Sunday, October20, 2019 L-36.com

Universal Diesel M 50 Technical Manual



Note:

This is the new page for displaying documents. It allows documents to display on devices without pdf viewers specifically mobile devices, a new Google requirement. Note also that some documents have blank pages. Just click on "Next Page" if that happens.
Previous Page    Next Page Go to page number Note: Page number may not agree with index page numbers


Previous Page    Next Page
Go to page number
Note: Page number may not agree with index page numbers

PDF to Text.

   SERVICE MANUAL
         MODELS


M - 30     M- 40      M - 50




         PIN 200154
                                               CONTENTS


NOTE: Refer to the beginning of the individual sections for a cqrnplete table of contents for that section.


SECTION I - SPECIFICATIONS .................................................... 1-18
SECTION II - PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ........................................ 19-24
SECTION III - CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION .................................... 25-30
SECTION IV - LUBRICATION, COOLING, AND FUEL SySTEMS ....................... 31-49
SECTION V - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM .............................................. 51-82
SECTION VI - DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY ................................. 83-130
SECTION VII - DYNAMO AND REGULATOR ...................................... 132-147
TROUBLESHOOTING ......................................................... 148-157
NOTES




        I
        a
        I
ii      ~
        ~
                             SECTION 1- SPECIFICATIONS


Model M-30 ...................................................................... 2,3
Model M-40 ..................................................................... 4,5
Model .M-50 .................................................. ,
                                                               .................., . 6,7
Parts Specifications . ............................................................. 8-15
Bolt Torques . ................................................................. . 16-18




                                           1
                            UNIVERSAL MODEL M-30 SPECIFICATIONS

Horsepower                                                            24 @ 2800

No. of Cylinders                                                            3
Bore x Stroke                                                         3.00 x 3.23

Cubic Inch                                                                 68

Maximum R.P.M.                                                             2800

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                           2000-2400 R.P.M.

Compression Ratio                                                          21:1

Electrical Equipment                                         12 Volt - 51 Amp W/Glow Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. Qts)                                         5.0 to 5.5

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:          FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                             FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. "/1\' or GM-DEXRON - II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                     2:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                     6 qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 V4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 300209

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

We.ight (Ibs.)                                                          4251bs.

Injection Nozzle                                                 PIN 298787 & 298788



Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 Qt. of Trans. Oil, 2 Qts. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                         2
                                UNIVERSAL MODEL M-30



                                FUEL LINES



                                                                     AIR BREATHER


 GLOW   PLUG~-   _ _ _ ___                                                     FUEL AIR
                                                                              LEED VALVE
SEA WATER OVERBOARD

HEAT EX. DRAIN & ZINC_                                        c---_   STOP LEVER
TRANS. DIP STICK
  OIL FILL HOLE - - -

    SHIFT LEVER                                                   '----OIL FILTER
                                                              BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN
ENGINE COUPLIN




                     TIMING PORT




         COOLANT AIR BLEED VALVE        COOLANT FILL CAP

                                                       MANIFOLD
THERMOSTAT HSG.

                                                            AUST FLANGE
 F.W. CIRCULATING                                            MANIFOLD DRAIN
       PUMP - - - ,                                            HEAT EXCHANGER

    ALTERNATOR                                                     HEAT EX. CLEAN·OUT
                                                                        COVERS
SEA WATER PUMP
                                                             ----DRAIN AND ZINC

         V·BELT                                                    TRANSMISSION


                                                                    n_'I"~_   DRAIN PLUG




                                        OIL PAN
                    DIP STICK




                                         "3
                           UNIVERSAL MODEL M-40 SPECIFICATIONS

Horsepower                                                              32 @ 2800

No. of Cylinders                                                             4

Bore x Stroke                                                           3.00 x 3.23

Cubic Inch                                                                  91

Maximum R.P.M.                                                             2800

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                            2000/2500 R. P.M.

Compression Ratio                                                           21:1

Electrical Equipment                                        12 Volt - 51 Amp WIGlow Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. ats.)                                          8.0 to 8.5

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION: FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK
                                                               .
Lubrication (Trans.)                             FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

  (Type AFT. "1\' or GM-DEXRON -        II Do not mix different oils)

Transmission Reduction                                                      2:1
Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                       8 qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                          1 V4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                                #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                             PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                              PIN 299927

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.

Propeller Rotation                                                      Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                            5451bs.

Injection Nozzle (Prior to Ser. #315023)                           PIN 299517 &299518
                 (After Ser. #315023)                                   PIN 299567



Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 Ots. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                        4
                                   UNIVERSAL MODEL M-40



                                   FUEL LINES



                                                                        AIR BREATHER

     FUEL RETURN
  GLOW PLUGS-_ _ _ __                                                         FUEL AIR
                                                                            BLEED VALVE
SEA WATER OVERBOARD
                                                               ---THROTTLE
HEAT EX. DRAIN & ZIN                                              - - STOP LEVER
TRANS. DIP STICK
  OIL FILL HOLE - - -

                                                                     - - O I L FILTER
                                                                 BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN
ENGINE COUPLING/


                                                                 EX MOUNTS
                       TIMING PORT




          COOLANT AIR BLEED VALVE          COOLANT FILL CAP

                                                          MANIFOLD
THERMOSTAT HSG



 F.W. CIRCULATING                                               MANIFOLD DRAIN
       PUMP - - - '                                               HEAT EXCHANGER

    ALTERNATOR                                                        HEAT EX. CLEAN·OUT
                                                                           COVERS
SEA WATER PUMP
                                                                - - - - DRAIN AND ZINC

          V·BELT                                                      TRANSMISSION


                                                                        RANS. DRAIN PLUG




                                           OIL PAN
                       DIP STICK




                                                5
                            UNIVERSAL MODEL M-50 SPECIFICATIONS

Horsepower                                                            44   @   3000

No. of Cylinders                                                             4

Bore x Stroke                                                         3.35 x 3.23

Cubic Inch                                                                  115

Maximum R.P.M.                                                             3000

Cruising Range (Approx.)                                           2000/2500 R.P.M.

Compression Ratio                                                           21:1

Electrical Equipment                                        12 Volt - 51 Amp WIGlow Plugs

Lubrication (Eng. Approx. Ots.)                                             8.5

  (SAE 30 HD. (CD) or 10W40) CAUTION:           FILL ONLY TO FULL MARK ON DIPSTICK

Lubrication (Trans.)                               FILL TO FULL RING ON DIPSTICK

Transmission Reduction                                                     1.9:1

Coolant FWC (50/50 Solution Approx.)                                       8 qts.

Exhaust Flange                                                        1 1/4" N.P.T.

Fuel Type                                                              #2 Diesel

Fuel Filter                                                           PIN 298854

Oil Filter                                                            PIN 299927

Eng. Operating Temp. Degrees F.                                       1650 to 1950

Propeller Rotation                                                    Right Hand

Weight (Ibs.)                                                           545 Ibs.

Injection Nozzle                                                      PIN 299567



Engine is governor controlled to prevent overspeed. It is recommended to carry the following extra parts should
the need arise: V-Belt, Sea Water Pump Impeller, Fuel & Lube Oil Filters, 1 at. of Trans. Oil, 2 Ots. Lub. Oil
and 1 Gal. of 50/50 Coolant.

All pictorial views and specifications subject to change without notice.




                                                        6
                             UNIVERSAL MODEL M-50



                                FUEL LINES


                                                                        AIR BREATHER

     FUEL RETURN                                                        INJECTOR PUMP

 GLOW PLUGS-_ _ _ __                                                               FUEL AIR
                                                                        - - ,... , EED VALVE
SEA WATER OVERBOARD
                                                                 ------ TH ROTTLE
HEAT EX. DRAIN & ZINC_                                             ,..--- STOP LEVER

TRANS. DIP STICK
  OIL FILL HOLE - -

    SHIFT LEVER                                                      ~-OIL      FILTER
                                                                   BLOCK COOLANT DRAIN
ENGINE COUPLING/


                                                                   LEX MOUNTS
                      TIMING PORT




         COOLANT AIR BLEED VALVE        COOLANT FILL CAP

                                                        MANIFOLD
THERMOSTAT HSG.
                                                               EXHAUST FLANGE
                                                           /              LD DRAIN
 F.W. CIRCULATING
       PUMP - - -

    ALTERNATOR                                                        HEAT EX. CLEAN·OUT
                                                                           COVERS
SEA WATER PUMP
                                                                      . DRAIN AND ZINC


         V·BELT


                                                                          NS. DRAIN PLUG



                                                   STARTER
                                         OIL PAN
                    DIP STICK




                                             7
                                  ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

ENGINE BODY

Cylinder Head

               Item                      M-30                    M-40
 Cylinder head surface                 0.05 mm                 0.05 mm
 flatness                             (0.002 in.)             (0.002 in.)
                                     0.7 to 0.9 mm           0.7 to 0.9 mm
 Top clearance
                                  (0.028 to 0.035 in.)    (0.028 to 0.035 in.)
                      Free          1.30 to 1.60 mm         1.30 to 1.60 mm
  Gasket                          (0.051 to 0.063 in.)    (0.051 to 0.063 in.)
  thickness                         1.05 to 1.15 mm         1.05 to 1.15 mm
                      Tightened
                                  (0.041 to 0.045 in.)    (0.041 to 0.045 in.)
                                       0.2 mm                  0.2 mm
  Gasket shim thickness
                                      (0.008 in.)             (0.008 in.)

 Compression pressure                   448 psi                 448 psi

  Variance among cylinders                -                       -
Valves (IN., EX.)

 Valve clearance (cold)            0.18 to 0.22 mm         0.18 to 0.22 mm
                                  (0.007 to 0.008 in.)    (0.007 to 0.008 in.)
                                       2.1 mm                  2.1 mm
 Valve seat width
                                      (0.083 in.)             (0.083 in.)

 Valve seat angle                         450                     450

 Valve face angle                         450                     450

                                     1.1 to 1.3 mm           1.1 to 1.3 mm
 Valve recessing
                                  (0.043 to 0.051 in.)    (0.043 to 0.051 in.)
 Clearance between valve            0.04 to 0.07 mm         0.04 to 0.07 mm
 stem and guide                   (0.001 to 0.003 in.)    (0.001 to 0.003 in.)
                                  7.960 to 7.975 mm       7.960 to 7.975 mm
  Valve stem O. D.
                                  (0.313 to 0.314 in.)    (0.313 to 0.314 in.)
  Valve guide 1.0.                8.015 to 8.030 mm       8.015 to 8.030 mm
                                  (0.315 to 0.316 in.)    (0.315 to 0.316 in.)
Valve Timing

                      Open             0.35 rad.              0.35 rad.
                                   (200 before TDC        (200 before TDC)
 Inlet valve
                                      0.79 rad.                0.79 rad.
                      Close
                                   (450 after TDC           (450 after TDC
                                       0.87 rad.               0.87 rad.
                      Open
                                   (500 before TDC         (500 before TDC
 Exhaust valve
                      Close            0.26 rad.               0.26 rad.
                                    (150 after TDC         (150 after TDC)
Valve Springs

 Free length                       41.7 to 42.2 mm         41.7 to 42.2 mm
                                  (1.642 to 1.661 in.)    (1.642 to 1.661 in.
                                        1.0 mm                  1.0 mm
 Tilt
                                      (0.039 in.)             (0.039 in.)
                                       1.117 N.                1.117 N
 Tension
                                  (12 kgf, 26.5 Ibs.)     (12 kgf, 26.5 Ibs.)




                                                     8
                       ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




                                                   Allowable
       M-50
                                                     Limit
     0.05 mm
                                                        -
    (0.002 in.)
   0.7 to 0.9 mm
(0.028 to 0.035 in.)
                                                        -
 1.30 to 1.60 mm                                        -
(0.051 to 0.063 in.
  1.05 to 1.15 mm                                       -
(0.041 to 0.045 in.)
     0.2 mm                                             -
    (0.008 in.)

      448 psi                                        350 psi

        -                                              10%


 0.18 to 0.22 mm                                        -
(0.007 to 0.008 in.)
      2.1 mm                                            -
     (0.083 in.

        450                                             -

        450                                             -
   1.1 to 1.3 mm                                      1.6 mm
(0.043 to 0.051 in.)                                (0.063 in.)
  0.04 to 0.07 mm                                    0.1 mm
(0.001 to 0.003 in.)                                (0.004 in.
7.960 to 7.975 mm                                       -
(0.313 to 0.314 in.)
8.015 to 8.030 mm                                       -
(0.315 to 0.316 in.)


     0.35 rad                                           -
(200 before TDC)
     0.79 rad.                                          -
 (45 0 after TDC)
     0.87 rad.                                          -
 (500 before TDC
     0.26 rad.
                                                        -
  (150 After TDC


 41.7 to 42.2 mm                                     41.2 mm
(1.642 to 1.661 in.                                 (1.622 in.)
      1.0 mm                                          1.00 N
     (0.039 in.                                (10.2 kgf, 22.5 Ibs.)
     1.117 N
(12 kgf, 26.5 Ibs.)                                     -




                                 9
                                    ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS



Rocker Arm

               Item                         M-30                    M-40
 Clearance between rocker            0.Q18 to 0.070 mm        0.Q18 to 0.070 mm
 arm and bushing                    (0.0007 to 0.003 in.)    (0.0007 to 0.003 in.)

 Rocker arm shaft 0.0.              13.973 to 13.984 mm      13.973 to 13.984 mm
                                     (0.550 to 0.551 in.)     (0.550 to 0.551 in.)

 Rocker arm bushing 1.0.            14.002 to 14.043 mm      14.002 to 14.043 mm
                                     (0.551 to 0.553 in.)     (0.551 to 0.553 in.)

Camshaft

 Camshaft alignment                       0.05 mm                  0.05 mm
                                         (0.002 in.)              (0.002 in.)

 Cam height (IN., EX.)                   33.36 mm                 33.36 mm
                                         (1.313 in.)              (1.313 in.)

 Oil clearance of camshaft           0.050 to 0.091 mm        0.050 to 0.091 mm
                                     (0.002 to 0.004 in.)     (0.002 to 0.004 in.)

   Camshaft journal 0.0.            39.934 to 39.950 mm      39.934 to 39.950 mm
                                     (1.572 to 1.573 in.)     (1.572 to 1.573 in.)

   Camshaft bearing 1.0.            40.000 to 40.025 mm      40.000 to 40.025 mm
                                     (1.575 to 1.576 in.)     (1.575 to 1.576 in.)

Timing Gear

 Timing gear backlash                0.042 to 0.115 mm        0.042 to 0.115 mm
                                     (0.002 to 0.005 il).)    (0.002 to 0.005 in.)

 Idle gear side clearance             0.20 to 0.51 mm          0.20 to 0.51 mm
                                     (0.008 to 0.020 in.)     (0.008 to 0.020 in.)
 Clearance between idle gear         0.Q16 to 0.045 mm        0.Q16 to 0.045 mm
 shaft and idle gear bushing        (0.0006 to 0.001 in.)    (0.0006 to 0.001 in.)

   Idle gear shaft 0.0.             15.973 to 15.984 mm      15.973 to 15.984 mm
                                     (0.628 to 0.629 in.)     (0.628 to 0.629 in.)

   Idle gear bushing 1.0.           16.000 to 16.018 mm      16.000 to 16.018 mm
                                     (0.621 to 0.630 in.)     (0.621 to 0.630 in.)

Cylinder (Liner)

 Cylinder (Liner) 1.0.              76.000 to 76.019 mm      76.000 to 76.019 mm
                                     (2.992 to 2.993 in.)     (2.992 to 2.993 in.)

 Oversize of cylinder liner               +0.5 mm                  +0.5 mm
                                         (+0.020 in.)            (+0.020 in.)

Piston/Piston Ring

 Piston pin hole 1.0.               23.000 to 23.013 mm      23.000 to 23.013 mm
                                     (2.905 to 0.906 in.)     (0.905 to 0.906 in.)
                      Compression    0.093 to 0.120 mm        0.093 to 0.120 mm
 Piston ring          ring 2         (0.004 to 0.005 in.)     (0.004 to 0.005 in.)
 clearance
                      Oil ring
                                     0.020 to 0.052 mm        0.020 to 0.052 mm
                                    (0.0008 to 0.002 in.)    (0.0008 to 0.002 in.)
                      Compression     0.30 to 0.45 mm          0.30 to 0.45 mm
                      ring 1, 2      (0.012 to 0.Q18 in.)     (0.012 to 0.Q18 in.)
 Ring gap
                      Oil ring        0.25 to 0.45 mm          0.25 to 0.45 mm
                                     (0.010 to 0.Q18 in.)     (0.010 to 0.Q18 in.)

 Oversize of piston rings                  +0.5 mm                 +0.5 mm
                                         (+0.020 in.)            (+0.020 in.)




                                                        10
                        ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




        M-50                                    Allowable
                                                   Limit
 0.Q18 to 0.070 mm                               0.15 mm
(0.0007 to 0.003 in.)                           (0.006 in.)
13.973 to 13.984 mm
 (0.550 to 0.551 in.)
                                                    -
14.002 to 14.043 mm
 (0.551 to 0.553 in.
                                                    -


      0.05 mm
     (0.002 in.)                                    -
     33.36 mm                                   33.31 mm
     (1.313 in.)                                (1.315 in.)
 0.050 to 0.091 mm                                 0.15
 (0.002 to 0.004 in.)                           (0.006 in.)
39.934 to 39.950 mm
 (1.572 to 1.573 in.)
                                                    -
40.000 to 40.025 mm
 (1.575 to 1.576 in.)
                                                    -



 0.042 to 0.115 mm                               0.15 mm
 (0.002 to 0.005 in.)                           (0.006 in.)
  0.20 to 0.51 mm                                 0.6mm
 (0.008 to 0.020 in.)                           (0.024 in.)
 0.Q16 to 0.045 mm                               0.10mm
(0.0006 to 0.001 in.)                           (0.004 in.)
15.973 to 15.984 mm
 (0.628 to 0.629 in.)
                                                    -
16.000 to 16.018 mm
                                                    -
 (0.621 to 0.630 in.)

         -                                          -
85.000 to 85.022 mm                              +0.15 mm
 (3.346 to 3.347 in.)                           (+0.006 in.)
     +0.5 mm
    (+0.020 in.)                                    -


23.000 to 23.013 mm                             23.053 mm
 (0.905 to 0.906 in.)                            (0.907 in.)
 0.093 to 0.120 mm
 (0.004 to 0.005 in.)                               -
 0.020 to 0.052 mm
(0.0008 to 0.002 in.)                               -
  0.30 to 0.45 mm                                1.25 mm
 (0.012 to 0.Q18 in)                            (0.049 in.)
  0.25 to 0.45 mm                                1.25 mm
 (0.010 to 0.Q18 in.)                           (0.049 in.)
     +0.5 mm
    (+0.020 in.)
                                                    -




                                 11
                                   ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




                 Item                      M-30                       M-40

 Crankshaft alignment                    0.02 mm                    0.02 mm
                                        (0.0008 in.)               (0.0008 in.)
 Oil clearance between crank-       0.040 to 0.118 mm          0.040 to 0.118 mm
 shaft journal and bearing          (0.002 to 0.004 in.)       (0.002 to 0.004 in.)
                   Front and       51.921 to 51.940 mm        51.921 to 51.940 mm
                   intermediate     (2.044 to 2.045 in.)       (2.044 to 2.045 in.)
  Journal 0.0.
                   Rear            51.921 to 51.940 mm        51.921 to 51.940 mm
                                    (2.044 to 2.045 in.)       (2.044 to 2.045 in.)
                   Front and      51.980 to 52.039 mm        51.980 to 52.039 mm
                   intermediate    (2.046 to 2.049 in.)       (2.046 to 2.049 in.)
  Bearing 1.0.
                   Rear           51.980 to 52.025 mm        51.980 to 52.025 mm
                                   (2.046 to 2.048 in.)       (2.046 to 2.048 in.)
 Oil clearance between crank        0.035 to 0.093 mm          0.035 to 0.093 mm
 pin and bearing                    (0.002 to 0.004 in.)       (0.002 to 0.004 in.)
                                  43.959 to 43.975 mm         43.959 to 43.975 mm
  Crank pin 0.0.
                                   (1.731 to 1.732 in.)        (1.731 to 1.732 in.)
                                  44.010 to 44.052 mm         44.010 to 44.052 mm
  Crank pin bearing 1.0.
                                   (1.733 to 1.734 in.)        (1.733 to 1.734 in.)
                                     0.15 to 0.31 mm             0.15 to 0.31 mm
 Crank shaft side clearance
                                    (0.006 to 0.012 in.)       (0.006 to 0.012 in.)
 Under sizes of crankshaft         -0.02 mm, -0.04 mm         -0.02 mm,     -0.04 mm
 bearing and crank pin bearing    (-0.008 in., -0.016 in.)   (-0.008 in,    -0.Q16 in.)
                                    +0.2mm, +0.4 mm           +0.02 mm,     +0.04 mm
 Oversizes of thrust bearing      (+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)   (+0.008 in.,   +0.016 in.)
Connecting Rod
                                         0.02 mm                    0.02 mm
 Connecting rod alignment
                                        (0.0008 in.)               (0.0008 in.,
 Oil clearance between piston       0.014 to 0.038 mm          0.014 to 0.038 mm
 pin and small end bushing         (0.0006 to 0.001 in.)      (0.0006 to 0.001 in.)
                                   23.002 to 23.011 mm        23.002 to 23.011 mm
  Piston 0.0.
                                    (0.905 to 0.906 in.)       (0.905 to 0.906 in.)
  Small end bushing 1.0.           23.000 to 23.013 mm        23.000 to 23.013 mm
  (fitting)                         (0.905 to 0.906 in.)       (0.905 to 0.906 in.)
WBRICATING SYSTEM
                   At idle              1.0 kgf/cm 2               1.0 kgf/cm 2
 Oil pressure      speed                 (14.2 Dsi)                 (14.2 DSi)
                   At rated         3.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm 2        3.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm 2
                   speed              (43 to 64 psi)             (43 to 64 psi)
Oil Pump
 Rotor lobe clearance                0.10 to 0.16 mm            0.04 to 0.13 mm
                                    (0.004 to 0.006 in.)       (0.002 to 0.005 in.)
 Radial clearance between            0.11 to 0.19 mm             0.11 to 0.19 mm
 outer rotor and pump body           (0.004 to 0.007)          (0.004 to 0.007 in.)
 End clearance between rotor        0.105 to 0.150 mm          0.105 to 0.150 mm
 and cover                          (0.004 to 0.006 in.)       (0.004 to 0.006 in.)
Oil Filter
 Opening pressure of bypass               98 KPa                     98 KPa
 valve                             1.0 kgf/cm 2 (14.2 psi)    1.0 kgf/cm 2 (14.2 psi)




                                                       12
                            ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




                                                    Allowable
         M-50
                                                      Limit
       0.02 mm                                       0.08 mm
      (0.0008 in.)                                  (0.003 in.)
  0.040 to 0.118 mm                                  0.20 mm
  (0.002 to 0.004 in.)                              (0.008 in.)
 51.921 to 51.940 mm
  (2.044 to 2.045 in.)
                                                        -
 51.921 to 51.940 mm
                                                        -
  (2.044 to 2.045 in.)
 51.980 to 52.039 mm
  (2.046 to 2.049 in.)
                                                        -
 51,980 to 52,025 mm
  (2,046 to 2.048 in.)
                                                        -
  0.035 to 0.093 mm                                  0.20 mm
  (0.002 to 0.004 in)                               (0.008 in.)
 43.959 to 43.975 mm
                                                        -
  (1.731 to 1.732 in.)
 44.010 to 44.052 mm
                                                        -
  (1.733 to 1.734 in.)
    0.15 to 0.31 mm                                    0.5mm
 (0.006 in. to 0.012 in.)                            (0.020 in.
  -0.02 mm, -0.04 mm
                                                        -
(-0.008 mm, -0.016 mm
 +0.02 mm, +0.04 mm                                     -
(+0.008 in., +0.016 in.)


        0.02 mm                                      0.05 mm
      (0.0008 in.)                                  (0.002 in.)
   0.014 to 0.038 mm                                 0.15 mm
  (0.0006 to 0.001 in.)                             (0.006 in.)
 23.002 to 23.011 mm                                    -
  (0.905 to 0.906 in.)
 23.000 to 23.013 mm                                23.053 mm
  (0.905 to 0.906 in.)                               (0.907 in.)


      1.0 kgf/cm 2                                   or more
       (14.2 psi)
   3.0 to 4.5 kgf/cm2                               2.5 kgf/cm 2
     (43 to 64 psi)                                   (35 psi)


    0.04 to 0.13 mm                                  0.20 mm
  (0.002 to 0.005 in.)                              (0.008 in.)
    0.11 to 0.19 mm                                  0.25 mm
  (0.004 to 0.007 in.)                              (0.010 in.)
  0.105 to 0.150 mm                                  0.2 mm
  (0.004 to 0.006 in.)                              (0.008 in.)


        98 KPa
 1.0 kgf/cm 2 (14.2 psi)




                                     13
                                       ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

COOLING SYSTEM

Fan Belt

                Item                          M-30                           M-40
 Belt deflection under load of             7 to 9 mm                      7 to 9 mm
 98 N (10 kgf, 21 Ibs.)                (0.275 to 0.355 in.)           (0.275 to 0.355 in.)
Heat Exchanger
                                           1.2 kgf/cm 2                   1.2 kgf/cm 2
 Exchanger water tightness
                                          (14 to 15 psi)                 (14 to 15 psi)
 Radiator cap opening                   0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm 2            0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm 2
 pressure                                  (15 to 9 psi)                  (15 to 9 psi)
Thermostat
 Thermostat's valve opening                    60 C                           60 C
 temperature                                 (140°) F                       (140°) F
 Temperature at which                         73.9 C                         73.9 C
 thermostat completely opens                 (165°) F                       (1650) F
FUEL SYSTEM
Injection Pump
 Injection timing (static)            23° to 25° before TOC          23° to 25° before TOC

 Fuel tightness of pump                600 to 500 kgf/cm2             600 to 500 kgf/cm2
 element                               (8532 to 7110 Ibs.)            (8532 to 7110 Ibs.)
 Fuel tightness of delivery              100 to 5 kgf/cm2               100 to 5 kgf/cm2
 valve                                  (1422 to 71.1 Ibs.)            (1422 to 71.1 Ibs.)
Injection Nozzle

 Fuel injection pressure               140 to 150 kgf/cm2             140 to 150 kgf/cm2
                                       (1990 to 2133 Ibs.)            (1990 to 2133 Ibs.)
 Fuel tightness of nozzle valve        130 to 140 kgf/cm2             130 to 140 kgf/cm 2
 seat                                  (1848 to 1991 Ibs.)            (1848 to 1991 Ibs.)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Starter
                                             32.7 mm                        30.0 mm
 Commutator 0.0.
                                            (1.287 in.)                    (1.181 in.)

  Variance                                45 A or less                   90 A or less
                                          0.5 to 0.8 mm                  0.5 to 0.9 mm
 Mica undercut
                                       (0.092 to 0.032 in.)           (0.020 to 0.035 in.)
                                              19 mm                          19 mm
 Brush length
                                            (0.748 in.)                    (0.748 in.)
Glow Plug
I Resistance                            Approx. 1.5 ohm                Approx. 1.5 ohm
AC dynamo
I No-load output                  AC 20 volts or more 5200 RPM   AC 20 volts or more 5200 RPM
Regulator
I Regulating voltage                    13.8 to 14.8 volts             13.8 to 14.8 volts




                                                           14
                                 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS




                                                         Allowable
              M-50                                         Limit
           7 to 9 mm
       (0.275 to 0.355 in.)
                                                             -

           1.2 kgf/cm2
          (14 to 15 psi)
                                                             -
        0.9 to 0.6 kgf/cm2
           (15 to 9 psi)
                                                             -



              73.9 C
             (165<» F




     23° to 25° before TOC                                   -
       600 to 500 kgf/cm2
                                                             -
       (8532 to 7110 Ibs.)
         100 to 5 kgf/cm2
        (1422 to 71.1 Ibs.)
                                                             -

       140 to 150 kgf/cm2
                                                             -
       (1990 to 2133 Ibs.)
       130 to 140 kgf/cm2
                                                             -
       (1848 to 1991 Ibs.)



             30.0 mm
            (1.181 in.)
                                                             -
          90 A or less                                    0.2 mm
                                                         (0.008 in.)
          0.5 to 0.9 mm                                      -
       (0.020 to 0.035 in.)
              19 mm                                       12.7 mm
            (0.748 in.)                                  (0.500 in.


        Approx. 1.5 ohm


I AC 20 bolts or more 5200 RPM

        13.8 to 14.8 volts




                                         . 15
BOLT TORQUES

As a lot of bolts and nuts in the engine are of special shape, be careful to tighten them correctly using a torque wrench.
When tightening, follow this method: First tighten all the bolts 50% of the regular torque, then tighten them fully.

TIGHTENING BOLTS OF IMPORTANT PARTS

Marked bolts must be tightened after applying oil.



            MODEL                                 M-30                                           M-40

 Head bolts and nuts                          7.5 to 8.0 kgf/m                               7.5 to 8.0 kgf/m
                                          (54.2 to 57.9 ftllbs.)                         (54.2 to 57.9 ftllbs.)
 Bearing case bolts 1                         3.0 to 3.5 kgf/m                              3.0 to 3.5 kgflm
                                          (21.7 to 25.3 ftllbs.)                         (21.7 to 25.3 ftllbs.)
 Bearing case bolts 2                         3.0 to 3.5 kgf/m                               3.0 to 3.5 kgflm
                                          (21.7 to 25.3 ftllbs.)                         (21.7 to 25.3 ftllbs.)
 Flywheel bolts                                10 to 11 kgf/m                                 10 to 11 kgf/m
                                          (72.3 to 79.6 ft.llbs.)                        (72.3 to 79.6 ftllbs.)
 Connecting rod bolts                        3.7 to 4.2 kgflm                               3.7 to 4.2 kgf/m
                                          (26.8 to 30.4 ftllbs.)                         (26.8 to 30.4 ftllbs.)
 Rocker arm bracket studs                     1.7 to 2.1 kgf/m                              1.7 to 2.1 kgf/m
                                           (12.3 to 15.2 ftllbs.)                        (12.3 to 15.2 ftllbs.)
 Idle gear shaft bolts                       1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m                              1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
                                           (7.23 to 8.31 ftllbs.)                        (7.23 to 8.31 ftllbs.)
 Glow plugs                                  2.0 to 2.5 kgflm                               2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m
  (No neea to apply oil)                   (14.5 to 18.1 ftllbs.)                        (14.5 to 18.1 ftllbs.)
 Drain plugs                                  4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m                              4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m
                                          (28.9 to 36.2 ftllbs.)                         (28.9 to 36.2 ftllbs.)
 Nozzle holders                                 3 to 5 kgf/m                                   3 to 5 kgf/m
                                          (21.7 to 36.2 ftllbs.)                         (21.7 to 36.2 ftllbs.)
                                             0.14 to 0.2 kgf/m                              0.14 to 0.2 kgf/m
         Bis                               (10.1 to 14.5 ftllbs.)                        (10.1 to 14.5 ftllbs.)
Oil
Switch                                        1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m                               1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
         Taper screw
                                           (10.8 to 14.5 ftllbs.)                        (10.8 to 14.5 ftllbs.)
 Fuel limit lock nut                         2.8 to 3.5 kgf/m                               2.8 to 3.5 kgf/m
                                           (20.3 to 25.3 ftllbs.)                        (20.3 to 25.3 ftllbs.)
 Fuel limit cap nut                          2.5 to 3.0 kgf/m                               2.5 to 3.0 kgf/m
                                           (18.1 to 21.7 ftllbs.)                         (18.1 to 21.7 ftllbs.)
 Injection pipes                              1.5 to 2.6 kgf/m                               1.5 to 2.6 kgflm
                                           (10.8 to 18.8 ftllbs.)                         (10.8 to 18.8 ftllbs.)
 Crankshaft nut                                14 to 16 kgf/m                                 14 to 16 kgf/m
                                            (101 to 116 ftllbs.)                           (100 to 116 ftllbs.)
 Air vent screw                               1.4 to 1.8 kgf/m                               1.4 to 1.8 kgflm
 (on injection pump)                       (10.1 to 13.0 ftllbs.)                         (10.1 to 13.0 ftllbs.)




                                                      . 16
       M-50
  7.5 to 8.0 kgf/m
(54.2 to 57.9 ftllbs.)
  3.0 to 3.5 kgf/m
(21.7 to 25.3 ftllbs.)
  3.0 to 3.5 kgf/m
(21.7 to 25.3 ftllbs.)
   10 to 11 kgf/m
(72.3 to 79.6 ftllbs.)
  3.7 to 4.2 kgflm
(26.8 to 30.4 ftllbs.)
  1.7 to 2.1 kgf/m
(12.3 to 15.2 ftllbs.)
  1.0 to 1.15 kgf/m
(7.23 to 8.31 ftllbs.)
  2.0 to 2.5 kgf/m
(14.5 to 18.1 ftllbs.)
  4.0 to 4.5 kgf/m
(28.9 to 36.2 ftllbs.)
    3 to 5 kgf/m
(21.7 to 36.2 ftllbs.)
  0.14 to 0.2 kgf/m
(10.1 to 14.5 ftllbs.)
  1.5 to 2.0 kgf/m
(10.8 to 14.5 ftllbs.)
   2.8 3.5 kgf/m
(20.3 to 25.3 ftllbs.)
  2.5 to 3.0 kgf/m
(18.1 to 21.7 ftllbs.)
  1.5 to 2.6 kgf/m
(10.8 to 18.8 ftllbs.)
   14 to 16 kgf/m
 (101 to 116 ftllbs.)
  1.4 to 1.8 kgf/m
(10.1 to 13.0 ftllbs.)




                         17
Bolt Torques



           Material Grade            Standard Bolt                   Special Bolt            Special Bolt


   Nominal Dia.                        SS41,S20C                S43C, S48C (Refined)     SCR3, SCM3 (Refined)


            M6                       5.8 - 6.9 Ibs/ft.             7.2 - 8.3 Ibs/ft.        9.0 - 10.5 Ibs/ft.


            M8                      13.0 - 15.2 Ibslft.           17.4 - 20.3 Ibs/ft.      21.7 - 25.3 Ibs/ft.


           M 10                     28.9 - 33.3 Ibs/ft.           35.4 - 41.2 Ibs/ft.      44.8 - 52.1 Ibs/ft.


           M 12                     46.3 - 53.5 Ibs/ft.           57.1 - 66.5 Ibs/ft.      75.9 - 86.8 Ibslft.


           M 14                     79.6 - 92.6 Ibs/ft.           91.1 - 108.5 Ibslft.    123.0 - 144.7 Ibs/ft.


           M 16                    123.0 - 141.0 Ibslft.         144.7 - 166.4 Ibs/ft.    191.7 - 224.2 Ibs/ft.


           M 18                    180.0 - 209.8 Ibs/ft.         202.5 - 235.1 Ibs/ft.    253.2 - 296.5 Ibslft.


           M 20                    245.9 - 289.3 Ibs/ft.         271.2 - 318.2 Ibs/ft.    361.6 - 419.5 Ibs/ft.



Bolt material grades are shown by numbers punched on the bolt heads. Prior to tightening, be sure
to check out the numbers as shown below:


 Punched
             Bolt Material Grade
 Number
             Standard Bolts
   None
             SS41, S20C
             Special Bolts
     7
             S43C, S48C (Refined)
             Special Bolts
     9
             SCM3, SCR3, (Refined)




                                                           18
                        SECTION II - PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE


General Warnings ................................................................. 20
Maintenance Check List ............................................................ 21
POINTS OF INSPECTION AND CHANGING
Engine Lubricating Oil ............................................................. 22
Changing Engine Oil Level ......................................................... 22
Changing Engine Oil .............................................................. 22
Changing Engine Oil Filter Cartridge ................................................. 23
Inspection of Fuel Filter ............................................................ 23
Venting the Fuel System ........................................................... 24




                                        _ 19
                                              GENERAL WARNINGS

·   When disassembling engine, arrange each part on a clean surface. Do not mix them up.
    Replace bolts and nuts in their original positions.

·    When servicing voltaged parts or connecting instruments to electrical equipment, first
    "disconnect negative battery terminal.

·   Replace gaskets or O-rings with new ones when disassembling, and apply grease on the 0-
    ring and the oil seal when reassembling.

·   When exchanging parts, use Universal genuine parts to maintain engine performance and
    safety.

·   To prevent oil and water leakage apply non-drying adhesive to the gasket according to this
    manual before reassembling.

·   When hoisting the engine, use the hook provided on the cylinder head.

·   When installing external circlips or internal circlips, direct corner end to the non-loosening
    direction.


     Applying grease to oil seal                                         Direction of installing circlips

                                                                                   3                        4




                                          2
                                                                          F-

                           1                                                               5                5



                             1.    Inside of Lip
                             2.    Grease
                             3.    External Circlip
                             4.    Internal Circlip
                             5.    Direct the Corner End to the Direction Subject to Force.




                                                            20
                                               MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST

To maintain long-lasting and safe engine performance, make it a rule to carry out regular inspections by following the
table below.


                                                                             Service Interval
                                     every      every    every    every    every    every    every       every     every      every
                Item                                                                       one or two    three      one        two
                                     50 hrs.   100 hrs. 150 hrs. 200 hrs. 400 hrs. 500 hrs. months      months     year       year
Checking fuel pipes and clamps          ·
Changing engine oil                               ·
Cleaning air filter element                       ·
Cleaning fuel fiilter                             ·
Checking battery electrolyte level                ·
Checking fan belt tension
and damage                                        ·
Checking oil or water leakage                              ·
Checking water pipes and clamps                            ·
Changing oil filter cartridge                     ·
Changing fuel filter element                                                ·
Cleaning heat exchanger                                                               ·
Recharging battery                                                                              ·
Changing coolant                                                                                          ·
Changing air filter element
                                                                                                                     ·
                                                                                                                 or every 6
                                                                                                                 cleanings
Checking valve clearance                                                                                             ·
Checking nozzle injection pressure                                                                                   ·
Changing battery                                                                                                               ·
Changing water pipes and clamps                                                                                                ·
Changing fuel pipes and clamps                                                                                                 ·




                                                                     21
                             POINTS OF INSPECTION AND CHANGING
ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL
Brand name oil (for diesel engines) or CC/CD class oils defined by SPI. It should be as follows
according to temperature.
SAE-30 HD or 10W-40 HD


CHECKING ENGINE OIL LEVEL
Stop for 5 minutes or more and remove the dip stick, wipe off dip stick and recheck. Read the
engine oil level on the dip stick. If the oil level is below the lower mark on the dip stick, add
sufficient oil to the full mark. DO NOT OVERFILL.




                                            1. Dip Stick
                                            2. Oil Filler Plug


CHANGING ENGINE OIL
Drain the oil while the engine is still warm, by removing the drain plug on the oil pan and oil filler
plug, or through the oil drain hose, so that the oil may completely drain.

Do not mix different brands of oil. If a different brand of oil should be employed, drain out the
existing oil no matter how new it may be and then replace it. Do the same when using oil of a
different viscosity.




                                           1. Oil Drain Plug


                                                       22
CHANGING ENGINE OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE
Remove the oil filter cartridge with a filter wrench.

Apply a slight coat of oil to the rubber gasket on the new cartridge.

Screw the new cartridge in by hand.
Over-tightening may cause deformation of rubber gasket.

After cartridge has been replaced, engine oil normally decreases a little. Check that the engine
oil does not leak through the seal and be sure to read the oil level. Then, add engine oil up to
the prescribed level.




                                              1. Oil filter cartridge


 INSPECTION OF FUEL FILTER
The fuel filter is installed in the fuel line from the fuel tank to the injection pump (between the tank
and feed pump in the basic model).

As the fuel from the inlet of the cock body moves through the filter element, the dirt and impurities
in the fuel are filtered, allowing only clean fuel to enter the inside of the filter element.
The cleaned fuel flows out from the outlet of the cock body.

Before starting or after disassembling and reassembling, loosen the air vent plug to bleed the air
in the fuel line.

                                                                2




                               1




                                              1. Cock Body Inlet
                                              2. Cock Body Outlet
                                              3. Air Vent Plug




                                                        23
VENTING THE FUEL SYSTEM - Models 18, 25, 25XP and 35
Air must be vented when:,
·    The fuel filter and piping are removed.
·    The fuel tank becomes completely empty.
·    The engine has not been used for an extended time,

Veriting procedure is as follows:
1.   Fill the fuel tank with fuel, and open the fuel cock.

2. Twist off the air vent screw at the top of the filter by turning it twice.

3.   When bubbles disappear from fuel coming out of the plug, twist it back on.

4.   Open the air vent plug on the fuel injection pump.

5.   Pull the engine stop lever back completely to stop the engine, and run the starter for about 10
     seconds.

6.   Close the air vent plug when air bubbles disappear from the fuel flowing out.

Models 12, 2-12, 3-20 and 4-30 have continuous bleed systems.

IMPORTANT: Do not perform venting when the engine is hot.




                                                1. Air vent screw




                                                        24
                     SECTION III - CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION


Cylinder Block .................................................................... 26
Cylinder Head .................................................................... 26
Crankshaft ....................................................................... 27
Piston and Piston Rings ............................................................ 28
Connecting Rods ................................................................. 28
Camshaft and Fuel Camshaft ....................................................... 29
Rocker Arm Assembly ............................................................. 29
Inlet and Exhaust Valves ........................................................... 30
Flywheel ........................................................................ 30




                                          25
CYLINDER BLOCK
The engine features a high durability tunnel-typed cylinder in which the crank bearing part is
constructed body. Furthermore, dry-type cylinder liners, being pressure-fitted into cylinders, allow
effective cooling, less distortion, higher wear-resistance qualities and each cylinder having its own
chamber helps to minimize noise.


                                   Tunnel cylinder block




CYLINDER HEAD
The cross-flow type inlet/exhaust ports in this engine have their openings at both sides of the
cylinder head. Because overlaps of inlet/exhaust ports are smaller than in ports of other types
which have openings one side, the suction air can be protected from being heated and expanded
by heated exhaust air. The cool, high density suction air has a higher voluminous efficiency and
raises the power of the engine. Furthermore, distortion of the cylinder head by heated exhaust air
is reduced because suction ports are arranged alternately. The combustion chamber is exclusive
spherical combustion chamber type. Suction air is whirled to be mixed effectively with fuel,
prompting combustion and reducing fuel consumption.
In the combustion chamber are installed throttle type injection nozzle and rapid heating sheathed
type glow plug. This glow plug assures easier than ever engine starts even at -15°C (15°F).


   Cross-flow type cylinder head                                              Combustion chamber




                                                                                     (6
                                                                                                   (1)

                                            1_   Combustion chamber
                                            2.   Suction
                                            3.   Exhaust
                                            4.   Nozzle assembly
                                            5.   Glow plug
                                            6.   Cylinder head




                                                           26
CRANKSHAFT
The crankshaft is driven by the pistons and connecting rods, and translates its reciprocating
movement into a circular movement. It also drives the oil pump, camshaft and fuel camshaft. Six
counterweights are integrated into one unit to minimize bearing wear and lubricating oil
temperature rise. Crankshaft journals, crankpins and oil seal sliding section are induction-hardened
to raise wear resistance quality. Crankshaft journals are supported by the main bearing cases in
which bearing is used.

Crankshaft bearing 1 at the front end is a wind type bushing and the three bearings 2 behind are
split type bushings.

Side bearings 1,2 of split type are mounted on both sides of the main bearing case 1 at the
flywheel side.

Crankshaft bearings and side bearings are plated with special alloy to raise wear resistance
quality.

                                  Crankslyft




                                                     (8)



                                           1.   Crankshaft
                                           2.   Piston
                                           3.   Connecting rod
                                           4.   Oil passage
                                           5.   Crankshaft bearing 1
                                           6.   Crankshaft bearing 2
                                           7.   Side bearing
                                           8.   Counterweight




                                                           27
PISTON AND PISTON RINGS
Piston circumference has a special elliptic shape in consideration of expansion due to explosion
heat. Piston head is flat-formed. Furthermore, ribs are provided between the piston head and top
ring to reduce distortion and to help heat radiation.

Piston is made of special aluminum alloy of low thermal expansion and high temperature
resistance.

Top ring is of key stone type which can stand against heavy load, and the sliding surface to the
cylinder wall is shaped into barrel face which is well fitted to the wall and plated with hard chrome.

Second ring is of under-cut type which is effective to prevent oil rising.

Oil ring is effective to scrape oil because it is closely fitted to the cylinder wall by coil expander
and the upper and lower ends of its sliding surface are cut diagonally to raise fare pressure to the
cylinder walls.

A part of scraped oil is forced into the inside of piston through oil escape holes of rings and
piston. The oil ring is plated with hard chrome to increase wear resistance quality.



                                                                    Pistons and piston rings
                                                                                         (4)



                                                                               ~~
                                                                                                    (1)
                 1.   Rib
                 2.   Top ring
                                                                             (3)   (2)
                 3.   Barrel face
                 4.   Hard chrome plating
                                                                                   ~/~.o§
                 5.
                 6.
                      Second ring
                      Coil expander ring

                                                                                   i      (6)
                                                                                                    0

CONNECTING RODS
Connecting rod is used to connect the piston with the crankshaft. The big end of the connecting
rod has crankpin bearings (split type) and the small end has a bushing (solid type).




                                                                         (3)-_A

                                                                         (1)-----111
                 1. Connecting rod
                 2. Crankpin bearing
                 3. Bushing
                                                                                                I


                                                                                                1


                                                       28
 CAMSHAFT AND FUEL CAMSHAFT
The camshaft is made of special cast iron and the journal and cam sections are chilled to resist
wear. The journal sections are force-lubricated. The fuel camshaft controls the reciprocating
movement of the injection pump, and is equipped with a ball to control the governor. Fuel
camshaft is made of carbon steel and cam sections are quenched and tempered to provide
greater wear resistance.

Camshaft                                                            Fuel Camshaft




                                         1. Tappet
                                         2. Push rod
                                         3. Camshaft
                                         4. Camshaft gear
                                         5. Injection pump gear
                                         6. Governor sleeve
                                         7. Governor ball case
                                         8. Circlip
                                         9. Circlip
                                        10. Fuel camshaft
                                        11. Ball
                                        12. Ball bearing

ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
The rocker arm assembly includes the rocker arms, rocker arm brackets and rocker arm shaft and
converts the reciprocating movement of the push rods to an open/close movement of the inlet and
exhaust valves. Valve control timing must be adjusted with screws on the rocker arms. Lubrication
oil is pressurized through the bracket to the rocker arm shaft so that the rocker arm bearings and
the entire system are lubricated sufficiently.


                                                                                                     (4)   (1)
                                                                            '~y         (8)

 1.   Rocker arm                                                            ~.
                                                                            (7)"
                                                                                   '"   t=;:!~~;;-r~Y.rl
 2.   Rocker arm shaft                                                      (8)
 3.   Rocker arm bracket
                                                                            (9)---t++~r
 4.   Oil filer plug
 5.   Decompression lever                                                               r---ft~~
 6.   Decompression window cover
 7.   Decompression nut
 8.   Decompression bolt
 9.   Decompression shaft
10.   Valve                                                                                         (3)




                                                     29
INLET AND EXHAUST VALVES
The inlet and exhaust valves and their guides are different from each other. Other parts, such as
valve springs, valve spring retainers, valve spring collets, valve stem seals, and valve caps are the
same for both the inlet and exhaust valves. All contact or sliding parts are quenched and tempered
to resist wear.

                                                                                      Intake and exhaust valve



               1. Valve cap
               2. Valve spring Retainer                                                                          (4)
               3. Valve spring Collets                                                                ~_-(5)
               4. Valve spring                                                                                   (6)
               5. Valve stem seal
               6. Valve guide                                            (7)                                     (8)
               7. Inlet valve
               8. Exhaust valve




FLYWHEEL
Flywheel is connected with the crankshaft. Storing explosive force by each cylinder as the force of
inertia, the flywheel functions to rotate the crankshaft smoothly.

On the circumference of the flywheel are stamped marks for fuel injection timing and top dead
center. The flywheel and crankshaft can be fixed to each other at a certain point according to the
arrangement of flywheel mounting bolt hole.


                                              2TC


                                 2 Fl......                                    1 FI
                                              12             1.27 rad.
                                              173~)ra~d'
                                                       (73")


                                         1.27 rad.
                                         (73°)
                                                                 1.27 rad.
                                                                 (73")
                                                                                 1 TC
                                                                                             \~
                                                     1.19 rad.
                                                     (68°)




                             11TC . .... Mark for top dead center of 1st piston
                             1/FI ...... Mark for fuel injection of 1st piston




                                                                 30
              SECTION IV - LUBRICATION, COOLING, AND FUEL SYSTEMS


LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Lubrication System Diagram ........................................................ 32
Engine Oil Flow Diagram ........................................................... 33
Relief Valve ...................................................................... 34
By-pass Valve .................................................................... 34
Oil Switch ....................................................................... 35
Oil Pump ........................................................................ 35
COOLING SYSTEM
Water Pump ..................................................................... 36
Thermostat ...................................................................... 36
Oberdorfer Water Pump ............................................................ 37
Sherwood Water Pump ............................................................ 38
Johnson Water Pump .............................................................. 39
New Style Sherwood Water Pump ................................................... 40
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Filter ....................................................................... 41
Fuel Pump ....................................................................... 42
Fuel Injection Pump ............................................................ 42-45
Injection Nozzle .................................................................. 46
Governor ..................................................................... 47-49




                                         31
         LUBRICATION SYSTEM




                                         Oil Filter Cartridge and
                                         Relief Valve




                      Crankpin Bearing
                                         (1) To rocker arm shaft
                                             and camshaft
                                                (2) To crankshaft
Piston


              Oil Filter 1




                   32
ENGINE OIL FLOW

                                            (181 ROCKER ARM SHAFT



                                                                                                                     (221




                                  I
                                  1(201
                                                              1
                                                              I
                                                              1(201
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  f
                                                                                                  1(201
                                                                                                                     ~   SWITCH

                                                                                                                             I
                                                                                                                             I
                                  : DRAIN                     I DRAIN                             l DRAIN            ,..-_...J
                                                                                                                     I
                                  I                           I                                   f

                           (161
                                  l,          (151            ,
                                                              I
                                                                  \
                                                                              (151                ,
                                                                                                  f
                                                                                                                     I


    (151              CAMSHAFT

                                                                                                  (
                                                                                                      ,
                                                                                                      I




                                                        ~
                                                                                       (121       I

                                                          TAPPETS                      I   TA;ETS         I
                                                              I                                   I
                                                              I                                   I
                                                              I                                I
                                                              I                                I
                                                              I                                I
  (141                                                         I                               I
                                                          (1911                            (191!
                                                           SPLP.SH                          SPLASH
                                                                                                  f
 TIMING
                                                                        (19) SPLASH               I
 GEAR
                  ~   ,.                     1\,              I
                                                              I
                                                                             '\ )II
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                        __ .J                         _+-_1




                                                 (61 MAIN OIL GALLERY




                                                                                      ----,
                                                                                              I
                                                                                              I



                                                                           ~-_-_-_-_-_-_                      (11   OILPAN




This engine lubrication system consists of oil filter 1 (strainer), oil pump, relief valve, oil filter
cartridge and oil switch. The oil pump suctions lubrication oil from the oil pan through oil filter 1,
and the oil flows down to the filter cartridge, where it is further filtered. Then the oil is forced to
crankshaft, connecting rods, idle gear, camshaft and rocker arm shaft to lubricate each part. Some
part of oil, splashed by the crankshaft or leaking and dropping from gaps of each part, lubricates
these parts: pistons, cylinders, small ends of connecting rods, tappets, pushrods, inlet and exhaust
valves and timing gears.




                                                              33
RELIEF VALVE
Relief valve prevents damage to the lubrication system due to high oil pressure. Control range of
the relief valve is 196 to 441 KPa, (28 to 64 psL) When oil pressure exceeds the upper limit, the
ball is pushed back by high pressure oil and the oil escapes.


BY·PASS VALVE
Oil filter cartridge has a by-pass valve inside, to prevent the lack of lubrication oil in the engine, if
the oil filter element is clogged. When the pressure difference before filtering and after is more
than 98.1 kPa (14.2 psi). the by-pass valve opens and lets the oil pass to each part of engine
without passing through the filter.

                                                                Relief valve and by-pass valve




1.   Relief valve
2.   By-pass valve
3.   From pump
4.
5.
     To rocker arm shaft and camshaft
     To crankshaft
                                                                                                  (1)
                                                                                                            t
                                                                                                            (3)




                                                         34
OIL SWITCH
Oil switch is provided on the way for the oil pressure. If the oil pressure is proper, it is switched
off, if oil pressure falls below 49.0 kPa (7.1 psi), the oil warning lamp etc. will light, warning the
operator. In this case, stop the engine immediately and check the cause of the pressure drop.

                                    Oil switch




                                                             (1)
                                                 _'t=l.,jj..- (8)




                                         (1)      (11)                    (2)


            1.   When oil pressure is proper                                        8. Rubber packing
            2.   When oil pressure falls                                            9. Oil seat
            3.   Screw                                                             10. Contact rivet
            4.   Terminal                                                          11. Contact
            5.   Spring plate                                                      12. Lamp
            6.   Insulator                                                         13. Battery
            7.   Spring retainer

 OIL PUMP
The oil pump is of rotor type and works smoothly and noiselessly. An inner and outer rotor turn
inside a housing. In operation, the inner rotor is driven inside the outer rotor. The inner rotor has
one less lobe than the outer rotor, so that only one lobe is in full engagement with the outer rotor
at anyone time. This allows the other lobes to slide over the outer lobes, making a seal to prevent
back-up of oil.

As the lobes slide up and over the lobes on the outer rotor, oil is drawn in. As the lobes fall into
the ring's cavities, oil is squeezed out.

                                                                        Rotor-type pump in operation
1.   Draw in 1
2.   Draw in 2
3.   Draw in 3
4.   Squeeze out
5.   Inlet
6.   Outlet
7.   Inner rotor
8.   Outer rotor




                                                                   35
WATER PUMP
35 Imino (7.7 IMp.gals/min. 9.2 U.S. gals/min) of water is forced into the crank case and cyliinder
head to cool them. The impeller, of backward type, is bent as far as possible from the center, in
the opposite direction to rotation. The bearing unit prevents cooling water from entering by a
special mechanical seal.




               1.   Water Pump Impeller
               2.   Mechanical Seal
               3.   Water Pump Body
               4.   Bearing Unit




THERMOSTAT
The thermostat maintains the cooling water at correct temperature and uses wax pellet type
thermostat. Wax is enclosed in the pallet. The wax is solid at low temperatures, but turns liquid at
high temperatures, expands and opens the valve.


                                   Flow of cooling water   ,-.-----r->        Temperature sensor of wax pellet type thermostat




                            (1)




                                                                                          (a)                  (b)



                              1.   Leak hole                     7.   To radiator
                              2.   Water cover                   8.   To engine
                              3.   Spindle                       9.   Pellet
                              4.   Pellet                       10.   Wax (liquid)
                              5.   Valve                        11.   Wax (solid)
                              6.   Sheet
                                                                a) At low temperature
                                                                b) At high temperature
              OBERDORFER WATER PUMP




               PUMP ASSEMBLY 301357

Item   Unit     Description

 1      4       Cover Screws
 2      1       Pump Cover
 3      1       Cover Gasket
 4      1       Impeller Snap Ring
 5      1       Impeller
 6      1       PUmp Shaft Old Style
 6A     1       1 pc. Shaft New Style
 7      1       Cam
 8      1       Carbon Bushing
 9      1       Cam Locking Screw
10      2       Oil Seal
11      1       Drain Plug




                              37
              SHERWOOD WATER PUMp·




                                       \@



              PUMP ASSEMBLY 300986

Item   Unit    Description

 1      6      Cover Screws
 2      1      Pump Cover
 3      1      Cover Gasket
 4      1      Impeller Snap Ring
 5      1      Impeller
 6      1      Key
 7      1      Pump Shaft Old Style
 7A     1      1 pc. Shaft New Style
 8      1      Water Seal
 9      1      Cam
10      1      Pump Body
11      1      Cam Locking Screw
12      2      Oil Seal
13      1      Drain Plug




                             38
              JOHNSON WATER PUMP




              PUMP ASSEMBLY 302259

Item   Unit    Description

 1      6      Cover Screws
 2      1      Pump Cover
 3      1      Cover Gasket
 4      1      Impeller
 5      1      Pump Shaft
 6      1      Caqm
 7      1      Wear Plate
 8      1      Pin
 9      1      Cam Locking Screw
10      1      PUmp Body
11      1      Lip Seal
12      1      O-Ring
13      1      Washer
14      2      Ball Bearing
15      1      Guide Ring
16      1      Service Kit




                         39
PUMP ASS EMBLY 302648



                    =-------~-
 Description

 Impeller-H::·
      .     Housing
 O
   -Ring
 Cam Screw
 Cam
 Impeller
 Cir-Clip
 Flat Washer
 Seal Seat
 Not Available 0
 Cir-Cr             rder #13
   .    Ip Internal
 Clr-crIp External
 Ball Bearing
 Seal & Seat A
 Cir-Cr          ssembly
        ip External
 K
  ey
 Shaft
 End Plate
 Gasket
 Pump Body
 Lock Washer
 Bolt




               40
                                                 FUEL SYSTEM
While the engine is running, fuel is fed from the fuel tank (optional part) through the fuel filter to
the fuel pump, which feeds fuel to the injection pump. The injection pump then feeds the fuel
through the injection pipes, to the nozzles which inject fuel to the cylinders for combustion. Any
fuel leaking from nozzles is collected in the fuel overflow pipes which drain into the tank.

                                         1                   2        3




                                         1.   Fuel Tank
                                         2.   Fuel Overflow Pipe
                                         3.   Injection Pipe
                                         4.   Injection Nozzle
                                         5.   Injection Pump
                                         6.   Fuel Filter, Water Separator
                                         7.   Fuel Feed Pump (Elec.)
                                         8.   Fuel Filter


 FUEL FILTER
A fuel filter is used to prevent dirty fuel from reaching the injection pump and injection nozzles.
The filter element will require occasional replacement to maintain an adequate flow of fuel to the
injection pump. The frequency of this service will vary according to the cleanliness of available fuel
and the care used in storage.




                                                  1


                 1 . Cock Body Inlet
                                                                                                3
                 2 . Cock Body Outlet
                 3. Air Vent Plug




                                                        41
FUEL PUMP
Filtered fuel is forcibly sucked from the tank by the fuel pump and fed under pressure to the
injection pump. Inlet and discharge pressures are produced by a vertical movement of the
diaphragm which is caused by the special cam (for pump) of the fuel camshaft. Fuel is suctioned
on the downward stroke, and discharged on the upward stroke. A system of two valves allows fuel
to flow in only one direction.

                                       Inlet stroke                   Discharge stroke
                                                                                   (6)
                                                                                    t
                                                                                    .,




                                                   1.   From Fuel Filter
                                                   2.   Inlet Valve
                                                   3.   Outlet Valve
                                                   4.   Diaphragm
                                                   5.   Fuel Camshaft
                                                   6.   To Injection Pump

FUEL INJECTION PUMP
The K type mini pump is provided, it features high injection quality even at low engine speed. The
fuel injection pump plunger is reciprocated by the fuel camshaft which is driven by the crankshaft
through a system of timing gears. Fuel camshaft rpm is 1/2 of camshaft rpm.

                 Fuel Injection pump

           (2)                                                               (9)             (1)
           (3)                                                                               (5)
                                                                                             (4)
                                ~-..l~'--- (9)

                      -+-'I::P1P'~~-(6)
                                                                                             (7)



                                              1.   Delivery Valve Holder
                                              2.   Delivery Valve Spring
                                              3.   Delivery Valve
                                              4.   Plunger
                                              5.   Cylinder Pump Element
                                              6.   Control Rack
                                              7.   Tappet
                                              8.   Plunger Spring
                                              9.   Air Vent Screw

                                                              42
Fuel Pressure-feed
1. Bottom dead center of plunger:
  At bottom dead center, fuel enters the delivery chamber through the fuel chamber and the
  feed hole. (Fuel chamber is always kept full by the fuel pump.)

2. Pressure-feed start

3. Pressure-feed process:
  Plunger is pushed up by camshaft to close the feed hole, and fuel pressurization starts. As
  the plunger moves up, pressure increases, and delivery valve is opened. Then fuel is
  pressure-fed through the injection pipe and nozzle into the combustion chamber.

4. Completion of pressure-feed:
  When plunger moves further up, the control groove and feed hole meet. Pressurized fuel
  in the delivery chamber is returned through the plunger's center hole, control groove, and
  feed hole to the fuel chamber. Then pressure falls and pressure-feed is completed.


                                    Pressure-feed Start to Completion




                                               11                        2)




                                                  3)                    4)

                                             1.   Delivery Chamber
                                             2.   Delivery Valve
                                             3.   Feed Hole
                                             4.   Fuel Chamber
                                             5.   Plunger




                                                         43
Injection Control
1. Injection "zero":
  The feed hole meets the control groove before it is closed by the plunger top. Therefore,
  fuel is not pressurized, and is not injected even if the plunger moves up.

2. Injection "medium":
  When the plunger is rotated a certain amount in the direction of the arrow by the control
  rack, stroke A is effective until the feed hole meets the control groove and fuel is injected
  as the stroke amount.

3. Injection "maximum":
  When the plunger is rotated by the control rack to the maximum amount (in the direction
  of the arrow), effective stroke reaches maximum and maximum injection is provided.

                                  Injection Control



                                                                        t    1




                                            1)                          2)


                                                           +      (1)




                                                           31


                                                 1. Effective Stroke




                                                          44
Delivery Valve
The delivery valve is composed of the valve and the valve seat. It performs two functions:

1. Reverse flow prevention:
  If the circuit between the delivery chamber and the nozzle is always closed, a time lag will
  occur between pressure feed start of valve element and start of nozzle injection. This, in
  turn, will prevent injection from stopping properly until after completion of pressure-feed.

  To eliminate this time lag, the valve lowers on completion of pressure-feed and the relief
  valve contacts the valve seat, and breaks the circuit between the injection pipe and
  plunger.

2. Fuel dribbling prevention:
  After the relief valve contacts delivery valve seat, this valve lowers a little. Since the relief
  valve breaks the circuit pressure int he injection pipe is reduce as the valve lowers,
  preventing fuel dribbling from the nozzle.

Pump Element
The pump element is composed of a cylinder and a plunger. Their contact surfaces are
precision finished to provide a high injection pressure even at low speeds. The cylindrical
surface of the plunger has slanted grooves, which are called control grooves, and a
connecting hole for plunger head.

Control Rack
This is connected directly to the governor fork in the engine body. It is connected with the
plunger by pinion to change injection volume.

Tappet
The tappet converts rotating movement of the camshaft into a reCiprocating movement to
drive plunger. A roller is used where it contacts the cam to reduce friction.

   Delivery Valve                                                              Pump Element

                                                                                                      (10)
                                (4)
                                                                                               (8)



                                                                                         (7)
 (31---~
                                                                                                      (11)

                                                                                               (9)

              (5)                      (6)
                                                                                                      (12)




                        1. Relief Valve
                        2. Seat
                        3. Delivery Valve Seat
                        4. Pressure Decrease Because of Increase in this Volume
                        5. End of Pressure-feed and Start of Sucking Back
                        6. End of Sucking Back
                        7. Pump Element
                        8. Cylinder
                        9. Plunger
                       10. Feed Hole
                       11. Control Groove
                       12. Driving Face




                                                        45
INJECTION NOZZLE
This nozzle is throttle-type. Fuel fed from the pump pressurized to push the needle valve up and
the fuel is then injected. The needle valve is pressed by the nozzle spring through the push rod.
Fuel overflow is passed from nozzle holder center through the fuel overflow nipple and the fuel
overflow pipe to the fuel tank. Injection pressure can be controlled by inserting shims between
nozzle holder body and adjusting washers. The pressure increases when a O.1mm shim is inserted.
Injection nozzle is also precision finished as is the injection pump, treat it carefully and protect
from water and dust.

                                   Injection nozzle




                                                                        1)




                                                                              (4)


                                                                               (5)



                                                       o~"""""?"":::::-tt-tt--- (6)
                                                      o-flt1l-f--+---+H--tt---(7)


                                 (8)--+----<-i




                                          1.   Nozzle Holder Body
                                          2.   Adjusting Washer
                                          3.   Nozzle Spring
                                          4.   Push Rod
                                          5.   Retaining Nut
                                          6.   Nozzle Body
                                          7.   Needle Valve
                                          8.   Combustion Chamber
                                          9.   Fuel Overflow Nipple
                                         10.   Fuel Overflow Pipe




                                                       46
GOVERNOR
With centrifugal ball weight system this mechanical governor works in the whole range of speeds.
It keeps the engine speed and controls the engine output.

At Start
When the engine is started, more fuel is required than in running. At starting, fork lever 1 is
pulled rightward by starter spring because ball weights have no centrifugal force. Control rack
moves to a position for overlimit discharging of fuel to assure easy starting.

                                           At start




            1.   Ball Weights
            2.   Start Spring
            3.   Fork Lever 1
            4.   Control Rack


At Idling
When speed control lever is set at idling position after the engine is started, high speed
governor spring 1 does not work at all and also low speed governor spring 2 does only a
little action. Therefore, governor sleeve is pushed leftward by a centrifugal force of ball
weights. Fork lever 1 and control rack are moved leftward by the sleeve and then idling limit
spring is compressed by control rack. As a result, the control rack is kept at a position where
a centrifugal force of ball weights and forces start spring, governor spring 2 and idling limit
spring are balanced, providing stable idling.

                                           At idling




            1.   Speed Control Lever
            2.   Governor Spring 1
            3.   Governor Spring 2
            4.   Ball Weight
            5.   Governor Sleeve
            6.   Fork Lever 1
            7.   Control Rack
            8.   Idling Limit Spring
            9.   Start Spring




                                                       47
At middle/high speed running
The engine speed is controlled when the tension of governor springs 1 and 2, which are
pulled speed control lever, and the centrifugal force of ball weights are balanced. When the
speed is reduced (A - 8) with load increased (a - b), the centrifugal force of ball weights
becomes smaller than the tension of governor springs 1 and 2. As a result, the control rack
is moved rightward and fuel injection amount is increased to produce an engine torque
required for the load. (a - c)

                                              At middle/high speed running




          1.   Speed Control Lever
          2.   Governor Spring 1
          3.   Governor Spring 2
          4.   Ball Weights




                             When load is increased             (1)
                                                                             (3)


                                                                             (2)



                                        t
                                       (5)




                                                   (4) _ _



                                       1.    Engine Torque Curve
                                       2.    Small Loan Torque Curve
                                       3.    Large Load Torque Curve
                                       4.    Engine R.P.M.
                                       5.    Torque




                                                        48
At high speed running with overload
When an overload is applied to the engine running at a high speed, the centrifugal force of
ball weights become small as the speed is reduced, and fork lever 2 is pulled rightward by
governor springs 1 and 2, increasing fuel injection. Fork lever 2 becomes ineffective to
increase fuel injection when it is stopped by maximum output limit bolt. After that when the
force of spring becomes larger than the centrifugal force of ball weights, fork lever 1 moves
rightward to increase fuel injection, driving the engine continuously with a high torque.

                                          At high speed running with overload




          1.   Ball Weight
          2.   Fork Lever 2
          3.   Governor Spring 1
          4.   Governor Spring 2
          5.   Maximum Output Limit Bolt
          6.   Spring
          7.   Fork Lever 1

To stop engine
When stop lever is moved to "STOP" position, fork lever is moved leftward and then control
rack is moved to the non-injection position, stopping the engine.

                                          To stop engine




           1. Stop Lever
           2. Fork Lever 1
           3. Control Rack




                                                       49
NOTES.




 50
                              SECTION V - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Wiring Diagram .............. : .................................................... 52
General Information ............................................................... 53
Alternator, General Information .................................................... 54-57
Alternator Schematic Diagrams ...................................................... 55
Alternator Rear Housing Rotation .................................................... 57
Belt Installation, Alignment and Tightening ............................................ 58
Ammeter ........................................................................ 58
Alternator/Regulator Test Procedure .................................................. 59
Test Procedure - Integral Regulator Systems ........................................ 60-63
Troubleshooting Guide - Integral Regulator Systems .................................. 60,61
Test Procedure - Remote Regulator Systems ........................................ 64-66
Troubleshooting Guide - Remote Regulator Systems .................................... 64
Alternato~   Repair Procedure ...................................................... 67-73
Rotor Inspection and Electrical Testing ............................................. 73-76
Alternator Reassembly .......................................................... 76-79
Alternator Performance Tests ..................................................... 79,80
Cranking System ............................................................... 80-82




                                             51
                                                                  WIRING DIAGRAM


                                                                                 r--------------{10'r---------~
              Glow Pktp (1 per cyl.,




                                                       ~
                                                       ~
                                                                                                                    ~'23.
                                                                                                                    ~1.5
                                                        l~l----~_~_~~~~-------




                                                   ~
                                                       1H
                                                   ,   2 3~

                                                       '-__                                  ......
                                                          -_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-...:-=-~~-~~I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~__~

WIRE NO.    COLOR                      WIRE SIZE
    1      Black                         #10
    2      Grey                          #10
    3      Yellow-Red                    #16
    4      Orange                        #10
    5      Red                           #10
    6      Purple                        #16
    7      Lt. Blue                      #16
    8      Tan                           #16
    9      Open                          #14
   10      Grey                          #16
   11      Orange-Red                    #14




                                                                               52
                                          ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
General Information
The 8E series of charging systems were designed for the replacement of many current Motorola
models. Models are available for 51 amp, 12 volt, negative ground systems with or without an
integral, solid-state voltage regulator.

The integral voltage regulator incorporates an IC, all silicon semiconductors and thick-film
construction.

The remote regulator model alternator is quipped with a blade terminal for connection to the
associated remote regulator.

Serviceable features of previous Motorola Charging System designs have been retained in these
units. The voltage regulator and brush assembly can be removed without disassembly of the
alternator thus allowing for individual testing or inspection.


                                  1                2                          3




                           1.   Long life silicon diodes
                           2.   Permanently lubricated & sealed rear ball bearing
                           3.   Quiet & trouble-free dynamically balanced rotor
                           4.   Convenient regulator & brush replacement
                           5.   Insulated stator prevents shorts
                           6.   Permanently lubricated & sealed front ball bearing
                           7.   Standard %" shaft

                                 CUTAWAY VIEW OF TYPICAL ALTERNATOR




                                                       53
ALTERNATOR
These alternators are available in two basic versions. One version includes a solid-state regulator
and forms a complete charging system. The other version does not include a regulator. However, it
is equipped with a blade terminal for connection to a remote regulator.

The alternator portions of these charging systems are three-phase, diode rectified machines with
die cast aluminum housings to provide the necessary strength while keeping the weight to a
minimum. The weight of a typical alternator, excluding pulley, is approximately 10 pounds.




                                      TYPICAL ALTERNATOR MODEL

The field for the alternator is wound concentrically about the core of the rotor. The field structure
contains twelve poles (six sets of pole pairs) and the rotor is dynamically balanced after assembly
to minimize vibration. The rotor is supported in the alternator by a pair os sealed ball bearings.

Field current of approximately 2.5 Amperes is supplied to the field through copper slip rings and a
set of electrographite brushes. The slip rings ar small in diameter for extended brush life.

NOTE: The design is a sealed brush design and therefore is suitable for marine applications. The
brusholder is easily removed for either inspection or replacement. Removal does not require the
disassembly of the alternator.




                                                       54
The stator is connected to a three-phase, full-wave bridge rectifier package which contains six
diodes. The bridge converts the A.C. generated in the stator to a D.C. output for battery charging
and accessories such as radio, heater, lights, ignition, etc. See illustrations below.

Power to the regulator and the field of the integral regulator alternators is provided by the field
diode (or diode trio)
package contained in the alternator. Remote regulator alternators obtain field power via the
regulator in the charging system.

The alternator designs produce a rated output of 51 amperes. Rated output is achieved at approx-
imately 6000 alternator RPM at an ambient temperature of 75 degrees F (23.8 degrees C). The
alternator is designed to operate in an ambient of -40 degrees to $212 degrees F (-40 to 100
degrees C). To ensure proper cooling of the rectifier bridge and internal components of the alter-
nator, it must be used with the proper cooling fan.




               D+             B+                                            D+              B+



      EXCITE                                                 SENSE EXCITE




 REGULATOR                                                     REGULATOR
    (ICI)                               ':' GROUND                (ICI)                               ':' GROUND


            STATOR-                                                       STATOR-
                                                                                    ,*".IJII!ar-~--o
                                          ACTAP                                                        ACTAP
                                          (TACH.)                                                      (TACH.)


      ALTERNATOR SENSE (INTEGRAL REG.)                           BATTERY SENSE (INTEGRAL REG.)



                                         D+             B+




                                                                  ':' GROUND


                                       STATOR-
                                               ,*,,11111~"""-<>

                                           +  ~ACTAP
                                                 ROTOR            b
                                                            (TACH.)



                                              REMOTE REGULATOR

                                   ·ALTERNATOR SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS



                                                       55
                                                       INTEGRAL REGULATOR

Integral Voltage Regulator
The voltage regulator is an electronic switching device which senses system voltage level and
switches the voltage applied to the field in order to maintain proper system voltage.

The regulator design utilizes all silicon semi-conductors and thick-film assembly techniques. After
the voltage has been adjusted to the proper regulating valve, the entire circuit is encapsulated to
protect the circuit and the components from possible damage due to handling or vibration and
moisture encountered in a vehicle.

The voltage regulator is also temperature compensated to provide a slightly higher voltage at low
temperatures and a lower voltage at higher temperatures to provide for charging requirements of
the battery under these conditions.


                                                                                     12 VOLT, 51 AMP
                                                                                                         --
                                                                                                         en
                                                                                                         to
                             Ui
                             w
                                                                                                         -oJ
                                                                                                         ~
                             ffi
                             Q.
                                   80                                                               4    !!:.
                             :!E                                                                         w
                             c:(
                             -- 60
                                                  ~   .......                                        3
                                                                                                         ~
                                                                                                         o
                                                                                                         a::
                                              ·                 r--........

                                                                                   - --
                             I-
                             Z
                             W
                             a::
                             a::   40   I
                                          I
                                                         ~ I""""""

                                                  ~ ,'" ~ ......       -              --
                                                                                   .....
                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                         ~
                                                                                                         a::
                                                                                                         o

                                        Il~
                             ~
                                                                                                         a::
                                          ~ ,,"
                             (.)
                                                                                                         w
                             I-
                             ~ 20                                                                   1
                                                                                                         ::
                                                                                                         o
                                        ~'
                                                                                                         Q.
                             I-                                                                          W
                             ~
                                                                                                         C/)
                             o                                                                           a::
                                                                                                         o
                                                                                                         J:
                                   1000       2000          3000       4000        5000    6000   7000

                                                  ALTERNATOR SHAFT RPM

                                        TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
                                        @AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF 750
                                          (23.8°C) SAE TEST METHOD




                                                                              56
Alternator Excitation
The residual magnetism of an alternator is very low therefore some field current must be supplied
to the rotor to initiate the generation of power by the machine.


                                                                       CHARGE
                                                                      IND. LIGHT




     +
TO BATT
            ING. SW
              (ON)
                           0+
                      (IND. LIGHT
                      TERMINAL)
                                                            +
                                                        TO BATT
                                                                   ING. SW
                                                                     (ON)
                                                                                '"     0+
                                                                                   (IND. LIGHT
                                                                                   TERMINAL)
                                                                                                          ALT
                                                                                                         FIELD




         INTERGRAL REGULATOR ALTERNATOR                         REMOTE REGULATOR ALTERNATOR
                EXCITATION CIRCUIT                                   EXCITATION CIRCUIT

Alternator Installation
Observe vehicle battery polarity prior to connecting output cables to the alternator. Reverse battery
polarity will destroy the alternator rectifier diodes.

ALTERNATOR REAR HOUSING ROTATION
For special installation requirements, the alternator rear housing may be rotated to one of four
different positions that are spaced 90° apart. To rotate the rear housing, proceed as follows:

1.   Detach plastic cover from rear housing.

2.   Remove the four (4) through-bolts using a 1/4" nutdriver or socket. See illustration below.

3.   Rotate the housing (clockwise or counter-clockwise) to the desired location. The stator assembly
     must be rotated with the rear housing.

4.   Replace through-bolts. Tighten through-bolts alternately and evenly until tight. Check that rotor
     shaft turns freely after re-assembly.

5.   Reattach plastic cover to rear housing. NOTE: Be sure felt gasket located on inside of cover is
     in place.




                                                                             STATOR
                                                                              ASSY



                                    THROUGH BOLT (4)               REAR HOUSING


                                         THROUGH-BOLT REMOVAL




                                                       57
BELT INSTALLATION, ALIGNMENT & TENSIONING

Correct belt alignment is essential for maximum alternator and belt service life. The center line of
all pulleys related to the alternator drive must be within 1/32" of the true center line. See illustration below.

Tighten drive belts by applying pressure to the alternator front housing ONLY. DO NOT apply
pressure to the rear housing or stator. Set belt tension to the engine manufacturer's
recommendations. If this information is not available, tighten belts to the point where the alternator
fan cannot be turned by hand.



                                                                     CAUTION:
                                                                     APPLY PRESSURE
                                                                     HERE (TO FRONT
                                                                     HOUSING ONLY)
                                                                     WHEN SETTING BELT
                                                                     TENSION




                                                                  ALTERNATOR PULLEY AND ENGINE
                                                              I   DRIVE PULLEY MUST BE IN LINE
                                              /
                                                                  WITH EACH OTHER.
                                       REAR    FRONT
                                      HOUSING HOUSING


                                      ALTERNATOR BELT ALIGNMENT

AMMETER
Ammeter requirements vary with application. An original equipment ammeter may be difficult to
replace with a higher reading unit, due to limited panel space and the vehicle wiring system. For
an ammeter to show alternator charge and accessory discharge, it must be connected as shown in
illustration below.
                              ALTERNATOR                                   BATTERY
                                CHARGE                                    DISCHARGE
                                 PATH                                        PATH


                                    1               AMMETER                 T~
                                      ~




                                AMMETER CHARGE & DISCHARGE CIRCUIT

An accessory ammeter may be used if it provides 75-0-75 scale information. Such meters are
available in two types: direct reading, and external shunt types. Internal shunt (direct reading)
ammeters are not usually recommended for charging systems of high output capability due to the
long heavy gauge wiring required. Failure to provide adequate wiring will result in poor system
performance.


                                                         58
ALTERNATOR/REGULATOR TEST PROCEDURE
General
It is desirable to test the charging system (alternator and voltage regulator) in the vehicle using the
vehicle wiring harness and electrical loads that are a permanent part of the system. In-vehicle
testing will then provide the technician with an operational test of the charging system as well as
the .major components of the electrical system.

Preliminary Checks & Tests
Before starting the actual electrical test procedure, the charging system, battery and wiring should
be checked to eliminate possible problem areas. The following procedure is recommended:

     1. Check the condition and adjustment of belts.
        A. If the alternator fan can be moved by pushing on a fan blade with your finger, the belts
           should be adjusted.
        B. Replace any worn or glazed belts.

     2. Check to see that all terminals, connectors and plugs are clean and tight.
        A. Loose or corroded connections cause high resistance and this could cause
           overcharging, undercharging or damage to the charging system.
        B. Badly corroded battery cables could prevent the battery from reaching a fully charged
           condition.

     3. Check battery condition and change if necessary. A low or discharged battery may cause
        false or misleading readings on the in-vehicle tests.

Test Equipment Requirements
The Alternator and Regulator tests outlined require electrical test equipment to measure voltage
only; however, most commercial test equipment incorporates several testing devices in a single
unit.

DC VOLTMETER: 0-20 Volt Scale

BATTERY TEST EQUIP.: Any commercial type, Hydrometer with temperature correction scale.

Storage Battery
The vehicle storage battery circuit represents a continuous although variable electrical load to the
alternator. If the circuit, position or negative, is opened or broken while the alternator is charging,
the loss of the battery will result in the charging voltage rising to unsafe levels.

Battery Inspection
The following table illustrates typical ranges of specific gravity for a cell in various states of charge.
THE BATTERY MUST BE AT LEAST 75% OF FULL CHARGE FOR EFFECTIVE ALTERNATOR
TESTING.

                              1.260 SP. GR        1.280 SP. GR.      CHARGE
                              BATTERY             BATTERY            STATE
                              1.260 Sp. Gr.       1.280 Sp.   Gr.    100% Charged
                              1.230 Sp. Gr.       1.250 Sp.   Gr.    75% Charged
                              1.200 Sp. Gr.       1.220 Sp.   Gr.    50% Charged
                              1.170 Sp. Gr.       1.190 Sp.   Gr.    25% Charged
                              1.140 Sp. Gr.       1.160 Sp.   Gr.    Very Low Cap.
                              1.110 Sp. Gr.       1.130 Sp.   Gr.    Discharged


After completing these preliminary checks and tests, proceed with the tests as outlined in the
Trouble-Shooting Guide.




                                                         59
     TEST PROCEDURE - (INTEGRAL REGULATOR SYSTEMS)
     (See Pages 64-66 for Remote Regulator Systems)

                  AC TAp·       BACK                                       ACTAP            BACK
                  (TACH)       COVER                                       (TACH)          COVER



     (D+) INDICATOR
      LIGHT TERM.                                             (D+) INDICATOR
                                                               LIGHT TERM.

         GROUND-~                                                   GROUND                            SENSE
                                                                                                   (TO BATT. +)
         INTEGRAL                      ALTERNATOR                INTEGRAL
        REGULATOR                         SENSE                 REGULATOR
                                                                                                        REMOTE
                                                                                                        BATTERY
                                                                           EXCITE                        SENSE

                       ALTERNATOR TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION (INTEGRAL REGULATOR)



                                       TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
                                    INTEGRAL REGULATOR SYSTEMS

     PROBLEM                                PROBABLE CAUSES                              CORRECTIVE ACTION

A.   Battery undercharged              1.   Defective cables, dirty battery         1.   Check, clean, repair or replace·
     - ammeter (if used) indicates          posts, corroded terminals, etc.              as needed.
       constant discharge.
     - indicator lamp remains on.      2. Loose or broken belt.                     2. Check belt.
                                       3.   Worn or broken brushes.                 3.   Replace brush assy.
                                       4.   Defective alternator system.            4.   Refer to "Problem Area
                                                                                         Determination Section".

B.   Battery undercharged              1.   Indicator lamp burned out or            1.   Check bulb & harness.
     - indicator lamp off with key          defective wire harness.
       on & engine stopped. (Normal
       condition is lamp on.)          2. Broken brush.                             2. Replace brush assy.
                                       3.   Defective alternator system.            3.   Refer to "Problem Area
                                                                                         Determination Section".

C.   Battery overcharges               1.   Defective wire harness.                 1.   Refer to "Problem Area
     - excessive use of water.         2. Defective alt. system.                         Determination Section".
     - ammeter (if used) shows         3.   Poor ground.                            2.   Refer to "Problem Area
        constant excessive charge.     4.   Broken sense lead (remote                    Determination Section".
     - voltmeter indicates greater          battery sense only.)                    3.   Check ground.
       than 14.5 volts (connected                                                   4.   Check, clean, repair or replace
        across battery with no load)                                                     as needed.
       with engine idling.

D.   Battery charges at idle, but      1.   Slipping belts.                         1.   Check belts and adjust tension
     discharges under load             2. Alternator defective                           or replace as necessary
     conditions.                                                                    2.   Disassemble, check diodes.

E. Indicator lamp glows slightly       1.   Defective diode-trio.                   1.   Remove & replace.
   under moderate load; battery
   appears charged.




                                                          60
PROBLEM AREA DETERMINATION SECTION
     CONDITIONS: Engine Idling For All Tests (Unless otherwise specified)
A. BATTERY UNDERCHARGED
      1.   Remove Battery sense only.
           a. Perform Harness Voltage Test (Test No.3)

      2.   Indicator Lamp On
           a. Perform Open Diode-Trio Test (Test NO.1)

      3.   Indicator Lamp Off (Ignition on and engine stopped)
           a. Perform Regulator Test. (Test NO.2)
           b. If Regulator is O.K., the cause is probably an open field circuit and Alternator must be
               removed for repair.

      4.   Further Investigation Requires Alternator Removal and Repair
           (diodes).

B.    BATTERY OVERCHARGED
      1.   Regulator Shorted, Replace Regulator.




                                              IGN.       'IND.
                                               SW       LIGHT




                                                                                             POS +
                                                                                 0 ...>+---- OUTPUT
                                                                                              (B+)




                        I+ - I
                          vocrs




                          RED      STEP TEST POIN                INDICATION
                         1~=~:~~1*~_A~(B_+~)__~M~rr~ER7Y~W~~~A=G~E==~~
                         ~?:==t> 2*       B (REG)      1.5 TO 3.0 wcrs WITH
                         II        ~~______+-"IN=D:.:..=LI=GH:.:.:T'-'O:.:.;N'--____~     BATTERY
                         IL...I'.>             13.5 TO 15.0 wcrs & IND.
                         ---,..     3     A (B+)       LIGHT OFF. (JUMPER               *·REMOTE BATT
                                                       ATTACHED. ENGINE IDLING)            SENSE ONLY
                                  ·JUMPER NOT ATTACHED




                                                    OPEN DIODE-TRIO TEST




                                                                   61
Alternator/Regulator Tests
Test No. 1 Open Diode-Trio Test
With ignition on and engine not running and jumped not attached
(no electrical load), check for battery voltage at terminal A and for 1.5 to 3.0 volts at terminal B.
Add jumper JUl between terminals A and B. Start engine and run at idle. If indicator lamp now
goes "ott" and charging voltage is present at terminal A, the diode-trio is probably "open"
(defective) and alternator should be removed for repair.

Test No.2 Open Regulator Test
NOTE: Test requires removal of back cover of alternator. To remove, disconnect wires from
terminals extending through back cover. Remove back cover (two screws) and reconnect all wires.

With ignition on and engine not running and jumper not attached, check for battery voltage at
terminal A and terminal B. Indicator light will be ott. Add jumper JUl between field and ground. If
1.5 to 3.0 volts is present at terminal B and the indicator light is on, an open (defective) regulator is
indicated. If lamp is still not "on", an open field circuit (brushes, slip-rings, etc.)
is indicated and alternator repair is required.


                                                                          AC TAP (TACH)




                        I+ - I
                          voas


                                       TEST POIN           INDICATION
                                       A (B+)      BATTERY VOIJAGE
                                       B (REG)     BATTERY VOIJAGE WITH
                                                   IND. LIGHT OFF                 BATTERY      --
                                                   JUMPER ATTACHED, 1.5 TO
                                       B (0+)      3.0 voas IND. LIGHT ON      ··REMOTE BATT
                                                                                  SENSE ONLY
                                 ·JUMPER NOT ATTACHED

                                 REGULATOR TEST (BACK COVER REMOVED)




                                                         62
Test No. 3 Harness Voltage Test (Remove Battery Sense Only)
Remove harness sense lead from sense terminal and connect voltmeter leads as shown in Figure
below. Voltmeter should indicate battery voltage (approx. 12.6 volts for a fully charged battery with
ignition key off). If voltage is zero, the hardness "sense" lead is open and should be repaired or
replaced.




                                           INTEGRAL
                                          REGULATOR


                        I+ - I
                          voas
                                          EXCITE
                                     (TO IGN. SN. OR
                                     OIL PRESS. SW.)
                       ~-f--I     BLK


                                  RED

                                     ·REMOTE BATTERY SENSE ONLY
                                                                            BATTERY



                                         CABLE HARNESS VOLTAGE TEST


Test No. 4 Alternator Ooutput Test
After voltmeter is connected, as shown in Figure below, start and run engine at a fast idle of
approximately 1,500 RPM. Turn on vehicle headlights and blower fan (low speed). Check for
nominal system output voltage of between 13.8-14.8 volts for a properly operating charging system.
(Voltages may vary a few tenths of a volt (higher or lower) due to ambient temperature variations).

If the alternator output voltage does not fall within the proper range, the alternator should be
disassembled for further inspection and tests.


                                           IGN.        IND
                                           SW.        LIGHT




                                                                                      ·SENSE TO
                                                                                        BATT (+)
                                            INTEGRAL --~. . .
                                           REGULATOR

                        I+ - I
                          was

                                   BLK


                           RED            POS + OUTPUT
                                           13.8 TO 14.BV
                                                                            BATTERY

                                                                   ·REMOTE BATTERY SENSE ONLY


                                          ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST




                                                              63
     TEST PROCEDURE-(REMOTE REGULATOR SYSTEMS)

                                             ACTAP
                                             (TACH)



                           (D+) INDICATOR
                             LIGHT TERM.


                                  GROUND




                        ALTERNATOR TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION (REMOTE REGULATOR)



                                    TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
                                   REMOTE REGULATOR SYSTEMS

     PROBLEM                                PROBABLE CAUSES                        CORRECTIVE ACTION

A. Battery undercharged                1.   Defective cables, dirty battery   1.   Check, clean, repair or replace
     -   ammeter (if used) indicates        posts, corroded terminals, etc.        as needed.
         constant discharge.
     -   indicator lamp remains on.    2. Loose or broken belt.               2. Check belt.
                                       3.   Worn or broken brushes.           3.   Replace brush assy.
                                       4.   Defective alternator system.      4.   Refer to "Problem Area
                                                                                   Determination Section".

B.   Battery undercharged              1.   Indicator lamp burned out or      1.   Check bulb & harness.
     - indicator lamp off with key          defective wire harness.
       on & engine stopped. (Normal
       condition is lamp on.)          2. Broken brush.                       2. Replace brush assy.
                                       3.   Defective alternator system.      3.   Refer to "Problem Area
                                                                                   Determination Section".

C. Battery overcharges                 1.   Poor ground.                      1.   Check ground.
   - excessive use of water.           2. Defective alt. system.              2. Refer to "Problem Area
   - ammeter (if used) shows                                                       Determination Section".
     constant excessive charge.
     voltmeter indicates greater
     than 14.5 volts (connected
     across battery with no load)
     with engine idling.

D. Battery charges at idle, but        1.   Slipping belts.                   1.   Check belts and adjust tension
   discharges under load               2. Alternator defective                     or replace as necessary
   conditions.                                                                2.   Disassemble, check diodes.

E. Indicator lamp glows slightly       1.   Defective diode-trio.             1.   Remove & replace.
   under moderate load; battery
   appears charged.




                                                        64
Problem Area Determination Section
A. BATTERY UNDERCHARGED
    1.   Indicator Lamp On.
         a. Perform Open Diode-Trio Test (Test No.1).

   2.    Indicator Lamp Off (Ignition on and engine stopped).
         a. Perform Regulator Test (Test No.2)
         b. If Regulator is O.K., the cause is probably an open field circuit and Alternator must be
             removed for repair.

   3.    Further Investigation Requires Alternator Removal and Repair (diodes).

B. BATTERY OVERCHARGED
    1.   Regulator Shorted, Replace Unit.

Alternator/Regulator Tests
Test No.1 Open Diode-Trio Test
With ignition on and engine not running (jumped not attached and no electrical load), check for
battery voltage at terminal A and for 1.5 to 3.0 volts at terminal B. Add jumper JU1 between
terminals A and B. Start engine and run at idle. If indicator lamp now goes "off" and charging
voltage is present at terminal A, the diode-trio is probably "open" (defective) and alternator should
be removed for repair.

                                                          IGN.     IND.
                                                          SW.     UGHT


                           VOIJAGE
                          REGULATOR

                                             RED                                         n.+-- POS. + OUTPUT
                                             BLK                                                         (B+)
                                             GRN



                                 I+ - I
                                   VOIIS
                                                                   FIELD
                     EXCITE                               _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _J
                    (TO IGN.    L....T-=F--i BLK
                                             ~~~-




                     SW. OR
                   OIL PRESS.          RED   STEP TEST POIN               INDICATION
                      SW.)        I'='~)       l'    A (B+)      BATTERY VOIJAGE
                                  ::==:;>
                                  ..
                                  II
                                              2'     B (REG)     1.5 TO 3.0 VOIIS WITH
                                                                 IND. UGHT ON                  BATTERY
                                  II
                                  ~=-.:~                         13.5 TO 15.0 VOIIS & IND.
                                              3      A (B+)      UGHT OFF. (JUMPER
                                                                 ATTACHED. ENGINE IDUNG)
                                             'JUMPER NOT ATTACHED

                                                    OPEN DIODE-TRIO TEST




                                                                 65
Test No.2 Open Regulator Test
With ignition on and engine not running and jumper not attached check for battery voltage at
terminal A and terminal B. Indicator light will be off. Add jumper JU1 between terminals Band C. 11
1.5 to 3.0 volts is present at terminal B and the indicator light is on, an open (defective) regulator is
indicated. If lamp is still not "on", an open field circuit (brushes, slip-rings, etc.)
is indicated and alternator repair is required.

                                                         IGN.       IND.
                                                         sw.       LIGHT



                       VOIJAGE
                      REGULATOR

                                                 RED                                        f"\.o~--   POS + OUTPUT
                                                 BLK                                                        (B+)
                                                 GREEN



                              I+ - I
                                  VOIJS
                EXCITE
               (TO IGN.                          BLK
                sw. OR
              OIL PRESS.          REO       STEP TEST POIN                INOICATION
                 sw.)            --"         1- A (B+)            BATTERY VOIJAGE
                               1'---">
                               IL __">       2- B (REG)           BATTERY VOIJAGE WITH
                               :r--~                              IND. LIGHT OFF                  BATTERY
                               ~=="v                              JUMPER ATTACHED, 1.5 TO
                                             3    B (0+)          3.0 VOLTS IND. LIGHT ON

                                            -JUMPER NOT ATTACHED

                                                    OPEN REGULATOR TEST


Test No. 3 Alternator Output Test
After voltmeter is connected, as shown in Figure below, start and run engine at a fast idle of
approximately 1,500 RPM. Turn on vehicle headlights and blower fan (low speed). Check for
nominal system output voltage of between 13.8-14.8 volts for a properly operating charging system.
(Voltages may vary a few tenths of a volt (higher or lower) due to ambient temperature variations.)

If the alternator output voltage does not fall within the proper range, the alternator should be
disassembled for further inspection and tests.
                                                           IGN.      IND.
                                                           sw.      LIGHT



                         VOIJAGE
                        REGULATOR

                                                 RED                                        0-*-- POS +        OUTPUT
                                                 BLK                                                         (B+)
                                                 GRN



                               I+ - I
                                    VOIJS

                 EXCITE
                (TO IGN.                         BLK
                sw.  OR
               OIL PRESS
                  sw.)              RED                    POS + OUTPUT
                                                            13.8 TO 14.8V
                                                                                                   BATTERY        -

                                                  ALTERNATOR OUTPUT TEST

                                                                      66
ALTERNATOR REPAIR PROCEDURE
General
The following instructions are presented as a general overall procedure for complete disassembly
of an alternator. However, it should be pOinted out that following the complete procedure whenever
a repair is necessary will seldom, if ever, be required. In cases where the causes of the
malfunction are known, it is only necessary to follow that portion of the procedure directly related
to resolving the problem. Similarly, when the reasons for the malfunction are uncertain, it will be
necessary to follow the procedure in greater depth in order to isolate and correct the problem.

The following troubleshooting diagram should help identify some of the more common problems to
concentrate on during the overhaul/repair procedure.


                                  NO                  LOW              "NOISY"
                              ALTERNATOR          ALTERNATOR         ALTERNATOR
                                OUTPUT              OUTPUT
                                                                          ~
                                  ~                   +
                                                  DEFECTIVE          LOOSE DRIVE
                              DEFECTIVE                                PULLEY
                              REGULATOR           REGULATOR

                                  ~                    ~                  ~
                                                    WORN             CRACKED OR
                              DEFECTIVE                               DAMAGED
                              BRUSHES              BRUSHES
                                                                      HOUSING
                                  ~                   ~
                                OPEN             GROUNDEDI
                                FIELD             SHORTED              WORN
                                DIODE          ROTOR WINDINGS         BEARINGS

                                  ~                   ~                   ~
                                OPEN              GROUNDEDI           SHORTED
                                ROTOR              SHORTED            RECTIFIER
                                               STATOR WINDINGS         DIODE

                                                       ~                  ~
                                                 SHORTED/OPEN        SHORTED OR
                                                RECTIFIER DIODE    GROUNDED STATOR
                                                                      WINDINGS




                              ALTERNATOR TROUBLESHOOTING-DIAGRAM

Disassembly & Testing
Detach Back Cover:
Remove nuts from terminals. Remove two screws securing back cover to rear housing.




                                                                        (2) BACK COVER
                                                                       MOUNTING SCREWS
                                           REMOVING BACK COVER




                                                      67
Remove Brush Holder:
Remove two locknuts securing brush holder. Pull out brush holder. See illustration below.




                                                                         (2) BRUSHOLDER
                                                                        MOUNTING LOCKNUT




                                         REMOVING BRUSH HOLDER


Inspect and Test Brush Assembly:
The illustration below shows the terminals brush arrangement and testing procedure. The original
brush set may be reused if the brushes are 3/16" or longer, and if brushes are not oil soaked,
cracked or show evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes caused by vibration.




                                  TEST
                                CONTINUITY
                               FROM A TO B
                               FROM C TO 0
                                NO CIRCUIT:
                               FROM A OR B              TEST WITH 12 VOLT DC
                                 TO C OR 0            TEST LAMP OR OHMMETER

                                              BRUSH TEST




                                                    68
Remove Integral Voltage Regulator:
Remove two screws securing integral voltage regulator to rear housing.

NOTE: Alternators with remote voltage regulator systems will have a space part mounted to the
rear housing instead of the integral voltage regulator.




                                                                              (2) REGULATOR
                                                                            MOUNTING SCREWS



                                   REMOVING VOLTAGE REGULATOR

Remove Diode-Trio (Field Diode) and Rectifier Diode Bridge:
The diode-trio and rectifier diode bridge are detached as an assembly. Remove cone lockout from
positive output (B+) terminal. Straighten B+ strap. Remove three terminal screws and four diode-
trio mounting screws. Detach assembly from rear housing and separate diode-trio assembly from
rectifier bridge. See illustration below.




                                                                                   (4) MOUNTING
                                                                                       SCREW




                                                                                CONE LOCKNUT
                                                                                AND B+ STRAP




                       REMOVING DIODE-TRIO AND RECTIFIER DIODE BRIDGE.




                                                    69
Test Diode Trio Assembly:
Using a commercial diode tester or 12 volt DC test lamp; check for continuity from each terminal
separately to the 0+ stud; continuity should be observed in one direction (polarity) only, and all
diodes should check alike. If any diode is defective replace the entire diode trio assembly. See
illustration below.


                                    COMMERCIAL
                                    DlOOE TESTER




                                              ~----D+        STUD
                                    L...---t~:r    (IND. LIGHT TERMINAL)


                                             TESTING DIODE-TRIO

Test Diode Rectifier Bridge Assembly:
Using a commercial diode tested, check for continuity. Check betweenn pOint A and each of three
terminals C for negative diodes. Continuity should be observed in one direction (polarity) only, and
all diodes should check alike. Then check between point B (B+ strap) and each of the three
terminals C for positive diodes. Continuity should be observed in one direction only, and all diodes
should check alike. See illustration below.

If any diode is defective, replace the entire diode rectifier bridge assembly.


                                                                COMMERCIAL
                                                                DIODE TESTER




                               e                                               e
                               Q                                               9




                                        TESTING RECTIFIER BRIDGE




                                                        70
Separate Stator/Rear Housing Assy. from Front Housing:
Remove four thru-bolts. See illustration below.

Carefully insert two screwdriver blades in opposite openings between the stator and front housing,
as shown in illustration below. Pry units apart.

CAUTION: Do not insert screwdriver blades deeper than 1/16" to avoid damaging stator
winding.


                                        (4) THROUGH                  BLADE SCREWDRIVERS
                                             BOLT                    AT OPPOSITE
                                                                     OPENINGS ---::::-----...




                                               CAUTION: DO NOT
                                               INSERT BLADE OF
                                               SCREWDRIVER MORE
                                               THAN 1/16"

               THRU-BOLT REMOVAL                               STATOR-REAR HOUSING SEPARATION

Inspect Rear Housing:
Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken casting, stripped threads or evidence of severe
wear in the bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing.

If casting is to be reused, clean in solvent, dry with compressed air, and install a new rear bearing
retainer if retainer is damaged.

Test Stator:
The stator assembly consists of three individual windings terminated in the delta type connections.
Using an ohmmeter or a test lamp, check for winding continuity between terminals A, Band C.
There should be no continuity from any terminal to point D (laminations). Also, stators showing any
signs of winding discoloration should be discarded. See illustration below.




                                         o
                                         STATOR WINDING TESTS

                                                      71
Remove Pulley, Fan and Spacer:
The pulley is a slip-fit on the rotor shaft, positioned with a Woodruff Key. Remove the nut and
lockwasher from the shaft using an impact wrench or other suitable tool.

After nut and lockwasher are removed the alternator can be separated from the pulley.

The fan will slide over the key. The key may be removed with diagonal pliers, or with a screwdriver.

Inspect the fan for cracked or broken fins, note the condition of the mounting hole. If worn from
running loose, replace the fan to insure balance.

Inspect pulley for possible faults as listed in illustration below.



                                                              CHECK FOR WORN
                                                              DRIVE SURFACES. ..,.--_ _.....

                                                               CHECK FOR POLISHED
                                                               SURFACE HERE.


                                                           NOTE CONDITION OF ____ -=:;:::::==1
                                                           KEY GROOVE.            I-

                                                                      CHECK BORE
                                                                      FOR WEAR.



                   PULLEY REMOVAL                                           PULLEY INSPECTION POINTS


Separate Rotor from Front Housing:
Position front housing on support blocks placed on an arbor press. Push rotor assembly from
housing. See illustration below.



                                                               I--PRESS
                                                                              FRONT
                                                                             HOUSING
                                                                        /




                                SEPARATING ROTOR FROM FRONT HOUSING




                                                         72
Remove Front Bearing from Housing:
Remove three bearing retainer screws. Position housing on support blocks placed on an arbor
press. Using a tool that contacts inner race of bearing, press out front bearing. See illustrations below.

                   (3) BEARING RETAINIER
                           SCREW




                                                                     BEARING              INNER RACE




           REMOVING RETAINER SCREWS                                   PRESSING OUT BEARING


Inspect Front Housing:
Check housing for cracks. Check condition of threads in adjusting ear. Check bore in mounting
foot. Discard housing if bore shows signs of elongation (oval or out-of-roundness).

ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING
Check the rotor assembly for the following electrical properties. See illustration on page 89.

A.   Current Draw or Resistance of the Winding

CAUTION: Turn off DC power source before removing test leads to avoid avc damage to slip
ring surfaces.

1. CURRENT DRAW IN AMPERES, AT 70° TO 80°F.

                                                 CORRECT
           12 VOLT MODELS,                     CURRENT DRAW
               RATED AT:                          @ 15.0 V

              51 AMPERES                     3.2 to 3.6 AMPERES

2. RESISTANCE OF WINDING IN OHMS, AT 70° TO 80° F.

           12 VOLT MODELS,                   CORRECT WINDING
               RATED AT:                       RESISTANCE
              51 AMPERES                        4.1 to 4.7 OHM




                                                    . 73
                                        REAR
                                       BEARING
                                SLIP    \                         BEARING
                             RING~                                 AREA
                                                              /      KEY SLOT




                TEST CURRENT                                      SHAFT THREADS
             DRAW OR RESISTANCE
                BEWEEN RINGS                                  NOTE: PLACE TEST LEADS ON EDGES
                                                              OF SLIP RINGS TO AVOID CREATING
                                                              ARCS ON BRUSH CONTACT SURFACES.


                                ROTOR INSPECTION AND ELECTRICAL TESTING

B. Grounded Slip Ring or Winding
   Use 12 volt DC test lamp, ohmmeter, or 110V AC test lamp. Place one test lead to the rotor
   body and the other on either slip ring. Open circuit from either slip ring to the rotor body is a
   correct condition.

C. Condition of Slip Rings
    1.   Clean brush contacting surfaces with fine crocus cloth, wipe dust and residue away.

    2.   If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration, replace the entire rotor assembly.

D. Rotor Shaft and Pole Pieces

    1.   Stripped threads on shaft

    2.   Worn key slot

    3.   Worn bearing surface

   4.    Scuffed pole fingers

    5.   Worn or dry rear bearing

Replace rotor assembly if any of the above faults are noted with the exception of item 5.

NOTE: New rotors include a new rear bearing and new slip rings as part of the assembly.

If rear bearing requires replacement, follow instructions for this operation.




                                                    _ 74
Remove Slip Rings from Rotor Assembly
Unsolder the rotor leads from the slip ring terminals. Carefully unwind the ends of the rotor coil
leads from the slip ring terminals, as shown in illustration below.

                           REMOVE ALL RESIDUE
                           FROM BETWEEN
                           SLIP RINGS



                     UNSOLDER -"==~-r:J               II    I"T"




                               CAUTION: DO NOT
                                  OVERHEAT

                              UNSOLDER ROTOR LEADS FROM SLIP RINGS

Straighten rotor leads. Insert a No. 10 x 1" cap screw into opening at center of slip ring assembly.
Position bearing puller as shown in illustration below and pull slip ring assembly off rotor shaft.

CAUTION: When holding rear end of rotor shaft in vise, be sure not to grip bearing area of
rotor shaft.

                                          STRAIGHTEN
                                          ROTOR LEADS




                                        REMOVING SLIP RING ASSY.

Remove Rear Bearing from Rotor
Dress rotor leads away from the bearing puller contact area.
Adjust puller to contact inner bearing race, carefully remove bearing from the shaft. See illustration
at top of page 76.
This completes the disassembly of the alternator.




                                                       75
                                         DRESS ROTOR LEADS
                                         AWAY FROM PULLER




                                        REMOVING REAR BEARING

ALTERNATOR REASSEMBLY

General
The general reassembly instructions are reverse order to the procedures given for disassembly.
Therefore, only information pertaining to special reassembly requirements will be covered in this
section.

Install Rear Bearing
Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below. Choose a driver sleeve that exerts pressure
on inner race only and press bearing on rotor shaft until it contact shoulder. New replacement
bearings should be used whenever bearing is removed during repair procedures or when bearing
is rough, dry or noisy.


                                                              --PRESS
                                 REAR
                                BEARING
                                                              DRIVER

                                   RaroR~
                                                           -SLEEVE


                    BLOCK
                                       ~
                            \

                                       INSTALLING REAR BEARING




                                                     76
Install Slip Ring Assembly
Guide rotor leads through one of the oval passages in the slip ring assembly. Be sure oval
passages is in line with groove in rotor shaft. Place rotor on a press as shown in illustration below.
Choose a driver sleeve with a diameter that clears leads.

Press slip ring assembly on shaft. Solder rotor leads to leads on slip ring. Trim excess slip ring
leads extending above solder connections.



                                                            ____ PRESS




                                                                    DRIVER
                               SLIP RING                 __________ SLEEVE
                               ASSEMBLY~




                                     INSTALLING SLIP RING ASSEMBLY

Install Front Bearing
Place front bearing and housing in an arbor press, as in illustration below. Select a drive tool to
contact the outer race only and press bearing into housing bore. Bearing replacement is
recommended whenever bearing is removed during alternator repair procedures of if bearing is
rough, dry or noisy. Install three bearing retainer screws. Torque to 25-30 pounds.




                                                                _---- PRESS

                                                                             DRIVER TOOL
                                                                              CONTACTS
                                                                            OUTER BEARING
                                                                              RACE ONLY

                                                                                FRONT
                                                                               BEARING



                                                                               FRONT
                                                                              HOUSING


                                       INSTALLING FRONT BEARING




                                                      77
Assemble Rotor and Front Housing
Place the rotor on the bed of an arbor press, using two steel blocks for support, as shown in
illustration below. Place front housing over shaft. Using driver sleeve that contacts inner bearing
race only, press front housing down until inner bearing race contacts shoulder on the shaft.

CAUTION: Be sure rotor leads clear blocks.



                                                           .---PRESS
                                                             DRIVER
                                                         ~SLEEVE

                                                                           FRONT
                                                                       /HOUSING




                                 ASSEMBLING FRONT HOUSING TO ROTOR


Assembly Spacer, Fan and Pulley
Place pulley spacer over shaft. Install Woodruff Key. Install fan. Install pulley, lock washer and nut.
Mount pulley as shown in left hand illustration on page 92. Tighten to 35 to 50 foot pounds.

Spin rotor by hand to test freedom of bearing.

Assembly Front & Rear Housing
Place stator into front housing with stator leads at top and notches in laminations aligned with bolt
holds. Position rear housing over slip rings with housing bolt holes aligned and stator leads exten-
ding through openings at top of rear housing.

Install through bolts and tighten evenly to between 50 to 60 inch pounds. Spin rotor by hand to
test freedom of bearings.

NOTE: New front housings contain thru-bolt holes that are not tapped. Therefore, a socket wrench
rather than a nut driver will be required to supply sufficient torque to drive the "thread forming"
thru-bolts.

Install Diode Rectifier Bridge and Diode Trio
Insert B + strap through slot in diode trio body. Bend strap over B + terminal and secure with
cone locknut. Apply thin film of heat sink compound to back of diode rectifier bridge and to mating
area on rear housing.

Install assembly to rear housing (four screws). Place strap (AC tap) in position and connect stator
leads (three screws).

Install capacitor (where applicable).

Install Integral Regulator
Install brush mounting screws (two) through openings in regulator body. Secure regulator to rear
housing (two screws).


                                                    _ 78
Install Brush Assembly
Insert brush holder into grooves in hub of rear housing. Place D + strap (or male terminal where
applicable) on stud and secure brush holder with locknuts (two places). Secure other end of D +
strap.

Install Rear Cover
Be sure felt gasket is in place (see illustration below). Position rear cover on rear housing and
secure with two screws.




                                                                            FELT
                                                                           GASKET




                                          INSTALLING REAR COVER

ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS
The following tests will determine the current producing capability of the repaired alternator. Mount
the alternator in a test fixture capable of providing 5000 alternator RPM Select required battery
voltage and circuit polarity.

A. For remote regulator model, connect fixture circuit leads and instruments to the alternator
     terminals as shown in Diagram A on page 100. Place field rheostat in maximum resistance
     position.

Turn drive motor on, adjust to obtain 5000 alternator RPM. Slowly reduce field rheostat resistance,
alternator should develop a charge. Continue to reduce resistance until alternator reaches rated
current output in amperes. CAUTION: Limit output voltage to 15V maximum. DO NOT operate the
alternator for more than a few minutes in the manner, due to the lack of voltage control. If the
alternator will deliver its rated output, terminate the test.

B.   For integral regulator model, connect fixture leads and instruments to alternator terminals as
     shown in Diagram B on page 100.

The Carbon pile or resistive load bank and ammeter must be capable of handling the alternator
rated output alternaotr RPM.

CAUTION: Make sure connections are well secured and tight to avoid possible damage to
instrument, alternator or wiring due to short circuits.

Starting with carbon pile off, slowly increase load while observing ammeter and maintaining 5000
RPM. Increase load until a minimum output voltage of approximately 13.7 volts is obtained.
Record the output current at this point and refer to the chart for minimum acceptable ratings.




                                                       79
                                         MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE OUTPUT
                                             VAWES AT 70° TO 800
                                               RATING         OUTPUT

                                               51 AMP         46 AMP


                                                                                         D+   AC TAP (TACH)

                            FIELD
                          RHEOSTAT




                                                                           EXCITE
                                                                       (TO IGN. SW. OR
                                                                       OIL PRESS. SW.)

 I+ - I
  WLTS

          BLK                                                RED        POS + OUTPUT
          RED
                                                                          ·REMOTE BATT
                                     +                                     SENSE ONLY
                                     BATTERY


     DIAGRAM A-REMOTE REGULATOR MODEL                        DIAGRAM B-INTEGRAL REGULATOR MODEL

                               TYPICAL ALTERNATOR PERFORMANCE TESTS

CRANKING SYSTEM
Starter
The magnet-switch type starter is composed of two main sections. The first section converts
battery current into mechanical rotation to turn the engine crankshaft. It is composed of the field
coil, armature, brush, commutator, pinion, overrunning clutch, etc. The second section allows the
pinion and flywheel to engage together and current to flow through the motor section. It is
composed of the pull-in coil, holding coil pluge drive lever, contract plate, etc.

 1. Field Coil
 2. Brush Spring
 3. Brush Holder
 4. Brush
 5. Commutator
 6. Through
 7. Pole Core
 8. End Frame
 9. Contact Bolt
10. Contact Plate
11. Holding Coil
12. Magnet Switch
13. PUll-in Coil
14. Moving Core
15. Drive Lever
16. Drive Spring
17. Lever Set Bolt
18. Bearing
19. Drive Side Housing
20. Over Running Clutch
21. Armature
22. Yoke


                                                        80
                                                                     Starter circuit
                                                                       (3)                            (1)   (2)



              1. PC :Pull-in Coil
              2. HC :Holding Coil
              3. S :Switch
              4. Drive Lever clutch
              5. Screw Spline
              6. Armature
              7. Pole Core
              8. Commutator
              9. Contact Plate


When Start Button is Pushed:
When the start button is pushed on, a current flows from the battery through the pull-in coil in the
magnet switch section to the holding coil, energizing the plunger to pull it in. At this time, the
pinion moves by the drive lever to engage with the ring gear.

                                                                        When start button is pushed



              1.   Battery
              2.   Starter Switch
              3.   Ground
              4.   Return Spring
              5.   Spline Tube
              6.   Pinion
              7.   Ring Gear
              8.   Operated By Lever




When contact plate is closed:
When the contact plate is closed, a large current flows through the motor section to generate a
large mechanical power which turns the engine crankshaft.

At this time, the pinion is moved forward by the screw spline for more contact.

Since the pull-in coil ends are short-circuited by the contact plate, the plunger is held only by the
force of the holding coil.

                                       When contact plate il clo'"




                                                             81
When Push Button is Released:
When the push button is released, a current flows instantaneously through the pull-in coil in
the opposite direction as shown in Figure below. Therefore, the forces of the holding coil and
pull-in coil are balanced. As a result, the plunger is returned by the return spring.
Simultaneously, the pinion is disengaged from the ring gear, the contact plate is disconnected,
and the starter is promptly stopped by the armature brake.

                                   When push button is released




Glow Plugs
Glow plugs are used for each pre-combustion chamber of the cylinder head to make starting
easier. The glow plugs are quick-heating type, which make starting easier with short pre-heating
time.

                                                                  Construction of bar glow plug



                                                                                   (~                    (~
                1.   Housing


                                                                  ~··"···f.l..·~
                2.   Metal Tube
                3.   Insulating Powder
                4.   Heat Coil
                                                                            (1)                    (2)




                                                        82
                    SECTION VI - DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY


CYLINDER
Removing Head Cover ............................................................. 86
Removing Injection Pipes 1, 2 and 3 ................................................. 86
Removing Nozzle Holder Assemblies ................................................. 87
Removing AC Dynamo and Fan Belt ................................................. 87
Removing Rocker Arm ............................................................. 88
Removing Push Rods .............................................................. 88
Removing Cylinder Heads .......................................................... 89
Removing Cylinder Head Gasket .................................................... 89
Removing O-ring .................................................................. 90
Removing Tappets ..............................................., ................. 90
Removing Valves ................................................................. 91
NOZZLE HOLDER
Disassembling Nozzle Holder ....................................................... 91
INJECTION PUMP
Removing Injection Pump Cover ..................................................... 92
Removing Injection Pump .......................................................... 92
GEAR CASE, TIMING GEAR, CAMSHAFT, OIL PUMP
Detaching Governor Spring ......................................................... 93
Removing Speed Control Plate ...................................................... 93
Detaching Start Spring ............................................................. 94
Removing Fan Drive Pulley ......................................................... 94
Removing Gear Case .............................................................. 95
Removing Crankshaft Oil Slinger .................................................... 95
Removing Idle Gear ............................................................... 96
Camshaft Stopper ................................................................. 96
Removing Gear and Camshaft ...................................................... 97
Removing Fork Lever Assembly ..................................................... 97
Removing Fuel Camshaft ........................................................... 98
Removing Oil Pump Drive Gear ..................................................... 98
Removing Oil Pump ............................................................... 99
Removing Crank Gear ............................................................. 99
PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT
Removing Oil Pan ................................................. ~ .............. 100
Removing Oil Filter 1 ............................................................. 100
Removing Connecting Rod Cap .................................................... 101
Removing Pistons ................................................................ 101
Removing Flywheel ............................................................... 102


                                           83
                            SECTION VI - CONTENTS (Continued)

PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT (Continued)

Removing Bearing Case Cover ..................................................... 102
Removing Bearing Case Bolt 2 ..................................................... 103
Removing Crankshaft ............................................................. 103
Removing Main Bearing Case ...................................................... 104

Removing Cylinder Liner .......................................................... 104
THERMOSTAT, WATER PUMP
Removing Thermostat ............................................................ 105
Removing Water Pump ........................................................... 106
CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
Checking Flatness of Cylinder Head Surface ...................................... 106-107
Checking Flaw of Cylinder Head Surface ............................................. 107
Reparing Valve Seat .............................................................. 108
Checking Valve Recessing ......................................................... 108
Checking Guide Clearance ........................................................ 109
Checking Valve Spring Free Length ................................................. 109
Checking Valve Spring Squareness ................................................. 110
Checking Valve Spring Tension ..................................................... 110
Checking Oil Clearance Between Rocker Arm Shaft and Bushing ......................... 111
Checking Top Clearance .......................................................... 111
Adjusting Valve Clearance ......................................................... 113
Adjusting Compression Release .................................................... 112
FUEL SYSTEM
Testing Opening Pressure of Nozzle ................................................. 113
Checking Fuel Tightness of Nozzle Valve Seat ........................................ 113
Checking Shape of Fumes Across Nozzle Tip ......................................... 114
Checking Fuel Tightness of Fuel Injection Pump Plunger ................................ 114
Checking Fuel Tightness of Delivery Valve of Fuel Injection Pump ........................ 115
Choking and Adjusting Injection Timing .............................................. 116
TIMING GEARS, CAMSHAFT
Checking Oil Clearance of Camshaft ................................................ 117
Checking Camshaft Alignment ...................................................... 117
Checking Cam Heights of Intake and Exhaust ......................................... 118
Checking Gear Backlash .......................................................... 118
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Testing Oil Pressure .............................................................. 119
Oil Pump (Rotor Type) ........................................................ 119-120




                                             84
                                       SECTION VI - CONTENTS (Continued)

PISTON, CONNECTING ROD
Checking Inside Diameter of Piston Bosses ........................................... 121
Checking Clearance Between Piston Pin and Small End Bushing ......................... 121
Checking Piston Ring Clearance .................................................... 122
Checking Side Clearance of Ring in Groove .......................................... 122
Checking Connecting Rod Alignment ................................................ 123
Checking Crankshaft Alignment .................................................... 123
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearing 1 ............. 124
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crankshaft Journal and Crankshaft Bearing 2 ............. 124
Checking Oil Clearance Between Crank Pins and Crank Pin Bearings ..................... 125
Checking End Play of Crankshaft ................................................... 125
Checking Wear of Cylinder Liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 126
Crankshaft and Bearing Reference .................................................. 127
REPLACING VALVE GUIDES, BUSHINGS AND BEARINGS
Replacing Valve Guides ........................................................... 128
Replacing Rocker Arm Bushings .................................................... 128
Replacing Idle Gear Bushings ...................................................... 129
Replacing Small End Bushings ..................................................... 129
Replacing Crankshaft Bearing 1 .................................................... 130




                                                                 85
ATTENTION: When reassembling, replace all the O-rings and gaskets with new ones.



                                             CYLINDER HEAD
 REMOVING HEAD COVER
1.   Remove the head cover nuts.

2.   Remove the head cover.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if the head cover gasket is not defective. To prevent
valve stem seizure, apply enough engine oil to the valve guide and valve stem.




                                                1. Head Cover


REMOVING INJECTION PIPES 1,2 and 3.

1. Loosen the screws on the pipe clamps.

2. Detach the injection pipes in the order of 1, 2 and 3.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Send compressed air into the pipes to blowout dust. Then,
reassemble the pipes in the reverse order. Tighten the retaining nuts to 15 to 25 Nm (1.5 to 2.5 kgf-
m, 11 to 18 ft Ibs).



                                                                                  4



                   1. Injection Pipe 1
                   2. Injection Pipe 2
                   3. Injection Pipe 3
                   4. Pipe Clamp
                   5. Retaining Nuts




                                                       86
 REMOVING NOZZLE HOLDER ASSEMBLIES
1.   Remove the pipe clips holding the fuel overflow pipes, and detach the pipes.

2.   Detach the nozzle holders using a 27mm (1-1/16") nozzle holder socket wrench, after loosening
     the rock nuts.

3.   Detach the copper gaskets on the seats on which the nozzles are to be installed.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Return the nozzle holders after confirming that there are no metallic
particles or foreign matter on the surface on which the nozzles are to be installed. Tighten the
nozzles to 29 to 49 Nm (3.0 to 5.0 kgf-m, 22 to 36 ft-Ibs.).




          1. Nozzle Holder Socket Wrench
          2. Rock Nut




REMOVING AC DYNAMO AND FAN BELT
1.   Remove the AC dynamo.

2.   Detach the fan belt.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if the V-belt is placed in a correct position (where
letters on the belt can be read from your side), and there is no oil or grease on the belt. Fan belt
tension: The belt should deflect approx. 7 mm (0.28 in.) when the center of the belt is depressed
with a finger pressure of 58.8 to 68.6 N (6 to 7 kgf-m, 13.2 to 15.4 Ibs.)




                                                                                                       1



                    1. AC Dynamo
                    2. Fan Belt



                                                                2




                                                      87
REMOVING ROCKER ARM
1.   Remove the set nuts for the rocker arm brackets.

2.   Detach the whole rocker arm.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Always adjust the valve clearance. Before installing the rocker arm
bracket, check to see if there are any metallic particles on the surface on which the assembly is
mounted. Tighten the bolts to 17 to 21 Nm (1.7 to 2.1 kgf-m, 12 to 15 ft-Ibs.).




                                               1. Rocker Arm


REMOVING PUSH-RODS
1.   Remove the push-rods.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before inserting the push rods into the tappets, check to see if their
ends are properly engaged with the grooves. If a push rod is roughly inserted, it may hit the
shoulder of the tappet and be damaged.




                                                1. Push-rod




                                                        88
REMOVING CYLINDER HEADS
1.   Remove the twelve cylinder head set bolts and two nuts.

2.   Lift up the cylinder head to detach.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Tighten the bolts and nuts after applying sufficient oil. Tighten the
bolts and nuts in diagonal sequence starting from the center. Tighten them uniformly, or the head
may deform in the long run.

IMPORTANT: When overhauling the engine, replace the gasket with a new one without
confusing its front and back. Retighten the cylinder head after running the engine for 30
minutes. Tighten the cylinder head bolts and nuts to engine specifications.




                                                                      Cylinder head tightening sequence


                                                                             10            2              7_--.


                                                                       ~oo ~oo ~Oo8
                                                                (1)    0            0            0            0    (2)
                                                                       13     0     5     0      4        0   12
                                                                              918



                                               1. Gear Case Side
                                               2. Flywheel Side

REMOVING CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
1.   Detach the cylinder head gasket, being careful not to scratch it.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before installing the gasket, check to see there is no foreign matter
on the cylinder head and the cylinder.




                                            1. Cylinder Head Gasket




                                                       89
 REMOVING O-RING
1.   Remove the O-ring from the periphery of the oil pipe on the crankcase.




                                                   1. O-ring
                                                   2. Pipe Pin


REMOVING TAPPETS
1.   Remove the six tappets from the crankcase.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Visually check the contact between tappets and cams for proper
rotation. If a defect is found, replace tappets. Before installing the tappets, apply engine oil thinly
around them.




                                                   1. Tappets




                                                         90
REMOVING VALVES
1.   Remove the valve caps.

2.   Remove the valve spring collet, pushing the valve spring retainer by valve spring replacer.

3.   Remove the valve spring retainer, valve spring and valve stem seal.

4.   Remove the valve.

IMPORTANT: Don't change the combination of valve and valve guide.




             1.   Valve Spring Replacer
             2.   Valve Cap
             3.   Valve Spring Collet
             4.   Valve Spring Retainer
             5.   Valve Spring
             6.   Valve Stem Seal
             7.   Valve




                                             NOZZLE HOLDER
DISASSEMBLING NOZZLE HOLDER
1.   Secure the retaining nut with a vise.

2.   Remove the nut, the eye joint and the plain washer.

3.   Remove the nozzle holder body and take out parts inside

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: When disassembling and reassembling the nozzle piece, dip it in
clean fuel. Install the push rod, noting its direction (upside down). Tighten the retaining nut to 58.8
to 78.4 Nm (6 to 8 kgf-m, to 57.8 ft-Ibs). Do not tighten it too much, or the needle valve will not
slide easily and the injection performance will be decreased.


                                                                                          1

                1.
                2.
                     Retaining Nut
                     Nozzle Holder Body                                                   t'~
                                                                     ;,
                                                                          2
                3.
                4.
                     Nut
                     Eye Joint                                                                      /~
                5.   Plain Washer                                                     ......
                                                                                           \            10
                6.   Adjusting Washer                                                 .~\\          9
                7.   Nozzle Spring                                                    \       7 8
                8.   Push Rod                                                 I


                                                                    ~Q"\ \ 5
                                                                                          6
                9.   Distance Piece
               10.   Nozzle Piece                                  t·
                                                                      \           4
                                                                              3




                                                       91
                                            INJECTION PUMP

 REMOVING INJECTION PUMP COVER
1.   Remove the injection pump cover.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before installing the pump cover gasket, apply a non-drying
adhesive to it.




REMOVING INJECTION PUMP
1.   Remove the injection pump mounting bolts and nuts.

2.   Detach the injection pump. To prevent the pump rack from being caught, detach the pump
     along the removal groove.

3.   Align the control rack pin with the slot on the gear case and remove the injection pump.

4.   In principle, the injection pump should not be disassembled.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Install the injection pump by aligning the control rack with the
indicated positon. Addition or reduction of one shim delays or advances the injection timing by
0.0262 rad. (1.50 ). Install the injection pump shims after applying thinly a non-drying adhesive.




                                             1. Injection Pump
                                             2. Control Rack
                                             3. Removal Groove




                                                    I   92
                      GEAR CASE, TIMING GEAR, CAMSHAFT, OIL PUMP

DETACHING GOVERNOR SPRING
1.   Detach the governor springs 1 and 2 from governor fork lever 2.

NOTE FOR RE,ASSEMBLING: Fix the governor spring to the speed control lever, and pull the
spring or wire through the window of the injection pump, and spring will be able to be hooked on
the governor fork with ease. Bend the end of the governor spring to prevent it from falling off.



                                                             How to remove governor spring

                                                              ~



                                                                                                   (2)




                            1. Detach Governor Spring on the Side of Fork Lever
                            2. Gear Case
                            3. Fork Lever 2

REMOVING SPEED CONTROL PLATE
1.   Remove the speed control plate and governor spring.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Be careful not to drop the governor spring in the gear case.




                                                    93
DETACHING START SPRING
1.   Remove the start spring from the gear case.




                                                               How to remove start spring
                                                                       ,J   U      U

                                                                   ~




                              1. Detach Start Spring on the Side of Gear Case
                              2. Gear Case

REMOVING FAN DRIVE PULLEY
1.   Flatten the crankshaft washer.

2.   Loosen and remove the crankshaft nut.

3.   Draw out the pulley with a puller.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Bend the crankshaft washer against one side of the nut. Tighten
the nut to 137.3 to 156.9 Nm (14.0 to 16.0 kgf-m, 101.3 to 115.7 ft-Ibs.). Do not tighten the nut
excessively; it may damage the oil slinger, causing oil leakage.




                                             1. Fan Drive Pulley




                                                     94
 REMOVING GEAR CASE
1.   Remove the gear case cover.

2.   Remove the O-ring.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if there are three O-rings inside the gear case. Apply
a thin film of engine to the oil seal, and install it, noting the lip come off. Before installing the gear
case gasket, apply a non-drying adhesive. Tighten the oil filter cartridge by hand.




REMOVING CRANKSHAFT OIL SLINGER
1.   Remove the crankshaft collar.

2.   Remove the O-ring.

3.   Detach the crankshaft oil slinger.




                1. Crankshaft Oil Slinger
                2. O-Ring
                3. Crankshaft Collar




                                                         95
 REMOVING IDLE GEAR
1.   Remove the external circlip.

2.   Detach the idle gear collar 2.

3.   Detach the idle gear

4.   Detach the idle gear collar 1.

NOTE FOR REASEMBLlNG: Check to see each gear is aligned with its aligning mark: .
1. Idle gear and crank gear
2. Idle gear and camshaft gear
3. Idle gear and injection pump gear
Tighten the idle gear shaft mounting bolt (7T) to 10 to 12 Nm (1.0 to 1.2 kgf8m, 7.2 to 8.7 ft-Ibs).




                                                                                                       2


                                                                                         ----1

                                       00                                               ==-----2



                                              1. Idler Gear
                                              2. Alignment Mark



REMOVING CAMSHAFT STOPPER
1.   Align the round hole on the cam gear with the camshaft stopper mounting bolt position.

2.   Remove the camshaft stopper mounting bolt.

3.   Detach the camshaft stopper.




                                            1. Camshaft Stopper




                                                      96
REMOVING GEAR AND CAMSHAFT
1.   Draw the camshaft and the cam gear.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Apply a thin film of engine oil to the camshaft before installation.



                                                             1




                                             1. Camshaft Assembly



REMOVING FORK LEVER ASSEMBLY
1.   Remove the two fork lever holder mounting bolts.

2.   Detach the fork lever assembly.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Install the fork lever holder and crankcase after cleaning their
contact surfaces. Install the fork lever so that it will not hit the governor sleeve, and so that equal
space is allowed on either side of the lever. After installation, check to see that the fork lever (1) is
fixed to the fork lever shaft, and that it can turn smoothly in the holder.




                                            1. Fork Lever Assembly




                                                        97
REMOVING FUEL CAMSHAFT
1.   Remove the fuel camshaft stopper.

2.   Draw out the fuel camshaft and the injection pump gear.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Apply a thin film of engine oil to each part, and reassemble so that
the drive groove at the end of the camshaft engages with the drive shaft of the hydraulic gear
pump. The balls to be contained in the governor ball case are thirty 3.97 mm (0.1563 in.) diameter
ones and eight 13. 46 mm (0.5300 in.) diameter ones.




                                         1. Fuel Camshaft Assembly
                                         2. Fuel Camshaft Stopper



REMOVING OIL PUMP DRIVE GEAR
1.   Straighten the claw of the claw washer of the oil pan, and remove the nut.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see if there is a feather key. Be sure to bend the claw of
the claw washer.




                                          1. Crank Gear
                                          2. Oil Pump Drive Gear




                                                      98
REMOVING OIL PUMP
1.   Remove the four pump mounting bolts. Detach the oil pump.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Tighten the bolts 10 to 12 Nm (1.0 to 1.2 kgf-m, 7.2 to 8.7 ft-Ibs.).




                                           1. Oil Pump Assembly


REMOVING CRANK GEAR
1.   Set a special puller on the crank gear.

2.   Screw in the center bolt of the puller, and draw out the crank gear.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Check to see that the key is on the crankshaft. Heat the crank gear
to about 990 C (120 0 F), and fit on the crankshaft. If there is fear of the shaft being damaged, heat
the gear more and fit.




                                           1. 13T Gear (Crank Gear)




                                                      99
                                           PISTON, CRANKSHAFT
REMOVING OIL PAN
1.   Lay the engine on the engine cradle on its side.

2.   Remove the eighteen oil pan mounting bolts.

3.   Detach the oil pan by lightly tapping the grove of the pan with a wooden hammer.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Wipe off oil on the oil pan mounting surface, apply a nondrying
adhesive, and install the oil pan. To avoid uneven tightening, tighten mounting bolts in diagonal
order from the center. Check to see that the drain plug is tight.




                              t
                              ,

                                                     1. Oil Pan

REMOVING OIL FILTER 1
1.   Remove the mounting bolt of oil filter 1.

2.   Detach oil filter 1, being careful of the O-ring.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLlNG:,After cleaning the oil filter, check to see that the filter mesh is
clean, and install it. Visually check the O-ring, apply engine oil, and install it. After checking to see
that the O-ring is securely installed, attach the oil filter.




                              Jl.




                                                    1. Oil Filter 1




                                                         100
REMOVING CONNECTING ROD CAP
1.   Remove the connecting rod bolts from connecting rod cap.

2.   Detach the connecting rod caps.

IMPORTANT: Apply engine oil to the connecting rod bolts and tighten them to 26 to 30 Nm
(2.7 to 3.1 kgfOm, 20 to 22 ft-Ibs).



                                                                Reassembling of connecting rod 1




                                                                                         (a) (b)

                               1. Connecting Rod Cap
                                  a. Align the marks with each other.
                                  b. Face the marks toward the injection pump.

 REMOVING PISTONS
1.   Turn the crankshaft by 3.14 rad (180 0 ) and bring the piston to top dead center.

2.   Draw out the piston upward by lightly tapping it from the bottom of the crankcase with the grip
     of a hammer.

3.   Draw out the other two pistons in the same method as above.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before inserting the pistons into the cylinders, apply enough engine
oil to the pistons.

IMPORTANT: Install the piston rings with their gaps making an angle of 2.09 rad (120 0 ) or 3.14
rad (1800 ) to each other. (Place the top ring with their gaps on the opposite side of the
combustion chamber.) Attach a ring to the pistons securely with a piston ring compressor,
and set them to the cylinder, being careful about the cylinder number and the position of the
connecting rod (Connecting rods must be installed with their ends being the number toward
the fuel injection pump). Carefully insert the pistons. Otherwise, their chromeplated section
may be scratched, causing trouble inside the liner.




                                                    1. Piston

                                                       101
REMOVING FLYWHEEL
1.   Flatter the flywheel washers.

2.   Remove the flywheel bolts, except for two which must be loosened and left as they are.

3.   Set a flywheel puller, and remove the flywheel

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING:. Apply a thin film of grease to the bearing and oil seal at the back of
the crankshaft. Check the ring gear for any uneven wear, lack or crack of teeth. Check to see that
there are no metal particles left on the flywheel mounting surface. To ease alignment of the
crankshaft and the flywheel, bring the crank of one of the cylinders to TC (top dead center). Make
sure of the flywheel TC, align it with the punch mark of the rear end plate, and set the flywheel.
Tighten the flywheel bolts to 54 to 59 Nm (5.5 to 6.0 kgfOm, 40 to 43 ft-Ibs) in diagonal order. Bend
the tangs of the flywheel washer against the bolts.




                                               1. Flywheel Puller
                                               2. Crankshaft

REMOVING BEARING CASE COVER
1.   Remove the bearings case cover mounting bolts. First unscrew the eight bolts inside, and then
     work on the nine outside.

2.   Screw the two bolts removed above into the two right and left holes for the bearing case cover,
     and pull off the cover by jacking it up.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: When installing the main bearing case cover, check to see that
there are no scratches on the oil seal lip. Then, apply a thin film of engine oil, and install. Tighten
the mounting bolts in diagonal order to 10 to 12 Nm (1.0 to 1.2 kgfOm, 7.2 to 8.7 ft-Ibs).




                 1. Lift Bolt
                 2. Bearing Case Cover




                                                      102
REMOVING BEARING CASE BOLT 2
1.   Straighten the washer for the bearing case bolt 2.

2.   Detach the bearing case bolts.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: When tightening the main bearing case bolts, align the direction of
the holes so that the crankshaft can be easily installed. Tighten the bearing case bolts 2 to 30 to
34 Nm (3.0 to 3.5 kgfOm, 22 to 25 ft-Ibs). Securely bend tangs of the washer.




                                         1. Bearing Case Bolt 2

 REMOVING CRANKSHAFT
1.   Draw out the crankshaft from the back of the crankcase by lightly tapping it with a copper
     hammer.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Before installing the crankshaft, clean the oil holes in the crankshaft
with compressed air.




                                                   .. 103
REMOVING MAIN BEARING CASE
1.   Remove the two mounting bolts for main bearing case assembly

2.   Detach the main bearing case, being careful with the side and crankshaft bearings.

3.   Detach the other bearing cases 2 and 3 in the same method. Be careful not to mix them up.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLIING: Clean the oil holes in the main bearing case. Install the main
bearing case with their side marks toward the flywheel. Be sure to install main bearing 1 with its
oil grove facing outward. Tighten the bearing case bolts 1 to 2 to 24 Nm (2.0 to 2.4 kgfOm, 15 to 17
ft-Ibs).




         1.   Main Bearing Case Assembly 1
         2.   Main Bearing Case Assembly 2
         3.   Main Bearing Case Assembly 3
         4.   Bearing Case Bolt 1




REMOVING CYLINDER LINER (See illustration on page 105)
1.   Grind the cylinder head mounting surface with an oil grinding stone.

2.   Set a dry liner centering base and adaptor on the frame head

3.   Set the dry liner centering base.

4.   Set the bearing cradle to the dry liner centering base with the bearing on top.

5.   Insert the pulling-out adaptor coupling and fix the center bolt.

6.   Contact the pulling-out adaptor with the bottom of the liner from the bottom of the crankcase.

7.   Pull out the liner by turning the nut with a ratchet handle.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Clean the frame holl3s and oil where the liner fits. Clean the sur-
face of the liner and apply oil. Insert the liner with its most-chamfered end downed. After installa-
tion, insert a feeler gauge through the check window on the bottom of the liner centering base and
check to see the liner has been properly pressed in. Tolerance: Liner projection (±0.0010 in). Hone
the cylinder liner. 1.2 u R max to 2 u R max.




                                                       104
1.   Dry Liner Centering Base
2.   Bearing Cradle
3.   Center Bolt
4.   Nut




                                     THERMOSTAT, WATER PUMP
REMOVING THERMOSTAT
1.    Remove the thermostat cover.

2.    Remove the thermostat.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLIING: Apply a non-drying adhesive only at the thermostat cover side of
the gasket.




                                               105
 REMOVING WATER PUMP
 1.   Remove the water pump from gear case cover.

2.    Remove the fan and fan pulley.

IMPORTANT: If changing the water pump, change the whole pump. If disassembling the
water pump, check to see the clearance between the water pump impeller and body.



                                                                                 Water pump assembly




                                             1.   Water Pump Impeller
                                             2.   Seal Set
                                             3.   Water Pump Body
                                             4.   Bearing

CHECKING FLATNESS OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE (See illustration on page 107)
1.    Clean the surface of the cylinder head.

2.    Place a straight edge on each of the cylinder heads's four sides and two diagonally as shown
      at the left to check the straightness of the surface.

3.    Insert a feeler gauge between the straight edge and the cylinder head surface.

4.    The maximum thickness that can be inserted is the amount of flatness.

5.    If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, correct with a surface grinder.

IMPORTANT: Do not place the straight edge on the combustion chamber.


                                                  0.05 mm (0.002 in.) per 100 mm (4 in.)
                               Allowable limit
                                                  of cylinder head surface length.




                                                         106
                                                                             How to check cylinder head surface




CHECKING FLAW OF CYLINDER HEAD SURFACE
1.   Clean the surface of the cylinder head.

2.   Spray the cylinder head surface:with the red permeative liquid.

3.   Wash away the red permeative liquid on the cylinder head surface with the detergent.

4.   Spray the cylinder head surface with the developer. If flawed, it can be identified as red marks.


                                      Reference              Should be no flaw.



                                                              (A)




          A. Air spray red check
             1. Detergent
             2. Red Permeative Liquid
             3. White Developer




                                                                                    (2)




                                                      107
 REPAIRING THE VALVE SEAT
1.   Clean the valve seat surface.

2.   Use a 45° cutter suitable for the valve guide and the valve seat.

3.   Grind the upper surface of valve seat with 15° cutter so that the valve seat fits to the valve
     center (so as to ensure a = b as shown in the figure.).

NOTE: After correcting the valve seat, check for valve recessing.

                                                                             How to repair the valve seat




                                                                         B




                                                                                      (2)

A 45° cutter           B 15° cutter
  (1) Valve               (2) Corrected surface of valve seat

CHECKING VALVE RECESSING
1.   Clean the face of the valve.

2.   Measure the recessing with a depth gauge.

3.   See engine specifications.




                                                      108
CHECKING GUIDE CLEARANCE

1.   Remove carbon from the valve guide.

2.   After making sure that the valve stem is straight, insert the valve into the valve guide.

3.   Measure the stem guide clearance with a dial gauge.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the stem guide and the valve.

IMPORTANT: When changing the valve guide, be sure to ream as the figure indicates after
inserting the valve guide. See engine specifications.



                                                                      Finishing size of inlet valve guide



                                                                                                             6.3S
                                                                                                            "V'V'V


                                                                        Finishing size of exhaust valve guide




 CHECKING VALVE SPRING FREE LENGTH
1.   Measure the spring with a set of vernier calipers.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                       109
CHECKING VALVE SPRING SQUARENESS
1.   Put the spring on a surface plate, place a square on the side of the spring, and check to see
     if the entire side is in contact with the square.

2.   Rotate the spring and measure the maximum B. (See illustration below.).

3.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. The flat surface at the end of the
     spring coil must exceed the full circumference by two-thirds. Check the entire surface of the
     spring for scratches.


                                                              1.3 mm
                              Allowable limit
                                                             0.051 in.




                                                                              How to measure squarenass of valve spring




 CHECKING VALVE SPRING TENSION
1.   Place the spring on a tester and compress it to the same degree that it is actually compressed
     in the engine, (31 mm, 12 in.)

2.   Read the compression load on the gauge.

3.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                      110
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN ROCKER ARM SHAFT AND BUSHING
1.   Measure the rocker arm 1.0.

2.   Measure the rocker arm 0.0.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




 CHECKING TOP CLEARANCE
1.   Remove the nozzle holder.

2.   Lower the piston in the cylinder to be measured.

3.   Insert a high-quality fuse from the nozzle holder hole. Be careful not to let the fuse touch the
     valve surface.

4.   Rotate the engine with your hand.

5.   Take the fuse out carefully.

6.   Measure the place where the fuse was crushed with vernier calipers.

7.   If the clearance is not within the reference value, adjust by inserting a shim between the
     cylinder head and the gasket.


                                                              Reference value            0.6 to 0.8 mm
                                                                                         0.0236 to 0.00315 in.
                                                              Thickness of gasket        1.05 to 1.15 mm
                                                              when tightened             0.0413 to 0.0453 in.
                                                              Thickness of gasket shim   0.20 mm
                                                                                         0.0079 in.




                                                        111
ADJUSTING VALVE CLEARANCE
1.   Measure the clearance with a feeler gauge after aligning each cylinder with the top dead
     center of compression.

NOTE: Align the flywheel mark (TC) with the timing check mark on the crankcase.




                                                                      Valve clearance




                                                                                                     0.145    0.185 mm
                                                                                                -T 0.006 to 0.007 in.




ADJUSTING COMPRESSION RELEASE
1.   Close the exhaust valve completely.

2.   Remove the compression release window cover from the head cover.

3.   Pull the compression release lever.

4.   Reduce the valve clearance to zero by the compression release adjustment bolt. Reach for the
     bolt through the window. Then, screw in the bolt by 1 to 1.5 turns and tighten the lock nut.

NOTE: After adjustment, turn the crankshaft by hand and check to see that the valve and the
piston should not be in contact with each other.


                                                          0.750 to 1.125 mm
                             Reference value
                                                          0.0295 to 0.0443 in.



                                                                             Compression release adjustment




                                 1.   Compression Release Window Cover
                                 2.   Compression Position
                                 3.   Compression Release Position




                                                    112
                                                FUEL SYSTEM
 TESTING OPENING PRESSURE OF NOZZLE
1.   Move the tester hanctle up and down to prime fuel. Measure the pressure of fuel jetting from
     the nozzle tip.

2.   If the measurement is not within the reference value, adjust with the adjustment washer inside
     the nozzle holder. Each extra 0.1 mm (0.0039 in.) of washer thickness causes an approximate
     980.6 kPa (10 kgf/cm2, 142.2 psi) increase in fuel injection pressure.

DANGER: Be careful not to come into direct contact with the injected fumes. The fumes
destroy any cells they may touch. They may also cause blood poisoning. See engine
specifications.




CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF NOZZLE VALVE SEAT
1.   Apply a pressure.

2.   After keeping the nozzle under this pressure for 10 seconds, check to see if fuel leaks from
     the nozzle valve seat.

3.   If fuel should leak, replace the nozzle piece. See engine specifications.




                                                       113
 CHECKING SHAPE OF FUMES ACROSS NOZZLE TIP
1.   Set the nozzle to a nozzle tester and shoot it in the air. Check the shape of the fumes.

2. If the shape is defective, replace the nozzle piece.




                                                                           1. Good
                                                                           2. Bad

                                                                                                    (1)




CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF FUEL INJECTION PUMP PLUNGER

1.   Set a pressure gauge to the pump.

2.   Rotate the flywheel to increase the pressure to 58.8 MPa (600 kgf/cm 2 , 8532 psi).

3.   Align the plunger with the top dead center.

4.   Measure the time needed to decrease the initial pressure.

5.   If the measurement is less than allowable limit, replace the pump element. In this case, ask a
     repair shop to do the replacement. Be sure to give them adjustment reference data on the fuel
     injection pump. (Shown below) See engine specifications.

                                                        Adjustment of Injection
 Reference valve         8 seconds or more

 Allowable limit         4 seconds                        Control rack Speed Amount of injection Allowance (mm3)
                                                          position (*1) (rpm)    (mm3/st)              (*3)
                                                               9       1400      22.5 to 23.5         ±1.5 or less

                                                               8       1400       11.2 to 26.2        ±3.8 or less

                                                               7       1400       6.0 to 21.0         ±3.8 or less

                                                            o to 3.5   1550          0.(*2)
                                                    *1: Travel distance from non-injecting point of control rack
                                                    *2: Zero opening pressure and no injection
                                                    *3: Allowance on the basis of standard cylinder




                                                                                       Profile of fuel pump cam




                                                            1. Base Circle




                                                      114
· CHECKING FUEL TIGHTNESS OF DELIVERY VALVE OF FUEL INJECTION PUMP
1.   Set a pressure gauge to the pump.

2.   Rotate the flywheel to increase the pressure to 9.8 MPa (100 kgf/cm 2 , 1422 psi).

3.   Align the plunger with the bottom dead center.

4.   Measure the time needed to decrease the initial pressure.

5.   If the measurement is less than allowable limit, replace the delivery valve. See engine
     specifications.

                              Reference value             10 seconds or more
                              Allowable limit             5 seconds


                                                                   Pressure gauge              Unit: mm (in.)
                                                                   construction




                                  1. Connector
                                  2. Pressure Sensor
                                     14.7 MPa (150 kgf/cm 2 , 2133 psi) and
                                     68.6 MPa (700 kgf/cm 2 , 9954 psi)
                                  3. Non-drying Adhesive
                                  4. Weld Entire Circumference
                                  5. Copper Packing
                                  6. S45C Steel Tube
                                  7. S45C Hexagonal Steel Tube
                                  8. Injection Pipe




                                                       115
CHOKING AND ADJUSTING INJECTION TIMING
1.   Disconnect the injection pipe from the fuel injection pump.

2.   Set the acceleration lever for maximum fuel discharge.

3.   Turn the flywheel until fuel jets out from the delivery valve holder of the fuel injection pump.

4.   Continue to turn the flywheel slowly, and stop it as soon as the fuel level at the tip of the valve
     holder begins to increase.

5.   Check to see if the F1 mark on the flywheel is aligned with the dot mark.

6.   If the timing is out of adjustment, readjust with shims.

IMPORTANT: Adding or removing one shim (0.15 mm, 0.0059 in.) varies the crank angle by
approx. 1.5°*. After adjustment, apply a thin film of non-clrying adhesive to both sides of the
shims. See engine specifications.




                                                                            Adjustment of injection timing




                                      1. F1 Mark
                                      2. Mark
                                      3. Injection Timing Adjusting Shim




                                                        116
                                        TIMING GEARS, CAMSHAFT
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE OF CAMSHAFT
1.   Measure the camshaft bearing in the crankcase with an inside micrometer.

2.   Measure the camshaft journal with an outside micrometer. Calculate the clearance.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace the camshaft. See engine specifications.




CHECKING CAMSHAFT ALIGNMENT
1.   Gently put the camshaft on V blocks.

2.   Set a dial gauge to the journal.

3.   While slowly rotating the camshaft, read the dial gauge. The camshaft flexure is half of the
     reading.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the camshaft.


                             I Allowable limit           0.08 mm
                                                         0.0031 in.




                                                      117
. CHECKING CAM HEIGHTS OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST
1.   Measure the height of the cam at its highest point with a micrometer.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the camshaft. See engine
     specifications.




                                                                                         Cam height measuring points




                                                                1. Cam Height

 CHECKING GEAR BACKLASH
1.   Install a lever-type indicator between the gear teeth.

2.   Clamp one gear, rotate the other and measure the backlash.

3.   If the backlash exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications .




                                                     . 118
                                         WBRICATION SYSTEM
TESTING OIL PRESSURE
1.   Remove the oil switch and set a pressure gauge.

2.   Start the engine. Measure the oil pressure both at idling and at the rated speed.

3.   If the measurement is not within the reference value, check the oil pump, oilways, oil
     clearances and pressure regulating valve.

NOTE FOR MEASURING: Supply the specified amount of recommended oil. The oil filter must not
be clogged or broken. See engine specifications.




OIL PUMP (ROTOR TYPE)
Checking Rotor Lobe Clearance
1.   Insert a feeler gauge into the gap between the inner and outer rotors and measure the
     clearance.

2.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                     119
Checking Radial Clearance Between Outer Rotor and Pump Body
1.   Insert a feeling gauge into the gap between the oil pump body and the outer rotor and
     measure the clearance.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




Checking end Clearance Between Rotor and Cover
1.   Paste a press gauge to the surface of the gear with grease.

2.   Attach the cover.

3.   Gently remove the cover. Measure the clearance by plaCing the gauge (paper) on the press
     gauge where it is crushed.

4.   If the measurement is not within the reference value, replace.


                              Reference value               0.08 to 0.13 mm
                                                            0.0031 to 0.0051 in.




                                                  >   120
                                      PISTON, CONNECTING ROD
CHECKING INSIDE DIAMETER OF PISTON BOSSES
1.   Measure the piston bosses with a cylinder gauge. Set the cylinder gauge's reference
     measurement to 23 mm, and carry out zero pOint adjustment with an outside micrometer.

2.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications




 CHECKING CLEARANCE BETWEEN PISTON PIN AND SMALL END BUSHING
1.   Measure the piston pin with an outside micrometer.

2.   Measure the I.D. of connecting rod small end bushing with an inside micrometer. Calculate the
     clearance.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications




                                                      121
CHECKING PISTON RING CLEARANCE
1.   Put the piston ring in the cylinder.

2. Turn the piston upside down and push the ring into the cylinder with the piston head.

3.   Insert a feeler gauge into the piston ring gap.

4.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace.

IMPORTANT: Measure the piston ring gap at the point of the minimum inside diameter of the
cylinder liner. See engine specifications ..




CHECKING SIDE CLEARANCE OF RING IN GROOVE
1.   Remove the piston ring from the piston.

2.   Place the ring in its groove as it shown at left, and measure the clearance.

3.   If the clearance is not within the reference valve, replace the ring.

NOTE: As the top ring is a keystone type, it cannot be measured by this method. See engine
specifications.




                                                       122
CHECKING CONNECTING ROD ALIGNMENT
1.   Remove the connecting rod crank pin bearing and tighten the rod bolts.

2.   Set the connecting rod to a connecting rod aligner.

3.   Place the gauge on the piston pin. Measure the gap between the pin of the gauge and the flat
     surface of the aligner.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace

IMPORTANT: Because the 1.0. of the connecting rod small end bushing is used as the basis
for this check, check it is not worn beforehand. See engine specifications.




                                                CRANKSHAFT
 CHECKING CRANKSHAFT ALIGNMENT
1.   Place V blocks on the surface plate, and support the journals at both ends of the crankshaft
     on the V blocks.

2.   Set a dial gauge to the central journal.

3.   Read the dial gauge while rotating the crankshaft slowly. Crankshaft flexure is half of the
     reading.

4.   If the reading exceeds the allowable limit, replace. See engine specifications.




                                                      123
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL AND CRANKSHAFT
BEARING 1
1.   Measure the crankshaft journal (on the side of the crankshaft bearing 1) with an outside
     micrometer.

2.   Measure the crankshaft bearing 1 with an inside micrometer. Calculate the clearance.

3.   If the clearance exceeds the allowable limit, replace the crankshaft bearing 1. See engine
     specifications.




 CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANKSHAFT JOURNALS AND CRANKSHAFT
 BEARINGS 2
1.   Paste a press gauge with grease on the crankshaft bearing.

2. Tighten the crankshaft bearing case onto the crankshaft journal to the specified torque 29.4 to
   34.3 Nm (3.0 to 3.5 kgfOm, 21.7 to 25.3 ft-Ibs).

3.   Detach the bearing case slowly, and measure the depression of the press gauge with a sheet
     of gauge (paper).

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the crankshaft bearing 2. See engine
     specifications.




                                                     124
CHECKING OIL CLEARANCE BETWEEN CRANK PINS AND CRANK PIN BEARINGS
1.   Paste a press gauge onto the crank pin bearing with grease.

2. Tighten the connecting rod onto the crank pin to the specified torque 26.5 to 30.4 Nm. (2.7 to
   3.1 kgfOm, 19.52 to 22.42 ft-Ibs).

3.   Remove the connecting rod gently, and measure the depression of the press gauge with a
     sheet of gauge (paper).

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the crankpin bearing.

NOTE FOR MEASURING: Fasten the crankshaft so that it does not turn. Do not insert the press
gauge into the crank pin hole. Crankpin bearing measuring pOints are shown below. See engine
specifications.




                                                                                 Crank pin measuring points




 CHECKING END PLAY OF CRANKSHAFT
1.   Move the crankshaft to the crank gear side.

2.   Set a dial gauge to the crankshaft.

3.   Push the crankshaft toward the flywheel and measure the clearance.

4.   If the measurement exceeds the allowable limit, replace the side bearing.

IMPORTANT: When replacing the side bearing, face the oil grooves of side bearing outward.
See engine specifications.




                                                   ...   125
                                             CYLINDER LINER
CHECKING WEAR OF CYLINDER LINER
1.   Set a cylinder gauge and adjust it to the reference valve of the cylinder liner with an outside
     micrometer.

2. To find out the maximum wear, measure the diameters at six pOints on the cylinder liner with
     the cylinder gauge, as shown below.

NOTE: When the cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit, bore and hone it by 0.5 mm
(0.0197 in.).

1.   The cylinder liner which has been oversized by 0.5 mm (0.0197 in.) should use a piston and
     ring of the same oversize.

NOTE: When the oversized cylinder liner is worn beyond the allowable limit, replace the cylinder
liner, and bore and hone it. See engine specifications.




                                                                                     Measuring points of cylinder liner




                                                                                     ......-(1)-



                                                                                                           ffi
                                                                                     --(2)-

                                                                                                           \Xl
                                                                                     ~3)~
                                                                                 -                 r----

                                       1. Top
                                       2. Middle
                                       3. Bottom (Skirt)

                                       a. Right-angle to the piston pin
                                       b. Parallel to the piston pin




                                                    , 126
                                                    Reference
If the standard-size bearing cannot be employed due to excessive wear of the crankpin and crank
journal, employ undersize or oversize bearings.

For undersize or oversize bearing use, follow the precautions noted below.

1.   3.3 to 3.7 mm (0.1300 to 0.1457 in.)

2.   2.8 to 3.2 mm (0.1102 to 0.1260 in.)

3.   Oil hole must be 1 to 1.5 mm (0.0394 to 0.0591 in.).
     Be sure to chamfer the oil circumference with an oil stone.

Undersize and Oversize

4.   The crankpin must be fine-finished to higher than 1111111 (0.4-5).

5.   The crank journal must be fine-finished to higher than 1111111
     (0.4-5).

6.   The crank journal side surface must be fine-finish to higher than 111111 (0.4-5). 5ee engine
     specifications

                                                                      (4)




                                                         127
                               REPLACING VALVE GUIDES, BUSHINGS AND BEARINGS
REPLACING VALVES GUIDES
1.    Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig (A).

2.    Press out the used valve guide from the cylinder head's lower end.

3.    Apply engine oil to the outer surface of the new valve guide; press fit the valve guide from the
      upper end of the cylinder head until the flange part of the valve guide contacts the cylinder
      head.

4.    After press-fitting, finish the valve guide by means of reemer machining to dimensions shown
      in Figs. (B) and (C).

NOTE~     Be careful not to strike valve guides with a hammer, during replacement.

     (A) Tool for replacing valve guides                                       (8) Finishing size of inlet valve guide




                                                                               (e) Finishing size of exhaust valve guide




 REPLACING ROCKER ARM BUSHINGS
1.    Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig. (A).

2.    Press out the used bushing and, using this tool, press fit the new bushing, taking due care to
      see that the rocker arm hole matches the bushing hole.

CA) Tool for replacing rocker arm bushing                                                    [B] Rocker arm and bushing, as assembled


                               137 (5.40")


                                                                                                              (2)
                 tOO 13.94")                 25 10.9S")   12 10.47"1




                                                                       _ 128
REPLACING IDLE GEAR BUSHINGS
1.   Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig. (A).

2.   Press out the used bushing and press a new one, using this tool.
                                                                                                                  [B) Idle gear and bushing, as assembled

[A) Tool for replacing idle gear bushing

                          160 (6 30")

                                                            10       10
                          14015.51"}                   (O.39"I{O.39'"




 REPLACING SMALL END BUSHINGS

1.   Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Fig. (A).

2.   Press out the used bushing, and press a new bushing in, taking due care to see that the con-
     necting rod hole matches the bushing hole.

[A] Tool for replacing small end bushings                                                           [B) Connecting rod and bushing, as assembled


                                  1331524'"

                                                       '0              23
                    100 {3.94'"                   {D.39'"            (D.9''')


                                                B                ~              ~
                                              -~
                                                                     """
                                                                      ~~                               PkJ?                        ~I               I]
               R~
                e              \)'D~,1~
                                     cofD
                                                                          NO
                                                                          /./                                 (2) (3)
                          /'         ~~                                ~i
      Fo~~07-9"-}_--L-/--+.J "--=i:;,JL-l- 3 ~L(l\oc.o'as"}
                                                                        !!
                                  C     CO-.
                 (1)                        (Q.Oas")         (Q.O,,)




                                                                     1. Material: S43C
                                                                        Heat treatment: Quenching & tempering

                                                                     2. Connecting rod hole
                                                                     3. Bushing hole




                                                                                       129
 REPLACING CRANKSHAFT BEARING 1
1.   Prepare the necessary tool as shown in Figs (A) and (B).

2.   Press out the bearing 1, using the extracting tool.

3.   Insert a new bearing 1, using the inserting tool, taking due care to see that the contact edge
     of bearing 1 faces the exhaust manifold side.

[A] Tool for extracting crankshaft bearing 1                                    [B] Tool for inserting crankshaft bearing 1
                                                                                                           13C1tS.I2"1

                           1301512"1




                                         [C] Crankshaft and crankshaft bearing 1. as assembled




                                                                 (2)




                                                                  130
                                      SECTION VII - DYNAMO AND REGULATOR


BATTERY
Checking Battery Charging Current ................................................. 132
Checking AC Dynamo's No-load Voltage ............................................. 132
STARTER
No-load Testing of Starter ......................................................... 133
Motor Test ...................................................................... 134
Checking Magnet Switch - Pull-in Coil Attraction Test. .................................. 135
Holding Coil-Retention Test ........................................................ 135
Disassembly & Reassembly of Magnet Switch Type Starter .......................... 135-137
Reduction type Starter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138-139
Servicing Starter ............................................................. 140-147




                                        ___________ . 131
                                                     BATTERY
Checking Battery Charging Current
1.   After starting the engine, disconnect   + lead of the battery and connect an amperemeter.
2. Measure charging current with full electric load (with lights, etc).

NOTES ON CHECKING: Connect the amperemeter only after starting the engine. In the event of a
lower electric load or fully charged battery, the stipulated value may not be given.


                                                     Reference value
                                    14 to 15A with dynamo turning at 5200 rpm.




                                                1.   Battery + Lead



Checking AC Dynamo's No-Load Voltage
1.   Disconnect lead wire from the dynamo.

2.   Start the engine and measure the voltage generated by the single dynamo.

                                                     Reference value
                               AC 20V or more with the dynamo turning at 5200 rpm.




                                                          132
                                                        STARTER

Checking Sequence
If the starter system malfunctions, do the following checks to locate the cause:
             -   -_.   -                                                                -   -




                                                 ---------t~ (B) Battery terminal check
                       (A) Check the circuit                        ~



                                             -                -c
                                                                    L.--(C) Wiring check

                                                                           (E) Motor test (2).
                       (D) Test the starter at no-load (1).
                                                                           (F) Magnet switch check (3).


No-Load Testing of Starter
 1. Connect the ammeter's positive probe to the battery's positive terminal and the negative probe
    to the starter's B terminal.
 2. Connect the battery's negative terminal to the starter body.
 3. Connect the voltmeter's positive probe to the starter's B terminal and the negative probe to the
    starter body.
 4. Set a tachometer.
 5. Connect the starter's B terminal to the magnet switch's S terminal.
 6. Check to see that the magnet switch is operating and that the specified speed, current and
    voltage are obtained.

NOTE FOR CHECKING: Use a fully charged battery. Use an ammeter and leads of about
200A rating because a large current flows when the starter is running.




Electrical connections for no-load testing




                                                                              Current           Voltage   Rotational speed

                                                                    M-30    45A or less         11.0 V    6000 rpm or more
                                                                    M-40
                                                                            gOA or less         11.5 V    3000 rpm or more
                                                                    M-50



                                                              133
Motor Test
 1. Remove the connecting leads from the starter's C terminal and connect them directly to the
    battery's positive terminal. Then connect the battery's negative terminal to the starter body.
 2. If the starter runs normally, the magnet switch is defective; .if not, the motor is defective.




Electrical connections for motor test




                                                                                        (b)   C terminal
                                                                                                           o
                                                                                                               'T'
                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                               -'-




Magnet Switch
Pull-In Coil (Attraction Test)
 1. Apply 1/2 the rated voltage (approx. 6V) across the S terminal and C terminal.
 2. If the plunger is attracted strongly, the pull-in coil is good; if not, it is defective.


                                        Reference value   The plunger should be attracted strongly.




                                                               134
Holding Coil (Retention Test)
 1. Apply 1/2 the rated voltage (approx. 6V) across the S terminal and the body, push the plunger
    in by hand, and then release it.
 2. If the plunger stays attracted, the holding coil is good; if not, it is defective.



                               Reference value         The plunger remains attracted.




               . DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY OF MAGNET SWITCH TYPE STARTER

Removing Magnet Switch
 1. Remove the connecting lead.
 2. Remove the set screws.
 3. Detach the magnet switch by lifting it up while taking care that it does not contact the drive
    lever.




                                                        135
Removing Armature Brake
 1. Remove the end frame cap.
 2. Remove the washers.
 3. Remove the packing.




Removing End Frame
 1. Remove the through bolts.
 2. Remove the end frame.




Removing Brush Holder
 1. Draw out the brush from the holder while holding the spring up.
 2. Take off the brush holder.
NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Be sure not to mistake the direction and position of the spring.
Do not contact the body with the positive brush's lead.




                                                    136
Remove Yoke
 1. Draw out the yoke from the drive end frame.

NOTE FOR REASSEMBLING: Take care for yoke knock pin.




Removing Armature
 1. Remove the set bolt from the drive lever.
 2. Draw out the armature from the drive end frame.
 3. Detach the drive lever.

IMPORTANT: When reassembling, be sure not to mistake the installing direction of the drive
lever.




                                                      137
                                  REDUCTION TYPE STARTER

Removing Motor
 1. Disconnect the connecting lead.
 2. Remove the through bolts.
 3. Remove the motor unit.




Removing Brush Holder
 1. Release the spring and draw the brush out from the holder.
 2. Remove the brush holder.




Remove Armature
1. Draw the armature out.




                                                  138
Removing Drive End Frame
1. Remove the drive end frame.
2. Remove the gears (drive pinion, idler gear) and clutch.




Remove Plunger
 1. Remove the end cover from the magnet switch.
 2. Draw the plunger out.
 3. Remove steel balls.




                                                                     139
                                          .__ . ______   .~:   ___    I
                                              SERVICING STARTER

Staining or Burning of Commutator
 1. Check to see if the commutator surface is stained or burnt.
 2. If it is burnt, grind off with fine-grain sand paper.




Checking Commutator Wear
1. Check to see if the contact face of the brush is scored.
2. If scored, grind off with sand paper or on a lathe.
3. If the commutator diameter must be ground to below the allowable limit, replace it.


                                                Commutator diameter

                               Model         Reference value      Allowable limit
                               M-30             32.7 mm               32.5 mm
                                                1.2874 in.            1.2795 in.
                               M-40             30.0 mm               29.0 mm
                               M-50             1.1811 in.            1.1417 in.




                                                            140
Checking Mica (Undercut)
 1. Check to see the mica undercut.
 2. If it has high mica, rectify with a saw blade. As the edge of the segment will be rough,
    chamfer it.


                                                      Mica depth

                              Model        Reference value                  Allowable limit
                              01102-B          0.5 to 0.8 mm
                              01302-B    .0.0197 to 0.315 in.                 0.2 mm
                                                                              0.0079 in.
                              01402-B
                              V1502-B        0.5 to 0.9 mm
                              V1702-B     0.0197 to 0.0354 in.
                              V1902-B



                                         (al    Bad            (bl   Good




                                         ~~
                                                                                 Good




Grounding of Armature Coil
 1. Check conduction across the commutator and the armature shaft.
 2. If conducting, replace.


                              Reference value                   Should not be conducted.




                                                      . 141
Checking Armature Flexure
 1. Measure the amount of flexure; if the measurement exceeds the reference value, replace.
    Carefully check to see if the core is scratch.



                              Reference value                 0.1 mm
                                                              0.0039 in.




Checking Armature Coil Short-Circuited
 1. Set the armature on the armature tester. Rotate the armature while touching it with steel piece.
 2. If the steel piece starts to vibrate or to be attracted somewhere on the armature, this suggests
    that the coil contains a layer short at the point.
 3. If faulty, replace.



                                                Reference value

                                   The armature should not be short-circuited.




                                                      142
Checking Field Coil Breakage

                                             .
 1. To check conduction, place the tester probes onto the lead and brush .
 2. If either are not conducting, replace.


                             I Reference value              Should be conducted.   I




Grounding of Field Coil
 1. To check the conduction. Place the tester probes onto the field coil and yoke.
 2. If either are conducting, replace.


                              Reference value           Should not be conducted.




                                                 __ 143
Checking Brush Wear
1. Check to see if the brush has worn to more than 2/3 below the standard dimensions.
 2. If wear exceeds the allowable limit, replace.


                                                                           Reference value

                              Allowable limit                                                                      Longer than 12.7 mm



                                Model                     Length                                               Width                    Thickness
                              M-30            19 mm                                              12 mm                                  7mm
                                              0.7480 in.                                         0.4724 in.                             0.2756 in.
                              M-40            19 mm                                              25 mm                                  8mm
                              M-50            0.7480 in.                                         09843 in.                              0.3150 in.




                                                                                                                                    1
                                                                           : :::1
                                                                           I
                                                                           I
                                                                           I                                                    I


                                                                                                                                J
                                                                                                                :: ..........
                                                                           I                               I   I
                                                                           '-..............
                                                                                              . . . . . . . . . l J,,'


Checking Brush Spring Tension
 1. Measure the tension with a new brush in place.
 2. Replace if the tension is under the reference value.


                                                                           Reference value
                               Model             Spring tension                                                     Commutator diameter
                               M-30              11.8 N.                                                            32.7 mm
                                                 1.200 g                                                            1,2874 in.
                                                 2.64lb
                               M-40              17.5 to 23.7 N.
                               M-50              1,785 to 2,415 g                                                   30.0 mm
                                                 3.94 to 5.53 Ib                                                    1.1811 in.




                                                                                                  la)          Spring hanger



                                                                                                 Ib)       Attach the brush spring
                                                 .            ....... '.                                   in this method.
                                                     ..... ~ 17

                                       Ie)   Brush '........
                                                                                         144
Grounding of Brush Holder
 1. Check the insulation of the positive brush holder.
 2. If the insulation is defective, replace.


                               Reference value             Should not be conducted.




Checking Clutch
 1. Check to see if the clutch gear is worn or damaged.
 2. Check to see if the gear locks in the driving direction and rotates smoothly in reverse.




                                                     145
 Checking and Adjusting Pinion Gap (Magnet Switch Type)
      1. Disconnect the connecting lead from C terminal.
      2. Energize the magnet switch and measure the gap between the pinion tip and the stop collar.
      3. To adjust the gap, change the length of the magnet switch jOint to the specified one.


                                       Reference value                         0.1 to 0.4 mm
                                                                               0.0039 to 0.0157 in.


 Adjustment of pinion gap




la)     Pinion gap
                                                                                                                       L
                        Pinion juts                                                                   Id)   Turning the joint
                out to this position                                                                        alters its length




 Checking Gap between Shaft and Bush (Magnet Switch Type)
  1. Measure the inside diameters of the bearing bushings on the side of the drive and
     commutator.
  2. Measure the drive-side and commutator-side shaft diameters and calculate the gap.
  3. If the gap exceeds the allowable limit, use an undersize bush.

                                                            -
                                                                       Model M-30
                                          Model M-30

      Drive shaft dia.                    12.5 mm, 0.4921 in.                                   Reference value            Allowable limit
                                                                       Commutator side          0.06 mm
      Commutator shaft dia.               12.5 mm, 0.4921 in.                                   0.0024 in.                 0.2 mm
      Drive bushing ID                                                 Drive                    0.04 mm                    0.0079 in.
                                          12.54 mm, 0.4937 in.
                                                                                                0.Q16 in.
      Commutator bushing ID               12.56 mm, 0.4945 in.




                                                                 146
Checking Bearing (Reduction type)
 1. Apply torque to the inner ring with your finger tips and check to see if it turns smoothly.
 2. Check to see if there are any strange noises when driven quickly.




                                                      147
                  TROUBLESHOOTING




BAl1rgJ'lĄ    -                            Battery charging current
otSeft,.GaS          dynamo runs.          is equal to or exceeds the
                                           reference value.
QUICK...".
                                                    (check 1 )




                                         lower than the reference value.




                                                                           """"-




                  dynamo does not run.          slow running.




                                              does not run at all..




                            148
                                                       TROUBLESHOOTING




---------------------------~L.__~:~I ~                                            ··. ~~b~
                                                                            _: Faulty battery.




                                           r
      AC dynamo's no-load
      voltage is equal or superior
                                     '"        Conductivity between
                                                                               Faulty regulator.

--+                                            regulator connector
      to the reference value                                                   Faulty wiring between regulator and
                                               (AC) lead wires.
      (AC dynamo side).                                                        main s/w.

              (check 2)                              (check 3)




                                          L{      not conductive.
                                                                                Faulty wiring between dynamo and
                                                                                regulator.




-{:       No reference value     )~-----------------+j
                                                     .. 1                       Faulty dynamo.




------------------------------.. .,1                                            Fan belt slips.




                                                                      149
                                       TROUBLESHOOTING




                               -        Slow engine speed.




                                        Starter runs but engine
rSTARTE.R
     .    DOES NOT
                    '"       ~ does not.
  DRIVE ENGINE
  PROPERLY.
\..              ./

                               .        No meshing sound from
                                        pinion and ring gear.




                                         Pinion shifts repeatedly.




                                   r--.......   Does not turn red at all.




I'
   GI..OWPLUG IND.ICATOR'"
   meS NOT TURN RED
   PROPERt.y.
\.. '                   ./

                                         ..     Turns red too quickly.




                                                    150
                                                         TROUBLESHOOTING
                                                          -""          Battery not sufficiently charged.


    r-1     Faulty battery.
                                                           .
                                                                       Terminal contact poor ..
                                                                       Poor grounding .


-                                                         --'"         Over·running clutch slips;
                                                                       Poor contact of contact plate.

    ~       Faulty starter.                                            Poor contact between brush and commutator.
                                                                       Armature and field coil shorted.


                                                          --           Bearing worn.


                                                                       Pinion and ring gear worn.
    ~       Pinion and ring gear do not mesh.
                                                 H                     Plunger and shaft distorted.

-
    r-1     Clutch slips.                                         .I   Over-running clutch worn.


                                                                       Main switch or starter switch faulty .
                                                           .
                                                 ~
        I   Pinion does not pop out by the                             Faulty magnet switch.
            attractive force of magnet switch.
        I                                                              Screw spline rusted.
                                                                       Faulty·battery.


                                                          .....        Battery not sufficiently charged .
                                                 l
    r-1     Faulty battery.
                                                 I
                                                           ~
                                                                       Poor terminal contact.

                                                                       Grounded poorly.
-
                                                 L
    r-1     Faulty magnet switch.
                                                 I
                                                                  J
                                                                   I
                                                                       Holding coil broken.




                                                         ~             Battery not charged sufficiently.

    ~       .Faulty battery.                                           Poor terminal contact.

                                                           -           Poorly grounded.

-                                                        --+           Incorrect wiring between battery and glow plug.

                                                                       Glow plug indicator disconnected.

    ~       Incorrect wiring.
                                                         --+
                                                 r----
                                                         --+           Glow plug disconnected.

                                                         --+           Main switch or starter switch faulty.



                                                                       Shorted between glow plug indicator and glow plug.
                                                         ~

            Circuit shorted.
                                                         ~             Glow plug indicator shorted.
                                                 ~

                                                         ~             Glow plug shorted.

                                                         ~             Glow plug cable shorted.



                                                                         151
TROUBLESHOOTING




 Crankshaft does not turn.




                             No or small fuel injection
                             sounds.




  Crankshaft turns.




                             Fuel injection sounds.




          152
                                                                    TROUBLESHOOTING


                                                                             Crankshaft and camshaft have seized up.

                 Frictional resistance of moving parts                       Piston and cylinder liner have seized up.
                                                         ~
                 is too much.                                                Bearings are oil-stuck.

                                                                    --       Lubrication system not working properly.


                                                                             Starter faulty.
                                                                I
                                                                             Battery capacity is low or terminal loose.



                                                                r----+       Fuel pipe broken.



rl               Fuel supply to injection pump
                 is insufficient.
                                                         r-     r-.
                                                                1----+
                                                                ~
                                                                             Air er:lters fuel pipe through connection.
                                                                             Fuel filter clogged.
                                                                             Fuel pump faulty.



                                                                r----+       Plunger has worn or seized up.
                 Injection pump does not send                                Delivery valve spring broken_
                 on fuel.
                                                                ~            Delivery valve not cQmpletely oil-tight.


                                                                             Needle valve stuck.

                 Fuel does not inject through                   ~            Nozzle spring broken.
i-....-..+       injection nozzle.                       I---
                                                                ~            Injection pressure maladjusted.
                                                                             Injection pipe mounting nut loose.


                                                         I
rl               Injection mistimed.
                                                         I
                                                                         I
                                                                         I
                                                                             Injection timing maladjusted.


                                                                             Contact between intake/exhaust valve and seat
                                                              r----+         not tight.
                                                              r----.         Intake/exhaust valve spring broken.

                                                                ~            Intake/exhaust valve stuck.

                                                                ~            Gasket faulty.
             I   Compressed air leaks.                   I                   Tightness torque of cylinder head not enough.
             I                                           I
                                                                ~            Piston riR; st!.!Ck.

                                                                ~            Piston ring worn.

                                                                ~            Cylinder liner worn.
                                                                             Tightness torque of injection nozzle and glow
                                                                ~
                                                                             plug not enough.



y                Valve action timing improper.           I
                                                         I
                                                                         I   Valve clearance excessive.




                                                                                   153
                      TROUBLESHOOTING




                                                 Revolution is not smooth
                                                 at high speeds.




    ENGINE DOES NOT   Revolution irregular.
    TURN NORMALLY.




                                                 Idling not smooth.




/
     ENGINE OUTPUT    Slow engine revolutions.
     INSUFFICIENT.




                                 154
                                                     TROUBLESHOOTING
                                                             Fuel filter clogged.
                                                 I
                                                 I
                                                             Fuel pipes broken or loose.


                                                             Air in pump.

                                                             Pump capacity noi: constant.
    ~         Injection pump wrong.       f---
                                                             Tappet roller and pin worn.
-                                                            Delivery valve not completely oil-tight.




    H         Injection nozzle faulty.

                                                      --
                                                             Fuel leaks from nozzle tip.
                                                             Fuel not spraying properly.



                                                 ....
                                                 L....
                                                              Governor spring deformed.

                                                              Valve clearance incorrect.


                                                             Injection pump or nozzle not functioning
                                                 ~           normally.
                                                 ~           Compression pressure is different among cylinders.



                                                 ~           Governor sleeve not sliding properly.

              Governor not functioning           f---+       Fork lever not functioning normally.
              normally.
                                                 --+         Start spring deformed.
                                                 ~           Control rack not sliding properly.



    L-....-   Idling maladjusted.                r--+-       Idling regulator maladjusted.

                                                 ~           Accelerator rod maladjusted.




                                                 ~           Main moving parts have almost seized up.

                                                 r---.       Engine overheated.

                                                 ~           Injection mistimed.
                                                 ~           Governor not functioning normally.



                                                 ~           Filter clogged.

              Fuel supply insufficient.
                                                 1-----+     Fuel pipe broken or loose.

                                                 ~           Injection pump's capacity not enough.
                                                 L-.....,.   Nozzle needle valve worn.



          I   Compression pressure not           ~           Air leaking.

          I   enough.
                                                 L......     Air cleaner clogged .




                                                              . 155
                                      TROUBLESHOOTING




                                 ----.c   White or blue exhaust fumes.




/                       "I
    COLOR OF EXHAUST
    FUMES NOT NORMAL.

"                       ./




                                           Black or dark gray exhaust
                                           fumes.




( ~M~ru~TJ~
    _    CONSUMPTION.        _
                                  ____--------------------
         LUBRICANT
        INCREASING:




                                                     156
                                                            TROUBLESHOOTING

                                                                 --    Piston ring stuck.

         I   Lubricant rises through piston gap.   I                   Piston ring worn.
        -I                                         1              ~

                                                                       Excessive gap between cylinder liner and piston.
                                                                        Too much oil.


                                                                 ~



                                                            r           Injection delayed.
                                                        I        ..    Compression pressure insufficient.



        r    Injection mistimed.                   l    J               Injection too early.
        1                                          I    I        ~
                                                                       Injection delayed.



             Fuel pump's injecting capacity
                                                                 ..    Plunger does not return completely because
                                                                       spring is stuck or broken.
             varies.
                                                                       Plunger worn.


                                                                 ~

                                                                       Needle valve stuck .

         I   Nozzle does not inject fuel
                                                                 ..    Nozzle spring broken.
             properly.
         1                                                       ~

                                                                       Too much carbon sticks to nozzle tip.
                                                                       Injection pressure too low.


__________________________________________~~~-----c-o-m-p-r-es-s-ed--a-ir-l-ea_k_s_.______________________-1
                                                        Y              Not enough air.



                                                                ~
                                                                       Excessive gap between piston and liner.
                                                                 ~
                                                                        Piston ring stuck.
                                                                 ~
                                                                       Piston ring worn.
                                                                 ..    Excessive gap between intake/exhaust valve and
                                                                       valve stem.
                                                                 -     Valve stem seal broken.

                                                                 -     Oil leaks from defective packings.


         r
        ~I
             Fuel mixed with oil.                  r----f
                                                                ---    Injection pump plunger leaks much fuel.
                                                                       Fuel pump leaks much fuel.



         1                                         1    r
                                                                 ..    Head gasket packing faulty.
        1
             Water mixed with oil.
                                                   I    I        ..    Crankcase cracked .


             Gear oil mixed with oil.                                  Hydraulic pump's oil seal broken.




                                                                      - 157


Ad by Google

Disclaimer:
The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.