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Raymarine Mechanical Linear Drive Installation Instructions 81175 6 en



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Linear Drive Installation GuideDrives 1 Linear Drive 12 V M81131Type 2 shortLinear Drive 12 V M81132Type 2 longLinear Drive 12 V M81133Type 2 shortLinear Drive 24 VM81134Type 2 longLinear Drive 24 VDocument number 811755February 2007811755book Page 3 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 Y notices EMC conformanceAll Raymarine equipment and accessories are designed to the best industry standards for use in the recreational marine environment The design and manufacture of Raymarine equipment and accessories conform to the appropriate Compatibility EMCstandards but correct installation is required to ensure that performance is not compromised Handbook informationTo the best of our knowledge the information in this handbook was correct when it went to press However Raymarine cannot accept liability for any inaccuracies or omissions it may contain In addition our policy of continuous product improvement may change specifications without notice As a result Raymarine cannot accept liability for any differences between the product and the handbook WARNINGProduct equipment must be installed in accordance with the instructions contained in this handbook Failure to do so could result in poor product performance personal injury andor damage to your boatBecause correct performance of the boats steering is critical for safety we STRONGLY RECOMMEND that an Authorized Raymarine Service Representative fits this product aidWhen this product is used within a navigation system it is only an aid to navigation Its accuracy can be affected by many factors including equipment failure or defects environmental conditions and improper use or handling It is the users responsibility to exercise common prudence and navigational judgements This product should not be relied upon as a substitute for such prudence and judgement Always maintain a permanent watch so that you can respond to situations as they Page 4 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM 5Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment WEEE Directive requires the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment Whilst WEEE does not apply to some of Raymarines products we support its policy and ask you tobe aware of how to dispose of this productThe crossed out wheelie bin symbol illustrated above and found on our products signifies that this product should not be disposed of in general waste or landfill Please contact your local dealer national distributor or Raymarine Technical Services for information on product register your new Raymarine product please take a few minutes to fill out the warranty card It is important that you complete the owner information and return the card to receive full warranty benefits Alternatively you can register your product Page 5 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 to the installation guide for the Raymarine linear drive This product is intended to operate the boats steering mechanism as part of a Raymarine autopilot system It is designed for boats with existing mechanical steering systems The outstanding design of the Raymarine linear drive unit provides powerful thrust fast hardover times and quiet operationlow backdrive force to minimize the drives effect on the boats steering when the autopilot is in standby a powerful electric motor controlled by an failsafe clutch using a high tensile belt drive and epicyclic gearboxhigh performance for minimum current consumption Figure 1Main parts of the linear drive CAUTIONLinear driveThis drive moves the rudder directly from the tiller arm or rudder quadrant Before installing the drive check that the boats steering system can be backdriven from the footPush rodClutch cableRod endMotor gearbox and clutch assemblyMotor Page 6 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PMTM 7ContentsThis guide contains specifications 1Product 72Installation 83Maintenance 17Table 11 Drive nominal voltageType 1 T1M81130 12VType 2 short T2SM81131 12VM81133 24VType 2 long T2LM81132 12VM81134 24VMaximum boat kg22000 lb15000 kg33000 lb20000 kg44000 lbPeak thrust295 kg650 lb480 kg1050 lb480 kg1050 lbMaximum stroke300 mm12 in300 mm12 in400 mm16 inHardover to hardover time 35 no load11 sec11 sec14 secMaximum rudder torque735 Nm6500 lbin1190 Nm10500 lbin1660 Nm14700 lbinPower consumption typical average1836 W4872 W 12 V6696W 24 VOther to Types 1 and 2 for use in engine compartmentsCE approvals conforms to89336EC EMC Page 7 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM8Drive dimensions Figure 2Linear drive requiredTo install this drive you will needParts suppliedlinear drivemounting foot assembly consisting of foot pivot pin washer x2 Rclip x2tiller pin assembly see Figure 6 consisting of tiller pin Rclip top washer lock washer nut 12 inch UNC partssuitable securing bolts and lock nutslock washers see page 13suitable cable and electrical connectors for the drive motor and clutch see page 15Note Make sure you have obtained these additional parts before you start installation 90D50811A midstroke4 fixing holes suitable for 10 mm 04 in79 mm 31 in114 mm 45 in197 mm 78 in50 mm 2 AType 1700 mm 275 inType 2 short700 mm 275 inType 2 long850 mm 335 in811755book Page 8 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PMTM 9Installation steps Follow these steps to install your linear drive unit 000 000 000 1 EMC installation guidelinesAll Raymarine equipment and accessories are designed to the best industry standards for use in the recreational marine design and manufacture conforms to the appropriate Compatibility EMC standards but correct installation is required to ensure that performance is not compromised Although every effort has been taken to ensure that they will perform under all conditions it is important to understand what factors could affect the operation of the productThe guidelines given here describe the conditions for optimum EMC performance but it is recognized that it may not be possible to meet all of these conditions in all situations To ensure the best possible conditions for EMC performance within the constraints imposed by any location always ensure the maximum separation possible between different items of electrical equipmentFor optimum EMC performance it is recommended that wherever equipment and cables connected to it are safetyMake sure you have switched OFF the power supply before you start installing this the EMC installation guidelines page 92Mount the drive page 113Connect to the course computerpage 154Complete the check page 16811755book Page 9 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM10At least 3 ft 1 m from any equipment transmitting or cables carrying radio signals eg VHF radios cables and antennas In the case of SSB radios the distance should be increased to 7ft 2mMore than 7 ft 2 m from the path of a radar beam A radar beam can normally be assumed to spread 20 degrees above and below the radiating elementThe equipment is supplied from a separate battery from that used for engine start Voltage drops below 10V and starter motor transients can cause the equipment to reset This will not damage the equipment but may cause the loss of some information and may change the operating modeRaymarine specified cables are used Cutting and rejoining these cables can compromise EMC performance and must be avoided unless doing so is detailed in the installation manualIf a suppression ferrite is attached to a cable this ferrite should not be removed If the ferrite needs to be removed during installation it must be reassembled in the same ferritesThe following illustration shows typical cable suppression ferrites used with Raymarine equipment Always use the ferrites supplied by Raymarine This product has ferrites mounted internally Figure 3Typical suppression to other equipmentIf your Raymarine equipment is to be connected to other equipment using a cable not supplied by Raymarine a suppression ferrite MUST always be attached to the cable near to the Raymarine Page 10 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PMTM 112 Mounting the driveMounting the drive unit involves four main steps ensuring correct drive the drive to the boatconnecting the drive to the steering a steering checkDrive alignmentWhen mounting the linear drive unit check that it is aligned correctly The main drive assembly must be at right angles to the mounting surface see Figure 4 The drive unit must be at right angles to the tiller arm when the rudder is amidships see Figure 4 Figure 4Drive unit alignmentThe push rod must be accurately aligned with the tiller arm plane of rotation The ball end fitting only allows up to 5 degrees misalignment between the push rod and tiller arm plane of rotation see Figure 5 angular alignment is extremely important You must not exceed this 5 degree limit under any circumstancesA mid stroke90 D5077190 DriveA mid strokeB tiller arm radiusType 1700 mm 275 in250 mm 10 inType 2 short700 mm 275 in250 mm 10 inType 2 long850 mm 335 in355 mm 14 inB tiller arm radiusSide viewTop view811755book Page 11 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PMTM12 Figure 5Alignment between push rod and tiller arm plane of the driveMounting locationBefore you secure the drive to your boat you must first check the suitability of the mounting location Structural strengthThis drive produces a considerable amount of force so you must mount it on a solid structure ie a substantial frame membern the boat In some cases you may need to build a special frame to mount the drive unit To prevent excess noise and vibration do not attach this drive to any structures that support cabins Drive orientationYou can attach the drive unit mounting foot to any suitable horizontal or vertical surface If required you can also mount the drive unit upside down General positionRefer to the EMC installation guidelines page 9Make sure the drive will be accessible for future servicing drive is not waterproof so you should mount it in a dry location clear of any bilge water the boat manufacturer if you have any doubt about the strength or suitability of the mounting Max5 Max811755book Page 12 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PMTM 13Securing boltsAttach the mounting foot with four stainless steel M10 38 incholts and lock nutslock washers Note Always mount the drive as securely as possible to make sure it performs reliably and remains correctly aligned Connecting to the steering system This drive produces a considerable amount of force so you must ensure that your tiller arm or rudder quadrant can cope with the peak thrust specified in the Table 11 Drive one of these methods to attach the push rod to the rudder tiller arm we recommend that you attach the linear drive unit to the rudder stock via an independent tiller arm theEdson and Whitlock companies offer standard fittings for their steering systems 2Steering linkage tiller arm or rudder quadrant in certain cases you may be able to attach the push rod to the same tiller arm or rudder quadrant used by the main steering linkage Consult the steering manufacturer before you modify the rudder quadrant Attaching the rod endUse the supplied tiller pin assembly to attach the rod end to the tiller arm at the tiller arm radius shown in Figure 4 1Attach the tiller pin to the tiller arminsert the tiller pin through the tiller arm hole so the flange remains above the arm see Figure 6 make sure that the tiller pin is a tight fit in the tiller armuse the supplied lock washer and fully tighten the lock nut Note If necessary you will need to drill a 13mm 052inole in the tiller arm at the radius shown in Figure 4 2Attach the rod end to the tiller pin place the rod end onto the tiller pinsecure with the supplied washer and Rclip see Figure 6 the steering gear manufacturer if you have any doubt about the strength of the existing tiller arm or rudder Page 13 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM14 Figure 6Attaching the push rod to the tiller armSteering checkWhen you have mounted the drive unit turn the boats steering wheel from hardover to hardover and check that Angular movement of the ball end fitting is less than 5 degrees see Figure 5 f you exceed this 5 degree limit the drive will catch on the tiller armrudder quadrant and the ball joint will bindNo part of the drive unit fouls the boats structure when the push rod moves in and out The total rudder movement is limited to 35 degrees by the steering system end stops rather than the linear drives end limits see Figure 7 Figure 7Total rudder movement CAUTIONLinear driveMake sure rudder movement is limited by the steering system end stops before the push rod reaches its end stop Failure to do this could damage the drive and will invalidate the armFlangeHole diameter13 mm 052 inD50761Tiller pinWasherRod endRclipLock systemend stopSteering systemend Page 14 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PMTMTM 15 3 Connecting to the course computer The linear drive unit has electrical connections for the drive motor two singlecore cables red and blackthe clutch a twocore cable with rednd blueesFollow these steps to connect the linear drive to the course the distance of cable run from the drive unit to the course computeruse Table 11 to identify the appropriate motor cable sizeuse at least 15 mm2 16 AWG copper cable for the clutch 2Join these cables to the drive cables using appropriate electrical connectors or junction boxes at the correct power rating3Route the cables back to the course computer taking into account the EMC installation guidelines see page 94Connect the cables to the course computer see Figure 8 CLUTCH cable red core to ve blue core to veMOTOR cables at this stage you can connect either motor cable to either terminal You will check these connections after installing the rest of the autopilot system WARNINGMoving partsKeep clear of moving steering systems at all times Protect moving parts from access during normal use safetyMake sure the power supply is switched OFF before you make any electrical connections 811755book Page 15 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM16 Figure 8Cable connections at course computer 4 Post installation checklistCheck the following points after installing the drive1Is the mounting foot secured to a substantial structure on the boat2Is the drive unit correctly aligned ie Is the mounting foot correctly orientedTable 11 Recommended cable sizesCable lengthdrive unit to course computerCable gaugeAWGCopper areamm2Type 1 driveup to 3m 10ftup to 5m 16ftup to 7m 23ftup to 10m 32ftup to 16m 61016Type 2 drive 12 V shortlongup to 5m 16ftup to 7m 23ftup to 16m 2 drive 24 V shortlongup to 3m 10ftup to 5m 16ftup to 10m 32ftup to 16m 100300 course 150400 course Page 16 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PMTM 17Is the drive mounted at right angles to the tiller arm in a midstroke position when the rudder is amidshipsIs the push rod accurately aligned with the tiller arm plane of rotation less than 5 degrees variation3Is the linear drive rod endsecurely attached to the tiller arm or at the recommended tiller arm radius for the boat4Are the motor and clutch cables correctly routed and securely connected to the course computer5Have you completed a handsteering check see page 14Note When you have installed the entire autopilot system you will need to complete an autopilot steering check Refer to the control unit handbook for more details make the following checks before each passage Ensure that all connections and mountings are secureEnsure that the drive is aligned that cables have no signs of wear or damageCheck for unusual noisy operation such as clicking or grinding noises or unusual vibration If any of these are detected the drive must be taken to a Raymarine authorized service representative before further useEnsure that the drive is not wet or exposed to waterEnsure that the swivel joint and roseend are lightly greased with waterproof greaseNote The drive should be serviced every 2 years or 1000 hours of use whichever comes first by a Raymarine authorized service servicing and safety equipment should be serviced only by authorized Raymarine service They will ensure that service procedures and replacement parts used will not affect performance There are no user serviceable parts in any Raymarine productSome products generate high voltages so never handle the when power is being supplied to the equipmentWhen powered up all electrical equipment produces fields These can cause adjacent pieces of electrical equipment to interact with one another with a consequent adverse effect on operation In order to minimize these effects and enable you to get the best possible performance from your Raymarine equipment guidelines are given in the installation instructions to enable you to ensure minimum interaction between different items of equipment ie ensure optimum Compatibility EMC811755book Page 17 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM18 Raymarine LtdAnchorage ParkPortsmouth PO3 5TDTelephone 44 09 3611Fax 44 069 Inc21 Manchester 030544801 USATelephone 1 603 881 5200Fax 1 603 864 Technical Services Call CenterUK 44 071 4713 or44 0269 3611 ext 1083USA 1 603 881 5200Always report any EMCrelated problem to your nearest Raymarine dealer We use such information to improve our quality standardsIn some installations it may not be possible to prevent the equipment from being affected by external influences In general this will not damage the equipment but it can lead to spurious resetting action or momentarily may result in faulty products are supported by a worldwide network of distributors and Authorized Service If you encounter any difficulties with this product please contact either your national distributor or your service representative or the Raymarine Technical Services Call Center Refer to the back cover or the Worldwide Distributor List for contact details 811755book Page 18 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 u tLUDC1fpD v1Rydtu dmft1 27DLVJXfdnnuv 10p3C0L0V0b1n oeUPKG l y vi85207IS jwr30 PH50qc JUanugPHA61 JB5 19CNZ f tl RH82 6JVdr h OE5 dWLB93 1EQmcUI6XK6 rfSNJEA3IVcnz Mspomjhfd4baB I P W Y gW qU S R vhQIC9743321 5GQ hvsdXNF5203 EOZguoaUK B 62 7JUan 6HSlzjPE61 5IVdt lOC92 4 MbwteUE4a b o CFHGEri5VL skBAP0iFR6gi6 B6VwJss 5wSr Njh AjaAp5h h mPDS parmpjY3d kBnt1EQYydYe tDJ V35ThOx9Hov CsXNHSDyzU dCB6dFEl Emtzsw xaspp8RzFvs mlGq2b7 NJIxJHRW Instant PDFEnfocus Instant PDF36STSet Trapped Flag to auf FalschAjustar el indicador de reventado a FalsoFixer la balise de recouvrement FauxImposta Chiave Trapping aNessun TrappingSteve PitStop ServerChange PDFX version ndernCambiar clave de versin PDFXModifier la cl de version PDFXModifica versione PDFXRLUDqR7 PDFX Output Intent ndernCambiar color de salida PDFXModifier le projet dimpression PDFXCambia Processo di Output PDFXPDF Queue used was Elanders PDFX1a CMYKVerwendete Elanders PDFX1a CMYKLa cola de PDF utilizada era Elanders PDFX1a CMYKLa file de cration PDF utilise tait la suivante Elanders PDFX1a CMYKLa coda PDF utilizzata era Elanders PDFX1a iEPugutcPqew p 6666zgKz8P48o eBYZA2E9BSmeCN skBAP0iFR6gi6 B6VwJss 5wSr Njh AjaAp5h h mPDS parmpjY3d kBnt1EQYydYe tDJ V35ThOx9Hov CsXNHSDyzU dCB6dFEl Emtzsw xaspp8RzFvs mlGq2b7 NJIxJHRW 0 PitStop q2 hhhlDHWChA p8A p8A skBAP0iFR6gi6 B6VwJss 5wSr Njh AjaAp5h h mPDS parmpjY3d kBnt1EQYydYe tDJ V35ThOx9Hov CsXNHSDyzU dCB6dFEl Emtzsw xaspp8RzFvs mlGq2b7 NJIxJHRW PitStop YXRU Cf9bR 22242H22I2I2 7000 7 A7 z t u z t u 2011 The Monotype Corporation All Rights ReservedArial is a trademark of The Monotype Corporation 2011 The Monotype Corporation All Rights is a trademark of The Monotype Corporation 2011 The Monotype Corporation All Rights is a trademark of The Monotype 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 120 15200 200 15 201 1 5020 2050 Pattern 11New Pattern 4Unnamed 6Unnamed Brush Pat gradient gradient 83Unnamed gradient gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 83Unnamed gradient gradient gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 83Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Adobe Vectorized ObjectImage Flare Deform PluginAdobe Envelope PluginEnvelope and WarpaipAdobe Planar GroupAdobe Live Paint PluginLive PaintaipAdobe Perspective Plugin GroupAdobe Perspective Plugin Path BlendsAdobe Blends PluginLive BlendsaipAdobe SymbolismAdobe PatternOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Pattern Brush PatternOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Pattern Brush ArtOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Art Brush ArtOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Art Brush Calligraphic Brush ToolAdobe Calligraphic Brush Brush ToolaipAdobe Scatter Brush ToolAdobe Scatter Brush PluginScatter Brush ToolaipAdobe Scatter Brush ToolAdobe Scatter Brush PluginScatter Brush ToolaipAdobe Pattern Editor Plugin GroupAdobe Pattern Editor Plugin GroupSwatch SuiteAdobe Compound SuiteaipFading SkyFading SkyOrange YellowOrange YellowSuper Soft Black VignetteSuper Soft Black gradient 1Unnamed gradient 1Unnamed gradient 10Unnamed gradient 10Unnamed gradient 14Unnamed gradient 14Unnamed gradient 16Unnamed gradient 16Unnamed gradient 18Unnamed gradient 18Unnamed gradient 19Unnamed gradient 19Unnamed gradient 21Unnamed gradient 21Unnamed gradient 35Unnamed gradient 35Unnamed gradient 4Unnamed gradient 4Unnamed gradient 41Unnamed gradient 41Unnamed gradient 42Unnamed gradient 42Unnamed gradient 5Unnamed gradient 5Unnamed gradient 51Unnamed gradient 51Unnamed gradient 54Unnamed gradient 54Unnamed gradient 8Unnamed gradient 8Unnamed gradient 83Unnamed gradient 83White BlackWhite AI12 Job Options DataAI12 Job Options SizeAdobe PDF Job Options 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OrangeUnnamed gradient 42Unnamed gradient 10Unnamed gradient gradient 1Unnamed gradient 21Unnamed gradient 19Unnamed gradient 16Anon Type 1 Linear Drive 12 VM81131 Type 2 shortM81132 Type 2 longM81133 Type 2 shortM81134 Type 2 longDocument number 811756EN Linear DriveLinear DriveDocument number 811756EN M81130 Type 1 Linear Drive 12 VM81131 Type 2 shortM81132 Type 2 longM81133 Type 2 shortM81134 Type 2 Page 118 Thursday October 7 2004 1103 Cf9bR 22242H22I2I2 7000 7 A7 z t u z t u 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 120 15200 200 15 201 1 5020 2050 Pattern 11New Pattern 4Unnamed 6Unnamed Brush Pat gradient gradient 83Unnamed gradient gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 83Unnamed gradient gradient gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 83Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Unnamed gradient gradient 35Adobe Vectorized ObjectImage Deform PluginAdobe Envelope PluginEnvelope and WarpaipAdobe Flare Planar GroupAdobe Live Paint PluginLive PaintaipAdobe Perspective Plugin GroupAdobe Perspective Plugin Path BlendsAdobe Blends PluginLive BlendsaipAdobe SymbolismAdobe PatternOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Pattern Brush PatternOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Pattern Brush ArtOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Art Brush ArtOnPath Brush ToolAdobe Art Brush Calligraphic Brush ToolAdobe Calligraphic Brush Brush ToolaipAdobe Scatter Brush ToolAdobe Scatter Brush PluginScatter Brush ToolaipAdobe Scatter Brush ToolAdobe Scatter Brush PluginScatter Brush ToolaipAdobe Pattern Editor Plugin GroupAdobe Pattern Editor Plugin GroupSwatch SuiteAdobe Compound SuiteaipFading SkyFading SkyOrange YellowOrange YellowSuper Soft Black VignetteSuper Soft Black gradient 1Unnamed gradient 1Unnamed gradient 10Unnamed gradient 10Unnamed gradient 14Unnamed gradient 14Unnamed gradient 16Unnamed gradient 16Unnamed gradient 18Unnamed gradient 18Unnamed gradient 19Unnamed gradient 19Unnamed gradient 21Unnamed gradient 21Unnamed gradient 35Unnamed gradient 35Unnamed gradient 4Unnamed gradient 4Unnamed gradient 41Unnamed gradient 41Unnamed gradient 42Unnamed gradient 42Unnamed gradient 5Unnamed gradient 5Unnamed gradient 51Unnamed gradient 51Unnamed gradient 54Unnamed gradient 54Unnamed gradient 8Unnamed gradient 8Unnamed gradient 83Unnamed gradient 83White BlackWhite AI12 Job Options 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OrangeUnnamed gradient 42Unnamed gradient 10Unnamed gradient gradient 1Unnamed gradient 21Unnamed gradient 19Unnamed gradient 16Anon Cf9bR 22242H22I2I2 7000 7 A7 z t u z t u Page 118 Thursday October 7 2004 1103 Page 118 Thursday October 7 2004 1103 Raymarine LtdAnchorage ParkPortsmouth PO3 5TDTelephone 44 09 3611Fax 44 069 Inc21 Manchester 030544801 USATelephone 1 603 881 5200Fax 1 603 864 Technical Services Call CenterUK 44 071 4713 or44 0269 3611 ext 1083USA 1 603 881 5200225Always report any EMCrelated problem to your nearest Raymarine dealer We use such information to improve our quality standards225In some installations it may not be possible to prevent the equipment from being affected by external influences In general this will not damage the equipment but it can lead to spurious resetting action or momentarily may result in faulty Page 18 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM225Always report any EMCrelated problem to your nearest Raymarine dealer We use such information to improve our quality standards225In some installations it may not be possible to prevent the equipment from being affected by external influences In general this will not damage the equipment but it can lead to spurious resetting action or momentarily may result in faulty Page 18 Wednesday February 7 2007 346 PM

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