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Raymarine Spx 5 Sport Pilot Operation Guide 81293 3



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SmartPilot X5
Sport Operating
Guide




  Document reference: 81293-3
  Date: August 2009


www.raymarine.com
 Autohelm, HSB, RayTech Navigator, Sail Pilot, SeaTalk and Sportpilot are UK registered trademarks of Raymarine UK Limited. Path-
   finder and Raymarine are UK registered trademarks of Raymarine Holdings Limited. 45STV, 60STV, AST, Autoadapt, Auto GST,
AutoSeastate, AutoTrim, Bidata, G Series, HDFI, LifeTag, Marine Intelligence, Maxiview, On Board, Raychart, Raynav, Raypilot, RayTalk,
Raystar, ST40, ST60+, Seaclutter, Smart Route, Tridata, UniControl, Hybridtouch, and Waypoint Navigation are trademarks of Rayma-
                                                          rine UK Limited.
                     All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.


                                       Copyright ©2009 Raymarine UK Ltd. All rights reserved.
                                                                                                                                      i


Contents
Important Information ............................................................................................... iii
      Safety notices ..........................................................................................................iii
      EMC Conformance ..................................................................................................iii
      Pressure washing ....................................................................................................iv
      Product documents ..................................................................................................iv
      Product disposal ......................................................................................................iv
        Waste Electrical and Electronic (WEEE) Directive ...................................... iv
      Warranty .................................................................................................................. v
Chapter 1:Basic Operation ...................................................................................... 1
      1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 1
          Extended systems .......................................................................................... 1
      1.2 Using the control unit ..................................................................................... 2
          Switching on and off........................................................................................ 2
            Start-up mode ............................................................................................. 2
          Keypad functions ............................................................................................ 2
          Displayed information ..................................................................................... 3
      1.3 Using the SPX-5 Sport system to steer your boat ........................................... 4
          Emergency release pin ................................................................................... 4
        Replacing the pin after use ........................................................................... 4
          Standby mode - steering by hand.................................................................... 4
          Using the autopilot to steer to a heading ......................................................... 5
          Changing course in Auto mode....................................................................... 5
            AutoTurn ..................................................................................................... 5
          Avoiding obstacles.......................................................................................... 5
            Steering away ............................................................................................. 6
            Selecting a change of course ..................................................................... 6
          Off Course alarm ............................................................................................ 6
      1.4 Adjusting pilot performance ........................................................................... 7
          Response levels ............................................................................................. 7
            Temporarily adjusting response.................................................................. 7
      1.5 Display lighting & contrast .............................................................................. 8
          Adjusting the display lighting........................................................................... 8
          Contrast.......................................................................................................... 8
      1.6 Data pages .................................................................................................... 9
          Waypoint names............................................................................................. 9
      1.7 Alarms ......................................................................................................... 10
          Responding to alarms................................................................................... 10
      1.8 Response setup ............................................................................................11
          Accessing response setup............................................................................ 12
Chapter 2:Using Track mode ................................................................................ 13
      2.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 13
          Requirements for Track mode....................................................................... 13
          Starting position and heading........................................................................ 13
      2.2 Procedures .................................................................................................. 14
          Entering track mode...................................................................................... 14
          Leaving Track mode ..................................................................................... 14
          Avoiding obstacles........................................................................................ 14
          Track keeping & Cross Track Error ............................................................... 15
ii                                                            SmartPilot X-5 Sport installation & Setup Guide


              Large cross track error.............................................................................. 16
              Tidal stream compensation....................................................................... 16
           Waypoint arrival ............................................................................................ 17
              To steer to the next waypoint in the route................................................. 17
              To skip a waypoint (SeaTalk chartplotters only) ....................................... 17
              Waypoint arrival circle............................................................................... 18
           Route completion.......................................................................................... 18
Chapter 3:Troubleshooting & Maintenance ..................................................... 19
       3.1 Troubleshooting ........................................................................................... 19
           SPX-5 Sport system alarm messages........................................................... 20
       3.2 Maintenance ................................................................................................ 21
           Important ...................................................................................................... 21
           Spare parts ................................................................................................... 21
           EMC Servicing and maintenance.................................................................. 22
              Suppression ferrites .................................................................................. 22
           Pilot Controller .............................................................................................. 22
           Sport drive .................................................................................................... 22
              Routine maintenance................................................................................ 22
       3.3 Product support ........................................................................................... 23
              World wide web ........................................................................................ 23
              Telephone help line .................................................................................. 23
              Help us to help you ................................................................................... 24
              Product details table ................................................................................. 24
Glossary ....................................................................................................................... 25
Index 27
                                                                                          iii


Important Information
Safety notices
      WARNING: Navigation aid
      Although we have designed this product to be accurate and
      reliable, many factors can affect its performance. Therefore, it
      should only be used as an aid to navigation and should never
      replace common sense and navigational judgement. Always
      maintain a permanent watch so you can respond to situations as
      they develop.
    CAUTION: Calibration
    When supplied, this product is calibrated to default settings which
    should provide initial stable performance for most boats. To ensure
    optimum performance on your boat, the commissioning procedures
    (in the SPX-5 Sport Installation & Setup Guide) must be completed
    before this product is used.
    Your Raymarine SPX-5 Sport system will add a new dimension to your boating
    enjoyment. However, it is the skipper's responsibility to ensure the safety of the boat
    at all times by following these basic rules:
    · Ensure that someone is present at the helm AT ALL TIMES, to take manual
        control in an emergency.
    · Make sure that all members of crew know how to disengage the autopilot.
    · Regularly check for other boats and any obstacles to navigation ­ no matter how
        clear the sea appears, a dangerous situation can develop rapidly.
    · Maintain an accurate record of the boat's position by using either a navigation aid
        or visual bearings.
    · Maintain a continuous plot of your boat's position on a current chart. Ensure that
        the locked autopilot heading will steer the boat clear of all obstacles. Make proper
        allowance for tidal set ­ the autopilot cannot.
    · Even when your autopilot is locked onto the desired track using a navigation aid,
        always maintain a log and make regular positional plots. Navigation signals can
        produce significant errors under some circumstances and the autopilot will not be
        able to detect these errors.

EMC Conformance
    All Raymarine equipment and accessories are designed to the best industry
    standards for use in the recreational marine environment. Their design and
    manufacture conforms to the appropriate Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
    standards, but correct installation is required to ensure that performance is not
    compromised.
iv                                                       SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


Pressure washing
     Subjecting any Raymarine product to high pressure washing may cause subsequent
     water intrusion and failure of the product. Raymarine will not warranty product
     subjected to high pressure washing.

Product documents
     This document is part of a series of books associated with the SmartPilot X-5 series.
     Documents can be downloaded from:
     www.raymarine.com/handbooks.

                                                                              Part
     Title
                                                                              number

     SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide (this document)                     81293

     SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installation and Setup Guide                        87076

     ST6002 Controller Installation sheet                                     87058

     ST6002 SmartPilot Controller - Sport Quick Reference Guide               86129

     Fluxgate Compass Installation sheet                                      87011

     Warranty Booklet                                                         80017

     To the best of our knowledge, the information in the product documents was correct
     when they went to press. However, Raymarine cannot accept liability for any
     inaccuracies or omissions in product documents.
     In addition, our policy of continuous product improvement may change specifications
     without notice. Therefore, Raymarine cannot accept liability for any differences
     between the product and the accompanying documents.

Product disposal
             Waste Electrical and Electronic (WEEE) Directive
             The WEEE Directive requires the recycling of waste electrical and electronic
             equipment.
           Whilst the WEEE Directive does not apply to some of Raymarine's products,
     we support its policy and ask you to be aware of how to dispose of this product.
     The crossed out wheelie bin symbol, illustrated above, and found on our products
     signifies that this product should not be disposed of in general waste or landfill.
     Please contact your local dealer, national distributor or Raymarine Technical Services
     for information on product disposal.
Important Information                                                                     v


Warranty
      To register your new Raymarine product, please take a few minutes to fill out the
      warranty card. It is important that you complete the owner information and return the
      card to us to receive full warranty benefits. You can also register online at
      www.raymarine.com by following the Login or create an account link.
vi   SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide
                                                                                            1


Chapter 1: Basic Operation
1.1 Introduction
    The SmartPilot X-5 (SPX-5) Sport system is intended for use as an aid to steering
    leisure marine craft with a fully-laden displacement up to a maximum of:
    · 4400 pounds (2000 kg) for mechanically steered craft.
    · 7500 pounds (3500 kg) for power steered craft.

      SPX-5 Sport system - overview
       ST6002 Pilot Controller              Course Computer




                                                                             Drive unit




                                 Fluxgate
                                 compass


                                                                                      D10702-1


    Your SPX-5 Sport system is controlled by a Raymarine ST6002 Pilot Controller
    (supplied), and operates in the following modes:
    · Standby: SmartPilot off. You have manual control of the boat.
    · Auto: The SmartPilot steers the boat to maintain a locked heading.
    · Track: The SmartPilot steers the boat to maintain a track between two waypoints
       created on a navigation aid.
    The SPX-5 Sport system also provides:
    · Enhanced course keeping using AST (Advanced Steering Technology).
    · AutoLearn, Raymarine's self-learning calibration system.

    Extended systems
    You can connect the Pilot Controller to other Raymarine SeaTalk equipment so it can
    send and receive SeaTalk data. The Pilot Controller uses:
    · Waypoint information from a SeaTalk navigation instrument to provide track
       control.
    · Boat speed information from a SeaTalk speed instrument to optimize track-
       keeping performance.
    You can also use the SPX-5 Sport system with SeaTalkng (refer to the SeaTalkng
    Reference Manual), or with any navigator or instrument that transmits National
    Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) 0183. The SPX-5 Sport system is also
    compatible with NMEA2000 data, accessed via SeaTalkng.
    The Pilot Controller can display SeaTalk and NMEA instrument data in a user-defined
    selection of data pages.
2                                                            SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


    For further information on other connections to your system refer to the SmartPilot
    X-5 Sport Installation & Setup Guide.

1.2 Using the control unit
    Switching on and off
    When power is applied to the Pilot Controller, you can use the        disp button to
    switch it off and on as follows:
    · To switch the Pilot controller off, ensure it is in the Standby mode, then hold down
            disp for approximately 5 seconds. After this time, a switch off count down of
        4 seconds occurs. Keep         disp pressed during this period, to switch off the
        instrument.
    · To switch the instrument back on, hold down           disp for approximately 1 second.
    If power is not applied, the Pilot Controller buttons have no effect.
    Notes: (1) Each time power to the Pilot Controller is switched on, the controller is initially in the
                  on condition. You do not need to use         disp to switch the controller on.
             (2) When the SPX-5 Sport system controller is on, the operation of           disp initiates
        other operating functions, as described below.

    Start-up mode
    The SPX-5 Sport system always powers up in Standby mode with the Pilot Controller
    display showing the boat's current compass heading.

    Keypad functions
    The SPX-5 Sport system is controlled by button presses at the Pilot Controller. Button
    operation is confirmed with a short beep. Single-button and dual-button operations
    are used.



         -1 plus -10                                                          +1 plus +10
                                                   -1 plus +1
         Press together for 90°                                               Press together for 90°
                                                     Press for
         AutoTurn to port                                                     AutoTurn to starboard
                                                  Response level
            disp                                                               track
         Press to display data pages                                           Press for Track mode from
         Press for 1 second for lamp                                           Auto (if a navigator is
         adjust                                                                connected)
         Press for 3 seconds for                                               Press to accept waypoint
         contrast adjust                                                       advance
         Press for 9 seconds                                                   Press for 1 second to skip
         (in Standby mode) for                                                 waypoint
         power down
         When powered down, press
         for 1 second to power up
                                             Course change keys
         standby                               Port 1° Starboard 1°            auto
         Press for Standby mode               Port 10° Starboard 10°           Press for Auto mode
         Press for 2 seconds to enter
         Calibration mode
                                                                                                            D10690-1
Chapter 1: Basic Operation                                                                               3


       Displayed information
       The Pilot Controller display screen provides the following information:


    Variable text region (up to 9 characters/digits)               Port and Starboard
                                                              direction-to-steer indicators




                                              nm
                                              SM
                                            MAG
                                            TRUE




                            Heading indicators
                            Distance units:             Rudder position indicator. Displayed only if
                            · no units = kilometres     the optional rudder reference transducer is
                            · nm = nautical miles        fitted to the autopilot system. Otherwise,
                            · SM = statute miles                      this area is blank.
                                                                                                   D10910-1


       If the optional Rudder Reference Transducer is fitted to an SPX-5 Sport system, a
       rudder position indicator on the display indicates the current position of the rudder, as
       measured by the transducer. The rudder position indicator can be turned on or off
       during display calibration (see the SmartPilot-X5 Sport Installation & Setup Guide for
       details).
4                                                   SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


1.3 Using the SPX-5 Sport system to steer your boat
        WARNING: Maintain a permanent watch
        Automatic course control makes it easier to steer a boat, but it is
        NOT a substitute for good seamanship. ALWAYS maintain a
        permanent watch by the helm.

    Emergency release pin
    In the unlikely event of a steering failure, remove the release pin as shown to take
    manual control of the vessel.




    After removing the pin the drive and attached part of the torque restraint will rotate.
    Hold the torque restraint away from the dashboard to avoid contant with any
    protruding objects.
    Replacing the pin after use
    · Inspect the Pin and R-Clip for any wear or damage prior to re-use.

    Standby mode - steering by hand
    At any time you wish to take manual control of the vessel and disengage the autopilot:
    ·   press the standby key.




                                                             TRUE




                                                                               D10524-1
Chapter 1: Basic Operation                                                                   5


      In Standby mode:
      · You have manual control of the boat.
      · The display shows STANDBY and the boat's current compass heading.

      Using the autopilot to steer to a heading
      Before engaging the autopilot, ensure you can steer the boat satisfactorily by hand,
      then steady the boat on the required heading.
      To engage the autopilot for automatic steering:
      · Press the auto key.
      The SPX-5 Sport system will steer the boat on the chosen heading, which is shown on
      the display. This mode is also known as "point-and-shoot".




                                                            TRUE




                                                                                 D3560-6



      Changing course in Auto mode
      In Auto mode, use -1, -10, +1 and +10 to change the locked heading, in either 1° or
      10° steps.Use -1 or -10 to apply changes to port and +1 or +10 for changes to
      starboard. For example: press -10 three times for a 30° course change to port.



         Port                                                          Starboard



           or                                                               or




                                                                                 D11366-1


      AutoTurn
      In Auto mode, you can carry out an AutoTurn of 90° by pressing -1 and -10 for an
      AutoTurn to port, or +1 and +10 for an AutoTurn to starboard.

      Avoiding obstacles
      When your boat is under autopilot control, you can change course to avoid the
      obstacle, then resume your previous course. You can either:
      · Manually steer away from the obstacle immediately. This is especially useful
         when a quick course change is required, e.g. in an emergency situation.
         or
6                                                  SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


    ·   Use -1, -10, +1 and +10 to change the locked heading.


                                                                      Obstacle




                                                                                 Original
                                                                                   course


                                                             Dodge

                                                                                              D10692-1


    Steering away
    The preferred method for steering away from obstacles is:
    1. Press standby, to return to Standby mode.
    2. Manually turn the wheel to steer away from the obstacle.
    3. Press auto to re-engage Auto mode
    If you do not have time to engage Standby mode (e.g. in an emergency), manually
    turn the steering wheel to steer away from the obstacle, whist still in Auto mode. When
    you have passed the obstacle, press standby then auto, to re-engage Auto on the
    previous locked heading.
    Selecting a change of course
    1. Use -1, -10, +1 and +10 to select a change of course in the appropriate direction.
       For example, press -10 three times for a 30°dodge to port.
    2. When you are safely clear of the obstacle, reverse the previous course change.
       For example, press +10 three times to reverse a 30°dodge to port.

    Off Course alarm
    If you have been off course from the locked heading for longer than 20 seconds, an
    alarm sounds and the Pilot Controller shows whether the deviation is to port or
    starboard.




                                                    = deviation to port
                                                    = deviation to starboard



                                                                                    D3315-5


    To cancel an Off Course alarm, press standby to return to manual steering. If the
    heading recovers or if you change course, the alarm clears automatically.
Chapter 1: Basic Operation                                                                            7


      Note: The default off course angle is set at 20º. You can adjust this angle in Dealer Calibration
      (see SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installation & Commissioning Guide).


1.4 Adjusting pilot performance
      The principal method of adjusting the performance of an SPX-5 Sport system is by
      changing the response level. This controls the relationship between the course
      keeping accuracy of the SPX-5 Sport system, and the amount of helm/drive activity.
      Changing the response level should be the only adjustment you need to make to your
      SPX-5 Sport system on a regular basis.
      When you first turn on your SPX-5 Sport system after installation, the response will
      initially be set to the default level of 5, but you can change this level in User Calibration
      (refer to your SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installation & Setup Guide for details). Changes
      made using user Calibration will be retained when the SPX-5 Sport system is
      switched off.
      You can also make temporary adjustments to the response level to quickly match
      performance to changing conditions. Note however that these temporary changes to
      response level will be lost when the system is powered off, with the default value
      being reapplied when the system is next switched on.

      Response levels
      As a general rule, higher response values give tighter course keeping (e.g. for
      pilotage in confined and sheltered waters). Lower values reduce drive activity and
      conserve battery power.
      The SPX-5 Sport system has nine levels of response:
      · Levels 9 to 7 give the tightest course keeping and greatest rudder activity (and
         power consumption). This can lead to a rough passage in open waters as the
         SPX-5 Pilot may `fight' the sea.
      · Levels 6 to 4 should give good course keeping with crisp, well controlled turns
         under normal operating conditions.
      · Levels 3 to 1 minimize the amount of pilot activity. This conserves power, but may
         compromise short-term course-keeping accuracy.
      Temporarily adjusting response




                                                Decrease                Increase
                                                response                response




                                                                                        D10527-1
8                                                        SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


    To make temporary adjustments to the response level as required:
    1. Press and release -1 and +1 simultaneously, to display the RESPONSE screen.
    Note: The RESPONSE screen is set as a default data page (see SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installa-
    tion & Setup Guide), so you can also access it by pressing disp and then scrolling through the
    data pages.
    2. Press -1 or +1 to change the response level.
    3. Press disp or wait for 5 seconds to return to the previous display.
    Note: You will lose temporary changes to response level when the system is powered off. You
    can make permanent adjustments in User Calibration.


1.5 Display lighting & contrast
    Adjusting the display lighting
    To adjust the display and keypad lighting:
    1. Hold down disp for 1 second from any mode to access the LAMP screen and turn
        on the lights.
         .




     1 second




                                                                                     D10528-1


    2. Press disp to cycle through the possible illumination settings: LAMP 3 (the
         brightest setting), LAMP 2, LAMP 1, OFF, LAMP 1, LAMP 2, LAMP 3 and so on.
         As you change the setting, the illumination on any other SeaTalk instruments or
         control units will also change.
    3. The display automatically returns to the previous mode if you do not press a
         button for 10 seconds.
    If you press another mode button within 10 seconds you will select the associated
    mode. For example: auto selects Auto mode, standby selects Standby mode.
    Notes: (1) You can also adjust the lighting level from other SeaTalk instruments or control
                  units.
             (2) When you switch off, any changes you have made to the lighting level will be lost.


    Contrast
    To set the display contrast level:
    1. With the autopilot in Standby mode, hold down disp for one second to access the
        LAMP screen.
    2. Hold down disp for one second again, to display the CONTRAST screen.
    3. Use +1 and -1 to set the required contrast level (from 1 to 15).
Chapter 1: Basic Operation                                                                    9


      4. The display automatically returns to the previous mode if you do not press a
           button for 10 seconds.
      If you press another mode button within 10 seconds you will select the associated
      mode. For example: auto selects Auto mode, standby selects Standby mode.

1.6 Data pages
      A series of data pages on the Pilot Controller enables you to quickly monitor various
      information from your SPX-5 Sport system. To access these data pages:
      1. Press disp to access the first data page.
      2. Press disp again to cycle the next data page, then continue this process to reach
           the page you want.
      3. When all pages have been displayed and you press disp again, the display
           returns to the current SPX-5 Sport system mode screen (for example, AUTO).
      When you first use your SPX-5 Sport system, four data pages are available, as in the
      following illustration, but you can configure up to fifteen data pages during Display
      calibration, as detailed in the SPX-5 Sport Installation & Commissioning Guide.

        Default data pages



           Data page 4                                                Data page 1
                                     Autopilot mode




                                       Press for 1 sec to
                                      return to previous
           Data page 3                     data page                  Data page 2




                                                                               D10533-1


      If the required information is not available for any data page, dashes are displayed.
      Most data pages show repeated data so are for information only; you cannot adjust
      the values on them. An exception to this is the RESPONSE page, where you can adjust
      the value using the -1 and +1 buttons.

      Waypoint names
      If waypoints have been given names, the Pilot Controller will display them on the
      Cross Track Error (XTE), Bearing To Waypoint (BTW) and Distance To Waypoint
      (DTW) data pages:
      · Waypoint names of five characters or less are displayed together with the page
          name (as shown by screen A below).
10                                                      SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


     ·   Waypoint names of more than five characters alternate with the page name (as
         shown by screen B below).
     ·   If a waypoint name has more than nine characters, the display only shows the first
         nine characters.




                                TRUE                                           TRUE



                                                                        TRUE

                       A

                                                                B
                                                                                      D10535-1




1.7 Alarms
     The SPX-5 Sport system supports the alarms listed on the following pages. When an
     alarm occurs, a beep sounds and the appropriate alarm message is displayed.

     Responding to alarms
     ·   Unless otherwise stated, if an alarm occurs, press standby to clear the alarm and
         return to hand steering.
     ·   If more than one alarm occurs, as each alarm is cleared, the next is displayed.

     Message           Description and possible actions

     LARGE XTE         Large cross track error
                       Occurs if the cross track error exceeds 0.3 nm. The alarm clears if the head-
                       ing recovers.

     MOB               Man OverBoard alarm
                       The SPX-5 Sport system activates the Man Overboard alarm if it receives a
                       man overboard (MOB) message from another instrument on the SeaTalk
                       system. It displays the text MOB instead of the waypoint number on the
                       XTE, DTW and BTW data pages.
                       If the autopilot is in Track mode, it will sound the Waypoint Advance alarm
                       to notify you of the change in waypoint.

     NEXT WPT          Waypoint advance alarm
                       The SPX-5 Sport system activates the Waypoint Advance alarm whenever
                       the target waypoint changes. This occurs when:
                       · you select automatic acquisition by pressing track from Auto
                       · you request waypoint advance by pressing track for 1 second in Track
                            mode (with SeaTalk navigators only)
                       · the boat arrives at the target waypoint and the navigator accepts the next
                            waypoint
                       · you activate the Man Overboard (MOB) function in Track mode
                       When the alarm sounds, the pilot continues on its current heading but dis-
                       plays:
                       · the bearing to the next waypoint
                       · the direction the boat will turn to take up that bearing
Chapter 1: Basic Operation                                                                            11


       Message             Description and possible actions

       NEXT WPT           Responding to a Waypoint Advance alarm
       (continued)        To respond to a Waypoint Advance alarm:
                          · check that it is safe to turn onto the new track, then press track to accept
                              the waypoint advance
                          · alternatively, you can cancel the alarm without accepting the waypoint
                              advance by pressing: standby to return to hand steering, or auto to
                              return to Auto mode.
                          Note: Waypoint advance only operates if the SPX-5 Sport system isreceiv-
                          ing valid bearing to waypoint and waypoint number information.

       OFFCOURSE          Off course alarm
       (PT or Stb)        Occurs if the vessel has been off course from the locked heading for longer
                          than 20 seconds.
                          · PT = Deviation to port
                          · Stb = Deviation to starboard
                          You can adjust the specified alarm angle in Dealer setup, see your Com-
                          missioning guide for details.
                          If this happens frequently you should review autopilot performance.
                          Seepage 7.

       SHALLOW            Shallow alarm
                          The SPX-5 Sport system activates the Shallow alarm if it receives a shallow
                          depth alarm via SeaTalk:
                          · press standby or disp to cancel the alarm


1.8 Response setup
      The response level controls the relationship between course keeping accuracy and
      the amount of helm/drive activity. User setup functions are accessed using a User
      calibration mode. Information on other setup functions is given in the SmartPilot X-5
      Sport Installation & Setup Guide.
      Note: You can also make temporary changes to response during normal operation, as de-
      scribed earlier in this Chapter.

       Screen Text               Options

       RESPONSE                  Range = 1 to 9 .
                                 Levels 9 to 7 give the tightest course keeping and greatest rudder
                                 activity (and power consumption). This can lead to a rough passage
                                 in open waters as the SPX-5 Wheel system may `fight' the sea.
                                 Levels 6 to 4 should give good course keeping with crisp, well
                                 controlled turns under normal operating conditions.
                                 Levels 3 to 1 minimize the amount of pilot activity. This conserves
                                 power, but may compromise short-term course-keeping accuracy.
12                                                SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


     Accessing response setup
     You can access the User calibration mode only from Standby mode, so to set the
     response level:
     1. Ensure the SPX-5 Sport system is in Standby mode, then hold down standby for
        2 seconds. The display will change to show DISPLAY CAL.
     2. Press disp once. The display will now show USER CAL.
     3. Press auto to enter User calibration.
        The Response setup page is displayed.
     4. To access other User calibration pages, press disp to scroll through the
        calibration functions (described below).
     5. Use the -1, +1, -10 and +10 buttons to change the value of each function you want
        to change.
     6. When you have made all the changes you want to make, hold down standby for
        two seconds to exit calibration mode and save changes.
                                                                                      13


Chapter 2: Using Track mode
2.1 Overview
   Your SPX-5 Sport system provides a Track mode, to enable you to automatically
   follow a route (or track), set on your chartplotter or GPS.
   A track is a predefined path through a series of waypoints with each "track leg" being
   a straight line between 2 consecutive waypoints.




                                                                   Waypoint


                                                  Track leg




                                                                                       D10915-1
   In Track mode, the SPX-5 Sport system will make any course changes necessary to
   keep your boat on the required track, and automatically compensate for tidal streams
   and leeway.

   Requirements for Track mode
   To operate in Track mode, the SPX-5 Sport system must receive route information
   from a suitable navigation system, such as:
   · A SeaTalk compatible chartplotter or GPS unit.
   · An NMEA 0183 or NMEA2000 compatible chartplotter or GPS unit.
   · A SeaTalkng compatible chartplotter.
   Refer to the SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installation & Commissioning Guide for connection
   details.

   Starting position and heading
   Before entering Track mode, ensure that the boat is as close as possible to the actual
   track and course heading (see Track keeping & Cross Track Error on page 15.). When
   you enter Track mode, the SPX-5 Sport system will steer the boat onto the required
   track.
14                                                       SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


2.2 Procedures
     Entering track mode
     Starting with the SPX-5 Sport system in Auto mode and your chartplotter or GPS set
     to follow a route, enter track mode as follows:
     1. Press track to enter Track mode.
     2. The autopilot will sound an alarm and the display will show information regarding
         the next planned waypoint.
     3. Check that it is safe for the boat to turn onto the new course, then press track
         again.
         The SPX-5 Sport system will turn the boat onto the new course and the display
         will show the heading required to achieve the required track.
     Note: If the boat is more than 0.3 nm from the track, a Large Cross Track Error warning will
     sound (see page 16).

                                    Waypoint arrival and advance
                                     Next target                                      New target
                                   Waypoint at 270°                                 waypoint at 270°




            Target                                        Old target
           Waypoint                                       Waypoint




                                                                                             TRUE


                                      TRUE
                                                                                                    D10693-1




                   Waypoint arrival                               Waypoint advance

     Leaving Track mode
     You can leave Track mode at any time. To do this, either:
     · Press auto to return to Auto mode.
        or
     · Press standby to take manual control of the boat.

     Avoiding obstacles
     In Track mode you still have full control from the keypad. You can change course to
     avoid obstacles by manually steering away from the obstacle or by using the course
     change buttons (-1, +1, -10 or +10).
     When manually steering around an obstacle,the preferred method is to:
     1. Press standby, to return to Standby mode.
     2. Manually turn the wheel to steer away from the obstacle.
Chapter 2: Using Track mode                                                                             15


      3. Press auto to re-engage Auto mode.
      If you do not have time to engage Standby mode (e.g. in an emergency), manually
      turn the steering wheel to steer away from the obstacle, whist still in Track mode.
      When you have passed the obstacle, press standby then auto, to re-engage Auto on
      the previous locked heading.
      Once you are safely past the obstacle, either:
      · Return to your previous planned track, by pressing track then responding to the
         NEXT WPT message by pressing track again
      or
      ·     Use your chartplotter to initiate a new route to the waypoint.

      Track keeping & Cross Track Error
      Cross track error (XTE) is the distance of the vessel from the planned track. An XTE
      can be generated if:
      · You enterTrack mode when positioned some distance from the planned route.
      · You make a manual course change to avoid an object.
      · You arrive at a waypoint (see page 18).
      CAUTION:
      When entering or returning to Track mode the heading will initially
      be BTW, but may change slightly as the autopilot removes the XTE,
      to achieve the defined track leg.

          Course correction
          Example 1:                             Target    Example 2:                              Target
          Initial turn toward waypoint          Waypoint   Initial turn away from actual          Waypoint
                                                           waypoint position.




                       Cross                                             Cross
                    track error                                       track error




                                         TRUE                                              TRUE
                                                                                                         D10909-1
16                                                          SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


     Best practice track keeping demands that the vessel follows the predefined Track Leg
     as closely as possible. This is to avoid potential collision with charted objects that may
     be near the defined path
     The Raymarine Track keeping algorithm ensures safe operation by correcting any
     XTE as quickly as possible, but with a maximum convergence angle of 30º with the
     Track Leg. It then maintains the vessel tightly on the desired track.
     Large cross track error
     If a cross track error of greater than 0.3 nm occurs, the SPX-5 Sport system will sound
     a Large Cross Track Error warning and the Pilot Controller will show whether you are
     to the port (Pt) or starboard (Stb) of the planned track.




                                                                             Waypoint 2
                                                  Cross track error (XTE)
                                                    more than 0.3 nm

                        te
                    rou
              ual
           Act

                                        ute
                                    d ro
                                 nne
                             Pla




                                                                                                D10695-4
                      Waypoint 1

     Tidal stream compensation
     Under most conditions, the SPX-5 Sport system will hold the selected track to within
     ±0.05 nm (300 ft) or better. It takes account of the boat's speed when computing
     course changes to ensure optimum performance.

                                                                    Waypoint 2




                                                                    Tidal component
                       Boat's speed over ground



                                                    Boat's speed through water



                                   Waypoint 1
                                                                                          D10696-1
Chapter 2: Using Track mode                                                                       17


      Waypoint arrival
      As your vessel nears the waypoint, an audible Waypoint Advance warning sounds
      and a next waypoint (NEXT WPT) screen is displayed. This shows the bearing to the
      next waypoint.
           .




                                     Waypoint arrival and advance
                                      Next target                                   New target
                                    Waypoint at 270°                              waypoint at 270°




                Target                                   Old target
               Waypoint                                  Waypoint




                                                                                           TRUE


                                         TRUE




                                                                                                  D10693-1
                      Waypoint arrival                           Waypoint advance


         WARNING: Ensure safe navigation
         Before changing course, always ensure it is safe to do so.
         Always be aware of the relative wind angle, especially when
         turning away from the wind.

      To steer to the next waypoint in the route
      When the Waypoint Advance warning sounds, the SPX-5 Sport system suspends
      Track mode and maintains the current boat heading.To advance to the next waypoint:
      1. Check that it is safe to turn onto the new track.
      2. Press the track button, to cancel the Waypoint Advance warning and steer the
         boat to the next track leg.
      Note: If you do not press track to accept the Waypoint Advance, the SPX-5 Sport system will
      maintain the current heading and continue to sound the warning.

      To skip a waypoint (SeaTalk chartplotters only)
      If you want to advance to the next waypoint before you have arrived at the current
      target waypoint, you can skip the current waypoint by pressing track for 1 second.
      The display will then show a Waypoint Advance screen for the next waypoint. Check
      it is safe to turn, then press track to turn the boat towards the next waypoint.
18                                                         SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


     Waypoint arrival circle
     As the next Waypoint warning occurs within a circle around the actual waypoint, the
     next waypoint will probably be accepted some distance from the planned track leg.
     This can result in a cross track error and associated course correction.
     Refer to Track keeping & Cross Track Error on page 15 for more details.

                                           Next
                                          Waypoint




                                                       Planned track leg
                      Actual bearing to next
                     waypoint from waypoint
                        acceptance position
                                                                           Waypoint arrival circle

                                                     XTE




                          Next waypoint




                                                                                                     D10697-1
                          accepted here

     Route completion
     when you have reached the last waypoint of a route in Track mode, the Pilot Controller
     displays a ROUTE COMPLETE message if you are using a SeaTalk chartplotter, or NO
     DATA if you are using an NMEA chartplotter. You can either:
     · Stay in Auto mode and continue on the same heading.
         or
     · Press standby to return to manual control.
     Note: If waypoints are provided using an NMEA connection the controller will display NO DATA
     when you reach the final waypoint.
                                                                                                   19


Chapter 3: Troubleshooting & Maintenance
   This chapter provides information to enable you to identify problems, interpret alarm
   messages, maintain your SPX-5 Sport system and obtain product support.
   Raymarine products are designed to provide many years of trouble-free operation.
   They are also put through comprehensive testing and quality assurance procedures
   before shipping.
   However, if a problem occurs with your SPX-5 Sport system, use the troubleshooting
   tables in this section to help identify the problem and provide a solution. If you cannot
   resolve the problem yourself, refer to the product support information.

3.1 Troubleshooting
    Symptom                            Possible cause and remedy

    Display is blank                   No power ­ check the power and SeaTalk fuses on
                                       Course Computer, then check main fuse/circuit breaker.

    Data page display shows sta-       The Pilot Controller is not receiving necessary data from
    tionary dashes                     other instruments ­ check cabling.

    Display shows rotating dashes      Compass calibration in progress (see SmartPilot X-5
                                       Sport Installation & Setup Guide).

    Displayed compass heading          You have not calibrated the compass. Carry out the devi-
    does not agree with the boat's     ation and alignment procedures (see SmartPilot X-5
    compass                            Sport Installation & Setup Guide).

    Sport Drive getting hot            Manually check that the steering system operates com-
                                       fortably and that it is not being overloaded.

    Boat turns slowly and takes a      Manually check that the steering system operates com-
    long time to come onto course      fortably and that it is not being overloaded. If this is OK,
                                       the rudder gain may be too low. Complete AutoLearn or
                                       increase gain setting (see SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installa-
                                       tion & Setup Guide).

    Boat overshoots when turning       Rudder gain too high. Complete AutoLearn or decrease
    onto a new course                  gain setting (see SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installation &
                                       Setup Guide).

    The SPX-5 Sport system `hunts'     Adjust the RUDD DAMP setting (see SmartPilot X-5 Sport
    when trying to position the rud-   Installation & Setup Guide). Increase the damping one
    der                                level at a time until the autopilot stops hunting. Always
                                       use the lowest acceptable value.

    You cannot enter Seatrial Cali-    Seatrial calibration lock is on ­ turn off the calibration pro-
    bration                            tection feature in Dealer Calibration (see SmartPilot X-5
                                       Sport Installation & Setup Guide).

    The SPX-5 Sport system will not    Cabling problem ­ make sure all the cables are con-
    `talk' to other SeaTalk instru-    nected properly.
    ments
20                                                     SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


     Symptom                            Possible cause and remedy

     Navigation information not         Navigator not transmitting the correct data. Ensure sys-
     received                           tem cables are securely connected.

     The SPX-5 Sport system will not    No bearing to waypoint information received from the
     auto advance to the next way-      navigator.
     point


     SPX-5 Sport system alarm messages
     If a fault or failure occurs in the SPX-5 Sport system, an appropriate alarm message is
     generated.
     If this happens and unless otherwise stated, press standby to clear the alarm and
     return to manual control, before you attempt to resolve the problem. If more than one
     alarm occurs, as each alarm is cleared, the next is displayed.
     Alarm messages, possible causes and remedies are detailed in the following table.

     Alarm message          Possible cause and remedy

     CURRENT LIMIT          Serious drive failure ­ the drive is taking too much current due to
                            short-circuit or jamming. Check the drive unit.

     DRIVE STOPPED          The SPX-5 Sport system is unable to turn the rudder. This can occur if
                            the weather load on helm is too high, or if the (optional) rudder posi-
                            tion sensor has passed beyond the preset rudder limits or rudder end-
                            stops.
                            Manually check that the steering system operates comfortably and
                            that it is not being overloaded.
                            Check drive and, if appropriate, the rudder position sensor..

     LOW BATTERY             Supply voltage has dropped below acceptable limits.
                            · press standby to clear the alarm and return to hand steering
                            · start the engine to recharge the battery
                            · ensure the charging system is working correctly.

     LRN FAIL (code)        AutoLearn not completed successfully.
                            Failure codes:
                            1 = AutoLearn has not been carried out (default setting)
                            2 = AutoLearn failed, usually due to manual interruption
                            3 Not used
                            4 = AutoLearn failed, probably due to drive or compass failure
                            5 = AutoLearn failed, probably due to motor current limiting
                            6 = AutoLearn failed, probably due to boat spinning
                            Repeat the AutoLearn procedure (see SmartPilot X-5 Sport Installa-
                            tion & Setup Guide).

     MOT POW                Motor cables are connected to power terminals (and power cables
     SWAPPED                are connected to motor terminals) at Course Computer. Turn off
                            power and swap over connections.
Chapter 3: Troubleshooting & Maintenance                                                           21


       Alarm message        Possible cause and remedy

       NO DATA              Caused by any of the following situations:
                            · the compass is not connected
                            · the SPX-5 Sport system is in Track mode and:
                               · is not receiving navigation data, or
                               · the position sensor (GPS) is receiving a low strength signal ­ prob-
                                  lem will clear when the signal improves
                            Check connections to the compass and navigator.
                            Note: The SPX-5 Sport system stops adjusting the heading as soon
                            as it loses data.

       NO PILOT             The Pilot Controller is not receiving data from the SPX-5 Sport system
                            computer. Check connections and check the Course Computer is
                            switched on.

       NO RUDREF            Only applicable if rudder reference option is fitted. Possible fault with
                            rudder position sensor ­ check connections.

       RG FAIL              GyroPlus yaw sensor has failed. Call a Raymarine service agent.

       NO SPD               No speed data.

       NO COMP              No compass data.

       NO WIND              No wind data.

       SEATALK and FAIL     The Pilot Controller cannot transmit data to the SeaTalk system.
                            Make sure all SeaTalk cables are connected properly.


3.2 Maintenance
      Important
      Before attempting any maintenance procedure on the SPX-5 Sport system, ensure
      the boat is securely moored alongside and that power to all system components is
      switched off.
      CAUTION: Avoid damage when cleaning
      Do NOT use solvent or abrasive cleaners on any SPX-5 Sport system
      components.

      Spare parts
      CAUTION: Do not dismantle SPX-5 Sport system products
      The SPX-5 Sport system does not contain any user serviceable parts
      other than those specified below, and so should be serviced only by
      authorized Raymarine service technicians.
      The only user-replacable components in the SPX-5 Sport system are the Course
      Computer fuses, and these are available from your Raymarine dealer:
      · Fuse F1 - 15 A (power in fuse). Part number 15454.
      · Fuse F2 - 2 A (SeaTalk fuse). Part number 15455.
      If any other parts require servicing or replacement, please contact your Raymarine
      authorized service agent.
22                                                         SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


     EMC Servicing and maintenance
     ·   Undue noise and interference may be a symptom of an EMC related problem,
         Always report any EMC-related problem to your nearest Raymarine dealer. We
         use such information to improve our quality standards.
     ·   To minimize any EMC related problems and ensure the best possible
         performance from your Raymarine equipment, follow the guidelines given in the
         installation instructions.
     Suppression ferrites
     Raymarine cables may be fitted with suppression ferrites. These are important for
     correct EMC performance. Any ferrite removed for maintenance purposes must be
     replaced in the original position once the maintenance is complete.
     Use only ferrites of the correct type, supplied by Raymarine authorized dealers.

     Pilot Controller
     The Pilot Controller is a sealed unit, so user maintenance is limited to the following
     routine tasks:
     · Ensure all cable connectors are securely connected.
     · Examine the controller and cables for signs of wear or damage. Replace any
        damaged components.
     CAUTION: Avoid damage when cleaning
     Do NOT wipe the Pilot Controller display screen with a dry cloth as
     this could scratch the screen coating.
     Using a clean, damp cloth, wipe the Pilot Controller. Do NOT use chemical or abrasive
     materials to clean the controller.
     Note: In certain conditions, condensation may appear inside the display screen. This will not
     harm the unit, and you can clear it by switching on the illumination for a short time.

     Sport drive
     Routine maintenance
     Daily inspection before commencing any passage:
     - Visually inspect the sport drive installation.
     - Check autopilot operation.


     Daily inspection after each passage:
     After each trip, wipe the drive unit clean with a damp cloth, to remove salt or other
     deposits.


     Annual inspection:
     Check once per year that the SportDrive, and associated torque restraint are securely
     fitted and have not worked loose during usage.
     Remove any deposits from the emergency release pin and check its operation.
Chapter 3: Troubleshooting & Maintenance                                             23


      Service interval:
      Inspect and service in line with your steering system manufacturer
      recommendations.
      In any event a Raymarine approved service must be carried out every 2 years or 200
      engine hours, whichever occurs soonest.
24                                                          SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


3.3 Product support
     Raymarine provides a comprehensive customer support service, on the world wide
     web and by telephone help line. Please use either of these facilities if you are unable
     to rectify a problem.
     World wide web
     Please visit the Customer Support area of our web site at:
     www.raymarine.com
     As well as providing a comprehensive Frequently Asked Questions section and
     servicing information, the web site gives e-mail access to the Raymarine Technical
     Support Department and a details of the locations of Raymarine agents, worldwide.
     Telephone help line
     If you do not have access to the world wide web, please call our help line.
     In the USA, call:
     · +1 603 881 5200 extension 2444
     In the UK, Europe the Middle East or the Far East, call:
     · +44 (0) 23 9271 4713 (voice)
     · +44 (0) 23 9266 1228 (fax)

       Software information

                                                     TRUE




                                                             4 seconds




                                         Control unit
                          1 second     software version       1 second



                             Time autopilot     Course computer
                             used in Auto       software version


                                          1 second




                                                                                   D10534-1
Chapter 3: Troubleshooting & Maintenance                                                   25


      Help us to help you
      When requesting service, please quote the following product information:
      · Equipment type.
      · Model number.
      · Serial number.
      · Software issue number.
      To see the software version:
      1. Hold down standby for 4 seconds:
          i. After 2 seconds you will see the DISPLAY CAL screen
          ii. After another 2 seconds you see controller software version
      2. Press disp to display the computer software version
      3. Press disp again to display the total number of hours the SPX-5 Tiller system has
          been used in Auto mode.
      Product details table
      For future reference, you may want to use the following table to record serial and
      software information for your SPX-5 Sport system:

                                            Serial Number          Software Version

       SPX-5 Sport Pilot Controller

       SPX-5 Sport Course Computer


       Hours Used                                                  hours
26   SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide
                                                                                                   25


Glossary
Term               Meaning

ac                 Alternating current.
AST                Advanced Steering Technology (AST) is Raymarine's unique advanced steering
                   algorithm. It uses inputs from a wide variety of sensors to tune the autopilot's
                   operation to provide superior control of the boat in any condition.
AutoLearn          Self-learning calibration feature available.
AutoTrim           The AutoTrim setting determines the rate at which the autopilot applies `standing
                   helm' to correct for trim changes caused by varying wind load on the boat.
AWG                American Wire Gauge.
BTW                Bearing to waypoint
CE                 Marked on Raymarine products that comply with defined European Community
                   standards.
Counter rudder     Counter rudder is the amount of rudder the autopilot applies to try to prevent the
                   boat from yawing off course. Higher counter rudder settings result in more rud-
                   der being applied.
dc                 Direct current.
EMC                When powered up, all electrical equipment produces electromagnetic fields.
(Electromagnetic   These can cause adjacent pieces of electrical equipment to interact with one
Compatibility)     another, causing a degradation of their performance. Use the EMC guidelines in
                   this book, to ensure optimum Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) between
                   equipment and minimize any unwanted interactions.
Fluxgate           Standard Raymarine compass supplied as part of the SPX-5 Sport system.
GPS                Global Positioning System.
MOB                Man overboard.
NM                 Nautical mile.
NMEA               The NMEA (National Maritime Electronics Association) protocol is an interna-
                   tionally accepted serial communication interface standard for sharing data
                   between electronic equipment. Raymarine products can share information with
                   non-SeaTalk equipment using NMEA 0183 or NMEA2000 protocols.
Response           The autopilot response level controls the relationship between course keeping
                   accuracy and the amount of helm/drive activity.
Rudder gain        Rudder gain is a measure of how much helm the autopilot will apply to correct
                   course errors. The higher the setting the more rudder will be applied.
SeaTalk            Raymarine's proprietary communication system. It links Raymarine products to
                   provide a single, integrated system sharing power and data.
                   Variants are SeaTalk2 and Seatalkng
SM                 Statute (land) mile.
VHF                Very High Frequency (radio).
XTE                Cross track error.

Yaw                The boat's rate of turn (°/sec).
26   SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide
                                                                      27


Index
A
Alarms, 10, 20               E
   CURRENT LIMIT, 20         EMC information, iii, 22
   DRIVE STOPPED, 20         Emergency release pin, 4
   LARGE XTE, 10             Engaging autopilot, 5
   LOW BATT, 20              F
   LRN FAIL, 20              Fuse replacement, 21
   MOB, 10
   MOT POW SWAPPED, 20       G
   NEXT WPT, 11              Glossary, 25
   NO DATA, 21               GyroPlus fail alarm, 21
   NO PILOT, 21              H
   NO RUDREF, 21             Help lines, 23
   NO SPD, 21
   OFFCOURSE, 6, 11          I
   RG FAIL, 21               Illumination, 8
   SEATALK FAIL 1 or 2, 21   K
   SEATALK/STLK FAIL, 21     Keypad
   SHALLOW, 11                 lighting, 8
Auto mode                    Keypad functions, 2
   avoiding obstacles, 5
   changing course, 5        L
   Off course alarm, 6       Large XTE Alarm, 10
Autopilot                    Learn fail alarm, 20
   disengaging, 4            Lighting, 8
AutoTurn, 5                  Low battery alarm, 20
Avoiding obstacles, 5        M
   in Track mode, 14         Maintenance, 21
B                              Pilot Controller, 22
Basic autopilot control, 5     Sport Drive, 22
                             Man Overboard alarm, 10
C                            MOB Alarm, 10
Contrast, 8                  Motor/Power swapped alarm, 20
Course changes, 5
   AutoTurn, 5               N
Cross track error, 15        Next WPT Alarm, 11
   large, 16                 No data alarm, 21
   LARGE XTE warning, 10     No pilot alarm, 21
Current limit alarm, 20      No rudder reference alarm, 21
                             No speed alarm, 21
D
Data pages, 9                O
   Waypoint names, 9         Off course Alarm, 11
Display                      P
   contrast, 8               Performance adjustment, 7
   lighting, 8                  temporary response level changes, 7
Drive stopped alarm, 20      Product disposal, iv
28                               SmartPilot X-5 Sport Operating Guide


Product support, 23
R
Response level, 11
Route completed, 18
S
Safety notices, iii
SeaTalk
   fail 1 or 2 alarm, 21
   fail alarm, 21
Service, 23
Setup
   Response level, 11
Shallow Alarm, 11
Standby mode, 4
Switching on/off, 2
T
Technical support, 23
Tidal stream compensation, 16
Track mode
   avoiding obstacles, 14
   cross track error, 15
   entering, 14
   leaving, 14
   requirements, 13
   route completed, 18
   starting, 13
   waypoint arrival, 17
   waypoint arrival circle, 18
Troubleshooting, 19
W
Waypoint
  advance, 17
  arrival, 17
  arrival circle, 18
  skip, 17


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Disclaimer:
The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.