' Balmar 8 Series Alternator Manual'
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80Series Alternators 50 65 and 100A Models Model 81 Basic ERS Regulator Included Model 812I highoutput BALMAR Marine Alternator is uniquely designed and TABLE OFengineered to provide the finest performance and durability for your vessel CONTENTSUnlike most automotivetype alternators found standard on the majority of I craft BALMAR Marine Alternators are specially designed to output at lower engine rpms so you can enjoy less noise and II Safety increased economy and shorter charge cycles III General InformationII SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IV Basic installing your BALMAR marine alternator please take a moment to V Additional the following guidelines for safe alternator installation Failure to followthese guidelines could result in injury or damage to your electrical system Information1 Always disconnect your batterys ground cable and turn your battery switch VI to its OFF position prior to installing your alternator2 Remove any loosefitting clothing or jewelry which could become VII Warranty entangled in your motor or other machinery VIII Quick Installation3 Wear ANSIapproved safety glasses Guide4 Do not attempt installation if tired or fatigued5 Ensure the engine has cooled sufficiently before initiating installation6 Drugs and alcohol do not mix with safe installation procedures Do not CAUTION attempt installation while using alcohol or any medication that could The following instructions are impair your judgment or reaction time intended for use by experienced7 Always use the right tool for the job In addition to causing damage to the marine electrical installers If alternator or your boat the use of incorrect or tools can you are not experienced at result in personal injury installing electrical system8 Take time to read the manual Equipment damage and possible injuries components we recommend a may result from an incomplete understanding of the installation and qualified marine electrician be operation of the alternator used to install this alternator 19009 61st Ave NE Arlington WA 98223 On the Web PHONE 360 4356100 FAX 360 4353210 EMAIL 1III GENERAL alternators are available in a wide range of sizes mounting configurations and amperage outputs to replace or upgrade awide range of marine alternators All BALMAR alternators are P type positive on the field wire with max field current demand 6 ampsand 24 ohm rotors in 1214 volt modelsAmperage are rated in relation to their outputs at our test bench at specific pulley rpm Circuit breakers fuses and wire gauges shouldbe rated at or above maximum indicated alternator amperage Actual amperages produced by the alternators after installation may varydue to factors such as battery capacity battery type wiring capacity engine room temperature and other variables In most casesmaximum output is determined by your batteries absorption rates at their voltage set pointVoltage alternators are engineered for external regulation A basic singlestage regulator set at 141 volts is included with eachalternator Voltage can vary up to 3 plus or minus Caution should be used when running for long periods when used with gel typebatteries While the standard regulator supplied does provide an adequate charge control we recommend a multistep regulator foroptimized charging In addition to its ability to provide a smart charging protocol thats tailored to your battery type our Max Chargehas the ability to monitor and compensate for temperature variation in both the alternator and your batteries with optional Combined with amp management soft ramp up and start delay the Max Charges advanced and help provide the tools to increase charging speed and reduce engine and alternator marine alternators are designed to operate in a clockwise rotation facing the pulley and fan This clockwise rotation drawscool air from the back of the alternator across the internal components to maintain proper operating temperatures Should the alternatorbe used in a secondary position mounted in an opposing direction to the engine or should the alternator be mounted on an engine the alternators pulley must be keyed andor pinned and the alternator must be equipped with a bidirectional fanReverse Rotation Kits are available for most BALMAR 80Series marine alternators are isolated ground It is essential that the alternator is properly grounded We you ground your alternator to the negative terminal of your house battery or your vessels ground buss with a cable thatsthe same size as your output cable Running your grounding cable directly to the engines ground bolt also provides a good source ofground The regulators grounding wires must be attached to the alternators negative terminal see Figure 4Mechanical and Electrical NoiseAs part of normal operation your BALMAR marine alternator will make a slight whining noise while under load This whining noiseprovides an indicator that the alternator is charging In addition to a mechanical whine you may experience a small amount of stickingor drag when the alternator is new This is caused by the wood separators in the stator With use the separators will wear and the stickingwill be eliminatedBy nature electricity producing equipment like alternators may create electrical noise or interference that can be transmitted to radiosradars and other electronics Your BALMAR alternator has been designed to minimize electrical interference Ifinterference persists we recommend adding noise reduction filters to your system One provider of quality noise reducing filters is MarineTech Inc at 800 7720796 Figure 1Wire SizeProper wire size is essential for safe and operation The accompanying Voltage dropchart provides a basic guide that should be used proper wire lengths for charging systemssee Figure 1 Wiring used should be marine qualityAWG boat cable rather than SAE automotive wire is normally tinned or treated toprotect against the corrosive marine environment Useonly wire that is marked with size and type In additionto wiring all connectors used in vessel also be manufactured for marine useWhen determining the proper wire size for wire length should be measured by thedistance required to reach from the positive powersource to the electrical device and back to the negativepower connection The chart to the right provides ageneral guide for wire size If your specific falls between the values shown use thelarger wire size recommended Contact the ABYC BIAor your marine electrician for additional information 2Alternator HeatDuring operation your alternator may reach temperatures of 200 degrees as a result of inductive currents In some instances extended periods of heavy load temperatures can reach 225 degrees F Temperatures exceeding that may result in damage Ifyour system is operating with a Max Charge regulator with optional alternator temperature sensing the regulator will automatically shutoff the alternator when temperatures pass set values giving the alternator the ability to cool to normal temperatures before returning tooperation While this is an extremely effective device for alternator protection it should not be used as part of normal Continual alternator overheating indicates ventilation or charging system problems and repair is strongly advisedUse extreme caution when handling the alternator or other engine components during or after use Should your alternator become sohot that it emits a burning smell or if there is indication of discoloration at the pulley or pulley shaft shut off the alternator immediatelyand once it becomes safe to inspect the alternator check the tension of the drive belt Undertensioned belts are a leading cause ofoverheating and alternator damage For more information see the Maintenance section of this manualPulleys and BeltsA 25 deep V pulley is included with your alternator This pulley will accommodate from 38 to 12 single belts or metric are not created equally and in most instances you get what you pay for Premium quality belts such as Gates TriPower or GreenStripe Daycos Topco or similar belts will provide a better value over lesser quality belts in both dependability anddurability We strongly recommend you always carry a spare belt as part of your emergency kit Alternators rated at 75amps or lessshould use a minimum belt size of 38 Alternators rated at 100amps should use a minimum belt size of 12IV BASIC Alternator installation requires substantial amount of mechanical and electrical understanding If you are not alternator installations we strongly recommend that you enlist the services of a qualified marine electrician Keep in mind thatalternator performance is only as good as the wiring and battery installation If you are unsure of the condition of your boats batteriesor wiring please have them inspected by a qualified electrician before proceeding with the alternator MountingDue to the many domestic and international configurations of mounts and factors such as year and location of and marinization BALMAR cannot guarantee a dropin replacement in every circumstance Choose the BALMAR modelthat most closely fits your application Your installer may have to adapt the basic mounts to fit your needs The majority of marine enginesare equipped with one of two alternator mounting styles shown in Figures 23 To determine your alternator requirement compare yourpresent alternator to those shown below The single 1inch model is typically a replacement for Motorola style alternators Singletwoinch foot models generally replace Delco style you have determined that the new alternator is the correct replacement for your existing model1 Turn off batteries disconnect the ground and detach the wiring from the existing alternator Figure 2 Figure 32 Loosen the mounting bolt and remove the existing alternator3 Once the alternator is disconnected from the engine compare its mounting points to those on your new BALMAR alternator In most applications the new alternator will replace the old alternator without any modification In some cases a simple bracket can be fabricated by a local machine shop BALMAR offers a universal mounting arm which may solve some mounting challenges Others can be obtained through your local auto or marine supply4 Attach the mounting foot of the new alternator to Single Foot 1 Mount Single Foot 2 Mount its engine mount Some shimming may be necessary to ensure that the alternator is securely mounted within the engine mount If your alternator is a dual foot style use care when tightening the alternator in place that the two mounting ears are not compressed The rear bushing is designed to slide to tighten the mount5 Once in place inspect to ensure that the alternator pulley is properly aligned with the engine pulley If your belt configuration includes the pulley for the water pump make sure that all three pulleys are properly aligned6 Your new alternator is shipped with a simple singlestage regulator with six wires connected to its epoxy potting See Figure 4 The wiring is arranged as follows a Brown Br Ignition source Wire Attaches to the auxiliary side of the vessels ignition switch or an independent oil pressure switch to turn on regulator Used when the orange wire is NOT used b Orange O Lamp Wire This wire turns on the regulator when connected to a warning lamp that is connected to the aux side of the key switch optional Used when the brown wire is NOT used 3 c Blue B Field Wire Attaches to the positive field terminal on the alternator as shown in Figure 4 Figure 5 d Red R Sensor Wire Attaches to the positive terminal of the battery positive output of the alternator common terminal of the battery switch or the battery side of an isolator if used Choose only one of e White W Stator Wire Attaches to the Stator terminal on the alternator as shown these two potential in Figure 5 If an electric tachometer is power sources used an additional white wire should be run from the other stator terminal to the tachometer as shown in Figure 4 f Black Bk Ground Wire Attaches to the negative ground terminal as shown in Figure 47 Once the wiring is connected attach the regulator to the alternator by bolting the angled tab at the bottom of the regulator to one of the 14 head bolts located next to the cover plate at the back of the alternator as shown on the inset in Figure 48 Once the regulator and control wires are in place the alternators positive output and negative ground cables should be attached Positive output cable should be connected at the the bolt shown on Figure 4 The other end of the cable should be connected to the positive terminal of the battery or the common output Mount regulator on terminal of the battery switch if used with rear of alternator as multiple battery banks Refer to the Voltage Loss shown Regulator Table FFigure 1 to determine proper cable can be mounted on gauge right or left side of the alternator9 The ground cable must provide a sure connection to the batteries negative terminal This can be accomplished by grounding the alternator directly Figure 5 Alternative to the negative battery terminal or to Regulators your engines grounding bolt Be sure Max Charge MC612 your cabling is the same size as that Max Charge MC412 of the positive output ARS4 BRS2Smart Regulator WiringShould you choose to upgrade your systemto include the intelligent Max Charge regulator or otherBALMAR models use Figure 5 as your wiringguide In addition to its smart the Max Charge regulator hasthe unique ability to automatically monitorbattery and alternator temperatures andcompensate for temperature changesoutside of normal values when used withoptional temperature sensors To install thealternator temperature sensor1 Attach the positive and negative wires to the Alternator temperature Sensor terminals on the Max Charge regulator see the Max Charge manual for terminal locations 42 Attach the heavy lug terminal to the mid case mount on your alternator Due to the number of alternator configurations some installations may vary Figure 6Pulley the alternator is installed and the wiring connections are attached inspect thepulley for proper tension When changing pulleys or when using the pulley torque the shaft nut to 5060 footpounds The shaft nut measures1516 To install the belt1 Loosen the adjustment arm bolt and alternator pivot assembly bolt2 Fit a new highquality belt over the appropriate pulleys3 Tension the alternator until the belt is securely tightened in place Retighten the pivot assembly and tension arm bolts To test tension place a 1516 wrench on the alternator shaft nut and apply pressure If the pulley rotates without moving the belt reloosen the bolts apply additional pressure and retighten Repeat until the belt is properly tensioned See Figure 6When installation is complete run the engine Visually inspect the engine whilerunning for evidence of poorly aligned pulleys and belts Use caution to avoid hotor moving parts Turn off the engine after approximately 15 minutes and reinspectthe belt tensionV ADDITIONAL INSTALLATION isolators may be used with any BALMAR alternator Its capacity must equal the maximum alternator output To compensate forvolt drop sensing must be on the battery side If a dualoutput alternator is used for more than two battery banks each output must haveits own dedicated standard inline Amp meters are UNDERRATED for our alternators and should be removed from the system Replace your existingamp meter with a standard volt meter Should you wish to read output Amps a high capacity 0100 or 0200 amp external shunttypemeter should be installed Digital meters like the Link 10 or Link 20 by Heart Interface are excellent tools for charging system alternator tachometer is energized by the pulse frequency generated by the alternator which in turn is dependent on the speed BALMAR 80Series alternators feature 12pole construction Most standard tachometers are engineered for engines withalternator pulley to crankshaft ratios of 18 to 28 to 1 on alternators with 12 polesThe AC terminal or stator terminal may be used for electric tachometers not equipped their own Figure 7sending unit Tachometers will have to be adjusted and calibrated as necessary We suggestrunning the engine up to a cruise RPM 2000 marking the throttle position BEFORE the is disconnected After the installation is complete run throttle up to mark and set thetachometer to its appropriate RPM If you cannot set your existing tachometer a like the Teleflex Model 82430P should be considered as a replacement Should bouncingof the tachometer be observed when the batteries are fully charged turning on some DC loadswill often cure the problemOutput ConnectionsThe most efficient output connection is a direct wire between the alternator and the battery If yourbattery switch is closer to the alternator than the batteries you may connect the output cable tothe common output terminal DO NOT turn the battery switch off when the engine is runningSevere damage to the diodes and the regulator could fusing of the charging system is required by ABYC standards BALMAR recommends that the alternator outputs be protected bya fuse or manual reset circuit breaker BALMAR 75 100 and 150amp circuit breakers are available at your local marine supply or maybe special ordered through BALMAR See Figure 7 If the alternator is connected directly to the battery the breaker should be locatedclose to the battery terminalVI the causes of failures in an electrical system is usually a trial and error process We recommend that you beginyour search by determining if the failure can be attributed to one or more of the most common causes of charging system failuredamaged wiring damaged connectors worn or damaged belts worn or overly sulfated batteries or bad grounds 5A general inspection of the following conditions prior to testing will ensure the accuracy of your test results Before testing 1 Remove and clean all charging system electrical connections this includes the ground side Also check the harness for resistance The wires or terminals may become corroded and need to be cleaned or replaced 2 Charge all batteries to their proper fully charged state and determine if they are serviceable If your batteries are flooded type use your hydrometer to determine their condition 3 Check and tighten alternator belt If the belt shows signs of wear or damage now if an ideal time for replacement Always replace existing belts with the finest quality replacements availableAfter determining that your batteries and wiring are in suitable condition use the following tests to determine if charging problemsare a result of a faulty alternator or regulator The following tests provide an opportunity to isolate the alternator regulator andwiring harness in order to determine which component may be malfunctioning If you are using the Max Charge regulator pleaserefer to the instructions included in the Max Charges instruction manual Regulator Field TestThe following tests are intended to help determine what part of your charging system may be experiencing difficulties Whentesting voltage ensure that your voltmeter is adjusted to its 12V setting Use the space below the Expected Reading to keeptrack of your own readings First Test Engine Off The functionality of the regulator harness and alternator can be tested by determining if a magnetic field exists at the alternators pulley shaft To test 1 With the ignition in the OFF position place the head of a steel screwdriver near the nut on the pulley shaft There should be no evidence of a magnetic field pulling the screwdriver toward the alternator 2 With the ignition in the OFF position and your voltmeters negative probe applied to the alternators grounding bolt check for voltage on the RED sensing BLUE field and BROWN ignition wires by inserting the positive lead of the voltmeter alongside each wire at the terminal at the back of the alternator or in the case of the brown wire at an applicable wire connection The voltmeter should read Red Wire Brown Wire Blue Wire Expected Reading 12 V 0V 0V Your Reading 115 128 VDC battery voltage at rest no charging occurring If your batteries are isolated and your RED sensing wire shows voltages other thanthose shown above make sure that the wire is connected on the battery side of the isolator The RED wire must see the battery directly3 Once you have measured voltage at the three wires and have determined that there is no magnetic field at the pulley shaft or rear bearing turn your ignition switch to its ON position without turning on the engine If your regulator is activated by an oil pressure switch turn on your engine Caution if the engine must be run during these tests use extreme caution to avoid contact with moving parts or hot engine or alternator surfaces4 Place the head of a steel screwdriver near the nut on the pulley shaftDO NOT attempt this test with the motor running There should be evidence of a magnetic field pulling the screwdriver toward the alternator If magnetic field is present the regulator is working properly as well as the alternators rotor and brushes5 With the ignition in the ON position engine not running except in cases of oil pressure switched circuits measure the voltage at the same three wires as before The voltmeter should read Red Wire Brown Wire Blue Wire Expected Reading 12 V 12 V 7 12 V Your Reading 115 128 VDC battery voltage at rest no charging occurring If your batteries are isolated and your RED sensing wire shows voltages other thanthose shown above make sure that the wire is connected on the battery side of the isolator The RED wire must see the battery directlyOnce the voltage is measured with the ignition on and the engine off the engine can be started for the final regulator test Tocollect your final readings1 With the ignition in the ON position and the engine running measure the voltage readings at the Red Blue and Brown wires The voltage values should read as follows Red Wire Brown Wire Blue Wire Expected Reading 12 14V 12 V 4 12 V Your Reading 135 145 VDC battery voltage when chargingThis completes the regulator test If the voltages measured at your regulator match those target readings shown in the tables aboveand if the alternator produces a magnetic field the regulator and harness are working correctly The presence of a magnetic fieldis also an indicator that the alternator rotor and brushes are functioning correctly If one or more of the voltage readings different than the target readings shown above the regulator or harness may be damaged or defective 6 Alternator Field Test Figure 8By eliminating the regulator from the charging circuit it is possible to determine ifcharging failure is caused by the alternator Testing the actual output of thealternator is known as Full Field Testing This can be accomplished by jumping apositive12VDC current to the field terminal at the rear of the alternator This testeliminates both the regulator and the harness making it easier to isolate to the alternator CAUTION Voltage is unregulated during this test andcould damage sensitive electronics Ensure that all voltage sensitive equipment isturned off and any connections between the alternator and the regulator prior to starting the engine To test the alternator 1 Disconnect the BLUE field wire from the alternator Attach shielded alligator clips to both ends of a test wire 3 Attach one end of the test wire to the alternators field terminal and attach the other end to the positive output of the alternator see Figure 8 If an isolator is used jump to the field from the battery side of the isolator CAUTION Do not allow the wire to contact the case while it is attached to the positive post 4 The motor should be run long enough to determine that charging voltage is present Unregulated voltage can rise quickly Do not allow extended unregulated charging to occur without carefully monitoring voltage levelsIf the alternator fails to generate voltage during full field testing an alternator malfunction is likely Contact your local shop or Balmars technical service staff for ConclusionIf your readings differ substantially from the Expected Readings listed in the charts above the regulator may be there may be a continuity problem Contact our technical support staff at 360 4356100 Keep your recorded readings in thespaces provided below the Expected Readings so you can share them with the technical support personIf the preceding tests do not prove the existence of a failure within the regulator or alternator we recommend you contact alicensed marine electrician who can test your system for wiring and circuit damage or other system failures that could beresponsible for charging difficulties If you determine that repair service is necessary for either your alternator or regulator pleasegather the following information before contacting our service technicians1 Model of alternator2 Model of voltage regulator3 Voltage readings on red brown and blue wire at regulator with engine off key on4 Voltage readings on red brown and blue wire at regulator with engine running at a fast ideal 1400 rpm VII LIMITED PRODUCT WARRANTY BALMAR warrants to the original the product is free from any defects in material or workmanship for a period of one year from the date of purchase If any such defect is discovered within the warranty period BALMAR will replace the regulator free of charge subject to verification of the defect or malfunction upon delivery or shipping prepaid to BALMAR This warranty DOES NOT apply to defects or physical damage resulting from abuse neglect accident improper repair alteration modification or unreasonable use of the products resulting in breakdown cracked or broken cases nor are parts damaged by fire water freezing collision theft explosion rust corrosion or items damaged in shipment in route to BALMAR for repair BALMAR assumes no responsibility for consequential damage or loss or expense arising from these products or any labor required for service or repair BALMAR WILL NOT repair or be held responsible for any product sent without proper identification and return address or RA number clearly marked on the package You must include proof of date and place of purchase photocopy of purchase invoice or we cannot be responsible for repairs or replacement In order to expedite warranty claims more efficiently BALMAR asks that prior to returning a defective product for repair you call their customer service department for a warranty return authorization number If factory service is required you can contact our BALMAR Customer Service Department Monday through Thursday 730 AM to 530 PM PST1360 435 6100 ext 3 Material required for the repair or replacement for the defective part or product is to be supplied free of charge upon delivery of the defective regulator to BALMAR 19009 61st Ave NE Arlington WA 98223 Customer is responsible for all return transportation charges and any air or rush delivery expense BALMAR reserves the right to determine whether to repair or replace defective components THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED WARRANTY LASTS NO PERSON AGENT DEALER IS AUTHORIZED TO GIVE ANY WARRANTY BALMAR 19009 61st Ave NE Arlington WA 98223 Ph 360 4356100 Fx 360 4353210 Email Web wwwbalmarnet 7 VIII QUICK INSTALLATION BASICSCAUTION This BALMAR marine alternator is intended for installation by a qualified marine electrician If you are not experiencedat marine electrical installations we strongly recommend investing in the services of a qualified technician The following is a of a typical alternator installation Your installation may vary based on engine type and age This basic guide is meantfor quick reference and should not be used without first reading the rest of the manual To install the alternator1 Turn off the battery and disconnect the ground wire Disconnect the wiring from the existing alternator2 Loosen the mounting bolt and remove the existing alternator3 Compare existing mounting points to those on your new BALMAR alternator In most applications the new alternator will replace the existing alternator without any modification Some cases may require some bracket modification BALMAR offers a universal mounting arm which may solve some mounting challenges Others can be obtained through your local auto or marine supply4 Attach the mounting foot of the new alternator to its engine mount Some shimming may be necessary to ensure a secure mount5 Inspect to ensure proper pulley alignment If your belt also drives the water pump ensure all pulleys are properly aligned6 Your alternator is shipped with a simple singlestage regulator The wiring is arranged as follows a Brown Br Ignition source Wire Attaches to the auxiliary side of the vessels ignition switch or an isolated ground oil pressure switch to turn on the regulator Used when the orange wire is NOT used b Orange O Lamp Wire This wire provides power to the regulator when connected to a warning lamp optional Used when the brown wire is NOT used c Blue B Field Wire Attaches to the positive field terminal on the alternator as shown in Figure 9 Figure 9 d Red R Sensor Wire Attaches to the positive terminal of the battery positive output of the alternator common terminal of the battery switch or the battery side of an isolator if used e White W Stator Wire Attaches to the Stator terminal on the alternator as shown in Figure 9 If an electric tachometer is used an additional white wire should be run from the other stator terminal to the tachometer as shown in Figure 9 f Black Bk Ground Wire Attaches to the negative ground terminal shown in Figure 97 Once the wiring is connected between the regulator and the alternator the alternators positive output and negative ground cables should be attached Positive output cable should be connected at the the bolt shown on Figure 9 The other end of the cable should be connected at the positive terminal of the battery If your battery switch is closer to the alternator than the batteries you may connect the output cable to the common output terminal Refer to the Voltage Loss Table Figure 1 to determine proper cable gauge F8 The ground cable must provide a sure connection Mount regulator on to the batteries negative terminal This can be rear of alternator as accomplished by grounding the alternator directly shown Regulator to the negative battery terminal or to your engines can be mounted on grounding bolt Be sure your cabling is adequately right or left side of the alternator sized to match your amperage load CAUTION Always follow the safety guidelines outlined on Page 1 19009 61st Ave NE Arlington WA 98223 On the Web PHONE 360 4356100 FAX 360 4353210 EMAIL
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