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' Perkins L4 Workshop Manual'


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       Perkins Engines Limited
       Peterborough         England

       Grams 'Phone: Peterborough 3241
       Cables: Perkoil Peterborough Telex

       Publication No. 5675
       Re-issued November 1966
       PRICE : 20/-



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fale IJl

                                      FOREWORD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PageV

                                 GENERAL INFORMAnON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Section
                                 ENGINE DESCRIPTION AND PHOTOGRAPHS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A
                                 DO AND DO NOT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         B

                              ENGINE                                                          MAINTENANCE
                                 POST DELIVERY                                                                                                                                                 CHECKOVER                                                                                              F
                              LAID                           UP ENGINE                                                                                                                                       PROCEDURE                                                                                F
-..,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  G

                      ENGINE OVERHAUL
                      CYLINDER                                                                                           LINERS                                                                                                                               ...                           ...      H
                 CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARII'-GS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ...      L
                 CAMSHAFT AND DRIVE    ...     ...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ..       M
                 TIMING                ...     ...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ..       N
            SCHEDULE                                                                                                     OF                                         CLEARANCES                                                                        AND                      TOLERANCES            p
              L4 MARINE                                                                                                                     ENGINES                                                                                                                                                  W

1        SERVICE INSTRUCTION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 PERPETUITY SCHEME
       LUBRICATING OIL DATA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FILM LIBRARY
       PERKINS DRIVE R'S CLUB                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                APPROVED SERVICE TOOLS


         All threads used on the L4 Engine, except on proprietary
         equipment and the crankshaftare Unified Series,andAmerican               ;=1
         Pipe Series.The crankshaft and starting dog nut are threaded
         1 American
          ff       NationalFine, 14 T.P.1.

         Unified threads are not interchangeablewith B.S.F. and
         althooghB.S.W. havethe samenomber of threads per inch
         as Unified CoarseSeries,interchangingis not recommended,
         doe to a differencein the thread form.

         The enginenumber is stamped on the top rear, light hand
         side of the cylinder block, as shown in the diagram below.
         Tbis number should be quoted when requesting information
         or ordering Palts.

         This publication ~ produced by the Technical Publications Department
         of the Perkins Senice Division and every en~vour is made to ensure
         that the information contained in this mannal ~ correct at the date of
         pubti:cation but doe to continuous developments.the manufacturers
         reservethe right to make alterationswithout notice.

                      Diagram showing position of Engine No. 6012625
                                                                                                      Page V

        The Diesel Engine closely resem  bles lts petrol    THA T HlS PRODUCT WILL RECEIVE IN
"f   counterpart inasmuch as the mechanismis essen-         SERVICE. That part restswith you.
     tially the same. lts cylinders are arranged above
     its closed crankcase.its crankshaft is ODeof the         This manual is designedto be a guide to the
     same general type as that of a petrol engine; it       Distributors of. and Dealers in equipment fitted
                                                            with the Perkins L4 Diesel engine and to others
     bas the same sort of valves. camshaft. pistons.
                                                            who are concernedwith the sale and subsequent
     connecting roos and lubrication system.
                                                            maintenanceof such engines.
     . It follows, therefore. that to a great extent, it
                                                              Perkins Engines Ltd.. are at one with all these
     requires the same treatment as that which any          Distributors and Dealers in the desire to ensure
     intelligent and careful operator would accord to a     that the Perkins Diesel engines in the hands of
     petrol engine and that gross negligencesuch as         usersshall give completesatisfaction.
     running the engine short of oil, with sludged Dil,
     or with the water boiling will have the same             An essential factor in the attainment of that
     expensiveconsequences.                                 object is efficient servicing. The Company pro-
                                                            vides a number of facilities with that end in view;
        Where the Diesel Engine does differ from the        one of them is this manual. In presenting it to
     petrol motor, however, is in th~ method of hand-       responsible Distributors and Dealers the Com-
     ling and firing its fuel. Carburetter and ignition     pany are in effect inviting their co-operation and
     systemsare doDeaway with and in their place is         at the time providing an effective aid to that
     a single component-the Fuel Pump-which per-            co-operation.
     farms the functions of both. This confers upon
                                                              Immediately this manual is received, hand it
     the Diesel a quite exceptionalreliability, since the   over to the foreman who will be responsiblefor
     chancesof breakdown are halved. In tact it may
                                                            carrying out the maintenance operations which
     be axiomat'ically stated that a Diesel Engine never
                                                            are describedtherein. Do not, please,file it in the
     bas an involuntary stop (other than ODecaused
     through mechanicaldamagedue to abuse),unIess
     there is a shortageof fuel.                              The issue of this manuaI bas been descrihed
                                                            above as being ODeof the many aids which Per-
        The fuel pump. though very simple in principle.     kiDs Engines Ltd. provide in order to ensure
     must necessarilybe a piece of precision engineer-      efficient servicefor the enginesthey market. Two
     ing. Many yearsof experienceand many hundreds          of the others may appropriately he mentioned
     of thousandsof miles of running ensure that the        here.
     fuel pump fitted to Perkins engines will, given
     ordinarily decent treatment, continue to function        Servicelnstruction is provided at Peterborough
     faultlessly. It must however be regarded in the        where the mechanics employed by Distributors.
     samelight as a magneto,inasmuchas it shouldnot         Dealers and users are given instruction OD the
     be interfered with and that its repair, should it      specialcharacteristicsof the engine.
     Deedattention, is definitely beyond the skill of any      Then there is the Perkins Perpetuity Plan which
     but specially trained workmen. Like the magneto        is, in fact, an engineexchangeschemeof peculiar
     it is built as a unit. So that in the rare event of    description having numerous special advantages.
     failure it cao be replaceden bloc.                     A booklet describing this can be obtained on
       Unremitting care and attention at the Perkins
     factory have resulted in an engine capable of            In conclusion we recommend Dealers, Distri-
     hundreds of hours of profitable service. WHAT          butors and usersto communicatewith the Service
     THE MANUFACTURERCANNOT HOW-                            Division of Perkins EnginesLtd.. Peterboroughin
     EVER     CONTROL        IS THE     TREATMENT           case of Deed.
                                                                                                               Page Al
              Perkins L4 Dieselenginesare vertical four-stroke       Crankshaft and Main Bearings.
            Power Units. They are entirely of British design             The crankshaft is made from an alloy steel
            and manufacture and embody the results of                 stam ping, with hardened main and crankpin
            experiencegained in the production of Diesel             journais. The crankshaftruns in threepre-finished
            engines over a period of many years.                      replaceableshell hearings, which are lead bronze
                                                                      lined and indium flashed.
              The materials and workmanship throughout are
            of the highest class. Most parts are guaranteed
            interchangeable,jigs being used everywherein the          The connecting rods are of alloy steel ., H "
            courseof manufacture,and all parts passthrough
            a system of thorough inspection where they are           section stampingswith replaceablesteel shell big
            checked to the closest limits. Each engine is            end bearings, which are lead bronze lined and
            subjected to stringent tests before leaving the          indium flashed.
            General.                                                   The pistons are flat topped. They are of light
                                                                     aluminium alloy with ample metal in the crown to
              The Perkins lA Diesel, with which tbis manuaI          carry off the heat of combustion. Three com.
            is concerned, is a Cour cylinder unit. having a          pression rings of which ODe is of laminated steel,
            bore and stroke of 4* in. (107.95mm) and 4i In.          and ODe scraper ring are fitted above the gudgeon
            (120.65mm) respectively.                                 pin. There is ODe scraper ring below that pin.
                                                                     The gudgeon pins are of the fully floating type.
            Cylinder Block.
               The cylinder block and     crankcase comprise a       Timing Drive.
            one-piece high duty alloy      iron casting. Centri-
                                                                        The camshaft and fuel pump are gear driven,
            fugal cast iron wet liners    are fitted, which are
                                                                     the timing case being a separate casting secured
            flanged at the top end and   fitted with sealing rings
                                                                     to the front end of the cylinder block. Provision
            at the lower end.
                                                                     is made for mounting a gear drive on the timing
   "                                                                 case meshing with the timing gear train, for driving
            Cylinder Head.                                           a hydraulic pump or uther low power auxiliary.
              The cylinder head is an alloy iron casting,
            securedto the cylinder block by a large number           Lubrication.          l
   l        of weU spaced through studs. The overhead
            valves are operated by push rods from flat faced
                                                                        Lubrication is high pressureforce reed thrOUgh-
                                                                     out the engine. The pump, a gear type, is secured
            tappets in the cylinder block, the rocker assembly
                                                                     to the cylinder block and is driven by spiral gears
            being mounted on top of the cylinder head. The
                                                                     from the camshaft. It is fully capable of main-
   1        whole assembly  is enclosedin a light alloy die cast
            cover. All valves are of special alloy steel, the
                                                                     taining an adequatepressureat all running speeds.
            inlet being larger to ensure maximum volumetric
                                                                     FoeI Injection Equipment.
  1         efficiency. The spherical combustion chamber is
            formed half in the head and half by a detachable           The unit type fuel pump is fiange mounted
            steel cap.                                               on the timing case.
                                                                       The atomisers are two hole type fitted in an
            Camshaft.                                                accessible position on top of the cylinder head ;
              The low level camshaftis situated in the offside       ODe  spray is directedinto the combustionchamber
            of the cylinder block and is supported by three          and the other into the cylinder, ensuring easy
  -,                                                                 starting.


Page A2                                                                      Engine Description-continued

Cooling.                                                 Cold Starting Equipment.
  The cooling water is pump circulated by a centri-        Comprises  a hand pump, atomiser,priming tank,
fugal pump which is mounted on the front end of          piping, induction heater and starter and heater
the cylinder block. ft is driven, together with the      switches. The induction heater is not in contact
dynamo, bya Vee belt from the engine crankshaft.         with the burning gasesin the cylinder. It is located
                                                         in the inlet venturi and is in use only during
  The internal water passagesare arranged to give
                                                         starting under very cold conditions.
a brisk circulation of water around the combustion
chamber and atomiser seating. The fan is mounted
on the forward end of the water pump.                    Electric Starting Equipment.
                                                            A 12-volt starter is flange mounted on the
Air Intake.                                              flywheel housing.
   A large air cleaner is fitted through which must
passalI air drawn into the engine. Harmful dust          Dynamo.
is thus excludedand the lire of the cylinderscorres- .      12-Volt ; earth return type completewith control
pondinglyprolonged. The air cleaneris connected          box and fuse box. It is mounted on the off side
to the venturi inlet which houses the butterfly          of the cylinder block and is belt driven by a Vee.
throttle valve control.                                  belt from the crankshaft.



  I. Breather Pipe.
  2. Fuel Filter.
  3. Pipe from Pneumatic Uovernor to Air
  4. Inlet to Fuel Injection Pump.
  5. Fuel Pump Stop Control Lever.
  6 Cylinder Block Water Drain Coc\{.
  7. Lubricating Dil Filter
  8. Sump.
  9. Fan Belt.                     .

 10.   Main Leak-off Pipe.
 11.   Timing Case.
 12.   Fuel Injection Pump.
 13.   Water Pump.
 14.   Fan.
 15.   Water Dutlet to Radiator
 16.   Atomiser Leak-off Pipe.
 17.   Fuel Injection Pipe.
 18.   Atomiser.
 19.   Cylinder Head Cover
 20.   Exhaust Manifold.
 21.   Air Intake.
 22.   Butterfly Control Lever.
 23.   Dynamo.
 24.   Lubricating Dil Filler.
 25.   Starter Motor.
 26.   Front Engine Support
 27.   Facing for Alternative Front Engine Support
 28.   Fuel Lift Pump.
 29.   Hand Primer for Fuel Lift Pump.
 30.   Mechanical Governor.
 31.   Mechanical Governor Dperating Lever
 32.   Inlet to Fuel Lift Pump
 33.   Dipstick.
 34.   Sump Drain Plug.
 35.   DecompressorLever.
 36.   Dil Bath Air Cleaner.


    ..,                                                                                       Page BI

                   SETTNGS AND DATA (B)
           Bore                      ...                          4:lin.orI07.95mm
           Stroke ...         .,.                         ...,.    4i in. or 120.6 mm
           Numbelofcylinders                                                    ..       4
           Swept volume                                      ,    4.42 litres (270
           Compression ratio                                                      17.5 : I
           Firing order                                                        I, 3, 4, 2
           Horsepower                                                 ...      See below
           Maximum torque                    182lbs./ft. (25.17 kg/m) at 1,000 r.p.m.
           Pistons..                                         .        ..     Light Alloy
           Spil I timing                                              21 degrees B.T.C.
           Atomiser Body                                 BKB 35S87 or BKB32S630
           Atomiser Nozzle                                                BDL IIOS6116
           Injection piessure..                                            See page TIl
           Valve lift         ..     ...                        .465 in. or 11.811 mm
           Valve Face and Seat Angle ..        .          .           ..        ..    450
           Dil Pressure at max. engine speed and normal working temperature
                                        25/50 Ibs: per sq: in: (1,76/3,52kg/sq: cm)
           Valve clearance.          .                       .   .010 in. or .254 mm
           When checking and adjusting valve clearances the engine should be
           tumed to bring the respective pistons to T.D.C. on compression.

    -      '          TorqueTensions
           CylinderHead Nuts
           Con. Rod Setscrews
                                                                        Lbs./Ft. kg/m)
           Main Bearing Setscrews                                    125/130(17.29-18.00)
    ...,   FlywheelSetscrews                        .          ...       75 (10.37)
           With referenceto the Cylinder Head Nuts, these should be re-checked
           with the engine hot.
           It will be appreciatedthat after overhaul or rectification work bas been
    -,     carried out, there will be a settling period which will allowaslight
           variation on the figures quoted. This is not detrimental to the perform-
           anceof the engineand there is no necessity  to interfere with the settings.
           On no account should attempts be made to increasethe torque already
           quoted by re-tightening with a torque spanner.
    ...,   Massey-Harris-Ferguson
                                Combines                             2 gallons (9.08litres)
                                745 Tractor                          2 gallons (9.08litres)
           FordsonMajor Tractor                         :ol   gallons
                                                                    6 pints(12.49
           Claas Combine.                                   .      2 gallons (9.08litres)
           lndustrial                                   3 .eallons3 pints (15.31litres)

           HORSE              POWER
           Massey-Harris-Ferguson Combines.                    56 b.h.p. at 1,940r.p.m.
           Massey-Harris-Ferguson 745 Tractor                  50 b.h.p. at 1,500r.p.m.
               FordsonMajor Tractor         ...                45 b.h.p. at 1,500r.p.m
    ~      Industrial                                        62 b.h.p. at 2,000r.p.m.
                                                         Up to 59 b.h.p. at 2.000r.D.m.

Page B2                                                           Settingsand Data-continued

          Details of Industrial engine ratings caD be obtained upon request,from
          the plant manufacturers or engine manufacturers.
          In the case of queries on other types of application, apply to Service
          Division quoting the engine number.
          De-rating for Altitude : Where enginesare called upon to operate in
          rarefied atmospheresoccasioned by altitude, such engines should be
          de-rated. For details regarding engine de-rating for altitude apply to
          Service Division, Perkins Engines Ltd., Peterborough, or to those
                         OverseasCompanies listed on Page 11.
          IMPORTANT NOTE : ALL Screw Threads used on the L4 engine,
          except on proprietary equipm~nt and the crankshaft, are Unified Series
          and American Pipe Series.
          The crankshaft and starting dog nut are threaded 1 inch American
          National Fine 14 T.P.I.


                                                                                               Page Cl

       PREPARAnON         FOR STARnNG                   The engineis now ready for starting.
  Check the radiator water level.                       Move the speed control lever to full open
  Check the enginesump oil level.                     position.
  Seethat there is tuel oil in the tank.
                                                             COLD STARnNG EQUIPMENT
   Where a pneumatic govemor is fitted. make
                                                      Method of Operation.
quite sure that the connections on the pipe
trom the butterfly valve to the govemor on the           The small hand pump (see Fig. C.I) is con-
tuel pump are light.                                  structedwith inlet and outlet ports. On the upward
                                                      stroke of the pump fuel is drawn through a copper
  Check that the starter battery is tully charged
                                                      pipe trom the supply tank into the pump body.
and that all electrical connections are properly
madeand all circuits in order.                          On the downward stroke tuel is pressure ted
                                                      through the outlet port and a copper pipe to an
                                                      atomiser fitted in the venturi. A swirl in the
Priming the Foei System.
                                                      atomiser causesthe fuel to be sprayed into the
  In the caseof a new engineor an enginewhich         venturi.
bas been la:id up it is important that the fuel
systemis "bIed" as follows :-

PressureFed Systems.
    Slackensmall plug on tbe top of tbe final fuel
filter and operate tbe band primer on tbe fuellifl
pump ontil fuel tree trom air bubblesissuestrom                            Fig. C.l.
the plug hole. Tighten the plug.
   Slacken the bleed screw on the top of the tue!       The spray is directed on to a heater plug (see
pump.                                                 Fig. C2) which is also fitted into the veoturi.
   Again operate the hand primer on the fuel lift       The resistaoce wire 00 the heater plug is heated
pump until fuel issuestrom the bleed screw and        by an electric current when the heater button is
all signs of air have disappeared.                    pressedon the "Heater-Starter" switch.
  Tighten the bleed screw securely and give the         As the pistons travel down 00 the suction stroke
primer a tew more strokes in order to deliver the     the fuel spray, which bas been fired by the hot
fuel through the relief valve on the tue! filter.     resistaoce wire on the plug, is drawn into the
clearing this part of the systemof air.               cylinder bare to assistin easystarting.
                                                        The wiring diagram (see Fig. C3) shows all
Gravity Fed Systems.
                                                      necessarydetails of the "Heater.Starter" switch
    Slacken smalI plug on the top of tbe final fuel   and Heater plug coonections.
filter and turn on fuel tank supply until fuel tree
trom air issuestrom tbe plug hole. Tighten the        Use of Equipment.
plug.                                                   The hand pump is usedin conjunction with the
  Slacken the bleed screw on tbe top of the fuel      induction heater and "Heater-Starter" switch for
pump and allow fuel to run until no trace of air      starting in cold weather.
                                                        Excessiveuse of the hand pump is to he depre-
   Tighten tbe bleed screw securely whilst fuel is    cated as it is liable to he harmful to the engine
still issuing.                                        and could damage the piston rings.
Page C2                                                                        Starting the Engfne-cantinued

   With someapplicatiou~,in addition to the hand               Press the "Heater" switch for about half a
pump, two electric push button switches,marked              minute (count forty fairly slowly). Then with
.. Heater" and .. Starter" respectivly,are mounted          the "Heater" switch still pressed,
                                                                                             and the throttle
on the instrumentpanel or somewhereconveniently             fully opened, cngage the starter motor, at the
near to the enginecontrols. Theseare for starting           same time giving short strokes on the hand
the engine.                                                 pump.
   an other applications, a starter engaging lever            The engineshould then start.
is provided insteadof the button switch previously            If it doesnot, wait half a minute and try again.
                                                              If the engine doesnot start at the third attempt,
  In warm weatheror if the engine bas been only             somefault is presentand an examinationshould be
recently stopped,open up the throttle and engage            made.
the starter motor.
  If the battery is sufficiently charged to turn the        NOTE : Always be sure that the starter 'pinion
starter motor quickly, the engine should start.             bas stopped revolving before re-engaging the
                                                            starter motor, otherwise the starter ring or pinion
                                                            may be damaged.
Cold Starting Equipment.
                                                              Af ter using the hand pump, always make sure
  In cold weather,if the enginebasbeenstanding,             that the plunger is screwed down and the reed
the cold starting equipment should be used.                 tap turned off, otherwise a leakage may occur
                                                            with damaging results.
   See that there is fuel oil in the reservoir tank
(if fitted).
                                                            Main Tank Supply.
  Turn on the supply tap to the hand pump                    In certain fuel systems
                                                                                   no separatetank is fitted.
  lTnscrew the pump plunger and give it one                    lnstead the hand pump draws fuel from thc
stroke of about half an inch.                               final fuel filter.

                                                  I~ ,-

                                                                 Fig. C3. Wiring Diagram
           Fig. C2.   Plug Heater
,      Storting the Engine-continued                                                                  Page C3

..,       In this casethe procedureis as laid down above     the exhaust valves are opened, thereby relieving
       exceptthat the tap provided on the filter should      the compressionto facilitate easy turning.
       be turned on before using the equipment.                To start, put the decompressorlever in \he
          Af ter use be sure to turn olf the tap and screw   vertical position, turn the engineover smartly 8nd
       down the hand pump otherwise fuel may drain           drop the decompressor      lever.
       from the main tank into the engine.                      It should be noted that where a decompressor
                                                             shaft is fitted, loss of compressionin ODe or more
..,    Maintenanceof Equipment.                              cylinders may be causedby this shaft fouling one
         Use fuel oil in the system.                         or more of the rocker levers, thus preventing
         Check unions, pipes, and supply tank fOTleaks.      closure of a valve or valves. The remedy is a
                                                             ney.' cylinder head cover joint.
         Inspect every 1,000hours to make sure that all
       connectionsand terminals are tight on .. Heater-         If the engine is particularly cold lift the de-
       Starter" switch and Heater plug.                      compressorlever and turn the engine over a few
                                                             time~ before attempting to start.
         If any difficulty is found in operating the pump
       especially on the downward pressure stroke,           To Stop the Engine
       inspectthe atomiser swirl and jet hole.                 A spring loaded stop control is located near the
                                                             normal engine controls and functions by cutting
       Hand Starting.
                                                             off the fuel oil at the fuel injection pump.
         Engines not provided with electric starting           To operate, pull the knob and hold in this
       equipment are fitted with a decompressorshaft         position until the engineceases  to. rotate. Ensure
       in the valve cover.                                   that the control returns to the run position other-
         The decompressorlever is positioned on the          wise difficulty may be experiencedin restarting
       front of the valve cover. When the lever is raised,   the engine.

                                                                                                    Pagp Dl

               DIFFICULT STARnNG                            Test the atomisersaf, recommendedin SectionS
                                                          and clean them if necessary.
    No Foei at Atomisers:-
                                                            The lubricating oil usedshould be of an approved
        (a) No fuel in tank.
        (b) Fuel lift pump not working (Pressurered       type. (SeeAppendix).
        Cc) Slack connections in tbe fuel system.         Sticking Rocker.
      '(rl) Air in the fuel system(Trace from suction        Ir tbe rockers stick the causemay be : tbe use
            side).                                        of unsuitable oil, sbortage of oil, or sludging.
        Go over the whole of tbe above and make sure      Use only oil of an approvedtype. (SecAppendix).
    that the atomisers are fully primed and tbat the      Ir tbere is a sbortageof lubricant, tbe passages
    .. pinging tt or ., squeakingtt noise is heard from   pipes to tbe rockers sbould be cbecked.
    each atomiser when the engine is turned over by
    hand.                                                 Fuel Oll.
                                                             It is essential to use clean fuel Dil fret from
    Enginenot being turned over quickly enough.           water, dirt, or sand. The recommendedspecifi-
    (Particularly in cold weather)                        cation for fuel Dil is given in SectionS. Providing
      (a) Lubricating oil too thick. (Sec Appendix).      clean fuel is used,no trouble should he experienced
      (b) Battery not fully charged. Fit fully charged    witb the fuel systembut dirty Dil willlead to trouble
          battery.                                        due to choked filters, damaged fuel pump and
      (c) Engine "gummy" due to standing in tbe           atomisers. If the engine tends to run weIl for a
          cold.                                           short period and then to die awayor stop altogether,
                                                          tbe fuel system should immediately be suspected.
     Use thc cold starting equipment(if fitted). (See     Tbe trouble may be due to the lift pump not
    Section C).                                           working properly, to a loost pipe joint allowing air
                                                          to get into the fuel system,to a dirty fuel filter, or
    Low Compression.                                      to a choked fuel pipe. The pre-filter in the fuel
       This may be due to dry cylinders and piston        lift pump (when fitted) should be cleaned by
    rings, worn piston rings, worn cylinders, or leaky    washing in clean fuel Dil, but tbe final filter should
    valves.                                               not need attention more than once in 1,000hours,
                                                          when a completely new filter element should he
    AtomisersFaulty.                                      fitted. If the conditions lead to dust or con-
      Test atomisers for ., ping"    or "squeak"    as    tamination of the fuel, decreasetbe maintenance
    already mentioned. Ir any atomiser rails to give      interval.
    this " pinging" or .. squeaking" noise when that         Always, after disturbing fuel line washers.
    cylinder is pulled smartly over compressionand it
    bas been made certain that the atomiser is fully      replace with ncw washersto ensurethe joints are
    primed, then the atomiser should he tested by         air tight.
    removingit from the cylinder head(SeeSectionS).
                                                          Air Cleaner.
     Disconnect pipes on other atomisers while
    making this test.                                        In accordance with periodical attentions,
                                                           Section F, clean the filtering element in paraffin,
                                                           and. if of tbe oil bath type, dip in oil.
    Sticking Valves.
      Trouble witb sticking valves may be due to             In those filters wbicb need it, new engine oiJ
    overbeating,tbe result of cboked atomisers,or tbe      should be poured into the base, up to tbe level
    use of unsuitable lubricating oil.                     mark.
    Page D2                                                                                                                              ~
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                                                                                               Page El


    DO KEEP THE ENGINE CLEAN.                           DO drain cylinder block if engine is being left
    DO keep this hook where it is conveniently             idle in frosty weather(drain tap on fuel pump
                                                           side of block).
                                                        DO remove pressurisedradiator filler cap before
    DO pay particular attention to lubrication.            draining the cooling system.
    DO use only approved grades of lubricating oilo     DO close these drain cocks and refill with water
    DO use only GENUINE PERKINS PARTS.                     before attemp.tingto re-start next morning.
                                                        DO when in doubt, read this Manual.
    DO keep all bolts and Duts tight.
    DO eliminate all air from the fuel system and
       keep all fuel oil unions AIR- TIGHT.             DO Nor guess. For additional information con-
    DO examine engine oil level in sump daily and              tact suppliers of the Industrial Plant.
       replenish if necessary.                                 Tractor or Engine.
    DO completely change engine oil in accordance       DO NOT neglect the routine attentions speci-
       with periodical attentions, SectionF.                   fied in SectionF.
                                                        DO NOT storefuel oil in a galvanisedcontainer.
    DO renew element in lubricating oil filter in
       accordance with periodical attentions,           DO NOT race the engine in neutral.
       Section F.                                       DO NOT run the engine unless the gauge
    DO check oil flow to rocker shaft and examine              SHOWS OIL PRESSURE.
       the valvespringsin accordancewith periodical     DO NOT unnecessarilyinterfere with any adjust-
       attentions, Section F.                                  ments.
    DO use only filtered fuel oil. Never tip into       DO NOT break the fuel pump or venturi seals-
       the tank a half-empty barrel of fuel oil, the           remember if broken Jour Guarantee
       bung of which may have been out fOTweeks.               may be void.
    DO keep a check on the temperature of the           DO NOT continue to run the engine if the
       cooling water. lt should not be allowed to              cooling water boils.
       boil. The best temperature is 170F. or          DO NOT forget to keep the fan belt adjusted.
       77C. but where a pressurisedradiator cap
       is fitted then the coolant temperature may       DO NOT continue to run the engine if black
       be slightly higher.                                     smoke is coming from the exhaust.
                                                        DO NOT if the engine stops without apparent
    DO attend immediately to fuel and lubricating
                                                               reason, rail to make sure first of all
       oil leaks.
                                                               that fuel is reaching the fuel pump.
    DO grind in valves when necessary.                  DO NOT omit to wipe the engine over oc-
    DO check valve clearance from time to time                 casionally with a clean rag.
       (.010 in./ .25 mm.) with warm engine.            DO NOT take the fuel pump to pieces.
    DO tighten cylinder head DutS in correct order      DO NOT use cotton waste or any fluffy cloth
       (See Fig. H3).                                          when cleaning.
    DO quote engine number when ordering parts.         DO NOT use any but approved brands of lubri-
    DO keep essentialparts in store.                           cating oil.
    DO drain radiator if engine is being left idle in   DO NOT subject the engine to continuous over.
       frosty weather.                                         loading.

                                                                                               Page FJ

                                                 A TTENTI 0 N S (F)
POST-DELIVERY CHECKOVER.                              EVERY SOHOURS
   Af ter a customtr bas taken delivery of bis         Check fan belt adjustment. (See Section R).
Perkins diesel engille. it is advisable. in bis own    Clean air cleaner and renew Dil (See Date).
interest. thai a genera I check over of the engine
                                                       Top up batteries with distilled water.
be carried out after the first 25 hours in service.
   It is also recommended that this following
procedurehe adopted where an engine bas been          EVERY 250 HOURS
laid up tor a considerable period. before it is         Refill Greaseron Dynamo.
again put into service.                                 Clean water trap bowl and gauze element.
  This check over should comprise the following
                                                       *Clean element in lubricating oil filter.
points :-
                                                       *Drain oil trom sump and renew.
   I. Drain lubricating oil sump and re-fill up to
       the ruIl mark on the dipstick with new clean    *Clean strainer in sump.
       oil (Do not overfill). When the sump is          Unscrew drain plug on final tuel filter. replace
       drained the sump strainer should he removed    plug when clean tuel appears.
       and cleaned.                                     Flush radiator with clean water.
   2. Check and if necessary    adjust slow running
                                                        Clean and treat the battery terminals.
   3. Check external nuts tor tightness.               *These periods should be decreased    to 100hours
   4. Check and adjust valve clearances(.010 in.      maximum. when engineis operating under adverse
        .25 mmo hot).
   5. Check fuel pipes trom tank to fuel injection
       pump common chamher tor leaks.                 EVERY 500 HOURS
   6. Check tor lubricating oil leaks. and rectify     Clean and checkatomisers.
       if necessary.                                   Renew feIt element in lubricating oil filter.
   7. Check cooling systemtor leaks and inspect
       radiator water level.                           Clean gauze trap in fuel oil filler (when fitted)
   8. Checkfan belt tor tension.                       Clean strainer in lubricating oil filler.
   9. Carry out raad test to check general per-
       formanceof engine.
                                                      EVERY 1,000HOURS
  10. Check enginemounting balts tor tightness.
   It is also advisable to check the cylinder head      Drain fuel tank. remove and clean.
studs to ascertain that they are tightened to the       Inspect commutator and brushesof dynamo.
correct torque as given on page B.l.                    Removecylinder head cover.
   Thereafter maintenance periods should he in          Examine valve springs and check valve clear-
accordancewith the following instructions.            ance.
   It is assumed thai electrical equipmentwill have     Inspect valve rocker assemblyfor lubrication.
already been checkedtor such points as dynamo           Renew element in final fuel filter.
rate of charge. effectiveness    of connections and
circuits etc.                                           Note. The time for cleaning the air cleaner
                                                      dependson operating conditions. therefore under
               Keep Eogioe Oeso.                      extremely dusty conditions. the time limit recom-
DAll..V                                               mended above for cleaning should he decreased.
   Checkwatc:rin radiator.                              The correct maintenanceof the air cleaner win
   Check oil level in sump (make sure the engine      greatly assist in reducing bare wear. thereby
is level),                                            extending the life of the engine.

PRESERV AllON         OF LAID      UP ENGINES            noted that deterioration of the fuel oil may be
   Where an application which is powered by a            occasionedduring the months the application is
Perkins engine is to be laid up for several months       idle.
it is advisable that some measure of protection             If this occurs, the fuel oil may become con-
be afforded the engine to ensure that it suffers         taminated with a wax-like substancewhich will
no ill effect during the intervening period before       quickly clog the fuel filtering arrangement once
operations are recommenced.                              the engine is returned to service.
  It is recommended, therefore, that the following          Therefore, before recommencingoperations in
procedure be adopted and applied immediately             respectof a unit primed with normal fuel oU which
the unit is withdrawn from service.                      bas lain idle for severalmonths it i5 recommended
 I.   Thoroughly   clean aU external parts of the        that the fuel tank be drained and the interior of
                                                         the tank thoroughly cleaned. The fuel oU drained
                                                         off should be discarded as unfit for further use.
 2. Run the engine until well-warmed through.
    Stop the engine and drain lubricating oil               Fuel oil contained in the remainder of the fuel
                                                         system should also he dispelled and the paper
                                                         element in the final fuel filter renewed,following
 3. Drain water from radiator and engine
                                                         which, the system may then be re-chargedwith
    cylinder block.
                                                         fresh, clean fuel oil.
 4.   Remove and clean gauze strainer in sump
                                                            Preparationsfor starting the engineshould then
      and ruil flow filter element.
                                                         be in accordancewith the procedure detaUedin
 5. Clean out engine breathing system.                   Section"C ".
 6.   Af ter replacing filters, fill sump to correct
      level with clean, new lubricating oil or with
                                                             Where a preseryativeis used in the lubricating
      a suitable preservative fluid.
                                                          oil sump, this should be drained off and replaced
 7.   Remove atomisers and spray into cylinder            by normallubricant prior to re-starting the engine
      bores a t pint (.14 litres) of lubricating oil      at the end of the storageperiod. In the caseof a
      divided between the cylinders.                     preservative beingutilised to chargethe fuel system
 8.   Replace atomisers and turn engine slowly           this need not necessarilybe drained off before
      over compressions.                                  returning the engine to service. Therefore, wben
 9.   Remove air cleaner and any intake pipe which       a preservativeis used in this respect the relevant
      may be fitted between the air cleaner and          manufacturers of the fluid should be contacted,
      venturi. Carefully seal venturi orifice with       seekingtheir guidanceas to whether their product
      waterproofed adhesive tape or some ot her          should he drained away prior to re-starting the
      suitable medium.                                   engme.
10. Remove exhaust pipe and seal opening in                 When draining Marine engines,the end plate ot
    manifoldas in . 9.'                                  the water pump should be removedto allow drain-
                                                         ageof any water trapped betweenthe bladesof the
11. Disconnect battery and store in fully charged
                                                         impellor. Af ter the pump bas been drained, the
    condition. Before storing, the bartery ter-
                                                         impeUor sbould be lubricated with Marfak 2HD
    minals should be treated to prevent corrosion.
                                                         Grease,after which the impellor should be turned
   The fuel system may either be drained and             to ensure penetration of the grease. When the
charged with a suitable preservative or alternatively,   engine is put back into service,under no circum-
it may be left primed with normal fuel oil.              stancesshould it be run with the interior of the
  Where the Iatter course is taken, it should be         water pump dry.

                                                                                                     PageF 3

        Precautionsagainst damage by trost should he          (a) Locking of the impelJor by ice due to thr:
      taken if the engine is to be left exposed to                pump drain hole being blocked by sedi.
      inclement weather either by adequately draining             ment.
      the water systemor where this is not convenient.
                                                              (b) The locking of the seaJthrough the freezing
      an anti-freezeof reputablemake and incorporating
                                                                  of globuJesof moisture between the sea]
      a ~uitablecorrosion inhibitor may he used.
                                                                  and the gland.
         Should it be your policy to protect enginestrom       Operators are therefore advised to take these
      trost damageby adding anti-freezeto the cooling       precautionswhen operating in temperatures beIoVv is advisable that the manufacturers of      freezing point :-
      the relevant mixture be contacted to ascertain
                                                              (1) Before starting the engine,turn the fan and
      Yv'hethertheir products are suitable tor use in             "   ater pump by hand, this will indicateif
      Perkins engines and also to ensure that their
                                                                  freezing bas taken place. If freezing bas
      products wil! have no harmful effect on the cool-           taken place, this should tree any ice forma-
      ing systemgenerally. It is OUT  experience that the         tion.
      best results are obtained from anti-freeze which
      conforms to British Standard 3151.                      (2) If it is impossibleto turn the pump by hand,
                                                                  the radiator and engineshould be filled with
         Where the use of an anti-freezeis contemplated           warm water.
      in respect of an L4 marine engine employing a
                                                              (3) To avoid this trouble, the operator should,
      closed circuit cooling system. advice should be
                                                                  when all water bas been drained. run the
      soughttrom the relevant anti-freezemanufacturers
                                                                  engine tor a tew secondsat idling speed,
      seekingassurancethat their product will have no
                                                                  thus dispersing any moisture remaining in
      detrimental effect on the rubber impellor of the
                                                                  the pump.
      freshwater pump.
                                                              Af ter an anti-freezesolution bas been used.the
         When draining the water circulating system it
                                                            cooling system should be thoroughly flushed in
      is not enough merely to open the radiator drain
                                                            accordance with the manufacturer's instructions
      tap; the ODeon the cylinder block must also be
                                                            before refilling with normal coolant.
      opened. This tap is located midway along the
      fuel pump side of the cylinder block.                   If the foregoing action is taken, no harmful
         Wnen the engine is drained the water pump is       effectsshould be experienced,but Perkins Engines
      also drained. but rotation of the pump may he         Ltd., cannot be held responsible for any Crost
      preventm by :-                                        damage or corrosion which may be incurred.



                                                                                                        Page G 1

         A prime consideration in the maintenance of        upon the surface of the oil carried in a reservoir
     Dieselenginesis that of cleanliness. The air and       in the lower part of the filter casing.
     fuel oil that enters the cylinders must be scrupu-        As aresuit, particles of foreign matter are
     lously clean and so also must the lubricating oil.     carried into the oil by their own momentum and
         In the Perkins L4 Diesel engine particular         are there trapped. The air then passes     through a
     attention bas beenpaid to the provision of means       steel wire element before Teachingthe indu~tion
     foT ensuringcleanliness  in respectof these.           manifold and in that element are deposited any
         Three filtration systems are provided: Air,        other particles of foreign matter which sti!l remain
     Fuel Oil and Lubrication, and all that the operator    in the air after its contact with the oil.
     needsto do is to take steps to ensure that the         Maintenance.
     filters are kept in such a state that they will most
                                                               Examine and replenish oil and clean in accor.
     effectively perform their functions.
                                                            dance with periodical attentions. Section F.
                                                               Removetop cover and lift out element. Wash
                                                            in paraffin or fuel oil and allow to drain.
                                                               Empty oil from outer cas~ and scrape out
                                                            accumulatedsludge. Wash outer casewith para-
                                                            ffin or fuel oil and refill with oil to the level indi-
                                                            cated (do not overfill).
                                                               Replaceelementand top cover, care to be taken
                                                            to seethat the joint ring is in good condition and
                                                            is sealingbefore tightening the top cover down.

                  Fig. G J. Gil BathAir Filter

                       AIR Fn. TERS
       Air is filtered as it enters the inlet manifold by
     use of ODeor the other of the followmg filters :
       1. Dil Bath type.
       2. Air Maze type (Tractor type).
       The systemof operation of the air filters afford
     a high measure of protection to the engine if
     properly maintained.
                                                                              Fig. G2.   Pre-filter
       The time for cleaningthe air cleanerdependson
     operating conditions, therefore under extreme
     dusty conditions, the time limit recommendedin         Air Maze type (Tractor type).
     the periodical attentions for cleaning should be         In the tractor oil bath filter the air is drawn in
     decreased.(SeeSectionF).                               through the intake pipe and down through the
       The correct maintenanceof the air cleaner will       centre of the filter to the oil bath. Here the air
     greatly assist in reducing bare wear, thereby          impinges upon the surface of the oil and particles
     extending the life of the en'gine.                     of foreign matter are carried into the oil by their
                                                            own momentum and trapped. Tbe air then
     Oil Bath Type Filter.                                  passesup the sides of the filter through the wire
       In this type of filter the incoming air impinges     male and out through the connection at the top.

Page G2                                               Fi!tels-conttnued

                         Examine, replenish oil and clean in accordance
                     with periodical attentions. SectionF.
                         Remove oil container and empty out the oil.
                         Scrapeout all accumulatedsludgeand thorough-
                     ly wash in paraffin or fuel oil
                         Inspect the wire gauzeand if necessaryremove
                     filter body from installation and wash in paraffin
                     or fuel oil. Allow to drain before re-assembly.
                         Refill oil container to the level indicated (do
                     not overfill) and re-assem  bIe to filter.

          Fig. GJ

                                          Fig. GS

                     IMPORTANT NOTE
                       Tbe efficiency of tbe cleaner is sucb tbat if tbe
                     cleaning of tbe filter is not carried out at appro-
                     priate intervals,engineperformancewill be serious-
                     ly atfected, becausetbe presenceof irnpurities in
                     tbe cleanerwill restrict tbe air passage.
                       In tbe event of engineperformancebeing below
                     par it is a good plan first to cbeckup on tbe cleaner
                     to ascertainif clogging of tbe filter is tbe cause.

                                   FUEL ou. Fll..TERS
                       Of all the factors on which satisfactoryoperation
                     of a Diesel engine depends,cleanlinessof fuel oil
                     is the most important. The efficient operation
                     and length of life of the fuel pump elementsand
                     of the atornisers,depends,fust, on the use of clean
                     fuel oil ; second,the provision of suitable filters;
                     third, attention to these filters.
                        Protection fot the Perkins L4 engineis provided
                     by the following filters, re-adingfrom the tank to
                     the pump.
                        (1) Water Trap.
          Fig. G4.      (2) Pre-filter.
     Filters-continued                                                                                    Pa1!eG3

                                                                   When re-assembling,   take care that a good joint
                                                                is made betweenthe top of the bowl and the filter
                                                                body, as any leakage of air here, that is, on the
                                                                suction side of the fuel pump, rnay causeair looks
                                                                in the fuel system.

                                                                Paper Element Filter.
                                                                   It is not possible to clean the paper element in
                                                                this filter.

1                                                                  It should be renewedevery 1,000hours. Every
                                                                250 hours unscrew the drain plug at the bottom
                                                                of the filter bowl and allow fuel to fiow through
                                                                until clean fuel oil appears. Replace drain plug.
                                                                   To remove the element, unscrewthe larger nut
                                                                in the rentTeof the cover and drop the filter bowl
                                                                clear (SeeFigs. G3 and G4).
                                                                   Remove the dirty element and throw away.
                                                                (Fig. G5).
                                                                   Before putting new element in position, clean
                                                                the filter bowl and inspect the relief valve.
                                                                   Ensure that the rubber joints are in good con.
                                                                dition, if not, replace by new.
    Fig. G6. Fuel Filter in section showing fuel fiow throUgh
                             element                                     LUBRICAnNG On.. FILTERS
                                                                  The importance of using clean lubricating oil
       Tbe arrangement of these two filters varies
                                                                in the fust place, and providing means to ensure
    'lccording to application. Cn some applications
    both filters are fitted, on others either one or the
    other is fitted.
       (3) Paper element type filter.

    Water Trap.
      This filter varies according to application.
      The gauze strainer is contained in an easily
    removablebowl and should be cleaned in accor-
    dance with periodical attentions. SectionF.

        This unit's main purpose is to protect the fuel
    lift pump. It bas a comparatively coarseelement.
    (See Fig. G .2).
        This elementis contained in an easily removable
    bowl and should be cleaned in accordancewith
    periodical attentions. SectionF.
       To remove element for cleaning, unscrew
    knurled nut at the bottom of the bowl. Swing
    the stirrup clear and remove filter bowl.
        Removeelement and wash in paraffin or clean
    fuel oil. Clean out and wash filter bowl in clean
    paraffin or fuel oil.                                                            Fig. G7
Page G4                                                                                    Fi/ters-continued

                                                          Wash strainer in clean paraffin or fuel oil and

                                                        Sump Strainer.                                           f
                                                           The sump strainer is a wire gauzestrainer which
                                                        fits over the suction pipe to the lubricating oil
                                                          It should be cleanedin accordance with periodi-
                                                        cal attentions (Section F).
                                                          For instructions regarding removal and cleaning        ,..
                                                        of sump strainer see Section P.

                                                        Maln (Full Flow) Filter.
                                                          The element of this filter should be removed
                                                        and thoroughly washed in paraffin. The time
                                                        period for cleaning and renewing the element is
                                                        given in "Periodical Attentions" Section F.
                                                          It is a good plan to have a spareelementand to
                                                        put this elementin the filter and the filter back into
                                                        service again whiJst the other element is being
                                                        cleaned. This procedure saves time.
                      Fig. G8.
that it is always clean in use, is hardly secondto
the importance of cleanliness  in respectof fuel oil.
   It is imperative, therefore, that lubricating oil
fi1tersare not negiected. Moreover, if the periodi-
cal attentions recommendedare carried out and
thc correct grade of clean oil used,a very long lire
can he obtained from the Perkins engine.
   To ensurcclcanliness,three filters are provided.                                                              r
  1. Oil Filler Strainer.
  2. Sump Strainer.
  3. Main (fuU flow) Filter.

Oil Filler Strainer.
    The purpose of this strainer is to prevent large
objectsentering the sump when the engineis bejag
filled with lubricating oU. It should be cleaned
in accordance with periodical attentions. (See
Section F).

To Removeand Clean Dil Filler Strainer.
  Tbe oi) filler strainer is situated at the bottom
of the Dil filler tube, betweenthe Dil fiJler and thc
cylinder block.
  To remove for cleaning, unscrew the bolt at                                                                        r
thc base of the Dil filler, remove oil filler and
                                                                                Fig. 09.
1    Filters-continued                                                                               rage G5

                                                             (5) Remove by-passvalve assembly. This is
                                                                 best etfected by means of a piece of wire
                                                                 bent to form a hook at one end.
                                                             (6) Removedrain plug at base of filter casing
                                                                 and clean filter casing with paraffin.
                                                             (7) Re-assemble  filter unit in reverse order to
                                                             lt should be noted that the by-pass valve
                                                           assemblyshould always be replaced in a position
                                                           adjacent to where the filter is mounted to the
                                                           cylinder block.

                                                               Ir tbe filter element is not cleaned as recom-
                                                           mended, tbe flow of oil tbrough the filter is re-
                                                           stricted. Tbis does not, however, prevent oil
                                                           passing to the engine, for when restriction takes
                                                           place, the by-pass valve opens and permits un-
                                                           filtered oil to continue to flow round the engine.
                                                           The consequence      of this need not be described.
                                                           Do not, tberefore, omit to clean tbe element as
                          Fig. GIO.

     To Removeand Clean Element.
       Unscrew nut on cover and remove cover.
       Remove by-passvalve assembly(See Fig. G7).
       Remove element (See Fig. G8).
       Cleanelementin paraffin and allow to dry before
     replacing (See Fig. G9).
       Removedrain plug at base of filter casing and
     clean filter casing witb paraffin.
       To re-assemble,reverse order of procedure.
     Ensure that tbe felt sealing ring around tbe by-
     pass valve piston and tbe rubber sealing wasber
     are in good condition.

     NOTE - On certain applications, the lubricating
     oil filter is fitted as shown in Figs. G.10 and 11.
       To removeand clean the elementof this filter:
       (1) Unscrewbolt and removetop cover.
       (2) Removespring and elementpress\treplate.
       (3) Removeelement.
       (4) Cleanelementin paraffin or fuel oil. Allow
           to dry before replacing.                                             Fig. GIl.

                                                                                                       Page Hl

                CYLINDER                  HEAO
        The Diesel engine rarely, if ever, needs the             Remove push rods.
      periodical decarbonising that is accepted as a             Remove leak off pipes to atomisers.
      matter of course with the petrol engine, insofar           Remove pressure pipes to atomisers.
      that in an engine operating on the diesel cycle,           Remove atomisers.
      carbon, beyond a superficial coating, does not
                                                                 Remove main leak off pipe.
      fonn and accumulatein the combustion chamber
      and on the pistons as in the case of the petrol            Uncouple union on pipe connecting the venturi
                                                               and the pneuma   tic governor (where fitted).
                                                                 Take off cylinder head Duts and removecylinder
         O~ing to its higher thermal efficiency,the valves     head completewith exhaustmanifold and venturi.
      of the Dieselengineare also much more free from
      trouble due to overheating; that is, of course,          To RemoveValves.
      providing the engine is reasonably maintained.             All valves are numbered consecutivelyfrom I
                                                               to 8, commencing from the front of the engine.
        Af ter aperiod, dependingupon the condition~           The cylinder head is marked with corresponding
      under which the engine is operated, the valves           numbers opposite the valve seats, see Fig. H.2.
      may need attention. This will become apparent
                                                                 Compress the spring cap and springs with a
      by loss of compression,in which casea top over-
                                                               valve spring compressorand remove the split-cone
      haul may be necessary.
                                                               collets. Remove the spring caps and springs,
                                                               thus liberating the valve which can be taken
      Preparation.                                             out when the cylinder head is turned upside
        Begin by assemblingall the joints and other            down.
      parts required, as called for in the Perkins parts
      List.                                                    Grinding Valves.
                                                                  The valves and valve seats should be recon-
        Drain all water from the radiator and cylinder         ditioned in the orthodox way, using grinding
      block. The drain cock for the cylinder block is
(J'   on the fuel pump side of the engine. Disconnec
      the exhaustpipe from the engineexhaustmanifoldt
                                                               compound or by means of specialised
                                                               The valve seat and face angle is 45,

      Uncoupleextemalconnectionsto the cylinder head.
                                                                                  EXA1\IUNA nON.
      Cylinder Head. To Remove.
        Remove the air cleaner.                                  Examine all parts for wear, having in mind tbe
        Take oir cylinder head cover.                         following points:-
        Uncoupleunion on oil pipe to rocker assembly.         Valve Springs.
        RemoveDuts holding rocker shaft assembly.               Valve springs deteriorate because of fatigue
        Remove retaining plates and lift oir rocker           resulting from the combined effect of heat and the
      assembly,bringing above named oil pipe with it.         normal working of the springs. .Af ter aperiod

                                        Fig. Hl   Showing Rocker Shaft Assembly

Page H2                                                            Cylinder Head Maintenance-contlnued

                                                        headbottom faceis not lessthan .057ins. (1.45mm)
                                                        inlet and .053 ins. (1.35 mm) exhaust. Maximum
                                                        clearanceshould not exceed.140 ins. (3.56 mm)
                                                        inlet and exhaust. Check this by putting a straight
                                                        edge across the bottom face of the cylinder head
                                                        and measuring the distance between the straight
                                                        edgeand the valve head as illustrated in Fig. H.2.

                                                          Tbe efficiencyof a diesel enginedependslargely
                                                        on the maintenance  of good compression therefore,
                                                        when grinding in valves, make certain thai no
                                                        signs of pitting are left on the seatings. Valves
                                                        should he ground in until a continuous ., high
                                                        mark" is present the full way round the seating,
                                                        both on the valve and on the valve seatingin tbc
 Fig. H2.   Checking Yalve Head Clearance and method    head. At the same time care should be taken to
                   of marking valves
                                                        avoid unnecessary grinding away of the seato.

lhe spnng becomesweak and is then prone to
                                                        Valve Guides.
failure. This, of course, applies to all types of
engines.                                                  Examinethe guidesfor wear, if necessary
  A ncw set of springs shouid be fitted whenever        with ncw guides.
tbe engine undergoesa major overhaul.
                                                          To remove oid guides : pressout, or uso a suit-
Rocker Levers and Bosbes.                               ablc drift.

  Washthe rocker assembly  thoroughly in paraffin.        To fit ncw guides : clean and remove any hum.
Examine the rocker lever bushesfor wear. The
                                                          Smear tbc outer surfacc with clean oil, and
rockers should be an easyfit on the shaft without
                                                        using a suitable press, drive home hard
excessiveside play.
                                                        up to the collar. Care should be exercised
  It: as a result of inadequate lubricatioD, aDY        as the collar approaches the cylinder head as
rocker busheshave seizedODthe rocker shaft, the         the guides arc made of cast iron and therefore
rockers will have worked loose OD the bushes.           comparatively brittIe.
Should this have occurred it will be advisableto fit
new rockers andjor bushes.
                                                        Cylinder Head.
  Should it be necessaryto dismantie the rocker
shaft assemblyre-assem
                     bie as shown in Fig. H.l.            Remove exhaust manifold and clean off any
                                                        carbon deposit formed in the cylinder head.
Valves and Valve Seats.
                                                           Wasb out and thoroughly clean tbe water
  There will be little wear of the valve sterns or      passages  in tbe bead, subsequentlydrying out and
their guides provided that the lubrication of these     finally cleaning with compressedair.
parts has always beenadequate.
                                                          If the water jacket of the cylinder head shows
  Examine the valves for cracks. Check wear             signs of excessivescale, a proprietary brand of
of valve sternsand their fit in guides. If the sterns   de-scaling solution should be used.
are wam fit ncw valves.
  Number aU new valves to correspond with the           CombustionChamberJoints.
numbering of the old valves.
                                                          It is not, as a rele, necessaryto remove the
  When fitting new valves take care that the            covers of the combustion chambersduring a top
clearancebetweenthe valve head and the cylinder         overhauI,ascarbon rarely fonns in thesechambers.
         Cylinder Head ..\-faintenance-eontinued                                                           Page H3

           Should it be necessary to remove these covers           To tighten thecylinder headDuts,a torque wrench
         ncw copperjoints should be fitted when they are         shouldbe used,setto the tensiongivenin SectionB,
         replaced.                                               and pulled down in the order marked in Fig. H.3.
           lf ncw copper joints are not available the old          With tb. push rods in position replacetbe rocker
         unes may be used provided they are softened             shaft assembly. Examine the oil pipe union and
         before being re-fitted.                                 ensure that it is in good condition. Connect
                                                                 union to cylinder head.
           To softenthe joints heat them to a dull red heat        Where necessary,   re-connect the pipe from the
         and quenchin cold water.
                                                                 pneumatic governor to the venturi.
            Special care is necessarywhen refitting these          Replace atomisers (See Section S).
         covers to ensure that there are no leaks at the
                                                                   Replaceleak off pipes and cold starting equip-
         joints otherwisethere will be a loss of compression
         and the efficiencyof the engine-:villbe impaired.
                                                                   For fitting of fuel pipes see Section S.

                   Cylinder Head.                                Valve Clearance.
                                                                    Valveclearances  shouldbesetto .010in. (.25mIn)
           Replacevalves,valve springs,collars and collet~.
                                                                    When adjusting valve clearances the engine
           Replacecombustion chamber caps and joints.            should he turned to bring the respective  pistons to
                                                                 T .D.C. on compression.
          Fit exhaust manifold gaskets and exhaust
         manifold.                                                  To adjust, slackenthe lock nut and with a .010in.
                                                                 (.25 mm) feeIergaugebetweenthe top of the valve
                                                                 stem and the rocker lever face, turn the adjusting
         ReplacingCylinder Head.                                 screw by meansof a screwdriveruntil the correct
                                                                 clearanceis obtained. Tighten the lock-nut.
           Before replacing cylinder head it is extremely
         important to ensure that the cylinder block and         STARTING THE ENGINE
         cylinder head racesare perfectly clean.                   Proceed as instructed in Section C.
           When replacing the cylinder head a new gasket           Af ter warming up, tbe engine should be sbut
         should be used. Cover both sides with a thin            down and the cylinder head Duts again tightened
         coating of good jointing compound and before            witb a torque wrench, set to the tension given in
         placing over the cylinder head studs ensure that        Section B. The nuts should be tightened in the
         the gasket is correctly positioned. The gasket is       order shown in Fig. H.3.
         marked to indicate hcw it should be replaced.             Re-set valve clearance to .010 in. (.25 mm).
           Having placedthe gas   ket in position ensurethat       Tbe cylinder head cover cao aow be replac~d.
         the cylinder bead face is perfectly clean and place     A ncw joint should be fitted and care should b~
         in position over the cylinder head studs.               taken to sec that it is correctly positioned


                                                               @~6 ."
                                    Fig. H3. Diagram showing order in which cylinder head
                                                    nut.! must bc tightened
                                                                                                                   Page 11

         The pistonsare of light alloy, with fully floating           Keep each piston and connecting rad assembly
       gudgeon  ping,which work in the bush fitted to the           separate.each to each as marked.
       connectingrod small end. The gudgeon ping are
       held in position by meansof circlips.                        To RemoveGudgeonPins.
          The pistons are fitted with three compression               Remove circlips trom the piston. using long
       rings, and two oil control or scraper rings. The             nosedpliers.
       top compression ring is a plain compressionring,
       the secondachrome plated compressionring and                   Ta remave the gudgeonpins. warm the pistons
       the third is composed of four laminated rings.               in liquid to a temperature of loooF.-120oF.
       (Seefig. J.2).                                               (38-49C.). The pins can then be pushedout.

         The tourth and fifth rings are slotted scrapers.           To Fit Small End Bushes.
         Pistonsare numberedfrom 1 to 4 commencing                    Removepiston and connectingrad from engine.
       with No. lat the front of the engine.
                                                                      Remove gudgeon ping (see above).
         Each connectingrad and cap are also numbered
                                                                      The small end bushes are a press fit into the
       I and I, 2 and 2, etc. (Seefig. J.1).
         The connecting rad and .cap mating faces are
                                                                      Pressout aId bush with suitable press
       serrated la ensurecorrect positioning and should
       on no accountbe filed.                                         Remove any sharp edges around smal! elld
                                                                    parent bare.
                               To RemovePistonsand Conn-
                               ecting Rod Assemblies.                 Pressin new bush. ensure that oiI hole Ul bu:ih
                                                                    coincides with hole in top of connecting rad.
                                 Remove cylinder head ass-          Ream out new bush to guit gudgeon pin (see
                               embly (seeSection H).                Section V) and check for parallelism.
                                 Removesump (seeSect.P).
                                                                    To Assembie Piston and Connecting Rod.
                                 RemoveIubricatingoiJpump              Insert gudgeon pin into position. to do this it
                               (seeSection P).                      may be necessary to heat piston in liquid to a
                                 Turn engine until two conn.        temperature of looo-120oF.     (38-49"C.).   The
                               ecting roos are at bottom            gudgeon pin can then be pushed easily into posi-
                               centre. then remove setscrews        tion,
                               and locking washers.                    Tf original pistons are bejag used they must be
                                                                    re-assembled to the same connecting rods. e.g.
                          l1     Remove caps and hearing
                                                                    piston stamped I must go with connecting rad
                                                                    stamped with the figure 1. For markings of
                           Push piston and connecting               connecting rad see fig. J .1.

                         rad out of the top of the
       Fig. J.1. Showing cylinders.                                    Fit circiips. check to ensure that they fit correctly
       markingof connec-                                            into the grooves in the piston. Tt is advisable to
           mg   ro
                                Turn   engine   until   remaining   fit new circiips even if the oid ODesdo not appear
                          connectingrods are at bottom              to be damaged or strained.
       centre. then repeat removal operations.
, .i
        Should there be carbon ridges in the cylinder
       aDres. remove them. using a scraper for the
                                                                    Fittings New Rings.
                                                                      Pistonsand rings must be thoroughly washedto
       purpose.                                                     remove any oil or greasewhich may be present.

Page 12                                                                           Pistonsand ConnectlngRods-conttnued

                                                                          Fit the secondsegmenton the top of the first,
                                                                      so that when held compressed    as describedabove,
                                                                      the ring ends point upwards. Position the gap
                                                                      at 1800to the first segmentgap.
                                                                         The third segmentshould be fitted on the top
                                                                      of the secondso that whencompressed     asdescrib:d,
                                                                      the ring ends point downwards. Position the gap
                                                                      immediately above that of the first segment.
                                                                          Fit the fourth segmenton top of the third so
                                                                      that when held and compressed,the ring ends
                                                                      point upwards. Position the gap above that of
                                                                      the secondsegment.
                                                                          When the four laminations are fitted to the        "'r
                                                                      piston check that they are fitted correctly. If
                                                                      fitted correctly there will appear a circumferential
                                                                      gap between the bottom two laminations and the
     Fig. 1.2. Showingarrangement
                                of piston rings.                      top two laminations as illustrated in fig. J.3.
I. Plain compression
                   ring. 3. Laminatedcompressionring.                     When fitting ncw rings to original pistons,
2. Chrome     plated   com-   4. and 5.   Slotted   scraper   ring.   clean out piston ring grooves using the old ring
  presaion   ring.

  NOTE. In the case of combine engines. the chrome
                                                                      from the appropriate groove for this.                  t
Dlated compression ring is omitted and replaced by a                     Examine the piston skirt and if there is any
plain compression ring of the same type as fitted in                  scoring the piston must not he usedagain.
No. 1 ring groove.
                                                                         The piston should be examined carefully for
                                                                      bruising of the ring groovesand to ensurethat the
  Check rings tor correct gap which must be                           rings move freely in their grooves.
within the limits given in SectionV.                                     NOTE. When fitting new rings to wom
   Fit the rings to the piston in the order shown in                  cylinder liners, the ring gaps should be checkedat
fig. J.2. The gaps of the two compression and                         a bore diameter of 4.250 in. (108 mm.).
scraper rings must be arranged so that they are
equally spacedaround the piston and not in line                       To Fit Piston and Connecting Rod to Cylinder
with one another.                                                     Block.
                                                                         AII connectingrods and capsare plainJymarked
  When fitting achrome plated compressionring.                        with a number correspondingto their position in
care should be taken to ensure that it is fitted                      the engine. For method of marking see Fig. J.J.
correctly. The ring is suitably marked to indicate                    '[hese numhers are stamped on that side of the
how it should be replaced.                                            connecting rods and caps which are machined to
   When fitting the third laminated compression                       take the locating lips of the hearings.
ring, care should be taken that the tour lamin-
ations are correctly assem
                         bied to the piston.
   To assembieto piston, proceed as follows:-
   Examine the laminations and it will be observed
that the tree endsof the ring are not cut squareto
the circumference but slope away either to the
right or lelt, dependingon which war up the ring                                C::::::::::--- I

is tumed.                                                                      I~////~/-

  Fit the first segmentto the piston 50 that when
held horizontally in the palm of the hand and
radially compressed,the ring ends point down-
wards. Position this ring at the bottom of the                           Fig. J.3. Showing how the laminated compression
groove with the gap over the gudgeon pin bare.                                  ring should be fitted into its groove.
      Pistons and Connecting Rods-continued                                                               Page J3

        When fitting pistons and connecting rods to           Fitting New Pistons.
      cylinder block and crankshaft, ensure that the side        It is important, when fitting ncw pistons, to
 l    of the connecting rod which is stamped with the
      number goes to the camshaft side of the engine'
                                                              checkthe distancefrom the crown of the piston to
                                                              the face of the cylinder block.
        Insert the pistons and connecting rods into the
      cylinder bores from the top, ensuring that piston          When the crank is at top dead centre the crown
      and Tod stamped No. I are fitted into No. I             of the piston must be .007 to .012 in. (.178 to .305
      cylinder bore and No. 2 into No. 2 cylinder bore        mm.) above the face of the cylinder block. If the
      and so on counting from the front of the engine.        piston standshigher than this then the crown must
      When fitting assem  blies, deal with them in the        be reducedby taking the necessary     amount otT in
      order land 4 then 2 and 3. Turn the crankshaft          a lathe. If the piston height is below the minimum
      until the appropriate crankpins are at B.D.C.           figure quoted above, that piston must be rejected
                                                              if a first class performance is required.
(J~      To minimise the possibility of breaking piston
      rings, it is advisable to use a piston ring guide.
      Take care not to damage the rings. Should
                                                                To take this measurement  the piston assembly
                                                              and connecting rad must be fitted to tbe cylinder
      the piston accidentally drop partly into the            block and crankshaft as previously described.
      bore and is held suspended by a piston ring, it
      must be taken out again and the ring examined to          When assem  bied turn crankshaft to bring piston
      sec if it is cracked or broken.                         to T .D.C. and place a straight edgeacrossthe top
         Pull the connecting Tod to the crankpin and          of the piston and with a set of feeier gauges,
      insert the half bearing.                                measuretbe distance between the straight edge
                                                              and tbe top face of the cylinder block. (SeC'
        Fit cap and cap half hearing.
                                                              Fig. J.4).
        NOTE. When replacing connecting Tod set-
      screws, new locking washers must always be
      used.                                                   ConnectingRod Weigbts.
         The top and bottom half-shelis are not inter-          The finishedweight of connectingrods in engine
      changeable with each other, due to the locating         sets should balance within two ounces.
      lips of the two half-bearings being offset in
                                                                In order to effect this, rods are batched as
      relation to one another.
                                                              follow~ :
        Tlghten connecting Tod setscrews, using a torque
      wrench set to the tension given in Section B.           Code         Minimum                 Maximum
                                                               No.          I~'eight                Il'eight
                                                               12 4 Ib. 10oz.(2.10kg.) 4 Ib. 12oz.(2.15kg.)
                                                               13    4 Ib. ]2 oz. (2.15kg.)   4 Ib. 14oz. (2.21kg.)
                                                               14    4 lb. ]4 oz. (2.21kg.)   5 lb.       (2.27kg.)

                                                                It is necessary, therefore, when ordering spare~
                                                              for an individual enginethat the appropriate code
                                                              nurnber of the connecting rod set be quoted.

                                                                This code number can be found etchedeither on
                                                              Nos. I or 4 connecting rod on the machined
                                                              shoulder which is adjacent to the fuel pump side
                                                              of the engine.
                                                                 Cn spare rods, however, tbe code nurnber is
      Fig. 14. Checking di stance between straight edge and   present on each rod.
                        cylinder block facc.

 ~                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                          Page KI


          Tbe liners fitted to Perkins L4 engines are            In order to facilitate the fitting of the liners

  ,     centrifugal cast iron wet liners. Tbey are fianged
        at tbe top and rubber type sealing rings are fitted
        at the bottom. sec Fig. K.l.
                                                               when the two rings have been placed in position
                                                               on the liner, smear them with soft soap or soapy
          Under normal circumstancestbe liner would              Place liner in position and presshome by hand
  -,.   only needto be renewedduring a major overbaul,         ensuring that the rubber sealing rings remain in
        but shl)uld it be necessary
                                  to remove tbe liner for      their respectivegrooves.
        any other reason this caD be carried out with-
 ""1.   out removal of the crankshaft.
          If at any time the cylinder liners are removed.
        and th~ sameliners are to be refitted. then before
        removing the liners from the cylinder block.
        ensurethey are suitably marked so that they may
        be refitted to their original parent bare and in tbc
        same position in that bare. that is. thrust side of
        the liner to the thrust side of the cylinder block.

        To RemoveLiners.
          Remove cylinder head (See Section H).
          Remove Sump (See Section P).

          Remove oil pump (See Section P).
          Disconnectconnectingrods and removepistons

          Remove liner using a suitab!e liner removing

          When the rubber sealing rings have cleared the
        bottom landing, the liner can be removedby hand.

        To Fit New Liners.
            When fitting ncw liners, it is essentialthat ncw
        pistons and rings are also fitted. On no account
        should old pistons he fitted to new Iiners. For
        fitting of new pistons see Section J
          Over a period of service, corrosion may have           The liners are a push fit and no force is required
        taken place at the inner ends of the Iandings.         but should a liner require more pressurethan caD
        This corrosionand any burrs which may he present       be applied by the fingers, place a suitable piece
 ,..~                                                          of wood across the top Bange and press home.
        should be removedwith a scraperor emery cloth.
          Fit the rubber sealing rings in the grooves            Af ter fitting the liners the cylinder block should
                                                               be water tested to a pressureof 20 - 25 Ibs. per
 1;     provided in tbe Iower diameter of the liner. (See
                                                               sq. in. (1.4 - 1.76
        Fig. K.I). Care should be taken not to stretch
        theserillgS as they are not elastic and if stretched      Re-assemble engine as required and to instruc.
        lViII not return to their farmer size.                 tions given for the various components.

    ,                                                                                                      Page L

             CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS                           Af ter regrinding, the sharp corners on the Dil
    1       Tbe crankshaft runs in threepre-finishedreplace-      waysshould be removedand the Crankshaftcrack-
          able shell hearings, which are lead bronze lined        detectedagain and demagnetised.
          and indium flashed.                                     NOTE ;-It is important that the RADII on the
    -..                                                           main journals and Crankpins are maintained. If
          To RemoveCrankshaft.
             Remove cylinder head (See Section H)."               theseare neglected,a fatigue fracture is liable to
             Remove sump (See Section P).                         occur.
             Remove lubricating oir pump (See Section P.)                     CRANKSHAFr DATA
             Remove pistons and connecting rods (Sec              Description Dimensions            Remarks
          Section J).                                             Main Joumal Diameter
            Take off timing case front cover and remove             STD.      2.99825/2..999
                                                                                           ins.  Surfacefinish
          idler gear.                                                                            not to exceed
             Remove timing case bottom cover.                     -.010 in.    2.98825/2.989ins. 16 micro ins.
             Remove starter motor.                                                                (.4 microns).
                                                                  (-.25 mm)   (75.90/75.92mm)
             Remove flywheel and assembly.                        -.020 in.    2.97825/2.979
             Remove the cranks  haft Teat end seal.               (-.51 mm)    75.65/75.67
             Remove main hearing caps and half hearings.          -.030 in.   2.96825/2.969ins.
             Lift out crankshaft.
    .,                                                            (-.76 mm)      75.39/75.41
          Crankshaft Regrinding.                                  Mam Joumal Rad
          E~aminationror Wear.
             Beforeproceedingto regrind the Crankshaft,the                      kin.                  Must be
          following points should be checkedto ensureit is                             t +.015 in.    maintained.
          suitable fot further grinding.                                      (3.18/3.56mIn)
             Tbe Crankshaft should be crack-detected and          Rear Main Joumal Width
                                                                   STD.       2.0625/2.0635ins.       Not to exceed
          then demagnetised   in order to remove any polar-
          isation which may be present.                                         (52.39/52.41mm)       2.0785" (52.79
             Tbe main joumal and crankpin diametersshould                                             mm) after re-
          be checkedfot ovality and measuredto ascertain                                              grind.
                                                                  Crankpio Diameter
          the next appropriate size to which the Crankshaft
          caD be reground, i.e. -.010" (-.25 mm), -.020"           STD.        2.74825/2.749 iBs.     Surfacefinish
          (-.51 mm), -.030" (-.76 mm) from Standard. If                         (69.81/69.82 mm)      not to exceed
                                                                  -.010 in.   2.73825/2.739 ins.      16 micro ins.
          the crankshaft requires regrinding below -.030"
          (-.76 mm), it is recommended     that ncw crankshaft    (-.25 mIn)    (69.55/69.57 mm)      (.4 microns)
                                                                  -.020 in.   2.72825/2.729 ins.
          he fitted.
             It should be noted, however, that in the home        (-.51 mIn)    (69.30/69.32 mm)
                                                                  -.030 in.   2.71825/2.719 ins.)
          market, an exchange   scheme   is in operation where-
          by reconditioned Crankshafts are available at a         (-.76 mm)     (69.04/69.06 mm)
                                                                  Crankpin Rad
          certain cast, providing the Crankshaft being
-,.       exchanged   is not damagedand is suitable for re-                                -0
                                                                               0Jt in.,               This must be
          grinding to a limit of -.030" (-.76 mm).
                                                                                       l +.015 in.    maintained.
          Regrinding.                                                         (4.76/5.13mm)
-,          All the necessaryinformation required for re-         Crankpin Width
          grinding the Crankshaftis givenunder ' Crankshaft        STD.       1.780/1.785ins.         Not to exceed
          Data '. All limits listed thereunder must he                           (45.21/45.34
                                                                                            mm)       1.80' (45.72
...,      adhered to and the main joumals and Crankpin                                                mm) after re-
          must be free from grinding marks.                                                           grind.
 Page L2                                                          Crankshaftand Main Bearings-continued

  Should the Crankshaft rear flange need re-              The thrust washers fit in the recesses provided
grinding, the rear i in. (9.52 mm) of the flanse        on either side of the rear main bearing housing and
width must not be ground. The remainingportion          should be assembied with the flat steel side to the
of the flange width may be ground to a minimum          hearing housing. The end float of the crankshaft is
diameter of 5.238 in. (133.05mm). Surfacefinish         measured between the crank cheek and the thrust
not to exceed 16 micro ins. (.4 microns).               washers. This measurement should be between
                                                        .0085 and .0155 in. (.22 and .39 mm). If greater
 To Fit Ne" Main Bearings and Thrust Washers.           or smaller than this amount fit new thrust washers
    The main bearings being of the pre-finished         or oversize thrust washers if necessary.
 strip type, the fitting of these should present nu
 difficulty.                                            Crankshaft Rear End Seal.
    To prevent errors occurring in fitting top and         On early engines,this sealconsistedof a housing
 bottom half bearings, the locating lips, and the       and rubber seal.
 recesses  in the caps and bearing housings, are           When removedit should be inspectedfor cracks
 offset in relation to one another.                     or scratches on the bearingsurface. If this surface
    The bearing caps and crankcaseare numbered          is damagedin any way a new sealshould be fitted.
 1-3. No. I being at the front of the engine.              To fit a new seal proceed as follows :-
    To avoid the caps being inadvertently assem  bied      Removeold sealby pressingit out of the housing.
 to the crankcasethe wrong war round the locating
                                                           Lightly smear the outer edge of the new seal
 dowels and dowel holes are also offset.
                                                        with soft soap.
    Under normat circumstancesby the time the
 main hearingsrequire to be renewed,  the crankshaft      Place seal in position and press in by hand as
 will Deed to be removed for regrinding. How-           far as it will go, this should be approximately half-
ever, if for any reasonone or more of the bearing~      way in. Pressing in halfway by hand ensures
 should have to be renewed or removed for in-           that the seal is centralised.
spection,this caD be carried out on Nos. land 2           Pressin with a pressuntil the bevelled edge or
 bearings without the necessity of removing the         the seal is level with the outer face of thc:housing.
crankshaft from the engine.
   Proceedas follows :-
    Remove sump (See Section P).                        MODIFIED CRANKSHAFf AND REAR ou..
   Take olf tbe cap of the hearing in question.                       SEAL
   Slacken remaining bearing cap setscrewsone              Later L4 enginesincorporate a crankshaft and
 or two turns.                                          rear oil seal of modified design. Neither of these
   Remove the lower half of the bearing from the        componentsare individually interchangeable       with
 bearingcap.                                            their earlier counterparts so that if the latest type
   With a suitable piece of wood push out the top       crankshaft is [0 be fitted to an engine previously
half of the hearingby rotating it on the crankshaft,    utilising an unmodified crankshaft,a modified rear
applying the tooi to the side opposite the locating     oil seal must also be fitted.
lip. The locating lips are on the camshaft side            The modification to the crankshaft affects that
of the engine.                                          part of the shaft around which the rear oil sea!
   Inspect the bearing shells and if thor require       is fitted. Whereas,previously, this portion of the
renewing insert.a new half hearing in the top,          shaft had a nomina! diameterof 5* in. (133.4mm).
insertiIg plain end first. Fit new half hearing to     the equivalent nominaI dimension in the case of
cap. Do not remove more than one bearing at             the modified shaft is 3i in. (79.38 mm). Further.
a time.                                                 more the modified crankshaft has a shallow spiral
   Replacecap and tighten setscrews    Ijghtly b~fore   oil groove machined to a depth of .004(.008 in.
proceedingto next bearing.                              (.10 to .20 mm) in that section upon which the
   Having replaced the bearings and caps pull           rear scat bears.
down the setscrews     with a torque wrench set to         With the advent of this latest type crankshaft,
the tension given in S~ction B.                         the bore of the modified rear Dil seal is machined


~                                                                     .
      Crankshaftand Ma;n Bear;ngs-Cont;nued                                                           Page L3

      to accommodatea rubber cored asbestosstrip.              9. Swivel the completesealhousing on the shaft
      This strip consists of two sections, one for each           to bed in the strips and to establjsh that the
      of the two half-housingswhich now composethe                assemblyturns easily on the shaft.
      seal cover. The strip itself farms a positive seal
                                                              10. Bolt the seal housingin positjon on the block
      with the rear end of the crankshaft.                        and rcoar main hearingcap and finally tighten
        When fitting the seal with the crankshaft in              with setscrews.
      position, the following procedure should be
      adopted :                                               Replacing Crankshaft.
       I.  Set up a half housing in a vice with the seal        Ensurethat all oilways are clear (SeeLubricating
           recessuppermost.                                   Diagram Fig. P.2).
      2. SettIe approximately I in. (25.4 mm) of the            Check main bearing setscrewsfor stretch or
-,.      strip at each end into the ends of the groove,       damage to threads. Affected setscrewsmust be
         ensuring that each end of the strip projects
         .010/.020 in. (.25/.51 mIn) beyond the half
         housing joint face. Allow the middle of the            In no case should setscrews.other than those
         seal to bulge out of the groove during this          supplied by the engine manufacturer be used, as
                                                              they are of special heat treated high-grade steel.
                                                                Clean bearing housmgs and place top half
"      3. With the finger or thumb, pressthe remainder
           of the strip into the groove working from the
           centle. Then use any convenientround bar
                                                              hearings in position.
                                                                Place crankshaft in position.
           to further bed the strip by rolling and pressing     Fit lower halvesof hearingsto hearing caps and
           its inner diameter. This procedure takes           place in position. Ensure that the thrust washers
,.,        advantageof the friction between tne strip         on No. 3 hearing are fitted correctly.
           and the groove at the ends to compact the
                                                                Place tab washers in position and tighten set-
           rope, whilst ensuring that the projections of
         the end racesof the rope remain as set. Fit
          sameto other half housing in similar manner           For final tightening of the setscrewsa torque
                                                              wrench should he used, set to the tension given
       5. Remove all traces of the old joint from the         in Section B.
          cylinder block rear face and fit new joint
          treatedwith a suitablejointing compound.              Lock setscrews  in position by meansof the tab
       6. Lightly paint the faces of the two housings           Fit crankshaft rear end oil seal as previously
          with a suitable jointing compound.                  described.
       7. Spread a film of graphited greaseover the             Re-assembleengine as required :lnd to tbe
          exposedinner diameter surface of the strip          instructions given fot the various operations.
       8. Assemblethe half housingsaround the rear              It is important that new locking washers of
          of the crankshaft and fasten together by the        the correct type are fitted when setscrewshave
          two setscrews.                                      been removed.


J                                                                -


                                                                                                                        Page M]
                                                                                    DRIVE (M)
                    To RemoveCamshaft.                                        Replacesetscrews and plaiD washers,finally lock
             .,                                                             setscrews
                                                                                    with locking wire.
                      Removecylinder head (SeeSection H).
                      Remove timing case front cover.                       To Replace Camshaft.
                      Remove sump (See Section P).                            See tbat tappets are in position.
                                                                               Replace camsbaft.
                      Remove lubricating oil pump (See Section P\
                                                                               Replace idler gear but do not lock idler gear
                      Remove timing case' Power Take Olf' facing            retaining setscrew.
                    cover.                                                     Reset timing (SeeSection N).
                      Note timing marks (See Section N.l.)                     Re-assembleengine as required and to tbe
         1            Removeidler gear.                                     instructions given for tbc various operations.

                     Ir engineis in a swivel stand, turn enginecom-        To RemoveFoei Pump.
                   pletely over. Ir not, lar engine over at an angle.         Removefuel injection pipe lines from atomisers
                   This wilt prevent the tappets dropping out when         and fuel pump.
                   the camshart is removed.
                                                                              Disconnect fuel supply lines.
                      Removecamshaft.                                         Remove tbe setscrewsholding tbe fuel pump
                                                                           to tbe timing caseand removefuel pump.
                   To RemoveCamshaft Gear.                                   To remove tbe fuel pump gear remove tbe three
                     To removecamshaftgear from camshaftremove             setscrewssecuring tbe gear to tbe fuel pump
                   the three setscrews in the centre of the gear.          adaptor.
                   The gear can now be removedfrom the camshaft.
                                                                            To Replace Foei Pump.
                                                                              Ir the gearbas beenremovedfrom tbe fuel pump
                   To ReplaceCamsbaft Gear.
                                                                            re-fit gear or, if necessary,
                                                                                                        fit replacementgear.
                     Tbe three clearanceholes drilled at equaI angies         The three slotted holes in tbe gear are for fitting
                   are the holesfor attachingthe gearto the camshaft.       the gear to the fuel pump adaptor.
                   Tbc three slotted holes are for use with the fuel
                                                                              Fit fueI pump to timing case.
                                                                              Time fueI pump in conjunction witb the engine
         ,           When fitting areplacementgear to the camshaft,        as given in Section N.
                   turn the camshaft untiI No. I cam is upright. It           Replace atomisers.
                   will be observedthat a tapped hole on the cam-
                                                                              Connect-up fueI supply lines.
                   shaft hub is also at the top, in line with No. I cam.
                   Look at the gear and it will be noticed that one of        Replace fueI injection pipes.
                   the holes in the gear has the letter .. D " adjacent       When fitting a new or replacementfuel pump,
                   to it.                                                  remove the pump inspectioncover and pour suffi-
      ..,                                                                  cient engine oil into the spring chamber untiI oil
                     Placc the gear on the hub with thesetwo holes         comes out of the overflow. Refit the inspection
                   in line                                                 cover.



                                                                                                         Page N 1

                                          TIMING                      (N
                         NOTE.- When checking and adjusting valve clearances the engineshould
                         be turned to bring the respective pistons to T.D.C. on compression.

        The timing or resettl1gof the timing on the         the fuel pump adaptor in line with the scribed line
      Perkins L4 engine can be simply and expediently        on the pointer of the fuel pump.
      carried out if the following instructions are fol.
                                                               Rotate camshaft to bring inlet and exhaust
                                                             valvesof No. 4 cylinder to rocking position.
        It is well to rememb:r ..hat if tbc cylinder hcad
                                                                With the crankshaft set as describedaboveplacc
      has been removed it does not, in any way, affect
                                                             idler gear in position, ensuring that the timing
..,   the timing of the engine.
                                                             marks line up correctly. Replace idlcr gear s"et-
                                                             screw,tightcn and lock with tab washer.
        The timing gears are marked as shown in Fig. N.1     VALVE n~G
      so that, if for any reason the timing has to be
                                                                 If for any reason a new camshaft gear bas been
      broken, the engine can easily be re-set to its
                                                             fitted it may be necessaryto re-time the engine.
      original timing.
                                                             Fit replacement gear as instructed in Section L
        Tbere are two different markings on the Cuet         and proceed as follows :-
      pump adaptor. One is a scribed line marked
      with tbe letter .. S" whicb should coincide witb          Bring Nos. I and 4 pistons to T .D.C. That
                                                             T .D.C. bas been obtained on Nos. I and 4 pistons
      tbe scribed line on the pointer of the Cuet pump,
                                                             can be checked by examining the flywheel, or the
      wben the engine is set at T .D.C. firing on No. r
                                                             crankshaft at the front end where the key for the
      cylinder (Sec Fig. N .2).
                                                             fan belt pulley should be at the top of its periphery.
        Tbe altemative scribed line on tbe fuel pump
                                                               Remove idler gear.
      adaptor denotes spill timing, 21 B.T.C. In the
      caseof L4 enginesfitted to the Marshall Crawler
      Tractor, the spill timing is 24 B.T.D.C.

         To obtain access to the fuel pump markings it
      is necessary to remove the inspection plate situated
      on the left hand side of the timing case.

      To Re-set Engine to its Original Timing.
        Remove atomisers.

        Brlng Nos. I and 4 pistons to the top. That
      T..D.C. bas been obtained can he checked by
      examining tbe flywheel or tbc front end of the
      crankshaft, where the key of the fan belt pulley
      should he at tbc top of its periphcry.
        Set fucl pump gear with scribed linc ., S" on
Page N2                                                                                 Timing-conlinued

  Turn camshaft until equal lift is obtainecl on        Turn thc enginc through two revoluons of thc
tbc tappcts of No. 4 cylinder.                        crankshaft and checkthe fuel pump timing accord-
                                                      ing to instructions for checking injection timing.
  Turn fuel pump gear until scribed line marked
with the letter ,. S" on thc fuel pump adaptor is
in linc with the scribed linc on the pointer on the   TO CHECK TIl\InNG.
fue) pump.
                                                        To check timing proceed as follows
  Placetbc idler gear in position.                    (a) Valve Timing.

                                                        Remove valve cover.
  Replace push rods and rocker sb;.ft assembly.
Check valve and injection timing. If found to be        Remove atomisers.                                      .,.-
correct, tighten idler gear retaining jetscrew and
lock witb tab washer. For settingvalveclearance1        Turn engine until equal lift is obtained on the
                                                      tappets of No. 4 cylinder. In this position, set
and cbeckingvalve timing secmethod "To ChecJ:
                                                      the clearance on No. I inlet valve to .025 in. (.64mm)   r
                                                         Turn enginein the normal direction of rotation
                                                      until the inlet push rad of No. 1 cylinder just
                                                      beginsto tighten. This is the point at which the
                                                      inlet valve begins10 open.
INJECTION TIMING.                                       Checkthrougb the inspectionhole in tbe flywbeel        T"
                                                      bousing that tbe flywbeel T .D.C. mark is centra!
   If thc fucl pump bas beenremoved,or a replace-
                                                      witbin tbe inspection hole. Ifthe T.D.C. mark on
ment pump is to bc fitted it will be necessary to     the flywhee! is witbin plus or minus 3 of T.D.C.
time thc fucl pump in conjunction with thc engine.                                                             r
                                                      position, then the valve timing is correct.
  Proceed as follows :-                                  Having checked the valve timing, thc valve

  Remove atomisers.
                                                      clearancesshould be re-set to .010 in. (.25 mm)
                                                      with engine warm. When checking and adjusting
                                                      valve clearancesthe engine should be tumed to
  Remove valve cover.                                 bring the respectivepistons to T.D.C. on com-
  Turn enginc to bring Nos. 1 and 1 pistons to
tbc top, No. 1 piston being on thc compression        (b) Injection Timing.
stroke, thc rockers of No. 4 cylinder being just
rocking.                                                To check the fuel pump timing proceed as
                                                      follows ;-
  Check that Nos. 1 and 4 pistons ace at T .D.C.
by cxamining thc flywhccl.                              R.emoveatomisers.

 Turn the fuel pump gear until the scribed lino         Remove valve cover.
marked .. S .. on the fuel pump adaptor is in lino                                                             r
                                                         Remove tbe inspection plate 011the side of the
with the scribed lino on the pointer of the fuel
                                                      timing case.
                                                        Turn the engine in the normal direction of             r
  Providing tbe engine is still set as mentioned      rotation and bring Nos. 1 and 4 pistons to the top,
above, the fuel pump maf then be placed in            No. 1 pistcn being on the compression strok~.
position and tbe securing setscrewstightened.         the rockers of No. 4 cylinder being just rocking.        T

             Timing -conllnued                                                                                   Page N3

               Check that Nos. 1 and 4 pistons are at T .O.C.               Sbould tbc scribed lines mentioned above not
         ~   by examining the flywheel.                                  coincide, adjustment CaDbe made by slackcning
                                                                         tbe three setscrews in tbe ccntre of tbe fuel pump
               Check through tbe inspection hole that the                gear, tben turning thc fuel pump adaptor in thc
             scribedline marked .. S " on the fuel pump adaptor          direction required.
             is in line with the scribedline on the pointer of the         To obtam accessto tbe setscrewsremovc tbe
             fuel pump (See Fig. N.2).                                   plate on thc front uf tbe timing casecover.


                                         Fig. N2. Diagram showing fuel pump gear and scribed lines'





-    I

1       .
..,                                                                                                         Page PI


~                                                                 SYSTEM               CP)
      Note :-Lubricating Gil SpeciJications
                                          in Appendix            are in line with the feed from the centre main
                                                                 be.\ring, oil flows to the top face of the cylinder
         Tbe importance of correct and clean lubrication         block. Since thesedrillings coincide but momen-
      cannot be stressed toa highly and all referencesto         tarily for every revolution of the camshaft,only a

,     engineoil should be taken to mean lubricating oil
      which raIls within the specificationsgiven in the
      Appendix. Care should be taken that the oil
                                                                 reducedquantity of oil is deliveredto the drilling
                                                                 leading to the top t:'lce of the cylinder block.
                                                                    This drilling matchesup with a vertical passage
      chosenis that specifiedfor the climatic conditions         machinedthrough to the top face of the cylinder
      undcr which the engine is operated.                        head from whencethe oil is taken by an external
         Tbe sump should be filled with suitable lubri-          pipe to the hollow rocker shaft. Drillings in this
      I."antto the correct level, but do not attempt to          shaft allow the oil to passto the rockers,the over-
      overfill above the ruIl mark. Before filling, or           flow being returned to the sump by way of the
      checking the dipstick. ensure that the engine is           push rod chamber.
      level.                                                        Gil also flows from the front main hearing
                                                                 bracketvia a hole drilled in the front of the cylinder
      Gil Circulation.                                           block to the idler gear spigot from which it escapes
         Tbe system of lubrit:ation is pressure reed to          through a drilling in the boss of the idler gear
      main and big end beanngs,to camstlaft bearings             to lubricate the timing gears.
      and to vaJverocker assembly.                                  A further drilling from No. I Main Bearing
         The pump draws oil through the strainer from            Housing conveysoil to the front camshafthearing,
      the sump and delivers it by an extern          al pipe     surplus oil returning to the sump.
      inside tbe crankcasethrougb a drilling in tbe side
      of tbe cylinder block ; thence through the lubri-          Oil Pressure.
      cating oil filter bracket to the lubricating oil filter.     Sec tbat oil pressureis registeredon the gauge.
         From the tilter it is delivered througb a second        The actual pressure may vary with individua!
      drilling in the lubricating oil filter bracket and         engines and under different operating conditions
      cylinder block to the pressure rail wbich is an            but shou!d he 25/50 Ibs. per (1.76/3.52kg/
      internal passagewitbin the crankcase; holes are   at working temperature and maximum
      drilled which lead from the pressure rail to tbe           engine speed.
      crankshaft main hearingsand holes dril led in tbe             Ir the oil pressure,as registeredon the gauge, is
      cranksbaft carry oil to the big end bearings.              below normal check the following in tbe order
      Surplus oil returns to the sump.                           gJvenbelow.
         A seal prevents oil leaking from the rear end             (I) Dipstick. Ensure that there is sufficient oi!
       of the crankshaft.                                        in the sump.
         The smalt end bushesare lubricated by splash              (2) Oil pressure gauge. Check for accuracy
      and lubricating oil mist.                                  with master gauge.
                                                                   (3) Lubricating oil filter. May be choked. clean
          A passage   from tbe centremain bearing conveys        or re-ncw element(seeperiodical attentionsSection
       oil to tbe centre camshaft hearing which is also
       in open communication with the top face of the            F).
                                                                   (4) Sumpstrainer. This may bechoked,remove,
       cylinder block by means of a vertical drilling.           clean and replace (for removal instructions sec
          In conjunction with tbe centrecamshaftjournal,         Page P.2).
       this Jatterdrilling servesto provide oil at a teduced        (5) Lubricating oil pump. Ensure that suction
       pressureto tbe top face of tbe cylinder block and         and delivery pipe unions are tight.
       thenceto the rocker assembly.                                (6) Oil pressure relief valve. Foreign matter
          The camshaft journal contains two drilled              may be preventing the valve from closing. For
       passages  and when, as in Fig. P.2, these drillings       cleaning ifistructions Page P.3.
Page P2                                      .                              Lubrication System-continued

                                                        the climate in which the engine is operated (See

                                                            Particular care must be taken to wipe oir any
                                                        water which may have splashedonto the enginear
                                                        any time, sincewater, which may find its war into
                                                        the sumpfrom the exterior, will tend to form sludge.
                                                            Failure to change the oil at the recommended
                                                        intervals is falseeconomyevenif the oil seems    good
                                                        at the time of recommended        change.
                                                            Dirty lubricating oil filters aggravatethe forma-
                                                        tion of sludge,which in turn will further choke the
                                                        filters. Regular filter inspection and cleaning at
                                                        the specified periods is essential,see Section F.

                                                        To Remove,Clean and ReplaceSump Strainer.
                                                           Drain oil into a suitablereceptacle
                                                                                             after removing
                                                        the drain plug. Remove setscrews      holding sump
                                                        strainer cover. This cover is situated near the
                                                        drain plug.
                                                           Drop cover and strainer will come away witb
                                                           Wash and clean strainer in clean fuel oil or
The OU PressureRelief Valve.                            paraffin.
                                                           To re-assemble,   reversetbe order of operations.    r-
   1he oil pressure reliefvalve which is incorporated
                                                        Ensure that the oil pump suction pipe enters thc
in the pump prevents the pressurebecoming ex-
                                                        hole provided in the strainer.
cessive  as might otherwisehappenwhen the engine
is cold.                                                   If reasonablecare is taken when removing and
                                                        replacing sump strainer cover, tbc joint wiIl not
   When the predetermined pressure is exceeded
                                                        require renewingevcry time the strainer is removed.
the valve opensagainstthe spring and sameof the
oil is by-passedback into the sump. Tbat continues
until the oil warms up and fiows at the desired
                                                        To RemoveSnmp.                                          r
oressure. Tbe valve then closes.                          Removedrain plug and drain ofT.   oil.
   Cn early engines the oil pressurerelief valve           Remove dipstick.
housingwas integral with the bottom cover of the           Remove sump strainer (as above).
lubricating oil pump and to obtain accessto the            Removeall setscrews securingsump to crankcase
valve for cleaning, seePageP.3.                         and lower sump.
   As from Engine No. 6032453,however, lubri-              Removeall traces of old joints and sump cork
cating oil pumps ipcorporate a detachable    pressure   strip from timing casebottom cover and rear main
 relief valve which is screwedinto the outlet side      bearing cap.
of the pump body, (SeeFig. P.l). The action of
this valve is identical to that described above,        To Replace Sump.
and cleaning instructions are given on page P.3.
                                                          Assembiencw joints and cork strips.
Men to Renewthe Oil.                                      Lightly smear crankcase races with a thin
  Thc oil in tbc sump must be drained in accor-         coating of jointing compound and place joints
dance witb periodical attentions Section F and          in position ensuring all holes line up.
replacedby new oil of a specificationsuitable for       When placing joints in position it is important
u      Lubricalion Sysiem-continued

       that the mitred ends go right up into the recesses         Re-assemble
                                                                                                          Page P3

                                                                               bottom cover to pump using a ncw

u      of the timing case bottom cover and rear main
       hearing cap.
          Cut cork joints to required length and lightly
       coat one face and the two sideswith jointing com-
                                                               bottom coverjoint.
                                                                 When re-assembling bottom cover to pump,
                                                               note the waming gjven on page P.4.
                                                                 On engines subsequent to No. 6032453, the
  .,   pound and place in position.                            lubricating oil pump relief valve may be rmloved
          To facilitate assemblyof the sump, screw two         and cleaned without dismantling the pump from

       guide studs into the crankcase,one on each side.        the engine.
          The studs will position the sump accuratelyand         Af ter the sump bas beenremoved,break locking
       prevent displacementof the joints.                      wire, and unscrew the relief valve assemblyfrom
          Placethe sump in position and insert the screws      the sideof the oil pump body. Thereaftercleaning
                                                               of the valve assembly should be in accordancewith
          Remove guide studs.
                                                               instructions detailed below.
          When all the setscrews have been inserted

       tighten evenly all round. Do not overtighten            To DismantIe the Oil Pump.
       setscrews.                                                Removepump from engine(Seeabove).
          Replace sump strainer and cover plate as               Removelocking wire from suction and delivery
       previously described.                                   pipe banjo balts and remove pipes. In the case
1      To Removeand Refit OU Pump.
                                                               of enginessubsequentto No. 6032453,it will be
                                                               necessary   to remove the relief valve assemblyin
         Remove sump and sump strainer (see previous
                                                               order to releasethe delivery or outlet pipe.
                                                                 Removethe setscrews      securingthe bottom cover
         Disconnect Dil pump delivery pipe from the
                                                               and gear housing.
                                                                 Tbe idler gear can now be removed.
         Removesetscrewfrom centre main hearing cap
       thus releasingthe Dil suction pipe.                       Pressoff spiral driving gear.
         Unscrew the lubricating oil pump locating set-          Tbe drive shaft and gear can now be removed.
       screw. This screwis situated outside the cylinder       To remove gear from shaft use suitable press.
       block (See Fig. Pol).                                     To remove the idler gear shaft, withdraw the
         The oil pump may ncw be removed(SeeFig. Pol).         split pin fust ; the shaft caD then be pressedout.
                                                               Unless areplacement shaft is to be fitted it is not
         To refit, reversethe above order of operations.
                                                               necessaryto remove this shaft and pin.
       To Removeand Clean OU PressureRelief Valve.               Tbe cleaning of the pressure relief valve bas
         With engines prior to No. 6032453. the oil            been dealt with under a previous heading.
       pressurerelief valve forms part of the oil pump
       bottom cover. The breaking pressureis set and           Inspection.
1      adjusted at the factory and unless special test           All the parts of the pump should be cleaned
       equipmentis available no attempt should be made         and inspected for wear. The fit of the shaft in
       to dismantie the oil pressurerelief valve.              the pump body should be carefully checked. The
         To obtain access  to the relief valve foT cleanin.R   shaft should work easily without lateral movement
       proceedas follows :-                                    in the bushesfitted in the body. If the bushesare
                                                               wom they should be replaced.
..,      Removesump and sump strainer.
                                                                 If tbc oil pump gears show signs of wear they
         Removelubricating oil pump from engine.
                                                               shouid be renewed.
         Removethe setscrews    securingthe bottom cover
       and removebottom cover.                                 To Re-assemble   the Dil Pump.
          Wash the valve in clean fuel oil and blow the          Pressdrive shaft gear on to shaft The end of
       valve dry with compressed   air.                        the shaft should be flush with the bottom faceof the
         Secthat the balI and bali seatare perfectly clean     gear.
       and bedding correctly.                                    Assembiegear and shaft to pump body.
    Page P4                                                                                      -
                                                                             Lubrication System continued
      Assembie idler gear, pump housing and joint            Using a suitable press, press the spiral driving
    to body; secureby using setscrewswith suitable         gear on to tbe shaft. Tbe shaft end should be
    distancepieces.                                       just level with the top face of the spiral gear.          .,..

      Check that there is clearancebetweenhousing           Assembiebousing,joints, idler gear and bottom
    and gears.                                            coverto pump body, usingnew Sbakeproofwasbers
       Place bottom cover joint on bottom face of
                                                          for tbc secunng setscrews.                             ..
    housing and with a straight edgeand feeier gauge,     WARNlJ."lG:-WHERE APPLICABLE, WHEN
    check tbe clearancebetweenthe straight edgeand        RE-ASSEMBLING BOTrOM COVER CARE
    face of gears. This clearanceshould be .002in.        MUST BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT
    to .006 in. (.051 to . 152mm). ft is important that
                                                          THE COVER IS ASSEMBLED WITH THE
    this clearancedoes not exceed.006 in. (.152 mm)
    otherwisethe pump output will be insufficient and     OIL RELlEF VALVE ON THE DELlVERY
                                                          SIDE OF THE PUMP.                                      .,..
    the lubricating system adversely affected.
      New joints should be used when carrying Qut           Replace suction and delivery pipes and lock
    the above test.                                       banjo balts with locking wire.
                     pump housingand idlef gear.            Re-assemblc
                                                                      pump to enginc.

                                                                                                                 r   ~






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                                                                                                                                                  (           0'\\0               CX)oc..n

                                                                                                                             Paee Q\

                                                 W A TER                 PUMP(Q)
              The cooling water is circulated by a centrifugal                   When re-assemblingto cylinder block a new
           type pump mounted on the front end of the                          joint should be used to cnsure that a watertight
           cylinder block and driven by a Vee belt from                       joint is made.
           the engine crankshaft. Provision is made for
                                                                              To Dismande Water Pump.
           fitting a fan on the front of the water pump pulley.
                                                                                Remove split pin from slotted nut securing
                                                                              water pump pulley, and removenut and washer.
              Tbe pump does not require greasing as the
           I,earingsare treated with a special greasebefore                         Removewater pump pulley.
           assembly.                                         .                      Removeimpeller from shaft.
                                                                                                            Remove front bearing re-
                                                                                                          taining circlip using long
                                                                                                          nosepliers for the purpose.
                                                                                                            Removerear seal.

]                                                                                         ~G)
                                                                                                             Using a suitable press,
                                                                                                          press the shaft out of the

                                                                 /                                   ~
                                                                                                          body from the impeller end
                                                                                                          leaving tbe thrower loose

]                                                                            ""'"                         in the body. Thesecan now
                                                                                                          be removedfrom the body.
                   ..:::...,/                                                ..                              Removethe front sealand
                                                                                          -:---(~)        tlanges. The two bearings
]                   ,.                                                                                    and distance piece will still
                                                                                                          be on the water pump shaft.
                                      .==+-                                                               These can be removed by

J                                                            @               ~~:

                                                                                     -J    ~
                                                                                                          means of a suitable press.

                                          Fil. Q.l. WaterPumpin Section
                                                                                                            Ir the water pump drive
                                                                                                          shaft shows signs of wear
                                                                                                          in the region of the bear-
                                I. Body          6. Hearings     12. DistantePiece
                                2. Impellcr      7. Plain Washer 13. Front Scal                           ings, the shaft must be
                                3. Sbaft        8. Split Pin              Retaining Plate                 renewed,as a wam shaft in
                                4. RcarScal     9. Slotted Nut       14. Front Scal
                                S.Throwcr      10. Pulley            IS. Front Seal                       this region wilt allow the
                                               11. Circlip                Housing                         inner race of the bearingto
                                                                                                          rotate on the shaft.
           To Remoyeand Refit Water Pump.                                       Clean impeller and check for cracks and broken
             Slacken dynamo securing screws and remove                        blades.
           fan belt.                                                                Examine casing for cracks.
             Removefan.                                                         Washhearingsin thin lubricating oil and examine
                                                                              for pitting, corrosion or wear. Ir necessaryrenew
             Unscrew nuts securingwater pump to cylinder
           block and removewater pump.                                        hearings.
             To refit pump to cylinder block is a reversalof                  To Re-Assemble Water Pump.
           the above procedure.                                                1. Press rear hearing on to shaft, fit hearing

    Page Q2

        distancepieceand then presson front bearing.            hand to ensure that ther\: is no undue re.
        Ensure that each hearing end cover faces                .istance to rotation.
        outwards towards the ends of the shaft.
                                                             8. Presson the pulley making certain that no
    2. The front seal retaining plate should then he            rearward axial movemem of the shaft is               r
       placed in position against the back face of              incurred.
       the rear hearing. This retaining plate is
       . dished' and when positioned, the centre             9. The impelle( should now be pressed on to the
        of the plate must not be in contact with the            shaft. With the impeller fitted. care should
        rear bearing.                                            be taken to ensurethat a clearanceof .015-
                                                               .025 in. (.38 to .64 mm) is maimainedbetween
    3. Fit the feit sealand sealhousing,so that these          the inner edge of the impeller vanes and the
       bear on the retaining plate.                            water pump body. As a guide to obtaining a
    4. Prcssthe water pump thrower on to the shaft
       so that the thrower Rangefaces towards the
       rear bearing.
                                                               correct clearancein this respect,the impeller
                                                               should be so positioned as to allow a straight
                                                               edgeto simultaneouslytouch the back face of
    S. The whole of the foregoing assemblyshould                the pump body and the two raised extractor
       then be pressedinto the water pump body                  hole racesin the teat of the impeller.
       from the front end, and the circlip securely     10. Refit plain washerand slotted nut and secure
       positioned in the recessforward of the front         with a new split pin.
       bearing. Before pressing the assemblyinto                                                                     r
       the pump body, however, the bearings and         Modified Water Pump
       the spacebetweenthe two bearingsshould be
       half filled with a high melting point grease.      L4 enginessubsequent  to No. 6036233,
                                                                                              arc fittcd
    6. Fit the rear sealinto the pump body ensuring
                                                        with a modificd water pump.
       that the carbon face is positioned towardsthe       This latcst assembly (Fig. Q.2) incorporates
       rear ofthe pump body. When fitted, the seal      largcr impcller shaft bcaringsthan thoseprcviously
       must rest squarelyon its scat and not be         utiliscd, and, accordingJy,thc interior dimensions
       canted in any way.                               of tbc body have beenamcnded.                                r
    7. At this stage the shaft should be turned by           In addition the dimensioningof the latcst water

                0        ~                                                Cl)
                                    ~        @

                                                                                  1. Body
                                                                                  2. Impe11cr
                             I                                                    3. Shaft
                                                                                  4. RcarScal
                                                                                  5. Bcarings
                                                                                ;. 7.
                                                                                        Sclf Locking Nut
                                                                                   8:   Circlip
                                                                                k 9.    Distancc Piccc

    0                                                                           '10.
                                                                                        Front ScaI Rctaining Platc
                                                                                        Fro t cal Housing
                                                                                        Front Scal

                                               0~.                  Q.l. Modified


u   pump body and pulley result in a very limited
    clearancebetween these components so that the
                                                                                                   Page Q3

                                                           A modification to the impeller shaft dispenses
                                                         with the thrower flange previously fitted at the rear

u   labyrinth sealing effect obtained offers increased
    restriction to the passage
    front bearing.
                             of dust to the water pump
                                                         of the front seal and self-locking nut replacesthe
                                                         retaining slotted nut and split pin previously fitted
                                                         to retain the water pump pulley.

      Sincethe width of the pump bearingshave been         The processof dismantling and reassemblyuf
    increased,a shorter distance piece is now fttted     the water pump asdetailedpreviouslyis applicable
    between the bearings, and the increasedbearing       to the latest type pump with the exceptionof those
    diameter necessitatesthe use of a larger front       remarks in respect of the thrower flange and

    bearingretaining circlip.                            slotted pulley retaining nut and split pin.



u                                                                                                      Page Rl

      FAN          AND DYNAMOBELT
..,      Incorrect adjustment of the fan and dynamo          the radiator. The output of the dynamo would
      belt can result in the fraying of the belt and even-   also he reduccd.
      tual failure. To ensure the belt is correctly
      adjusted it should be checked every 50 hours.
                                                             Method of CheckingCorrect AdjustmeDL
      Tight adjustmentwill tend to overloadthe bearings
      in the dynamoand water pump which consequently           Pressthe fan belt with the thumb at the centre
      may result in damage to these components. If           poiDt betwecnthe water pump and the cranksbaft
      the adjustment is too slack belt slip wi./l occur.     pulley in a sideways direction (Sec Fig. R.l).
                                                             Check the amount of movement of tbe fan belt
                                                             which should he tin. (19.05 mm) if correctly

                                                             Metbod of Adjustment.
                                                                Unscrew the dynamo adjusting lever setscrew,
                                                             the setscrew securing adjusting lever to timing
                                                             case and dynamo support bracket bolts. Th~
                                                             dynamo caD then be moved inwards towards the
                                                             engine to slacken the belt and in an outwards

,                                                            direction to ghten it. When the belt is tensioned
                                                             correctly, tighten dynamo adjusting lever setscrew,
                                                             the setscrew  securingadjustingleverto timing case,
                                                             and support bracket balts.
                                                               In the event of a new belt being fitted it is ad-
1                                                            visabie to check the adjustment again after a few
                                                             hours running to ensure no initial stretching has
                                                             occurred. Should this have developed re-:\    dj ust
                                                             a~ already described.

                                                             DynamoBracket LO(.ating    Screw.
                                                                This locatingscrewis adjustablewhen in position
                           Fig. Rl                           in the rear arm of the dynamo support bracket,
      This couJdresuJtin overheatingof the enginedue         and should alwaysbe tight againsttbe rear dynamo
      to the reduced efficiency of the water pump and        lug before tbe support bracket nuts and bolts are
      the inability of the fan to draw cool air through      tightened.




u                       FUEL
                                                                                                          Page SI

u                                                                   SY STENl (S)
      This sectionis included mainly for the benefit of overseasusers,and for those in out-of-the way places.

u     As dcscribed, the maintenance and repair operations are made to appear quite simple: in
    reality. the risk of amistake occurring which would causedamageto costly parts, is such as to make it
    inadvisable for any but experts to undertake the work.

i       The principal componentsof tbe equipmentfor
    delivering the fuel oil to tbe enginecylinders are:
    filters, fuel lift pump, fuel pump and atomisers.
                                                              the lift pump is removed and a blanking plate
                                                              fitted in its place.
                                                                 The lift pump is of the simple spring-returned
        Tbe fuel lift pump ., lifts" tbe fuel from tbe        plunger type. It is driven by one of the cams on

~   tank to tbe fuel pump which conveysit in measured
    quantities, and at appropriate intervals, to the
        Tbe normal course of tbe fuel from the tank
                                                              the camshaft of the fuel pump. on the side of
                                                              which it is fitted. It is shown in Fig. 5.1.
                                                                  A hand primer is fitted, Fig. 5.1, for use if tlle
                                                              supply of fuel from the tank has at any time failed,
                                                              To use this primer unscrew me handle, which
    to the engineis by way of : first, the fuellift pump,
    tben tbe paper element type fi1ter. tbe fuel pump         is free to lift, and then pump by hand until the
    and the atomisers.                                        pipes, lift pump and fuel pump are ruIl of fuel oiJ.
                                                              To ensure that this is so, proceed as instructed
        On certain installations the fuel system is
                                                              on page 5.6.
    gravity red, and therefore no fuel lift pump is
    fitted. Tbe fi1ter system in these applications
    ~onsists   of a water trap and a paper elementtype        Fuel Pump.
    filter.                                                      The fuel pump is an instrument of precision.
        Two conditions are essentialfor efficient opera-      lts working parts are made to extremelyfine limits
    tion.                                                     and mishandling in any shape or form, or the
        First, that the fuel oil should he clean,free from    entry of the smallest particle of dirt into its
    water,suspended      dirt, sand,or other foreign matter   working parts, may damage it and diminish its
    and shouldconform to the following specification:         accuracyof operation. Hence the importance of
                                                              ensuring that the fuel is thoroughly fi1leredbefore

    Britisb Standard2869 (1957) Class A.                      the pump is reached.
       Second, that tbe fuel reaches the fuel pump               When fitting a new or replacementfuel pump,
    in a perfectlyclean state.                                removethe pump inspectioncover and pour suffi.
       Fuelshould he filtered beforeenteringthe tank.         cient engine oil into the spring chamber until oil
       Given theseconditions, ninety per cent at least        comesout of the oil over.low. Refit the inspection
    of potential engiDetroubles would be eliminated.          cover.
    The attention of tbc operator is, on that account,           Thereafter,check the oil level and top up with
    eamestly directed towards those paragraphs of             fresh oil when necessaryevery 100 hours or as
    this Manual which refer to the care and upkeep            often as is necessary to maintain the correct leve!.
    of tbe filtering apparatus.                               The outside of the pump should be cleanedbefore
                                                              removing the inspectioncover to ensuredirt does
    The FueJLift Pump.                                        not enter thc pump.
      The Cue!lift pump is fitted in pressure red                Refer now to Fig. S.ll, the sectional Jrawing
    systemsoniy. In the caseof gravity red systems,           of the fuel pump.
Page 52                                                                                 Fue/ fn;ection System-conttnued

   Oil is supplied from the lift pump through the      the port. When that happens communication is
fuel inlet connection, 25, and entirely fills the      established  betweenthe oil above the plunger and
fuel pump gallery, 23. That is a tubular passage       that in the gallery via la) lhe vertIcal Sroove.
running the fuillength of the Cue! pump and closed     (b) the annular groove. (c) the port in the pump
at lhe end opposite to the inlet by the vent           barrel. (See Fig. S.2).
plug. This fuel pump gallery is connectedthrough          11lat is the position shown in the secondsketch
small ports with all the pump barrels, 19.             of Fig. S.2.
   In the baseof the body of the pump is a cam-           Tbe Dil then ceases  to flow to the atomisersand
shaft. In contact with each cam is a cam roller,       is merely by-passedthrough thesepassages      to tbe
14.                                                    fuel pump gallery.
   The roller is held in close contact with the
cam by the spring, 15. The top of this tappet
is in closecontact with the lower end of the pump                ~                                            .y
plunger, 20, contact being maintained between                                                                    L
plunger and tappet by the pressureof the oU above
the plunger.
   As the pump plunger falls, oil fiows into the
barrel through the port. As the plunger rises it
closesthe port and propels the oil past the delivery
valve, 21, into the pipe leading to the atomiser.
   Fig. S.2 showshow the upper part of the pump
plunger is formed. Observe that an annular
                                                                                    v                    G            .AC            r
groove is cut in the plunger. The lower edge of                                              ~~p
this groove is level, or horizontal, the upper edge
B, is helical. In addition there is avertical groove
cut right to the top of the plunger and running
into the annular groove.
   This groove is the meansof varying the quantity                                                                                   ,.
of Cueldelivered per stroke. (See below).
   The first sketch in Fig. S.3, shows the working
end of the plunger and barrel with the fuel port                                                                               -!
in the latter, which, it should be remembered,is                                                                                     ~
in communication with the fuel gallery, 23, of
                                                            ~                                                                    S

the pump (Fig. S.lI). The plunger is shown at
 the bottom of its stroke with the cam at its bottom
dead centre.
                                                            ~                  .'              p-
    As the camshaft turns the plunger rises, but                                               ~.
nothing happensuntil the top end of the plunger                                                Q
bas reached the upper edge of the port in the
 barrel and closes it. Then the oU is propelled
                                                                                               I             .:::~,   IJ   ,         ,.
 past the delivery valve and injection commences.                                            ~~~'
                                                                                FIG. SI       FuEL LIFT PUMP.
   The camshaft of the fuel pump is direct driven
 from the engine timing gear at half engine speed.              (Tbe preliminary fiJler is not always
                                                                                                    supplied).                       ~
 It is .. timed" like the magneto or distributor       B        TappetRoller.              S. PackingWasher.
of a petrol engine,so that the closing of the port     E.       FuelOutlet.                T. Valve Plugs.
                                                       F.       Outlet Valve.              U. Copper-Asbestos
and commencing of fuel delivery to the engine,         G.       Plunger Spring                                Sealing Washen
                                                       H.       Inlet Valve.                        V.   Spring Chamber Caps
that is, injection, comesat a predeterminedpoint       J.       Inlet.                              W.   Lift Pump Body.
in the compression   stroke. The timing, of course,    L.       Plunger.                            X.   PreliminaryFilter
                                                       N.       Guide SpindIe.                               Gauze Container.
is preciselythe sameCoreach cylinder.                  P.       Preliminary Filter                  Y.   SpindIe Guide.
   Oil continues to fiow until the helical upper                            Gauze.                  Z. Primer.
edgeB of the groovein the pump plunger uncovers
                                                       Q.       ClampingNut.                        AC. Inlet Plug Filter
                                                       R        Fir;na S'm"                                          G"117~
        ~                               .

              Fue/ lnjection System-continued                                                                                                                              Page S3


                 The upper, and helical edge of the annular                                                                     position : the vertical groove is now in line with
              groovethus servesas a valve. The higher that                                                                      the delivery port to the fuel pump gallery, whicb

u             edge is in relation to the top of the plunger the
              sooner the cut-oir and the less quantity of oil
              supplied to the atomiser per stroke.

                By varying the level of that edge the quantity
                                                                                                                                is thus put into communication with the top of
                                                                                                                                the plunger, and oil therefore,merely passes

                                                                                                                                It is not deliveredto the atomisers.
                                                                                                                                this vertical groove as the pump plunger rises.

                                                                                                                                   Rotation of the. plunger into these different
              of oil supplied is controlled.
        1                                                                                                                        positions is brought about in this war. Near the
~                                                                                                                                lower end of each plunger are two lugs (see Fig.
                To alter that level, so that it uncoversthe port
              in the pump barrel to vary the quantity of fuel                                                                    5.3). The lugs are held in a slot on the actuating
              delivered, the plunger is turned in its barre! by a                                                                sleeve which is mounted on the outside of the
              simple means to he describedshortly.                                                                               pump barrel and can be rotated. Clampedto the
                                                                                                                                 upper end of each sleeveis a toothed quadrant.
                 In      the    first    and        second       sketches              of     Fig.           S.2,     the       The teeth of the quadrant are engagedby a rack
              plunger          is tumed          to one         extreme           position               with         the       on the control rad (Fig. 5.11). To and fro move-
              vertical         groove        just     clear        of      anc     of        the        two         port        ment of the rack turns the quadrants, the sleeves
              holes       in    the      pump         barrel.              In     that        position                the       and the plungers.
              helical      edge         of the       circular           groove          is at its              lowest              Between the fuel pump and the atomisers are
              point       and,          so   far      as     the        port       in        tbc        barrel             is   delivery valves, 21, one to each pump plunger,
                                                                concemed                    the     maximum                     these serve the important purpose of preventing
                                                                quantity          of oil is delivered.                          dribble at the atomisers. They do that by causing
                                                                That        is the           setting           of the           a sharp cut off in the oil supply at the end of
                                                                plunger            for        starting                tbc       each injection.
                                                                engine.                                                            Fig. 5.4 showsa delivery valve. It is at one and
                                                                      In    the    third           and        fourth            the sametime a poppet valve and a piston valve.
                                                                sketches               the        plunger               is      The head is poppet valve shapedand below that
                                                                shown             set         fot            normal             is a cylindrical portion which servesas a piston
                                                                running.                     The              precise           valve. In the left-hand sketch of Fig. 5.4, the
                                                                position                is        varied               by       valve is shown closed.
                                                                tuming             the            plunger              so          This valve bas a high lift, so that, as shown in
                                                                that        a     greater               or         lesser       Fig. 5.4 the cylindrical part of the valve risesclear
                                                                quantity               of         oil         is      de-       of the valve scat when the valve is fully open.
                                                                livered           to        conform                 with           The war in which this valve operatesto prevent
                                                                the        demand             for       power.                  dribble at the atomiser is as follows :-
                                                                      The          otber                 extreme                   50 long as the fuel pump is delivering fuel oil
                                                                position               of     the            plunger            the pressureof that oil on the underside of the
              FIG. SJ. Pump element                             is   shown                   in    the    fifth                 valve keeps it wide open as in the third sketch
                shown in section.                               sketch. This                 is the"   stop .,
                                                                                                                                of Fig. 5.4.


Page S4                                                                 Fue/ Injection System-cont/nll~d

                                                       against the resistanceof the light spring shown
  As soon as the helicat edge of the annular
groovc on the pump plunger uncovcrs the port           disposed within the right-hand chamber.
in the pump barrel the pressurcof the oil below
the dclivery valve falls and that valvc is promptly
                                                          It will be appreciatedthat as the butterfly valve
                                                       is closed the vacuum increases  and the diaphragm      r
closedby its spring. As it falls the effectsof the     moves to the light.
withdrawal of the piston part of the valvc within         The centte of the diaphragm is coupled to the
tbc seat causesa drop in pressurcin the pipe to
tbc atomiser, causing the nozzle valve to snap
                                                       control rod of the fuel pump. Movement of this
                                                       rod towards the governor tends to reduce the
on to its seat sharply, cutting off tbe fuel supply,
                                                       supply of fuel to the atomisers, as explained on
so tbat there is na dribble.
                                                       page S.3.
  A steelpeg is used to centralise the upper end          Thus, closing the butterfly valve increasesthe
or the valve spring and also to reducethe capacity     vacuum in the chamber, moves the diaphragm
of the holder, thereby improving injection control.    to the light, and reducesthe supp!y of Cue!   to the
                                                          The butterfly valve is operated by the ordinary
                                                       throttle valve levers and in that way the speed
   Thc position of tbc control rack, by mcans of       of the engineis controlled.
\'thich the quantity of fucl delivered to tbc engine
is rcgulated as describedabove, is determined by          Now here is a point of the very greatestim
a pneumatic governor. This govemor, part of            portance.
\'thich is in tbe farm of a venturi in the enginc         Any leaks in the joints of the pipe, 29, in the
induction system, operates the control rack            pipe itself, or in the diaphragm, will diminish
according to tbc degrecof vacuum in tbc vcnturi        the degree of vacuum and cause the engine to
passagc.                                               run raster than it should and id!e erratically.
                                                          Hence the instructions, given later, urging cara
  Tberc is a buttertly valve in the venturi. When
that valve is closed, or nearly closed, tbe suction
                                                       in ensuring that there are no air leaks in the
on tbc engine side of it is considerabie,lessening
as tbc valvc is opened.                                   If the pipe, 29, were to become detached, or
                                                       be !eft uncoupled, and the engine run, it wou!d
  A pipe, 29, connects this venturi passagcwitb        race and very smous damage be caused.
a governor casing which is mounted on tbc fucl
                                                          Hence the warning, repeated later, that the
pump. See Fig. S.ll.
                                                       engine must never be run unless the venturi
  Reference to the drawing of tbc pneumatic            control unit, pipe and induction manifold are il1
govemor, Fig. S.ll, will enable its operation to       position and all joints are tight.
be understood.
  Tbc important elcmcnt is tbe tlexible leather
diaphragm, 28, which divides the space inside
tbc govcrnor casing into two compartments,one
of which, that on tbe right, is airtight.
  This airtight compartment is in communication
with tbc venturi by means of a pipe, 29. The
vacuum in tbc vcnturi is thus cmmunicated to
tbe airtight compartmcnt and tbc right-hand side
of tbc diaphragrn.                                                                                            r
   Tbc chambcr, to the left of the diaphragrn,
is not subject to vacuum.
                                                             closed                               open
  Tbc diaphragrn, thereforc, is constantly subject
to a pressurc tending to move it to the right,                         FIG. 54. Delivery Valve.


u     Fuel lniection System-continued

      Contro1lingthe Idllng Speed.
                                                                                                           Page S5.

                                                              in the fifth sketch of Fig. S.2, the "no Cue!" position

        An important function of this pneumatic
      govemor is that of controlling the idling speed         Atomisers.
      of the engine.
                                                                Af ter leaving the fuel pump the fuel passes
        Tbat is the speedat which it rotates when the         through short steel pipcs, 35, to the atomisers.
      butterfly is in its nearly closed position. That        Atomisers perform the function of injecting the
      position is detennined and limited by an adjust-        fue!, in the form of fine sprays,into the cylinders,
      able stop mounted on the body of the venturi.           at the moment when the air in the cylinder has
         With the butterfly valve control lever in this       been comprcssedand, as the result of the com-
      limiting position the vacuum in the airtight            prcssion, is at a temperature sufficient to ignite
      chamber is at a maximum and the diaphragm               the incoming fuel.
      together with the fuel pump control rad, is as            An atomiser compriscs two principal parts:
      far to the right as the damping spring, des~ribed       the nozzle,45, with its valve,44, and the atomiser
      below, will allow it to go. Tbe minimum quantity        body, 41.
      of fuel, just sufficient to .. idle" the engine, is
      then being delivered.                                     The atomiser nozzle and nozzle valves are the
                                                              important parts. They are shown in Fig. S.8.

J       Vader these conditions there is a tendencyfor
      the engine to .. hunt," that is, for its speed to
                                                                 Fuel is fed to tbc upper channel in the nozzle
                                                              from the atomiser body and travels thencealong a
                                                              number of drilled.holcs to the lower circumfer-
         It is to eliminate .. hunting" and to ensure a       ential channel. The outlet from the Iatter is
      oteadyidling speed,that the .. damping" mechan-         normally closed by the valve as shown.
      ism shown on the extremeright of the pneumatic            The atorniser body, complete with nozzle and
      govemor is provided. Refer agam to FIg. S.ll.           nozzle valve lis shown in Fig. S.ll. The nozzle is

J       Tbe idling control spindle, 33, which is under
      the control of a small strong spring, 32, contacts
      the centre of the diaphragm when the latter is in
                                                              held in place by the nozzle holder cap nut, 43.
                                                              This holds the upper face of the nozzle in close
                                                              contact with the corrcsponding lower face of the
      the extremeright or .. idling " position and steadies   atomiser body. A metal to metal joint is made

]     it.
        Adjustment is provided for the positioo of this
                                                                Fuel is supplied thrOUgh the fue! inlet con-
      spindie.                                                nection, 36, and passesthrOUghthe drilled holes
                                                              down to the channel in the face of the nozzle.
        Screwing the adjustment in drives the spindie
      further io and increasesthe idling speed.                 In the centreof the atomiser body is the spindle,
                                                              42, surmounted by the valve spring, 40, and
        Adjustmeot of the idliog speed is etfectcd by         washer,on the top of which bearsthe compIession
      altemate manipulation of the screw 00 the end           screw,38. There is a lock nut on this screw. A
      of the poeumatic governor and the stop foT the          coveringnut protectsthe upper part of the :Itomiser
      venturi lever.                                          body and the comprcssionscrew.
        This is a very delicate operation, ooly to be           The small quantity of fuel wbich by-passes
      attempted by experts. Tt is complcted at the            the nozzle valve and accumulatcs within thc
      works for every cngine.                                 atomiser body, lubricatcs the mcchanism and is
                                                              led away by a pipe, 37, connectedto the teak-alT
        There is another adjustable stop 00 the venturi
                                                              nipp!e stud. At the start of injection the fue!
      to limit the maximum speedof the engine,which
                                                              pump delivels fue! at a bigh prcssure into th~
      is sealed. Disturbance of this seal may iovolve
                                                              channe! round the lower end of the nozzle. Tbe
      forfeiture of the manufacturer's guarantee.
                                                              prcssureof this fue! on the end surfaceof the cone
        Tostop the cngine the stop lever, 34, is moved        of the valve lifts it against the tension of the
      clockwisc, carrying the control rack with it and        spring and fuel passes through two small bo!cs in
      tuming the pump plungcr into the position shown         the end of tbc nozzle as two fine sprays.


Page S6                                                                                   Fue/ Injection System-continued

                                        CAREOF THE INJEcnON EQUIPMENT.
THE FILTERS- SeeSection G.                                                                              Condition or suggcsted
                                                                      Possible Cause     Location.      rcmcdy for correct           ...
                 LIFTPUMP.                                                                                     working.
  Tbe inlet valve of the lift pump is accessible                      (f) Main pipe      Main filter.   Llean and vent air as
after removal of the hand primer. Tbe outlet                              line filter                   i nstrUcted (In this page.
valve is under the plug T, Fig. S.I. The$evalves                      (a) Air locked     Main filter.   Vent air by opening
and their seatsmust he perfectly clean.                                   system.                       vent screw on main
                                                                                                        filter and allowing fue!
  Tbe following are possibletroubles with the lift                                                      (0 flow until perfectly
                                                                                                        free from bubblcs. See
pump and the way in which they can he remedied.                                                         below.
1. Lift Pump does not dever FueL                                     Air Venting the Foei System.
                                         Condition    or suggestcd       If tbe fuel systembas been openedat any time,
Possiblc Causc         location          rcmedy      for    correct
                                                  working             sar for au overhaul, it is necessary
                                                                                                         to ensurethat               ...
(a) Fuel tank          Fuel tank.        Must contain      an ade-
                                                                      all air bas been removed before attempting to
    empty.                               quate supply.                start the engine. This should he done as follows :
(b) Fuel cock      Fuel cock.          Must be open to iu
    closed.                           ruIl extent.
(c) Preliminary    Preliminary filter Remove by loosening             PressureFed Systems.
    filter choked. gauze P.           round nut Q and lift-
                                      ing fixing strap R.               Slacken small plug on the top of final filter
                                      Wash in clean fuel
                                      ,lil or paraffin.     Ir        and operate the hand primer on the fuel lift
                                      damaged. replace.               pump until Cue!free from air bubb!esissuesfrom                 ,...
                                       fake care to repJace
                                      washer S.                       the plug hole. Tighten the plug.
(d) Inlet or       Valves F. & H.     Remove by unscrewing
    outlet valve!                     hexagon plug T, and               Slackentbe bleed cock on the top of the fuel
    fouJed or                         primer Z. Clean in
    damaged.                          fuel oil or paraffin.           pump.
                                      Take care to screw
                                      plug Tand primer. Z,              Again operate the hand primer on the fuel lift
                                      in to the full e~tent           pump unti! fuel issuesfrom the bleed cock and all
                                      when replacing.
(e) Plunger or     Plunger L and      E.~tract after unscrew.         signs of air have disappeared.
    tappet spin-   tappet spindIe     jng cap V. Oean in
    dIe fouled     N.                 fuel oil or paraffin.             Tighten the b!eed cock securely and give the                 r'"
         or damaged.                                                  primer a few more strokes in order to deliver tbe
                            NOTE :       If damaged, return
                                         complete with body to        Cue!througb the relief valve on tbe final filter
                                         nearest     authorised       clearing this part of thc systcm of air.
                                         agent.                                                                                      r

2.       Lt Pump does oot dever Sufficient Fuel.                    Gravity Fed Systems.
     -                                   Condition   or suggested
                                                                         Slacken small plug on the top of the final filter
Possible Cause         Location          remedy      for   correct
                                                                      and turn on fuel tank supply tap until fuel free               ,...
                                                                      from air bubbles issues from the plug hole.
(a) Connection         Connection pipe. Sec that aJI joints and       Tighten the plug.
    or pipes beo                        pipes are perfectly air-
    tween the                           tight.
    lift pump                                                           Slacken the bleed cock on the top of the fuel                r-
    and Cuel                                                          pump and allow fuel to run until no trace of air
    pump teak.
    ing.                                                              remains.
(b) !nIet or out-      Yalves F. & H.    rreat as for      (d).
    Iet valves                                                           Tighten the bleed cock securely whilst fuel is
    leaking.                                                          still issuing.
(c) Plunger            Plunger L.        Treat as ror 1 (0).
(d) Plunger            Plunger           Replace.
    spring             spring G.                                                        ENGINE TROUBLES
(e) Preliminary        Preliminary       Treat as for 1 (c).             Fuel injection difficulties can arise on the engine         ,...
    filter ob-         filter
    .trn~d.            Gg1l7~ P                                       from severalcauses.    some of which mav he traced
    - ~

             Iel Injecton System-continued                                                                                            Pag~ 57

           to the Cuet pump. Such difficulties, with the                      2. Enginedoesnot pull.
           likely causeand suggested   cure, are set out on the
           following tabie. The fust move when a Cuel     pump
           is suspectedshould be to uncouple the piping
           betweenthe fuel pump and the atomisers. If the                     Quantity of       (a) Delivery
                                                                              fuel delivered        valve. 21
           engineis then rotated with the pump control rod                    per stroke
           set at ruil load position it will be seen whether                  insufficient.
                                                                                                ~b) Pressure             Ir leaking, clean joint
           or not the Cuelis being deliver.ed. Observeeach                                          system     joints.   racesand tighten.
           discharge outlet on the fuel pump to see if all
           dischargeoutlets are in order. On the following                    3. Engine emits black smoke.
           table the word .. pump " applies to the pump unit                                                             Condition   or sugaested
           block as a whole or to individual elements,and                     Possible Cause.     Location.              remedy for correct
           the numbers reCerred10 are shown in Fig. S.ll.
                                                                              Quantity of       Ca) Regulating           Ir moved. duo to scrow
                                                                              Cue!delivered         quadrant, 24.        being 10050,proceed as
    ..,                                                                       per stroke                                 in (r)
           1. Engine will not Start, or Stops after a short

                                                   Condition or suggcsted
           Po~iblc Causc.      Location.           remedy for correct
                                                          working.            Control rad  (a) Pump          Proceedasin (r)
                                                                              hasjammcd.       plunger.20.
           Pump does not (a) Fuel cock.            Must be open.                           (b) Control rod   Proceedasin (r)
           deliver fuel.
                                                                              NOTE : Ir air is in system, the suction side of lift
                         (b) Fuel tank.            Must contain an ade-
                                                   quate supply.                     pump should fust be examined.

    ,                        (c) Fuel inlet pipe
                                 or filter
                                                   Clean pipes. examine
                                                   filter elements and. if
                                                   choked. clean them as
                                                   descnbed in Section G.
                                                                                      PNEUMAnc GOVERNOR
                                                                                Adjustment of tbe pneumatic govemor is
                             (d) Air in pump.      Air vent filter and
                                                   pump as described     on   etfected at the works when the engineis erected.
                                                   page 56.                   It is an operation requiring considerable skill.
    ...,                     (e) Delivery          Clean and inspect. Ir      Tbe idling stop on the buttertly valve and tbe
                                 Valve.21.         worn or damaged. re-
                                                   place both   valve   and   adjusting screw on the cap of the govemor have
                                                   seating.                   to be manipulated altematively until smooth
    ,                        (f) Pump
                                                   Return the pump in-
                                                   tact to the nearest
                                                   service station or to
                                                                              running at the desired idling speed is achieved.
                                                                                No subsequentadjustment is, in fact, needed.
                                                   Perkins Engines ltd.
                                                                              Any deterioration in the smoothnessof idling is
           Pump does         (g) Air in pump.      Air vent filter and

    ,      not deliver
           fuel uniformly.
                             (h) Delivery valve
                                 spring, 22.
                                                   pump as described on
                                                   page 56.
                                                    Replace if broken.
                                                                              due to some defect which bas arisen elsewhele
                                                                              and should he looked for under the paragraphs
                                                                              in tbis section devoted to care of tbe fuel system
                             (j) Delivery          If damaged on face or      generally.
                                 valve.            guide replace.
                             (k) Tappet            See (f) above.
1                                spring, 1S                                                        MAINTENANCE
                             (1) Pump              5ee (f) above.               Tbe tmiest pinhole or crack in the leather
                                 plunger. 20.
                                                                              diaphragm will affect the operation of the gover-
                             (m) Fuel inlet        Proceed as (c)
...                              pipes or filter                              nor. If such a .ault is suspected.
                                                                                                               test in this way.
                                                                                (a) Remove vacum pipe.
                             (n) Fuellift          This pump may not he
                                 pump.             operating  efficiently.
                                                                                (b) Move the stop lever into " stop" position.
                                                   See instructions      on
                                                   page 56.                      (c) Place a finger over the diaphragm housing
                             :0) Tappet ad-        Proceedas in (f) above            union in order to seal it.
                                 justing scrcw.
                             :p) Cam profiles      Proceed as in (f) above       (d) Releasethe stop lever.



    Page S8                                                                  Fue/ Injection System-continued





                               FIG. SS. Removing diaphragm from pneumatic govemor.

      (e) Tbe control rod should then slowly return           For preference, usea picce of sheetmetal about
          to the maximum speed position after a            tin. (19.0 mm.) wide, shaped at tbc end to fit
          quick initial movement for a fraction of         the curve of the rim, and sharpened to an edge
          the distance. Ir it returns quickly for the      similar to that of a screwdriver.
          whole movement and the housings are
                                                              Lift the edgc of tbc rim carefully at! round.
          clampedfirmly together,then the diaphragm
          is leaking and should be replaced by an            When tbc rim is frec, slide tbc socket at tbe
                                                           back of tbc diaphragm off tbc pin in tbc control
          authorised agent. Instructions for replace-
          ment are given below.                            rod.                                                    r
      If the diaphragm appearsto be sound as indi-           Be careful not to mark tbc face of tbc fuel
    cated by this test, suspectthe vacuum pipe and         pump on to which the governor casing fits.
    test in a similar way. Replacethe union of this          To rcplace tbc diaphragm first place the socket
    pipe on the governor casing and uncouple it at         on tbc pin in tbc control rod.
    the butterfly end. Repeat the test as before but
                                                             Then prcssthe rim tirmJy in its place.
    placing the finger on the uncovered end of the
    vacuum pipe.                                             Replacc the governor casing. being careful to         ,...
                                                           screw the setscrewsvery tightly and evenly in
    To Renew Leather Diaphragm.
      To renew the Ieather diaphragm proceed as                                                                    ,...
    follows :                                              CAunON.
       Disconnectthe vacuum pipe.                             Tbe pneumatic governor dep:.ndstor its action
      Take out the screws holding the pneuma       tic     upon pressurevariations set up in the air intake
                                                           pipe of the engine by the venturi control valve.        ,..
    governor in place.
                                                           If this should be removed either by itself or with
      Tbe diaphragm will then he accessible. lt is         the inlet manifold during overhaul or it the vaCUUJT,
    held in a light U-section meml riJn which must be
    prised from the cas ing. Sec Fig. S.5.
                                                           pipe unions are not always kept perrectly tight.
                                                           then the governor may rail to operate causing           ,.
       Great care must be exercisedin this operation.      damage to the engine.





         Fuel Injection System-cominued                                                                   Page

           IN NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE                        Examine the brass nippies which wlll be found
         ENGINE BE RUN WITHOUT VENTURI                         on each end of thesepipes.
         CONTROL UNIT. VACUUM     PIPE OR                         If the union nuts have at any time been over-
    1    rNLET MANJFOLD.                                       tightened there is a risk that the nippies will have
                                                               cracked or been unduly compressed. If 50,
         Atomisers.                                            leakage will result.
    .,     Each atomiser body consists of a steel body
         held to the cylinder head by means of a flange           In this connectionbear in mind that the working
                                                               pressurewhich thesejoints must sustain is several
         and two studs.
                                                               thousand pounds per sq. in. Only a perfect
           Tbe joint between the atomiser and cylinder         joint is satisfactory.
         head is made by a specialcopper washerbetween
         the lower face of the nozzlecap nut and the metal       It is quite easyto replacethesenippies.
         of the cylinder.                                         Clean up a length of pipe near the end, using a
                                                               fine cut file for the purpose, until the nipple wil!
           When preparing to fit the atomiser into place
         in the cylinder head; care should be taken that       slide on tI) it.
         only this special type of copper washer is used         Remove tbe nipple and replace the union nut
         to make this joint. The metal of the cylinder         and steel washer. The Iatter must have its coun.
         head, the facesof the copper joint ring, and the      tersunk face towards the nipple.
         correspondingface on the nozzle holder cap nut
         should be perfectly clean if a leak-proof joint is      Now press the nipple on to the pipe, leaving
         to resu[t.                                            1/64 in. (.40 mm) of the Iatter protruding.
           It is advisableto fit a ncw joint washer when         Hold the pipe in tbe vice 50 that the nii>Ple
         the atomiseris replacedafter having beenremoved       rests on the washer and the washer rests on the
         for any reason.                                       top of the vice.
                                                                 Rivet the protruding portion of the pipe over
    1      Ensure that the old washer has been removed
         from atomiseror cylinder head.                        the nipple.
                                                                Take care that the hole in the pipe is not closed
           This joint washer should be an easy, but not
         loosefit for the atomiser nozzle, and it is because   whilst rivetting.
    1    this is such an important feature that the washers
         especiallymade for the purpose should be used
                                                                 Clean off witb a fine cut file.

         and none other. On no account should ordinary            When refitting take care that it is the brass
         sparking plug type was hers be used.                  nipple which makes the joint and not the actual
                                                               riveted portion of the pipe.
            The atomiser can now be fitted in place, care
         being taken to sec that it is an easy fit in the        Af ter fitting ncw nippies WASH THE FUEL

u        cylinder head and on the holding-down studs,
         so that it can be placed down on the copper
         joint without force of any kind. The nuts on the
         flange should then be tightened down evenly in
         order to prevent the atomiser nozzle being canted
                                                               PIPE WITH CLEAN FUEL OIL, using either
                                                               the atomiser testing pump or the engine fuel
                                                               pump, thus removing any filings which may be
                                                               in the pipe.
                                                                 Offer up the pipe to the delivery valve and
         and so ,. nipped" in the cylinderhead. This is
                                                               atomiser unions to check that the pipe fits square
         very important, sinceany unevenness in tightening     at both ends. Do not fit one and then bend the
         down may causedistortion of the atomisernozzle,
                                                               pipe to square it with the other union.
         resulting in its failure, and will most certainly
         result in blow-by.                                      When fitting tbe pipe tighten the unions alter-
                                                               nately a little at a time, first one end and then the
         Foei Pipes.
           No two of the pressurepipes, from fuel pump
         to atomisers,are alike. Keep this in mind when          If the nippIes have been properly fitted and the
         replacing.                                            pipe is squareto the unionsat eachend asdescribed



                                                                         Fuel JnjectionSystem-continued
Page SlO
previously,no force wiil be neededto makea good
joint. No force should be used.                           ~~
  Use only a standard open-endedi in. by ,1in.                                                                r
   If the union is tightened excessively
                                       the nipple
may collapse and split. Tbe same danser exists                                                                 r
if the pipe is not square to and central with the
  When changing an atomiser always remove the                                                                  r
pipe entircly. Never undo only ODeend, leaving
the other tight. Never bqid the pipe.

                                                       FIG. 56. 5howing plalc Cor holding Atorniscr whilc
                                                                       is bcinl disrnantlcd.
                MAINTEN AN CE.
   Atomisers should he taken out for examination         Often tbe pamcular atomiser or atomisers
at regular intervals. How long this interval should    causing trouble maf he determined by releasing
be is difficult to advise, becauseof the widely
                                                       thc pipe union nut on each atomiser in turn, with
different conditions under which enginesopera    te.   the enginerunning at a fast .. tick-over." This will
When combustion conditions in the engine are           prevent fuel heing pumped through the nozzle
good and the fuel tank and filtering system are        to the enginecylinder, thereby altering the engine
maintainedin fust classorder, it is often sufficient   revolutions. If after slackeninga pipe union nut
if the atornisersare tested twicc yearly.              tbe cngine revolutions remain constant, this
   For detailed times refer to periodical mainten-     denotesa faulty atomiser.
iince, Section F. It is no use taking atomisers
                                                         Tbe nuts from the flangcofthe doubtful atomiscr
out for attention ~ess the equipment described
                                                       should bc rcmovcd and tbc complete unit witb-
on page S.ll is available, or spare atomisersare
                                                       drawn from tbc cylinder head and tumcd round.
at hand for substitution.                              atomiscr nozzle outwards, .. unwipcd" on its            ...
  The nearer thc ideal conditions of good fitting      pipc, and tbc unions re.tightcacd. After slacken-
with adequate cooling and absolutely clean fuel        ing tbc unions of tbc other atomiscr pipes (to
arc realised, the less attention the atomiscrs will    avoid the possibility of tbc enginc starting), the
nced, and so the langer their efficient life. In       enginc should bc tumcd until tbc nozzlc sprays
this conncction, sinco there is no other item of       into tbc rir, whcn it wiJl bc sccnat onceif tbc spray
tbc equipment upon which thc performance of            is in order. If tbc spray is unduly .. wct" or
                                                       .. streaky.. or obviouslyto anc side,or tbc atomiscr
an engine depends so much, it pays the uscr
                                                       nozzlc .. dribbles," tbe spray holes should be
handsomely to sec that the engine never runs
with anv of its atomisersout of order.                 probcd with the specialtooi ET.120.(SeefIg. S.9).
                                                       Ir aftcr probing tbc spray holes, tbc condition of
                                                       tbc atomiser is still faulty, removc tbc complete
Troubles in Semce.                                     unit.
  The first symptomsof atomisertroubles usually
rail in ODeor more of the following headings;-            Great care shou!d be taken to prevent the hand
                                                       from setting into contact with the spray. as the
   I.   Knocking in one (or more) cylinders.           working pressurewi!l cause oil to penetrate the
  2. Engine overheating.                               skin with case.

  3. Loss of power.                                       Tbc spare atomiser from the tooi kit should be
                                                       tltted, the faulty unit being placed in the tooi kit
  4. Smoky exhaust (black).
                                                       securely wrapped in ciean grease-proofpaper or
  5. Increased fuel consumption.                       rag for attention on the maint~nanc~    !'I..nch

     Fue/ lnjection System-conlinued                                                                              Page SII

                                                                       The only exception is in the case of atomisers
                                                                    fttted to L4 Enginesinstalled in Marshall Crawler
                           t~v:                                     Tractors where the setting is 160 atmospheres.

                                                                       Atomisers set at 120 atmosphereshave white
                                                                    painted capsand the caps of atomisers set at 160
                                                                    atmospheres    are painted silver.

u,          ~                     :l(I:~
                                                                       An altemative means of identiftcation is a tab
                                                                    washer fttted under the atomiser cap nut bearing
                                                                    the letter .. J " for 120 atmospheres,
                                                                    " V .. for 160 atmospheres.
                                                                                                          or the letter

                                                                       L4 atomisers supplied under the Perpetuity
                                  9Jf);'"                           Schemehave green painted caps with white Ol
              c:;~;:,~        ~   ~                                 silver on the top or a tab washerunder the atomiser
                                                                    cap nut signifying the setting and type.

u                   ~~~~
               FIG. 57. AtomiserTestingPump.
                                                                       The spray should now be observed for uni-
                                                                    formity at a rate of pumping of not less than
                                                                    20 strokes per minute.

                                                                       Each should be a misty spray spreadingto about
     ExaminadoD     and TestiDg.                                    3 inches(75 mIn) diameter at about one root away
        A bench suitable for working with atomisersis               from tbc atomiser nozzle, then breaking into a
     preferably linoleum-covered with glass 00 top.                 vcry Me mist. There should be two spraysfrom

     It should he enrely reservedfor this work and                 cach atomiser nozzle, one pointing outwards from
     kept absolutelyfree from din. The use of cotton                the top hole, and the other pointing downwards
     wasteor fluffy rags must be absolutely forbidden.              from the lower hole, when the atomiser is in a
        The bench should have a dust proof drawer                   position correspunding to its working position.

u    for holding the atomiser cleaningtools and equip-                 An atomiseris good for service if, whenoperating
     ment describedin detail below.                                 tbc atomiser testing pump at the abovc speed,it
                                                                    gives two etfectivc sprays as above described.
        A plate, made up as shown in Fig. 5.6, should                  An atomiser is dirty and requircs recondition-
     he secured  to the bench. lts purposeis to hold the

                                                                    ing if (a), when proccedingas abovc it throws out
     atomiser securely whilst various maintenance                   solid wet jets and not braken up spray or (b),
     operaons are proceeding.                                      if eithcr of the holesare chokedor partially choked
        An atomisertestingpump No. ET.122A(Fig. 5.7)                so that spray issues from one hole in the

     should he available. This outfit bas beenspecially             atomiscr only or appreciably more spray issues
     designed to provide a reliable means of tesng                 from one hole than the othcr.
     and setting the atomisers. It is made up of parts                 In this connection, as tbc Perkins enginc idles
     similar to the injection equipmentfitted to engilles.          at about 500 r.p.m. the atolniser is never called

        The doubtfuI atomiser should
     be removed from its wrappings                                        A
     and fitted nozzledownwards,and               I /"
     still unwiped,(0 the testing pump                                    I(.                                     ~
        No observaons should be
     madeuntil at leastten fuil strokes
                                                                    -I:                                               -..,
     of the hand pump havebeengiven
     to expel all air from the system.
     Atomiser Pressures.
                                                               -~    ~                                        r
       The pressureat which the spray
     breaks should then be recorded
     and checked against the recom-          'rCMISD   NOULI              'TOMIS"
                                                                                00.., ,.asu.. 'Acr          NO~   VALV!

     mended pressure which is 120
                                             FIG. S8. Diagrams of Atomiser and Atomiser              Body   the letters have
     atmospheres.                                                   referencc in the lext.

Page 512                                                                     Fue/lnjection System-continued
upon to walk in the engine more slowly than 250            the atomiser nozzle should he cLeanand bnght,
                                                           free from damage,likewisethe under-surface   .. C ,.
injectionsper minute. Thus by taking the atomiser
                                                           of the flange, the face of the atomiser body" D ..
spray at 20 strokes per minute, ample margin is
allowed.                                                   4nd the interior retaining shoulder of the nozzle      r
   When removing an atomiser from the testing              holder cap nut. All of thesemust registertogether
pump close valve by rotating !he hand-wheeland             absolutely cLeanlyand squarely to fonn the high
screw olf the union nut a little at a time so that         pressure joint between the atomiser body and
the pressure raIls gradually.                              nozzle.
   Atomisers are set to operate at th~ pressures              The atomiser body should now he removed
described   previously beforeleavingthe works. If a        from the plate, and together with the cap nut
ncw atomiser nozzle is fitted to an atomiser body          immersedin clean paraffin and left to soak in a
                                                           suitable container. The nozzle valve should be
it is necessaryto reset the pressure. After the
atomiser bas been in service fOT same time, the            grasped by the stalk between finger and thumb
opening pressuretends to raIl, but provided that           and withdrawn, carefully, for examination. The
the atomiser nozzle holes do not choke up, there           stem of the nozzle valve should be clean and
                                                           bright, and free from high spots, bad scratches
is no need to adjust the pressure.
   NO ATTEMPT SHOULD BE MADE TO                            or dull patches, and the grooves free from dirt.
ADJUST THE              INJECTION          PRESSURE        meta! particles or other foreign matter.
WITHOUT A PROPER TESTING PUMP                                 The stem and the valve scat of the nozzl~           r
AND PRESSURE GAUGE AS DESCRIBED                            valve should now be examined, and if dirty, or
AND         ILLUSTRATED.            IT    IS QUITE         .. coked" cleaned until bright metal is shown.
OF ATOMISERS WITH ANY DEGREE OF                            Cleaning.
ACCURACY WITHOUT PROPER EQUIP-                               Assumingthat the nozzlevalve bas beensoaking
                                                           and the two surfaces.. A" and .. B" on the top
   If the atomisers are interfered with, on the            of the atomiser nozzle flange already mentioned,
assumption that so maar turns of the adjusting             are clean and free from damage,the inside of the
screw representsso maar pounds, they may vary              atomiser nozzle should he examined.The kit of
asmuch as200poundsasbetween            oae and another.    tools shownin Figs. S9and SlO, are recomrnended.
                                                           The three small drilled passages .. G" (Fig. S8),
With suchdifferences     betweenatomisersthe engine
                                                           should be explored to seethat they are clear and       r
cannot possibly give of its best.
   If the spray is still unsatisfactory,even after         clean, followed by an examination of the valve
 brushing the carbon away. from around the                 stem bore in which the nozzle valve slides. This
 atomiser nozzle.with the fine wire brush specially        surface should be clean and bright and free from
designed   for the purposeand illustrated in Fig. S.9,     high spots or scratches or dull patches. The
                                                           valve seating .. 1" (Fig. S8) should now come
 the atomiser should be placed on the atomiser
 holding plate already described, see Fig. S.6.            under observation under a strong light to ascer-
   Before attempting to dismantle the atomiser,            tain whether or not it is free from dirt or carbon.
                                                           If this is not so, and indeed, in any case, it is      r
 the tension on the spring should be releasedby
 unscrewing   the compression     screw38. The nozzle      advisablc to usc tbc soft brass scat scraper No.
 holder cap nut, 43, Fig. S.ll, should be slackened        ETO70 (scc Fig. S9) to remove any carbon or
 with the special ring spanner provided, ETll6             particles that may he imprisoned on the scat.
 (seeFig. S.IO). To hold the nozzle holder cap nut         The gallery .. H" (Fig. S8)shouldncw be cleancd
 in the vice or to use ill-fitting ,. packed.. or adjus-   with tbc ajd of the special soft brass scraper No.
table spannersor wrenchesis to invite disaster.            ETO71(sec Fig. S9) to ensurethat it is also clean
   Examine the pressureface of the nozzle holder           and frec from dirt or carbon.                          ,..-
cap nut to see it is not damagedso as to have                The spray holes in tbc atomiser nozzle end
c. nipped" the atomiser nozzle in any way.                 should he probed with thc specialtooi ET120(see
   The nozzle holder cap nut should aow be                 Fig. S9).
removedand the atomisernozzle completely lifted              In caseswhere the holes cannot be cleaned by
from the atomiser body fOT examination. The                this process, the complete atomiscr should be
surf acesccA" and .. B .. in Fig. S8, on the top of        rctumed securclywrappedand packedas described

     Fuei[njection System-continued                                                                                                     Page SI3

       COMPLETEKIT                                                        taken to ensure that the highly ground
                                                                          face .. D " (Fig. S8) is clean and free
 ~        ET. 141
                                                                          from scratches. This face must register
                                                                          with the atomiser nozzle flange cleanly
                                                             ~            and squarelyto forn1a high-pressurejoint
 ,                                                       ~
                                                                          and must, therefore, he handled in such
                                                                          a war as to avoid damageto the surface.
                   .."-!l1I1 ,                                            The exterior of the atomiser body, of
                                                                          course,should be cleanedthoroughly from
       Jf~                                                                dirt and grease in the usual manner.
 1                                                             f{f;       Periodically,

                                                                          the        interior

                                                                                                          is    advisable

                                                                                                               the      atomiser
                                                                                                                                   to   dismantie

                                                                                                                                         body       to

                                                                 /1       examine the springs,40 (Fig. S11),spring
                                                                          plate, and nozzle spindie, 42. Wben
         ,~",                                                             dismantling, the special spanners, Nos.
                                                                          ETl17 and ETl18 (sec Fig. SlO) should

                                                                          be applied for the removal of the nozzle
                                                                      J   bolder spring cap, 39 (Fig. SII) which
                                                                          is revealed after the removal of the
          gj;;::;"~ l ~l-- ET.I2.0 I I     ,
                                         ET.124I        ET.138
                                                                          covering protection cap. The interior of
                                                                          the atomiser body and the palts removed
         E.T068       ET.O71       11:069       ET.072                    should he washed carefully to remove
 J          FIG. S9. Complete Kit of TooI, for use when cleanin~
                          and overhauling atomisers.
     above. Assuming that the spray holes have been
                                                                          any dirt or moisture. If the spring
                                                                          and the parts are in good condition,
                                                                           they should be re-assem     bied carefully,
     cleaned satisfactorily, the atomiser nozzle caD            aud perferably after having been slightly coated
     then he placedin the container to soak in paraffio          with lubricating oil.
     or preferably assembiedin the atomiser flushing
     tooi No. ET427 (Fig. SlO)and thoroughly flushed                The serviceable  life of the atomiser valve spring
     through to ensure that all carbon particles are            can be considerablyenhanced       by careful treatment,
     removed trom the inside of the atomiser nozzle.             and greatcareshould be taken to avoid the damage
        Tbe nozzle valve should now he polished by               likely to be causedby moisture, corrosion arising
     rubbing with an absolutely clean cloth-a piece              in storage,handling, or by reasonof condensation

 J   of used boiled cotton is best-upon which there
     is no suggestion of fluff. Particular attention should
     he given to the valve seato This and the smaller
                                                                 owing to temperature changes in service. It is
                                                                 recommendedthat these valve springs should be

     I.-ylindricalportion above it, called the .. stem"          inspected, cleaned and greased whenever the
     and .. cone" in Fig. S8, can he cleaned with the            atomisers   are removed for cleaning, whilst care
                                                                 should be taken in storing sparesto preclude alf
     fine brass wire brush. Toensure that the stem               possibility of the access   of moisture.
     and coneare free from any particles,the soft brass
     stem cleaner No. ETOn should be applied with
     a rotary action, pressingthe nozzle valve into the          Re-Assembly    of Atomisers.
     cleaning tooi with the fingers.                                Tbe atomiserbody and atomisernozzlemay now
        Af ter ensuringthat the exterior of the atomiser

                                                                 be assembIed   carefully, after having immersedthe
     nozzle is clean and free from carbon, the valve             pressureracesof each in clean fuel oil, to ensure
     and atomiser nozzle may be assem         bied together.     that they are free from dirt. Tbe nozzleholder cap
     This should be after the two parts have been                nut, 43, should be ~crewedon to the body by
     thoroughly washed in clean paraffin or fuel oil             use of the special spanner. Excessive       tightening

u    and placed together, preferably with the tingers
     whilst submergedin the clean oil.
        Tbe atomiserbody shouldnow receive        attention:
     it should be washedin clean paraffin. care bein~
                                                                 of the nozzle holder cap nut may result in con-
                                                                 striction or distortion of the atomiser nozzle and
                                                                 its consequentfailure ; care should be exercised
                                                                 to ensurethat the leveraee   aDDliedis not cxcessive.
Page 514                                                                                        Fue/lnjection System-connnuea
   Af ter cleaning, the atomiser shou!d he tested
alwayson the atomiser testing pump as previously
                                                                       IntercbangeabiUty    .
                                                                          The rnodified atomiser is interchangeablewith
described. If the pressure at \\hich the spray                         the previous type providing a new type auxiliary
breaksis not that quoted above it can he adjusted                      teak-oIrpipe is fitted. To ensure this. new type
by the spring adjusting screw and lock nut, using
spanner ET119 (Fig. SlO).
                                                                       teak-oIr pip~s are autornatically supplied with all
                                                                       Sparesand Reconditionedatornisersof the modi-
   A perfect atomiser, when tested by pumping                          fied type. Previoustype Reconditionedatomisers
Cue! through it in the open air gives a short
.. pinging" sound as the fuel emergesfrom the
holes, no matter how slowly tbe fuel be pumped.
                                                                       re lS0supplied with the previous type auxiliary
                                                                       teak-oIrpipes in order to effect interchangeability
                                                                       with engines incorporating the later type atornisers.
After tbe atomiser has been in service for some
time, the .. pinging" changes to a crackling
sound. It is not until tbe atomisersounds.. dead"
that its condition is likely to affect tbe running of
the engine.
  When replacing tbe atomiser in the cylinder
head follow carefully tbe instructions for fitting
given on page S9.
                                                                                 WASHERS                                 LOCKNUT
 MODIFlED ATO~ERS                                                                                                        ADJUSTING
    As from EngineNo. 6012782    a modified atomiser                                                                     SCREW
                                                                                          -           ---;:;;;;
 was introduced on L4 engines. the two main
 differences from the previous type being the aux-
 iliary leak-off pipe connectionand the atomiserad-
justing screw(seeFig. 5.12).
    The auxiliary leak-off pipe connectionis now on                                                                           NOZZLE
 the side of the atomiser body fixing fiangewhereas
 previously it was situatedjust abovethe inlet pipe
 union nut. This of coursenecessitates    a new type
auxiliary leak-off pipe.
  The atomiser adjusting screw now screws
directly into the atomiser body and also comprises
the atomiser valve spring cap.

 (~~~~:=~~=:::~                               \

  o~;'~              ~
                ET //6'
                                                                                                                  -CAP   NUT

               Er    /2/
                            'f   "Q~~////".
                                 E T // S
                                                                        1   ~


   0 ~/lA..

          ;                                                                 "                                                           r
                                      eT//7                             tf                                                   .NOZZLE

   ~                                                                    E T 1.37
                                                                        E T 42'7
Fig. SlO. Spanners and clcaning tools ror usc with atomisers.                            Fig. S12. Diagram of Modified Atomiset

            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~                                                                                                                                     ~
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                                                                                                    3 :;;;-0-   "' ~C=="
                ~~~~                             ~~~-=~O=::=                                                    ~   -~~~=
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                =                      -=     - "---
                                         ~-~'"'~:-.                                      :-~=.
                                                                                                                   " -. .. =~
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                  ":=...""                                  0:':'                        :-               n      ~=        ~o~o!!.~'
            Cc<~n'-<                                        =..                                           ~      ~~~:=_=;;'n
            5,,'n,:'n~,                                                                                   =,""_:-",o~..,
                                                 =          =.                                            ~:;~                          o~='<~
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            "'<~                                 -          =                                             ""     ~                      ~=n-
                ~'        ~'                     ~          &.                                            :;     =                      ~~             ,~ ~ ...
                                                 :'         .                                                    3::                                        =
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    1                                                                                                                                                                   a.
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                                                                                                                                                                                      c           ~
                     ~         :~~~~~?~~~                                                          ~~~~~~?~~                                                   ~~~
            ~~                 >ZZZZ>~>C=~~~~O

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                                                                                                                                        _..?~==g       -
                     "         5""                           -.~                                  -              :n:-",';                             ~
                                                           ~-=--  ."           ~
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                                                                                                     Page Tl

       Certain L4 engines are equippedwith a mechani-
     cal governor in place of the pneumatic governor.
     This governoris set and adjustedbefore the engine
     leaves the factory and no further adjustment
     shouid be necessary.
       Any settings and adjustments which may be
     necessary,as when the engine has undergone a
     major overhaulor the fuel pump hasbeenremoved,
     should only be carried out by trained personnel.

     Instrucons tor adjusDgMechanical Governor.

        To carry out the Collowinginstructions it will be
     necessaryto remove the cover, situated at the
     front of the govemor, and the govemor housing
     rear cover.

.1   Preliminary Settings.
        1. Ensure that the governor weights move                                 FIG. T2
     freely when operated with the finger. If they are
]    stiff it is probably due to distortion set up in the
     weight carrier when holding screwsare tightened.
                                                            reached, unscrew adjusting screw oDe turn. The
                                                            idling spring control screw is situated at the rear
     To correct this it will be necessaryto remove          of the fuel pump (See Fig. T .3).
     carrier plate and seetbat tbe rear face is clean and     3. Reducetension on mainspring with control
     free from dirt. Seealso that tbe front of the fuel     lever in ruil speed position.
     pump gear is clean and free from dirt.
                                                              4. Set eccentricspring anchorageto innermost
       2. Hold the stop controllever on the fuel pump       position (R. Min. See Fig. T.l).
     in the stop position and screwin tbe idling spring
     control screw until the spring is coil bound, i.e.,      5. Place govemor lever in the idle position,
     until adjustmentof the screwjust begins to move        presstoes of forked lever on to sleevetbrust race
     tbc stop control lever. Wben this position is          and adjust fuel pump actuating lever until this is.
                                                            clear of fuel pump push rad by ,t in. (1.59 mm)
                                                            when fuel pump control rad is at maximum fuel
                                                            position (See Fig. T.2).
                                                              Allen key 5/32in. across flats is required to
                                                            unlock and lock fuel pump actuating lever.

J                                                             Seethat, by moving the weightsto the outermost
                                                            position, the fuel purup control rad moves to the
                                                            point of no fuel (within ,t in. (1.59 mm) of total
                                                            control rad movement).

                                                            Test Bed Procedure.
                                                              A. Start engineand warm up to 160F.(71C.),
                                                            water and oil.
                                                              B. Set engineto rated load and speed. lt win
                           FIG. T                           he necessaryto increasethe main spring tension

Page T2                                                                   .\{ echanica/ Governor-continued

                                                           WARNING. In no circumstancesshould any
                                                        attempt be made to increaseidling speedwith the
                                                        idling spring control screw.
                     i)                                   E. Finally re-check governing from ruIl load,
                          SCREW-IDLING CON TROL
                                                        three-quarterand half load to no load to ensure
                                (FUEL PUMP)             the governor is stabIe throughout its range.

                                                        Field Procedure.
                                                          Tbe preliminary settingsare as already described
                                                        and should be carried out, then proceedas follows.
                                                          1. Start engineand warm up to 160cF.(71cC.).
                                                          2. Set lever to running position and check
                                                        maximum no laad r.p.m. Such inertia laad as is
                                                        available, should then be applied and removed in
                                                        rapid successionto check the stability of the
                                                        governor. Any necessarycorrection should be
                                                        made as described in Test Bed Procedure, para-
                      FIG. T3                           graph C.
                                                          3. Carry out operation D in Test Bed Procedure.
until full laad caDjust be obtained at tbe appro-         4. Finally re-check maximum no laad r .p.m.
priate speed. Main spring tension adjustment is         and idling r.p.m.
carried out by alteration of the govemor spring
control lever adjusting screw (See Fig. T.4).

   C. Graduallyremoveload, note sustainedover-
run speed. If this is satisfactory,regain load and
try a sudden removal to check stability of the

  Greater stability may be obtained by increasing
tbc effectiveradius R of tbe spring lever by rotating
thc spring anchorage. Eccentric adjustment be-
tween R. Min and R. Max being obtainable (see
Fig. T.1).

   D. Having obtained satisfactorygoverning, set
lever to idling position and check light load idling
speed. Adjust as necessaryon the idling stop
screw (Fig. T.4). Ir it is not possible to reduce
idling speedto tbe required r.p.m. by adjustment
of tbe idling stop screw, it wil! be necessaryto
slightly reduce the load in tbe idling spring.

  This cao be obtained by screwing out tbe fuel
pump idling spring control screw at tbe TeaTof
the fuel pump (SeeFig. T.3).
     "                                                                                                                                     Pa~e U

             FLYWHEEL AND
u                         I]\j) ~~
                                                                                               ensurethat the mating facesof the cylinder block,
                                                                                               or back plate (when fitted) and housing are per-
                                                                                               fectly clean and free from bum.

u                                                             ,
                                                                                                 Put the housing on to the studs, replace spring
                                                                                               washers and nuts. Tighten nuts evenly, do not
                                                                                               overtighten so as to allow adjustment.

                                                                                              Alignment of Flywheel Housing Bore.
                                                                                  ",           of Secure the base of an indicator stand to the fiange
                                                                                                  the crankshaft.
                                                              I'r                      \         Set the needIeof the gaugeto the interior of the
                                                                                               bored hole in the fiywheel housing. (See fig. UI).
                        Ic>                                          "'{;r                 i     Turn tilt crankshaft and check that this hole is

                      /~                                                                       ~ntral. The housing is adjusted until the bored
                                                                                               hole is central with the crankshaft within the
                                                                                               following limits (total indicator.reading).
                                      .            ./*
                                                         .                                       Diameter  of Houslng
                                                                                                                    Bore ~x. Allowance     (T.I.R.)
                                                                                                      Up to 14-1: in               0.006in

                                                                                                         (362mrn)                 (0,15mm)
                                                                    ~~?7::                            14-1:to 2Ot in               0.008in
                                                         f,~;":r~                                   (362 to 511 mm)               (0,20mm)
                                                                                                      2Ot to 251 in                0.010in
                                            ra                                                      (511 to 648 mm)               (0,25mm)
                                Fis. UI                                                                251 to 31 in                0.012in
                                                                                                    (648 to 787 mm)               (0,30mm)
            It is most important tbat tbe flywbeel bousing                                     Alignment of Flywheel Housing Face.
         he correctly aligned witb tbe cranksbaft. tberefore                                      With the base of the indicator standstill secured
         if a bousing bas been removed tbe greatestcare                                               .,           f1i~'
         must be taken on replacementto ensureaccuracy
         of alignment.
            For conveniencein turning tbe engine it is
         advisable to release (but not remove) tbe nuts
         holding tbe atomisersin place when carrying out
         alignment of flywheel and flywheel housing.
         To Remo'feFlywheel.
            Remove the locking wire from the set screws

-1       which securetbe flywheelto the crankshaft flange.
            Turn the engineto bring oae setscrew
            Removetros setscrew
                                                to tbe top.
                                  and screwin a stud in its                                                                                       j\
         place as a temporary measure, to prevent the

~.       tlywheel from dropping.
            Remove remainder of setscrews.
            Remove flywheel.
         To Remo'feFlywheel Ho~ing.
            Removal of Duts and spring washersfrom the
         studs securingtbe flywheel housing to the cylinder
         block. or back plate (if fitted) win enable the
         flywheel housing to be removed.
         To Refit Flywheel Housing.                                                                                ,~~::.        /
            Before fitting or refitting flywheel housing                                                              Fig.U2

faze U2                                                       FlywheeJand Flywheel Housing-continued

to tbe cranksbaft flange, adjust to set tbe needIe
of tbe indicator against tbe vertical machined
face on the flywhee1   housing.(Seefig. U2).
   Turn cranksbaftand checkthat this faceis at right
anglesto tbe cranksbaft axis. This facing must be
within tbe following limits (tota1indicator reading)
ofbeing at truc right anglesto tbecranksbaft.
   DiameterofHousing Bore Max.Allowance     (T.I.R.)
       Up to 141 in                 0.006 in
         (362mm)                  (0,15mm)
       141 to 2Ot in               0.008 in
     (362 to 511 mm)              (0,20 mm)
       2Ot to 25t in               0.010 in
     (511 to 648 mm)              (0,25 mm)
        25t to 31 in                0.012 in
     (648 to 787 mm)              (0,30 mm)
    AU adjustments to bring tbe flywbee1bousing
 within tbe limits specifiedmust be on tbe flywhee1
 housing and under NO CONOmONS must tbe
 rear of tbe cylinder b1ock or adaptor plate be
 interfered witb.
    When tbe housing is aligned to tbe above limits                             Fig. U4
 tighten the securing Guts evenly.                      order to wnen removing but the following must
    Ream tbe two dowe1holes and fit the correct         also be carried out:
 length and size of dowe1s.                                 Secthat the flywhecl face and crankshaft flange
 To Reit Flywheel.                                      are perfectly clean and free from burrs before
    The flywhee1shou1dbe rep1aced      in the reverse   fitting the flywheel.
                                                            When replacing the setscrewstighten evenly,
                                                        and for final tightening, a torque wrenchshould be
                                                        used, set to the tensionrecommended      in SectionB.
                                                        Checking Alignment of Flywheel.
                                                            When the flywheel bas been removed, it is
                                                        necessary   to check the alignment on replacement.
                                                            Replaceflywheel as mentionedabove.
                                                            Secure the base of a dial indicator stand to
                                                         tbe flywheel housing.
                                                            Witb the flywheel at top centre set the needle of
                                                         tbe indicator on tbe flywheel periphery at T .D.C.
                                                         (seeFig. U.3).
                                                            Turn the crankshaft and check the clock. The
                                                         flywheel should run truc within .012 in. (.31 mm)
                                                         (total indicator reading).
                                                            With tbc base of thc indicator stand still bolted
                                                         to tbc flywheel housing, adjust to bring thc
                                                         indicator needIeagainstthc vertical machined face
                                                         of the flywheel. (Seefig. U4.)
                                                             Again turn the crankshaft and check the clock.
                                                         The flywheel should be within 0.001 in. per inch
                                                          (0,02 mmoper 25 mm.) of radius from the centre
                                                          of flywheel to indicator needIe.
                                                             When tbe flywheel bas been checked fot thc
                                                          correct limits, lock thc setscrews with we.

                                                                                         Page VI


u           All threads ~ed 00 the L4 Eogine except 00 prGprietary equipment
          and the crankshaft are Unified Series, aod Americao Pipe Series. Tbe
          crankshaft aod starting dog nut are threaded1 inch Americao Natiooal
          Fine of 14 T.P.I.

UI          The new threads are not interchangeable with B.S.F. and althougb
          B.S.W. have the same number of threads per inch as the Unified Coarse
          Series, intercbanging is not recommended,doe to a difference in thread form.

U              The data regarding clearnncesand tolerancesare given as a guide
               for personnel engagedupon major overhauls.

u         2. Tbe figures in the column .. Permissible Dimensions,t are the
               drawing sizesto which tbe parts are made. These dimensionsare

u              given in limit farm and representtbe minimum and maximum sizes
               to which parts may be accepted when new, as, ror example,
               -:499 111,ntPn .-.
               The difference
                      '1      fnr -
                                  " ~
                                    qh"ft the
                                between     ni"m~tpr
                                                minimum   and maximum dimensions

u         3.
               quoted in para. 2 is known as thc manufacturing tolerance. This

               tolerancc is necessary as an aid to manufacture and its numerical
               valuc is an expression of the accuracy of the design; it mayalso be
               considered as a numerical expression of the desired quality of work-
               manship. For the example referred to in para 2 thc tolerance is

u         4.
               If when carrying out a major overhaul it is found that a bush and
               corresponding shaft have worn and that the majority of wear has

u              taken place in the bush it may be necessary to renew the bush only.
               Similarly if the majority of wear has taken place on the shaft it
               might only be necessary to rencw thc shaft.

u         5.    During the overhaul of wom components personal initiative must
                be exercised at all times. It is obviously uneconomical to return
                wom parts to service with an expectation of lire which may involve

                labour costs agai1 at an carly date.

          6.    Further information can be obtained on request [rom the Service
                Division, Perkins Engines Ltd., Peterborough, England.

u                  To ensure rou obtain the best results from your engine
                   and to safeguard your own guarantee, fit only genuine

                   Perkins Parts.   These are readily obtainable throughout
                                         the wor Id.

                                                             .     .

                                                             Page V3

Page V4




    I. Q

u                                                                    Page Y5



,      ,

u      .
                                                                                L4 MARINE ENGINES-W.l

        Settingsand Data.
                               L4 MARINE
         Maximum Rating- 58 B.H.P. at 2,000 r.p.m.
                                                              ahead to astern or vice versa. the engine throttle
                                                              must passthrough the idling position. thus enabling
         Sump Capacity - ] gallons (13.6 litres).             an easygear changeto be attained.
                                                                 In conjunction with tbis control system. pro-
         Engine Types.                                         vision may be madefor the fitting of a cable to the
          There are two principal types of L4 Marine          throttle so that the throttle may be partly opened
        ~ngine, one type having pneuma      tic governing      to assisteasystarting.
        and the other having mechanicalgoverning.                When an oil operated gearbox is fitted. an oi]
          The standard pneumatic governing is set tor         cooler must be fitted in order to cao] the gearbox
        variabie speedwhich is controlled by a lever from     oil. The mounting for this cooler is on the top
        the air intake venturi.                               of the gearbox.
          The mechanically governed engine is virtually          An inter-locking control may afso be usedin the
        identical to its pneuma tic governed counterpart,     case of a pneumatically governed engine fitted
        the one main difference being the mechanica!          with a mechanica!gearbox.
        governor incorporated in the timing gear housing.        The system employed ensuresthat the engine
        This governor also is of variabie speed and is        throttle is automatical]y returned to id]ing when
        controlled by a lever on the side of the governor     the gear lever enters the neutral position. An
        housing forward of the fuel injection pump.           amp]e measure of protection is thus afforded
                                                              the gearbox. inasmuch as when engaging or
        Gearboxes.                                            changing gears. the engine throttle must alway~
           The 1..4Marine enginemay be fitted with either     be in or pass through the idling position. How-
         a mechanicalor hydraulic operated gearbox.           ever with enginesutilising mechanica]governing,
        [n bath casesthe drive to the gearbox is taken        irrespectiveof t~ type of gearbox fitted. there is
        from an input shaft fitted to the engineflywheel.     no systemof Iinkage offered whereby the gearbox
           Lubrication of the mechanica     I gearbox is by   may be effectively coupled to the engine throttle
        meansof gravity. The gearbox possesses      its own   controls.
        sump from which the oil is picked up by a rotating       Reduction gears of 2: 1 and 3: 1 fot Ieft or
        disc and de!ivered to a drip plate at the top of      right hand rotation propellors. may be fitted as
        the gearbox which passesthe lubricant to the          optional equipment.
        working parts.                                           N.B. When converting a mechanical gearbox
           The hydraulic gearbox incorporates its own
        oil pump and is in no war dependent on the            from straight through drive to 2: I or 3: 1
        enginetor its oil supply.                             coupling at the rear of the box must be replaced
           Where an oil operated gearbox is fitted to an      reduction. the split type balI race behind the
                                                              by a standard type of balI race.
        engine employing pneumatic goveming, a single
        lever throttle control systemmay be incorporated
        linking the gearbox to the enginethrottle. By this    Gearbox and Input ShaftRemoval.
        means gearbox engagement is determined by                Both types of gearbox may be removed in the
        movement of the throttle lever. With the engine       following manner:-
        idling, initial movement of the throttle lever
        effectscomplete engagement     of the gearoox with-         Disconnectpropellor shaft.
        out increasing engine speed. Engine r.p.m. may              Remove 12 setscrews  and washers located
        then be increaseri by further opening of the                around gearbox periphery.
        throttle control lever beyond a predetermined               Withdraw gearboxtrom input shaft.
           Thus the engine cannot be speededin neutra!           The input shaft which is affixed to the engine
        gear, thert'by eliminating the risk of damagewhen     flywheel may be removedas follows :-
        the gearoox is engaged. When changing trom                  Cut locking wire.

           Remove eight securing setscrews and              A 12 or 24-volt insulating return system may be
           washers.                                         fitted as optional extra. The dynamo is lo~atedon
                                                            the starboard sideof the engine. The starter motor
    Replacing Input Shaft and Gearbox.
                                                            is flange mounted on the port side cf the engine.
       First ensure that the tlywheel housing and tly-      the starter pinion engagingwith the starter ring c>n
    wheel are correctly aligned (SeeSection U).             the flywheel at the aft end of the engine.
       Using the eight setscrews completewith washers.              I
    fit the input shaft to the engine tlywheel and                ~
    tighten evenly.
       Securethe baseof a clock gaugesecurelyto the
    ftywheelhousing and adjust the clock so as to set
                                                            ce                                            )D
    the needle on the outside diameter of the input                                                ~I
    shaft. and check that the shaft is central. The
    limit in respectof inpu1 shaft concentricity is set
.   at .003 in. (.076 mm) total indicator reading.
       With satisfactory alignment attained. the secur-
    ing setscrews  should then be wired together.
       The gearbox may then be eased into position
    on the input shaft. With the mechanicalgearbox.                                    ,~            ""
    care should be taken to ensurethat tbe key on the
    input shaft is in line with the keyway in the gear-
    box hearing. Secure the gearbox to the tlywheel
    hou.~ing by meansof the 12 setscrews  and washers
    and refit propellor shaft.
    Locating Ring-Mechanical Gearbox.
       A modified bevel locating ring locking plate has
    been incorporated in mechanical gearboxes for                                  I   ~"'~"""~                  '
    fitment to L4 marine engines.
       This latest locking plate is trucker in section
    than the original type and of different specification                              ~
    material and bas been incorporated to eliminate
    any possibility of bending or failure of the plate
    in service.
                                                                             /.            .
       With the advent of tbis modification, the locking                 /
    medium whereby this plate is secured,was altered            bid           /~
    so that now two holes -fr; in. B.S.F. by -f6. in.
    (14.29 mm) deep are drilled and tapped in the
    locating ring and pinion cageto accommodate
    Allen grubscrews
                      -fr; in. B.S.F. by tin. (12.70mm)
                                                            ~    ~

    long.                                                                               Fig.WI.
       It should be noted that after assembly,  the edges   1 and 2. From the 1/8" Diameter Pilot holes in t evelloca-
                                                              ting Ring. drill two holes 17/64# Diameter to a depth of
    of the slots accommodatingthe bevel ring locating         3/8" in bevel wh~1 casiCW  and tap 5/16" B.S.F. to a depth
    plates should be peenedover as also should the            ot 1/4" in bevel wheel cAing to accommodate two Allen
                                                              Screws 5/16" B.S.F. x 1/2" in length. These two holes
    drillings into wbich are fitted the grubscrews.           must not be drilled and tapped until the bevel locating      r
       Details of thesemodifications are illustrated in       ring has been locked in position with locking plates and
                                                              slots peenedover.
    Figure W.l illustration and it is recommended    that   3. Bevel locating ring locking slots peened over locking
    all gears sent in for servicebe similarly modified        plates.                                                      or
    when necessary.
                                                            Water Circulation.
    Electrical Equipment.                                     The engine may he so arranged as ro accom-
      With the L4 Marine engine. a 12-volt earth            modare any one of the foIIowing three types of
    return systemis employedas standard equipment.          cooling system.


                               L4 MARINE ENGINES-W.3

             along the keel of the craft. Prior to reaching the
             water pump, the coolant passes   through the lubri-
             cating oU cooler which is fitted as standard equip-
             ment to engines employing this type of cooling
             system. The coolant then enters the engineat the

u            forward end of the cylinder block and is expelled
             at the forward end of the cylinder head. From
             the cylinder head the water is discharged back

             into the keel pipes via the exhaustmaillfold cool-
             ing jacket. It will be observedthat this is a closed
             circuit type of cooling system, the water in the
             keel pipes being cooled by the water through

u   I   '
             which the craft passes.
                With this type of cooling system,a thermostat
             is fitted as optional extra.
                Information regardingdimensionsof Keel Pipes
             may be obtainedon requestfrom .ServiceDivi-
u            sion, Perkins EnginesLimited, Peterborough.
            Indirect Cooling System (Heat Exchanger).

u               This type of cooling system utilised in con-
            junction with a heat exchanger,incorporatestwo
            separate water pumps, viz. the rubber impeller

             and centrifugal types.
                The rubber impeller type pump is used to
            circulate sea water through the heat exchanger
            which is affixed to the front of the cylinder head.

            Overboard dischargeis taken through the exhaust
             manifold cooling jacket. The lubricating oil cooler
             which is standardequipmentwith indirectly cooled

            engines is fitted to the front end of the engine
            sump and is on the suction side of the sea water
                Circulation of the closed fresh water systemis

u           etIected by means of the centrifugal pump which
            is belt driven from the crankshaft pulley. Water is
            drawn from the heat exchanger and enters the

            cylinder block at the rear of the water pump.
            Af ter circulation through the engine, the water is
            expelled from the front of the cylinder head back
            into the heat exchanger.

u              The top part of the heat exchanger fornls a
            header tank fjr the fresh water and a pressure
            type filler ca{f with overflow pipes is provided.

            The valve in the cap operates between 3* and
            4i-lbs./sq. in. (.23-.30 kg/sq. cm.) A thermostat
            is supplied as standard for this type of cooIing

u           Water Pum~.
                From the foregoing it will be apparent that alt
            L4 Marine engines, irrespective of application,

            incorporate the rubber impeller type of water
            pump, while those enginesutilising indirect (heat


exchanger)  cooling also incorporate a water pump         When replacing the cam fitted in the impeller
of the centrifugal variety.                            housing. be certain to treat the entire top surface.
                                                       rear face and securing setscrewhole with a suit-
CeotrugalType Water Pump.                             able jointing compound.NOTE : This cam will go
  Sincethe centrifugal type water pump employed        into placeone war only.
on those Marine engines incorporating indirect            With the assem   bied pump fitted to the engine.
(heat exchanger) cooling systems is identica!          backlash between the pump and I:amshaft gears
with that pump titted to L4 engines in genera!.        should be .003 in. to .009 in. (.08 to .23 mm). To
maintenanceinstructions for this type of pump          achieve this in production. two joints may have
may be obtained by referring to Section Q.             been fitted betweenthe pump gear wheel housing
                                                       and the ~ngine timing case. Should this be SQ.
Rubber Impeller Type.
                                                       ensure that both joints (or two new joints) are
   This type of pump is gear driven inasmuchas a
                                                       replacedwhen refitting the pump.
gear wheel attached to the impeller driving shaft
                                                          ti the engine is to be withdrawn from service
is in constant meshwith the enginecamshaft gear
                                                       for any length of time it will be necessaryto
whee!. the pump itse!f being !ocated on the star-
                                                       effect lubrication of the rubber impeller at the
board side of the engine directly below the
                                                       commencementof the storage period. Tbis may
dynamo.                                                be achieved by removing the end cover (Item 1.
Removal aod Dismaotling.                               Fig. W.2) and placing glycerine betweenthe vanes
   First dis~onnect water inlet and outlet hoge        if the impeller (Item 2. Fig. W.2).
connections. The pump may then be detached by                                                                   ".
                                                       Exhaust Manifold.
removing the setscrews that secure it to the engine
timing case.                                             The exhaust manifold is water cooled and
                                                       constructed of cast iron. An air releasecock is
  To dismantie the pump, proceed as follows :-
                                                       provided at the forward end of the manifold
      Remove rear end cover.
                                                       jacket. whereby any air present in th~ water
      Remove impeller.
                                                       cooling systemmay be removed.
      Remove wearplate.
  W ith the front bearing cover removed. a suitable    OU Cooler.
press may be used to press out the impeller shaft         Provision is made at the front end of tl.e sump
together with the front bearing, leaving the driving   for the fitment of an enginelubricating oir cooler.
gear wheelloose in its housing.                        With this, heat from the engine oir is lost as it
  The cam in the impeller housing maf then he          circulates round a systemof tubes through which
detached by removing the single securing setscrew.     are pumped water from the cooling system.
       Remove rubber seal in impeller housing.            With the fitting of a hydraulic gearbox, a
       Remove rubber .. 0 ,. ring.                     further similar type oir c;ooler must be titted in
       Remove distance-pieces.                         order to cool the gearbox oir.tThe mounting for
                                                       this additional cooler is on the top of the gearbox.
   The driving gear wheel housing and impeller
                                                          The pump necessary    to lift the oil is ~nclosedin
shaft rear hearing may then be removed from the
                                                       the gearbox-
pump body.
       Finally remove front rubber seal.               Sump Oir Pump (Hand Operated).
   To reassemble the water pump, the reverse             On the majority of marine installations it is
order of the above procedure should be adopted,        impossible to gain accessto the sump drain plug
care being taken 'when replacing the rubber            which is situated on the bottom of the sump.
impeller that the blades alllay in the same direc-     Therefore, in order to facilitate the draining ot
tion relative tv the rotation of the pump. i.e.        the engine oil. a hand pump may be provided
blades trailing.                                       This pump when used must be titted ~'emote    from
   When reassembling, ensure that the rubber           the engine. Drainage of the sump is etfected by
impeller is coated with a layer of water resisting     operation of the pump after attachir:g a length of
grease. It should also be noted that, if necessary,    suitable piping to the inlet side of the pump and
the impeller may be dismantled without removing        placing the free end of the pipe into the SIImpvia
the water pump.                                        the dipstick orifice.
      J                                                                                    .
 ~                                                                                      1.4 MARINE   EN GINEs-   W .5

                                           L4 MARINE ENGINES

y         DAlLY
            Check Dil level in sump and gearbox.
                                                                 strainer (when fitted).
                                                                    Examine engine holding down balts.

            Checkcooling water circulation.                         Drain oil trom sump and fill with new lubricatlt.
            Checklubricating oil pressure.                          Clean feIt elementin lubricating oil filter.
            Check water level in header tank of heat                Unscrew drain plug on final fuel filter. replace
          exchangerwhen fitted.                                  .vhenclean fuel appears.

u         EVERY 50 HOURS
            Clean gearbox oil filter (hydraulic type gearbo~
                                                                 EVERY 500 HOURS
                                                                  Clean and checkatomisers.

          only).                                                  Renew feIt elementin lubricating oil filter.
            Check. and if necessary.   top up batteries with      Clean gauze trap in Jubricating filter body.
          distilled water.
          EVERY 100 HOURS                                        EVERY 1,000HOURS

                                                                   When fitted. examine heat exchangerfur scale
             Check oil level in reduction gearbox where
          fitted.                                                formation and de-scaJe
                                                                                      if necessary.
              Lubricate and examine adjustment of single           Inspect commutators and brushes of dynamo
                                                                 and starter motor.

          lever throttle control (if fitted).
              Clean pre-filter if fitted to lift pump.             Renew element in Final Fuel Filter.
              Checkoil fi(lw to rocker shaft.                    WheneverEngine is removednom Boat.
              Examine valve springs and check tappets.                Clean sump strainer.

u             Examine and clean water inlet weed trap and            Cleanout fuel tank.

                                      For preservation of laid up engines see page F .2.

u                                                                                  ,.






             Available trom V. L. Churchill & Co. Ltd., Daventry, Northamptonshire, England.

         PD IC Valve Guide Remover and Replacer              R6 P3.144 3.152 83.152 4.192 4.203
         Engine Type: All                                    Removes water pump pulley on1yon
         With tbis tooI. all valve guidescan he removedand   6.305 L4 4.270 4.99 4.107 4.108
         replaced provided pulIer bars are available.        Removeswater pump pulley and camshaft gear
         PD IC-I PuIIer Bars                                 6.354
         Engine Type: All
         Two bars are supplied for usewith PD ICto suit      PD lSSA-2 SDM1D Adjustable PuJIer Adaptors
         h in and i in i/ct valve guide bores.               Engine Type: P3 P4 P6
                                                             To remove Iow position water pump pulley.
         PD IC-2 Valve Guide RepJacing   Stop
         EngineType: 4.99 4.107 4.108                        PD lSSA-4 smaU Adjustabie ruller Adaptor
         When the valve guide is replaced using one of       EngineType: will ensurethat the guide protrudes   P3.144 3.152 B3.152 4.192 4.203
         the correct amount above tbe top face of the        Removal of Dil pump gear.
         cylinder head.
                                                             No. 3 Tension Wrench
         PD IC-3 Valve Guide Replacing Stop                  Engine Type: All
         Engine Type: 6.354 4.236                            t in squaredrive 25 to 170lbf ft.
         Remarks: SeePD 1C.2
                                                             PD ISO Cylinder Liner Remover and Replacer
         PD lC-4 Valve Guide ReplacingStop
                                                             Engine Type :
         Engine Type :
                                                             6.354 4.236 3.152 03.152 4.203 04.203
         P3 P3.144 B3.152 3.152 4.192               4.203
         P4 P6 6.288 6.305
         Remarks: SeePD lC.2                                 PD 150-1Cylbttr Liner Remover/Repfaer
         38 U3 Piston AssemblyRing                           Engine Type :
         Engine Type: All                                    6.354 4.236 3.152 03.152 4.203 D4.203
         This is an expandable piston assemblyring for       6.305
         Stct.and oversizepistonson all enginetypes.         For usewith PD 150.
         PD 37 Flywheel Runout Gauge                         316X Vatve SeatCutter HandJe
         Engine Type: All                                    EngineType: AII
         With this tooi, a check caD speedily be made on     This tooi is required for the operation of ali
         the alignment of the ftywheel,ftywheelhousing or    cutters and pilots.
         back plate.
                                                             316-10Valve Seat Cutter Pilot
         PD 418 PNon Height and Vatve Depth Gauge
                                                             Engine Type:
         Engine Type: All                                    P3 P3.144 3.152 B3.152 4.107 4.99 4.108
         For checkingpiston heightsand valve depths.         4.192 4.203 P4 P6 6.288 6.305
         PD 155A SomDAdjustable ruller                       This pilot is suitable for all guides that have a
         Engine Type: All                                    nominal frr in i/d bore.
         CaD be used with suitable adaptors to remove
                                                             316-12ValveSeat   CutterPilot
         water pump pulley, oil pump drive gears and
         camshaft gear.                                      Engine Type:
                                                             L4 4.270 R6 F340 56 4.236 6.354
         PD 155A-l Small Adjustable PuUerAdaptors            This pilot is suitable for all guides having a
         Engine Type :                                       nominal t in iid bore.


 316-125VaJveSeatCutter Pilot                           7066Orcfip Pliers                                     T
 EngineType: 4.236(0.015in oversize)                    Engine Type : AII
 This piJot is for vaJve bores which have been          Two types of points are available. t in shaft size.
 reamed0.015 in oversize.                               t in - 1 in "B" shaft sire I in - 3 in.
 316-13Valve SeatCutter Pilot                          3SSConnectingRod Alignment Jig
 Engine Type: 4.236(0.030in oversize)                  Engine Type: All
 This piJot is for vaJve bores which have been         Enables a quick check to be made on the align-
 reamed0.030 in oversize.                              ment of connecting rods - various adaptors are
 PD 137 Valve Bore Reamer (0.015 in overstz.e)         required as follows :-
 EngineType: 4.236                                     336 Multi-PurI")8e Con. Rod Arbor                      T
 This reamer is only suitable for guideJess
                                          cyl'inder    Engine Type: All
 heads.                                                Required with the above tooI.
PD 138 Valve Bore Reamer (0.030 in oversize)           PD 336-1 Adaptor                                       r
Engine Type: 4.236                                     Engine Type :
This reamer is onJysuitable for guideJess
                                        cyJinder       P3 P3.I44 B3.152 3.152 4.192 4.203 P4
heads.                                                 P6 6.288 6.305
PD 317-23Valve SeatCutter Exhaust                      This adaptor is fitted into the big end bore when
PD 317-26Valve SeatCutter fnlet                        checking alignment. (Thin wall bearings only).
317-G22Glaze Breaker Exhaust                           PD 336-3 Adaptor
317-G2.5 GJazeBreaker fnlet                            Engine Type: L4 4.270
Engine Type :                                          Remarks: SeePD 336-1
P3 P3.144 B3.152 3.152 4.192 4.203 P4
P6 6.288 6.305                                         PD 336-5 Adaptor
The above cutters have beendesignedto cut seats        Engine Type: 4.99 4.107
to the correct angle and at the same time reduce       Remarks: SeePD 336-1
seat width. It is strongly recommendedthat the         PD 336-6 Adaptor
glaze breakers be used first as this will greatly      Engine Type: 6.354 4.236
reducethe chattering of the cutters.                   Remarks: SeePD 336-1
PD 317-2.5Valve SeatCutter Exbaust                     6118 VaJveSpring Compressor
PD 317-29Valve SeatCutter fnlet                        Engine Type: All
317-GJOGlaze Breaker Exhaust and fnlet                 Thirivalve spring compressorbas beendesig.'1ed to
Engine Type :                                          remove valve springs without removing the cylin-
L4 4.270 R6 F340                                       der head, providing the adaptors are available.
Remarks: SeePD 317-23
                                                       PD 6118-1Valve Spring CompressorAdaptor
317-30Valve SeatCutter Exbaust and Inlet               Engine Type: 4.99 4.107 4.108
317G-JOGlaze Breaker Exbaust and fnlet                 The adaptor is fitted to the rocker shaft securing
Engine Type :                                          studs.
6.354 4.236 D4.203 D3.152
                                                       PD 6118-2 Valve Spring CompressorAdaptor
Remarks: SeePD 317-23
                                                       Engine Type:
PD 317-18Valve SeatCutter Exhaust                      P3 P4 P6 6.288 6.305 S6
PD 317-22VaJveSeatCutter InJet                         Remarks: SeePD 6118-  1
317-G19 Glaze Breaker Exhaust and fnJet
Engine Type:                                       .   PD 6118-3 Valve Spring CompressorAdaptor
                                                       Engine Type :
4.99 4.107 4.108                                       P3.144 B3.152 3.152 4.192 4.203 L4
Remarks: SeePD 317-23                                  4.270 R6 F340
FC9900 Ato~r      Tester                               Remarks: SeePD 6118-1
EngineType: All                                        PD 6118-4VaJveSpring Compressor
This is a portable tester fitted with a paper filter   Engine Type: 6.354 4.236
element.                                               Remarks: SeePD 6118-1


             PD 130Foei PumpAllen Screw  Wreoch                  6000c-4 Com~on      Tester Adaptor
             Engine Type: 4.192 4.203 4.99 4.107 4.108           Engine Type : 6.354 4.270 4.236
             Used to removethe Allen Screwsecuringthe fuel       Remarks: See6000c-3
             injection pump.
                                                                 6000C-9 Com~D       Tester Adaptor
             6000CCompression    Tester                          Engine Type: 4.99 4.107 4.108

             EngineType: Seeadaptor details                      Remarks: See 600)(;-3
             Usedlor testingcylinder compressions
                                                when using
             [he following adaptors.                             6400 Crankshait F1l1etRadii Rollblg Tooi
                                                                 Engine Types :
             6000C-3Com~on         Tester Adaptor

                                                                 P4 4.192 4.203 P6 6.288 6.305 4.270
             Engine Type :                                       For co1d rolling of fillet radii on certain crankshaft
             P3 P6 P3.144 83.152 3.152 P4 4.192.                 main joumals.
             4.203 6.288 6.305 L4 R6 F340
             This adaptor replacesthe atomiserlor compres-       6400-1 Adaptor Set
             SjOR testing.                                       For use with the above.


~                                                            .
~       ~


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The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.