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' Icom Marine Ssb Book'


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                                                            CHAPTER 1

Introduction from Gordon West
Welcome to the world of long distance communications with marine
single sideband (SSB) radio. Hundreds of voice and data e-mail chan-
nels in the MF and HF frequency spectrum have been allocated to mari-
ners for long-range, ship-to-ship, and ship-to-shore communications.
Marine single sideband, voice, "party line" communications can never
be replaced by ship satellite "private" communications! The
advantage of marine SSB is the ability to have a multiparty conversa-
tion for the exchange of information. Satellite communications is like
a telephone call - you can only talk to a specific person at a specific
time. You cannot talk to a group of individuals. An SSB gives mariners
the ability to share information with one another about weather, ports
of call, cruising conditions etc. Marine SSB is more like an internet
chat group than a phone call.

The marine single sideband service and frequencies have been around
for years. However, only recently have we seen the introduction of
low-cost, no-crystal, marine SSB equipment that can offer marine
radio, ham radio, and marine e-mail capabilities in one neat, 12-volt
DC package. ICOM, a leader in marine, commercial, and amateur
radio equipment, presents the overview of the marine single sideband
service, an easy-to-understand review of equipment, and suggested
installation of the radio and antenna and ground systems.

If you are like most mariners, you are probably not all that interested in
what makes SSB radio work on the inside. However, one thing is for
sure, when you pick up the mic or prepare to send a computer e-mail
message, you want the very best signal on the band, and you want to
connect with the station you are calling, on the first try!

In this book we'll show you how, in a non-technical, easy-to-under-
stand language. We will also give you some proven installation tech-
niques that will help you to install the equipment on your boat if you
are handy with tools. But, keep in mind that your marine electronics

                                                                page 1
dealer is an expert in this field. They have the experience to complete a
proper installation of your equipment. If you don't feel you have the
necessary skills, your dealer is the best person you can find to insure
proper installation and top performance from your marine SSB radio.

This handbook is also a ready reference for the hundreds of voice and
data (e-mail) channels available in the maritime service, as well as
channels and frequencies for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore in both the
marine service and the amateur radio service. We'll even show you
how to tune in weather facsimile and NAVTEX.

         All frequencies listed have been updated in early 1997,
         with no anticipated changes for the next few years.

Ready to communicate throughout the world on your marine SSB
transceiver? Do you want to pick up that microphone and immediately
make a quick phone call home? Want to send a FAX or e-mail? Ready to
receive weather information over your lap-top computer? If so, then read
on--ICOM presents the very best in marine single sideband and we will
give you a fun and easy-to-understand look at long-range radio.

page 2
                                                               CHAPTER 2

Start with a Good VHF Set
Before you begin thinking about marine SSB long distance communi-
cations, let's first review the hard working marine VHF radio system.

        ICOM's lC-M59 VHF set is shown with optional flush mount kit.

Radio rules require that you must have a marine VHF radio in your
vessel before you can install a marine SSB transceiver.

The international marine VHF service is designed for coastal cruising.
We use marine VHF when we are within 20 miles of a shore station
or another VHF equipped vessel. This is the effective range of the
VHF receiver.

The VHF system is worldwide. Whether you cruise to
Hawaii, Bermuda, or the Mediterranean, the VHF/FM channels are the
same as they are here. Just use the international (INT) button on your
radio. The frequencies assigned to channels may be different in the
US, Canada or the rest of the world.

                                                                    page 3
Your typical ship-to-shore VHF range to the Coast Guard should be
about 20 miles. You can normally hear weather broadcast stations
WX-1, WX-2, and others, up to 80 miles away. The marine WX
channels are available only in the US and Canada. The range to a
marine telephone operator should be at least 20 miles. Ship-to-ship
range is better than 10 miles.

If you are not achieving this minimum range, check out your VHF
antenna system and all connections. For sailboats, the best type of
antenna is one that is mounted on the mast with good quality cable
down to your set. Keep a portable antenna as a spare in case of
dismasting. Sailboat masthead antennas will generally pull in stations
and transmit further than any other type of antenna system. These
antenna are only 3' tall and have "3dB" gain. They use the height of
the mast head to achieve maximum range.

For powerboats, you should use a minimum of an 8-foot "6dB"
antenna. If you have a large more stable vessel, you might want to
select a 21-foot, 9dB gain antenna that performs well in all but heavy
seas. A good powerboat antenna installation will normally let you reach
out to the distances described above.

A good quality, high-tech, VHF transceiver is also important to obtain
maximum range. ICOM produces both handheld and permanently
installed marine VHF transceivers. These installed radios (with options)
meet minimum digital selective calling (DSC) requirements. DSC is a
new system for making distress calls. This system will be implemented
worldwide over the next several years. Deep Draft (over 300 tons)
vessels put into service since 1992 comply with this system now. All
such vessels must comply by early 1999. Ultimately recreational ves-
sels will need DSC VHF radios to communicate with DSC equipped
ships. It is expected that all new marine VHF radios approved for sale
in the US will be DSC equipped by 2001-2002. An ICOM DSC VHF
set connected to your onboard GPS gives you added automatic safety
communications in case of an emergency. The DSC radio will transmit
an emergency call that includes your vessel's position taken from the
GPS. See the wide variety of ICOM VHF sets at your favorite marine
electronics dealer.

page 4
You must have a VHF set on board and a current FCC ship station
license before a single sideband radio may be installed. If you have a
licensed VHF system aboard, and you need more than 20+ miles of
range when out at sea, then single sideband communications is your
next step.

                                                         CHAPTER 3

The Marine Single Sideband (SSB) Service
Don't let the words "single sideband" scare you. It's simply a type of
radio transmission. The military has been using single sideband for
years to transmit messages throughout the world. Ham radio operators,
who are permitted to select almost any type of worldwide transmission
mode, have been using single sideband for years on worldwide
frequencies, to talk to their buddies anywhere and everywhere.

In 1971, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) phased in
SSB transmissions for the long distance marine radio service. At the
same time, it introduced the expanded marine VHF service for local
communications. It also phased out the older double sideband sets.

A single sideband signal concentrates your voice onto a tightly
compacted radio wave capable of traveling from hundreds to thousands
of miles. This very efficient, compacted radio signal is a faithful
reproduction of your actual voice. Unlike a commercial AM broadcast
station, that sends out duplicate double voice wave forms plus an
energy robbing "carrier," marine single sideband eliminates the
unneeded mirrorlike lower sideband, the power robbing "carrier" that
does nothing more than hush background noise when nothing is on the
air. Marine SSB puts all of the radio energy from your voice into a
compacted upper sideband wave form that gives you worldwide
talk power.

If you don't speak into the mic, your transmitter doesn't put out any
energy. Only when you speak will radio energy jump out into the air

                                                             page 5
waves. In between each word, your transmitter and battery system
relax! This means that you can talk further with less current demands
from your battery system.

Your compressed, upper sideband signal, is captured by a distant
receiver, and that receiver converts your radio signal into crystal clear

When the FCC phased out double sideband equipment and introduced
SSB, it doubled the number of available channels for marine
communications. More new SSB channels were also added in 1991!

By compressing the transmitted signal into a very narrow band width,
distant receivers are able to reject almost half the normal noise and
interference level from the air waves. FCC-required frequency
tolerances keep SSB sets precisely on frequency to minimize that sound
distortion on receive. By simply adjusting a single ''clarifier'' knob on
your SSB receiver, you can produce the normal sounding voice that
was transmitted by a distant ship or shore station.

Coast Guard
Since safety at sea communications deserve the highest priority, let's
first examine the United States Coast Guard and its role in the high
frequency marine single sideband service. Our Coast Guard and other
distress agencies throughout the world, guard 2182 kHz as the Interna-
tional Distress frequency. This allows you to contact shore-side and
marine rescue agencies immediately when outside of VHF
Channel 16 range. Since 2182 kHz is an international distress
frequency, you will find that there are literally thousands of stations
guarding this channel for a distress call, 24 hours a day.

In 1999, 2182 was replaced by 2187.5 as the International Distress
frequency. This new frequency asisignment is part of the new GMDSS
service required on vessels over 310 tons. Use of 2182 will be phased
out and replaced by digital (DSC) watch on 2187.5.

page 6
The United States Coast Guard also offers additional working
channels on its Automated Mutual-Assistance Vessel Reserve
frequencies in each of the popular single sideband bands. Imagine
using your marine SSB set to place a call for help when you're
thousands of miles away from any shore station. Through the Coast
Guard AMVER system, they can readily pinpoint the position of
commercial and military vessels passing through your area and signal
them to immediately alter course and steam to your location to render
assistance. Believe it or not, you just thought you were all alone out on
the ocean. There are actually many commercial and military
vessels that could reach you within a matter of hours accounted for and
pinpointed via SSB AMVER system radio communications. The
AMVER system uses a full range of SSB frequencies to provide world-
wide safety to ocean-going vessels. See appendix for frequencies.

Phone Home?
Want to place a telephone call? Shore-side commercial telephone
stations are standing by on hundreds of frequencies to place your phone
call. These shore-based phone companies operate extensive transmit-
ting and receiving antenna systems to bring in your signals loud and
clear. Remember, their revenue depends on your satisfaction. You can
be assured that they have the most going for them when it comes to
powerful transmitters, sensitive receivers, and huge antenna arrays that
beam in on your single sideband signal. These same telephone
stations also transmit "traffic lists" for ships at sea who have telephone
calls waiting from shore-side parties. They also broadcast weather
reports, storm warnings, and other notices to mariners where safety at
sea is important. If an emergency should arise the phone companies
with their massive antenna systems can also patch you into rescue
coordination centers, hospitals, and emergency-at sea medical systems
without charge. See appendix for frequencies.

Your new marine SSB can also send and receive electronic mail over
public common carrier, narrow band direct printing channels. It is just
like sending e-mail from your home or office through a specific
using your secret password over phone lines. SSB e-mail relies on the

USCG INFO 800-368-5647                                          page 7
airwaves and ionosphere in place of phone lines. Your e-mail provider
can be reached from anywhere in the world with up to 12 network
stations standing by for your computer traffic. An e-mail connection
will provide a significant $$$ savings over conventional, high-
frequency, SSB voice or satellite-phone communications from your
vessel to your business or home; or to anyone who has an e-mail or
FAX capability on shore. Shore stations can automatically reach your
computer, by dialing a single phone number to get to your e-mail
network provider. If you have a lap-top computer onboard, your present
or new ICOM SSB may need only a small modem and software to
complete the e-mail connection.

More about SSB e-mail in Chapter 3, with a complete listing of
narrow-band direct printing frequencies listed in the appendix, plus a
map showing a radio e-mail electronic worldwide network of stations
also found in the appendix.

    It is a plug-in affair to hook your marine SSB into e-mail via the airwaves.

There are many ship-to-ship frequencies allocated for communicating
over long distances to other vessels with marine SSB gear. Without
incurring any "land line" charges, you can communicate from one ship
to another ship in opposite parts of the world, free of charge, with
crystal clear reception. Thanks to Mother Nature, which we'll talk about

page 8
in a few moments, your signals can travel thousands of miles to other
vessels with SSB equipment with almost no loss of voice quality. See
appendix for frequencies.

Ship-To-Shore For Free
Private shore stations share ship-to-ship channels. This allows you to
communicate directly with a marine supply company that can help you
replace the part that fell off your anchor windless 3,000 miles away.
There is no land line charge in this communication service because
you are transmitting directly to a distant marine parts or marine
electronics store. These "private coast stations" can also include
private marine business, yacht club and marine salvage companies,
private air ambulance companies, and any other type of marine
business that need to regularly communicate over hundreds or even
thousands of miles to distant ship stations. You may even be able to set
up a marine SSB base station at your office to stay in touch regarding
marine matters when you're far out at sea. Your sideband may also be
operated in the SITOR mode, allowing for digital-transmission and
reception of documents, such as yacht race standings, business
transactions, and detailed manifests. See appendix for voice and
SITOR frequencies.

Your marine SSB radio from ICOM can also be used to receive (and in
certain cases, transmit) other services that share frequencies adjacent
to the marine band.

You can tune into worldwide international broadcast stations and find
out the latest news, here and abroad. You can eavesdrop on military and
State Department communications that fill the high frequency
spectrum. See appendix for frequencies.

Weather Facsimile Charts Free
You can tie your weather facsimile receiver into your marine sideband
set and receive crystal clear weather charts in your particular area of
cruising. See appendix for frequencies.

                                                               page 9
Ham Radio
You can also tune into amateur radio frequencies, and listen for local
weather reports on the maritime mobile amateur radio nets.
Licensed amateur operators may use ICOM SSB transceivers that are
capable of transmitting on amateur frequencies. The "No Code Techni-
cian" license allows you worldwide ham privileges when
cruising within Mexico with a valid Mexican reciprocal operating
permit. And even if you don't obtain the ham license to talk, all ICOM
marine SSB transceivers easily tune into ham calls so you can listen to
the valuable maritime mobile weather nets, both upper and
lower sideband.

Use your marine SSB set as an ultra-sensitive shortwave receiver You
can tune into foreign embassies, the Air Force and the Navy, "secret"
shortwave stations, and any other type of communications that can be
found on the worldwide high frequency spectrum.

Time Signals
Oh yes, one last thing--if you forgot to set your watch, you can tune
into the international time signals wherever you cruise. Tick, tick tick,
at the sound of the tone, it is exactly. . . See appendix for frequencies.

Worldwide Reception for Free
If time ticks don't interest you, consider the following that can be
received on your new marine single sideband, all-band transceiver:

           U.S. Air Force in-flight communications
           Strategic Air Command
           Air Force 1 (the President's plane)
           Civil Air Patrol
           United States Intelligence Agencies
           Antarctic Stations
           U.S. Weather ships
           Hurricane Research Center
           Volmet-Aviation Weather Broadcasts

page 10
Morse Code News and Weather for Free
It's also possible to tune in radio facsimile broadcasts and CW Morse
code broadcasts from national news agencies, i.e. United Press
International and Associated Press. These broadcasts take place on
international frequencies that can be picked up just about anywhere in
the world. There are Morse code readers and teleprinter displays that
are easily hooked up to your ICOM transceiver and will instantly read
out what is being sent! It's almost as good as your morning newspaper.

While your ICOM marine SSB may be capable of transmitting on any
or all of these frequencies, you should not! Transmitting outside of
your authorized maritime and ham limits is illegal. If you hold a valid
amateur radio license, you will be permitted to transmit on ham bands--
but transmitting outside of the marine and ham bands would be illegal
except in an emergency to signal for help.

So get that modem and lap-top computer hooked up your ICOM ma-
rine SSB by the plug-in jacks on the back.

        · Send and receive e-mail.

        · Tune into weather facsimile broadcasts, and watch the weather
          charts unfold on your computer screen. Decode the dots and
          dashes of Morse code computer programs.

        · Tune into Navtex broadcasts from the Coast Guard, and check
          out the latest weather report or navigational warning.

        · Your computer and your SSB make a perfect marriage to
          add information and safety to your cruising.

                                                              page 11

High Frequency Bouncing Radio Waves
Marine single sideband transceivers broadcast in the "high
frequency" range of the radio spectrum. Unlike VHF (very high fre-
quency) communications that always travel line-of-sight, transmissions
in the "high frequency" region take advantage of Mother Nature for
some extra long distance communications.

As of July 1, 1991, the following frequency bands have been allocated
for marine single sideband service:

      2 MHz       6 MHz       12 MHz        18 MHz       25 MHz
      4 MHz       8 MHz       16 MHz        22 MHz       27 MHz

                             FIGURE A

When transmitting on any band, one component of your radio signal
hugs the surface of the ocean. This is called the ground wave. Ground
waves that hug the surface of the earth and ocean travel approximately
50 to 200 miles from your transmitter. If you are communicating on
single sideband with a nearby shore station or another boat less than
100 miles away, chances are it's the ground wave component of your
signal that's doing all the work. Your ground wave signal is always
there, day or night, and does not depend on anything other than a good,
strong transmitted signal.

page 12
Good ground wave coverage out to 150 miles depends on a good
antenna and a good radio frequency ground system aboard your boat.
The better your antenna and grounding, the further you can communi-
cate via ground waves. More on this later!

It's the "sky wave" component of your transmitted radio signal that
gives you long distance, single side band range. Sky waves are the
components of your transmitted radio signal that travel up into the air
and bounce off of the ionosphere and are reflected back to earth
hundreds and even thousands of miles away.

The ionosphere surrounds our globe and is present 24 hours a day. Its
density and reflecting capabilities change with day and night, the
season of the year, and the 11-year solar cycle. Hanging like an
invisible radio mirror between two stations, the ionosphere is
responsible for reflecting back to earth marine SSB waves that strike it
at the right angle.

"The right angle" to establish communications with a station, let's say
3,000 miles away, depends on the time of day you are broadcasting and
the particular band of frequencies you are using. Lower frequencies
tend to bounce back to earth close in. Frequencies around 12 MHz tend
to bounce back to earth over fairly long distances, typically 3,000 miles.
22 MHz may give us the longest bounce, enabling you to communicate
from the West Coast of the United States into the Mediterranean. If the
ionosphere is very strong, you may get a second bounce off your sky
wave signal, which enables you to talk twice the distance that you
normally would. On 22 MHz, this means that you can easily talk all the
way around the world on a double-hop or triple-hop transmission.

The ionosphere is constantly changing, and a frequency that you
communicated on yesterday might not be suitable for communications
today. Often the time of day and season of the year will make a
difference. When band conditions change in the ionosphere, you
simply change frequencies on your ICOM to maintain a good, clear
signal. With multiple frequencies and multiple bands available,
you can stay in touch as the ionosphere goes through its regular
ups and downs.

                                                                page 13
                              FIGURE B

At night, the ionosphere gradually lowers. Your signals won't be able
to bounce as far, however, you will still enjoy several thousand miles of
communications range.

During daylight hours, the ionosphere rises, giving you longer range
on higher frequencies. Since it's the sun's rays that charge up the
ionospheric layers, solar and other disturbances will sometimes
enhance-- and sometimes occlude--single sideband marine

Sky waves are unaffected by local weather conditions. Whether it's
sunny or cloudy, snow or rain, windy or still, your sky wave range will
not be influenced by local weather conditions.

      Did You Know?
      The only time you will hear "weather noise" on your
      transceiver is in the proximity of lightning and thunder-
      storms. Lightning may be picked up as far away as 200
      miles on lower frequencies. It sounds like a static crash at
      the exact same time that you see the bolt illuminate. Some
      mariners leave their SSB radio turned on while cruising at
      night in inclement weather to get prepared for storm cells.
      When they hear it on the radio they should be prepared to
      see it soon!

page 14
After a few weeks of playing around with your new single sideband
radio telephone, you will begin to get a feel for the expected range on
any one particular band of frequencies. In our next chapter, we'll give
you some secrets!

                                                          CHAPTER 5

Single Sideband Range
Your transmitted ground waves are seldom influenced by atmospheric
or ionospheric conditions. Here is what to expect in ground wave range,
24 hours a day:

                    SSB Ground Wave Range
                      2 MHz      -    150 miles

                      4 MHz      -    100 miles

                      6 MHz      -    75 miles          Anytime,

                      8 MHz      -    70 miles        day or night

                     12 MHz      -    50 miles

                     16 MHz      -    50 miles

       VHF Band (156 MHz)        -    8 miles vessel-to-vessel

                       25 miles to Coast Guard

                                                                 page 15
Sky waves give you the very longest range, thanks to the ionosphere.
Here's what to expect in solid communication range to distant ship and
shore stations:

                      SSB SKY WAVE RANGE
   FREQUENCY                 DAYTIME                 N I G H T TI M E
       BAND                   RANGE                      RANGE
 2 MHz                   Sky waves absorbed       1,000 miles
 4 MHz                   Sky waves absorbed       1,500 miles

 6 MHz                   500 miles                2,000 miles

 8 MHz                   700 miles                3,000 miles

 12 MHz                  1,500 miles              Worldwide in the
                                                  direction of the sun.
 16 MHz                  3,000 miles              Worldwide in the
                                                  direction of the sun
                                                  until 8 p.m. local
 22 MHz                  Worldwide                Little sky wave
                                                  reflection after sunset.
 25 MHz                  Worldwide                Little sky wave
                                                  reflection after sunset.

As you can see, to talk further, go to a higher frequency. However,
watch out--you can sometimes select a frequency that is too high. This
may cause your sky wave signal to actually bounce over the
station that you wish to communicate with, or go off into space.

If your signal is literally skipping over the desired station, switch to a
lower frequency.

After a few weeks of tuning your receiver to different stations, you will
be able to anticipate which band will be the best for a particular time of
day to talk to a specific station hundreds or thousands of miles away.
Try tuning your set during the day, and then at night, and listen to the

page 16
difference in range. Switch between bands and begin to get a feel for
how the ionosphere causes signals to skip long distances, and some-
times short distances.

Marine telephone shore stations make it easy to predict the best band
to establish rock-solid communications. Every four hours they read a
traffic list (calls being held for vessels at sea) as well as ocean weather
conditions. They simultaneously transmit this information on each one
of the authorized bands. Simply switch bands while they are transmit-
ting and determine which band offers the best reception. Where you
hear them loudest is where they will hear you best. After they finish
with their traffic list, give them a short call and you have now
established communications, thanks to sky waves and Mother Nature's
reflective ionospheric mirror.

                                                             CHAPTER 6

Band and Channel Selection
It's easy to program additional frequencies and channels with today's
modern, high-frequency, marine single-sideband transceivers. You don't
need to purchase expensive plug-in crystal elements. Everything is syn-
thesized, and your modern ICOM marine SSB receives from .5 MHz
through 29.999 MHz, and transmits from 1.6 MHz to 27.500 MHz.

The marine single-sideband service uses specific channels to identify
specific frequencies between 4 MHz and 27.5 MHz This book has a
listing of channels and frequency assignments in the appendix. On the
2 MHz band, we use actual frequencies not International Telecommu-
nications Union (ITU) channel designators. We use ITU channel
designators on frequencies between 4 MHz and 27.5 MHz.

Most mariners will use about 10 frequencies in each marine band. New
ICOM marine SSB transceivers offer over 300 channels that are
synthesized, for voice, and an additional 600 channels for electronic

                                                                 page 17
e-mail. ICOM marine transceivers also offer over 100 channels that are
user-programmable, perfect for ham frequencies, shortwave broadcast-
ing stations, weather facsimile frequencies, and just about any other
frequency that you might want to tune in and listen.

You can add, change, or delete frequencies yourself by entering the
proper numbers on the keypad. Most ICOM marine electronic dealers
can custom program local frequencies to save you the time of entering
them into memory using the key pad.

      Did You Know?
      Your ICOM marine SSB can also work in any mode, in-
      cluding lower sideband or ham channels on 40 meters and
      80 meters, without the need to buy an expensive lower side-
      band filter.

Plan your communications range by selecting the appropriate bands. If
you're not going to be communicating halfway around the world, then
don't program many channels above 16 MHz. If you are only going to
Mexico, or to the Caribbean, load up on 4 MHz, 8 MHz, and 12 MHz
frequencies and channels. More than likely, these frequencies and chan-
nels are already loaded into your equipment.

page 18
                                                            CHAPTER 7

Equipment Selection and Location
Locate your marine SSB in a place that is convenient for operation.
The radios are large and heavy. They should be positioned for easy
access to all controls. Most of the time your SSB set can nestle right
along with your other nav gear.

You can build the equipment into your instrument panel, however, you
should provide some ventilation. Many new SSB's are fan coded and
there needs to be a source of fresh air to facilitate this process. Every-
thing on the inside of the radio is transistorized, and slight amounts of
heat are actually good for the equipment--it dries things out.

      We recommend keeping the equipment down low for easy
      channel selection. Make it comfortable to operate. Some
      night in a cozy harbor you may wish to simple flip through
      the worldwide frequencies to pick up some action. You
      want the set as accessible to your hand as possible without
      any undue effort.

ICOM SSBs have a built-in speaker that faces forward. This
eliminates having to purchase an external speaker which is required
when the built-in speaker is located elsewhere. A good carpenter can
build a teak frame that will make the equipment look nice. An
anodized aluminum trim kit is also available from your ICOM dealer.
A heavy-duty mounting bracket is shipped with each rig to facilitate
mounting it from below or hanging from above.

Once you have selected an ideal location for mounting the equipment,
read on, because we'll take a look at power requirements, antennas,
and grounding.

                                                                page 19
x Installation Recommendations

Automatic Antenna Tuner Mounting Locations
 (1) Aboard sailboats, the automatic antenna tuner normally
     feeds an insulated section of rigging, such as a backstay or,
     on a ketch, a mizzen sidestay. The automatic tuner hides
     away, below, near the chain plate that holds this particular
     insulated stay. The automatic tuner should go as far
     away from the radio as possible in order to minimize RF

     FCC rules require the active antenna tuner to be located as
     far away from people as possible. In other words, don't
     mount the tuner in an area where someone could actually
     touch the high voltage output single wire terminal!

 (2) The automatic tuner requires no specific orientation. You
     can hang it vertically or horizontally. You should insure that
     it will stay relatively dry and the water drain screws (if any)
     are at the low point of the unit if it is going to get wet.
 (3) Remove the downward-facing drain screw to provide an es-
      cape path for trapped moisture.

page 20
(4) Aboard powerboats, the automatic antenna tuner normally
    feeds a fiberglass whip. If possible, mount the tuner up in
    the flying bridge area, well protected from the weather.
    Mount it as far away from the helm as possible. If there is
    no flying bridge on the powerboat, the tuner may be mounted
    near the base of the white fiberglass whip.
(5) The wire feeding your antenna system is high-voltage
    "GTO-15." It is available at most marine electronic stores.
    Although it looks like coaxial cable, it is not. The jacket
    contains no internal braid. This means the high-voltage
    single wire is part of your active antenna system, and should
    be routed far away from other wires aboard. Keep it away
    from sleeping quarters or areas where crew members might
    sit. It's always a good idea to keep everyone at least 5 feet
    away from the GTO-15, antenna lead wire.

    Did You Know?
    It is normal to hear your automatic tuner make a clicking
    sound during tune-up. What you are hearing are the inter-
    nal relays self-adjusting inductance and capacitance for the
    best possible match. The clicking will normally stop after
    about 5 seconds of initial tune-up. The tuner will remain
    silent during normal communications on marine SSB. The
    clicking sounds during normal tune-up are a positive indi-
    cation that your system is performing as it should. How-
    ever, if the clicking continues for more than 10 seconds,
    chances are the tuner is missing its ground connection or
    the antenna connection up on deck.

                                                             page 21

Grounding (Counterpoise)
Good grounding or counterpoise techniques are absolutely necessary
for maximum single sideband range. Half your antenna is your radio
frequency ground, so don't skimp here! The radiating portion of your
antenna needs to see a mirror image of itself before it will send out
your SSB signal. This mirror image, called a counterpoise, is created
by using metal surface and seawater as your radio frequency
ground plane.

Your marine single sideband system will not perform satisfactorily if
you don't have a good counterpoise system. Poor counterpoise (ground)
equals poor range. This is especially true on lower frequencies where
large RF grounds (counterpoise) are required for good range.

If you make direct contact with the seawater, you may be able to
reduce the amount of ground foil that must be run from your radio and
the automatic tuner. If your through-hulls are metal and are all bonded
with a green wire per ABYC (American Boat & Yacht Council)
standards, find a couple of in-water bronze through-hulls, and run the
foil directly to them for an effective seawater ground. But make sure
that bronze through-hull is already part of your bonding system with a
telltale green wire attached to it and going off to other underwater
metals. Never ground to a bronze through-hull that has been specifi-
cally left isolated and ungrounded.

Use a wire brush to clean up the neck of the through-hull, and then use
a hose clamp to affix the copper foil to that through-hull. Bunch the
foil up a few times to provide a good solid connection where it won't
easily rip.

page 22
      If there are several bonded underwater through-hulls near
      your automatic antenna tuner, your grounding will be easier.
      You might only need 50 feet of ground foil to complete the
      entire process! Direct contact with seawater improves any
      RF ground system.

Same thing for a powerboat--but you'll need more ground foil because
your automatic antenna tuner is probably mounted up top on the flying
bridge. In this case, you will need to follow a wire run channel from the
top of the flying bridge down below decks, and down to the bilge area
where you can make connection to underwater through-hulls. You could
even use a metal tube that may already be in place as part of your
ground foil run.

                                            Why foil? Round wires
                                            create inductive reactance
                                            at radio frequencies, and are
                                            not effective as a good
                                            grounding conveyance. Use
                                            2 or 3 inch wide, 3 mil
                                            copper foil (available at
                                            most marine electronic
                                            stores) to achieve a good
                                            seawater ground.

                                            Your counterpoise system
                                            needs to begin directly
                                            below your antenna feed-
                                            point if at all possible. When
                                            you use an antenna coupler,
                                            we will consider this as the
    Use 3-inch wide, 3-mil copper foil to
     ensure a good sea water ground.

                                                                page 23
An ideal counterpoise for all frequency single side band work should
consist of up to 100 square feet of metal surface area directly below the
feedpoint. While this may sound like an impossible number of square
feet to achieve, consider the following large surface RF ground planes
(counterpoise) already available to you:

    Tanks                       Stainless steel tuna towers/stanchions
    Propeller and shaft         Chain plates
    Encapsulated lead keel      Engine block
    Bonded through-hulls

You can develop your own large surface area RF ground plane (coun-
terpoise) system by fiberglassing into your hull copper screen or 2-3
inch wide copper foil strips. It's too bad they didn't build in the ground
plane when they laid up the hull, isn't it?

It will probably take you about a day and a half and a hundred feet of
copper foil to create a good capacity ground plane below the water
line. You will be running copper foil inside your hull for a capacitive
ground to the seawater. No, the foil does not go on the outside of the
hull! The fact that the ground foil is close to the seawater makes all the
difference on transmit and receive range. While it might be an effort to
get all this foil below the water line, it will really make the difference
when you press down on your microphone key.

      Did You Know?
      Your bonding of underwater metals that are already tied in
      with a common ground wire will not affect your corrosion
      control system. If your present underwater metals are not
      all bonded together, you may wish to lay out a RF ground
      system (counterpoise) independent of an actual connec-
      tion to the seawater but that's not really necessary.

These other copper foil leads go directly to the antenna tuner. The tuner
will have a ground terminal to which the foil is attached. Do not reduce

page 24
the size of the foil as you approach the tuner or the radio. Also, do not
convert the foil to wire as you approach the tuner or the radio. Fold the
foil back on itself and drill a hole for the mounting stud.

Your RF ground system (counterpoise) does not actually need to
contact the seawater to be effective. Even though an encapsulate lead
keel doesn't actually touch the seawater, it makes a capacitive ground
by being next to the seawater, if you run wide copper foil to it.

You may either double bolt the foil to an exposed keel bolt, or actually
tap directly into the lead keel with a bolt going through the copper foil
and into the lead.

In attaching to through-hulls, remember, it will improve performance
if you run foil between each through-hull. Stainless steel hose clamps
are the best way to "pick up" these underwater metals. Water tanks,
copper hydraulic lines, etc.; can also be connected with foil using
hose clamps.

I know, I know, trying to get a good RF ground (counterpoise) system
is a bit difficult--especially if you can't get at your keel bolt. If this is
the case, then drill into the keel and pull up some lead. Any sailboat
system that doesn't use a poured keel is losing a tremendous amount of
potential in obtaining a super signal. Only if your keel is made of lead
shot poured in fiberglass would you not elect to use it. In any other
case, where there is a large amount of surface area below the water
line, such as a lead keel, by all means use it in your RF ground plane
counterpoise. It will save you many hours of trying to run more copper
foil and screen below decks.

Good RF grounding (counterpoise) techniques will also enhance your
overall protection from a lightning strike. Lightning protection and good
RF grounding all have a common denominator--a large amount of
surface area below the water line.

Again, I would like to mention that running wire--even battery cable--
is not effective as an RF ground (counterpoise) at radio frequencies.
Although, wire looks like a good DC ground, it looks invisible at most

                                                                   page 25
radio frequencies. Use foil, and only foil. Even aluminum foil will work
in a pinch. You can even use aluminum air conditioning foil with
sticky on the back as counterpoise. Wires won't work so forget about
using them.

The more counterpoise, the better your signal. Ever wonder why
supertankers always have the loudest signals on the band? They are
only using 100-watt equipment, and a standard 23-foot antenna, but
their signal literally bounces off of their gigantic counterpoise.

      Again, RF grounding IS the key to single sideband super
      range. It's one of the few components of the installation
      you can control.

Once the copper is in place, you can just about forget it. It will do the
work for you. We recommend applying a thin coat of paint or resin
over the copper to keep the salt water from tarnishing it. While green
copper works just as well as bright, shiny copper, it's a much more
sanitary installation to keep it isolated from the elements. It also pre-
vents tearing or other damage to the system.

If you have soldered all copper joints, you won't need to check for
continuity. However, you may wish to clean up copper connections at
through-hull fittings every couple of years. Since these connections are
made with hose clamps, there is the possibility that the contacts may
get corroded after a few years in the bilge. A steel brush should bring
both the copper and the through-hull fitting up to a nice shiny surface,
and you can make your connection again.

The periodic inspection of your copper ground system, you can be
assured that your signal will stay loud and clear.

page 26
x Ground System Review

 (1) The automatic tuner must be connected to a good electrical
     ground. A good ground prevents shocks, interference and
     numerous other problems. One example of a good ground
     is the nearest metal member on a metal vessel. For best
     results, use metal strap or foil. Make the length as short as
 (2) Good ground systems on wood or fiberglass boats are more
     difficult to install. For best results, use strap or foil con-
     nected to the keel, tanks, or other large metal objects.

If you have no way of contacting the seawater, you could install a
counterpoise for each band of frequencies used above 4 MHz, as shown
in the figure. This would be a last resort!

Ground plates? We save the underwater ground plate as an absolute
last resort for a single-sideband antenna system that is working off of
an automatic antenna tuner. Ground plates provide terrific contact to
the seawater, and also have good connection points to attach the foil.
The porous ground plates don't achieve any better ground than if you
were to come up with your own copper plate, but they do provide a
superior means for mounting them through the hull. Using a ground
plate as a RF ground may cause interference with other on board elec-
tronics using the same ground plate as a DC ground.

                                                              page 27
The automatic antenna tuner performs best with a direct seawater ground
connection. Whether it be through your bonded underwater
through-hulls, or to a dedicated ground plate, the direct connection is
one great way to minimize hours spent in the bilge developing a
good-ground system.

       A capacitive ground system, made up of copper strips run
      around the hull below the water line, or individual copper
      strips at one-quarter wavelength sections, is one way to
      achieve a good ground, but may take several days to lay
      into the hull and keep dry. Why not go for the direct sea-
      water contact, and establish your single-sideband ground
      connection in hours instead of days!

x Typical Installation

The following figure shows a typical installation. Any radio communi-
cations system operating with a whip antenna or long wire antenna
(insulated back stay) must have an adequate ground connection,
otherwise the overall efficiency of the radio installation is degraded
especially at low frequencies.

The 50 ohm output impedance of the transceiver makes it necessary to
employ antennas of the trapped or externally matched type. The use of
an antenna coupler in conjunction with a whip antenna or long wire
antenna (insulated back stay) allows an efficient installation which will
cover all HF marine bands.

Of course, those of you with aluminum hull vessels, your
RF groundplane (counterpoise) is your hull, and you'll probably
have the loudest signal anywhere in the world. No further RF
grounding is necessary.

page 28
                                                           CHAPTER 9

To achieve the ultimate in long skywave range, you need an antenna
system that is a minimum of 23 feet long tied into your automatic
antenna tuner. The longer the antenna, the better!

For powerboats, your antenna will be a 2 or 3-piece, fiberglass whip.
The fiberglass whip, on a powerboat, is mounted on the port or
starboard side with an upper support bracket. It is fed with single
wire GTO-15 that connects the whip to the nearby automatic antenna
tuner. This whip is sufficient for most powerboats.

For sailboats, insulating one of the stays "in the clear" is the best way
to achieve an antenna system that is between 30 feet and 70 feet long.
An insulated backstay is the most popular choice. The insulators
are put on by professional riggers. The rigger should place the top
insulator at a point where it is about 3 feet from the mast. The bottom

                                                               page 29
                                                insulator, on a single
                                                backstay, is placed at eye
                                                level. Any lower and some-
                                                one might actually touch
                                                the hot part of the antenna.
                                                Any higher and it's tough
                                                to service the connection
                                                point. Keep it at eye level.

                                                 On a split backstay, where
                                                 the split is below the mast-
                                                 head, use three (3) insula-
Use a stainless steel hose clamp or brass kearny
                                                 tors. The top and bottom in-
          nut to make your connection.           sulators are installed on the
                                                 side of the backstay to be
used as the antenna. The other insulator should be placed near the top
of the split leg as close to the Y as possible. This effectively takes the
split out of the antenna system. Run the GTO-15 up the stay to a point
above the lower insulator.

Use a stainless steel hose clamp to make your connection. You can also
make the connection with a brass kearny nut available at electrical
houses. Make sure that there is a good contact between the GTO-15
single wire and the insulated stay. NEVER USE COAX! Use rigger's
tape to completely seal the connection, and at least once a year check
your connection to insure it is making a good electrical contact with
the stay.

On a ketch, you can insulate either the port or the starboard main stays,
or you could insulate a mizzen stay and achieve good
results. I like the mizzen stay better than the port or starboard stay,
because it is more likely to be outside of and away from other riggins.
Anytime you provide an antenna that is part of your rigging that is
surrounded by other rigging, you lose valuable transmission and re-
ception range. On sailboats, with all sorts of grounded rigging, your
antenna must be outside of this rigging, and in the clear, to transmit
and receive over long range.

page 30
If your insulated stay may come in contact with other metals, or could
be touched by someone on deck, use rigger's tape or plastic stay covers
to keep it isolated. Always keep in mind that everyone on deck needs to
stay away from your transmitting antenna when you are actually on the
air with the microphone keyed. On receive, the antennas are
harmless. But on transmit, new FCC rules require everyone stay clear
of the radiating antenna.

Remember, where ever you install GTO-15 (a "hot" part of your
antenna system) along a metal component of the vessel, you should cut
any green bonding wire that connects that component to ground. If
the backstay chain plate is bonded, cut the bonding wire to that chain
plate. If you have installed GTO-15 next to a stanchion, that stanchion
should be removed from the bonding system. This prevents that
                                            powerful SSB signal from
                                            going right back to ground
                                            rather than radiating from
                                            your antenna

                                                   Pre-Tuned 6-Foot Whip
                                                   A pre-tuned 6-foot whip
                                                   containing both ham and
                                                   marine radio frequencies
                                                   will work nicely on both
                                                   powerboats and sailboats.
                                                   The whip does not require
                                                   an automatic antenna tuner,
                                                   so what you pay for the
                                                   whip will actually be less
                                                   than what you would have
                                                   paid for an automatic an-
                                                   tenna tuner. Your range
                                                   with the whip is about 30%
                                                   less than you would get
                                                   with an automatic tuner
                                                   connected to a long
 Whip antenna mounted over a stailess steel rail   antenna wire.

                                                                     page 31
The Whip Must Be Mounted Over A Horizontal Stainless Steel Rail!
The whip cannot be mounted on wood, nor can it be mounted on fiber-
glass. These pre-tuned whips MUST be over a horizontal rail with at
least 3 feet of surface area on each side of the whip.

For sailboats, the whip goes where you normally put the hibachi or
outboard motor. Keep it away from the self-steering metal wind vane or
wind generator.

On powerboats, the pre-tuned whip is placed over any horizontal rail,
with the rail around the flying bridge most preferred. This gets the
energy up and away from everyone down below. Remember, everyone
must be at least 5 feet away from any transmitting high frequency
antenna system.

The whip features plug-in "taps" to cause the antenna to self-resonate
on specific marine radio or ham radio frequencies. Each tap point is
marked in MHz for marine band, and meters for the ham band. You
simply plug in the banana plug to the appropriate jack, and you are on
the air with your self-tuned antenna system.

The self-resonant whip antenna gives good results up to a 3,000 miles
range. But each time you switch from one marine MHz band to an
other one, you must send someone out to the whip to tap into the
appropriate band that you plan to operate on.

page 32
                                                         CHAPTER 10

Adding 12 Volts
Your transceiver will be shipped with a red and black power cord. This
is your 12-volt connection, and it is fused.

A 150-watt marine single sideband transceiver can draw over 30 amps
on voice peaks. It's only when you talk that current is consumed in
these proportions so don't worry, it's not 30 amps continuous out of
your battery when the mic button is pressed down!

It's recommended to hook up your 12-volt connections directly to your
ship's battery system. This allows you to stay on the air in case of a
malfunction of your electrical panel. This is when you may need your
set the most.

If you have some hefty 12-volt wires leading from your battery com-
partment to your fuse panel, a second choice would be to go ahead and
make your connection at the instrument panel. Clip off large amounts
of extra power cable, but always leave enough coiled up behind the
radio so you can pull it from its mount with enough cable to work on
the set turned on.

Route your power cable along the same track as your RF ground foil.
Watch out for those sharp edges so that they don't nick the cable. Don't
even think about using the RF ground foil as the black side of the power
cable--these are two separate "ground" systems. One is for 12 volts
DC and the other is for radio frequencies!

Use wire lugs to attach the cable to the terminal strip. The radio power
lead is already fused, you do not necessarily need to go through an
external circuit breaker; you can if you want, but that adds one more
"weak link" in your power cable assembly.

                                                               page 33
      If you run the power cable to your battery system, choose
      a battery that is less apt to fail in an emergency. It you have
      a separate battery that is located above the water line,
      choose it in case of flooding. Just as soon as seawater
      covers your batteries, you are off the air--just when you
      wish you were on.

If you need to extend the wires supplied by the factory, see the wire
table below. Make certain that any splices are well soldered and are
protected from the salt environment. Soldering with radio solder is the
preferred method. Measure the distance from the battery to the radio
and back to the battery.

          Current (AMPS)
LENGTH    5     10   15    20   25    30    40    50    60    70    80     90    100
10'        18   14   12    12   10    10     8     8     6     6      6     4        4
15'        16   12   10    10    8     8     6     6     4     4      4     2        2
20'        14   12   10     8    8     6     6     4     4     4      2     2        2
25'        14   10    8     8    6     6     4     4     2     2      2     1        1
30'        12   10    8     6    6     4     4     2     2     2      1    1/0   1/0
40'        12    8    6     6    4     4     2     2     1    1/0    1/0   1/0   1/0
50'        10    8    6     4    4     2     2     1    1/0   1/0    2/0   3/0   3/0
60'        10    6    6     4    2     2     1    1/0   2/0   2/0    3/0   3/0   4/0
70'        10    6    4     2    2     2    1/0   2/0   2/0   3/0    3/0   4/0   4/0
80'        8     6    4     2    2     1    1/0   2/0   3/0   3/0    4/0
90'        8     4    4     2    1    1/0   2/0   3/0   3/0   4/0

    Use 3% voltage drop for any "critical application" affecting the safety of
   the vessel or its passengers: bilge pumps, navigation lights, electronics, etc.

page 34
                                                            CHAPTER 11

Eliminating Noise Interference
Now that you have your SSB station completely installed, it's time to
turn it on and start listening to the bands. Your antenna tuner system is
automatically set close enough on receive that you should hear plenty
of signals. Notice that there is more atmospheric noise on the lower
frequencies than the higher frequencies. With your engines and other
motors turned off, the noise is the usual type of background racket
prevalent on every band until a signal appears.

      Strong signals will usually completely mask out noise.
      Weak signals on 2 and 4 MHz will only quiet the noise by
      about 50 percent. The more sensitive your receiver, the
      more atmospheric noise you are going to pick up--this is
      normal. Poor receivers don't pick up backgr ound noise!

Atmospheric noise is always there--on any frequency, but louder on
lower frequencies. It can not be filtered out--to do so would also cause
your distant radio signals to fade away.

The noise that can be filtered is electrical noise generated by the
ignition system of your engine, plus noise from other motors onboard.
Fluorescent lights also create noise that is usually heard on the lower
frequencies. Other noise sources: fans, refrigeration, battery voltage
monitors, inverters, computers and battery chargers.

Onboard noise sources should be filtered at the spot they are gener-
ated. There are filters for alternators, and filters for fluorescent lights.
You can put resistor spark plugs on your gas engine, and electronic
tachometer filters on your electronic tachs. Fuel pumps can be quieted
down, and bait tanks silenced, with specific filters designed for each
individual interference source.

                                                                  page 35
      Tune in a relatively weak signal on your SSB set, and then
      start the engine. If the signal is still there, your interfer-
      ence noise problems are few. However, if the signal com-
      pletely disappears--you will need to get some filters for
      each noise interference source.

For noises and interference external to your boat, such as a passing
skiff with an outboard that can be heard clearly on your SSB set,
simply turn on your noise-blanker switch on the front of your radio.
This will cancel out the repetitious popping sound almost completely.
It may also help on your fluorescent lights. Although the noise-blanker
built into your set is one way of dampening repetition-type noise, noise
filters at the source of the noise are the best way to go. Like plugging
leaks, you must methodically get every single one.

page 36
                                                          CHAPTER 12

Your FCC License

      Did You Know?
      Marine SSB operation still requires a Federal Communi-
      cations Commission marine station license, as well as a
      restricted operators permit. Even though the Federal
      Communications Commission has stopped licensing
      certain VHF radio systems, your longer range marine single
      side band still needs the proper call letters.

FCC Form 506 must be completed, following all instructions carefully.
If you already have a valid VHF license, you will still use Form 506,
but indicate that you are requesting a modification.

Form 506 is rather complex, but give it your best try by indicating "fee
type code" as "PASR", and a licensing fee for 10 years at $75. Be sure
to answer "Yes" on requesting a new or modified maritime mobile
service identity number. This will give you capabilities for digital
selective calling.

Check the category of transmitters for VHF, all EPIRB types, SSB for
both bands, radar at 9300-9500 MHz, RTTY, and satellite. If you
already have a selective call number be sure to list it. Same for your
INMARSAT number--if you have one, list it!

Read the fine print on the form, and then send it on to the Federal
Communications Commission. It may take several tries to get the
license to go through; but when it does, you will be all set for your new
marine SSB system.

Complete FCC Form 753 for your personal operators permit. This is
called the restricted operators permit, and it's necessary for all SSB
installations. If you will be carrying passengers for hire, you also need

                                                               page 37
a marine radio operators permit. This requires a simple multiple-choice
test to make sure you know how to run and operate a marine radio
telephone. For information about the marine radio operators permit,
and a simple book that prepares you for the test, call 1-(800) 669-9594
and ask for the Gordon West Commercial General Radiotelephone book.

The Federal Communications Commission may also have these forms
on the lnternet (, and you may be able to go on-
line and apply for all of this right at the computer.

page 38
                                                          CHAPTER 13

Going on the Air
Your new marine SSB transceiver has been pre-programmed by the
manufacturer, a dealer, or distributor that sold the equipment. It is easy
to reprogram different frequencies into your new equipment. Refer to
your owner's manual for programming instructions. It's just as easy as
pushing buttons on your telephone. Go on, give it a try!

The Federal Communications Commission requires that your marine
station license is valid and covers the frequencies 2,000 kHz to 27,000
kHz or 2 MHz to 27 MHz before transmitting. Make sure you have this
license posted before going on the air.

If you followed the installation instructions precisely for both your
radio equipment and the automatic antenna tuner, your radio should
perform up to specifications. If you have any questions, you might want
a technician to check it out. The instruction manual with your new
ICOM SSB lists several ways to verify full power output.

      Before transmitting on any frequency, listen! In fact, spend
      a complete week listening to different frequencies and
      different bands to get a feel for how marine SSB commu-
      nications take place.

When listening to ship-to-ship and ship-to-private shore station calls,
you will generally hear both sides of the conversation. This will give
you an idea of how ship-to-ship communications take place. Always
remember to give your official FCC call sign at the beginning of your
transmission, at least once every 10 minutes, and when you sign off.

When tuning into the ship-to-shore marine telephone station, you will
only hear the shore station side of the conversation. The marine
telephone frequencies are duplex. Ship stations transmit on different

                                                                page 39
frequencies than the shore stations. Your ICOM SSB automatically
knows where to transmit when tuned to the shore station telephone
companies. The very professional marine telephone operators and their
service technicians will expertly ask you the questions about where
you are, who you are, and what number you want. Simply follow their
instructions and you will have no problems communicating through
the telephone service.

The same thing holds true with the United States Coast Guard AMVER
stations. You will only hear the shore side of the conversation. The
United States Coast Guard personnel expertly extract all of the infor-
mation they need for any emergency. Once again, do a lot of listening
before making any calls.

Probably your first call will be for a radio check. Don't use the United
States Coast Guard or 2182 kHz for radio checks as they have far more
important matters than giving out signal reports all day long.

When you are ready for a radio check, try the distant high seas marine
operator. Wait until they are finished with their local weather reports
before giving them a call. Always choose the band that sounds the
strongest to you.

Follow the procedures for initiating a call in the upcoming chapters of
this handbook. The marine telephone companies, it they're not real busy,
are more than happy to accommodate a radio check.

You can also receive radio checks from other pleasure boats that you
might hear on ship-to-ship frequencies. Most commercial vessels will
probably ignore any calls for radio check, so try to select one that sounds
like a fellow pleasure boat mariner, and exchange signal
reports. You should generally receive reciprocal reports. If a station
sounds very weak to you, they will probably say that you are weak to
them. Same thing with the telephone service; if they're not coming in
strong, you won't either.

Weak signals are not necessarily a result of something wrong with your
installation. Sometimes ionospheric band conditions simply won't

page 40
favor any particular single sideband band. Try the next band up to
improve signal reports. Try a different time of day, and expect that
some days you'll have better signal levels than others.

      Did You Know?
      Since your radio waves are solely dependent on ionospheric
      conditions, it's quite normal for signal levels to change.
      You may also notice that signals will fade in and out on the
      higher frequencies, such as 12, to 27 MHz. Again, this is
      completely normal and should result in almost no loss of
      intelligibility during a call.

Another fun way to check the operation of your equipment is to
receive as many foreign broadcast stations as possible. Refer to the
back of this book for a listing of international shortwave transmitting
stations. These stations should normally come in loud and clear, but
are still subject to 20 second fades. If you are hearing plenty of activity
on these frequencies, plus strong signals from other boats and shore
stations, chances are your installation is working fine, and you will
enjoy worldwide communications with single sideband equipment.

If you decide to have a licensed technician check out your equipment,
most marine electronic dealerships will be more than happy to send a
tech with the proper field strength equipment to "sign off" your station.
Since you completely installed the equipment yourself, there will be
little that the technician will need to do other than to check out your
antenna tuner setup, double check all connections to insure that they
are weatherproof, and to make some field strength measurements and
exchange signal reports with distant stations. Since electronic
technicians are quite familiar with the characteristics of single
sideband frequencies, they can quite accurately assure you that your
set is on the air and operating perfectly. If there is any way that they
can squeeze a few more watts out of your system, they will also do
that. Have them sign your log book with their license number to
further verify that your system is 100 percent "go."

                                                                 page 41

Operating Procedures - Distress, Urgency
and Safety
If you have an emergency, plan to use your VHF set as well as your
marine single sideband to call out for help. If you are within 100 miles
of the shore, first try your VHF on the international distress channel,
Channel 16. If you are far out to sea and do not receive immediate
response on VHF Channel 16, your next step is to switch to long-range
single sideband.

First try 2187.5 kHz, the international distress call for marine single
sideband. If after three attempts you do not receive an immediate reply
to your distress call, then switch to any frequency where you hear strong
signals. The marine operator is always a good one. Use any frequency
on your marine sideband that will get a response from another station.

Here are the procedures for placing or acknowledging a distress call on
your marine single side band, as well as for your VHF marine
transceiver. These are the approved procedures as outlined by the
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services in cooperation with
the Federal Communications Commission.

x Spoken Emergency Signals

There are three spoken emergency signals:

 (1) Distress Signal: MAYDAY
      Distress signal MAYDAY is used to indicate that a mobile
      station is threatened by grave and immediate danger and
      requests immediate assistance. MAYDAY has priority over
      all other communications.
 (2) Urgency Signal: PAN-PAN (Properly pronounced
      Used when the safety of the vessel or person is in jeopardy.

page 42
      "Man overboard" messages are sent with the Urgency
      signal. PAN-PAN has priority over all other communica-
      tions with the exception of distress traffic.
 (3) Safety Signal: SECURITY (Pronounced SAY-CURITAY)

      Used for messages concerning the safety of navigation or
      giving important meteorological warnings.
Any message headed by one of the emergency signals (MAYDAY,
PAN-PAN, or SECURITY), must be given precedence over routine
communications. This means listen. Don't transmit. Be prepared to help
if you can. The decision of which of these emergency signals to use is
the responsibility of the person in charge of the vessel.

x Radiotelephone Alarm Signal [notes indicate this rule changes in
1999 -- 2187.5]

This signal consists of two audio frequency tones transmitted
alternately. This signal is similar in sound to a two-tone siren used by
some ambulances. When generated by automatic means, it shall be sent
as continuously as practicable over a period of not less than 30 seconds
nor more than one minute. The purpose of the signal is to attract the
attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic alarm devices.
The radiotelephone alarm signal shall be used only with the distress
signal except in the situation discussed in the section
dealing with the Urgency Call and Message Procedures.

x Distress Call and Message

SENDING: Distress Call and Message

First send the Radiotelephone Alarm Signal, if available.

        (1) Distress signal MAYDAY (spoken three times)
        (2) The words THIS IS (spoken once)
        (3) Name of vessel in distress (spoken three times) and call
            sign (spoken once)

                                                               page 43
The Distress Message immediately follows the Distress Call and
consists of:

          (4) Distress signal MAYDAY (spoken once)
          (5) Name of vessel (spoken once)
          (6) Position of vessel in distress by latitude and longitude or
              bearing (true or magnetic, state which) and distance to a
              well-known landmark such as a navigational aid or small
              island, or in any terms which will assist a responding
              station in locating the vessel in distress. Include any
              information on vessel movement such as course, speed,
              and destination.
          (7) Nature of distress (sinking, fire, etc.)
          (8) Kind of assistance desired
          (9) Any other information which might facilitate rescue,
              such as: length or tonnage of vessel, number of persons
              on board, and number needing medical attention, color
              of hull, decks, cabin, masts, etc. (10) The word OVER

EXAMPLE: Distress Call and Message

(Send Radiotelephone Alarm Signal, if available, for at least 30
seconds but not more than one minute)


page 44
NOTE: Repeat at intervals until answer is received. If no answer is
received on the Distress frequency, repeat using any other available
channel on which attention might be attracted.

x Acknowledgment of Distress Message

If you hear a Distress Message from a vessel and it is not answered,
then YOU must answer. If you are reasonably sure that the distressed
vessel is not in your vicinity, you should wait a short time for others to
acknowledge. In any event, you must log all pertinent details of the
Distress Call and Message.

SENDING: Acknowledgment of Receipt of Distress Message

Acknowledgment of receipt of a Distress Message usually includes the

        (1) Name of vessel sending the Distress Message
            (spoken three times)
        (2) The words THIS IS (spoken once)
        (3) Name of your vessel (spoken three times)
        (4) The words RECEIVED MAYDAY (spoken once)
        (5) The word OVER (spoken once)

EXAMPLE: Acknowledgment Message


x Offer of Assistance

After you acknowledge receipt of the distress message, allow a short
interval of time for other stations to acknowledge receipt, if any are in
a position to assist. When you are sure of not interfering with other

                                                                page 45
distress-related communications, contact the vessel in distress and
advise them what assistance you can render. Make every effort to
notify the Coast Guard. The offer-of-assistance message shall be sent
only with the permission of the person in charge of your vessel.

SENDING: Offer-of-Assistance Message

The Offer-of-Assistance Message usually includes the following:

          (1) Name of the distressed vessel (spoken once)
          (2) The words THIS IS (spoken once)
          (3) Name of the calling vessel (spoken once)
          (4) The word OVER (spoken once)
          (5) (On hearing an acknowledgment, ending with the word
               OVER from the distressed vessel, continue with your
          offer of assistance message.)
          (6) Name of calling vessel and radio call sign (spoken once)
          (7) The word OVER (spoken once)

EXAMPLE: Offer-of-Assistance

To be sent after a short interval of time, but long enough to be sure that
further transmissions will not cause harmful interference and long
enough to work out relative position and time to reach the distressed

          (on hearing the word OVER from BLUE DUCK, continue)
          WHITE WHALE-WZ4321-OVER"

page 46
x Urgency Call and Message Procedures

The Urgency Call begins with the emergency signal, consisting of three
repetitions of the group of words PAN-PAN (pronounced
PAHN-PAHN). The Urgency Call and Message is transmitted on
VHF Channel 16 (or 2182 kHz, in the same way as the Distress Call
and Distress Message. The Urgency signal PAN-PAN indicates that
the calling person has a message concerning the safety of the vessel, or
a person in jeopardy. The Urgency signal is authorized for situations
like the following:

        - Transmission of an urgent storm warning by an
          authorized shore station.
        - Loss of person overboard but only when the assistance
          of other vessels is required.
        - No steering or power in shipping lane.

SENDING: Urgency Call and Message

The Urgency Call and Message usually include the following:

        (1) The Urgency signal PAN-PAN PAN-PAN PAN-PAN
        (2) Addressee-ALL STATIONS (or a particular station)
        (3) The words THIS IS (spoken once)
        (4) Name of calling vessel (spoken three times) and
            call sign (spoken once)
        (5) The Urgency Message (state the urgent problem)
        (6) Position of vessel and any other information that will
        assist responding vessels. Include description of your
        vessel, etc.
        (7) The words THIS IS (spoken once)
        (8) Name of calling vessel and radio call sign (spoken once)
        (9) The word OVER

EXAMPLE: Urgency Call and Message

(Not involving possible use of radiotelephone alarm)

                                                               page 47
          (or a particular station)
             CRUISER - BLUE HULL
          THIS IS-BLUE DUCK-WA 1234

x Safety Call and Message Procedures

The Safety Call, headed with the word SECURITY (SAY-CURITAY,
spoken three times), is transmitted on the Distress and Calling frequency
(VHF Channel 16 or 2182 kHz), together with a request to shift to a
working frequency where the Safety Message will be given. The Safety
Message may be given on any available working frequency.

United States Coast Guard stations routinely use the Safety Call
SECURITY to alert boating operators that they are preparing to
broadcast a message concerning safety of navigation. The call also
precedes an important meteorological warning. The Safety Message
itself is usually broadcast on Coast Guard Channel 22A (157.1 MHz)
and 2670 kHz. Although recreational boating operators may use the
Safety Signal and Message, in many cases they would get better results
and perhaps suffer less criticism by giving the information to the Coast
Guard without making a formal Safety Call. The Coast Guard usually
has better broadcast coverage from its shore stations and will
rebroadcast the information if it is appropriate.

SENDING: The Safety Call and Message

The Safety Call usually includes the following: (On VHF Channel 16
or 2182 kHz.)

page 48
       (1) The Safety Signal SECURITY (spoken three times)
       (2) Addressee-ALL STATIONS (or a particular station)
       (3) The words THIS IS (spoken once)
       (4) Name of vessel calling and radio call sign
       (5) Announcement of the working channel (frequency)
           where the Safety Message will be given
       (6) Radio Call Sign
       (7) The word OUT

The Safety Message usually includes the following: (Select working
channel (frequency) announced in step 5 above)

       (1)   The Safety Signal SECURITY (spoken three times)
       (2)   The words ALL STATIONS (spoken once)
       (3)   The words THIS IS (spoken once)
       (4)   Give the Safety Message
       (5)   Repeat the Radio Call Sign
       (6)   The word OUT

EXAMPLES: Safety Call and Message

       (On VHF Channel 16)
        THIS IS-BLUE DUCK-WA 1234
       WA 1234-OUT"

       (On VHF Channel 68)
       THIS IS-BLUE DUCK-WA 1234
       WA 1234-OUT"

                                                         page 49
x Coast Guard Channels

The government frequency 2182 kHz and 2670 kHz are widely used
by recreational boating operators for communicating with U.S. Coast
Guard shore stations and ship stations, and with USCG Auxiliary
vessels when these vessels are operating under orders. When using
these channels, you must first establish communications on the appro-
priate calling frequency, 2182 kHz on the following long range Coast
Guard channels:

                    COAST GUARD CHANNELS
   Yo u r          Yo u r        I . T. U .
 Tr a n s m i t   R e c e ive   Channels
  2182 kHz        2182 kHz        None        International distress &
                                              calling frequency to all
                                              Coast Guard & Rescue
                                              agencies worldwide.
  2670 kHz        2670 kHz        None        U.S. Coast Guard working
  4134 kHz        4426 kHz         424        500-mile Coast Guard
                                              working channel.
  6200 kHz        6501 kHz         601        Gulf Coast Guard
                                              working channel.
  8240 kHz        8764 kHz         816        Medium-range Coast
                                              Gaurd working channel.
  12242 kHz       13089 kHz        1205       Long-range 24-hour Coast
                                              Guard working channel.
  16432 kHz       17314 kHz        1625       Day/evening long-range
                                              Coast Gaurd working

page 50
      Consult your ICOM SSB frequency chart to see where these
      channels are in your set's memory.

x Operating Procedures - Regular Communications

It's very important that you monitor a frequency at least one minute
prior to transmitting over it. This insures that you won't "cover up" any
communications that may be going on that you might not hear clearly
at first. Always wait until a frequency is clear before transmitting.

The following procedures for operating your marine SSB are approved
by the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services in coopera-
tion with the Federal Communications Commission:

Safety Frequencies
The following table describes the distress and safety frequencies
between 4000-27,500 kHz for ship and coast stations, public and
private, operating voice radiotelephony (HF-SSB).

                        SAFETY FREQUENCIES
          FREQUENCY                          DESIGNATOR
              4125.0                            "4 Safety"

              6125.0                            "6 Safety"

              8291.0                            "8 Safety"

              12290.0                           "12 Safety"

              16420.0                           "16 Safety"

Operating Procedures (other than Distress, Urgency and Safety)

                                                               page 51
x Maintain a Watch

Whenever your marine VHF or SSB radio is turned on, keep the re-
ceiver tuned to the appropriate distress and calling frequency, 156.8
(VHF Channel 16) or 2182 kHz. This listening watch must be main-
tained at all times the station is in operation and you are not actually
communicating. The Coast Guard maintains a silent period on 2182
kHz for three minutes immediately after the hour and for three minutes
immediately after the half hour. During these silent periods only mes-
sages or transmissions concerning distress or urgency are made.

Since this watch is required for safety and to facilitate communications
by providing a common calling channel, it is not permissible for one
vessel in a fleet of vessels traveling together to maintain this watch
while the other vessels guard another channel, such as a common
intership channel. You may maintain a watch on a working channel,
however, and may establish communications directly on that channel
provided you simultaneously maintain your watch on the distress and
calling channel.

Record the times you maintain this watch in your Radio Log.

x Choose the Correct Channel or Frequency

Ship-to-Ship Channels
Each of the marine frequencies and channels is authorized for a
specific type of communication. It is required that you choose the
correct channel for the type of communication you are making. For
example, certain channels are set aside exclusively for intership use.
See the following chart.

page 52
                                            BEST TIME
 RANGE          CHNL CODE         kKz
 50 miles         Ship 2-A       2065.0        Night
  50 miles        Ship 2-B      2079.0         Night
  50 miles        Ship 2-C      2096.5         Night
  50 miles        Ship 3-A       3023          Night
 150 miles        Ship 4-A       4146          Night
 150 miles        Ship 4-B       4149          Night
 150 miles        Ship 4-C       4417          Night
 170 miles        Ship 5-S       5680        Day/Night
 200 miles        Ship 6-A       6224        Day/Night
 200 miles        Ship 6-B       6227        Day/Night
 200 miles        Ship 6-C       6230        Day/Night
 200 miles        Ship 6-D       6516        Day/Night
 400 miles        Ship 8-A       8294          Day
 400 miles        Ship 8-B       8297          Day
1000 miles        Ship 12-A     12353          Day
1000 miles        Ship 12-B     12356          Day
1000 miles        Ship 12-C     12359          Day
5000 miles        Ship 16-A     16528          Day
5000 miles        Ship 16-B     16531          Day
5000 miles        Ship 16-C     16534          Day
5000 miles        Ship 18-A     18840          Day
5000 miles        Ship 18-B     18843          Day
10,000 miles      Ship 22-A     22159          Day
10,000 miles      Ship 22-B     22162          Day
10,000 miles      Ship 22-C     22165          Day
10,000 miles      Ship 22-D     22168          Day
10,000 miles      Ship 22-E     22171          Day
10,000 miles      Ship 25-A     25115          Day
10,000 miles      Ship 25-B     25118          Day

                                                 page 53
x Calling Another Ship

Turn your radiotelephone on and listen on the appropriate distress and
calling frequency, 2182 kHz, to make sure it is not being used. If it is
clear, put your transmitter on the air. This is usually done by depress-
ing the "push to talk" button on the microphone. (To hear a reply, you
must release this button.)

Speak directly into the microphone in a normal tone of voice. Speak
clearly and distinctly. Call the vessel with which you wish to commu-
nicate by using its name; then identify your vessel with its name and
FCC assigned call sign. Do not add unnecessary words and phrases as
"COME IN BOB" or "DO YOU READ ME." Limit the use of
phonetics to poor transmission conditions.

This preliminary call must not exceed 30 seconds. If contact is not
made, wait at least two minutes before repeating the call. After this
time interval, make the call in the same manner. This procedure may be
repeated no more than three times. If contact is not made during this
period, you must wait at least 15 minutes before making your next

Once contact is established on 2182 kHz, you must switch to an
appropriate working frequency for further communication. You may
only use VHF Channel 16 and 2182 kHz for calling, and in emergency

Since switching to a working frequency is required to carry out the
actual communications, it is often helpful to monitor the working
frequency you wish to use, briefly, before initiating the call on
2182 kHz. This will help prevent you from interrupting other users of
the channel.

All communications should be kept as brief as possible and at the end
of the communication, each vessel is required to give its call sign, after
which, both vessels switch back to the distress and calling channel in
order to reestablish the watch.

page 54
Two examples of acceptable forms for establishing communication with
another vessel follow:

                           EXAMPLE 1
    VESSEL                      VOICE TRANSMISSION
  (on 2182 kHz)
                        "BLUE DUCK-THIS IS-MARY JANE-
  MARY JANE                     WA 5678-REPLY 8A"
  (on 2182 kHz)         (or some toher proper working channel.)
                                    "8A" ie "ROGER"
  BLUE DUCK            (If unable to replay on the channel selected,
  (on 2182 kHz)        an appropriate alternate should be selected.)
   (on working                         "BLUE DUCK"
   channel 8A)
  (on working                          "MARY JANE"
  channel 8A)
                          ( Continue w with   message
                                          ith m  essage and
                                                          and terminate
  BLUE DUCK             communications        within
                        c ommunication w       ithin trthree
                                                        hree mminutes.
                                                                 inutes. At
   (on working         the
                       the end
                             end of
                                 of the
                                     the communications,
                                          communicaiton, e      each
                                                                 ach vvessel
   channel 8A)                        g ives i
                                      gives    ts call
                                              its call sign.)

                           EXAMPLE 2
    VE S S E L                VO I C E T R A N S M I S S I O N
  (on 2182 kHz)      "MARYJANE-BLUE DUCK-WA 1234-REPLY"

  MARY JANE                     "MARY JANE-WA 5678"
    (on 4A)
                                   "BLUE DUCK"
  BLUE DUCK               (Continues message and terminate
    (on 4A)            communicaitons as indicated in example 1)

          A short form most useful when both parties
                      are familiar with it

                                                                        page 55

Using Your SSB for Low-Cost E-Mail

 Marine SSB will accept the radio modem and computer on rear accessory plugs.

Your new SSB transceiver may have many channels designated for nar-
row-band direct printing (NBDP). These are frequencies for simplex
telex over radio (SITOR) which has been the established mode of mari-
time communications for the merchant shipping industry for more than
50 years. SITOR is electronic e-mail over marine frequencies. All you
need is a computer and a radio modem to complete the
marriage to your marine SSB. With this equipment, you will be able to
send and receive e-mail over worldwide frequencies.

Using your lap-top computer and a special modem and your new ICOM
SSB, you can send and receive written text messages far more
efficiently than voice messages. Written messages allow you to think
through what you want to say ahead of time, format your message
off-line in your computer, and then send it off with a few
keystrokes, right from your vessel at anytime, day or night, anywhere
in the world. Your SITOR one-third page of text can go in less than 2 or
3 minutes or often less than the minimum air time voice telephone
charge. If you have several pages of text, it could take up to 10-30
minutes, but you are assured of "solid copy" at the other end of the

page 56
circuit. You can also receive e-mail as well. Inbound traffic for your
vessel is saved in your vessel's own mailbox in the host computer until
you are ready to receive it. People on shore can access the system by
the Internet, or any one of the several commercial e-mail system such
as CompuServe, AOL, Telex, FAX, or voice transcription, using the
public telephone system via any of the common carriers. You can
also use your computer and your SSB to receive, free of charge,
weather facsimile imagery directly from the Coast Guard. You can also
receive high-quality weather forecast charts in your mailbox for
downloading at your convenience through private yacht weather
forecasting companies.

Electronic e-mail over marine SSB circuits are carried on by more than
200 radio telex shore stations in the world as described in the admiralty
list of radio signals. All of these worldwide data stations have been
coordinated in respect to international billing arrangements for ships
of all nations which wish to connect to any foreign coast station along
the route of their voyage. Two companies, Globe Wireless, and PinOak
Digital offer worldwide networks of pickup and relay stations with
only one administration to deal with as you make your international
voyage. These networks, of high-frequency coast radio stations are
designed to provide both spacial and frequency-diverse channel capac-
ity to all mariners around the globe. Multiple propagation paths to-
gether with automated control of the ship's existing high-frequency SSB
radio system provide transmission quality and link availability not pre-
viously obtainable on similar voice circuits. Traffic lists, message traf-
fic, and other data services are sent throughout all of the world wide
network e-mail stations, and downloaded easily with your shipboard
lap-top computer.

The typical cost for a SITOR message is about $2.00 a minute, where
approximately 300 characters can be sent per minute. This works out
to be about three cents per word. If you plan to send high volumes of
data on your computer on an almost daily basis, PinOak Digital and
Globe Wireless offer other types of high speed data transfer systems
that allow you to send and receive messages in about one-tenth the
time as normal SITOR.

                                                                page 57
      Did You Know?
      For more information about the Globe Wireless e-mail
      connection to your ICOM SSB, contact Globe Wireless at
      (800) 876-7234.
      For more information about PinOak Digital High
      Frequency Digital Communications, call (800) 746-625l.
      For more information about SAILMAN visit their
      website at


Review: SSB Channel Designators
Your friends with marine SSB may tell you. . .

To talk local, you want to go on 4A. They sometimes call that 4-alpha.
It's good in the mornings, and 4-alpha on your set is 4-2. Some sets
have it as 4-1, but that's really 4-S. You can look up this channel as 451,
which is really 4146. Got it?"

The mysteries of SSB channelization get worse. Did you know that
international distress frequency 2182 kHz may NOT be the best place
to cry Mayday when you are halfway across the sea?

Single Sideband
And if you call Mayday on Coast Guard working channel 816 or 1205,
they could be "duplexing" a weather report and not listening to their
input frequency. So WHO do you call in an emergency, anyway, on
marine SSB?

And what about making phone calls? Are you really charged $25 just
for getting an answering machine? I am happy to report, NO.

page 58
So let's demystify that new marine SSB installation, and compare the
channels and frequencies listed in this chapter with what is stored in
your SSB's memory.

ALL THOSE CHANNELS. Marine SSB frequencies are assigned
specific channels within the following megahertz regions:

                      MEGAHERTZ REGIONS
   CHANNEL                MHZ          APPROXIMATE RANGE
       2 XX              2 MHz         100 miles day; 1000 miles night
       4 XX              4 MHz         100 miles day; 1500 miles night

       6 XX              6 MHz         500 miles; 1500 miles night

       8 XX              8 MHz         700 miles day; 2000 miles night
      12 XX           12 & 13 MHz      100 miles evenings; 3000 miles
      16 XX           17 & 17 MHz      Unreliable evenings; 4000 miles
      22 XX              22 MHz        Daytime only band, worldwide

Each band of marine frequencies skips off the ionosphere and refracts
signals back down to earth at different angles. 2 and 4 MHz come back
down relatively close to your vessel. 8 and 12 MHz are excellent for
medium-range, day and night, skywave "skip" contacts. On 16 and 22
MHz, skywaves fade out at night, but offer the longest range during day-
light hours. The best range usually follows the direction of the sun.

Choose the megahertz range that will skip your signal to the
approximate distance you want to reach. 8 and 12 MHz are the
favorites during the day, and 4 and 6 MHz are the favorite bands
during the night. 2 MHz is clobbered with noise, and you won't get zip.
22 MHz is too high for reliable daily contacts. Choose 8 and 12 MHz
as your "bread and butter" bands.

                                                               page 59
Marine radio channels are assigned ITU designators. ITU stands for
International Telecommunications Union, and assigns commonality
to every country's marine SSB set.

But there are differences between each manufacturer of SSB equipment
on how they read out the channels, so stay tuned. More to follow.

Most 2 MHz frequencies have little use even 2182 MHz, the international
distress and calling frequency. The range is so limited, you would do
better to squawk Mayday on VHF channel 16. Most 2 MHz frequencies
go by their actual numerical frequency kilohertz, not by three-digit
channel designators. Lucky for us, a kilohertz readout on the radio dial
is common among all marine SSB radios in every country.

4 MHz to 22 MHz marine channels are all listed by a three-digit or
four-digit channel designator. An example would be marine Channel
401, or marine Channel 809, or marine Channel 1206. These channel num-
bers, common worldwide, are assigned to pairs of radio frequencies that
make up a radio channel. Both the marine telephone companies of the
world and the United States Coast Guard and rescue agencies throughout
the world operate on frequency PAIRS where they transmit on one fre-
quency, and listen on another. This is called DUPLEX. But you don't need
to worry about the individual frequencies for ship transmit and ship re-
ceive because your marine SSB has all of these channels pre stored in ITU
memory. If you dial up marine Channel 808, your set automatically re-
ceives on 2740 kHz, and transmits automatically on 8216 kHz. It is pre-
stored duplex, so all you need to know is the channel number and what
service goes with which channel numbers.

Currently, AT&T runs the high seas maritime radiotelephone services
from three stations that serve this half of the world. However in the
future, access will be through station WLO out of Mobile Alabama.
AT&T will be limiting the service provided by KMI, WOM, and WOO.
From Australia to Africa and everything in between, the AT&T marine
operator offers you radiotelephone service on the following channels:

page 60
                      AT&T MARINE OPERATOR
     AT&T                            AT&T                         AT&T
SAN FRANCISCO                      FLORIDA                    NEW JERSEY
      KMI                            WOM                          WOO
  401, 416, 417                   403, 412, 417                410, 411, 416
    804, 809, 822                 423, 802, 810                808, 811, 815

  1201, 1202, 1203                814, 825, 831              1203, 1210, 1211

  1229, 1602, 1603              1206, 1208, 1209             1605, 1620, 1626

  1624, 2214, 2223              1215, 1223, 1601             2201, 2205, 2210

     2228, 2236                 1609, 1610, 1611                     2236

                                1616, 2215, 2216


     Choose the channel on a likely frequency that will skip
     your waves into the particular AT&T maritime services
     station closest to you. If you're in the South Seas, you might
     try Channel 1602 to AT&T coast station in California. If
     you're in the Caribbean, try AT&T coast station in Florida
     on Channel 403. And if you're sailing to Spain, you might
     to try AT&T coast station New Jersey on 1203. Otherwise
     use the WLO Frequencies listed below.

                            WLO ITU CHANNELS
Channel Number                        RX Frequency                      TX Frequency
405 ..................................... 4369.0 ......................... 4077.0
414 ..................................... 4396.0 ......................... 4104.0
419 ..................................... 4411.0 ......................... 4119.0
607 ..................................... 6519.0 ......................... 6218.0
824 ..................................... 8788.0 ......................... 8264.0
                  WLO ITU Channels continued on page 62

                                                                            page 61
                             WLO ITU CHANNELS
 Channel Number                        RX Frequency                      TX Frequency
 829 ..................................... 8803.0 ......................... 8279.0
 830 ..................................... 8806.0 ......................... 8282.0
 1212 ................................. 13110.0 ....................... 12263.0
 1225 ................................. 13149.0 ....................... 12302.0
 1226 ................................. 13152.0 ....................... 12305.0
 1607 ................................. 17260.0 ....................... 16378.0
 1641 ................................. 17362.0 ......................... 1648.0
 1647 ................................. 17380.0 ....................... 16498.0
 2237 ................................. 22804.0 ....................... 22108.0

  Contact Rene Stiegler of WLO radio for information and
  frequency information packs. PH:(334)665-5110,
  FX:(334)666-8339, or or

Try tuning these channels in now and listen to the ship-to-shore traffic.
You will hear only the shore side of the conversation because the ships
are transmitting duplex. Phone calls cost under $5 a minute, with no
land-line charges. There is a 3-minute minimum, so once you start
gabbing, go for 3 minutes and make it a $15 bill. If you get an
answering machine, tell the operator to cancel the call, and you pay
nothing. Radio checks with AT&T are free. Calling the Coast Guard
through AT&T is also free. What? Calling the Coast Guard through
the high seas marine telephone service? Why?

                       COAST GUARD CHANNELS
  2182 kHz - Distress             424            Working, Weather, AMVER
          Channel                 601            Working, Weather, AMVER

          Channel                 816            Working, Weather, AMVER

          Channel                 1205           Working, Weather, AMVER

          Channel                 625            Working, Weather, AMVER

page 62
These are United States Coast Guard weather, AMVER, and working
channels and are not necessarily monitored 24 hours a day for a
distress call. These are the channels where you will hear automated
Coast Guard weather. It is digital speech synthesized, and will sound
like someone sitting on a fish hook.

If you need the Coast Guard anywhere in the world, call on the high
seas marine operator duplex channels. I guarantee they are listening
because they're looking to make money on an incoming phone call.
They won't make money on a Coast Guard call because they'll patch
you through free. But once your situation is stabilized, the Coast Guard
will ask you to switch over to one of their working channels. Suggest a
channel near the MHz band you are presently going through the
marine operator on. Just look at your radio dial--if it's reading 1201,
then you are on the 12 MHz band. You would suggest to the Coast
Guard you can work them on ITU Channel 1205. Switch over, and you
will hear their friendly voice.

      Did You Know?
      The Coast Guard tracks commercial shipping all over the
      world on a computer in New York--and if you need help
      or evacuation anywhere out on the sea they can probably
      find someone within 300 miles of you and request them to
      divert and lend assistance. This is part of the Coast Guard's
      AMVER program.

Here is where SSB radio manufacturers have split from the normal
channeling scheme. Here are the channel designators that SHOULD
come up on your marine SSB for ship to-ship safety and routine calls:

                                                                page 63
      4-0     4125 kHz     Safety, "4S"
      4-1     4146 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "4A"
      4-2     4149 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "4B"
      4-3     4417 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "4C"
      6-0     6125 kHz     Safety, "6S"
      6-1     6224 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "6A"
      6-2     6227 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "6B"
      6-3     6230 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "6C"
      6-4     6516 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "6C"
      8-0     8291 kHz     Safety, "8S"
      8-1     8294 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "8A"
      8-2     8297 kHz     Ship-to-Ship, "8B"
      12-0    12.290 kHz   Safety, "12S"
      12-1    12.353 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "12A"
      12-2    12.356 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "12B"
      12-3    12.359 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "12C"
      12-4    12.362 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "12C"
      12-5    12.356 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "12E"
      16-0    16.420 kHz   Safety, "16S"
      16-1    16.528 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "16A"
      16-2    16.528 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "16B"
      16-3    16.534 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "16C"
      22-8    22.159 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "22A"
      22-9    22.162 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "22B"
      22-0    22.165 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "22C"
      22-4    22.168 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "22C"
      22-5    22.171 kHz   Ship-to-Ship, "22E"

page 64
      Not all marine SSB transceivers list these ship-to-ship
      channels by the ITU duplex number. Most ICOM marine
      SSB transceivers list ship-to-ship simplex frequencies by
      the megahertz band, a hyphen, and numbers 1 through 9.
      Sometimes the number l and 2 correspond with ship-to-
      ship A and B channels, yet other times they number up
      from the safety channel so A now becomes "-2." But not to
      worry, just double check the frequency with the ship-to-
      ship channels and frequencies I have just listed, and go
      with the frequency.

The safety channels are restricted to navigation. Safety, and weather
information, similar to what takes place on marine VHF channel 6. No
gabbing on the marine SSB safety channels. The marine ship-to ship
channels may also be used by private coast stations so you can talk
from ship to shore and bypass the marine operator. Towing and
salvage companies, plus marine stores regularly conduct business on
ship-to-ship channels 4A, 8A, and 12A. Now go back to the list and
double check the frequencies:

        4A = 4146 kHz
        8A = 8294 kHz
        12A = 12,353 kHz

Find these channels on your own SSB radio, and verify the channel
number agreeing with the actual ship-to-ship/ship-private coast shore

If you're cruising, the Federal Communications Commission offers ad-
ditional 4 MHz and 8 MHz channels for ship-to-ship communications.
This will relieve all of the congestion now found on popular channels
4A, 4B, 8A and 8B. At last -- "secret" ship-to-ship SSB
frequencies that are perfectly legal under FCC Rule 80.374 (b) (c).

                                                            page 65
           4000                      8101
           4003                      8104
           4006                      8107
           4009                      8110
           4012                      8116
           4015                      8119
           4018                      8122
           4021                      8125
           4024                      8131
           4027                      8134
           4030                      8137
           4033                      8140
           4036                      8143
           4039                      8146
           4042                      8149
           4045                      8152
           4048                      8155
           4051                      8158
           4054                      8161
           4057                      8164

page 66
The FCC Rules state, "These frequencies are shared with fixed
services, and marine ship-to-ship operation must not cause harmful
interference to those other services." In other words, if you and a
cruising buddy land on a frequency and overhear shore traffic
complaining about your ship-to-ship communications, switch off that
channel in the table above.

Shore stations will continue to monitor their regular frequencies on 4
and 8 Alpha and Bravo frequencies, no charge. But mariners wishing
to intercommunicate ship-to-ship on 4 MHz and 8 MHz may now switch
to these new, very quiet SSB channels in full compliance with FCC
rules. In fact, 4030 MHz is fast becoming the Baja "intercom" channel
for mariners with SSB transceivers.

In the Caribbean to Panama canal, try 4054. Hams in the canal, listen
7083 to 7085 lower sideband.

                       ALL UPPER SIDEBAND:
          Pacific Coast                      8680.1 kHz
   Pacific Coast/Long-Range                 12,728.1 kHz
            Hawaii                          11,088.1 kHz
         Pacific/Hawaii                     16,133.1 kHz
            Hawaii                           9980.6 kHz
     New Gulf Frequencies              4316, 8502, 12,788 kHz
             Boston                          6340.5 kHz
            Atlantic            10,863.2, 12,748.1, 8078.1, 15,957 kHz

                                                             page 67
      You might also memorize aeronautical East Coast and West
      Coast tower channels 13,282 and 13,270 kHz. I would also
      fill up one of those user-programmable memory channels
      with 13,300 and 5547 kHz, both upper sideband, aeronau-
      tical in-route frequencies. If you can't raise the Coast
      Guard in an emergency, squawk Mayday to an airliner!
      It's been done before.

FCC rules prohibit a marine radio being shared with another radio
service. But if you are a voluntary equipped boat, you are not required
by law to have a marine radio onboard--so one day you consider it a
marine radio, and the next day you consider that marine radio a ham
radio. Trust me. It works, but only if the marine radio has capabilities
already unleashed as an amateur radio.

You could store the ham FREQUENCIES into any one of the 100 or
more user-programmable marine channels on a modem ICOM marine
SSB radio. A sample:

          3968 kHz, lower sideband, West Coast marine nets
          7268 kHz, lower sideband, East Coast waterway net
          7238 & 7294 kHz, lower sideband, morning West Coast nets
          14.300 kHz, upper sideband, 24-hour ham maritime mobile nets
          14.340 kHz, upper sideband, West Coast 11 :00 a.m. maņana net
          14,313 kHz, upper sideband, Pacific evening maritime net
          21,402 kHz, upper sideband, Pacific and South Pacific

You need an amateur license to talk on these frequencies, but you don't
need a license to listen and glean great weather information. In an emer-
gency, you can holler for help on these frequencies without any ques-
tions asked. But it better be a real life-and-death emergency. You know
how hams are. I'm one of them, too!

page 68
Finally, your SSB transceiver can be put into the AM double sideband
mode, and the time signals and shortwave broadcast frequencies memo-
rized to get up-to-date weather information the correct time, and the
latest news from BBC and Voice of America.

        5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz time signals
        5975 kHz AM shortwave
        7435 kHz AM shortwave
        9575 kHz AM shortwave
        11, 835 kHz AM shortwave
        13,760 kHz AM shortwave
        15,120 kHz AM shortwave

Tune anywhere around these AM shortwave frequencies for plenty of
foreign and USA broadcasts.

Your best radio check is with the high seas marine operator. You must
call them for a minimum of 45 seconds in order for them to beam you
in with their massive antenna systems. A quick call will lead to no
contact. Make it a long call, giving your vessel name, official FCC call
sign or ship registration number, your position, the ITU channel you
are communicating over, and repeat the process over and over and over
and over again for 45 total seconds. Close talk the mic--push the plas-
tic right up against your lips. If you talk 6 inches away from the mic,
your power output will be zilch. SSB mic are all noise canceling, and
you must absolutely touch the mic to your lips to get a signal out on the

As you talk, you may notice your panel lights blinking, your anemom-
eter exceeding 100 knots, your electric head going into the masticate
mode, and various other pieces of marine electronics including autopi-
lots going nuts on transmit. This is perfectly normal. It means you're
putting out one walloping signal. You must live with it. There is no
simple cure.

                                                               page 69
      Your radio check to the marine operator should finally
      achieve success on one of their working channels. If one
      megahertz band doesn't work, dial in another marine op-
      erator in another part of the country, and give THEM a try.
      Or tail in at the end of another ship contact when
      the marine operator is ready to sign off. If you can hear the
      marine operator well, they should pick you up as well.

One of the best radio checks is from the technician that installed the
marine SSB. Don't let them off the ship until they reach a marine
operator at least 1,000 miles away and get a good radio check on the
air. Accept no excuses. I have seen marine SSB installations that LOOK
good on a wattmeter, but over the air SOUND bad. An improperly
installed automatic antenna tuner cable rectifies the RF wave and brings
it back into the radio, scrambling your audio to sound like you are
talking underwater. You can't see it on a meter, but you'll sure know
you have this problem if absolutely nobody comes back to your
request for radio checks.

With more and more radiotelephone calls going satellite aboard ships,
be assured that the high seas marine SSB radiotelephone service is
looking for more activity out there on the airwaves, and the technicians
are eager to get you into their computers and will regularly run radio
checks with you to give you the confidence of knowing they can reach
out almost anywhere to take your incoming or outgoing phone call.
Radio checks are free.

page 70
      Did You Know?
      The marine SSB radio manufacturers are delivering equip-
      ment designed more for the radio guru than the active sailor
      with things on the mind other than is 451 really 4-1 or is it
      really 4-alpha? ICOM's M710 marine SSB has the capa-
      bility of programming the screen to read out the channel
      function in addition to just the channel number and fre-
      quency. Great idea.

A marine SSB is a powerful communications device for worldwide
cruising and sailing. Know its capabilities, and know what the
channels can do for you. There is absolutely nowhere in the world that
you could cruise that you couldn't get back to a shore-side station on
marine SSB on one of the megahertz bands. EVERYWHERE there are
domestic and foreign shore-side stations ready to take your duplex chan-
nel activity. The modern marine SSB has all of these channels in
memory. Now you know where to go to make that ship-to-ship,
ship-to-shore, or emergency distress call.

                                                                page 71
  Country        Station Name        Call      I.T.U. Channel #

  ALBANIA    Durres P.T. Radio       ZAD    402, 805, 1206, 1639,

  ALGERIA    Alder Radio             7TA    410, 413, 424, 426, 601,
                                            603, 605, 802, 809, 813,
                                            825, 1207, 1215, 1217,
                                            1232, 1629, 1631, 1636,
                                            1641, 2205, 2225, 2227,

 ARGENTINA   Bahia Blanca Radio      LPW    406, 421, 601, 818, 821
             Corrientes Radio        LPB    424, 810
             General Pacheco Radio   LPL    413, 421, 426, 603, 606,
                                            802, 814, 821, 1220,
                                            1221, 1601, 1621, 2204,
             Ushuaia Radio           LPC    410, 812, 1230

 AUSTRALIA   Adelaide Radio          VIA    419, 424, 603, 817, 1227
             Brisbande Radio         VIB    404, 415, 424, 603, 811,
             Broome Radio            VIO    424, 603
             Carnarvon Radio         VIC    424, 603
             Darwin Radio            VID    415, 424, 603, 811, 815,
                                            1227, 1229
             Esperance Radio         VIE    424, 603
             Hobart Radio            VIH    424, 603
             Melbourne Radio         VIM    404, 424, 603, 811, 1226
             Perth Radio             VIP    404, 424, 603, 811, 1226
             Rockhampton Radio       VIR    424, 603
             Sydney Radio            VIS    405, 417, 424, 603, 802,
                                            829, 1206, 1231, 1602,
                                            1610, 2203, 2223,
             Thursday Island Radio   VII    424, 603
             Townsville Radio        VIT    419, 424, 603, 817

   AZORES    Miguel Radio            CUG    426, 813, 1207, 1615,
                                            1632, 2207, 2222

  BAHRAIN    Bahrain Radio           A9M    413, 806, 1209, 1618

page 72
 Country         Station Name   Call      I.T.U. Channel #
BANGLADESH   Chittagong Radio   S3D    402, 416, 421, 602, 806,
                                       821, 1202, 1221, 1603,
             Khulna Radio       S3E    418, 416, 421

BARBADOS     Barbados Radio     8PO    407, 816, 825, 1213,

 BELGIUM     Oostende Radio     OSU    408, 411, 417, 421, 422,
                                       425, 602, 606, 803, 805,
                                       806, 812, 813, 815, 821,
                                       829, 1207, 1213, 1215,
                                       1218, 1219, 1221, 1609,
                                       1613, 1621, 1625, 1627,
                                       1630, 2209, 2214, 2219,
                                       2221, 2225, 2239

BERMUDA      Bermuda Radio      VRT    410, 603, 817, 1220,

 BRAZIL      Belem Radio        PPL    404, 405, 419, 819, 821,
                                       822, 830, 1228, 1633
             Fortaleza Radio    PPF    819, 821, 828
             Ilheus Radio       PPI    404, 405, 819, 821, 824
             Itajai Radio       PPC    404, 405, 819, 821, 822
             Juncao Radio       PPJ    404, 409, 419, 819, 821,
                                       824, 828, 1228, 1617
             Manaus Radio       PPM    404, 405, 416, 819, 821,
             Natal Radio        PPN    404, 409, 819, 821, 830
             Olinda Radio       PPO    404, 405, 419, 821, 824,
                                       828, 1211, 1606
             Rio Radio          PPR    404, 405, 409, 416, 419,
                                       819, 821, 822, 828, 830,
                                       1214, 1221, 1611, 1613,
                                       1621, 2221, 2238
             Salvador Radio     PPA    404, 409, 416, 819, 821,
             Santarem Radio     PPT    404, 409, 819, 821, 824,

                                                       page 73
  Country         Station Name         Call      I.T.U. Channel #
   BRAZIL     Santos Radio             PPS    404, 409, 416, 819, 821,
  (CONT'D)                                    824, 1219
              S. Luis Radio            PPB    404, 409, 819, 821, 824
              Vitoria Radio            PPV    404, 409, 416, 819, 821,

  CANADA      Cambridge Bay            VFC    403
              Coast Guard Radio
              Coppermine               VFU    403
              Coast Gaurd Radio
              Coral Harbor Coast       VFU    407
              Guard Radio
              Frobisher Bay            VFF    407, 603, 812, 1201,
              Coast Guard Radio               1634
              Goose Bay                VFZ    408
              Coast Guard Radio
              Halifax                  VCS    413, 418, 605, 823, 1213,
              Coast Guard Radio               1604
              Inuvik                   VFA    403
              Coast Guard Radio
              Killinek                 VAW    407
              Coast Gaurd Radio
              Resolute                 VFR    407, 825
              Coast Guard Radio
              Vancouver                VAI    410, 605, 807, 1207,
              Coast Guard Radio               1608, 2220
              Vancouver Radio          CFW    418
              (B.C. Tel.)

    CAPE      Praia de Dabo Verde      D4D    418, 820, 1218, 1623
   VERDE      Radio
              S. Vicente de Cabo       D4A    418, 820, 1218, 1623
              Verde Radio

   CHILE      Valparaiso Playa Ancha   CBV    419, 421, 425, 601, 606,
              Radiomaritima                   807, 809, 815, 821, 1210,
                                              1218, 1221, 1224, 1621,
                                              1631, 1640, 2221, 2225,

page 74
Country         Station Name        Call      I.T.U. Channel #
COLOMBIA    Barranquilla Radio      HKB    406, 826, 1203, 1615
            Buenaventura Radio      HKC    406, 826, 1203, 1615

  COOK      Rarotonga Radio         ZKR    821, 825

 CUBA       Havana Radio            CLA    401, 418
            Sntiago de Cuba Radio   CLM    418, 809, 1217, 1626

 CYPRUS     Cyprus Radio            5BA    406, 141, 421, 426, 603,
                                           606, 807, 818, 820, 821,
                                           829, 1201, 1208, 1221,
                                           1230, 1603, 1621, 1632,
                                           2212, 2218, 2221

DENMARK     Lyngby Radio            OXZ    401, 403, 409, 415, 418,
                                           420, 421, 424, 425, 426,
                                           603, 605, 606, 801, 808,
                                           811, 813, 818, 821, 823,
                                           825, 827, 829, 1203,
                                           1210, 1211, 1214, 1215,
                                           1217, 1219, 1221, 1223,
                                           1226, 1601, 1603, 1605,
                                           1608, 1614, 1617, 1618,
                                           1621, 1622, 1635, 1641,
                                           2203, 2208, 2211, 2213,
                                           2216, 2218, 2228, 2234,

DJIBOUTI    Djibouti Radio          J2A    418, 827, 1210

 EGYPT      Alexandria Radio        SUH    418, 605, 817, 1216,
                                           1610, 2226

ETHIOPIA    Assab Radio             ETC    403, 605, 805

  FIJI      Suva Radio              3DP    406, 810

                                                            page 75
  Country         Station Name        Call      I.T.U. Channel #
 COLOMBIA     Barranquilla Radio      HKB    406, 826, 1203, 1615
              Buenaventura Radio      HKC    406, 826, 1203, 1615

    COOK      Rarotonga Radio         ZKR    821, 825

    CUBA      Havana Radio            CLA    401, 418
              Sntiago de Cuba Radio   CLM    418, 809, 1217, 1626

   CYPRUS     Cyprus Radio            5BA    406, 141, 421, 426, 603,
                                             606, 807, 818, 820, 821,
                                             829, 1201, 1208, 1221,
                                             1230, 1603, 1621, 1632,
                                             2212, 2218, 2221

 DENMARK      Lyngby Radio            OXZ    401, 403, 409, 415, 418,
                                             420, 421, 424, 425, 426,
                                             603, 605, 606, 801, 808,
                                             811, 813, 818, 821, 823,
                                             825, 827, 829, 1203,
                                             1210, 1211, 1214, 1215,
                                             1217, 1219, 1221, 1223,
                                             1226, 1601, 1603, 1605,
                                             1608, 1614, 1617, 1618,
                                             1621, 1622, 1635, 1641,
                                             2203, 2208, 2211, 2213,
                                             2216, 2218, 2228, 2234,

  DJIBOUTI    Djibouti Radio          J2A    418, 827, 1210

   EGYPT      Alexandria Radio        SUH    418, 605, 817, 1216,
                                             1610, 2226

  ETHIOPIA    Assab Radio             ETC    403, 605, 805

     FIJI     Suva Radio              3DP    406, 810

page 76
 Country        Station Name         Call      I.T.U. Channel #
 FRANCE     S. Lys Radio             FFL    404, 405, 416, 419, 817,
                                            825, 828, 830, 1222,
                                            1226, 1229, 1231, 1604,
                                            1619, 1628, 1633, 2204,
                                            2226, 2231, 2235

 FRENCH     S. Paul et Amsterdam     FJY    411, 825

 FINLAND    Hanko Radio              OFI    406, 413, 141, 417, 422
            Helsinki Radio           OHG    406, 413, 414, 417, 422,
                                            802, 804, 805, 809, 829,
                                            1206, 1209, 1213, 1216,
                                            1224, 1227, 1230, 1606,
                                            1611, 1614, 1615, 1623,
                                            1636, 1638, 2204, 2210,
                                            2214, 2222, 2231

 GAMBIA     Banjul Radio             C5G    405, 829

GERMANY     Norddeich Radio          DAP    401, 824, 1205, 1610,
            Ruegen Radio             Y5P    405, 407, 410, 419, 802,
                                            809, 826, 831, 1202,
                                            1204, 1206, 1232, 1619,
                                            1629, 1633, 1640, 2220,
                                            2224, 2226, 2230

 GHANA      Takoradi Radio           9GA    402, 601, 823, 1202,
                                            1616, 2213
            Tema Radio               9GX    409, 602, 825, 1224,
                                            1622, 2215

GIBRALTAR   Gilbraltar Naval Radio   GYU    401, 404, 602, 807, 1212,
                                            1611, 2212

                                                            page 77
  Country         Station Name      Call      I.T.U. Channel #
   GREECE     Athinai Radio         SVN    413, 415, 424, 425, 603,
                                           802, 806, 808, 809, 814,
                                           819, 820, 823, 1204,
                                           1207, 1212, 1220, 1232,
                                           1607, 1609, 1625, 1626,
                                           1627, 1629, 1640, 2217,
                                           2219, 2224, 2231, 2235

  GUINEA-     Bissau Radio          J5M    413, 426, 802, 813, 1203,
  BISSAU                                   1615, 1635

   HONG       Cap D'Aguilar Radio          411, 417, 606
   KONG       (Hong Kong Radio)

  ICELAND     Hornafjoerdur Radio   TFT    406, 414, 416, 419
              Reykjavik Radio       TFA    406, 414, 416, 419, 601,
                                           603, 805, 807, 809, 831,
                                           1206, 1208, 1215, 1220,
                                           1606, 1615, 1625, 1630,
                                           2225, 2226
              Siglufjoerdur Radio   TFX    406, 414, 416, 419

 INDONESIA    Amboina Radio         PKE    408, 826, 1210
              Banjarmasin Radio     PKG    411, 602, 816
              Belawan Radio         PKB    810, 1205
              Bitung Radio          PKM    418, 830, 1209
              Dumia Radio           PKP    401, 816, 1209
              Jakarta Radio          PKI   812, 1210, 1610, 2234
              Kupang Radio          PKK    604
              Makassar Radio        PKF    414, 828, 1201
              Palembang Radio       PKC    414, 830
              Sabang Radio          PKA    411, 826
              Semarang Radio        PKR    422, 604, 828
              Sorong Radio          PKY    422, 601, 828
              Surabaya Radio        PKD    408, 826, 1212
              Telukbayur Radio      PKP    605

    IRAN      Abadan Radio          EQA    407, 604, 1605
              Abbas Radio           EQI    416, 604, 805, 1616,

page 78
Country         Station Name         Call      I.T.U. Channel #
 IRAN       Bushire Radio            EQM    405, 604, 810, 1629,
(Cont'd)                                    2203
            Khark Radio              EQQ    410, 604, 1220
            Khoramshahr Radio        EQK    408, 604, 824, 1625,
            Lavan Radio              EQR    420, 604
            Nowshahr Radio           EQO    411, 604, 817
            Shahpoor Radio           EQN    402, 604, 829, 1231,

ISRAEL      Haifa Radio              4XO    404, 410, 418, 423, 603,
                                            604, 801, 805, 812, 821,
                                            827, 1204, 1207, 1213,
                                            1215, 1221, 1609, 1613,
                                            1617, 1628, 2204, 2207,

 ITALY      Genova P.T. Radio        ICB    408, 409, 806, 823, 1205,
                                            1211, 1608, 1614, 2216
            Roma P.T. Radio          IAR    402, 412, 420, 423, 602,
                                            604, 814, 819, 820, 826,
                                            831, 1206, 1209, 1213,
                                            1218, 1230, 1603, 1606,
                                            1616, 1624, 2202, 2211,
                                            2223, 2237

IVORY       Abidjan Reche Radio             404, 602, 806, 1212
COAST       Abidjan Radio            TUA    419, 603, 822, 1205,
                                            1634, 2225

JAMAICA     Kingston Jamaica Radio   6YI    405, 416, 605, 812, 1224

 JAPAN      Tokyo Radio              JBO    407, 425, 426, 810, 812,
                                            820, 1207, 1212, 1218,
                                            1604, 1609, 1632, 2227,
                                            2236, 2240

KENYA       Mombasa Radio            5ZF    414, 822

                                                            page 79
                        MARITIME RADIOTELEPHONE
   Country                Station Name       Call      I.T.U. Channel #
  KIRIBATI            Tarawa Radio           T3T    411, 814
 (Republic of)

    KOREA             Seoul Radio            HLS    401, 419, 602, 605, 803,
                                                    827, 1213, 1229, 1634,
                                                    1637, 2209, 2222

  LEBANON             Beyrouth Radio         ODR    426, 828, 1216
 MADAGASCAR           Antalaha Radio                402
                      Diego-Suarez Radio     5RL    415
                      Fort-Dauphin Radio     5RD    406
                      Maintirano Radio              415
                      Majunga Radio          5RO    415
                      Manakara-Sud Radio            402
                      Manajary Radio                415
                      Morondava Radio               406
                      Nossi-Be Radio         5RN    406
                      Tamatave Radio         5RS    406, 604, 605, 807, 831,
                                                    1206, 1225, 1637, 2240

  MADEIRA             Madeira Radio          CUB    413, 426, 802, 813, 1203,
                                                    1207, 1615, 1632, 2207,
 MARTINIQUE           Fort de France Radio   FFP    404, 424, 825, 828
 (French Dept. of)

    MEXICO            Acapulco,              XFA    403, 408, 421, 603, 604,
                      Guerrero Radio                606, 809, 821, 826, 1209,
                                                    1221, 1222, 1604, 1614,
                                                    1621, 2221, 2225, 2234
                      Chetumai,              XFP    404, 401, 421, 601, 604,
                      Quintana Roo Radio            606, 817, 821, 829, 1209,
                                                    1221, 1222, 1604, 1614,
                                                    1621, 2221, 2225, 2238
                      Ciudad del Carmen      XFD    404, 413, 421, 606, 809,
                      Campeche Radio                821, 826, 1209, 1221,
                                                    1222, 1604, 1614, 1621,
                                                    2221, 2225, 2234

page 80
Country         Station Name          Call      I.T.U. Channel #
MEXICO      Coatzacoalcos,            XFF    404, 413, 421, 603, 604,
(Cont'd)    Veracruz Radio                   606, 817, 821, 829, 1221,
                                             1222, 1225, 1604, 1614,
                                             1621, 2221, 2234, 2238
            Cozumel,                  XFC    403, 408, 421, 603, 604,
            Quintana Roo Radio               606, 809, 821, 826, 1209,
                                             1221, 1225, 1604, 1614,
                                             1621, 2221, 2225, 2234
            Ensendada,                XFE    403, 413, 421, 603, 604,
            Baja California Radio            606, 809, 821, 826, 1209,
                                             1221, 1222, 1604, 1614,
                                             1621, 2221, 2225, 2234
            Guaymas, Sonora Radio     XFY    404, 413, 421, 606, 817,
                                             821, 829, 1209, 1221,
                                             1225, 1604, 1614, 1621,
                                             2221, 2225, 2238
            La Pax, Baja California   XFK    404, 413, 421, 603, 604,
            Radio                            606, 817, 821, 829, 1221,
                                             1222, 1225, 1604, 1621,
                                             2221, 2234, 2238
            Manzanillo,               XFM    404, 413, 421, 601, 603,
            Comima Radio                     606, 817, 821, 829, 1209,
                                             1221, 1222, 1604, 1614,
                                             1621, 2221, 2225, 2234
            Mazatlan,                 XFL    403, 408, 601, 604, 606,
            Sinaloa Radio                    809, 821, 826, 1209,
                                             1221, 1225, 1604, 1621,
                                             2221, 2225, 2238
            Progreso,                 XFN    404, 413, 421, 601, 603,
            Yucatan Radio                    606, 817, 821, 829, 1221,
                                             1222, 1225, 1614, 1617,
                                             1621, 2221, 2234, 2238
            Salina Cruz,              XFQ    404, 413, 421, 601, 604,
            Oaxaca Radio                     606, 817, 821, 829, 1221,
                                             1222, 1225, 1604, 1621,
                                             2221, 2234, 2238

                                                             page 81
  Country            Station Name     Call      I.T.U. Channel #
   MEXICO        Tampico,             XFS    404, 413, 421, 601, 604,
   (Cont'd)      Tamaulipas Radio            606, 817, 821, 829, 1221,
                                             1222, 1225, 1604, 1614,
                                             1621, 2221, 2225, 2238
                 Veracruz,            XFU    404, 413, 421, 601, 604,
                 Veracruz Radio              606, 817, 821, 829, 1209,
                                             1221, 1222, 1604, 1621,
                                             2221, 2234, 2238
  MONACO         Monaco Radio         3AC    403, 413, 421, 602, 804,
                                             809, 821, 1221, 1224,
                                             1607, 1621, 2219, 2221
  MOROCCO        Casablanca Radio     CNP    828, 1223, 1638
   NAURU         Nauru Radio          C2N    817
 NETHERLANDS     Curacao Radio        PJC    408, 803, 1207, 1607

 NETHERLANDS     Scheveningen Radio   PCG    405, 407, 410, 419, 421,
                                             602, 606, 805, 806, 821,
                                             826, 1207, 1213, 1219,
                                             1221, 1621, 1621, 1623,
                                             1636, 1639, 2205, 2221,
    NEW          Noumea Radio         RJP    404, 805, 1205

    NEW          Awarua Radio         ZLB    421
  ZEALAND        Wellington Radio     ZLW    408, 421, 601, 807, 1209,
                                             1606, 2213
  NORWAY         Rogaland Radio       LGN    401, 403, 407, 409, 415,
                                             418, 420, 421, 424, 425,
                                             426, 603, 605, 606

page 82
 Country           Station Name     Call      I.T.U. Channel #
 NORWAY                             LFL    801, 803, 808, 809, 810,
  (Cont'd)                                 811, 813, 818, 821, 823,
                                           825, 827, 828, 829, 1203,
                                           1204, 1205, 1210, 1211,
                                           1213, 1214, 1217, 1218,
                                           1219, 1221, 1222, 1223,
                                           1225, 1226, 1228, 1231
                                    LFN    1601, 1603, 1604, 1605,
                                           1607, 1608, 1610, 1613,
                                           1614, 1617, 1618, 1619,
                                           1620, 1621, 1622, 1627,
                                           1629, 1635, 1641, 2202,
                                           2203, 2208, 2211, 2213,
                                           2215, 2216, 2218, 2221,
                                           2228, 2230, 2233, 2234,
                                           2236, 2237, 2239, 2240
PAPUA NEW      Port Moresby Radio   P2M    409, 417, 604, 805
  GUINEA       Rabaul Radio         P2R    409, 417, 604, 805, 1225
PHILIPPINES    Bacoor Radio         DZI    409, 605, 817, 1220,
               Bulacan Radio        DZJ    418, 603, 814, 1201, 1605
                                           409, 605, 820, 1220,
               Bulacan Radio        DZO    1605, 825
               Cebu Radio           DYP    412, 820
               Iloilo Radio         DYV    418, 603, 808, 1201,
               Manila Radio         DZZ    1605
 POLAND        Gdynia Radio         SPF    402, 804, 1209, 1633,
                                    SPD    406, 824, 1229, 1631,
                                    SPC    423, 602, 812, 1216,
                                           1607, 2215
                                    SPG    806, 1231, 2209
               Szczecin Radio       SPR    404, 830, 1227, 1638
                                    SPO    408, 604, 810, 1220,
                                           1625, 2219

                                                           page 83
                        MARITIME RADIOTELEPHONE
   Country                Station Name   Call      I.T.U. Channel #
  FRENCH              Mahina Radio       FJA    416, 829, 1605

  PORTUGAL            Lisboa Radio       CUL    413, 602, 802, 1203,
                                                1615, 1632, 2207, 2222
   POLAND             Gdynia Radio       SPF    402, 804, 1209, 1633,
                                         SPD    406, 824, 1229, 1631,
                                         SPC    423, 602, 812, 1216,
                                                1607, 2215
                                         SPG    806, 1231, 2209
                      Szczecin Radio     SPR    404, 830, 1227, 1638
                                         SPO    408, 604, 810, 1220,
                                                1625, 2219
 PUERTO RICO          Q.P.P.A. Radio     A7S    423, 804, 1229, 1626,
   REUNION            S. Denis Reunion   FFD    404, 418, 819, 824
 (French Dept. of)

    SAMOA             Pago Pago Radio    KUQ    408, 806, 1232, 1638

    SAMOA             Apia Radio         5WA    603, 820, 1213, 1624,
    (Western)                                   2219
     SAUDI            Dammam Radio       HZG    406, 409, 421, 601, 603,
    ARABIA                                      606, 808, 811, 821, 1202,
                                                1221, 1223, 1602, 1609,
                                                1621, 2221, 2222, 2231
   SENEGAL            Dakar Radio        6VA    404, 803, 1212, 1629,
 SEYCHELLES           Seychelles Radio   S7Q    410, 818, 1215, 1601
  (Republic of)

  S. HELENA           S. Helena Radio    ZHH    414, 807, 1217

page 84
 Country           Station Name        Call      I.T.U. Channel #
SINGAPORE      Singapore Radio         9VG    405, 407, 602, 606, 804,
                                              815, 821, 824, 1216,
                                              1219, 1221, 1613, 1621,
                                              1641, 2212, 2221
 SOLOMON       Honiara Radio           VQJ    830

  SOUTH        Cape Town Radio         ZSC    405, 421, 821, 1209,
  AFRICA                                      1608, 2204
               Durban Radio            ZSD    407, 421, 602, 808, 821,
                                              1221, 1224, 1633, 2206
  SPAIN        Pozuelo del Rey Radio   EHY    406, 407, 409, 411, 416,
                                              601, 604, 803, 804, 810,
                                              816, 818, 1201, 1208,
                                              1210, 1225, 1227, 1620,
                                              1630, 1634, 1637, 1639,
                                              2201, 2224, 2226, 2229,
 SWEDEN        Goteborg Radio          SAG,   401, 403, 409, 418, 420,
                                       SAB    424, 603, 605, 801, 803,
                                              808, 811, 818, 825, 827,
                                              829, 1203, 1210, 1211,
                                              1214, 1215, 1217, 1219,
                                              1223, 1226, 1601, 1603,
                                              1605, 1608, 1614, 1617,
                                              1618, 1622, 1635, 1641,
                                              2203, 2208, 2211, 2213,
                                              2218, 2228, 2230, 2234
               Harnosand Radio         SAH    401, 420, 424
SWITZERLAND    Bern Radio              HEB    408, 424, 822, 824, 831,
                                              1202, 1227, 1230, 1611,
                                              1615, 1631, 2214, 2220,
   TOGO        Lome Radio              5VA    403

                                                              page 85
  Country        Station Name          Call      I.T.U. Channel #
   TURKEY    Antalya Radio             TAM    409, 1620
             Canakkale Radio           TAM    407, 810, 1226
             Iskenderun Radio          TAM    420
             Istanbul Radio            TAN    417, 811, 831, 1218,
                                              1608, 2230
             Izmir Radio               TAN    401, 602, 1618
             Mersin Radio              TAM    803, 1206, 1216, 1611,
                                              2213, 2214
             Samsun Radio              TAN    420, 1606
             Trabzon Radio             TAO    401, 602
             Zonguldak Radio           TAN    411, 1222
   TUVALU    Funafuti Island Radio            814, 1207, 1608
   UNITED    Portishead Radio          GKT    402, 406, 410, 802, 1201,
  KINGDOM                                     1202, 1206, 1602, 1606,
                                       GKV    426, 822, 826, 1224,
                                              1228, 1230, 1623, 2227,
                                       GKU    816, 819, 1611, 1615,
                                              1618, 2212, 2220
                                       GKW    831, 1232, 1632, 1637,
   RUSSIA    Arkhangelsk Radio                401, 823, 1209, 1626
             Astrakhan Radio                  405, 804
             Baku Radio                       405, 807
             Jdanov, Donetskoi Radio          413, 1641
             Kholmsk Radio                    1626, 2213
             Klaipeda Radio                   405, 1205, 1601
             Leningrad Radio                  414, 807, 1204, 1605,
             Moskva Radio                     1201, 1606, 2207
             Murmansk Radio                   402, 824
             Nakhodka,                        1613
             Primorskogo Radio
             Novorossiisk,                    405, 815, 1209, 1601,
             Krasnodarskogo Radio             2231

page 86
  Country           Station Name         Call       I.T.U. Channel #
   RUSSIA      Odessa Radio                      1205, 1623, 2202, 2218
   (Cont'd)    Riga Radio                        401, 1205, 1630
               Vladivostok Radio                 401, 603, 805, 1201,
                                                 1607, 2202
   UNITED      Mobile, Alambama Radio    WLO  405, 414, 419, 607,
   STATES                                     824, 829, 830, 1212,
                                              1225, 1226, 1607, 1632,
               Point Reyes, California   KMI* 1641, 2227, 2231, 2237
               Radio                          401, 416, 417, 804, 809,
                                              822, 1201, 1202, 1203,
                                              1229, 1602, 1603, 1624,
               Ft. Lauderdale, Florida   WOM* 2214, 2223, 2228, 2236
               Radio                          403, 412, 417, 423, 802,
                                              805, 810, 814, 825, 831,
                                              1206, 1208, 1209, 1215,
                                              1223, 1230, 1601, 1609,
                                              1610, 1611, 1616, 2215,
               Manahawkin, New Jersey    WOO* 2216, 2222
               Radio                          410, 411, 416, 422, 808,
                                              811, 815, 826, 1203,
                                              1210, 1211, 1228, 1605,
                                              1620, 1626, 1631, 2201,
                                              2205, 2210, 2236

               Rijeka Radio              YUR     408, 419, 602, 605, 810,
                                                 830, 1224, 1229, 1611,
                                                 1627, 2204, 2206, 2239

* Limited services after 2/28/2000

                                                                 page 87
                       INTERNATIONAL VOICE
                  CHANNEL DESIGNATORS (4-16 MHZ)
          Coast     Ship                 Coast     Ship                 Coast     Ship
Channel                        Channel                        Channel
          Tranmit   Transmit             Tranmit   Transmit             Tranmit   Transmit
No.                            No.                            No.
          (kHz)     (kHz)                (kHz)     (kHz)                (kHz)     (kHz)

  401      4065      4357        812      8228      8752       1230      12317     13164
  402      4068      4360        813      8231      8755       1231      12320     13167
  403      4071      4363        814      8234      8758       1232      12323     13170
  404      4074      4366        815      8237      8761       1250      12290     Safety
  405      4077      4369        816      8240      8765       1251      12353    Simplex
  406      4080      4372        817      8243      8767       1252      12356    Simplex
  407      4083      4375        818      8246      8770       1253      12359    Simplex
  408      4086      4378        819      8249      8773       1601      16360     17242
  409      4089      4381        820      8252      8776       1602      16363     17245
  410      4092      4384        821      8255      8779       1603      16366     17248
  411      4095      4387        822      8258      8782       1604      16369     17251
  412      4098      4390        823      8261      8785       1605      16372     17254
  413      4101      4393        824      8264      8788       1606      16375     17257
  414      4104      4396        825      8267      8791       1607      16378     17260
  415      4107      4399        826      8270      8794       1608      16381     17263
  416      4110      4402        827      8273      8797       1609      16384     17266
  417      4113      4405        828      8276      8800       1610      16387     17269
  418      4116      4408        829      8279      8803       1611      16390     17272
  419      4119      4411        830      8282      8806       1612      16393     17275
  420      4122      4414        831      8285      8809       1613      16396     17278
  421      4125      4417        832      8288      8812       1614      16399     17281
  422      4128      4420        850      8291      Safety     1615      16402     17284
  423      4131      4423        851      8294     Simplex     1616      16405     17287
  424      4134      4426        852      8297     Simplex     1617      16408     17290
  425      4137      4429       1201     12230      13077      1618      16411     17293
  426      4140      4432       1202     12233      13080      1619      16414     17296
  427      4143      4435       1203     12236      13083      1620      16417     17299
  450      4125      Safety     1204     12239      13086      1621      16420     17302
  451      4146     Simplex     1205     12242      13089      1622      16423     17305
  452      4149     Simplex     1206     12245      13092      1623      16426     17308
  453      4417     Simplex     1207     12248      13095      1624      16429     17311
  601      6200      6501       1208     12251      13098      1625      16432     17314
  602      6203      6504       1209     12254      13101      1626      16435     17317
  603      6206      6507       1210     12257      13104      1627      16436     17320
  604      6209      6510       1211     12260      13107      1628      16441     17323
  605      3212      6513       1212     12263      13110      1629      16444     17326
  606      6215      6516       1213     12266      13113      1630      16447     17329
  650      6215      Safety     1214     12269      13116      1631      16450     17332
  651      6224     Simplex     1215     12272      13119      1632      16453     17335
  652      6227     Simplex     1216     12275      13122      1633      16456     17338
  653      6230     Simplex     1217     12278      13125      1634      16459     17341
  654      6516     Simplex     1218     12281      13128      1635      16462     17344
  801      8195      8719       1219     12284      13131      1636      16465     17347
  802      8198      8722       1220     12287      13134      1637      16468     17350
  803      8201      8725       1221     12290      13137      1638      16471     17353
  804      8204      8728       1222     12293      13140      1639      16474     17356
  805      8207      8731       1223     12296      13143      1640      16477     17359
  806      8210      8734       1224     12299      13146      1641      16480     17362

page 88
                    INTERNATIONAL VOICE
               CHANNEL DESIGNATORS (4-16 MHZ)
          Coast     Ship                 Coast     Ship                 Coast     Ship
Channel                        Channel                        Channel
          Tranmit   Transmit             Tranmit   Transmit             Tranmit   Transmit
No.                            No.                            No.
          (kHz)     (kHz)                (kHz)     (kHz)                (kHz)     (kHz)

 807       8213       9737      1225     12302      13149      1650      16520      Safety
 808       8216       8740      1226     12305      13152      1651      16528     Simplex
 809       8219       8743      1227     12308      13155      1652      16531     Simplex
 810       8222       8746      1228     12311      13158
 811       8225       8749      1229     12314      13161
 1801     19755      18780      2209     22024      22720      2232      22093      22789
 1802     19758      18783      2210     22027      22723      2233      22096      22792
 1803     19761      18786      2211     22030      22726      2234      22099      22795
 1804     19764      18789      2212     22033      22729      2235      22102      22798
 1805     19767      18792      2213     22036      22732      2236      22105      22801
 1806     19770      18795      2214     22039      22735      2237      22108      22804
 1807     19773      18798      2215     22042      22738      2238      22111      22807
 1808     19776      18801      2216     22045      22741      2239      22114      22810
 1809     19779      18804      2217     22048      22744      2240      22117      22813
 1810     19782      18807      2218     22051      22747      2251      22159     Simplex
 1811     19785      18810      2219     22054      22750      2252      22162     Simplex
 1812     19788      18813      2220     22057      22753      2253      22165     Simplex
 1813     19791      18816      2221     22060      22756      2254      22168     Simplex
 1814     19794      18319      2222     22063      22759      2255      22171     Simplex
 1815     19797      18822      2223     22066      22762      2501      26145      25070
 2201     22000      22696      2224     22069      22765      2502      26148      25073
 2202     22003      22699      2225     22072      22768      2503      26151      25076
 2203     22006      22702      2226     22075      22771      2504      26154      25079
 2204     22009      22705      2227     22078      22774      2505      26157      25082
 2205     22012      22708      2228     22081      22777      2506      26160      25085
 2206     22015      22711      2229     22084      22780      2507      26163      25088
 2207     22018      22714      2230     22087      22793      2508      26166      25091
 2208     22021      22717      2231     22090      22786

                                                                                  page 89
                              SSB MARINE CHANNELS
                Ship-to-ship and ship-to-coast shore station SSB marine channels, along
          with their channel designators. Safety channels are identified with a designator "S".
                      Regualr ship-to-ship channels are designated "A" through "E".

  Frequency            Chnl Designator                               Application

     2182                                          Marine, international distress & calling
                                                   Coast Gaurd short-range
     4125                         4S               short-range safety
     6215                         6S               short-range safety
     8291                         8S               medium-range safety
    12,290                       12S               long-range safety
    16,420                       16S               very long-range safety


     2065                                          nights, short-range
     2079                                          nights, short-range
    2096.5                                         nights, short-range
     3023                                          search and rescue
     4146                         4A               short-range
     4149                         4B               short-range
     4417                         4C               daytime short-range
     6224                         6A               medium-range
     6227                         6B               medium-range
     6230                         6C               medium-range
     8294                         8A               long-range
     8297                         8B               long-range
    12,353                       12A               long-range
    12,356                       12B               long-range
    12,359                       12C               long-range


    16,528                       16A               very long-range days
    16,531                       16B               long-range
    16,534                       16C               very long-range
    18,840                       18A               quiet channel, long-range
    18,843                       18B               quiet channel, very long-range
    22,159                       22A               extremely long-range
    22,162                       22B               extremely long-range
    22,165                       22C               extremely long-range
    22,168                       22D               extremely long-range

page 90
                      WEATHER FAX
     Country         Call Signs     Frequencies    Times
  CAIRO, EGYPT        SUU29          11015 kHz    1900-0700
                      SUU33          15664 kHz        #
                      SUU45          17635 kHz    0700-1900
 NAIROBI, KENYA        5YE1           9043 kHz    Continuous
                       5YE2          12315 kHz    Continuous
                       5YE8          15525 kHz    Continuous
                       5YE6          16315 kHz    Continuous
                       5YE3          17365 kHz    Continuous
                       5YE7          15525 kHz    Continuous
   SAINT DENIS/        FZR81          8176 kHz     24 hrs.
CHAUDRON,REUNION       FZS63         16335 kHz     24 hrs.
 DAKAR, SENEGAL       6VU73         13667.5 kHz   Continuous
                      6VU79          19750 kHz    Continuous
    PRETORIA,          ZRO5           4014 kHz    1530-0400
  SOUTH AFRICA         ZRO2           7508 kHz    Continuous
                       ZRO3          13538 kHz    Continuous
                       ZRO4          18238 kHz    Continuous

 BEIGING (PEKING),    BAF6            5525 kHz
      CHINA           BAF36           8120 kHz
                      BAF4           10115 kHz
                      BAF8           14365 kHz
                      BAF9           16025 kHz
                      BAF33          18235 kHz
 SHANGHAI, CHINA       BDF            3241 kHz
                                      5100 kHz
                                      7420 kHz
                                     11420 kHz
                                     18940 kHz
 NEW DELHI, INDIA     ATA55         4993.5 kHz    1430-0230
                      ATP57          7403 kHz     Continuous
                      ATV65         14842 kHz     Continuous
                      ATU38         18227 kHz     0230-1430

                                                      page 91
                      WEATHER FAX
      Country        Call Signs   Frequencies    Times
   TOKYO 1, JAPAN       JMH        3622.5 kHz   Continuous
                       JMH2         7305 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH3         9970 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH4        13597 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH5        18220 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH6       23522.9 kHz   Continuous
   TOKYO 2, JAPAN       JMJ        3365 kHz     Continuous
                       JMJ2        5405 kHz     Continuous
                       JMJ3        9438 kHz     Continuous
                       JMJ4       14692.5 kHz   Continuous
                       JMJ5       18441.2 kHz   Continuous
      TAIPEI,          BMF          4616 kHz
 REPUBLIC OF CHINA                  5250 kHz
                                    8140 kHz
                                   13900 kHz
      SEOUL,           HLL8       5857.5 kHz    Continuous

     BANGKOK,         HSW64         7395 kHz
     THAILAND         HSW61        17520 kHz
   KHABAROVSK,        RXB72       4516.7 kHz    Continuous
      RUSSIA          RXB75        7475 kHz     Continuous
                      RXO70        9230 kHz     Continuous
                      RXO72       14737 kHz     Continuous
                      RXO74       19275 kHz     Continuous
   NOVOSIBIRSK 1,     ROF73         4445 kHz    Continuous
      RUSSIA          RYO79         5765 kHz    Continuous
                      RTB26         9220 kHz    Continuous
                      RYO76        12320 kHz    Continuous
   NOVOSIBIRSK 2,                   3675 kHz    Continuous
      RUSSIA                        4475 kHz    1425-0245
                      RCU73         9060 kHz    Continuous
                      RCU79        12230 kHz    0350-1325
   TIKSI BUKHTA,                    227 kHz

page 92
                      WEATHER FAX
     Country         Call Signs   Frequencies    Times
 TOKYO 1, JAPAN         JMH        3622.5 kHz   Continuous
                       JMH2         7305 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH3         9970 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH4        13597 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH5        18220 kHz    Continuous
                       JMH6       23522.9 kHz   Continuous
   TASHKENT 1,        RBV70        3690 kHz     1300-0130
   UZBEKISTAN         RPJ78        4365 kHz     Continuous
                      RBV78        5890 kHz     Continuous
                      RBX72        7570 kHz     0130-1300
                      RCH72        9340 kHz     Continuous
                      RBV76       14982.5 kHz   Continuous
   TASHKENT 2,        RBX70        3280 kHz     Continuous
   UZBEKISTAN                      5090 kHz     Continuous
                      RBX71        5285 kHz     Continuous
                      RCH73        9150 kHz     Continuous

                     SOUTH AMERICA
  BEUNOS AIRES,       LRO69         5185 kHz    Continuous
   ARGENTINA          LRB72        10720 kHz    Continuous
                      LRO84        18053 kHz    Continuous
     OLINDA/           PPO          8294 kHz    0745/1745
 RIO DE JANEIRO,      PWZ-33       12660 kHz    0745/1745
     BRAZIL           PWZ-33       17140 kHz    0745/1745
 SANTIAGO, CHILE        CCS         4766 kHz    Continuous
                                    6418 kHz      Night
                                    8594 kHz    Continuous
                                   13525 kHz       Day
                                   22071 kHz    Continuous

                     NORTH AMERICA
ESQUIMALT, BRITISH     CKN         2752.1 kHz   Continuous
COLUMBIA, CANADA                   4266.1 kHz   Continuous
                                   6454.1 kHz   Continuous
                                  12751.1 kHz   Continuous

                                                    page 93
                       WEATHER FAX
      Country         Call Signs   Frequencies       Times
   HALIFAX, NOVA        CFN         122.5 kHz      Continuous
  SCOTIA, CANADA                    4271 kHz       Continuous
                                   6496.4 kHz      Continuous
                                   10536 kHz       Continuous
                                   13510 kHz       Continuous
   IQALUIT, N.W.T.,      VFF       3251.1 kHz    1 July - 15 Oct.
      CANADA             VFF       7708.1 kHz    1 July - 15 Oct.
  RESOLUTE, N.W.T.,     VFR        3251.1 kHz    1 July - 15 Oct.
      CANADA            VFR        7708.1 kHz    1 July - 15 Oct.

   NEW ORLEANS,         NMG        8503.9 kHz        Various
    LOUISIANA                      4317.9 kHz        Various
   ELENDORF AFB,                     2280 kHz
   ALASKA, U.S.A.                    3394 kHz      1200-2400
                                     5095 kHz      0000-1200
                                     7398 kHz      1200-2400
                                    10665 kHz      0000-1200
                                    15805 kHz
                                    19332 kHz
  KODIAK, ALASKA,        NOJ        4298 kHz
       U.S.A.                       8459 kHz
   POINT REYES,         NMC          4346 kHz
 CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.                  8682 kHz
                                    12730 kHz
                                   17151.2 kHz
                                    22528 kHz
     BOSTON,             NIK       6340.5 kHz     1600 & 1840
  MASSACHUSETTS,                   12750 kHz      1600 & 1840

   MARSHFIELD,          NMF        6340.5 kHz     1600 & 1840
  MASSACHUSETTS,                   12750 kHz      1600 & 1840

   ROGERS CITY,         WLC        2195.5 kHz     0130-0430(2)
  MICHIGAN, U.S.A.                 5898.6 kHz     1030-2230(2)

page 94
                        WEATHER FAX
    Country            Call Signs   Frequencies    Times
     OFFUTT                           3231 kHz
  AFB/ELKHORN,                        5096 kHz    0000-1200
 NEBRASKA, U.S.A.                     6904 kHz    0000-1200
                                     10576 kHz    1200-2400
                                     11120 kHz    1200-2400
                                     15681 kHz
                                     19325 kHz
NORFOLK, VIRGINIA,       NAM          3357 kHz    0000-1200
     U.S.A.                          3820.5 kHz    On Call
                         NAM          8080 kHz     On Call
                                      9318 kHz    Continuous
                                     9108.1 kHz
                                    12748.1 kHz
                         NAM         10865 kHz    1200-0000
                         NAM         15959 kHz     On Call
                                     18486 kHz     On Call
                         NAM         20015 kHz     On Call

                    PACIFIC OCEAN BASIN
DARWIN, AUSTRALIA        AXI32        5755 kHz    1110-2300
                         AXI33        7535 kHz    1110-2300
                         AXI34       10555 kHz    0000-2359
                         AXI35       15615 kHz    2300-1110
                         AXI37       18060 kHz    2300-1110
   MELBOURNE,           AXM31         2628 kHz    Continuous
   AUSTRALIA            AXM32         5100 kHz    Continuous
                        AXM34        11030 kHz    Continuous
                        AXM35        13920 kHz    Continuous
                        AXM37        20469 kHz    Continuous
WELLINGTON, NEW          ZKLF         5807 kHz    Continuous
   ZEALAND                            9459 kHz    Continuous
                                     13550 kHz    Continuous
                                    16340.1 kHz   Continuous

                                                      page 95
                       WEATHER FAX
      Country         Call Signs   Frequencies        Times
    QUAM 1, M.I.        NPN         49657 kHz      0000-2359@
                                    10255 kHz      0000-2359*
                                    12777 kHz      0000-2359@
                                   16029.6 kHz     0000-2359*
                                    19860 kHz      0000-2359*
                                   22324.5 kHz     0000-2359@
                                                    @ Japan freq.
                                                    * Guam freq.

    QUAM 2, M.I.        NPN         5260 kHz       0000-2359*
                        NKM         7580 kHz       1400-0159$
                        NKM         12804 kHz      0000-2359$
                        NKM         20300 kHz      0200-1359$
                        NPN         23010 kHz      0000-2359*
                                                 $ Diego Garcia freq.
                                                    * Guam freq.

     QUAM 3/                        4943 kHz
 ANDERSON AFB, M.I.                 6919 kHz
                                   7708.5 kHz
                                   13385 kHz
                                   14397 kHz
                                   17526 kHz
                                   20380 kHz
    HONOLULU,          KVM70        9982.5 kHz     Continuous
   HAWAII, U.S.A.                   11090 kHz      Continuous
                                    16135 kHz      Continuous
                                   23331.5 kHz     Continuous

page 96
                     WEATHER FAX
    Country         Call Signs   Frequencies        Times
 PEARL HARBOR,        NPM         4855 kHz      0600-1600*
  HAWAII, U.S.A.                                 LSB/ISB
                                  6453 kHz      Continuous&
                                  8494 kHz      Continuous#
                                  9090 kHz      Continuous&
                                  21735 kHz     1600-0600*
                                               * Pearl Harbor freq.
                                               # ADAK, AK freq.
                                                 & Stockton, CA

 PRAGUE, CZECH       OLT21        111.8 kHz      Continuous

  SKAMLEBAEK,        OXT(1)       5850 kHz        0030-1005
    DENMARK                       9360 kHz        0005-0025

                                  13855 kHz       1220-1240
                                  17510 kHz       1335-1355
HELSINKI, FINLAND     OGH         2803 kHz           0840
                      OGH        2811.7 kHz          0840
                     OFB28        8018 kHz           0840
  MARIEHAMM,          OFH        1877.7 kHz      0840, 0990,
   FINLAND                                          1300
   HAMBURG/           DDH3        3855 kHz       0600-2300
   PINNEBERG,         DDK3        7880 kHz       Continuous
    GERMANY           DDK6       13882.5 kHz     Continuous

                                                       page 97
                        WEATHER FAX
      Country          Call Signs   Frequencies    Times
    OFFENBACH/          DCF54        134.2 kHz    Continuous

    OFFENBACH/          DCF37        117.4 kHz    Continuous

  ATHENS, GREECE         SVJ4        8530 kHz
    ROME, ITALY          IMB51       4777.5 kHz   Continuous
                         IMB55       8146.6 kHz   Continuous
                         IMB56      13597.4 kHz   Continuous
   MADRID, SPAIN                     3650 kHz
                         ECA7       6918.5 kHz
                                    10250 kHz
    ROTO, SPAIN          AOK         4623 kHz     1800-0600
                                    5856.4 kHz    Continuous
                                    9382.5 kHz    Continuous
                                    11485 kHz     0600-1800
  ANKARA, TURKEY        YMA20        3377 kHz     1610-0500
                        YMA20        6790 kHz     0500-1610
  MOSCOW, RUSSIA        RVO76         2815 kHz    1530-0510
                        RCI72         3875 kHz    1710-0510
                        RND77         5355 kHz    Continuous
                        RAW78         7750 kHz    Continuous
                        RKA73        10710 kHz    Continuous
                        RDD79        10980 kHz    Continuous
                        RBI77        15950 kHz    1510-1710
                         RIZ59       18710 kHz     Unknown
 MOSCOW 2, RUSSIA        RTO          53.6 kHz    Continuous
                        RVO73         5150 kHz    Continuous
                        RAN77         6880 kHz    Continuous
                        RCC76         7670 kHz    Continuous
                        RKA78        10230 kHz    Continuous
                        RWZ77        11525 kHz    0230-1805
                        RKU71        13470 kHz    Continuous

page 98
                    WEATHER FAX
    Country        Call Signs   Frequencies    Times
MOSCOW 3, RUSSIA     RGC         144.5 kHz
                    RKB78        12165 kHz
MOSCOW 4, RUSSIA    RWW79        4550 kHz
MURMANSK, RUSSIA    RBW48        10130 kHz    0600-1900
 ST. PETERSBURG,                  7480 kHz    1900-2200
      RUSSIA                     13780 kHz    1900-2200
  BRACKNELL,         GFA        2618.5 kHz    1800-0600
UNITED KINGDOM       GFA         4610 kHz     Continuous
                     GFA         8040 kHz     Continuous
                     GFA        14436 kHz     Continuous
                     GFA        18261 kHz     0600-1800
  CROUGHTON,                      4755 kHz
UNITED KINGDOM                    5235 kHz
                                  5932 kHz
                                  6827 kHz
                                  6937 kHz
                                  7596 kHz
                                  7623 kHz
                                  7930 kHz
                                  9100 kHz
                                 10385 kHz
                                 10873 kHz
                                 13537 kHz
                                 13585 kHz
                                 14397 kHz
                                 14677 kHz
                                 17526 kHz
                                 20051 kHz
                                 20095 kHz
                                 23155 kHz
                                 23195 kHz
                                 25245 kHz
                                 25480 kHz

                                                  page 99
                      WEATHER FAX
      Country        Call Signs   Frequencies     Times
   NORTHWOOD,          GYA          2374 kHz     Continuous
  UNITED KINGDOM       GYA          3652 kHz     Continuous
                       GYA          4307 kHz     Continuous
                       GYA          6446 kHz     Continuous
                       GYA         8331.5 kHz    Continuous
                       GYA        12844.56 kHz   Continuous
                       GYA         16912 kHz     Continuous

 CASEY, ANTARCTICA     VLM         7468.1 kHz    1200-0300
                       VLM        11453.1 kHz    0300-1200

page 100

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The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.