direction from me as indicated . . . (Table 3 of ICS).
ZL   1    I have received and understood you message.
ZL   2    Do you understand? Request acknowledgment.




                                                                                                                                     151
  Special Warning Signals.--The following signals are used by Russian naval vessels to warn foreign vessels that they have
violated Regulations for entry, navigating and stopping in Russian Territorial Waters (Territorial Sea) or Russian In-
land Waters:

               SNG                                 You have violated the Russian borders. I demand that you
                                                   leave Russian waters immediately.
               SNO                                 I demand that you leave Russian waters immediately.
                                                   Unless you do so, a force of arms will be used against you.
               SNP                                 You are violating the regulations for navigating and remain-
                                                   ing in Russian waters. I demand that you cease violations.
               SNR                                 Despite warnings, you continue to violate the regulations
                                                   for navigating and remaining in Russian waters. You are to
                                                   leave them immediately.

  By day these signals will be made by flags of the International Code of Signals. By night they will be in Morse Code by signal
lamp. In addition, the signals may be transmitted by RT in plain language on 500 kHz, 2182 kHz and 156.8 MHz, as well as by
voice using megaphone or any other amplifying device.

                               Warning signals to foreign submarines which are submerged:
  The signal of two series of explosions with three explosions in each series (where the interval between the explosions in a
series is one minute and the interval between the series is three minutes), means: You are in Russian waters. I demand that you
surface immediately. Unless you comply with this order within 10 minutes, a force of arms will be used against you.
  An acoustic signal by sonar may be given simultaneously, with the same meaning as described above. The signal will consist
of five dashes, each dash three seconds long, interval between dashes, three seconds.




152
                                                                             INDEXES
                                                                                                                                                           Page

Signaling Instructions and General Signal Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Medical Signal Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159




                                                                                                                                                                      153
                                          INDEX
                       SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS AND GENERAL SIGNAL CODE
                               (SEE SEPARATE INDEX FOR MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE)

                                                 (Numbers refer to pages)

                  A                          rafts, 36                                               D
                                             required, 37
Abandon vessel, 29                           search, 38                            Damage casualties, 49
Accident or distress position, 43            send, 37                                  received, 49
    signals, 2930                       Bodies located, 47                        Dangerous goods, 84
Adrift, boat-raft, 36                        search and rescue, 47                 Dangers to navigation, warnings, 65
    from anchorage, 78                   Boom across, caution, 67                  Dead, number of persons, 30
Afloat, aircraft-helicopter, 31          Bulkheads, watertight, 56                     reckoning position, 41
    from grounding, 54                   Bunkers, 89                               Depression, atmospheric pressure, 94
Aground assistance, 36                   Buoy, navigating and steering instruc-        deep, 94
    vessel, 36                            tions, 73                                    intense, 94
Ahead, engine maneuvers, 60              Buoys, aids to navigation, 62             Depth, water, 68
    maneuvers, 76                        Burns, severe, 30                         Derelict, 65
Aids to navigation, 62                                                             Diesel oil, 89
Aircraft in distress, 39                                    C                      Disabled, aircraft-helicopter, 31
    locate, 41                                                                         drifting-sinking, 38
Alight, aircraft-helicopter, 31          Cable, hawser, 58                         Disembark, 36
Alongside, boat-raft, 36                 Canal, 63                                 Distress, 3941
    maneuvers, 77                        Cancel message, 100                           position, 40, 4243
Alphabet flags, inside front cover ii    Carbon tetrachloride fire                     signals, 3940
Anchor, underwater operations, 51         extinguishers, 52                            transmitting procedures, 147
Anchorage, 78                            Cargo, 84                                 Disturbance, serious, 34
    port-harbor, 87                      Cast off, 60                              Ditched, 31
    towing to, 57                        Casualties, radiation, 29                 Diver, underwater operations, 51
Anchoring, 7778                         Caution, navigate with, 67                Doctor, 30
Answer, communications, 100              Channel, 63                               Draft, 69
Arms signaling, 1516                    Circling, aircraft, 32                    Drift, survival craft, 44
Arrival, estimated time of, 88           Close distance, 44                        Drifting, disabled, 38
Assistance, aircraft-helicopter, 31      Clouds, 91
    declined, not required, 35           Coal, 90                                                    E
    given, not given, 35                 Collision, casualties-damages, 49
    proceeding to, 43                        mat, diver, 51                        Electronic navigation, 7071
    required, 33                                   leak, 56                        Emergency signals, 2948
Astern maneuvers, 76                     Communicate, 100101                      Engines, 79
Atmospheric pressure, 94                 Communications, acknowledge, 100          Exercise signals, communications,
                                             aircraft, 31                           102
                   B                         calling, 100                          Exercises, carrying out, 89
                                             exercise, 102                         Explanation and general remarks of
Ballast, 84                                  reception, 102                         signals, 3
Bar, 56                                      transmission, 102                     Explosion, distress, 40
    depth-draft, 6869                   Compass, adjusting, 71                    Explosions, fire, 52
Barometer, 94                            Complements tables, 104
Beaching, 54                             Connect, towing, 57                                         F
Beacons, aid to navigation, 62           Contact vessel/aircraft in distress, 41
Bearing, aircraft-helicopter magnetic,                                             Fairway, 63
                                         Convoy, 94
 33                                                                                Fire assistance, 34
                                         Course, aircraft-helicopter magnetic,
Bearings, aids to navigation, 62                                                        explosion, 51
                                          33
Berth, 78                                                                          Firefighting appliances, 52
                                             indicate, 64
Boarding, 7980                                                                    Firing range, 67
                                             search and rescue, 44
Boats available, 37                                                                Fishcatch carrier boat, 85
                                         Crew, persons on board, 84

                                                                                                                    155
                         INDEX--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS AND GENERAL SIGNAL CODE

Fishery, 8586                                fast, 91                           Meteorology, 9198
    limits, 86                                floes, 92                          Minefield, 71
    protection, 86                            patrol ship, 93                    Mines, 71
Fishing, 85                              Icebergs, 93                            Minesweeping, 71
    gear, dangers to navigation, 85      Icebreaker, 93                          Miscellaneous signals, 88
    vessel, 85                                single letter signals 25           Missing, vessel/aircraft, 45
Flag signaling, 910                     Icefield, 93                            Morse signaling by hand flags or arms,
Flares, 42                               Identification signal, 90                15
Flashing light signaling, 1112          Inflatable raft, 32                         symbols, alphabet and numerals, 17
Flight, aircraft, 32                     Information available, no, 89               table, 16
Floating ice, 93                         Injured, number of persons, 30          Mother ship, fishing, 85
    mine, 72                             International Code of Signals
    trawl, 85                              purpose, 3                                                N
Flooded, 56
Flying, aircraft, 32                                       K                     Navigating and steering instructions, 87
Foam fire extinguisher, 52                                                       Navigation, 6275
Fog, 96                                  Keep away, 74                               lights, 72
Follow wake, 72                             clear, 74                            Nets, 85
Fuel oil, 89                                close, 74                                drift, 85
Fumigation, 90                                                                       seine, 85
                                                            L
                     G                                                                              O
                                         Landing, aircraft-helicopter, 31
Gale, 91                                      boarding, 80                       Oil fire, 52
Give way, 74                             Lead course, 87                         Oily mixture, 84
Grounding, 53                            Leak, 56                                Overtake, do not, 74
Groups, transmission signals, 102             assistance, 34
                                         Leeward, keep, 73                                           P
Growlers, ice, 93
                                         Lifesaving signals, 140
                                              station, 39                        Pack ice, 93
                     H
                                         Light, searchlight, 72                  Parachute, 32
Hand flags signaling, 1516              Lighthouse, 62                          Pass ahead, 73
Harbor, anchorage, 78                    Lights, aids to navigation, 62          Passing signals, 73
    port, 87                             Lightvessel, 62                         Persons on board, 84
Hawser, 58                               Line, towing, 58                             saved or lost, 47
Headway, maneuvers, 76                   List, assistance, 33                    Phonetic tables, 1718, 148
    towing-tugs, 61                           boats-rafts, 36                    Pick up, persons by aircraft-helicopter,
Health clearance, 103                         dangers to navigation, 68            33
    Maritime Declaration of, 103         Located, vessel/aircraft wreckage, 41   Picked up, search and rescue, 47
    questions, 103                       Long-line fishing, 85                   Pilot, 87
Health Regulations, International, 103   Lost, persons, 47                            assistance, 87
Heave to, 83                             Loud hailer, voice over, 5, 20               boat, 87
Helicopter signals, 33                   Low water, 75                           Pilotage, radar, 70, 87
High water, 75                                                                   Plain language communications, 101
Holding ground, anchorage, 78                              M                     Port, harbor, 87
Hostile aircraft, 68                                                                  pilot, 87
    submarine, 67                        Make fast, navigating and steering           steer to, navigating and steering in-
    vessel, 67                            instructions, 73                                      structions, 73
Hydrography, 6275                           towing line, 59                     Position, indicate 41
                                         Man overboard, search and rescue, 46    Pratique, 103
                     I                   Maneuvers, 80                           Precautions, tropical storm, 91
                                             towing-tugs, 60                     Prevailing weather, boats-rafts, 36
Ice, 91                                  Maritime Declaration of Health, 103     Procedure signals, 17, 20
     accretion, 93                       Mark to be transmitted table, 148       Proceed, damage-repairs, 50
     drift, 92                           Men on board, 84                             underway, 80


156
                        INDEX--SIGNALING INSTRUCTIONS AND GENERAL SIGNAL CODE

Proceeding to assistance, 35             Sick, number of persons, 30                 Trawl, 85
Propeller, engines, 79                   Sight, search and rescue, 41                Tropical storm, 91
    shaft, assistance, 33                Signal, cannot read transmission, 100       Tsunami, 67
         engines, 79                     Signaling methods, 5                        Tug assistance, navigation, 67
Propeller, underwater operations, 51     Signals appropriate in all transmissions,       towing, 56
Purse seine, 85                               definitions and meanings, 4            Tugs, 5661
                                              explanation and general remarks, 3
                   R                          general instructions, 68                                 U
                                              miscellaneous, 88
Radar 70                                      purpose, International Code of, 3      Underwater operations, 51
Radiation danger, 65                     Signals appropriate in all                  Underway, 81
    hazard, 68                             transmissions, 20
Radio direction finder, 70                                                                              V
                                         Single letter signals, 22
Radioactive material, 65                      for icebreaker and
Radiobeacon, aids to navigation, 62                                                  Veer, towing, 59
                                                        assisted vessels, 25         Vessel in distress, 39
    search and rescue, 44                     with complements, 23
Radiotelegraphy, 5, 20                                                                   locate, 41
                                         Sink-sunk, vessels, 39                      Visibility, 96
Radiotelephone procedures, 147149       Slack, towing, 59
Radiotelephony, 5, 14, 20                                                            Visual contact, search and rescue, 44
                                         Sludge, ice, 91                                 signals, communicate, 101
Rafts, 36                                Smoke float position, 42
Read transmission signal, cannot, 100                                                          position, 42
                                              signals position, 42                   Voice over loud hailer, 5, 20
Receive communications signal, 100      SOS/MAYDAY, 39, 139144, 147149
 102                                     Sound signaling, 13                                           W
Refloating, 54                                signals position, 42
Remain where you are, 83                 Speed, 82                                   Wake, navigating and steering instruc-
Repairs, 49                                   aircraft-helicopter, 32                 tions, 73
Repeat communications signal, 102             towing, 61                                 steer in my, 73
Rescue, 46                               Steer, 73                                   Warnings, 6668
    results, 47                          Steering gear, assistance, 33               Warps, fishery, 86
Rocket, fire, search and rescue, 46      Sternway maneuvers, 76                      Water, depth-draft, 6870
    line, look out for, 46                    towing, 61                                 pumps, fire, 52
Rockets, position by, 42                 Stop, heave to, 83                          Weather, 97
                                              maneuvers, 83                              forecast, 97
                   S
                                              towing, 61                             Wind, 97
Safety signal, 100                       Storm, 91                                   Windward, navigating and steering in-
Save vessel, cannot, 46                  Stretcher, 30, 33                            structions, 74
Sea, 95                                  Submarine survey, 51                        Wreck, 65
     conditions, 95                      Survival craft, 35                          Wreckage, 46
     marker dye position, 42             Survivors 4748
                                         Sweep, net, 86                                                 Z
Search, aircraft-helicopter, 32
     and rescue, 4448                   Swell, 9596
                                              conditions, 95                         Zone, dangerous, mines, 71
          information-instructions, 44
     assistance 32                       Swept channel, 72
     authority, 44
                                                            T
     results, 45
Searchlight, navigation lights, 72       Take off persons, search and rescue, 46
     position, 42                        Temperature, 94
Send, boat-raft, 37                      Tide, 74
Set and drift, search and rescue, 44     Towing, 56
Shallow water, 65                            line, 58
Shelter, anchorage, 78                   Toxic effects, explosion, 53
     towing, 58                          Transmit, communications, 102
Shoal, 65                                Transmitter, 71



                                                                                                                         157
                                                  INDEX
                                             MEDICAL SIGNAL CODE

                                                (Numbers Refer to Pages)


                 A                           localization of symptoms, 110                           J
                                         Dislocation, 114
Abscess, 113                             Doctors instructions, 107                Joints diseases, 122
Accidents, 114115                       Dose administration and method, 127
Administration and dose method, 127          frequency, 127
                                                                                                    L
Alcohol, 119
Animal bite, 115                                           E
                                                                                  Localization of symptoms, diseases or
Answer to questions, 125
                                                                                  injuries, 110
                                         Ear diseases, 121
                  B                      External application frequency, 128
                                         Eye diseases, 121                                          M
Bedsores, 119
                                                                                  Masters instructions, 107
Bleeding, general symptoms, 113                            F
                                                                                  Medical advice, 125129
    particular symptoms, 114
                                                                                      additional information request,
Body organs, other, 130                  Flatulence, 117                                        125
    regions, 130132                     Fractures, 114                               assistance request, 109124
Bowels, general symptoms, 113
                                                                                  Medicaments list, external use, 134
Breathing, 111
                                                           G                          internal use, 134135
Buboes, 120
                                                                                  Mental diseases, 118
Burn, 115
                                         Gangrene, 115                                state, 111
                                         General medical advice, 125              Miscellaneous illness, 122
                 C                           instructions, 107                    Muscles and joints diseases, 122
                                             symptoms, 110116
Catheter, 118                            Genitourinary system diseases, 118                         N
Childbirth answers, 123                  Giddiness, 119
    questions, 128
                                                                                  Nausea, 117
Circulatory system diseases, 119
                                                           H                      Nervous system and mental diseases,
Complements tables, 130133135
                                                                                  118
Concussion, 114
                                         Headache, 118                            Nose and throat diseases, 115
Consciousness, 111
Contusion, 114                           Health, previous, 110
Corrosive swallowed, 115                 Heart    and    circulatory     system                      P
    thrown on patient, 115               diseases, 119
Cough, diseases of respiratory system,   Hemorrhoids, 117                         Pain, diseases of heart and circulatory
116                                      Hernia, 117                              system, 119
    general symptoms, 112                Hiccough, 117                                 general symptoms, 112
Cramp pains, 117                         Hospital admission, 109                  Parasitic diseases, infectious and, 120
                                                                                  Patient description, 109
                 D                                         I                      Poisoning, 115
                                                                                  Poisons, 115
                                         Illness, miscellaneous, 122              Port, nearest, 109
Delirium tremens, 119
                                         Infectious and parasitic diseases, 120   Prescribing medicaments, 127
Delusions, 119
                                         Injuries, 114115                        Progress report, 123
Diagnosis, 125
                                              localization of symptoms, 110       Pulse, diseases of heart and circulatory
Diarrhea, 116
                                         Instructions to doctors, 107             system, 120
Diet, 128
                                              masters, 107                             general symptoms, 111
Digestive system diseases, 116
Diseases, list of common, 133            Isolation, 120



                                                                                                                      159
                                                       INDEX




                 R                       Sweating, 111                               general symptoms, 113
                                         Swelling, 113
Rash, general symptoms, 113              Symptoms, particular, 114115                            V
    infectious and parasitic diseases,
             120                                          T                      Vaccination, infectious and parasitic
Rendezvous, 109                                                                  diseases, 121
Reply to questions, 125                  Table M-1, regions of body, 130             smallpox, 129
Respiratory system diseases, 116             M-2, list of common diseases, 133   Venereal diseases, 121
                                             M-3, list of medicaments, 134      Vomiting, diseases of digestive sys-
                  S                                    135                       tem, 117
                                         Temperature, 110                            general symptoms, 113
Skin diseases, 122                       Throat diseases, 115
Sleep, unable to, 112                    Treatment by medicaments, 127                            W
Snake bite, 115
Special treatment, 125                                    U                      Wind, anus has not passed, 117
Sputum, 116                                                                      Wound, deep, 114
Stool, 116                               Urine, diseases of genitourinary sys-
Suicide, 114                             tem, 118




                                                                                                                  160


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