' Perkins 200 Series 4 135 4 154 4 182 Users Handbook'
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Safety Precautions Engine Identification 3 4 5 6 9 10 12 12 13 15 16 17 26 28 30 31HANDBOOK FOR 200 SERIES DIESEL ENGINESEngine Views Engine Data Operating Instructions Lubricating Oil Fuel Engine 201TPD11871171 A l l rights reserved October 1987 P e r k i n s Engines L t d Peterborough Maintenance PostDelivery Service Instructions for Maintenance Protection of an Engine not in Service Fault Diagnosis POWERPART Consumable Products Latest Perkins Engines Australia Pty Ltd Suite 2 364 Maine Street Momington 3931 Victoria Australia Telephone 59 751877 Telex AA30816 France Moteurs Perkins SA 911 Avenue Michelet 93583 Saint Ouen Cedex France Telephone 142232000 Telex 642924F Cables Perkoil Paris Germany Perkins Motoren GmbH 8752 Kleinostheim Postfach 1180 West Germany Telephone 06027 5010 Telex 04188869A PER D Italy Motori Perkins SpA ViaGorizia 15 PO Box 12 22070 Como Italy Telephone 031 927364 Telex 380658 Perkit I Cables Perkoil Portichetto Japan Massey Ferguson Perkins Engines KK Reinanzaka Building 6th Floor 142 Akasaka 1chome Minatoku Tokyo 107 Japan Telephone 03 586 7377 Telex Perkoil J2424823 Cables PerkoilTokyo Fax 03 5821596 Singapore Perkins Engines Asia Pacific 130 Hillview Avenue Singapore 2366 Telephone 7605722 Telex RS 37729 United Kingdom Perkins Engines Limited Frank Perkins Way Eastfield Peterborough PE1 5NA England Telephone 0733 67474 Telex 32501 Perken G Cables Perkoil Peterborough Perkins Engines Shrewsbury Ltd Sentinel Works Shrewsbury SY1 4DP England Telephone 0743 52262 Telex 351712 PESL G USA Perkins Engines Inc 1700 Bellemeade Court Lawrenceville Georgia 30245 USA Telephone 404 822 3000 Telex 544141 Perken Law Fax 404 822 3006 Perkins Engines Latin America Inc 1700 Bellemeade Court Lawrenceville Georgia 30245 USA Telephone 404 822 3000 Telex 544141 Perken Law Fax 404 822 3006In addition to the above there are Perkins distributors in most countries Perkins Engines Ltd Peterborough or one of the above companies can give handbook has been written to give you assistance in the correct maintenance and operation of your engine To get the best performance and longest life from your engine have the maintenance operations done at the periods shown in Preventive Maintenance If the engine operates in very dusty or other adverse conditions some maintenance periods will have to be reduced Keep your engine clean inside by regular filter element and lubricating oil changes Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are done by personnel who have had the correct training Perkins Distributors have these personnel available You can also get parts and other service from your Perkins Distributor If you do not know the location of your nearest distributor check with one of the Perkins companies given on Page 2 The left and right hand side of the engine are as seen from the rear Read and remember the Safety Precautions These are given for your protection and must be used at all timesThis publication is written in Perkins Approved Clear English3SAFETY SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE IMPORTANT Reference must also be made to the local regulations in the country of operation Do not use these engines in marine applications Do not change the specification of the engine Do not smoke when you put fuel in the tank Clean away any fuel which has fallen and move material which has fuel contamination to a safe place Do not put fuel in the tank during engine operation unless really necessary Never clean lubricate or adjust the engine during operation unless you have had the correct training when extreme caution must be used to prevent injury Do not make any adjustments you do not understand Ensure the engine is not in a position to cause a concentration of toxic emissions Persons in the area must be kept clear during engine and equipment or vehicle operation Do not permit loose clothing or long hair near parts that move Keep away from parts which turn during operation Note that fans can not be seen clearly while the engine runs 4 Do not run the engine with any safety guards removed Do not remove the radiator cap while the engine is hot and the coolant is under pressure as dangerous hot coolant can be discharged Do not use salt water in the cooling system or any other coolant which can cause corrosion Keep sparks or fire away from batteries especially while during charge or combustion can occur The battery fluid can burn and is also dangerous to the skin and especially the eyes Disconnect the battery terminals before you make a repair to the electrical system Only one person must be in control of the engine Ensure the engine is only operated from the control panel or operators position If your skin comes into contact with high pressure fuel seek medical assistance immediately Diesel fuel can cause skin damage to some persons Use protection on the hands gloves or special skin protection solutions Do not move equipment unless the brakes are in good condition Ensure that the transmission drive control is in out of drive position before the engine is started Fit only genuine Perkins PartsENGINE are three engine types in the 200 Series These are the 4135 4154 and 4182 engines The first two letters of the engine number give an indication of the engine type as shown below GA 4154engine GB 4135 engine GC 4182 engine The engine number is stamped on a machined pad on the left side of the cylinder block above the fuel injection pump see Fig 1 A typical engine number is GBA12345J If you need any parts service or information for your engine you must give the complete engine numberFig 1 Engine Number VIEWSFrontLeft Side of 4135 Side of 4135 Side of 4154 Side of 4154 Side of 4182 Side of 4182 Engine8ENGINE DATA4135No of Cylinders Cycle Combustion System Nominal Bore Stroke Compression Ratio Cubic Capacity Firing Order Valve Tip Clearance Cold Lubricating Oil S u m p Capacity Lubricating Oil Pressure Direction of Rotation 0 3 0 m m 0012in 50 litres 88 Imp pints 53 US quarts 030mm 0012in 60 litres 106 Imp pints 63 US quarts 030mm 0012in 60 litres 106 Imp pints 63 US quarts4154 4Four Stroke Indirect Injection 8 8 9 m m 35in 1016mm 40in4182 4 Four Stroke Indirect Injection 9 5 0 m m 374in 1050mm 413in 211 2977 litres 1817in 3 13424Four Stroke Indirect Injection 8 8 9 m m 35in 8 8 9 m m 35in 211 2209 litres 1348in 3 2112523 litres 1539in 3 13421342207 k N m 2 30 lbfin 2 21 k g f c m 2 m i n i m u m at m a x i m u m engine speed and normal engine temperature Clockwise from the INSTRUCTIONSTo Start the Engine When the engine is c o l d 1 Where a separate stop control is used ensure that this is in the r u n position 2 Turn the start key to the heat position see Fig 2 and hold it there for 15 seconds 3 Adjust the engine speed control to the maxi m u m speed position 4 Turn the start key to the heatstart position to engage the starter motor As the engine starts release the start key to the r u n position and adjust the speed control to give a smooth idle speed If the engine does not start in 15 seconds return the start key to the heat position for 10 seconds and then engage the starter motor again When the engine is w a r m Fig 2 HeatStart Switch 1 Off Position 2 Run Position 3 Heat Position 4 Heat and Start Position 1 Where a separate stop control is used ensure that this is in the r u n position 2 Adjust the speed control position to the idle speed3 Turn the start key directly to the heatstart position see Fig 2 to engage the starter motor104 As soon as the engine starts release the start key to the r u n position If the engine does not start in 15 seconds release the start key to the r u n position Do not engage the starter m o t o r again until 5 to 10 seconds have passedRunning ln ProcedureTo get m a x i m u m performance and life f r o m y o u r new engine operate the engine as s h o w n below for the first 800 km 500 miles or 25 hours of operation Where possible operate the engine at different speeds If y o u r machine has a geared drive use a lower gear w h e n m o r e p o w e r is neededT o S t o p t h e Engine Either t u r n the engine start key to the o f f position see Fig 2 or operate the separate stop control Where a separate stop contol is used ensure that the control is returned to the r u n position after the engine has stopped and the engine start key is turned to the off positionDo not run the engine at high no load speeds Do not apply an overload to the S p e e d A d j u s t m e n t The idle or m a x i m u m speed settings must not be changed by the engine operator as this can d a m age the engine or transmission If the seals on the fuel injection p u m p are broken during the warranty period by a person w h o is not approved by Perkins Engines Ltd it can have an effect on the warranty If the engine is to operate at an altitude higher than 1500m 5000ft the fuel delivery can be changed to reduce exhaust smoke and fuel c o n s u m p t i o n Perkins Engine Ltd can give the percentage of fuel reduction needed if details of engine application and ambient conditions are given Any change to the fuel injection p u m p settings must be made by a Perkins distributor or an approved fuel p u m p distributor 11LUBRICATING OIL engine lubricating oil must be equal to the US Ordnance Specification MILL46152 AP1 Service CCSE or if available the later specification MILL46152BAP1 Service CCSF Lubricating oils for use in Perkins diesel engines must have a minimum Viscosity Index of 80 Always ensure that the correct viscosity grade of oil is used for the temperature range in which the engine will operate as shown below Temperature Range 18oC0Fto0C32oF 0C 32F to 27C 80F Above 27C 80F Viscosity Grade 10W 20W20 30FUEL adjusted to factory standards these engines will operate correctly on diesel fuel with a specific gravity of more than 082 40 cetane number or higher12ENGINE COOLANTThe quality of the coolant which is used can have a great effect on the efficiency and life of the cooling system The indicated below can be of assistance in the maintenance of a good cooling system with protection against frost andor corrosion If the correct procedures are not used Perkins Engines Ltd can not be held responsible for frost or corrosion damage 1 If it is possible use clean soft water in the coolant mixture 2 If an antifreeze mixture other than Perkins POWERPART is used to prevent frost damage it must have an ethanediol ethylene glycol base with a corrosion inhibitor It is recommended that the corrosion inhibitor is of the sodium type The antifreeze mixture must provide protection at least as good as the requirements of the standards below United Kingdom BS6580 1985 Specification for corrosion inhibiting engine coolant concentrate antifreeze United States of America ASTM D330674 Ethylene Glycol Base Engine Coolant Australia AS 21081977 Antifreeze Compounds and Corrosion Inhibitors for Engine Cooling Systems Perkins POWERPART antifreeze exceeds the requirements of the above standards The quality of the antifreeze coolant must be checked at least once a year for example at the beginning of the cold period The antifreeze mixture must consist of equal quantities of antifreeze and water Concentrations of more than 50 of antifreeze must not be used as this can effect adversely the performance of the coolant 3 When frost protection is not necessary it is still an advantage to use an approved antifreeze mixture because this gives a protection against corrosion and also raises the boiling point of the coolant If an antifreeze is not used add a correct mixture of corrosion inhibitor to the water Change the mixture of water and corrosion inhibitor every six months or check according to the inhibitor manufacturers Attention Certain corrosion inhibitor mixtures contain soluble oil which can have an adverse effect on certain types of water hose 13T o Drain t h e C o o l i n g S y s t e m 1 Ensure that the vehicle or machine is on level ground 2 Remove the radiator filler cap 3 Remove the drain plug f r o m the side of the cylinder block see Fig 3 to drain the engine Ensure that the drain hole does not have any restriction 4 Open the tap or remove the drain plug at the b o t t o m of the radiator to drain the radiator If a tap or plug is not fitted to the radiator disconnect the bottom radiator hose 5 Where necessary flush the system with clean water 6 Fit the drain plugs and radiator cap Where necessary close the radiator tap or connect the radiator hoseFig 3 Coolant Drain preventive maintenance periods are general in application Check the periods given by the manufacturer of the equipment in which the engine is installed and where necessary use the shorter periods These periods and procedures must also be adapted to ensure correct operation for any local vehicle or machine regulations On stopstart short distance operation the hours run are more importantthan the distance It is good maintenance to check for leakage and loose fasteners at each service interval These maintenance periods are only for engines that are operated with fuel and lubricating oil to the specifications given in this handbook Every 15000km 9000 Miles or 450 Hours Use Interval That Comes First Adjust valve tip clearances Check atomisers Every 5000 km 3000 Miles 150 Hours or 1 Month Use Interval That Comes First Change lubricating oil Change lubricating oil filter canister Inspect drive belt Clean dust bowl of air filter where fitted Check for water in fuef prefilter where fittedDaily or Every 8 Hours Use Interval that comes First Check amount of coolant Check amount of lubricating oil in sump Check lubricating oil pressure where gauge installed In extreme dust conditions clean dust bowl of air filter where fittedEvery 20000km 12000 Miles or 600 Hours Use Interval That Comes First Tighten induction and exhaust manifold nuts Change fuel filter canister Check ignition timing Clean or renew air filter element if not indicated earlierEvery 100000km 60000 Miles or 3000 Hours Use Interval That Comes First Have the accessory equipment starter motor alternator exhauster etc checked 15POSTDELIVERY SERVICEThe service procedures given must be carried out at the first 1000km 600 miles or 30 hours of operation 1 Run the engine until it is warm Stop the engine and drain the lubricating oil from the sump Fill the sump to the full mark on the dipstick with clean new oil to an approved grade 2 Renew the canister of the lubricating oil filter 3 Tighten the cylinder head setscrews see Page 17 4 Adjust the valve tip clearances to 030mm 0012in with the engine cold 5 Check that the induction and exhaust manifold nuts are tight 6 Check the tension of the fan belt 7 Check the atomisers 8 Check that all fasteners are tight 9 Run the engine and check for fuel coolant and lubricating oil leakage 10 Adjust the idle speed if FOR MAINTENANCETo Check the Cylinder Head Setscrew Tension Run the engine until the coolant outlet temperature is higher than 77C170F Stop the engine and remove the rocker cover Check the tension of the cylinder head setscrews in the sequence given in Fig 4 The correct torque tension is given below 4135 115Nm 85lbfft 117kgfm 4154115Nm 85lbfft 117kgfm 4182 122Nm OOlbfft 124 kgfm If a setscrew turns when checked tighten it to the correct tension If a setscrew does not turn when checked loosen it by 30 to 60 and then tighten it to the correct torque tension After all the setscrews have been checked check the first 10 positions again to ensure that they are still to the correct tension During this last check do not loosen the setscrews Check the valve tip clearances see Page 21 and adjust as necessary Install the rocker coverFig 4 Sequence To Tighten Cylinder Head Setscrews 17Some air filters have automatic dust valves through which dust is discharged from the filter The rubber dust valve must be kept clean and checked to ensure that the sides of the valves close together but will come apart freely Where a restriction indicator is installed it will be a positive indication that the air filter element needs service This will prevent the early removal of the filter element which causes extra cost or late element removal which can cause loss of engine power The filter element must be cleaned or renewed according to the manufacturers 5 Restriction Indicator 1 Clear Panel No Restriction 2 Red Panel Element Needs Service 3 Press To Reset Red Indicator The restriction indicator for these engines must be the type that operates at a pressure difference of 460mm 18in water gauge It is installed on the air filter outlet or between the air filter and the induction manifold When the red warning indicator is seen through the clear panel after the engine has stopped see Fig 5 the air filter element must be removed for service After a clean element has been fitted press the rubber bottom of the restriction indicator to reset the red warning indicatorAir conditions have an important effect on the frequency at which the air filter will need service Some air filters have a separate dust bowl that has to be cleaned at intervals The amount of dust in the bowl will show if it has been removed at the correct time for the conditions of operation Do not let the bowl get full of dust as this will reduce the life of the filter element 18To Renew the Lubricating Oil Filter Canister1 Put a tray under the filter to hold any oil drops 2 Remove the filter canister see Fig 6 with a strap wrench or similar tool and discard the canister 3 Clean the filter head 4 Add clean engine lubricating oil to the new canister Give the oil time to fill the canister through the filter element 5 Lubricate the top of the canister seal with clean engine lubricating oil 6 Install the new canister and tighten it by hand only Do not use a strap wrench 7 After lubricating oil has been added to the sump run the engine and check for leakage from the filterFig 6 Lubricating Oil Filter Removal and Check the Fan Belt Renew the belt if it is worn or damaged With thumb pressure of approximately lOkgf 22 Ibf press the fan belt down at a position halfway between the alternator and water pump pulleys and check the deflection see Fig 7 The belt deflection must be 10mm in for 4135 engines and 13mm Viin for 4154 and 4182 engines To adjust the belt tension 1 Loosen the alternator mounting bolts and the adjustment lever bolts Fig 7 Fan Belt Tension Check 2 Change the alternator position to give the correct tension and tighten the alternator and adjustment lever bolts 3 Check the belt tension again to ensure that it is still correct If a new belt is fitted the belt tension must be checked again after the first 1000 km 600 miles or 30 hours of operation20To Check Valve Tip Clearances These are checked between the top of the valve stem or the valve stem cap if used and the rocker lever see Fig 8 The correct clearance for both the inlet and exhaust valves is 030mm 0012in with the engine cold 1 Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation until the inlet valve of No 4 cylinder has just opened and the exhaust valve of the same cylinder has not fully closed Check the clearances of No 1 cylinder valves and adjust if necessary 2 With No 2 cylinder valves set as shown above for No 4 cylinder checkadjust clearances of No 3 cylinder valves 3 With No 1 cylinder valves set checkadjust clearances of No 4 cylinder valves 4 With No 3 cylinder valves set checkadjust clearances of No 2 cylinder valvesFig 8 Valve Tip Clearance Adjustment21To Renew Fuel Filter Canister 1 Clean the surface of the filter 2 Remove the filter canister see Fig 9 with a strap wrench or similar tool Discard the canister 3 Lubricate the seal of the new canister with clean fuel 4 Fit the new canister to the filter head and tighten it by hand only Do not use a strap wrench 5 Loosen the vent screw at the top of the filter see Fig 10 Operate the priming pump on the top of the filter until fuel free from air comes from the vent point Tighten the vent screwFig 9 Fuel Filter Removal and Remove Air from the Fuel System If air gets into the fuel system it must be removed before the engine can be started Air can get into the system if The fuel tank is drained during engine operation The low pressure fuel pipes are disconnected Any part of the low pressure fuel system leaks during engine operation Remove air from the fuel system as follows 1 Loosen the vent screw on the top of the fuel filter see Fig 10 2 Operate the priming pump on the top of the fuel filter until fuel free from air comes from the filter vent point 3 With the priming pump held down tighten the filter vent screw 4 Loosen the return connection of the fuel injection pump see Fig 11 5 Operate the priming pump until fuel free from air comes from the injection pump vent point 6 With the priming pump held down tighten the return connection of the injection pumpFig 10 Removal Of Air From Fuel Filter 1 Filter Vent Screw 2 Priming Pump Handle 237 Loosen the high pressure fuel pipe connections at the atomisers 8 Ensure that the stop control if fitted is in the run position Operate the starter motor until fuel free from air comes from the pipe connections 9 Tighten the high pressure fuel pipe connections The engine is now ready to start If the engine runs correctly for a short time and then stops or runs roughly check for air in the fuel system If there is air in the system there is probably leakage in the low pressure systemFig 11 Fuel Injection Pump Vent Point Atomiser Fault An atomiser fault can be shown by an engine misfire To find which atomiser is at fault run the engine at a fast idle speed and loosen and tighten the high pressure fuel pipe union at each atomiser When the union nut of the atomiser at fault is loosened it will have little or no effect on the engine speed Do not let the fuel spray on to your skin 24To Renew an Atomiser4135 and 4182 Engines 1 Remove the high pressure pipe union nuts from the atomisers and the fuel injection pump and release the pipes 2 Remove the leak off pipe lock nuts and washers and remove the leak off pipe 3 Turn the atomiser to release it from the cylinder head and remove the atomiser and seat washer Ensure that the spanner engages on the bottom body of the atomiser 4 Fit a new atomiser in the cylinder head complete with a new seat washer Tighten the atomiser to 68 Nm 50 lbfft 7 kgfm 5 Fit the fuel leak off pipe and high pressure pipes 6 Run the engine and check for fuel and air leakage 4154 Engines 1 Remove the fuel leak off pipe 2 Remove the high pressure pipe union nuts from the atomiser and fuel injection pipe and release the pipe 3 Remove the atomiser flange nuts and remove the atomiser and seat washer 25 4 Put the new atomiser in position with a new seat washer Ensure that the atomiser is not tilted and tighten the flange nuts evenly by small amounts to 23 Nm 17 Ibf ft 24 kgfm 5 Fit the high pressure fuel pipe and leak off pipe 6 Run the engine and check for fuel and air OF AN ENGINE NOT IN SERVICEThe given below are to ensure that damage is prevented when an engine is removed from service for an extended period Use these procedures immediately the engine is removed from service The instructions for the use of POWERPART products are given on the outside of each container 1 Thoroughly clean the outside of the engine 2 Where a preservative fuel is to be used drain the fuel system and fill with the preservative fuel POWERPART LayUp 1 can be added to the normal fuel to change it to a preservative fuel If preservative fuel is not used the system can be kept charged with normal fuel but this will have to be drained and discarded at the end of the storage period together with the fuel filter 3 Run the engine until it is warm Correct any fuel lubricating oil or air leakage Stop the engine and drain the lubricating oil sump 4 Renew the lubricating oil filter canister 5 Fill the sump to the full mark on the dipstick with clean new lubricating oil or with a correct preservative fluid POWERPART LayUp 2 can be added to the lubricating oil to give protec26 tion against corrosion during the period in storage If a preservative fluid is used this must be drained and normal lubricating oil used when the engine is returned to service 6 Drain the cooling system see Page 14 To give protection against corrosion it is better to fill the cooling system with a coolant that has a corrosion inhibitor see Engine Coolant on Page 12 If frost protection is needed use an antifreeze mixture If no frost protection is needed use water with an approved corrosion inhibitor mixture 7 Run the engine for a short period to send the lubricating oil and coolant around the engine 8 Clean out the engine breather pipe and seal the end of the pipe 9 Remove the atomisers and spray POWERPART LayUp 2 into each cylinder bore If this is not available clean engine lubricating oil will give a degree of protection Spray into the cylinder bores 140 ml 14 pint of lubricating oil divided evenly between the four cylinders 10 Slowly turn the crankshaft one revolution and then install the atomisers complete with new seat washers11 Remove the air filter and any pipe installed between the air filter and induction manifold Spray POWERPART LayUp 2 into the induct i o n m a n i f o l d Seal the manifold w i t h waterproof tape 12 Remove the exhaust pipe Spray POWERPART LayUp 2 into the exhaust m a n i f o l d Seal the m a n i f o l d w i t h waterproof tape 13 Remove the lubricating oil filler cap Spray POWERPART LayUp 2 around the rocker shaft assembly Fit the filler cap 14 Disconnect the battery and put it into safe storage in a fully charged condition Before the battery is put into storage give the battery terminals a protection against corrosion POWERPART LayUp 3 can be used on the terminals 15 Seal the vent pipe of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap w i t h waterproof tape 16 Remove the fan belt and put it into storage 17 To prevent corrosion spray the engine with POWERPART LayUp 3 Do not spray inside the alternator cooling fan area NOTE Before the engine is started after a period in storage operate the starter motor with the engine stop control in the o f f position until oil pressure shows on the oil pressuregauge or the oil w a r n i n g light goes out If a solenoid stop control is used this will have to be disconnected f o r t h i s operation If the engine protection is done correctly according to the above no corrosion damage will normally occur Perkins Engines Ltd are not responsible for any damage that occurs in relation to a service storage period27FAULT DIAGNOSIS CHARTProblem Starter m o t o r turns engine too s lowly Will not start Difficult to start Not enough power Misfire High fuel c o n s u m p t i o n Black exhaust B l u e w h i t e exhaust Low lubricating oil pressure Knocking noise Runs erratically Vibration High lubricating oil pressure Engine t e m p e r a t u r e t o o high Crankcase pressure Bad c o m p r e s s i o n Starts and stopsPossible Causes 1234 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 30 3 1 32 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 1718 19 20 2 1 22 23 24 25 26 30 3 1 32 8 9 11 12 13 15 1718 19 24 25 27 28 29 31 1012 13 15 1718 19 2 1 22 23 24 26 27 28 30 3 1 32 10 12 13 15 17 18 19 2 1 23 24 26 27 28 30 3 1 32 4 15 1718 19 24 26 30 32 33 34 44 55 4 35 36 37 38 39 4142 43 57 1315 17 18 2 1 25 27 28 30 32 34 35 44 45 58 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1315 19 20 22 25 27 28 29 32 34 44 58 1213 19 22 24 25 28 29 32 44 46 47 48 4 37 40 10 12 13 15 1718 23 24 44 49 50 5 1 52 53 56 24 30 32 33 44 54 59 1018 24 27 2830 3 1 32 3345 58 9101128CODE LIST OF POSSIBLE CAUSES1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Battery capacity low Bad electrical connections Fault in starter m o t o r W r o n g grade of lubricating oil Low engine speed f r o m starter m o t o r Fuel tank e m p t y Stop control fault Restriction in fuel pipe Dirty fuel filter element Restriction in air filter or induction s y s t e m Air in fuel s y s t e m Fault in fuel injection p u m p Fault in a t o m i s e r s or not correct t y p e Cold start e q u i p m e n t not used correctly Fault in cold start e q u i p m e n t Broken fuel injection p u m p drive Fuel injection p u m p t i m i n g not correct Valve t i m i n g not correct Bad c o m p r e s s i o n Restriction in f u e l tank vent Type or grade of fuel not correct Restriction of engine speed control m o v e m e n t Restriction in exhaust pipe Cylinder head gasket leaks Engine t e m p e r a t u r e too h i g h Engine t e m p e r a t u r e too low Valve t i p clearances not correct Valves not free W r o n g high pressure pipes W o r n cylinder bores3 1 Valves a n d seats do not seal correctly 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Piston rings not free or are w o r n or broken Valve stems a n d o r guides w o r n Wet type air filter t o o full or w r o n g t y p e of oil used Crankshaft bearings w o r n or d a m a g e d Not e n o u g h lubricating oil in the s u m p Gauge not correct Lubricating oil p u m p w o r n Relief valve not free to close Relief valve not free to o p e n Relief valve spring broken Fault in suction pipe of lubricating oil p u m p Dirty lubricating oil filter element Piston d a m a g e d Piston height not correct Fan d a m a g e d Fault in engine m o u n t i n g housing Flywheel housing or f l y w h e e l not aligned correctly Fault in t h e r m o s t a t or w r o n g type Restriction in coolant passages Water p u m p drive belt loose Restriction in radiator Fault in water p u m p Restriction in breather pipe Damaged valve stem oil seals where used Not e n o u g h coolant in system Restriction in s u m p strainer Valve spring broken Fault in exhauster or v a c u u m pipe Consumable ProductsTo give assistance in the correct operation service and maintenance of yourengine and machine Perkins Engines Ltd have made available the products shown below The instructions for the use of each product are given on the outside of each container These products are available from your Perkins distributor POWERPART Antifreeze Gives corrosion protection and also a more efficient coolant in hot conditions See Page 13 POWERPART LayUp 1 A diesel fuel additive for protection against corrosion See Page 26 POWERPART LayUp 2 Gives inside protection to the engine and other closed systems See Page 26 POWERPART LayUp 3 Gives outside protection to any metal parts See Page 27 POWERPART Deicer To remove frost 30 POWERPART Hylosil Silicone rubber sealant to prevent leakage POWERPART Impact Adhesive To keep joints in position during installation and other general attachment purposes POWERPART Solvent To thoroughly clean metal faces before assembly POWERPART Locking Agent Used to securely install fasteners sleeves etc POWERPART Silent Spray Silicone lubrication to lubricate and prevent noise from hinges slide doors etc POWERPART Damp Displacer To make damp electrical equipment dry and to give future protection POWERPART Hylomar Universal sealing compound to seal jointsLATEST The purpose of this page is to enable important information to be added to this handbook after publication31
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