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Thornycroft 90 108 Manual


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                              MARINE ENGINESThe Thornycroft 90 and 108 engines are both 4 cylinder 4 stroke  high speed diesel units both engines having electrically operated heaterplugs to aid cold startingThe cast iro n crankcase with ri bbed sidewalls houses a forged steel  crankshaft carried in three or five bearings respectivelyA full press ure wet sump lubric ation system is emplo yed with a full flowdetachable element type oil filter and integrated lubricating oil coolerThe cooling system is indirect and usually employs an engine mounted heatexchang er with a belt dr iven ra w wa ter pu mp This sy stem is known as I FWCinternal fresh water cooledAn optional system is EFWC external fresh water cooled This system utilizes theengine fresh water pump and usually employs skin tanks attached to the hull to serve as  single belt driven alternator and fresh water pump drive include a manualbelt tensioning arrangement for low maintenance completes the  package              904 Cylinder naturally aspirated                                                             108                                                  4 Cylinder naturally aspiratedPower intermittent at 3500rpm      36BHP         Power intermittent at 3500rpm       47BHP      continuous    at 3000rpm     30BHP                   continuous at 3000rpm     38BHPMaximum torque      at 2500rpm  531bf ft         Maximum torque      at 2400rpm  731bf ftIdle speed                      570rpm           Idle speed                      570rpmMinimum full load speed         1500rpm          Minimum full load speed         1500rpmENGINE RATINGSThe type 90 Engine may be set to develop continuous outputs from 135 to 30 BHP according  type 108 Engine may be set to develop continuous outputs from 21 to 38 BHPaccording to  special applications where full power will not be required for periods inexcess of 1 hour in any 12 hours consecutive running the engine can be supplied at anintermittent rating as shown aboveNOTE All horsepower ratings quoted are at the engine flywheel Due allowance mustbe made for transmission losses which will depend on the type of gearbox fittedFor tropical use it is necessary to derate the engine by 2 for each 5C 10Fabove 30C 85F air temperature at sea level In some parts of the wor ldfur the r de rat ing for h umi dity is n ece ssar y in acco rda nce withBS 55141                         INITIAL STARTING OF ENGINEPAGE     Engine mounting and dipstick marking Filling engine with oil 2    Lubricant specification for engine and gearbox Filling gearbox 3     inhibitor specification Filling cooling system 4    Priming the engine oil system 5    Bleeding the fuel system type 90 engines 6    Bleeding the fuel system type 108 engines 7    Initial start Normal start Running in 8    Operating guidelines 9    Operating guidelines                                MAINTENANCE       Maintenance schedule       Engine oil and filter change10    Engine oil and filter change11    Fuel filter change Cleaning Type 90 engines12    fuel lift pump Gearbox oil Type 108 engines13    change Cleaning air filter14    Alternator drive belt adjustment15    and replacement Raw water pump16    adjustment and replacement17    Checking and setting valve       clearances Procedure for       retorquing cylinder head nuts     fuel injectors19     Changing coolant20    Draining raw water system21    External fresh water cooled engines22    Electrical system23    Fault finding24    Fault finding25    Laying up the engine26        Notes2829                                                   CHECKING ENGINE                                 MARKING DIPSTICK FILLING ENGINE WITH OILPage 1         CHECKING ENGINE MOUNTING         The maximum installed angle of the engine is 15 engine types 902 108 and 1082         10 for engine type 90 This allows for a further rise of 4 when the craft is         moving Check the angle of installation using the centreline of the mounting feet         bolts as a datum Measure vertically on the centreline of the underside of the         front mounting foot bolt to find the angle of installation Fig 1         Fig 1         Horizontal Line                 Type 90                                Type 902               Type 108              A 93mm  10                           A 138mm  150           A 136mm  15                 46mm  5                               93mm  10              91mm  10                                                         46mm  5               46mm  5         MARKING DIPSTICK FILLING WITH OIL         Your engine is despatched from the factory without engine or gearbox oil and with an         unmarked engine dipstick After the boat is launched and is resting at         its normal trim angle remove the oil filler cap from the rocker box Fig 2 and pour 39         litres for type 90 45 litres for type 902 or 48         litres for type 108 of specified lubricant through the filler         hole Allow 5 minutes for the oil to drain into the sump         withdraw the dipstick and mark it for maximum oil level Fig         3 Use a centre punch for marking as filing a notch can         cause fatigue and eventual breakage while the engine is         running Then mark dipstick using the same method 127mm          below the maximum mark and this will be the minimum         level              LUBRICANT ENGINE AND GEARBOX                                                                   THORNYCRO                                                                       FT       Page 2                                       ENGINE OILRUNNING IN OILSDo NOT use special runningin lubricating oils for new or rebuilt engines Use thelubricating oils specified for normal engine  OIL VISCOSITY  use of a multi graded lubric ating oil h as been fou nd to impro ve oilconsumption and improve engine cranking in cold temperatures while  at high operating temperatures A multigrade oil conforming toMILL20104B is recommended with the viscosity grades shown in Fig 4 The use ofsingle grade lubricating oil is not recommended except for synthetic oils usedin arctic conditions Atmospheric Temperature               Viscosity         Above 10C                     20W50       20C to 10C               1OW30 or 1OW40         Below 10C                    5W30 or 5W40                                                       Fig 4                                       GEARBOX OILBorg Warner            Automatic Transmission Fluid    T ype AHurth                  Automatic Trnamsission Fluid    T ype ANewage PRM             SAE 20 Engine Oil               Minus 18C to 0C                       SAE 30 engine Oil               Above 0C                                FILLING THE GEARBOXRemove the oil filler plug combined    dipstick from the top of the gearbox This isin approximately the same position      on Hurth Newage PRM and Borg Warner Usinga plastic bottle or funnel fill       the gearbox up to the maximum mark on thedipstick There is one level mark      on the Hurth dipstick the others have highand low marksFig 5THORNYCROFT                                                   COOLING SYSTEMPage 3         COOLANT         Use antifreeze during all seasons to protect the engine cooling system from         corrosion as well as freeze damage Using the following antifreeze solution                                                     25                3 3                5 0                                                  Solution          Solution         Solution          Complete protection                    lOF12C         3F16C       4F20C          Safe protection                         1F17C        8F22C      18F28C         In tropical climates where antifreeze availability may be limited corrosion         inhibitor to protect the engine cooling system                          use a         NOTE Corrosion inhibitor is NOT an antifreeze COOLANT QUANTITIES         Complete system including engine IFWC types 90 and 108 engines                                                   51 Litres         For external fresh water cooled engines EFWC See Page 23 FILLING THE COOLING         SYSTEM         Remove the filler cap from the heat exchanger Fig 6 and fill the system         with coolant This will take approximately 5 minutes as the system self         bleeds Fill to 5mm below the filler neck level mark Refit filler cap                                                                     M                            Fig 8        405ilI    M          Fig 9              PRIMING THE ENGINE OIL SYSTEM                        THOMYCWFT                                                                             Page 4PRIMING THE ENGINE OIL SYSTEM TYPE 902R ENGINES ONLYAs only a residual amount of oil is present in the oil pump filter and oilgalleries of the engine it is therefore necessary to prime the system before theengine is run Connect the engine starter batteries disconnect power to thefuel solenoid valve on the injection pump Fig 7 and crank the engine over usingthe key starter switch until pressure registers on the oil pressure gaugeStop cranking and check the engine and gearbox for oil or water leaks Replacepower connector                                                          Fig 7PRIMING THE ENGINE OIL SYSTEM TYPE 90 AND108 ENGINESAs only a residual amount of oil is present in the oil pump filter and oilgalleries of the engine it is therefore necessary to prime the system before theengine is run Connect the engine starter batteries operate the key starterswitch with the stop control out crank the engine over until pressure registerson the oil pressure gauge Stop cranking and check the engine and gearbox foroil or water                             BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM TYPE 90 ENGINESPage 5      BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM     Slacken the bleed valve on the injection pump Fig 8 Operate the lift pump     Fig 9 and when the fuel coming from the valve is free of air bubbles tighten the     valve     Fig 8     Slacken the uni ons at the     injector ends of a ny two high p ressure pipes Fig 10 Ensure that the stop     control is in the run position and the engine speed control is in the fully     open position Crank the engine until the fuel coming from both pipes is free from air     bubbles then tighten the unions     NB After initial start procedure has been observed start the engine and allow it     to idle until it is running evenly on all four cylindersFig 10           BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM TYPE 108 ENGINES                                                                       THORNBLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM Fig 11                         53                                                                       YCROF                                                                                 Fig 12                  2        46 Note After renewing the fuel filter element it will only be necessary to bleed the fuel filter as described in 1 and 2 provided that the engine has not been cranked while the filter is dismantled 1    Slacken the blanking plug in the unused outlet connection in the fuel      filter head Fig 12 Operate the lift pump Fig 9 page 5 until the fuel      flowing from the plug is free of air bubbles tighten the plug NB Numbers 26 refer to Fig 11 bleed points 2 Slacken the union nut at the injection pump end of the fuel feed pipe     Operate the lift pump and when the fuel flowing from the union is free     from air bubbles tighten the nut 3 Slacken the air bleed screw on the injection pump body Operate the lift pump     and when the fuel flowing from the bleed screw is free from bubbles tighten the screw 4   Slacken the air bleed screw on the injection pump governor housing       Operate the lift pump until the fuel flowing from the bleed screw is free       from air bubbles leave the bleed screw slack 5 Slacken the air bleed screw on the injection pump high pressure banjo bolt     Operate the starter motor while operating the throttle control and when the     fuel flowing from the high pressure bleed screw is free of air bubbles     tighten the bleed screw 6 Co ntinue cranking the engine with the starter motor to expel any air     trapped in th e governor and when the fuel flowing from the go vernor     housing bleed screw is free of air bubbles tighten the screw Slacken the unions at the injector ends of any two high pressure pipes Fig 13            Ensure that the stop control is in the run position and the engine speed control is in the fully open position             Crank the engine until the fuel comibng from both pipes is free from air bubbles then tighten the unions NB After initial start procedure has been observed start the engine and allow it to idle until it is running evenly on all four cylinders                                                                                  Fig 13THORNYCROFT                                    INITIAL START NORMAL START RUNNING INPage 7         INITIAL START         With all systems filled primed and checked the engine may be started Run it for         2 to 3 minutes then stop it Top up engine gearbox oil and water levels to the         high mark The engine and gearbox are now ready for use Oil pressure should be         observed within 15 seconds         NORMAL STARTING PROCEDURE         1    Put gearbox selector lever in neutral         2    Ensure the stop control is fully disengaged         3    Set the engine speed control lever fully open         4 Turn the key to H position on starter switch and hold for 30 seconds this              preheats the heater plugs This is not necessary for a warm engine              Also control level only needs to be set half open         5    Turn the key to H  S position and the starter motor will crank up the              engine              CAUTION If the starter fails to crank up the engine within 10 seconds              re lea se t he s wit ch k ey a nd w ait for th e starter motor to come to a              c o m pl et e st o p  T h en tu r n t h e k e y to H  S po s i ti o n a ga i n D o n o t              engage the starter motor for more than 30 seconds then wait 2 minutes              between unsuccessful attempts         6    Move the throttle position to idle as soon as engine starts         7    Oil pressure should be observed within 15 seconds         8    To stop the engine pull the stop control         RUNNING IN         The care given to an engine in the first 20 hours of operation will result in         longer life better performance and more economical operation During this         period follow these          1    Warm up the engine before placing it under load         2    Do not operate the engine at idle or full load for more than 5 minutes 3     Avoid         constant speed         4    Observe oil pressure and temperature gauges 5         Check the oil and coolant levels frequently GENERAL         PRECAUTIONS         1    NEVER attempt to start the engine with the gearbox control lever in any              position other than neutral         2    NEVER stop the engine without first engaging neutral         3    When changing the control lever from ahead to astern or vice versa pause in              neutral                       OPERATING GUIDELINES                                                                                 THORNYCROFT                                                                                             I Page 8COMPLIANCE WITH THE FOLLOWING  CAN RESULT IN LONGER LIFE BETTER PERFORMANCE ANDMORE ECONOMICAL OPERATION OF YOUR  perform all of the specified maintenance including the First Start ofthe Day checksUse antifreeze during all seasons to protect the cooling system from corrosion as well asfreeze damageNever operate the engine without a thermostatUse quality fuel that is free of water and other contaminants Monitor the oilpressure and temperature indicators frequently AVOID FULL  WHEN THE ENGINE IS COLDWhen starting a cold engine bring the engine up to operating speed slowly toallow the oil pressure to stabilise as the engine warms upIf temperatures are below 0C 32F operate the engine at moderate speeds for 5 minutes beforefull loads are appliedAVOID IDLING THE ENGINE FOR MORE THAN 10 MINUTESLong periods of idling may be harmful to your engine because combustion chamber temperatures candrop so low that the fuel may not burn completely Carbon can then form which may clog theinjector spray holes and also cause valves and piston rings to stickAVOID OVERHEATING THE ENGINECo ola nt t emp era tur e mu st not ex ceed 99 C 210 F wi th a 70 kP a  10 p siexpansion tank cap AND A MINIMUM OF 50 mixture of ethyleneglycol and waterIDLE THE ENGINE A FEW MINUTES BEFORE ROUTINE SHUTDOWNAfter full load operation idle the engine 3 to 5 minutes before shutting it offto allow th e lu bricating o il and coola nt to car ry h eat away from thecombustion chamber bearings shafts etcAVOID LOW COOLANT TEMPERATURE  operation at   l ow coo lant temperat ure be low 60C  150F can beharmful to the engine             Low coolant temperature can cause incomplete        carbon and varnish to form that can damage piston rings and             A lso th e unburnt fu el c an enter the crankcase di lut ing thelubricating oil causing rapid wear to other moving                                          OPERATING GUIDELINESPage 9     DO NOT OPERATE THE ENGINE WITH LOW OIL PRESSURE    When the engine is at normal operating temperature the minimum oil pressures     required are                 Idle 570 RPM  1 bar 15 psi                 Full Speed and Load  23 bar 35 psi     DO NOT OPERATE THE ENGINE WITH FAILED PARTS     Practically all failures give some warning before the parts fail Be on the     alert for changes in performance sounds and visual tipoffs that indicate     either service or repair is needed Some important clues are                 Engine misfiring or vibrating severely                 Sudden loss of power                 Unusual engine noises                 Fuel oil or coolant leaks                 Sudden change in the engine operating temperature Excessive                 smoke                 Loss of oil pressure           SAFETY PRECAUTIONS           Saf ety i s bu ilt i nto eve r y en gin e ho wev er       l ike any o the r           mechanical device it can present serious threat to         life and limb if           imprudently operated and maintained Remember                that the best           safeguards again st accidents are to kee p ever             mindful of the           potential dangers and to always use good common sense                   MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE                                  TH0RNYCROFT                                                                                           Page 10DAILY OR EVERY 10 HOURSCheck engine and gearbox oil levels top up if necessary Checkcoolant level and top up if necessary Check drive  FIRST 25 HOURSRetorque cylinder head nutsChange the engine oil and renew engine oil filterCheck valve rocker  drive belt tensionsCheck oil connections for leaksCheck water hose  all electrical  fuel filter elementCheck and service injectors as necessaryCheck and adjust engine idling speed as necessary Use a Thornycroft dealer Check fuelsystem for leaks                                   ENGINES IN REGULAR USEEVERY 50 HOURSCheck electrolyte level in batteriesEVERY 200 HOURS OR YEARLYChange fuel filter elementChange engine oilChange engine oil filterCheck drive beltsCheck air cleaner and clean if necessaryCheck for oil or coolant leaksCheck fuel system for leaksCheck gearbox oil levelCheck and adjust idling speed as necessaryEVERY 400 HOURSIn addition to the 200 hour maintenance schedules change the gearbox oil Remove heaterplugs and remove carbon from each orificeEVERY 800 HOURSIn addition to the 200 hour and 400 hour maintenance schedules Adjust valverocker clearancesTest injectors for spray Use a Thornycroft dealerCheck all engine and gearbox connections Renew oilfiller cap on rocker cover      ENGINES USED OCCASIONALLY HALVE THE HOURS RECOMMENDED AFTER FIRST 25                               ENGINE OIL CHANGE TYPE 90 ENGINESPage 11      CHANGE ENGINE OIL      Run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature stop the engine then      using the hand pump Fig 14 drain the oil into a suitable container      Fig 14      CHANGE ENGINE OIL FILTER      Slacken the centre fixing bolt 1 Fig 15 and      withdraw the filter bowl 2 and filter element      3 together Discard the filter element andsealing ring 4Replace with new element and sealing ring ensuring that the ring iscorrectly seated i n t he filt er head  5 and tig hte n t he centre boltFill the engine with the specified amount of oil and prime the oil systemas described on Page 4Start the engine and check for oil leaks run the engine for 2 minutesensure pressure registers on the gauge Stop the engine and allow a fewminutes for oil to settle Check oil level top up if necessary                                           Fig 15              ENGINE OIL CHANGE TYPE 108 ENGINES                 THORNYCRO                                                                     FT           Page 12CHANGE ENGINE OILRun t he engine u ntil it reaches nor maloperating temperature stop the enginethen using the hand pump Fig 16 drain theoil into a suitable container Fig 17                                                    Unscrew the oil filter cartridge                                                   Fig 17 Discard the cartridge and                                                   its sealing ringLightly smear the sealing ring with cleanengine oil Fig 18 and screw the  into place using hand pressureonly until the sealing ring abuts with thefilter head face Then tighten a further     a of   a turnFill the engine with the specified amount                                        asof oil and prime the oil system described on Page     4Start the engine and check for oil leaks run the engine for 2 minutes ensurepressure register on the gauge Stop the engine and allow a few minutes forOil to settle Check oil level and top op if                                          FUEL FILTER CHANGEPage 13                RENE W FUE L FILTER ELE MENT          Turn off the fuel supply tap then support the filter base 1 Fig 1 9 and unscrew          the centre bolt 2 Detach the base and twist the element 3 to separate it from          the filter head 4 Remove the three sealing rings 5 from the head and base          Discard element and sealing rings Clean base and head and assemble the filter          using a new element and sealing rings Fit the element with its strengthened          rim uppermost Turn on the fuel supply tap then bleed the air from the system as          described on Page 5 or 6Fig 19                  CLEANING FUEL LIFT PUMP                          THORWCT                                                                                       Page 14FUEL LIFT PUMP FILTERTurn off the fuel supply tap then remove the cap screw 1 Fig 20 Lift off the cap 2gasket 3 and filter gauze 4 Clean the gauze in a suitable solvent usin g asti ff brush Clean the fuel cham ber 5 Check that the gasket is serviceableor renew Assemble the components Do not overtighten the cap screw Neverclean inside fuel chamber or any other part of the fuel system with a fluffycloth Turn on the fuel supply tap then bleed the fuel system as described onPage 5 or 6Fig 20THORNYCROFT                              GEARBOX OIL CHANGEPage 1 5      CHANGING THE GEARBOX OIL      T he gearbo x o il must be changed when the gearbox has reached operating      temperature After about 12 hour driving the craft      To help the oil drain easily from the gearbox first remove the oil filler      dipstick plug from the top of the gearbox Place a suitable container under the      gearbox and remove the drain plug from the underside of the gearbox and allow      the oil to drain completely Fig 21 The drain plug is in approximately      the same position on the underside of Hurth Borg Warner and Newage PRM      gearboxes      Refit the drain plug Fill the gearbox to the maximum mark on the dipstick      Refit the filler plug start the engine in neutral and run the engine for 1      minute to allow the oil to circulate Stop the engine and check the oil level      Top up if necessary to the maximum mark on the dipstick                                                                           Fig 26Illustration shows PRM 160 gearbox                                     Fig 27                 CLEANING AIR FILTER                                     THORNYC                                                                           ROFT               Page 16CLEANING AIR FILTERSlacken the clip on the breather pipe and pull the pipe off the air cleanerthen slacken the screw Fig 22 this allows removal of the outer casing and the air filter gauzeSubmerge the casing and gauze in a bath of clean paraffin or diesel fuel agitate themvigorously to remove dirt particles Shake the filter dry by hand or blow dry withcompressed air then refitFig 22    CAUTION WHEN USING A COMPRESSED AIR LINE GREAT CARE MUST BE OBSERVED AND                               GOGGLES MUST BE                             DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT AND REPLACEMENT                                           ALTERNATOR AND RAW WATER PUMPPage 17     SAFETY BEFORE ATTEMPTING THESE OPERATIONS     DISCONNECT THE STARTER BATTERIES Adjusting     Alternator Drive Belt     Type   90  alternator   is   shown in the     illustration Fig 23 but procedure for     adjusting the alternator drive belt is     the same for type 108 engines     Slacken the nuts and bolts 14 Move     alternator away from the engine until the     deflection of the belt arrowed is 19mm     075 in when pressed using finger pressure     only at the longest point between pulleys     Excessive tension will cause early wear of     the   belt    water   pump   bearing    and     alternator bearing While a slack belt     will slip causing overheating of the     engine and insufficient charging of the     batteries     Check    deflection     after     retightening     Replacing Alternator Drive Belt     Slacken the nuts and bolts Fig 23 14     move alternator in towards engine Remove     old belt from pulleys and replace with new     drive belt Retighten nuts and bolts     Following the instructions above readjust     the drive belt tension                                                                                 Fig 23                                                    Adjusting Raw Water Pump Drive Belt                                                    Slacken the nuts and bolts Fig 24 1                                                    and 2 an d ret ens ion the b elt as                                                    described above for the alternator                                                    The deflection of the belt must be                                                    1012mm 039047in Check deflection                                                    after retightening                                                    Replacing Raw Water Pump Drive Belt                                                    Slacken the nuts and bolts Fig 24 1                                                    and 2 Move pump in towards engine                                                    Remove old belt from pulleys and                                                    replace    with   new    drive   belt                                                    Retighten nuts and bolts following                                                    the instructions above readjust the                                                    drive belt tension     Fig 24       CHECKING AND SETTING VALVE CLEARANCE                                                                            THORWCWFT                                                                                         Page 18SAFETY BEFORE ATTEMPTING THIS OPERATION DISCONNECT THE STARTER  Valve Clearances Engine ColdSlacken the rocker cover bolts and remove rocker cover Discard the gasket Turnthe crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation and adjust as followsSlacken the locknut and adjust with a screw driver until the correct clearance isobtained Fig 25 Insert the feeler blade between the valve stem and rocker armWhen correct adjustment is obtained the feeler blade is able to be removed withslight  in the following sequence                     Set No 1 tappet with No 8 valve fully open Set                     No 3 tappet with No 6 valve fully open Set No                     5 tappet with No 4 valve fully open S et No 2                     tappet with No 7 valve fully open Set No 8                     tappet with No 1 valve fully open Set No 6                     tappet with No 3 valve fully open Set No 4                     tappet with No 5 valve fully open Set No 7                     tappet with No 2 valve fully open                     Rec hec k the clearance wit h the loc knu ts                      tightened and readjust if necessary                                                    Fig 25                                                    Valve Clearance  Type 90 engines                                                    Inlet Valve 0381mm 0015in                                                    Exhaust Valve 0381mm 0015in                                                    Valve Clearance  Type 108 engines Up                                                    to Thornycroft Engine No 6043 Inlet                                                    and Exhaust 043mm 0017in                                                    Engine No 6043 onwards                                                    Inlet and Exhaust 035mm 0014inFit the rocker cover using a new gasket Tighten the boltsReconnect the battery start the engine and check the rocker cover for leaks    THORNYCROFT                                 PROCEDURE FOR RETORQUING CYLINDER HEAD NUTS    Page 19          1   PROCEDURE FOR NEW ENGINES WHICH HAVE RUN FOR 25 HOURS              A       Run engine and stop when normal operating temperature is reached              B Slacken the cylinder head nuts by approximately 16 of a turn one flat                   of the nut following the sequence shown using service tool 18G 1457                   to reach the nuts in the centre rowFig 26                  C    Tighten the nuts in the sequence shown to 104 kgf m 75 lb ftI                                        11        6                    5        12                                                    00 00 0o                                                    90 0 9 0 1 0 A                                                   OQ                                                        1                                                                                     13                                        14 107 3 1 4 89           Slacken the valve rocker pedestal nuts by 16 of a turn one flat of           the nut and retorque to 35 kgf m 25 lb ft                 Adjust valve rocker           clearances Page 182   PROCEDURE WHERE PART ENGINES HAVE BEEN FITTED OR WHERE CYLINDER HEADS ARE    REMOVED OR REPLACED DURING REPAIR OPERATIONS    A      The cylinder head nuts should not be more than finger tight until the           rocker shaft assembly has been fitted           Tighten the nuts to 104 kgf m 75 lb ft type 108 engines 98 kgf m    B           71 lb ft type 90 engines in the sequence shown in procedure                  1           Using service tool 18G1457 to reach centre row Fig 27    C      Tighten the valve rocker pedestal nuts to 35 kgf m 25 lb ft    D      Adjust the valve rocker clearance as in procedure 1When the   engine has run f or Y2 hour carr y out the operat ion descr ibed                inprocedure 1Fig 27          REMOVAL AND REFITTING FUEL INJECTORS                 THORNY                                                                CROFT                                                                                Page 20REMOVING FUEL  cleaning and spray testing can only be carried out with  therefore this must be done by a Distributor or DealerFig 28 Disconnect the feed pipe 1 and spill rail 2 Note the sealingwashers 3 on each side of the spill rail banjo union Remove the  bolts 4 and withdraw the injector Fit protective caps to all                                              Fig 29Fig 28REFITTING FUEL  protective caps Ensure the washers are fitted to the injectors asshown in Fig 29 It is most important to tighten the injector fixings evenly andto the correct torque of 165 kgf m 12 lbf ft overtightening or  of the injector can distort the nozzle and will usually cause amisfire to occur when normal running temperature is reached Reconnect theinjector pipes do not overtighten the unions                                         TO REMOVE HEATER PLUGS AND CLEAN                                         ORIFICES Disconnect the battery Remove                                         electrical leads 1 Fig29A and unscrew                                         each plug 2 from th e cylinder head                                         Insert     a    twist   drill   of    437mm                                         11 64 in dia 3 into t he th rea ded                                         holes in the head 4 Turn the drill by                                         han d    to   r emo ve car bon  bui ld up                                         Remove the drill and clean any particles of                                         carbon from conical seatings in the                                         cylinder head Refit the heater plugs                                         and e lec tri cal l ead s Re connec t           TAT                                        CHANGING COOLANTPage 21      CHANGING COOLANT      Remove filler cap from heat exchanger place a suitable container beneath the drain plug      Fig 30 Remove plug and allow to drain      Place suitable container beneath drain tap in cylinder block Fig 31                                                                       Remove      tap and allow to drain      Replace both plug and tap then refill with coolant of the correct strength for conditionsto be encountered See Page 3Fig 30iFig 31             DRAINING RAW WATER SYSTEM                                                                               Page 22DRAIN THE RAW WATER SYSTEMSlacken the six screws Fig32 on the raw water pump Remove end covers fromheat exchanger and drain tubes either by removing the tube stack or by blowing outwith compressed air Remove oil cooler and drain tubes or blow out withcompressed air Alternatively disconnect raw water pipework before gearbox oilcooler and pipe from oil cooler into a container of antifreeze mixture andflush through system returning antifreeze mixture from water injection bendback into container this ensuring that any water pockets contain antifreeze               CAUTION WHEN USING A COMPRESSED AIR LINE GREAT                          CARE MUST BE OBSERVED AND GOGGLES MUST BE                          WORNNOTE ANTIFREEZE MIXTURE MUST BE OF CORRECT STRENGTH FOR CONDITIONS TO  32ROUTINE MAINTENANCE OF RAW WATER SYSTEM IFWCTHESE NOTES DO NOT APPLY TO EXTERNAL FRESH WATER COOLED ENGINESExamine and clean the sea inlet strainer at regular intervals Do Not remove thestrainer when the engine is running as foreign matter can be drawn into the system and  damage to the pump The sea cock must be FULLY OPEN when the engineis running If the sea cock is partially closed air can be drawn in withconsequ ential failure of the raw water pump and engine overheating Check theraw water discharge pipe immediately after starting the engine to see if the raw waterpump is functioning         The engine MUST NOT run without a flow of raw water through the heat exchangerRAW WATER PUMP the raw water pump is self priming and fitted with a  It depends on the raw water for its lubrication DO NOT run dryM ore than 3 0 se con ds runn ing withou t wate r will b urn the impellor and becontributory to an early failure When replacing the end cover gasket it isessential to use the correct part variation of the gasket thickness can cause loss ofselfpriming ability or seizure                                         EXTERNAL FRESH WATER COOLED ENGINES ONLY  2 3      This consists of a closed circ uit fresh water system with a fre sh water      circulator combined header tank and exhaust manifold dry exhaust outlet and      watercoolant tanks normally fitted to the skin of the craft It is therefore      important when filling this system with antifreeze solution or corrosion      inhibitor that the total capacity of the tanks associated pipework and the      engine cooling system is taken into consideration Your boat builder will      advise you on these figures      We have included the box below for you to fill in these figures for your craft           Name of Craft                                 External Fresh Water Cooled System                                                       Capacity     Date      Change Due                        ELECTRICAL SYSTEM                                    THORNYCROFT                                                                                                Page 24Electrical SystemAn insulated return system      is   employed on the type 90 and 108 enginesThe 12 volt alternator has a builtin voltage regulator which  the charging rate to provide sufficient electric current to keep thebattery fully charged under normal operating conditionsThe alternator requires no lubrication maintenanceDo NOT disconnect the battery leads while the engine is runningEnsure that the correct battery terminal is connected to a good earth on thestarterA coating of a good grade of petroleum jelly will protect the terminals  electrolyte level should be 6 to 9mm 025 to 038in above the top of the plates If theelectrolyte is below the correct level add the required amount of  water for battery use should be kept in clean covered  In cold weather add water only immediately before running the engine sothat the charging will mix the water and electrolyte and prevent freezingIf t he b att ery i s al lowed to sta nd at lo w tem per atu res in a p art ial lydischarged condition there is a possibility that it may freeze causing damage to the container Takecare therefore to keep the battery as fully charged as possibleThe specific gravity of the electrolyte when the battery is fully chargedshould be 1275 at a temperature of 25C 77F At differing temperatures the specific gravityof a fully charged battery will change The specific gravity of any given temperaturecan be calculated by subtracting 0004 from 1275 for every 6C change above 25C and adding 0004 to1275 for every 6C below 25CKeep the battery filler plugs and connections tight and the top of the battery clean Wipingthe battery with a rag moistened with ammonia will counteract the effect of anyof the solution which may be on the outside of the battery Wear  when carrying out this operation If ammonia is accidentally splashed in theeyes wash out thoroughly at once with clean water and SEEK QUALIFIED MEDICAL  Jumper CablesTo avoid the possibility of extensive damage to your charging system it isimportant to observe the following points when using battery jumper cables to start an enginehaving a discharged battery The positive  terminals of the batteries must be  one cable usually red and the negative  terminals  the other cable If this procedure is not followed extensive damage may bedone to the charging systemCAUTION Since explosive hydrogen gas is always present sparks or flames         should not be allowed near the battery When using jumper cables the         cables should always be attached to the booster battery                                            FAULT FINDINGPage 25     FAULT FINDING     ENGINE WILL NOT START   Starter does not             ELECTRICAL FAULT   crank engine                 Battery run down                             Lead disconnected                             Faulty starter switch                             Faulty starter motor    Starter cranks            ELECTRICAL FAULT     engine slowly       Battery partly run down                         Terminals loose                         Connections dirty Faulty                         starter motor                             MECHANICAL FAULT                             Wrong grade engine oil     Starter cranks      ELECTRICAL FAULT     engine normally     Faulty glow plugs                         Faulty wiring connection                             MECHANICAL FAULT                             Injection timing incorrect                             Poor cylinder compression                             Blocked air intake                             FUEL FAULT     Fuel Not Reaching     Injection Pump      Insufficient fuel in tank                         Blocked fuel pipeline                         Blocked fuel tank vent                         Restricted fuel filter Air                         leaks in pipeline     Fuel Reaching     Injection Pump      Air in fuel system                         Faulty injectors

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