Raymarine Sea Talk Ng Reference Manual 81300 1 en
This is the new page for displaying documents. It allows documents to display on devices without pdf viewers specifically mobile devices, a new Google requirement. Note also that some documents have blank pages. Just click on "Next Page" if that happens.
Go to page number
PDF to Text.
F4119508S42956831F4119508S42956831 Raymarine SeaTalk SeaTalk SeaTalk and ST70 are trademarks of Raymarine plc DeviceNet is a trademark of Open DeviceNet Vendor Association Inc Handbook contents copyright Raymarine plc813001book Page 2 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM ContentsContentsPrefaceiiiWARNING Electrical safetyiiiEMC conformance iiiProduct documents iiiProduct disposal iiiWaste Electrical and Electronic WEEEe iiiChapter 1Description 111SeaTalkng overview 1Introduction1Terminology1Connectability112Hardware 1Color coding2Important you must fit Terminators2Available parts2Other cables4Connectors413Using SeaTalk 4Typical applications5General guidelines when using with other systems6Basic rules6Limitations when SeaTalk1ts are connected 6Using with SeaTalk16Chapter 2Installation 921Preparation for installation 9EMC installation guidelines9Remember9Suppression ferrites9Connections to nonRaymarine equipment9Tools required9System structures10Power supply considerations10Product loading10Power sources10Protection10Power connection point10Balanced system 10Small systems 11Permitted power loading11Balanced system loading 11Unbalanced system loading 11System limitations12Cabling1222Procedures 13General requirements13Making connections14Running cables14813001book Page i Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM PrefaceiiiPreface EMC conformanceAll Raymarine equipment and accessories are designed to the best industry standards for use in the recreational marine environmentThe design and manufacture of Raymarine equipment and accessories conform to the appropriate Electromagnetic Compatibility EMCandards but correct installation is required to ensure that performance is not compromisedProduct documentsThis manual gives information on the Raymarine SeaTalk system It should be read in conjunction with the documents for the individual products that connect to SeaTalkTo the best of our knowledge the information in this document was correct when it went to press However Raymarine cannot accept liability for any inaccuracies or omissions in product documents In addition our policy of continuous product improvement may change specifications without notice Therefore Raymarine cannot accept liability for any differences between the product and the accompanying documents Product disposalWaste Electrical and Electronic WEEEectiveThe WEEE Directive requires the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipmentWhilst the WEEE Directive does not apply to some of Raymarines products we support its policy and ask you to be aware of how to dispose of this productThe crossed out wheelie bin symbol illustrated above and found on our products signifies that this product should not be disposed of in general waste or landfillPlease contact your local dealer national distributor or Raymarine Technical Services for information on product disposal WARNING Electrical safetyMake sure you have switched off the power supply before you start installing this product813001book Page iii Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMivSeaTalk Reference Manual813001book Page iv Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 1 Description1Chapter 1Description11SeaTalk overviewIntroductionSeaTalk is an interconnection bus for Raymarine products and comprises a main backbone to which Raymarine products are connected via spur cables see Figure 11Figure 11 SeaTalk overviewTerminologyRaymarine produces SeaTalk SeaTalk and SeaTalk proprietary bus systems In this book in the interests of clarity SeaTalk is referred to as SeaTalk1ConnectabilitySpecific Raymarine products eg ST70 instruments perform a bridging function to enable you to connect SeaTalk to SeaTalk1 products via appropriate adaptor cables Adaptor cables are also available to connect NMEA2000 products12HardwareSeaTalk comprises a single backbone terminated with two terminators one at each end Spur cables connect the backbone to individual SeaTalk productsSmall diameter cable connectors are used throughout the system to make installation easier Cables and connectors are colorcoded to reduce the likelihood of misconnectionA wide range of different cable lengths provides flexibility and obviates the need for cutting and splicing cablesThreeway five way and inline connection pieces are available to connect cables to deploy SeaTalk as requiredTransducerTransducerBackboneBackboneSeaTalk1TerminatorTerminatorSpurSpurSpurSpurSpurSpurSpur813001book Page 1 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM2SeaTalk Reference ManualColor codingCables and connectors are colorcoded to facilitate correct connection The color codes areBackbone is blue Spurs are whiteA power cable is also provided and is colorcoded with a red stripImportant you must fit TerminatorsIn order to ensure correct data transmission through a SeaTalk system a Terminator is required at each end of the backbone cable run Dedicated Terminators are available for this purpose Do NOT attempt to run a system that is not correctly terminatedAvailable partsThe following parts are available Backbone cablePart numbers1 ft 3 in 400 mm A060333 ft 3 in 1 m A060349 ft 10 in 3 m A06035 16 ft 4 in 5 m A0603665 ft 7 in20 m A06037Spur cablePart numbers1 ft 3 in 400 mm A060383 ft 3 in 1 m A060399 ft 10 in 3 m A0604016 ft 4 in 5 m A06041TPieceConnects spur to backbonePart number A060285Way ConnectorConnects spurs to backbonePart number A06064Backbone ExtenderConnects two backbone cablesPart number A06030813001book Page 2 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 1 Description3TerminatorFitted at each end of backbonePart number A06031Blanking PlugInserted into unused spur connector positions in 5way connector T PiecePart number A06032Elbow Spur cable 1 ft 3 in 400 mmFor spurs in confined spacesPart number A06042SPX Spur cableConnects SeaTalk to Raymarine SPX Course ComputersPart number To be announcedPower cableConnects SeaTalk 12 V dc supplyPart number A06049Stripped End Spur cable Connects products which do not have plugin connectors eg transducer podsPart numbers 1 m A06043 3 m A06044SeaTalk Adaptor cableConnects SeaTalk products to SeaTalk1Part number A06047SeaTalk adaptor cableConnects SeaTalk products to SeaTalkPart number A06048DeviceNet female adaptor cableConnects SeaTalk products to NMEA2000Part number A06045813001book Page 3 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM4SeaTalk Reference Manual Other cablesIn addition to the parts listed a range of connector cables is available from your Raymarine dealer to connect to other Raymarine products and systemsConnectorsSeaTalk connectors are lockable to ensure reliable secure connectivity Keyways on the connectors ensure correct orientation Locking collars on the SeaTalkTPiece 5Way Connector and Backbone Extender rotate to lock the connections Molded arrow indicators on the connectors align to show when the connector is unlocked 13Using SeaTalkA complete SeaTalk backbone comprises two or more backbone cables connected in series There must be only one backbone and this must be terminated with two terminators one at each end of the backbone Do NOT connect a terminator to any spurIn a SeaTalk system and any system to which it is connectedAs a general rule there must only be one data source transducer for each data type Although some products may be permitted as secondary data sources do not duplicate the source for any data unless permission is specifically given in the relevant product documentsThere must be only one power sourceIt is particularly important to be aware of these requirements when connecting to another system For example in Raymarine SeaTalk1 power is often supplied from the system autopilotDeviceNet male adaptor cableConnects SeaTalk products to NMEA2000Part number A06046ESeries Adaptor cableConnects SeaTalk products to Raymarine ESeries DisplaysPart number A06061SeaTalk Reference ManualPart number 813001Backbone KitPart number A25062ComprisesTwo terminatorsOne 65 ft 7 in 20 m Backbone cableTwo 16 ft 4 in 5 m Backbone cablesFour T Piece connectorsOne Power CableOne SeaTalk Reference Manual this book813001book Page 4 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 1 Description5You can use SeaTalkAs a selfcontained system in which only products fitted with SeaTalkconnectors are connected via spur cables to the SeaTalk backboneAs an extended system connected to SeaTalk1roducts via an adaptor cableYou must NOT connect a SeaTalk system to a SeaTalk systemYou may connect specific SeaTalk products eg ST70 instrumentsto existing SeaTalk1 and SeaTalk systems using the appropriate adaptor cables Refer to the instructions with these products for details of how to connect themAs it is obviously not possible to describe all possible configurations for SeaTalkgeneral guidelines are given here Typical applicationsA typical SeaTalk system is shown in Figure 12 It comprises the main backbone with compatible products connected via spur cables Figure 12 Typical basic SeaTalk systemTerminatorT PieceTerminatorSeaTalk SeaTalk 5Way ConnectorT PieceT PieceT PieceT PieceSeaTalk SpurSpur813001book Page 5 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM6SeaTalk Reference ManualGeneral guidelines when using with other systemsBasic rulesIf SeaTalk is connected to any other system ensure that in the combined systemYou connect only one source for any data type unless permission is specifically given in the relevant product documentsYou connect only one power source Limitations when SeaTalk1 products are connectedIf SeaTalk and SeaTalk1 products are used together do NOT connect an NMEA2000 backbone as this product combination could compromise the integrity of the NMEA2000 system Using with SeaTalk1Provided you do not want to connect to NMEA2000 you can connect a SeaTalksystem to SeaTalk1 using a suitable SeaTalk bridging product such as an ST70 instrumentnd adaptor cables to connect the two systems If you intend doing this note thatYou can connect a single SeaTalk1work to SeaTalk using an adaptor cable and one bridging product eg ST70 instrumentYou can connect two separate SeaTalk1networks to SeaTalk using different adaptor cables and bridging products eg ST70 instruments but the two SeaTalk1 networks must NOT be connected togetherSummaries of acceptable and unacceptable SeaTalkSeaTalk1 scenarios are shown in Figure 13 and Figure 14 respectively 813001book Page 6 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 1 Description7 Figure 13 SeaTalkSeaTalk1eptable scenariosSeaTalk VMGTACKSeaTalk1RESETVMGTACKSeaTalk1RESETVMGTACKSeaTalk1RESETSeaTalk To other SeaTalkTo other SeaTalkTo other SeaTalkTo other SeaTalk to SeaTalk1SeaTalk to SeaTalk1SeaTalk to SeaTalk1SeaTalk 813001book Page 7 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM8SeaTalk Reference Manual Figure 14 SeaTalkSeaTalk1cceptable scenariosSeaTalk VMGTACKSeaTalk1RESETSeaTalk To other SeaTalkTo other SeaTalkTo other SeaTalk to SeaTalk1SeaTalk to SeaTalk1SeaTalk VMGTACKSeaTalk1RESETSeaTalk To other SeaTalkTo other SeaTalkTo other SeaTalk to SeaTalk1SeaTalk to SeaTalk1SeaTalk VMGTACKRESETVMGTACKRESETSeaTalk1SeaTalk1813001book Page 8 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 2 Installation9Chapter 2Installation21Preparation for installationEMC installation guidelinesRaymarine equipment and accessories conform to the appropriate Electromagnetic Compatibility EMClations This minimizes electromagnetic interference between equipment which could otherwise affect the performance of your systemCorrect installation is required to ensure that EMC performance is not compromisedFor optimum EMC performance we recommend thatRaymarine equipment and the cables connected to it areAt least 3 ft 1 m any equipment transmitting or cables carrying radio signals eg VHF radios cables and antennas In the case of SSB radios the distance should be increased to 7 ft 2 mMore than 7 ft 2 mfrom the path of a radar beam A radar beam can normally be assumed to spread 20 degrees above and below the radiating elementThe product is supplied from a separate battery from that used for engine start This is important to prevent erratic behavior and data loss which can occur if the engine start does not have a separate batteryRaymarine specified cables are usedCables are not cut or extended unless doing so is detailed in the installation manualRememberWhere constraints on the installation prevent any of the above recommendations always allow the maximum separation possible between different items of electrical equipmentThis will provide the best conditions for EMC performance for the installationSuppression ferritesRaymarine cables may be fitted with suppression ferrites These are important for correct EMC performance Any ferrite removed to facilitate installation must be replaced in the original position immediately installation is completeUse only ferrites of the correct type supplied by Raymarine authorized dealersConnections to nonRaymarine equipmentIf Raymarine equipment is to be connected to other equipment using a cable not supplied by Raymarine a Raymarine suppression ferrite MUST always be attached to the cable near the Raymarine unitTools requiredBefore installing SeaTalk ensure you have the appropriate tools In most cases a typical fitters toolkit should suffice provided it has tools to enable you toDrill holes for cable runsConnect prepared bare wire ends to terminal blocks813001book Page 9 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM10SeaTalk Reference ManualSystem structuresPlan the route of the SeaTalk backbone so that it runs as close as is practicable to the intended location of each SeaTalkng product to keep spur lengths to a minimumProducts connect to the backbone via spur cables Spurs connect to the backbone via either a SeaTalk TPiece or a SeaTalk 5Way Connector Power supply considerationsIt is important that power for SeaTalk is provided from only one power source If you intend using your SeaTalk system with any other system eg SeaTalk1ower may already be connected to the other system If this is the case do NOT connect an additional power source to SeaTalkProduct loadingThe number of products you can connect to a SeaTalk system depends on the power each product consumes and on the physical length of the proposed system Each Raymarine product has a Load Equivalency Number LENhich indicates how much power it consumesPower sourcesA SeaTalk system requires one 12 V dc supply connected to the SeaTalkbackbone This can be providedBy a batteryFrom a Raymarine Course Computer via SeaTalk andor SeaTalkNote If a battery is used as a power source it is recommended that in order to avoid sudden voltage drops the battery used for engine starting is NOT used to power SeaTalkOn boats with 24 V dc systems a suitable 24 V to 12 V dc dropper may be used Check with Raymarine Customer Support or your Dealer for suitabilityProtectionThe power source must be protected by a 5 A fuse or a circuit breaker providing equivalent protectionPower connection pointBalanced systemWe recommend that as a general rule power is connected to a SeaTalk system in such a way that the current drawn on each side of the power connection point is equalThis is termed a balanced systemFigure 21 shows a theoretical balanced system In this system the total LEN of the all products is 40 so the optimum power connection point is a total LEN value of 20 each end of the backbone813001book Page 10 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 2 Installation11 Figure 21 Where to connect SeaTalk power in a balanced systemSmall systemsAlthough the preferred method of connection is to form a balanced system as above in systems where the backbone length is 60 m or less you may connect power at one end of the system to form an unbalanced systemPermitted power loadingThe total load permissible in a SeaTalk system is defined in terms of the total LEN of all products connected to the system and depends on the length of the backboneBalanced system loadingThe maximum loading total LEN for balanced SeaTalk systems of various lengths is given in the following table Note that in each case the total LEN must be divided equally each side of the power connection point Unbalanced system loadingThe maximum LEN for unbalanced SeaTalk systems up to 197 ft 60 m is given in the following table Backbone lengthTotal LENBackbone lengthTotal LEN197 ft 60 m or less100394 ft 120 m50262 ft 80 m84459 to 525 ft 140 to 160 m40328 ft 100 m60591 to 656 ft 180 to 200 m32Backbone lengthTotal LEN66 ft 20 m40131 ft 40 m20197 ft 60 m14TerminatorTerminatorTotal system LEN 40813001book Page 11 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM12SeaTalk Reference ManualSystem limitationsIn a SeaTalk systemThe total length of backbone cable between the two Terminators must not exceed 656 ft 200 mThe length of any individual spur must not exceed 16 ft 4 in 5 mThe total length of all spurs must not exceed 98 ft 5 in 30 m So for example your system could have 30 spurs each of 3 ft 3 in 1 mor 6 spurs each of 16 ft 4 in 5 mThe total LEN in the system must not exceed the value detailed under Permitted power loadingCablingWhen planning SeaTalk cable routes see Figure 22 and Figure 23nsure that the EMC conditions are fulfilled see EMC installation guidelines above In particular do not route cables near fluorescent lights engines and radio transmitting equipment as these may cause interference Taking this into account plan the backbone route to run as close as possible to the intended locations of the products to be connected Figure 22 Typical SeaTalk cablingTPieceTPieceTPieceTPieceTPieceTerminatorSeaTalk SeaTalk SeaTalk 5Way ConnectorTerminator5Way Connector5Way Connector813001book Page 12 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 2 Installation13 Figure 23 Typical SeaTalk cabling on flybridge vessel22ProceduresGeneral requirementsUse only the appropriate lengths of genuine Raymarine SeaTalk madeup backbone and spur cables Do NOT cut or otherwise modify the cablesTo minimize the need to coil and stow spare cable always use lengths of cable appropriate to the cable run lengths 5Way ConnectorTerminatorTPieceTPieceTPieceTPieceTerminatorSeaTalk SeaTalk SeaTalk 5Way Connector5Way Connector813001book Page 13 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM14SeaTalk Reference ManualMaking connectionsMake each SeaTalk connection as demonstrated in Figure 24 Figure 24 Connecting cablesRunning cablesWhen running SeaTalk cables always do so in accordance with the following guidelinesDo not run cables where they are likely to be easily damagedIf a cable has to be fed through the deck always use a proprietary deck glandWhere cables are fed through holes in bulkheads etc always use the appropriate grommets to prevent chafingSecure long cable runs so they do not present a hazardDo not position cable connectors in bilges813001book Page 14 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 2 Installation15Installing BackboneBuild the backbone by running backbone cables between the locations of the products you want to connect spur points At each spur point connect the backbone cables to an appropriate SeaTalkng connecting device eitherTPiece part number A06028 Use where you want to connect a spur cable to just one product5Way Connector part number A06064 Use where you want to connect more than one spur cable to products fitted close to one another eg in the cockpitBackbone Extender part number A06030 Use as necessary to connect lengths of backbone cable togetherCAUTION Backbone ExtenderThe Backbone Extender A06030 is suitable only for connecting backbone cables Do NOT attempt to use it to join spur cables or damage could occurConnecting spursAt each connecting device TPiece or 5Way Connector connect spur cables to the white connectors as required then run each spur cable to the location of the product to be connected Connect each spur cable to the relevant product in accordance with the installation instructions for the productWhere space is limited eg behind instrument consoles it may be easier to use an elbow spur cable rather than the conventional straight spurConnecting powerThis section describes how to connect power to a standalone SeaTalk system If your SeaTalk system is connected to any other system eg another SeaTalk system and the other system already has its own power source do NOT connect another power source to SeaTalkCAUTION Do not connect power until installation is completeBefore connecting a power cable to the SeaTalkbackbone ensure it is not connected to a power sourceFor optimum SeaTalk performance power must be connected in accordance with the conditions described under Power supply considerations on page 10 Whenever possible connect your system as a balanced systemIf it is not possible to do this and the SeaTalk backbone is less than 197 ft 60 mngth you may connect the power source to form an unbalanced systemEnsure that the power source is protected by a 5 A fuse or a circuit breaker providing equivalent protectionBalanced systemTo connect power for a balanced SeaTalk system1Determine the total LEN of the products in the system 2Divide the total LEN by two and note the value813001book Page 15 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM16SeaTalk Reference Manual3Starting at one end of the system add the LEN of each product in turn until you reach the value calculated at step 2 The point on the backbone between this product and the next is the point where the system load is evenly split4At this point fit a TPiece A06028 then Connect a SeaTalk Power Cable A06049 to the white connector on the TPiece See Figure 255Ensure the power supply is switched off then connect the power cable via a 5 A fuse or equivalent value circuit breaker to the power supply Figure 25 Connecting power to a balanced systemUnbalanced systemIf the backbone is less than 197 ft 60 m you can connect your power source to form an unbalanced system as follows1At one end of the backbone fit a TPiece A06028 then connect a SeaTalk Power Cable A06049 to the white connector on the TPiece2Ensure the power supply is switched off then connect the power cable via a 5 A fuse or equivalent value circuit breaker to the power supply Fitting TerminatorsWhen the backbone is in position use a suitable connecting device eg a TPiece to connect a SeaTalk Terminator at each end of the backbone Secure the Terminator by locking it in the same way as for the SeaTalk connectorsFitting Blanking PlugsWhen all cables have been run and connected fit a SeaTalk Blanking Plug to each unused spur connector on SeaTalk 5Way Connectors and TPieces Secure each blanking plug by locking it in the same way as for SeaTalk connectorsTerminatorTerminatorTerminatorTerminator813001book Page 16 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMChapter 3 Post installation procedures17Chapter 3Post installation procedures31ChecksWhen the backbone has been fitted and the spur cables connected carry out the following checks before applying powerEnsure that SeaTalkng is powered from just ONE 12 V sourceIf SeaTalkng is connected to any other SeaTalk system make sure this system does not have its own separate power sourceEnsure all backbone connectors are secureEnsure all products are securely connected to their respective spur cablesEnsure Terminators are securely fitted at each end of the backbone32MaintenancePeriodically check thatSystem connections are secureThe cables for signs of chafing and other damage Replace as necessary33TroubleshootingIf SeaTalkng appears not to be operating as it should first check for error messages on any of the products connected to the system If this does not resolve the problem ensure thatAll products in the system are fully serviceableAll system connections are secureAll cables are in good condition and that there are no breaks or other damageSeaTalkng is configured correctly as described in Chapter 2 In particular check thatThere is only one backbone terminated with just two terminators ie one at each end of the backboneTerminators are NOT fitted to any spurTechnical supportRaymarine provides a comprehensive customer support service on the world wide web and by telephone help line Please use either of these facilities if you are unable to rectify a problemWorld wide webPlease visit the Customer Support area of our web site atwwwraymarinecomAs well as providing a comprehensive Frequently Asked Questions section and servicing information the web site gives email access to the Raymarine Technical Support Department and a details of the locations of Raymarine agents worldwide813001book Page 17 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMIndex5Way ConnectorBackbone cableBackbone ExtenderBackbone KitBalanced systemBlanking PlugfittingCable routesBackboneDeviceNet AdaptorElbow SpurESeries AdaptorPowerSeaTalk AdaptorSeaTalk2 AdaptorSpurSPX SpurStripped End Spurguidelinesinstalling Backboneinstalling Spurson flybridge vesselplanningtypicalConnectingBackbonebalanced systemunbalanced systemSpurterminatorsConnecting devices5Way ConnectorBackbone ExtenderTPieceConnectorsinsertinglockingDeviceNet Adaptor cableDisposing of the productDocumentationiiiElbow Spur cableElectrical safetyiiiEMC guidelinesiiiESeries Adaptor cableFuseLEN valuesLocking connectorsMaintenanceNMEA2000Parts listPower cablePower loadingbalanced systemdefined by LENunbalanced systemPower supplyconnectingbalanced systemunbalanced systemconnection requirementbalanced systemunbalanced systempermitted power loadingbalanced systemunbalanced systemprotectionrequirementsProduct disposaliii813001book Page 19 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM20SeaTalk Reference ManualSafetyelectricaliiiSeaTalk Adaptor cableSeaTalk1SeaTalkSeaTalk Adaptor cableSeaTalkcable length limitationscomponentsconnectabilitygeneral usageload limitspower supply requirementssystem structurestypical applicationusing with other systemsSeaTalk1Spur cableSPX Spur cableStripped End Spur cableTechnical supportTerminatorsToolsTPieceTroubleshootingUnbalanced system813001book Page 20 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM813001book Page 21 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM9kkjvVwhfECedY vZuQSeaTalkReference ManualDocument reference 813001Date June 2007813001book Page 1 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM wwwraymarinecom813001book Page 22 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMSeaTalk Reference Manual813001book Page 18 Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PMSeaTalk Reference ManualInstalling Backbone15CAUTION Backbone Extender15Connecting spurs15Connecting power15CAUTION Do not connect power until installation is complete15Balanced system15Unbalanced system16Fitting Terminators16Fitting Blanking Plugs16Chapter 3Post installation procedures 1731Checks 1732Maintenance 1733Troubleshooting 17Technical support17World wide web171813001book Page ii Tuesday May 22 2007 253 PM
Ad by Google
I do not sell or share any user data period. I do log page view information to monitor the health of the site and to block abusive actors. I also host ads from Google. They may or may not sell your data. Please adjust your account settings with them if you wich. This site does not fall under the terms of the CCPA or GDPR due to its size and target audiance.
The information on this web site has not been checked for accuracy. It is for entertainment purposes only and should be independently verified before using for any other reason. There are five sources. 1) Documents and manuals from a variety of sources. These have not been checked for accuracy and in many cases have not even been read by anyone associated with L-36.com. I have no idea of they are useful or accurate, I leave that to the reader. 2) Articles others have written and submitted. If you have questions on these, please contact the author. 3) Articles that represent my personal opinions. These are intended to promote thought and for entertainment. These are not intended to be fact, they are my opinions. 4) Small programs that generate result presented on a web page. Like any computer program, these may and in some cases do have errors. Almost all of these also make simplifying assumptions so they are not totally accurate even if there are no errors. Please verify all results. 5) Weather information is from numerious of sources and is presented automatically. It is not checked for accuracy either by anyone at L-36.com or by the source which is typically the US Government. See the NOAA web site for their disclaimer. Finally, tide and current data on this site is from 2007 and 2008 data bases, which may contain even older data. Changes in harbors due to building or dredging change tides and currents and for that reason many of the locations presented are no longer supported by newer data bases. For example, there is very little tidal current data in newer data bases so current data is likely wrong to some extent. This data is NOT FOR NAVIGATION. See the XTide disclaimer for details. In addition, tide and current are influenced by storms, river flow, and other factors beyond the ability of any predictive program.