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Distance Between Ports



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                     PUB. 151



DISTANCES BETWEEN PORTS



                Prepared and published by the
       NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
                     Bethesda, Maryland



 COPYRIGHT 2001 BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
       NO COPYRIGHT CLAIMED UNDER TITLE 17 U.S.C.




            ELEVENTH EDITION
                  2001
                                                         PREFACE




     GENERAL INFORMATION.--The 2001 Edition                        take advantage of favorable currents or weather on one or
of Pub. 151, Distances Between Ports, supersedes all               both of the routes. To obtain a distance over a route that
previous editions. Distances in this table are in nautical         passes through one or more Junction Points, it is
miles based on the International Nautical Mile of                  necessary to find and add distances for the two or more
approximately 6,076.1 feet. Nautical miles may be                  sections into which the route is divided.
converted to statute miles of 5,280 feet by multiplying by              For example: New York to Colombo--Using the
1.15. (See conversion table at back of book). The                  Junction Point chartlets at the front of the book, locate all
positions listed for Ports are central positions that most         Junction Points between New York and Colombo.
represent each port. The distances are between positions
shown for each port and are generally over routes that             There are two:        Strait of Gibraltar and
afford the safest passage. Most of the distances represent
the shortest navigable routes, but in some cases, longer                                 Port Said.
routes, that take advantage of favorable currents, have
been used. In other cases, increased distances result from         Find New York in the Distance Table: Page 69
routes selected to avoid ice or other dangers to navigation,       Under Junction Points, locate --
or to follow required separation schemes.
                                                                       Strait of Gibraltar.............     3,180 miles
    DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLES.--Departure
Ports are listed alphabetically with distances to arrival          Find Strait of Gibraltar in the Distance Table:
Ports listed below them; distances to appropriate junction         Page 108
points are also listed. Junction Points are additionally
located in the alphabetical sequence with distances to             Under Junction Points, locate --
other appropriate Junction Points listed below. Great                  Port Said, Arab Republic of
Lakes distances are given in U.S. Coast Pilot 6.                       Egypt................................   1,943 miles
     JUNCTION POINTS.--It is impractical to give all
distances for every possible combination of Ports in this          Find Port Said in the Distance Table: Page 85
volume; therefore, the use of Junction Points greatly              Under Ports, locate --
increases the number of distances that may be included by
affording a means of connecting routes in adjacent                     Colombo, Sri Lanka..........           3,481 miles
oceans. In this book a Junction Point is a position where
many routes converge and through which ships pass when
sailing from one major area into another. For example, the             Total Nautical Miles........                8,604
Junction Point for routes from the Atlantic into the
Mediterranean is the Strait of Gibraltar. Junction Points              If the user wishes to know the westbound route
used in this publication are shown on the chartlets in the         because of enroute cargo commitments, or which route is
front part of the book.                                            shorter--proceed as follows:

    ROUTES.--Routes throughout the world are                           New York to Panama...........                2,016
described in the Sailing Directions along with route charts
for the area of coverage. Articles on currents and                     Panama to Singapore...........              10,505
meteorology are also covered in these publications.                    Singapore to Colombo..........               1,581
Additionally, charts are available, such as Pilot Charts
and the NGA World Chart, Series 1145, which portray
ocean routes worldwide. Any of these products may be                   Total Nautical Miles...........             14,102
used to assist the user in planning a voyage. A chartlet of
basic ocean routes is included in the front of this                     CORRECTIVE INFORMATION.--Users are
publication for quick reference.                                   requested to forward new or corrective information useful
                                                                   in the correction of this publication to:
      HOW TO USE THE TABLES.--To obtain
distances, find the departure port in the alphabetical             MARITIME DIVISION
listing and select the desired arrival port and distance           ST D 44
listed below. In most cases, the distances from one port to        NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
another and return are reciprocal, but in some cases, the          4600 SANGAMORE ROAD
distances differ because different routes were used which          BETHESDA, MARYLAND 20816-5003



                                                               I
                    THE NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
                        MARITIME SAFETY INFORMATION WEB SITE

   The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Maritime Safety Information Web site provides worldwide
remote query access to extensive menus of maritime safety information, 24 hours a day.

    Databases made available for access, query and download include Chart Corrections, Publication Corrections,
Hydrographic Catalog Corrections, Chart and Publication Reference Data (current edition number, dates, title, scale), List
of Lights, USCG Light Lists, WorldWide Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS) Broadcast Warnings, Maritime
Administration (MARAD) Advisories, Department of State Special Warnings, Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs),
Anti-Shipping Activity Messages (ASAMs), World Port Index, and Radio Navigational Aids. Publications that are also
made available as PDF files include the US Notice to Mariners, Sailing Directions, US Chart No. 1, The American
Practical Navigator (Bowditch), International Code of Signals, Radio Navigational Aids, World Port Index, Distances
Between Ports, Sight Reduction Tables for Marine and Air Navigation, and the Radar Navigation and Maneuvering Board
Manual.

    The Maritime Safety Information Web site can be accessed via the NGA Homepage (www.nga.mil) under the Products
and Services > Maritime links, or directly at http://pollux.nss.nga.mil. Any questions concerning the Maritime Safety In-
formation Website should be directed to:


                               MARITIME DIVISION
                               ST D 44
                               NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
                               4600 SANGAMORE ROAD
                               BETHESDA, MD 20816-5003

                               Telephone: 301-227-3296 or DSN 287-3296
                               Fax: 301-227-4211
                               E-mail: webmaster_nss@nga.mil




                                                             II
                                                                                   CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                                                                     Page
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I


Chart Showing General World Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V


List of Junction Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI


Junction Points, Atlantic Ocean Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII


Junction Points, Indian Ocean Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII


Junction Points, Pacific Ocean Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX


Distance Between Ocean Ports of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Conversion Table for Nautical and Statute Miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127


Table for Estimating Time of Transit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128




                                                                                             III
Chart Showing General World Routes
                                     V
                                                                 PUB. 151
                                                             JUNCTION POINTS


Bishop Rock, England,................................................................................................4945'00"N., 635'00"W.

Cape Leeuwin, Australia, ............................................................................................3432'00"S., 11508'00"E.

Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, .............................................................................3422'00"S., 1823'00"E.

Fastnet Rock, Ireland,..................................................................................................5120'00"N., 936'00"W.

Grand Banks South,.....................................................................................................4230'00"N., 5000'00"W.

Honshu, Japan, ............................................................................................................3500'00"N., 14030'00"E.

Ile d'Ouessant, France,................................................................................................4840'00"N., 530'00"W.

Inishtrahull, Ireland, ....................................................................................................5525'00"N., 730'00"W.

Montreal, Canada, .......................................................................................................4530'00"N., 7333'00"W.

Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, Germany, ....................................................................................5422'00"N., 1009'00"E.

Panama, Panama,.........................................................................................................853'00"N., 7931'00"W.

Pentland Firth, Scotland, .............................................................................................5842'00"N., 320'00"W.

Port Said, Egypt,..........................................................................................................3116'00"N., 3219'00"E.

Punta Arenas, Chile,....................................................................................................5310'00"S., 7054'00"W.

Selat Lombok, Indonesia,............................................................................................850'00"S., 11543'00"E.

Selat Sunda, Indonesia, ...............................................................................................604'00"S., 10550'00"E.

Selat Wetar, Indonesia, ................................................................................................819'00"S., 12727'00"E.

Singapore,....................................................................................................................116'00"N., 10350'00"E.

Skagens Odde, Denmark, ............................................................................................5748'00"N., 1044'00"E.

Strait of Gibraltar,........................................................................................................3557'00"N., 545'00"W.

Straits of Florida,.........................................................................................................2425'00"N., 8300'00"W.

Torres Strait, Australia, ...............................................................................................1033'00"S., 14208'00"E.

Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan,...............................................................................................4130'00"N., 14040'00"E.

Wilson Promontory, Australia, ....................................................................................3910'00"S., 14626'00"E.

Yucatan Channel,.........................................................................................................2150'00"N., 8503'00"W.




                                                                           VI
Junction Points, Atlantic Ocean Basin




                                        VII
Junction Points, Indian Ocean Basin




                                      VIII
Junction Points, Pacific Ocean Basin




                                       IX
                                                                                                                                                1



AAIUN, WESTERN SAHARA               ABENRA, DENMARK                      Ports                              Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,582
 (2705'37"N., 1326'55"W.) to:      (5501'36"N., 925'50"E.) to:
                                                                       Cape Town, South Africa, 2,679         Ports
  Junction Points*                    Junction Points*                 Dakar, Senegal, 1,166
                                                                       Freetown, Sierra Leone, 718          Amapala, Honduras, 763
Bishop Rock, England, 1,397         Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Lagos (including Apapa & Tin Can     Antofagasta, Chile, 2,984
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Entrance), Germany, 207            Island), Nigeria, 457               Apia, Samoa, 4,638
   4,436                            Skagens Odde, Denmark, 87          Luanda, Angola, 1,345                Arica, Chile, 2,768
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1,465                                           Pepel, Sierra Leone, 732             Callao, Peru, 2,198
Grand Banks South, 2,003              Ports                            Walvisbaii, Namibia, 2,009           Champerico, Guatemala, 494
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,356                                                                               Coquimbo, Chile, 3,259
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,753        Aarhus, Denmark, 114                                                    Corinto, Nicaragua, 792
                                                                       ABRAHAM BAY,
Panama, Panama, 3,894               Helsinki, Finland, 666             MAYAGUANA ISLAND,                    Ensenada, Mexico, 1,369
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,006     Kobenhavn, Denmark, 196            BAHAMAS                              Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 1,527
Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,684          Lubeck, Germany, 138                (2219'00"N., 7303'20"W.) to:      Golfito, Costa Rica, 1,123
Strait of Gibraltar, 667            Lulea, Sweden, 914                                                      Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,708
Straits of Florida, 3,712           Riga, Latvia, 588                    Junction Points*                   Guaymas, Mexico, 958
                                    Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 811                                            Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,289
  Ports                             Tallinn, Estonia, 646              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Iquique, Chile, 2,834
                                    Umea, Sweden, 792                     6,237                             La Palma, Panama, 1,466
Arrecife de Lanzarote, Canary                                          Grand Banks South, 1,675             Los Angeles, California U.S.A.,
  Islands, 111                      ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND                 Panama, Panama, 922                     1,501
Casablanca, Morocco, 506             (5708'30"N., 204'30"W.) to:     Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,410           Lota, Chile, 3,573
Dakar, Senegal, 793                                                    Strait of Gibraltar, 3,552           Manzanillo, Mexico, 295
Monrovia, Liberia, 1,525              Junction Points*                 Straits of Florida, 593              Mazatlan, Mexico, 595
New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                                                                 Mollendo, Peru, 2,643
  3,065                             Ile d'Ouessant, France, 715          Ports                              Monterey, California, U.S.A.,
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (West                                                    1,753
  887                                 Entrance), 406                   New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Pago Pago, American Samoa,
                                    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 106        1,115                                 4,595
AALBORG, DENMARK                    Skagens Odde, Denmark, 416         Nuevitas, Cuba, 243                  Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,595
 (5703'30"N., 956'00"E.) to:                                         San Juan, Puerto Rico, 476           Pedregal, Panama, 1,184
                                      Ports                                                                 Pisco, Peru, 2,309
  Junction Points*                                                     ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB               Puerto Masachapa, Nicaragua, 850
                                    Amsterdam, Netherlands, 376        EMIRATES                             Puerto Sandino, Nicaragua, 825
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East             Antwerp, Belgium, 465               (2434'13"N., 5419'49"E.) to:      Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 1,011
 Entrance), Germany, 207            Bergen, Norway, 309                                                     Quepos, Costa Rica, 1,043
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 87           Bodo, Norway, 767                    Junction Points*                   Salina Cruz, Mexico, 314
                                    Bremerhaven, Germany, 435                                               San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
  Ports                             Egersund, Norway, 277              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,        1,431
                                    Emden, Germany, 401                  4,812                              San Jose, Guatemala, 574
Gdynia, Poland (via Store Baelt),   Esbjerg, Denmark, 380              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,115       San Lorenzo, Honduras, 791
  476                               Hamburg, Germany, 481              Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,341       Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,
Gdynia, Poland (via The Sound),     Hammerfest, Norway, 1,073          Port Said, Egypt, 2,944                 1,568
  410                               Hornmelvik, Norway, 586            Singapore, 3,517                     Santa Rosalia, Mexico, 976
Kobenhavn, Denmark, 143             Kristiansand, Norway, 340          Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,724        Sasebo, Japan, 6,918
Lubeck, Germany (via Store          Kristiansund, Norway, 498                                               Talara, Peru, 1,696
  Baelt), 244                       Le Havre, France, 530                Ports                              Talcahuano, Chile, 3,558
                                    London, England, 431                                                    Valparaiso, Chile, 3,406
AARHUS, DENMARK                     Murmansk, Russia, 1,363            Aden, Yemen, 1,593
 (5609'30"N., 1013'30"E.) to:     Oostende, Belgium, 415             Belawan, Indonesia, 3,188
                                                                                                            ACCRA, GHANA
                                    Oslo, Norway, 490                  Bombay, India, 1,187                  (531'00"N., 012'00"W.) to:
  Junction Points*                  Plymouth, England, 642             Calcutta, India, 3,175
                                    Portland, England, 564             Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,954              Junction Points*
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East             Portsmouth, England, 514           Darwin, Australia, 5,219
 Entrance), Germany, 131            Rotterdam, Netherlands, 391        Fremantle, Australia, 5,045          Straits of Florida (via Northwest
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 127          Slagen, Norway, 450                Penang, Malaysia, 3,221               Providence Channel), 5,016
                                    Southampton, England, 532          Rangoon, Burma, 3,171
  Ports                             Stavanger, Norway, 278                                                    Ports
                                    Torshavn, Faroe Islands, 345       ACAJUTLA, EL SALVADOR
Abenra, Denmark, 103                Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 423         (1335'00"N., 8951'00"W.) to:      Freetown, Sierra Leone, 955
Kobenhavn, Denmark, 108             Zeebrugge, Belgium, 420                                                 Grand Bassam, Ivory Coast, 230
Szczecin, Poland, 268                                                    Junction Points*                   Lagos, Nigeria, 229
                                    ABIDJAN, IVORY COAST                                                    Lobito, Angola, 1,356
AASIAAT (EGEDESMINDE),               (519'00"N., 401'50"W.) to:      Honshu, Japan, 6,908                 Marshall, Liberia, 671
GREENLAND                                                              Panama, Panama, 833                  Pointe Noire, Congo, 952
 (6842'33"N., 5253'12"W.) to:       Junction Points*                 Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,309           Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,
                                                                       Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 6,750           1,760
  Junction Points*                  Bishop Rock, England, 3,417        Torres Strait, Australia, 7,784      Sassandra, Ivory Coast, 362
                                    Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Wilson Promontory, Australia,
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,925        2,712                             7,519
                                                                                                            AD DAMMAN, SAUDI
Strait of Gibraltar, 2,772          Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,472                                            ARABIA
                                    Grand Banks South, 3,539             Ports                               (2631'00"N., 5012'00"E.) to:
  Ports                             Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,375
                                    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,755       San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Junction Points*
Churchill, Canada, 1,485            Panama, Panama, 4,597                2,444
Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,371           Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,048                                         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
St. John's, Canada, 1,294           Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,910         ACAPULCO, MEXICO                       4,960
                                    Strait of Gibraltar, 2,658          (1650'30"N., 9955'30"W.) to:      Port Said, Egypt, 3,142
ABADAN, IRAN                        Straits of Florida, 4,756                                               Singapore, 3,681
 (3019'48"N., 4816'30"E.)         Yucatan Channel, 4,895               Junction Points*
Subtract 30 miles from Al Basrah
distances.                                                             Panama, Panama, 1,426



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
2           ADEN, YEMEN



    Ports                            Zanzibar, Tanzania, 1,722            Ports                               Tunis, Tunisia, 1,258
                                                                                                              Valencia, Spain, 1,765
Al Basrah, Iraq, 304                 AGADIR, MOROCCO                    Aden, Yemen, 1,251
Bombay, India, 1,373                  (3025'30"N., 937'35"W.) to:     Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, 573             AL MANAMAH, BAHRAIN
                                                                        Massawa, Ethiopia, 897                 (2617'00"N., 5032'30"E.) to:
ADEN, YEMEN                            Junction Points*
 (1247'40"N., 4459'00"E.) to:                                         AL BASRAH, IRAQ                         Junction Points*
                                     Cape of Good Hope, South            (3031'30"N., 4750'30"E.) to:
    Junction Points*                    Africa, 4,719                                                         Cape of Good Hope, South
                                     Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,136        Junction Points*                      Africa, 4,957
Cape of Good Hope, South                                                                                      Port Said, Egypt, 3,132
  Africa, 3,954                        Ports                            Cape of Good Hope, South              Singapore, 3,652
Cape Leeuwin, Australia (north of                                         Africa, 5,211
  Chagos Archipelago), 4,958         Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 2,258        Port Said, Egypt, 3,371                 Ports
Cape Leeuwin, Australia (south of    Casablanca, Morocco, 257           Singapore, 3,916
  Chagos Archipelago), 4,973         Dakar, Senegal, 1,109                                                    Bandar Khomeini, Iran, 288
Port Said, Egypt, 1,400              Escravos, Nigeria, 2,778             Ports                               Belawan, Indonesia, 3,316
Singapore, 3,631                     Freetown, Sierre Leone, 1,597                                            Calcutta, India, 3,355
Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via Eight    Lagos, Nigeria, 2,699              Ad Damman, Saudi Arabia, 304          Fremantle, Australia, 5,203
  Degree Channel), 3,842             Luanda, Angola, 3,507              Aden, Yemen, 1,979                    Malacca, Malaysia, 3,534
Torres Strait, Australia (via One    Monrovia, Liberia, 1,761           Bandar Abbas, Iran, 572               Penang, Malaysia, 3,361
  and Half Degree Channel),          Nouadhibou, Mauritania, 751        Bandar Khomeini, Iran, 154            Port Darwin, Australia, 5,390
  6,022                              Pointe Noire, Congo, 3,321         Belawan, Indonesia, 3,553             Rangoon, Burma, 3,329
                                     Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 2,944      Bombay, India, 1,594                  Sabang, Indonesia, 3,050
    Ports                            Qua Iboe, Nigeria, 2,961           Calcutta, India, 3,593
                                     Tangier, Morocco, 414              Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,359             ALBANY, AUSTRALIA
Abadan, Iraq, 1,937                  Walvisbaai, Namibia, 4,075         Dumai, Indonesia, 3,824                (3502'40"S., 11754'00"E.) to:
Al Aqabah, Jordan, 1,251                                                Fremantle, Australia, 5,440
Al Basrah, Iraq, 1,967               AJACCIO, CORSICA                   Karachi, Pakistan, 1,177                Junction Points*
Al Gurdagah, Egypt, 1,135             (4155'40"N., 845'07"E.) to:     Malacca, Malaysia, 3,771
Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 230                                                 Massawa, Ethiopia, 2,372              Cape of Good Hope, South
Al Mukha, Yemen, 137                   Junction Points*                 Mina al Ahmadi, Kuwait, 140             Africa, 4,740
Albany, Australia (north of Chagos                                      Penang, Malaysia, 3,598               Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 168
   Archipelago), 5,127               Port Said, Egypt, 1,355            Port Darwin, Australia, 5,650         Singapore, 2,525
Albany, Australia (south of Chagos   Strait of Gibraltar, 778           Rangoon, Burma, 3,603                 Wilson Promontory, Australia,
   Archipelago), 5,132                                                  Ras Tannurah, Saudi Arabia, 295         1,378
Assab, Ethiopia, 150                   Ports                            Sabang, Indonesia, 3,287
Bandar Abbas, Iran, 1,453                                               Umm Said, Qatar, 444                    Ports
Bassein, Burma, 3,251                Beirut, Lebanon, 1,437
Beira, Mozambique, 2,610             Catania, Sicily, 464               AL JUBAYL, SAUDI ARABIA               Aden, Yemen, 5,127
Belawan, Indonesia, 3,299            Civitavecchia, Italy, 180           (2701'00"N., 4942'00"E.) to:       Durban, South Africa, 4,270
Bhavnagar, India, 1,707              Genova, Italy, 170                                                       Fremantle, Australia, 349
Bombay, India, 1,657                 Marseillemarseille, France, 188      Junction Points*                    Geraldton, Australia, 525
Bur Safaga, Egypt, 1,109             Nice, France, 138                                                        Hobart, Tasmania, 1,494
Calcutta, India, 3,308               Toulon, France, 155                Cape of Good Hope, South              Malacca, Malaysia, 2,602
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,094            Venezia, Italy, 1,507                Africa, 5,109                       Melbourne, Australia, 1,363
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1,740       Villefranche, France, 138          Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,276        Port Adelaide, Australia, 1,024
Diego Garcia, Chagos                 Volos, Greece (south of Greece),   Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,577        Port Darwin, Australia, 2,152
   Archipelago, 2,090                  1,056                            Port Said, Egypt, 3,164               Port Lincoln, Australia, 953
Djibouti, Djibouti, 133              Volos, Greece (Corinth Canal),     Singapore, 3,723                      Port Louis, Mauritius, 3,340
Eilat, Israel, 1,247                   1,014                            Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,949         Rapid Bay, Australia, 990
Fremantle, Australia (north of                                          Torres Strait, Australia, 6,107       Wellington, New Zealand (south of
   Chagos Archipelago), 4,921        AKITA, JAPAN                                                               Tasmania), 2,729
Hobart, Tasmania, 6,598               (3945'30"N., 14002'00"E.) to:     Ports
Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, 701                                                                                     ALBANY, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
Karachi, Pakistan, 1,472               Ports                            Al Basrah, Iraq, 231                   (4237'54"N., 7345'18"W.) Add
Madras, India, 2,661                                                    Bandar Abbas, Iran, 366               126 miles to New York distances.
Malacca, Malaysia, 3,517             Aomori, Japan, 158                 Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,157
Maputo, Mozambique, 2,953            Hakodate, Japan, 150               Fremantle, Australia, 5,248           ALBATROSS BAY,
Massawa, Ethiopia, 400               Maizuru, Japan, 352                Melaka, Malaysia, 3,610               AUSTRALIA
Mina al Ahmadi, Kuwait, 1,897        Shimonoseki, Japan, 586            Port Darwin, Australia, 5,422          (1241'24"S., 14132'57"E.) to:
Mina Abd Allah, Kuwait, 1,894                                           Ra's at Tannurah, Saudi Arabia, 34
Mogadishu, Somalia, 1,106            AKUREYRI, ICELAND                                                          Junction Points*
Mombasa, Kenya, 1,602                 (6541'00"N., 1804'00"W.) to:    AL LATAKIA, SYRIA
Moulmein, Burma, 3,354                                                   (3531'40"N., 3545'35"E.) to:       Cape of Good Hope, South
Penang, Malaysia, 3,344                Junction Points*                                                         Africa, 6,793
Port Darwin, Australia (via Eight                                         Junction Points*                    Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,677
   Degree Channel), 5,355            Pentland Firth, Scotland, 702                                            Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,583
Port Louis, Mauritius, 2,341         Strait of Gibraltar, 2,102         Port Said, Egypt, 310                 Port Said, Egypt, 7,406
Port Sudan, Sudan, 658                                                  Strait of Gibraltar, 2,029            Torres Strait, Australia, 156
Rangoon, Burma, 3,318                  Ports                                                                  Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 872
Ras al Khafji, Saudi Arabia, 1,871                                        Ports
Ras as Sidr, Egypt, 1,282            Bergen, Norway, 803                                                        Ports
Ras Gharib, Egypt, 1,207             Murmansk, Russia, 1,256            Alexandria, Egypt, 402
Ras Tannurah, Saudi Arabia, 1,773    St. John's, Canada, 1,616          Iraklion, Kriti, 527                  Ambon, Indonesia, 1,036
Sabang, Indonesia, 3,033                                                Larnaca, Cyprus, 114                  Darwin, Australia, 725
Suakin, Sudan, 631                   AL AQABAH, JORDAN                  Mersin, Turkey, 94                    Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2,730
Tanga, Tanzania, 1,671                (2931'15"N., 3459'55"E.) to:    Napoli, Italy, 1,191                  Hong Kong, China, 2,727
Victoria, Seychelles, 1,416                                             Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),     Manila, Philippines, 2,166
Wellington, New Zealand (south of      Junction Points*                    1,370                              Tjilatjap, Indonesia, 1,961
   Chagos Archipelago and                                               Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Zamboanga, Philippines, 1,681
   Tasmania), 7,814                  Port Said, Egypt, 380                 1,337



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                            ALMERIA, SPAIN                     3



ALEKSANDROVSK-                         Junction Points*                  Junction Points*                     Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
SAKHALINSKIY, RUSSIA                                                                                            1,211
 (5054'00"N., 14207'00"E.) to:     Port Said, Egypt, 164             Port Said, Egypt, 1,927
                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 1,822        Strait of Gibraltar, 25                ALICANTE, SPAIN
  Junction Points*
                                                                                                               (3820'00"N., 029'01"E.) to:
                                       Ports                             Ports
Singapore, 3,608                                                                                                Junction Points*
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,961        Al Latakia, Syria, 402            Cartagena, Spain, 238
                                     Algiers, Algeria, 1,393           Oran, Algeria, 229                     Port Said, Egypt, 1,680
  Ports                              Alicante, Spain, 1,560            Palermo, Sicily, 924                   Strait of Gibraltar, 317
                                     Ancona, Italy, 1,096
Bangkok, Thailand (outer bar),       Annaba, Algeria, 1,169                                                     Ports
  3,639                                                                ALGIERS, ALGERIA
                                     Antalya, Turkey, 349               (3646'50"N., 304'11"E.) to:
Bukhta Shelikohova, Kuril Islands,   Ashdod, Israel, 266                                                      Alexandria, Egypt, 1,560
  Russia, 934                        Augusta, Sicily, 819                Junction Points*                     Algiers, Algeria, 198
Busan, South Korea, 1,118            Banghazi, Libya, 541                                                     Almeria, Spain, 155
Dagu, China, 1,807                   Banzart, Tunisia, 1,064           Port Said, Egypt, 1,514                Ancona, Italy, 1,308
Dalian, China (via Maenggol          Barcelona, Spain, 1,482           Strait of Gibraltar, 437               Annaba, Algeria, 419
  Sudo), 1,648                       Bari, Italy, 890                                                         Arzew, Algeria, 152
Hakodate, Japan, 631                 Beirut, Lebanon, 341                Ports                                Banghazi, Libya, 1,094
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 3,105          Brindisi, Italy, 831                                                     Banzart, Tunisia, 507
Hong Kong, China, 2,250              Cagliari, Sardinia, 1,136         Alexandria, Egypt, 1,393               Barcelona, Spain, 228
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,589      Cartagena, Spain, 1,585           Alicante, Spain, 198                   Bari, Italy, 1,100
Incheon, South Korea (via            Castellammare di Stabia, Italy,   Ancona, Italy, 1,153                   Beirut, Lebanon, 1,772
  Maenggol Sudo), 1,507                 1,003                          Annaba, Algeria, 246                   Brindisi, Italy, 1,042
Jakarta, Indonesia, 3,942            Catania, Sicily, 828              Arzew, Algeria, 186                    Cagliari, Sardinia, 473
Kasatka, Japan, 595                  Ceuta, Morocco, 1,802             Banghazi, Libya, 927                   Ceuta, Morocco, 299
Kobe, Japan, 1,384                   Famagusta, Cyprus, 340            Banzart, Tunisia, 340                  Civitavecchia, Italy, 616
Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 1,868     Genova, Italy, 1,316              Barcelona, Spain, 282                  Genova, Italy, 564
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Gibraltar, 1,805                  Bari, Italy, 946                       Ghazaouet, Algeria, 209
  4,687                              Haifa, Israel, 295                Bat'umi, Georgia (via Corinth          Gibraltar, 300
Manila, Philippines, 2,507           Iraklion, Kriti, 372                 Canal), 1,963                       Haifa, Israel, 1,769
Matsuga-hana, Japan, 589             Istanbul, Turkey, 742             Beirut, Lebanon, 1,605                 Iraklion, Kriti, 1,254
Mogpo, South Korea, 1,330            Izmir, Turkey, 547                Brindisi, Italy, 888                   Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth
Moskal'vo, Russia, 230               La Spezia, Italy, 1,280           Cagliari, Sardinia, 332                   Canal), 1,540
Nagasaki, Japan, 1,253               Limassol, Cyprus, 272             Cannes, France, 446                    Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),
Nampo, North Korea, 1,601            Livorno, Italy, 1,244             Cartagena, Spain, 208                     1,386
Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia,        Malaga, Spain, 1,752              Ceuta, Morocco, 417                    La Spezia, Italy, 588
  162                                Marseille, France, 1,40           Genova, Italy, 531                     Livorno, Italy, 585
Osaka, Japan, 1,394                  Messina, Sicily, 834              Ghazaouet, Algeria, 278                Malaga, Spain, 248
Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Napoli, Italy, 1,005              Gibraltar, 420                         Marseille, France, 406
  4,765                              Odessa, Ukraine, 1090             Haifa, Israel, 1,602                   Melilla, Morocco, 224
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Oran, Algeria, 1,590              Iraklion, Kriti, 1,087                 Mers el Kebir, Algeria, 160
  Russia (via Chetvertyy             Palermo, Sicily, 950              Istanbul, Turkey (south of             Messina, Sicily, 776
  Kuril'skiy Proliv and La Perouse   Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,435       Greece), 1,393                      Mostaganem, Algeria, 148
  Strait), 1,158                     Paphos, Cyprus, 256               Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth          Napoli, Italy, 723
Port Darwin, Australia, 4,041        Piraievs, Greece, 515                Canal), 1,376                       Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth
Qingdao, China, 1,602                Rijeka, Croatia, 1,166            Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),        Canal), 1,888
Qinhuangdao, China (via San          Savona, Italy, 1,326                 1,221                               Oran, Algeria, 159
  Maenggol, Sudo), 1,750             Sibenik, Croatia, 1,039           Kavala, Greece (via Corinth            Palermo, Sicily, 667
Diego, California, U.S.A., 4,779     Siracusa, Sicily, 809                Canal), 1,260                       Palma, Balearic Islands, 173
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Soudha, Kriti, 425                La Spezia, Italy, 540                  Piraievs, Greece (south of
  4,373                              Split, Croatia, 1,024             Livorno, Italy, 528                       Greece), 1,246
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via     Tarabulus, Libya, 866             Mahon, Balearic Islands, 200           Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
  La Perouse Strait and Proliv       Taranto, Italy, 844               Malaga, Spain, 368                        Canal), 1,186
  Kruzenshterna), 4,108              Thessaloniki, Greece, 678         Marseille, France, 410                 Savona, Italy, 549
Shanghai, China, 1,597               Toulon, France, 1,376             Messina, Sicily, 621                   Sibenik, Croatia, 1,249
Tomari, Japan, 542                   Trieste, Italy, 1,200             Mostaganem, Algeria, 172               Siracusa, Sicily, 792
Vladivostok, Russia, 713             Tubruq, Libya, 308                Napoli, Italy, 582                     Split, Croatia, 1,234
Weihai, China (via Maenggol          Tunis, Tunisia, 1,051             Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth           Tarabulus, Libya, 832
  Sudo), 1,579                       Valencia, Spain, 1,559               Canal), 1,724                       Taranto, Italy, 995
Weonsan, South Korea, 972            Valletta, Malta, 823              Oran, Algeria, 205                     Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth
Xiamen, China, 1,991                 Venezia, Italy, 1,208             Palermo, Sicily, 513                      Canal), 1,435
Yantai, China (via Maenggol          Volos, Greece, 620                Piraievs, Greece (south of             Toulon, France, 418
  Sudo), 1,613                                                            Greece), 1,079                      Trieste, Italy, 1,409
Yokohama, Japan, 1,143                                                 Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth          Tunis, Tunisia, 558
                                     ALEXANDROUPOLIS,
                                     GREECE                               Canal), 1,022                       Valencia, Spain, 98
ALESUND, NORWAY                       (4050'00"N., 2553'00"E.) to:   Savona, Italy, 518                     Valletta, Malta, 743
 (6228'06"N., 609'27"E.) to:                                         Sibenik, Croatia, 1,094                Venezia, Italy, 1,418
                                       Junction Points*                Siracusa, Sicily, 626                  Villa Sanjurjo, Morocco, 260
  Junction Points*                                                     Skikda, Algeria, 200                   Volos, Greece (south of Greece),
                                     Port Said, Egypt, 699             Split, Croatia, 1,079                     1,395
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 450           Strait of Gibraltar, 1,716        Tarabulus, Libya, 665                  Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
                                                                       Taranto, Italy, 841                       1,376
  Ports                                Ports                           Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth
                                                                          Canal), 1,270                       ALMERIA, SPAIN
Bergen, Norway, 167                  Istanbul, Turkey, 200             Toulon, France, 406                     (3649'30"N., 227'48"W.) to:
London, England, 733                 Thessaloniki, Greece, 191         Trieste, Italy, 1,254
Reykjavik, Iceland, 848              Volos, Greece, 205                Tunis, Tunisia, 392                      Junction Points*
                                                                       Valencia, Spain, 230
ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT                    ALGECIRAS, SPAIN                  Valletta, Malta, 576                   Port Said, Egypt, 1,780
 (3110'41"N., 2951'28"E.) to:       (3607'30"N., 526'30"W.) to:    Venezia, Italy, 1,264                  Strait of Gibraltar, 171




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
4           ALMIRANTE, PANAMA



    Ports                              Junction Points*                 Tatibanako, Japan                    Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
                                                                                                               798
Alicante, Spain, 155                 Bishop Rock, England, 259          ANCONA, ITALY                        Zadar, Croatia, 87
Barcelona, Spain, 371                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 252          (4337'22"N., 1330'18"E.) to:
Catania, Sicily, 919                 Inishtrahull, Ireland, 183                                              ANECHO, TOGO
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth                                             Junction Points*                    (613'15"N., 135'35"E.) to:
   Canal), 1,642                       Ports
Kerch, Ukraine (via Corinth                                             Port Said, Egypt (south of             Junction Points*
   Canal), 2,077                     Ardrossan, Scotland, 145              Greece), 1,206
Nice, France, 627                    Cobh, Ireland, 190                 Strait of Gibraltar, 1,580           Cape of Good Hope, South
Palma, Balearic Islands, 308         Milford Haven, Wales, 112                                                  Africa, 2,615
Sfax, Tunisia, 881                   Port Talbot, Wales, 171              Ports                              Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,704
                                     Swansea, Wales, 165
ALMIRANTE, PANAMA                                                       Alexandria, Egypt, 1,096               Ports
 (917'12"N., 8223'32"W.) to:       AMSTERDAM,                         Algiers, Algeria, 1,153
                                     NETHERLANDS                        Alicante, Spain, 1,308               Douala, Cameroon, 526
    Junction Points*                  (5223'00"N., 454'00"E.) to:     Annaba, Algeria, 933                 Monrovia, Liberia, 850
                                                                        Banghazi, Libya, 800
Panama, Panama, 198                    Junction Points*                 Banzart, Tunisia, 842                ANGO ANGO, CONGO
Yucatan Channel, 814                                                    Barcelona, Spain, 1,212               (550'30"S., 1326'00"E.) Add 27
                                     Bishop Rock, England, 481          Bari, Italy, 216                     miles to Boma distances.
    Ports                            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 465        Barletta, Italy, 199
                                     Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Beirut, Lebanon (south of            ANGRA DOS REIS, BRAZIL
Barranquilla, Colombia, 477            Entrance), Germany, 291             Greece), 1,276                     (2301'00"S., 4418'42"W.) to:
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 788                Pentland Firth, Scotland, 481      Beirut, Lebanon (via Corinth
Kingston, Jamaica, 657               Skagens Odde, Denmark, 422            Canal), 1,245                       Junction Points*
                                                                        Brindisi, Italy, 274
ALTAGRACIA, VENEZUELA                  Ports                            Cartagena, Spain, 1,338              Panama, Panama, 4,527
 (1042'30"N., 7132'00"W.)                                             Ceuta, Morocco, 1,561                Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,212
Subtract 6 miles from Maracaibo      Aberdeen, Scotland, 380            Chioggia, Italy, 111
distances.                           Antwerp, Belgium, 148              Genova, Italy, 1,017                   Ports
                                     Bergen, Norway, 502                Gibraltar, 1,563
                                     Bremerhaven, Germany, 223          Haifa, Israel (via Corinth Canal),   Montevideo, Uruguay, 1,031
AMAGASAKI, JAPAN
 (3441'00"N., 13523'00"E.) Add     Cherbourg, France, 305                1,248                             Salvador, Brazil, 902
4 miles to Osaka for ports outside   Dover, England, 161                Iraklion, Kriti, 762
the Inland Sea.                      Dundee, Scotland, 374              Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth        ANNABA, ALGERIA
                                     Dunkerque, France, 135                Canal), 962                        (3654'00"N., 746'19"E.) to:
                                     Egersund, Norway, 380              Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),
AMAPALA, HONDURAS                    Esbjerg, Denmark, 255
 (1318'00"N., 8739'30"W.) to:                                            904                                 Junction Points*
                                     Hamburg, Germany, 274              Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),
    Junction Points*                 Hartlepool, England, 260              808                               Port Said, Egypt, 1,289
                                     Harwich, England, 145              La Spezia, Italy, 979                Strait of Gibraltar, 675
Panama, Panama, 745                  Hull, England, 212                 Livorno, Italy, 946
                                     Inverness, Scotland, 482           Malaga, Spain, 1,510                   Ports
    Ports                            Kristiansand, Norway, 381          Manfredonia, Italy, 195
                                     Le Havre, France, 273              Marseille, France, 1,109             Alexandria, Egypt, 1,169
Acapulco, Mexico, 763                Leith, Scotland, 372               Messina, Sicily, 536                 Algiers, Algeria, 246
Antofagasta, Chile, 2,460            London, England, 208               Monopoli, Italy, 239                 Alicante, Spain, 419
Callao, Peru, 1,665                  Newcastle, England, 286            Napoli, Italy, 707                   Ancona, Italy, 933
Corinto, Nicaragua, 72               Oostende, Belgium, 117             Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Banghazi, Libya, 702
Golfito, Costa Rica, 432             Oslo, Norway, 522                     Greece), 1,407                    Banzart, Tunisia, 116
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,167            Plymouth, England, 390             Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth         Barcelona, Spain, 386
Iquique, Chile, 2,303                Portland, England, 316                Canal), 1,310                     Bari, Italy, 726
Mazatlan, Mexico, 1,350              Portsmouth, England, 266           Oran, Algeria, 1,349                 Beirut, Lebanon, 1,381
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.A.,        Rotterdam, Netherlands, 67         Palermo, Sicily, 652                 Bejaia, Algeria, 156
  4,045                              Southampton, England, 284          Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,170       Brindisi, Italy, 668
Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 329          Stavanger, Norway, 424             Piraievs, Greece (south of           Cartagena, Spain, 440
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 210           Greece), 745                      Ceuta, Morocco, 656
  2,181                              Zeebrugge, Belgium, 104            Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth        Genova, Italy, 458
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,                                         Canal), 608                       Gibraltar, 658
  2,586                              AMUAY, VENEZUELA                   Ploce, Croatia, 167                  Haifa, Israel, 1,378
San Jose, Guatemala, 204              (1144'39"N., 7013'56"W.) to:    Rijeka, Croatia, 112                 Hyeres, Frances, 384
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 3,361                                      Savona, Italy, 1,028                 Iraklion, Kriti, 863
                                       Junction Points*                 Shengjin, Albania, 297               Istanbul, Turkey (south of
                                                                        Sibenik, Croatia, 115                   Greece), 1,168
AMBON, INDONESIA                     Panama, Panama, 678
 (341'30"S., 12810'25"E.) to:                                         Siracusa, Sicily, 557                Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth
                                     Yucatan Channel, 1,050             Split, Croatia, 132                     Canal), 1,151
    Junction Points*                                                    Tarabulus, Libya, 820                Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),
                                       Ports                            Taranto, Italy, 415                     1,014
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 819                                            Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),
Torres Strait, Australia, 964        Barranquilla, Colombia, 325           Greece), 953                         997
                                     La Guaira, Venezuela, 276          Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth    La Spezia, Italy, 463
    Ports                            Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 600           Canal), 857                       Livorno, Italy, 431
                                                                        Toulon, France, 1,077                Malaga, Spain, 607
Manila, Philippines, 1,260           ANACORTES,                         Trieste, Italy, 130                  Marseille, France, 409
Port Darwin, Australia, 579          WASHINGTON, U.S.A.                 Tunis, Tunisia, 830                  Messina, Sicily, 401
Surabaya, Indonesia, 980              (4830'48"N., 12235'18"W.)       Valencia, Spain, 1,295               Napoli, Italy, 388
                                     Subtract 23 miles from Seattle,    Valletta, Malta, 634                 Odessa, Ukraine (south of
                                     Washington distances.              Venezia, Italy, 124                     Greece), 1,516
AMLWCH, WALES                                                           Volos, Greece (south of Greece),
 (5326'55"N., 418'09"W.) to:                                                                               Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth
                                     ANAN, JAPAN                           894                                  Canal), 1,499
                                      (3352'36"N., 13444'20"E.) See                                        Oran, Algeria, 444



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                               APIA, SAMOA                        5



Palermo, Sicily, 292                 ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE                   Narvik, Norway, 1,211                  Guinea, 375
Palma, Balearic Islands, 307          (2339'00"S., 7025'20"E.) to:      Newcastle, England, 351              Sao Tome, Sao Tome, Gulf of
Piraievs, Greece (south of                                                Oostende, Belgium, 79                  Guinea, 421
   Greece), 854                        Junction Points*                   Oslo, Norway, 630                    Sassandra, Ivory Coast, 603
Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth                                             Plymouth, England, 366               Sekondi, Ghana, 316
   Canal), 797                       Panama, Panama, 2,140                Portland, England, 292               Tema, Ghana, 209
Port St. Louis du Rhone, France,     Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,996           Portsmouth, England, 242             Victoria, Cameroon, 400
   419                                                                    Rotterdam, Netherlands, 121          Willemstad, Curacao, 4,345
Rijeka, Croatia, 1,000                 Ports                              Southampton, England, 260
Savona, Italy, 451                                                        Stavanger, Norway, 525               APARRI, PHILIPPINES
Sibenik, Croatia, 874                Acapulco, Mexico, 2,984              Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 324           (1822'15"N., 12136'45"E.) to:
Siracusa, Sicily, 401                Amapala, Honduras, 2,460             Zeebrugge, Belgium, 64
Sousse, Tunisia, 255                 Arica, Chile, 325                                                           Junction Points*
Split, Croatia, 859                  Caldera, Chile, 215
                                                                          AOMORI, JAPAN
Tarabulus, Libya, 440                Callao, Peru, 813                     (4050'10"N., 14044'30"E.) to:     Honshu, Japan, 1,418
Taranto, Italy, 620                  Chanaral, Chile, 173                                                      Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,316
Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Coquimbo, Chile, 396                   Ports                              Panama, Panama, 8,996
   Greece), 1,063                    Corinto, Nicaragua, 2,400                                                 Singapore, 1,518
Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth    Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 1,703           Akita, Japan, 158                    Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,877
   Canal), 1,046                     Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,470            Bukhta Shelikohova, Kuril Islands,   Torres Strait, Australia, 2,356
Toulon, France, 390                  Guaymas, Mexico, 3,894                 Russia, 899
Trieste, Italy, 1,034                Iquique, Chile, 224                  Kasatka, Japan, 441                    Ports
Tunis, Tunisia, 167                  Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Komatsushima, Japan, 813
Valencia, Spain, 426                    4,430                             Matsuga-hana, Japan, 350             Apra, Guam, Mariana Islands,
Valletta, Malta, 352                 Lota, Chile, 828                     Pago Pago, American Samoa,             1,370
Venezia, Italy, 1,044                Matarani, Peru, 423                    4,358                              Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,413
Volos, Greece (south of Greece),     Monterey, California, U.S.A.,        Shiogama, Japan, 311                 Kobe, Japan, 1,222
   1,004                                4,682                             Tomari, Japan, 335                   Manila, Philippines, 1,386
Volos, Greece (via Corinth           Pago Pago, American Samoa,                                                San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
   Canal), 987                          5,605                                                                    6,306
                                                                          APAPA, NIGERIA
                                     Pisco, Peru, 713                      (622'23"N., 324'15"E.) to:        Yap, Caroline Islands, 1,125
                                     Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 5,383                                           Zamboanga, Philippines, 873
ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND,
U.S.A.                               Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 2,215          Junction Points*
 (3859'00"N., 7628'45"W.) For      Salina Cruz, Mexico, 2,799
                                                                                                               APIA, SAMOA
ocean distance via the Chesapeake    San Antonio, Chile, 600              Bishop Rock, England, 3,817           (1349'00"S., 17145'30"W.) to:
Bay, subtract 20 miles from          San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Baltimore distances. For ocean          4,360                                3,523                               Junction Points*
distances via the C & D Canal, add   San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,870
20 miles to Baltimore distances.        4,762                             Grand Banks South, 3,969             Panama, Panama, 5,710
                                     San Jose, Guatemala, 2,557           Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,777        Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,207
                                     San Juan, Peru, 575                  Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,161         Torres Strait, Australia (via Raine
ANTALYA, TURKEY
 (3650'22"N., 3038'00"E.) to:      Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,   Panama, Panama, 5,063                  Island entrance), 2,763
                                        4,497                             Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,865
  Junction Points*                   Talcahuano, Chile, 802               Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,225             Ports
                                     Valparaiso, Chile, 576               Strait of Gibraltar, 3,117
Port Said, Egypt, 346                                                     Straits of Florida, 5,222            Acapulco, Mexico, 4,638
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,822           ANTWERP, BELGIUM                     Yucatan Channel, 5,346               Apra, Guam, 3,080
                                      (5114'00"N., 424'00"E.) to:                                            Auckland, New Zealand, 1,581
  Ports                                                                     Ports                              Avarua, Cook Islands, 819
                                       Junction Points*                                                        Baie Taio-Hae, Marquesa Islands,
Alexandria, Egypt, 349                                                    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 490              1,886
Beirut, Lebanon, 322                 Bishop Rock, England, 449            Accra, Ghana, 221                    Brisbane, Australia, 2,177
Piraievs, Greece, 383                Ile d'Ouessant, France, 441          Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Callao, Peru, 5,492
                                     Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                5,085                              Christmas Island, Line Islands,
                                       Entrance), Germany, 398            Benguela, Angola, 1,284                1,274
ANTIBES, FRANCE
 (4335'30"N., 708'02"E.) See       Pentland Firth, Scotland, 553        Boma, Congo, 933                     Enderbury Island, Phoenix
Nice, France.                        Skagens Odde, Denmark, 528           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         Islands, 641
                                                                            4,765                              Funafuti, Tuvalu, 632
                                       Ports                              Calabar, Nigeria, 305                Hakodate, Japan, 4,252
ANTILLA, CUBA
 (2049'30"N., 7545'00"W.) to:                                           Charleston, South Carolina,          Hobart, Tasmania, 2,776
                                     Aberdeen, Scotland, 450                U.S.A., 5,070                      Hong Kong, China, 4,869
  Junction Points*                   Amsterdam, Netherlands, 148          Colon, Panama, 5,155                 Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,260
                                     Belfast, Northern Ireland, 722       Douala, Cameroon, 424                Johnston Island, 1,838
Panama, Panama, 887                  Bergen, Norway, 602                  Georgetown, Ascension Island,        Levuka, Fiji Islands, 600
Straits of Florida, 491              Bremerhaven, Germany, 333              1,368                              Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
                                     Cherbourg, France, 281               Grand Bassam, Ivory Coast, 478         4,181
  Ports                              Dover, England, 137                  Douala, Cameroon, 449                Malakal, Palau Islands, 3,446
                                     Dundee, Scotland, 442                Marshall, Liberia, 903               Melbourne, Australia, 2,834
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via     Dunkerque, France, 102               Matadi, Congo, 1,002                 Midway Island, 2,546
  Crooked Island Passage), 1,151     Egersund, Norway, 484                Monrovia, Liberia, 928               Nagasaki, Japan, 4,414
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Emden, Germany, 276                  Natal, Brazil, 2,432                 Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,371
  1,408                              Esbjerg, Denmark, 362                New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 508
Charleston, South Carolina,          Hamburg, Germany, 382                  4,885                              Pago Pago, American Samoa, 80
  U.S.A., 813                        Hartlepool, England, 325             Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 4,943     Papeete, French Polynesia, 1,301
Colon, Panama, 844                   Harwich, England, 97                 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 434       Hull, England, 265                     U.S.A., 4,983                        Russia, 4,292
Matanzas, Cuba, 407                  Inverness, Scotland, 554             Pointe Noire, Congo, 838             Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,189
New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Kristiansand, Norway, 488            Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 319          Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,232
  1,226                              Le Havre, France, 244                Port of Spain, Trinidad, 3,910       Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Leith, Scotland, 453                 Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,      1,008
  U.S.A., 1,197                      Liverpool, England, 698                1,981                              Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 1,520
Port Antonio, Jamaica, 288           London, England, 193                 Santa Isabel, Bioko, Equatorial      Salina Cruz, Mexico, 4,886




  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
6           APRA, GUAM, MARIANA ISLANDS



San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Melbourne, Australia, 3,631             Africa, 3,324                  London, England, 551
  4,195                              Midway Island, 2,301                 Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,046      Oslo, Norway, 120
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Nagasaki, Japan, 1,445               Grand Banks South, 3,436
  4,161                              Nagoya, Japan, 1,378                 Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,988     ARGENTIA, CANADA
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,613   Naha, Ryukyu Islands, 1,236          Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,320       (4718'00"N., 5359'00"W.) to:
Selwyn Bay, Solomon Islands,         Nakagusuku, Ryukyu Islands,          Panama, Panama, 3,526
  1,582                                 1,216                             Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,602     Junction Points*
Shanghai, China, 4,715               Nandi Bay, Fiji Islands, 2,886       Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,045
Suva, Fiji Islands, 647              Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 3,686          Strait of Gibraltar, 3,366        Bishop Rock, England, 1,949
Sydney, Australia, 2,355             Noumea, New Caledonia, 2,528         Straits of Florida, 3,822         Cape of Good Hope, South
Talomako, Vanuatu, 1,255             Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 3,202      Yucatan Channel, 3,869               Africa, 6,294
Valparaiso, Chile, 5,453             Olongapo, Philippines (north of                                        Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1,819
Vancouver, Canada, 4,675                Luzon), 1,663                       Ports                           Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,874
Wellington, New Zealand, 1,872       Pago Pago, American Samoa,                                             Montreal, Canada, 943
Yap, Caroline Islands, 3,303            3,156                             Accra, Ghana, 2,411               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,012
Yokohama, Japan, 4,057               Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,335     Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,      Strait of Gibraltar, 2,302
                                     Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,             4,040                           Straits of Florida, 2,011
APRA, GUAM, MARIANA                     Russia, 2,475                     Belem, Brazil, 1,442
ISLANDS                              Ponape, Caroline Islands, 906        Bridgetown, Barbados, 2,324         Ports
 (1327'00"N., 14437'00"E.) to:     Port Darwin, Australia (via Selat    Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2,016
                                        Sele), 1,925                      Cape Town, South Africa, 3,321    Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 3,306
    Junction Points*                 Prince Rupert, Canada, 4,586         Colon, Panama, 3,536              Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
                                     Qingdao, China, 1,900                Dakar, Senegal, 1,944                801
Panama, Panama, 7,988                Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1,187      Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,841     Charleston, South Carolina,
Punta Arenas, Chile, 8,144           Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands,      La Habana, Cuba, 3,775               U.S.A., 1,489
Singapore (via Sulu Sea), 2,585         3,369                             Lisboa, Portugal, 3,394           Colon, Panama, 2,640
                                     Rongelap, Marshall Islands, 1,341    Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 3,785     Guantanamo, Cuba, 1,976
    Ports                            Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 4,513         New York, New York, U.S.A.,       Halifax, Canada, 448
                                     San Diego, California, U.S.A.,         4,034                           Ivittuut, Greenland, 1,023
Apia, Samoa, 3,080                      5,379                             Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 3,977    Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,953
Auckland, New Zealand, 3,497         San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Salvador, Brazil, 161             Lisboa, Portugal, 2,101
Avarua, Cook Islands, 3,889             5,053                             Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 4,024   New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Baie Taio-Hae, Marquesa Islands,     Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,948                                        1,009
   4,698                             Selwyn Bay, Solomon Islands,         ARBATAX, ITALY                    Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,189
Barbers Point, Hawaii, U.S.A.,          1,762                              (3956'40"N., 942'45"E.) to:    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
   3,303                             Semarang, Indonesia, 2,464                                                U.S.A., 1,159
Bikini, Marshall Islands, 1,263      Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,079          Junction Points*                Portsmouth, New Hampshire,
Brisbane, Australia, 2,659           Shanghai, China, 1,687                                                    U.S.A., 779
Callao, Peru, 8,372                  Shimizu, Honshu, Japan, 1,351        Port Said, Egypt, 1,248           Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,584
Canton, Phoenix Islands, 2,789       Shimonoseki, Japan, 1,451            Strait of Gibraltar, 810          San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,840
Cebu, Philippines, 1,344             Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,407
Chimbote, Peru, 8,264                Sorong, Irian Jaya, Indonesia,         Ports                           ARGOSTOLION, GREECE
Chimu Wan, Ryukyu Islands,              1,171                                                                (3808'23"N., 2027'35"E.) to:
   1,228                             Sukarnopura, Irian Jaya,             Alexandria, Egypt, 1,142
Christmas Island, Line Islands,         Indonesia, 1,010                  Algiers, Algeria, 389               Junction Points*
   3,518                             Surabaya, Indonesia, 2,334           Ayios, Nikolaos, Kriti, 846
Dagu, China, 2,133                   Suva, Fiji Islands, 2,784            Barcelona, Spain, 294             Port Said, Egypt, 754
Dalian, China, 1,974                 Sydney, Australia, 3,006             Beirut, Lebanon, 1,320            Strait of Gibraltar (via Strait of
Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,        Talomako, Vanuatu, 2,177             Ceuta, Morocco, 784                Messina), 1,292
   3,403                             Tinian, Mariana Islands, 127         Derince, Turkey, 1,139
Enderbury Island, Phoenix            Tokuyama, Japan, 1,427               Iraklion, Kriti, 804                Ports
   Islands, 2,827                    Truk, Caroline Islands, 590          Kerch, Ukraine, 1,546
Eniwetak, Marshall Islands, 1,066    Valdivostok, Russia (via Tsugaru-    Marseille, France, 306            Algiers, Algeria, 862
Funafuti, Tuvalu, 2,455                 Kaikyo), 2,155                    Sibenik, Croatia, 771             Alicante, Spain, 1,015
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 8,147            Valparaiso, Chile, 8,510             Tarabulus, Lebanon, 1,332         Arzew, Algeria, 1,038
Hakodate, Japan, 1,739               Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 2,112                                          Banghazi, Libya, 366
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2,304          Vladivostok, Russia (via             ARDROSSAN, SCOTLAND               Barcelona, Spain, 923
Hobart, Tasmania, 3,683                 Shimonoseki Kaikyo), 2,019         (5538'30"N., 449'30"W.) to:    Bat'umi, Georgia, 1,183
Hong Kong, China, 1,822              Wake Island, 1,334                                                     Beirut, Lebanon, 811
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,318      Wei-hae-wei, China (via Tokara         Junction Points*                Ceuta, Morocco, 1,268
Iloilo, Philippines, 1,366              Kaikyo), 1,901                                                      Iraklion, Kriti, 299
Incheon, South Korea (via Tokara     Wotho, Marshall Islands, 1,294       Bishop Rock, England, 350         Izmir, Turkey, 444
   Kaikyo), 1,837                    Wotje Island, Marshall Islands,      Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 348        Marseille, France, 827
Iwakuni, Japan, 1,437                   1,547                             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 95         Napoli, Italy, 423
Jakarta, Indonesia (via Makasser     Xiamen, China, 1,669                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 282     Oran, Algeria, 1,058
   Strait), 2,639                    Yap, Caroline Islands, 458
Johnston Island, 2,665               Yantai, China (via Tokara              Ports                           ARICA, CHILE
Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, U.S.A.,            Kaikyo), 1,935                                                       (1828'00"S., 7020'00"W.) to:
   3,354                             Yokkaichi, Japan, 1,364              Dublin, Ireland, 153
Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,822         Yokohama, Japan, 1,352               Glasgow, Scotland, 43               Junction Points*
Kobe, Japan, 1,386                   Zamboanga, Philippines (south of     Liverpool, England, 180
Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 3,928           Mindanao), 1,467                                                    Panama, Panama, 1,921
Kure, Japan, 1,460                   Zamboanga, Philippines (via          ARENDAL, NORWAY                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,301
Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, 1,405      Surigao Strait), 1,484             (5827'30"N., 846'30"E.) to:
Lae, Papau New Guinea, 1,315                                                                                  Ports
Levuka, Fiji Islands, 2,847          ARACAJU, BRAZIL                        Junction Points*
Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 1,617      (1058'53"S., 3659'26"W.) to:                                        Acapulco, Mexico, 2,768
Malakal, Palau Islands, 706                                               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 452     Antofagasta, Chile, 325
Manila, Philippines (north of          Junction Points*                                                     Caldera, Chile, 522
   Luzon), 1,742                                                            Ports                           Callao, Peru, 593
Manila, Philippines (via San         Bishop Rock, England, 4,021                                            Chanaral, Chile, 478
   Bernardino Strait), 1,499         Cape of Good Hope, South             Bergen, Norway, 254               Coquimbo, Chile, 702



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                            AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND                              7



Corinto, Nicaragua, 1,711              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Junction Points*                 Su-ao Kang, Taiwan.
Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 1,484                4,530
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,251              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1,355       Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND
Guaymas, Mexico, 3,681                 Grand Banks South, 1,934             5,258                             (3650'00"S., 17447'00"E.) to:
Iquique, Chile, 110                    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,248      Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,426
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,       Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,643       Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,688       Junction Points*
   4,219                               Panama, Panama, 3,891              Port Said, Egypt, 3,212
Lota, Chile, 1,134                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,896    Singapore, 3,872                   Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,029
Monterey, California, U.S.A.,          Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,777         Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 4,098      Panama, Panama, 6,516
   4,471                               Strait of Gibraltar, 576           Torres Strait, Australia, 6,256    Punta Arenas, Chile (via 30S.),
Pisco, Peru, 492                       Straits of Florida, 3,681                                               6,132
Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 1,996                                               Ports                            Punta Arenas, Chile (via 49S.),
Salina Cruz, Mexico, 2,579               Ports                                                                 4,814
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,                                            Belawan, Indonesia, 3,606          Torres Strait, Australia (via Raine
   4,149                               Aaiun, Western Sahara, 111         Calcutta, India, 3,581               Island entrance), 2,485
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Casablanca, Morocco, 435           Fremantle, Australia, 5,429        Wilson Promontory, Australia,
   4,551                               Dakar, Senegal, 912                Port Darwin, Australia, 5,701        1,503
San Jose, Guatemala, 2,338             Lagos, Nigeria, 2,547              Rangoon, Burma, 3,641
Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,     Monrovia, Liberia, 1,622           Sabang, Indonesia, 3,340             Ports
   4,286                               New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Talara, Peru, 1,103                      3,005                            ASHDOD, ISRAEL                     Apia, Samoa, 1,581
Talcahuano, Chile, 1,108               Recife, Brazil, 2,540               (3151'00"N., 3439'00"E.) to:    Apra, Guam, 3,497
Valparaiso, Chile, 882                 Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 3,496                                      Avarua, Cook Islands, 1,631
                                                                            Junction Points*                 Brisbane, Australia, 1,340
ARKHANGEL'SK, RUSSIA                   ARUBA                                                                 Callao, Peru, 5,834
 (6432'00"N., 4031'00"E.) to:        See Sint Nicolaashaven.            Port Said, Egypt, 126              Dagu, China, 5,648
                                                                          Strait of Gibraltar, 2,031         Dalian, China (via Vitiaz Strait),
  Junction Points*                     ARZEW, ALGERIA                                                           5,489
                                        (3551'30"N., 018'00"W.) to:       Ports                            Dalian, China (west of New
Bishop Rock, England, 2,263                                                                                     Ireland), 5,469
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,900             Junction Points*                 Alexandria, Egypt, 266             Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,663                                           Beirut, Lebanon, 136                  5,578
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,225             Port Said, Egypt, 1,692            Famagusta, Cyprus, 203             Fanning Island, 2,854
Straits of Florida, 5,208              Strait of Gibraltar, 275           Fethiye, Turkey, 416               Guayaquil, Ecuador, 6,087
                                                                          Izmir, Turkey, 668                 Hakodate, Japan, 5,104
  Ports                                  Ports                                                               Hobart, Tasmania, 1,521
                                                                          ASSAB, ETHIOPIA                    Hong Kong, China, 5,060
Argentia, Canada, 3,306                Algiers, Algeria, 186               (1300'00"N., 4245'30"E.) to:    Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,820
Berlevag, Norway, 540                  Alicante, Spain, 152                                                  Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 2,595
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         Bejaia, Algeria, 294                 Junction Points*                 Kobe, Japan, 4,875
   4,014                               Melilla, Morocco, 146                                                 Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,942
Charleston, South Carolina,                                               Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Levuka, Fiji Islands, 1,175
   U.S.A., 4,692                       AS SALIF, YEMEN                      4,056                            Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Colon, Panama, 5,820                    (1518'00"N., 4240'00"E.) to:    Port Said, Egypt, 1,258               5,658
Dikson, Russia, 1,105                                                     Singapore, 3,769                   Melbourne, Australia, 1,649
Frederikshavn, Denmark, 1,805            Junction Points*                                                    Midway Island, 3,937
Guantanamo, Cuba, 5,156                                                     Ports                            Nagasaki, Japan (via Tanegashima
Halifax, Canada, 3,663                 Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                         Kaikyo and Koshiki Kaikyo),
Hull, England, 1,926                     4,181                            Aden, Yemen, 150                      4,930
Iokan'ga, Russia, 271                  Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,204     Port Sudan, Sudan, 524             Nagasaki, Japan (via Tokara
Ivittuut, Greenland (direct), 2,573    Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,684                                           Kaikyo), 4,963
Ivittuut, Greenland (via 75 miles      Port Said, Egypt, 1,127            ASSENS, DENMARK                    Nandi Bay, Fiji Islands, 1,224
   off Kap Farvel), 2,683              Singapore (north of Scorta and      (5516'15"N., 953'07"E.) to:     Nelson, New Zealand, 633
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 5,150        Strait of Malacca), 3,887                                            Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 6,159
Liverpool, England, 2,075              Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 4,673        Junction Points*                 Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 1,009
London, England, 2,061                 Torres Strait, Australia, 6,247                                       Pago Pago, American Samoa,
Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 1,051                                             Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               1,565
Mys Chelyuskin, Russia, 1,469            Ports                             Entrance), Germany, 65            Papeete, French Polynesia, 2,216
New York, New York, U.S.A.                                                Skagens Odde, Denmark, 187         Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
   (clear of general maximum           Aden, Yemen, 249                                                         Russia, 5,466
   winter solid pack ice in vicinity   Aseb, Ethiopia, 138                  Ports                            Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,813
   of Iceland), 4,320                  Jubail, Saudi Arabia, 2,059                                           Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 6,075
New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Mitsiwa, Ethiopia, 186             Gdansk, Poland, 370                Prince Rupert, Canada, 6,209
   4,216                                                                  Goteborg, Sweden, 197              Qingdao, China, 5,378
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 4,399       AS SUKHAYRAH, TUNISIA              Lubeck, Germany, 127               Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,345
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,             (3418'00"N., 1009'00"E.) to:                                       Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands,
   U.S.A., 4,369                                                          ASTORIA, OREGON, U.S.A.               592
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,               Junction Points*                  (4611'40"N., 12350'00"W.)       San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
   U.S.A., 3,992                                                          Subtract 83 miles from Portland       5,655
Reykjavik, Iceland (direct), 1,874     Port Said, Egypt, 1,156            distances.                         San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
Reykjavik, Iceland (south of           Strait of Gibraltar, 1,072                                               5,680
   Iceland), 1,901                                                                                           Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 6,170
                                                                          ATUCHA, ARGENTINA
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 5,001             Ports                             Add 80 miles to Buenos Aires      Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 6,093
                                                                          distances (via Mitre Channel).     Shanghai, China (via Vitiaz
ARRECIFE DE LANZAROTE,                 Banghazi, Libya, 523                                                     Strait), 5,149
CANARY ISLANDS                         Messina, Sicily, 406                                                  Shanghai, China (west of New
 (2857'15"N., 1332'11"W.) to:                                           ATUMI, JAPAN                          Ireland), 5,148
                                       Tunis, Tunisia, 301                 (3439'47"N., 13704'54"E.)
                                                                                                             Shimonoseki, Japan, 4,944
                                                                          Subtract 32 miles from Nagoya
  Junction Points*                                                                                           Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 6,176
                                       ASH SHUWAYKH, KUWAIT               distances.
                                        (2921'21"N., 4756'08"E.) to:                                       Suva, Fiji Islands, 1,149
Bishop Rock, England, 1,289                                                                                  Sydney, Australia, 1,280
                                                                          AU-AO CHAING, TAIWAN               Truk, Caroline Islands, 3,000
                                                                           (2436'00"N., 12152'00"E.) See



  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
8           AUGUSTA, SICILY



Valparaiso, Chile, 5,247             Ile d'Ouessant, France, 536            Junction Points*                    BAHIA DE LAS CALDERAS,
Vancouver, Canada, 6,191             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 942                                                 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Vladivostok, Russia, 5,516           Panama, Panama, 4,186                Port Said, Egypt, 431                  (1813'30"N., 7031'30"W.) to:
Wake Island, 3,409                   Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,194      Strait of Gibraltar, 1,554
Wellington, New Zealand, 563         Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,513                                                   Junction Points*
Xiamen, China, 4,990                 Strait of Gibraltar, 416               Ports
Yokohama, Japan, 4,789               Straits of Florida, 3,778                                                  Panama, Panama, 810
                                                                          Alexandria, Egypt, 343
                                       Ports                              Antibes, France, 1,063                  Ports
AUGUSTA, SICILY
 (3713'36"N., 1512'55"E.) to:                                           Arzew, Algeria, 1,295
                                     Argentia, Canada, 2,006              Bat'umi, Georgia, 1,035               Barranquilla, Colombia, 508
    Junction Points*                 Bathurst, Gambia, 1,740              Cartagena, Spain, 1,313               Kingston, Jamaica, 378
                                     Belem, Brazil, 3,327                 Castellammare di Stabia, Italy, 712   San Juan, Puerto Rico, 273
Port Said, Egypt, 932                Bordeaux, France, 573                Corinth Canal (west side,             Willemstad, Curacao, 392
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,065           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Korinthos), Greece, 416
                                        2,735                             Genova, Italy, 1,026                  BAHIA DE SAMANA,
    Ports                            Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,435       Istanbul, Turkey, 449                 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
                                     Cadiz, Spain, 375                    Limassol, Greece, 376                  (1910'00"N., 6913'00"W.) to:
Alexandria, Egypt, 819               Cape Town, South Africa, 5,270       Mersin, Turkey, 457
                                     Casablanca, Morocco, 457             Oran, Algeria, 791                      Junction Points*
Baniyas, Syria, 1,028
Palermo, Sicily, 187                 Charleston, South Carolina,          Tangier, Morocco, 1,554
                                        U.S.A., 3,360                     Toulon, France, 1,084                 Panama, Panama, 1,015
Sete, France, 703
                                     Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    Venezia, Italy, 912                   Straits of Florida, 864
Taranto, Italy, 243
Valencia, Spain, 801                    3,194
                                     Colon, Panama (via Mona                                                      Ports
Valletta, Malta, 98                                                       AYN SUKHNAH, EGYPT
                                        Passage), 84,17                    (2933'47"N., 3225'43"E.) to:
                                     Dakar, Senegal, 1,623                                                      New York, New York, U.S.A.,
AVARUA, COOK ISLANDS                                                                                              1,328
 (2111'30"S., 15946'00"W.) to:     El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 229     Junction Points*
                                     Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,134                                              Nuevitas, Cuba, 510
                                     Funchal, Madeira Island, 619                                               San Juan, Puerto Rico, 185
    Junction Points*                                                      Cape of Good Hope, South
                                     Georgetown, Guyana, 3,323              Africa, 5,204
Panama, Panama, 5,092                Guantanamo, Cuba, 4,105              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 6,228        BAHIA HONDA, CUBA
Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,429           Halifax, Canada, 2,420               Port Said, Egypt, 102                  (2257'20"N., 8310'30"W.) to:
                                     Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,       Singapore, 4,911
                                        3,512                             Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 5,697           Ports
    Ports
                                     Le Havre, France, 783                Torres Strait, Australia, 7,271
                                     Monrovia, Liberia, 2,336                                                   Guantanamo, Cuba (via west end
Apia, Samoa, 819
                                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Ports                                 of Cuba), 723
Apra, Guam, 3,889
                                        2,898                                                                   Guantanamo, Cuba (via Old
Auckland, New Zealand, 1,631
                                     Port Castries, St. Lucia, 3,149      Aden, Yemen, 1,273                      Bahama Channel and Windward
Brisbane, Australia (via Howe
                                     Recife, Brazil, 3,261                Assab, Ethiopia, 1,150                  Passage), 643
  Channel and Main Channel),
                                     San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,209         Colombo, Sri Lanka, 3,361             New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
  2,618
                                     Takoradi, Ghana, 2,923               Jubail, Saudi Arabia, 3,083             outside route), 1,226
Callao, Peru, 4,733
Hakodate, Japan, 5,022                                                    Tulear, Madagascar, 3,873
Hobart, Tasmania, 2,962              AVILES, SPAIN                                                              BAIE TAIO-HAE,
Hong Kong, China, 5,674               (4345'00"N., 555'00"W.) to:                                             MARQUESA ISLANDS
                                                                          AZ ZARQA ISLAND, UNITED                (856'00"S., 14005'00"W.) to:
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,553                                           ARAB EMIRATES
Levuka, Fiji Islands, 1,268            Junction Points*                    (2500'00"N., 5303'20"E.) See
                                                                                                                  Junction Points*
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,                                          Zirku Petroleum Port.
  4,064                              Ile d'Ouessant, France, 307
                                                                                                                Panama, Panama, 3,826
Melbourne, Australia (via South      Strait of Gibraltar, 722             BACHAQUERO, VENEZUELA
  Channel), 3,090                                                          (956'45"N., 7109'00"W.) Add          Ports
Midway Island, 3,140                   Ports                              124 miles to Maracaibo distances.
Nagasaki, Japan, 5,219
                                                                                                                Apia, Samoa, 1,886
Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,887         Bordeaux, France, 303                BAGNOLI, ITALY                        Apra, Guam, 4,698
Pago Pago, American Samoa, 750       El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 133    (4048'15"N., 1410'00"E.) See       Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,102
Papeete, French Polynesia, 618       St. Nazaire, France, 274             Napoli.                               Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
                                                                                                                  2,858
  Russia, 4,951                      AVONMOUTH, ENGLAND                   BAHIA BLANCA,                         Noumea, New Caledonia, 3,183
Ponape, Caroline Islands, 3,001       (5130'30"N., 243'00"W.) to:       ARGENTINA                             Papeete, French Polynesia, 761
Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,993                                            (3847'45"S., 6216'00"W.) to:       San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Junction Points*
                                                                                                                  2,987
  4,124                                                                     Junction Points*
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,700   Bishop Rock, England, 191
Shanghai, China, 5,533               Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 202           Panama, Panama, 5,776                 BAJO GRANDE,
Suva, Fiji Islands (via Oneata       Pentland Firth, Scotland, 624                                              VENEZUELA
                                                                          Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,004             (1030'30"N., 17136'00"W.)
  Passage), 1,256
                                                                                                                Add 8 miles to Maracaibo
Sydney, Australia, 2,690               Ports                                Ports                               distances.
Valparaiso, Chile, 4,632
Wellington, New Zealand, 1,804       Barrow in Furness, England, 288      Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Yokohama, Japan, 4,849               Belfast, Northern Ireland, 308         6,228                               BAKER ISLAND, NORTH
                                     Dublin, Ireland, 220                                                       PACIFIC
                                                                          Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         (013'30"N., 17628'00"W.) to:
AVEIRO, PORTUGAL                     Fishguard, Wales, 145                  6,125
 (4039'20"N., 847'40"W.) to:       Glasgow, Scotland, 390               Buenos Aires, Argentina, 564            Ports
                                     Holyhead, Wales, 217                 Montevideo, Uruguay, 466
    Junction Points*                 Liverpool, England, 282              New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Howland Island, 37
                                     Londonderry, Northern Ireland,         6,154                               Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,707
Bishop Rock, England, 568               384                               Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,           Suva, Fiji Islands, 1,202
Cape of Good Hope, South                                                    U.S.A., 6,201                       Sydney, Australia, 2,752
  Africa, 5,266                      AYIOS NIKOLAOS, GREECE               Santos, Brazil, 1,292
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 644            (3511'38"N., 2543'20"E.) to:
Grand Banks South, 1,834                                                                                        BALBOA, PANAMA
                                                                                                                 (857'30"N., 7934'15"W.) See



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                              BANGHAZI, LIBYA                      9



Panama, Panama, to which add 5        Luderitz Bay, Namibia, 6,538         BANDAR ABBAS, IRAN                      Ports
miles for Pacific Ocean distances,    Manzanillo, Cuba (via Windward        (2708'00"N., 5619'00"E.) to:
and from which subtract 5 miles for      Passage), 1,494                                                         Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Atlantic Ocean distances.             Manzanillo, Dominican Republic,        Junction Points*                      1,140
                                         1,223                                                                   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via
                                      Maracaibo, Venezuela (via            Port Said, Egypt, 2,842                 Crooked Island Passage), 1,398
BALIKPAPAN,
KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA                    Windward Passage), 1,804          Singapore, 3,381                      Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.
 (116'00"S., 11648'30"E.) to:       Montecristi, Dominican Republic,                                             (via Crooked Island Passage),
                                         1,213                               Ports                                 802
  Junction Points*                    Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,831                                                 New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                      Nassau, Bahamas (via Northeast       Aden, Yemen, 1,453                      1,216
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 472             Providence Channel), 880          Al Basrah, Iraq, 572                  Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via
Singapore (via Selat Riouw), 1,053    Nuevitas, Cuba, 1,198                Karachi, Pakistan, 643                  Crooked Island Passage), 1,018
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 837           Paamiut (Frederikshaab),                                                   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 870              Greenland, 2,261                  BANDAR AL MISHAB, SAUDI                 (via Crooked Island Passage),
                                      Paramaribo, Suriname, 2,321          ARABIA                                  1,188
  Ports                               Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,653     (2810'06"N., 4842'37"E.) to:       Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via
                                      Ponce, Puerto Rico, 1,427                                                    Crooked Island Passage), 801
Belawan, Indonesia, 1,422             Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,529           Junction Points*
Manila, Philippines, 1,057            Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,301                                               BANGHAZI, LIBYA
Mogpo, South Korea, 2,308             Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,918       Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       (3206'53"N., 2003'06"E.) to:
                                      Port Antonio, Jamaica, 1,350           5,221
                                      Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,741      Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,388          Junction Points*
BALTIMORE, MARYLAND,
U.S.A.                                Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,    Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,879
 (3916'00"N., 7634'30"W.) to:          3,095                             Port Said, Egypt, 3,023               Port Said, Egypt, 673
                                      Progreso, Mexico, 1,530              Singapore, 3,835                      Strait of Gibraltar, 1,356
  Junction Points*                    Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (via       Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 4,060
                                         Straits of Florida), 1,725        Torres Strait, Australia, 6,219         Ports
Bishop Rock, England, 3,224           Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 1,818
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,102          Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,690         Ports                               Alexandria, Egypt, 541
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,206          Recife, Brazil, 3,772                                                      Algiers, Algeria, 927
Montreal, Canada (via Strait of       Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,844        Aden, Yemen, 1,985                    Alicante, Spain, 1,094
   Canso), 1,769                      Salvador, Brazil, 4,163              Al Aqabah, Jordan, 3,242              Ancona, Italy, 800
Panama, Panama, 1,944                 San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via   Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,248             Annaba, Algeria, 702
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,401          Straits of Florida), 1,968        Massawa, Ethiopia, 2,418              As Sukhayrah, Tunisia, 523
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,021            San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,374         Port Sudan, Sudan, 2,651              Baniyas, Syria, 834
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,466            Santa Marta, Colombia (via                                                 Banzart, Tunisia, 597
Straits of Florida, 1,102                Crooked Island Passage and        BANDAR KHOMEINI, IRAN                 Barcelona, Spain, 1,025
                                         Windward Passage), 1,710           (3026'30"N., 4905'00"E.) to:       Bari, Italy, 593
  Ports                               Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 1,289                                              Beirut, Lebanon, 806
                                      Santo Domingo, Dominican               Junction Points*                    Brindisi, Italy, 535
Antilla, Cuba, 1,151                     Republic, 1,451                                                         Cartagena, Spain, 1,119
Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 6,228        Santos, Brazil, 5,031                Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,      Catania, Sicily, 406
Banes, Cuba, 1,140                    Sao Luiz, Brazil, 3,117                5,169                               Ceuta, Morocco, 1,336
Baracoa, Cuba, 1,153                  St. Georges, Grenada, 1,843          Port Said, Egypt, 3,322               Derince, Turkey, 750
Belem, Brazil, 2,953                  St. John, Canada (via Nantucket      Singapore, 3,872                      Famagusta, Cyprus, 768
Belize, Belize (via Straits of           Light Vessel), 860                                                      Fethiye, Turkey, 548
  Florida), 1,625                     St. John's, Canada, 1,400              Ports                               Genova, Italy, 912
Bocas del Toro, Panama (via           Vitoria, Brazil, 4,581                                                     Gibraltar, 1,338
  Crooked Island Passage and          Walvisbaai, Namibia, 6,385           Al Basrah, Iraq, 154                  Haifa, Israel, 783
  Windward Passage), 1,975            Willemstad, Curacao, 1,733           Al Manamah, Bahrain, 288              Iraklion, Kriti, 370
Bordeaux, France, 3,308                                                    Bushehr, Iran, 158                    Istanbul, Turkey, 716
Brest, France, 3,308                  BANANA, CONGO                                                              Izmir, Turkey, 561
Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,853            (602'31"S., 1222'40"E.) to:       BANDAR-E MAH SHAHR,                   Kalamai, Greece, 313
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,945                                             IRAN                                  La Spezia, Italy, 876
Cadiz, Spain, 3,434                     Junction Points*                    (3027'40"N., 4910'30"E.) Add       Livorno, Italy, 841
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 1,227                                                  6 miles to Bandar Khomeini            Malaga, Spain, 1,286
Cape Town, South Africa, 6,912        Bishop Rock, England, 4,500          distances.                            Marseille, France, 1,004
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,     Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                           Matruh, Egypt, 267
  1,417                                  4,229                             BANDJERMASIN,                         Messina, Sicily, 430
Charlottetown, Canada, 1,134          Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,553         KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA                 Napoli, Italy, 602
Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Windward        Grand Banks South, 4,649              (320'00"S., 11433'00"E.) to:       Odessa, Ukraine, 1,064
  Passage), 1,589                     Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,459                                              Oran, Algeria, 1,124
Colon, Panama (via Crooked            Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,869           Junction Points*                    Palermo, Sicily, 547
  Island Passage and Windward         Panama, Panama, 5,707                                                      Palma, Balearic Islands, 970
  Passage), 1,901                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 5,158      Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 357          Piraievs, Greece, 404
Fort de France, Martinique, 1,718     Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,001           Singapore, 830                        Reggio Di Calabria, Sicily, 425
Funchal, Madeira Island, 3,028        Strait of Gibraltar, 3,799           Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 775           Rijeka, Croatia, 868
Georgetown, Guyana, 2,211             Straits of Florida, 5,871            Torres Strait, Australia, 1,785       Savona, Italy, 922
Halifax, Canada, 911                  Yucatan Channel, 5,980                                                     Sibenik, Croatia, 741
Hamilton, Bermuda, 794                                                       Ports                               Siracusa, Sicily, 381
Horta, Fayal, Azores, 2,409             Ports                                                                    Split, Croatia, 726
Jacmel, Haiti, 1,416                                                       Makassar, Sulawesi, 399               Tarabulus, Libya, 354
Kingston, Jamaica (via Crooked        Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 1,194                                                Taranto, Italy, 523
  Island Passage and Windward         Cape Town, South Africa, 1,705       BANES, CUBA                           Thessaloniki, Greece, 611
  Passage), 1,401                     Lagos, Nigeria, 921                   (2055'20"N., 7542'20"W.) to:       Toulon, France, 972
La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,813           Monrovia, Liberia, 1,578                                                   Trieste, Italy, 901
Lagos, Nigeria, 5,063                 New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Junction Points*                    Tubruq, Libya, 248
Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 3,251       5,534                                                                    Tunis, Tunisia, 585
Les Cayes, Haiti, 1,374               Recife, Brazil, 2,815                Straits of Florida, 483               Valencia, Spain, 1,094
Limon, Costa Rica, 1,974              Takoradi, Ghana, 1,070                                                     Valletta, Malta, 359
Luanda, Angola, 5,850                                                                                            Venezia, Italy, 911




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
10        BANGKOK, THAILAND



Volos, Greece, 552                    Junction Points*                  BAR, MONTENEGRO                      Strait of Gibraltar, 534
                                                                         (4205'07"N., 1905'26"E.) to:
BANGKOK, THAILAND                   Bishop Rock, England, 159                                                  Ports
 (1343'00"N., 10031'00"E.) to:    Cape of Good Hope, South              Junction Points*
                                       Africa, 5,867                                                         Alcudia, Balearic Islands, 114
  Junction Points*                  Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 22           Port Said, Egypt, 995                Alexandria, Egypt, 1,482
                                    Grand Banks South, 1,720            Strait of Gibraltar (via Strait of   Algiers, Algeria, 282
Singapore, 842                      Ile d'Ouessant, France, 236          Messina), 1,379                     Alicante, Spain, 228
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,292       Inishtrahull, Ireland, 313          Strait of Gibraltar (via Strait of   Almeria, Spain, 371
                                    Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,067           Sicily), 1,414                      Ancona, Italy, 1,212
  Ports                             Strait of Gibraltar, 1,082                                               Annaba, Algeria, 386
                                                                          Ports                              Banghazi, Libya, 1,075
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,           Ports                                                                  Banzart, Tunisia, 442
  Russia, 3,639                                                         Algiers, Algeria, 943                Bari, Italy, 1,005
Busan, South Korea, 2,533           Casablanca, Morocco, 1,080          Arzew, Algeria, 1,119                Bat'umi, Georgia (south of
Incheon, South Korea, 2,591         Dakar, Senegal, 2,247               Barcelona, Spain, 1,003                 Greece), 2,073
Kompong Som, Cambodia, 300          Galway, Ireland, 173                Catania, Sicily, 353                 Bat'umi, Georgia (via Corinth
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.     Lisboa, Spain, 779                  Haifa, Israel, 1,053                    Canal), 2,032
  (via Balintang Channel), 7,775    Natal, Brazil, 3,698                Izmir, Turkey, 691                   Beaulieu, France, 280
Manila, Philippines, 1,435          St. John's, Canada, 1,674           Kerch, Ukraine, 1,285                Beirut, Lebanon, 1,703
Mogpo, South Korea, 2,438           Tromso, Norway, 1,453               Limassol, Cyprus, 940                Brindisi, Italy, 947
Nampo, North Korea, 2,652                                               Messina, Sicily, 335                 Cagliari, Sardinia, 379
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,                                              Patrai, Greece, 291                  Cartagena, Spain, 282
                                    BANZART, TUNISIA
  Russia, 4,252                      (3714'13"N., 951'00"E.) to:      Tangier, Morocco, 1,382              Ceuta, Morocco, 515
Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 817                                             Venezia, Italy, 367                  Genova, Italy, 356
Vladivostok, Russia, 3,035            Junction Points*                  Villefranche, France, 849            Gibraltar, 516
Weonsan, North Korea, 2,885                                                                                  Golfe-Juan, France, 268
                                    Port Said, Egypt, 1,184             BARACOA, CUBA                        Haifa, Israel, 1,699
BANIYAS, SYRIA                      Strait of Gibraltar, 769             (2021'30"N., 7430'15"W.) to:      Hyeres, France, 218
 (3511'00"N., 3557'00"E.) to:                                                                              Iraklion, Kriti, 1,186
                                      Ports                               Junction Points*                   Istanbul, Turkey (south of
  Junction Points*                                                                                              Greece), 1,486
                                    Alexandria, Egypt, 1,064            Straits of Florida, 540              Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth
Port Said, Egypt, 299               Algiers, Algeria, 340                                                       Canal), 1,445
Strait of Gibraltar, 2,045          Alicante, Spain, 507                  Ports                              Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),
                                    Ancona, Italy, 842                                                          1,332
  Ports                             Annaba, Algeria, 116                Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),
                                    Banghazi, Libya, 597                  1,153                                 1,290
Augusta, Sicily, 1,028              Barcelona, Spain, 442               Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 490       La Spezia, Italy, 383
Banghazi, Libya, 834                Bari, Italy, 635                    Kingston, Jamaica, 265               Livorno, Italy, 386
Haifa, Israel, 153                  Bastia, Corsica, 333                New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Mahon, Balearic Islands, 144
Marseille, France, 1,610            Beirut, Lebanon, 1,276                1,226                              Malaga, Spain, 464
Thessaloniki, Greece, 792           Brindisi, Italy, 577                Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Marseille, France, 189
Tunis, Tunisia, 1,275               Cagliari, Sardinia, 126               U.S.A., 1,198                      Menton, France, 285
                                    Cartagena, Spain, 532                                                    Messina, Sicily, 681
BANJUL, GAMBIA                      Ceuta, Morocco, 750                 BARAHONA, DOMINICAN                  Monaco, Monaco, 280
 (1331'43"N., 1635'05"W.) to:     Genova, Italy, 437                  REPUBLIC                             Napoli, Italy, 559
                                    Haifa, Israel, 1,273                 (1812'30"N., 7103'30"W.) to:      Odessa, Ukraine (south of
  Junction Points*                  Iraklion, Kriti, 758                                                        Greece), 1,834
                                    Istanbul, Turkey, 1,063               Junction Points*                   Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth
Bishop Rock, England, 2,294         Izmir, Turkey, 909                                                          Canal), 1,793
Cape of Good Hope, South            La Spezia, Italy, 414               Panama, Panama, 796                  Oran, Algeria, 365
   Africa, 3,492                    Livorno, Italy, 382                                                      Palermo, Sicily, 574
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,354        Malaga, Spain, 699                    Ports                              Palma, Balearic Islands, 140
Grand Banks South, 2,467            Marseille, France, 428                                                   Piraievs, Greece (south of
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,261       Messina, Sicily, 364                Barranquilla, Colombia, 497             Greece), 1,172
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,671        Napoli, Italy, 300                  Kingston, Jamaica, 364               Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
Panama, Panama, 3,753               Odessa, Ukraine, 1,411              San Juan, Puerto Rico, 294              Canal), 1,091
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,960     Olbia, Sardinia, 236                Willemstad, Curacao, 395             Port St. Louis du Rhone, France,
Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,890          Oran, Algeria, 538                                                          178
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,601          Palermo, Sicily, 192                BARBERS POINT, HAWAII,               Port Vendres, France, 108
Straits of Florida, 3,780           Palma, Balearic Islands, 384        U.S.A.                               Rijeka, Croatia, 1,279
Yucatan Channel, 4,031              Piraievs, Greece (south of           (2116'51"N., 15806'00"W.) to:     Savona, Italy, 341
                                       Greece), 749                                                          Sibenik, Croatia, 1,153
                                    Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth         Junction Points*                   Siracusa, Sicily, 752
  Ports
                                       Canal), 692                                                           Skikda, Algeria, 354
                                    Rijeka, Croatia, 910                Panama, Panama, 4,694                Split, Croatia, 1,138
Cadiz, Spain, 1,599
                                    Sant Antioco Ponti, Sardinia, 132   Singapore (via Sulu Sea), 5,866      St. Raphael, France, 251
Casablanca, Morocco, 1,460
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 401         Savona, Italy, 440                                                       Tarabulus, Libya, 762
                                    Sibenik, Croatia, 783                 Ports                              Taranto, Italy, 900
Funchal, Madeira Islands, 1,183
Lisboa, Portugal, 1,644             Siracusa, Sicily, 296                                                    Thessaloniki, Greece (south of
                                    Split, Croatia, 768                 Apra, Guam, 3,303                       Greece), 1,380
Marshall, Liberia, 646
                                    Tarabulus, Libya, 335               San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth
New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                    Taranto, Italy, 530                   2,100                                 Canal), 1,339
  3,414
                                    Thessaloniki, Greece, 958           Yokohama, Japan (via great           Toulon, France, 205
Pointe Noire, Congo, 2,152
                                    Toulon, France, 405                   circle), 3,382                     Trieste, Italy, 1,313
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,531
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   Trieste, Italy, 943                                                      Tunis, Tunisia, 492
  527                               Valencia, Spain, 506                BARCELONA, SPAIN                     Valencia, Spain, 165
Vigo, Spain, 2,572                  Valletta, Malta, 247                 (4122'00"N., 211'00"E.) to:       Valletta, Malta, 671
                                    Venezia, Italy, 953                                                      Venezia, Italy, 1,323
                                    Volos, Greece, 899                    Junction Points*                   Villefranche, France, 277
BANTRY BAY, IRELAND
 (5141'00"N., 927'00"W.) to:
                                                                        Port Said, Egypt, 1,600



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                             BATH, MAINE, U.S.A.                    11



Volos, Greece (south of Greece),       Greece), 746                         Ports                                  Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 31
  1,322                              Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth                                             Roseau, Dominica, 48
Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),     Canal), 650                        Avonmouth, England, 288                  San Juan, Puerto Rico, 314
  1,280                              Toulon, France, 870                  Belfast, Northern Ireland, 116
                                     Trieste, Italy, 321                  Brest, France, 416                       BASSETERRE, SAINT KITTS
BARCELONA, VENEZUELA                 Tunis, Tunisia, 622                  Cardiff, Wales, 273                      AND NEVIS
 (1010'00"N., 6444'00"W.) to:      Valencia, Spain, 1,088               Cherbourg, France, 448                    (1717'30"N., 6243'00"W.) to:
                                     Valletta, Malta, 427                 Cobh, Ireland, 252
  Junction Points*                   Venezia, Italy, 329                  Dublin, Ireland, 122                       Ports
                                     Volos, Greece (south of Greece),     Fishguard, Wales, 157
Panama, Panama, 1,014                  687                                Glasgow, Scotland, 172                   Hamilton, Bermuda, 941
Yucatan Channel, 1,378               Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),   London, England, 665                     New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
                                       591                                Southampton, England, 485                  Anegada Channel), 1,531
  Ports                                                                   Swansea, Wales, 242                      Port au Prince, Haiti, 419
                                     BARRANQUILLA,                                                                 San Juan, Puerto Rico, 214
Barranquilla, Colombia, 661          COLOMBIA                             BARROW ISLAND,
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 218          (1058'00"N., 7445'30"W.) to:      AUSTRALIA                                BASTIA, CORSICA
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 936                                                (2048'30"S., 11533'30"E.) to:          (4241'45"N., 927'30"E.) to:
                                       Junction Points*
BARI, ITALY                                                                 Junction Points*                         Junction Points*
 (4108'22"N., 1651'34"E.) to:      Yucatan Channel, 881
                                                                          Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,         Port Said, Egypt, 1,337
  Junction Points*                     Ports                                5,032                                  Strait of Gibraltar, 868
                                                                          Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 906
Port Said, Egypt, 999                Almirante, Panama, 477               Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 730               Ports
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,374           Amuay, Venezuela, 325                Port Said, Egypt, 6,028
                                     Bahia de las Calderas, Dominican     Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,129            Banzart, Tunisia, 333
  Ports                                 Republic, 508                     Torres Strait, Australia, 1,750          Genova, Italy, 108
                                     Barahona, Dominican Republic,                                                 Napoli, Italy, 258
Alexandria, Egypt, 890                  497                                 Ports
Algiers, Algeria, 946                Barcelona, Venezuela, 661                                                     BASUO GANG, CHINA
Alicante, Spain, 1,100               Carupano, Venezuela, 734             Aden, Yemen, 4,641                        (1906'30"N., 10837'00"E.) to:
Ancona, Italy, 216                   Casilda, Cuba, 732                   Bombay, India, 3,551
Annaba, Algeria, 726                 Catia la Mar, Venezuela, 524         Busan, South Korea (via west of            Junction Points*
Banghazi, Libya, 593                 Charleston, South Carolina,            Timor & Korea Strait), 3,484
Banzart, Tunisia, 635                   U.S.A., 1,391                     Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,680                Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,588
Barcelona, Spain, 1,005              Cienfuegos, Cuba, 755                Fremantle, Australia, 771
Beirut, Lebanon (south of            Colon, Panama, 336                   Geraldton, Australia, 569                  Ports
   Greece), 1,069                    Fortaleza, Brazil, 685               Port Headland, Australia, 188
Beirut, Lebanon (via Corinth         Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,577      San Francisco, California, U.S.A.        Haiphong, Vietnam, 156
   Canal), 1,038                     Guantanamo, Cuba, 534                  (via west of Timor), 7,646             Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 708
Cagliari, Sardinia, 652              Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,465                                                      Hong Kong, China, 408
Cartagena, Spain, 1,131              Kingston, Jamaica, 442               BARRY, WALES                             Kao-hsiung Kang, Taiwan, 811
Ceuta, Morocco, 1,354                La Guaira, Venezuela, 531             (5123'40"N., 315'30"W.)
Dubrovnik, Croatia, 108              La Romana, Dominican Republic,       Subtract 6 miles from Cardiff            BATA, EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Genova, Italy, 810                      569                               distances.                                (152'27"N., 945'35"E.) to:
Gibraltar, 1,356                     New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,
Haifa, Israel, 1,065                    1,458                             BASRA, IRAQ                                Junction Points*
Iraklion, Kriti, 554                 New York, New York, U.S.A.,           (3030'00"N., 4749'00"E.) See
Istanbul, Turkey (south of              1,801                             Al Basrah.                               Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
   Greece), 851                      Oranjestad, Aruba, 506                                                           2,291
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth        Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 857                                               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,173
                                                                          BASSEIN, BURMA
   Canal), 755                       Port au Prince, Haiti, 592            (1647'00"N., 9444'00"E.) to:
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),     Puerto de Hierro, Venezuela, 838                                                Ports
   697                               Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 873           Junction Points*
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),   Rio Haina, Dominican Republic,                                                Douala, Cameroon, 141
   601                                  536                               Port Said, Egypt, 4,638                  Matadi, Congo, 663
La Spezia, Italy, 775                San Juan, Puerto Rico, 705           Singapore, 1,137
Livorno, Italy, 739                  Santa Maria, Cuba, 753                                                        BATANGAS, LUZON,
Malaga, Spain, 1,303                 Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 549            Ports                                  PHILIPPINES
Marseille, France, 902               Santo Domingo, Dominican                                                       (1345'20"N., 12102'00"E.) to:
Messina, Sicily, 329                    Republic, 538                     Calcutta, India, 643
Napoli, Italy, 500                   St. Louis, Marie Galante, 857        Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,194                  Ports
Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Surgidero de Batabano, Cuba, 944     Penang, Malaysia, 786
   Greece), 1,200                    Turiamo, Venezuela, 504                                                       Cebu, Philippines, 309
Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth         Veracruz, Mexico, 1,525                                                       Iloilo, Philippines, 270
                                                                          BASSENS, FRANCE
   Canal), 1,103                     Willemstad, Curacao, 389              (4454'00"N., 032'15"W.)               Jolo, Philippines, 480
Oran, Algeria, 1,142                                                      Subtract 3 1/2 miles from Bordeaux       Tacloban, Philippines, 293
Palermo, Sicily, 445                 BARROSSO TERMINAL,                   distances.                               Zamboanga, Philippines, 436
Palma, Balearic Islands, 963         BRAZIL
Piraievs, Greece (south of            (2348'00"S., 4524'00"W.) See                                               BATH, MAINE, U.S.A.
                                     Sao Sebastiao.                       BASSE-TERRE,
   Greece), 538                                                           GUADELOUPE                                (4354'00"N., 6948'30"W.) to:
Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth                                              (1559'45"N., 6144'15"W.) to:
   Canal), 402                       BARROW IN FURNESS,                                                              Junction Points*
Rijeka, Croatia, 288                 ENGLAND                                Junction Points*
Savona, Italy, 820                    (5405'30"N., 313'30"W.) to:                                                Bishop Rock, England, 2,738
Sibenik, Croatia, 167                                                     Straits of Florida, 1,317
Siracusa, Sicily, 350                  Junction Points*                                                              Ports
Split, Croatia, 155                                                         Ports
Tarabulus, Libya, 613                Bishop Rock, England, 303                                                     St. John, Canada, 206
Taranto, Italy, 208                  Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 302           New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Inishtrahull, Ireland, 186             Anegada Channel), 1,624
                                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 427



  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
12        BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA, U.S.A.



BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA,                 Ports                                Brindisi, Italy (south of Greece),     BELAWAN, INDONESIA
U.S.A.                                                                          1,011                                (347'00"N., 9840'40"E.) to:
 (3027'00"N., 9106'00"W.) Add       Aberdeen, Scotland, 398                Brindisi, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
115 miles to New Orleans              Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 2,030               980                                   Junction Points*
distances.                            Cardiff, Wales, 495                    Cartagena, Spain, 1,797
                                      Hull, England, 209                     Ceuta, Morocco, 2,014                  Cape of Good Hope, South
BAT'UMI, GEORGIA                      Oslo, Norway, 619                      Dubrovnik, Croatia (south of             Africa, 5,246
 (4138'46"N., 4138'51"E.) to:       Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 331               Greece), 1,107                      Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,342
                                      Zeebrugge, Belgium, 100                Dubrovnik, Croatia (via Corinth        Port Said, Egypt, 4,688
  Junction Points*                                                              Canal), 1,074                       Singapore, 368
                                                                             Genova, Italy, 1,508                   Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 870
                                      BEIHAI, CHINA
Port Said, Egypt, 1,391                (2129'00"N., 10902'00"E.) to:       Gibraltar, 2,017                       Torres Strait, Australia (via Selat
Strait of Gibraltar, 2,408                                                   Haifa, Israel, 76                        Riouw and Selat Karimata),
                                        Junction Points*                     Iraklion, Kriti, 526                     2,839
  Ports                                                                      Iskenderun, Turkey, 180
                                      Singapore, 1,332                       Istanbul, Turkey, 896                    Ports
Algiers, Algeria (south of Greece),                                          Izmir, Turkey, 651
   1,980                                Ports                                Kavala, Greece, 756                    Aden, Yemen, 3,299
Algiers, Algeria (via Corinth                                                La Spezia, Italy, 1,473                Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,553
   Canal), 1,963                      Cebu, Philippines, 1,220               Larnaca, Cyprus, 112                   Al Manamah, Bahrain, 3,316
Barcelona, Spain (south of            Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 837              Livorno, Italy, 1,437                  Balikpapan, Kalimantan, 1,422
   Greece), 2,073                     Hong Kong, China, 391                  Malaga, Spain, 1,964                   Beira, Mozambique, 4,187
Barcelona, Spain (via Corinth                                                Marseille, France, 1,600               Berbera, Somalia, 3,313
   Canal), 2,032                                                             Mersin, Turkey, 179                    Bombay, India, 2,109
                                      BEIRA, MOZAMBIQUE
Iraklion, Kriti, 1,032                 (1949'30"S., 3449'30"E.) to:        Messina, Sicily, 1,027                 Bushehr, Iran, 3,372
Istanbul, Turkey, 591                                                        Napoli, Italy, 1,198                   Calcutta, India, 1,326
Izmir, Turkey, 880                      Junction Points*                     Odessa, Ukraine, 1,194                 Calicut, India, 1,609
Marseille, France (south of                                                  Oran, Algeria, 1,803                   Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,240
   Greece), 1,970                     Cape of Good Hope, South               Palermo, Sicily, 1,143                 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 3,709
Marseille, France (via Corinth          Africa, 1,454                        Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,648         Diego Garcia, Chagos
   Canal), 1,929                      Port Said, Egypt, 3,990                Piraievs, Greece, 647                    Archipelago, 1,860
Novorossiysk, Russia, 255             Singapore, 4,520                       Rhodes, Greece, 393                    East London, South Africa, 4,749
Odessa, Ukraine, 569                                                         Rijeka, Croatia (south of Greece),     Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 3,642
Tarabulus, Libya, 1,540                 Ports                                   1,345                               Jakarta, Indonesia, 864
Thessaloniki, Greece, 926                                                    Rijeka, Croatia (via Corinth           Kakinada, India, 1,261
Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),     Aden, Yemen, 2,610                        Canal), 1,312                       Karachi, Pakistan, 2,550
   1,749                              Belawan, Indonesia, 4,187              Savona, Italy, 1,519                   Madras, India, 1,252
Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Fremantle, Australia, 4,351            Sibenik, Croatia (south of             Majunga, Madagascar, 3,512
   1,650                              Inhambane, Mozambique, 259                Greece), 1,218                      Malacca, Malaysia, 253
                                      Lindi, Tanzania, 832                   Sibenik, Croatia (via Corinth          Maputo, Mozambique, 4,436
BAYONNE, FRANCE                       Majunga, Madagascar, 732                  Canal), 1,184                       Mocambique, Mozambique, 3,747
 (4329'40"N., 128'30"W.) to:        Malacca, Malaysia, 4,405               Siracusa, Sicily, 1,013                Mombasa, Kenya, 3,654
                                      Manakara, Madagascar, 974              Split, Croatia (south of Greece),      Mosselbaai, South Africa, 5,051
  Junction Points*                    Maputo, Mozambique, 476                   1,203                               Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 4,876
                                      Mocambique, Mozambique, 476            Split, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),    Port Louis, Mauritius, 2,997
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 345           Mombasa, Kenya, 1,146                     1,169                               Rangoon, Burma, 802
Strait of Gibraltar, 912              Penang, Malaysia (north of             Tarabulus, Libya, 1,129                Sabang, Indonesia, 268
                                        Madagascar), 4,232                   Taranto, Italy (south of Greece),      Surabaya, Indonesia, 1,132
  Ports                               Port Darwin, Australia, 5,553             1,023                               Tamatave, Madagascar, 3,342
                                      Port Louis, Mauritius, 1,448           Taranto, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Tanga, Tanzania, 3,704
Bordeaux, France, 172                 Quelimane, Mozambique, 123                1,000                               Victoria, Seychelles, 2,734
El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 322    Sabang, Indonesia, 3,921               Tarragona, Spain, 1,738                Zamboanga, Philippines, 1,570
Horta, Azores, 1,277                  Tamatave, Madagascar, 1,239            Thessaloniki, Greece, 783              Zanzibar, Tanzania, 3,727
                                      Tulear, Madagascar, 539                Toulon, France, 1,568
BAYONNE, NEW JERSEY,                                                         Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),      BELEM, BRAZIL
U.S.A.                                BEIRUT, LEBANON                           1,379                                (127'00"S., 4830'20"W.) to:
  (4041'00"N., 7401'00"W.) For       (3354'12"N., 3530'46"E.) to:        Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
ocean distance subtract 2 1/2 miles                                             1,346                                 Junction Points*
from New York distances.                Junction Points*                     Tubruq, Libya, 595
                                                                             Tunis, Tunisia, 1,263                  Bishop Rock, England, 3,760
BAYTOWN, TEXAS, U.S.A.                Port Said, Egypt, 230                  Valencia, Spain, 1,770                 Cape of Good Hope, South
 (2943'39"N., 9601'21"W.)           Strait of Gibraltar, 2,034             Valletta, Malta, 1,049                    Africa, 4,368
Subtract 17 miles from Houston                                               Venezia, Italy (south of Greece),      Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,741
distances.                              Ports                                   1,387                               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,748
                                                                             Venezia, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,972
BEAUMONT, TEXAS, U.S.A.               Ajaccio, Corsica, 1,437                   1,356                               Montreal, Canada (via Cabot
 (3004'40"N., 9405'10"W.) Add       Alexandria, Egypt, 341                 Volos, Greece, 725                        Strait), 3,680
24 miles to Port Arthur distances.    Algiers, Algeria, 1,605                                                       Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
                                      Alicante, Spain, 1,772                 BEJAIA, ALGERIA                           Canso), 3,709
                                      Ancona, Italy (south of Greece),        (3645'00"N., 505'30"E.) to:         Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,219
BEE NESS, ENGLAND
 (5125'18"N., 039'00"E.) to:          1,276                                                                       Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,363
                                      Ancona, Italy (via Corinth Canal),       Junction Points*                     Strait of Gibraltar, 3,285
  Junction Points*                      1,245                                                                       Straits of Florida, 2,653
                                      Annaba, Turkey, 1,381                  Port Said, Egypt, 1,423                Yucatan Channel, 2,671
Bishop Rock, England, 386             Antalya, Turkey, 322                   Strait of Gibraltar, 545
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 370           Ashdod, Israel, 136                                                             Ports
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Banghazi, Libya, 806                     Ports
  Entrance), Germany, 412             Banzart, Tunisia, 1,276                                                       Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 509         Barcelona, Spain, 1,703                Annaba, Algeria, 156                     2,953
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 527            Bari, Italy (south of Greece), 1,069   Arzew, Algeria, 294                    Bordeaux, France, 3,868
                                      Bari, Italy (via Corinth Canal),       Palma, Balearic Islands, 212           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
                                        1,038                                                                         2,970
                                                                                                                    Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,154



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                           BILHOROD-DNISTROVS'KYY, UKRAINE                                       13



Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,274         Junction Points*                     BENICIA, CALIFORNIA,              Reykjavik, Iceland, 872
Cabedelo, Brazil, 1,021                                                     U.S.A.                            Risor, Norway, 279
Cadiz, Spain, 3,286                  Montreal, Canada (via Strait of         (3802'30"N., 12208'00"W.)      Rotterdam, Netherlands, 533
Charleston, South Carolina,            Canso), 2,985                        Add 24 miles to San Francisco     Sandefjorden, Norway, 317
   U.S.A., 2,773                     Panama, Panama, 859                    distances.                        Seydhisfjordhur, Iceland, 634
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    Yucatan Channel, 337                                                     Skien, Norway, 317
   1,598                                                                    BERBERA, SOMALIA                  Sogndal, Norway, 152
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 2,460                Ports                                 (1026'30"N., 4501'00"E.) to:   Southampton, England, 713
Colon, Panama, 2,320                                                                                          Stavanger, Norway (via inner
Dakar, Senegal, 2,104                Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via         Junction Points*                  lead), 111
Georgetown, Guyana, 896                Straits of Florida), 1,625                                             Stavanger, Norway (via outer
Guantanamo, Cuba, 2,148              Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via     Singapore, 3,646                    lead), 115
Guiria, Venezuela, 1,226               Straits of Florida and Yucatan                                         Tonsberg, Norway, 329
Halifax, Canada, 2,904                 Channel), 1,934                        Ports                           Torshavn, Faroe Islands, 372
Hamilton, Bermuda, 2,274             Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A. (via                                          Tromso, Norway, 705
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,         Straits of Florida), 1,072           Belawan, Indonesia, 3,313         Trondheim, Norway, 321
   2,773                             Campeche, Mexico (west of Banco        Fremantle, Australia, 4,933       Tvedestrand, Norway, 272
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 2,603       Chinchorro and Isla de               Malacca, Malaysia, 3,531          Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 441
Kingston, Jamaica, 2,159               Cozumel), 609                        Penang, Malaysia, 3,358           Zeebrugge, Belgium, 558
La Habana, Cuba, 2,613               Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 950                Port Darwin, Australia, 5,384
Lisboa, Portugal, 3,251              Carmen, Mexico (west of Banco          Sabang, Indonesia., 3.047
                                                                                                              BHAVNAGAR, INDIA
Luderitz Bay, Namibia, 4,076           Chinchorro and Isla de                                                  (2148'15"N., 7209'00"E.) to:
Maceio, Brazil, 1,211                  Cozumel), 688                        BERGEN, NORWAY
Natal, Brazil, 954                   Cartagena, Colombia, 904                (6024'00"N., 519'00"E.) to:      Ports
New Amsterdam, Guyana, 859           Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
New York, New York, U.S.A.,            1,368                                  Junction Points*                Aden, Yemen, 1,707
   2,975                             Cienfuegos, Cuba, 545                                                    Bombay, India, 204
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,832     Colon, Panama, 816                     Bishop Rock, England, 911         Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,073
Paramaribo, Suriname, 747            Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 935          Ile d'Ouessant, France, 894       Karachi, Pakistan, 481
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A., 838     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 296
   U.S.A., 2,950                     Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,         Skagens Odde, Denmark, 305
                                                                                                              BIKINI, MARSHALL
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,678           1,047                                                                  ISLANDS
Port au Prince, Haiti, 2,192         Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 590           Ports                            (1131'30"N., 16533'00"E.) to:
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,212       Kingston, Jamaica, 685
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,265      La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,328            Aberdeen, Scotland, 309             Junction Points*
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,           La Habana, Cuba, 528                   Akureyri, Iceland, 803
   U.S.A., 2,959                     Matagorda Bay, Texas, U.S.A.           Alesund, Norway, 167              Panama, Panama, 4,915
Puerto de Hierro, Venezuela, 1,215     (west of Banco Chinchorro and        Amsterdam, Netherlands, 502       Singapore, 3,591
Recife, Brazil, 1,084                  Isla de Cozumel), 957                Antwerp, Belgium, 602
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,174        Mathew Town, Great Inagua              Arendal, Norway, 254                Ports
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary         Island, 902                          Blyth, England, 400
   Islands, 2,599                    Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 734            Bodo, Norway, 521                 Apra, Guam, 1,263
Santo Domingo, Dominican             Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 846           Bremerhaven, Germany, 447         Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,179
   Republic, 1,819                   New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.         Calais, France, 588
Sao Luiz, Brazil, 372                  (via South Pass), 850                Cherbourg, France, 734            BILBAO, SPAIN
St. Helena Island, 4,329             Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,503       Dover, England, 590                (4320'30"N., 302'00"W.) to:
St. John, Canada, 2,998              Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 826        Dunkerque, France, 585
St. John's, Canada, 2,968            Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,578      Emden, Germany, 457                 Junction Points*
St. John's, Antigua, 1,433           Port au Prince, Haiti (north of        Esbjerg, Denmark, 361
Vigo, Spain, 3,398                     Jamaica), 933                        Farsund, Norway, 182              Ile d'Ouessant, France, 346
                                     Port au Prince, Haiti (south of        Flekkefjorden, Norway, 170        Strait of Gibraltar, 854
BELFAST, NORTHERN                      Jamaica), 953                        Fredrikstad, Norway, 335
IRELAND                              Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,637         Goteborg, Sweden, 356               Ports
 (5437'00"N., 554'00"W.) to:       Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,609        Grimstad, Norway, 250
                                     Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 1,967         Hafnarfjordhur, Iceland, 884      Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
  Junction Points*                   Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 1,289       Hamburg, Germany, 486               2,987
                                     San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,         Hammerfest, Norway, 817           Huelva, Spain, 804
Bishop Rock, England, 320              619                                  Harstad, Norway, 673              La Pallice, France, 214
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 311           Santo Domingo, Dominican               Hirtshals, Denmark, 280           Lorient, France, 274
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 97              Republic, 1,088                      Hull, England, 474                Marin, Spain, 387
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 341        Tampico, Mexico, 927                   Hvalfjordhur, Iceland, 887        New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                     Tuxpan, Mexico, 897                    Keflavik, Iceland, 875              3,147
  Ports                              Veracruz, Mexico, 862                  Kragero, Norway, 289              Setubal, Portugal, 612
                                     Willemstad, Curacao, 1,178             Kristiansand, Norway, 226         Villagarcia, Spain, 357
Antwerp, Belgium, 722                                                       Kristiansund, Norway, 232
Avonmouth, England, 308              BELLINGHAM,                            Larvik, Norway, 317               BILHOROD-
Barrow in Furness, England, 116      WASHINGTON, U.S.A.                     Le Havre, France, 702             DNISTROVS'KYY, UKRAINE
Cardiff, Wales, 293                   (4845'00"N., 12230'00"W.) to:       Leith, Scotland, 386               (4611'33"N., 3021'55"E.) to:
Cobh, Ireland, 264                                                          Lillesand, Norway, 241
Fishguard, Wales, 182                  Ports                                London, England, 613                Junction Points*
Le Harve, France, 542                                                       Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 1,124
Limerick, Ireland (north of          Nanaimo, Canada, 76                    Mandal, Norway, 201               Port Said, Egypt, 1,168
   Ireland), 376                     Vancouver, Canada, 70                  Molde, Norway, 201                Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth
Londonderry, Northern Ireland        Victoria, Canada, 52                   Mosjoen, Norway, 473               Canal), 4,035
   (via Rathlin Sound), 102          Yokohama, Japan, 4,245                 Murmansk, Russia, 1,105           Strait of Gibraltar (south of
Milford Haven, Wales, 222                                                   Namsos, Norway, 384                Greece), 4,095
Stornoway, Scotland, 234             BELOMORSK, RUSSIA                      Narvik, Norway, 624
Workington, England, 87               (6432'00"N., 3448'00"E.) Add        Newcastle, England, 403             Ports
                                     67 miles to Arkhangel'sk distances.    Oostende, Belgium, 563
BELIZE, BELIZE                                                              Oslo, Norway, 378                 Alexandria, Egypt, 1,106
 (1728'00"N., 8811'00"W.) to:                                             Plymouth, England, 819            Beirut, Lebanon, 1,218
                                                                            Portland, England, 745            Constanta, Romania, 153
                                                                            Portsmouth, England, 695          Haifa, Israel, 1,219



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
14        BISHOP ROCK, ENGLAND



Istanbul, Turkey, 360                 Dieppe, France, 297                   Recife, Brazil, 3,775               Sydney, Australia, 1,105
Palermo, Sicily (via Corinth          Douglas, Isle of Man, 276             Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,846       Wellington, New Zealand, 455
   Canal), 1,239                      Dover, England, 323                   Rotterdam, Netherlands, 454
Palermo, Sicily (south of Greece),    Dublin, Ireland, 232                  San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,390        BLYTH, ENGLAND
   1,303                              Dundee, Scotland, 713                 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       (5507'45"N., 130'00"W.) to:
Tunis, Tunisia (via Corinth           Dunkerque, France, 355                   Islands, 1,356
   Canal), 1,381                      Egersund, Norway, 797                 Santo Domingo, Dominican              Junction Points*
Tunis, Tunisia (south of Greece),     El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 394       Republic, 3,585
   1,415                              Emden, Germany, 606                   Seaham Harbor, England, 625         Bishop Rock, England, 610
Volos, Greece, 693                    Esbjerg, Denmark, 688                 Shoreham By Sea, England, 249       Pentland Firth, Scotland, 290
                                      Fishguard, Wales, 161                 Southampton, England, 232
BISHOP ROCK, ENGLAND *                Fleetwood, England, 307               St. John's, Canada, 1,804             Ports
 (4945'00"N., 635'00"W.) to:        Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,673         St. Malo, France, 90
                                      Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,136        Stavanger, Norway, 836              Bergen, Norway, 400
  Junction Points*                    Georgetown, Guyana, 3,643             Sunderland, England, 605            Leith, Scotland, 96
                                      Glasgow, Scotland, 402                Swansea, Wales, 155                 London, England, 318
Cape of Good Hope, South              Granville, France, 267                Tromso, Norway, 1,597
   Africa, 5,790                      Guantanamo, Cuba (via Windward        Trondheim, Norway, 1,202            BOCA DE TANAMO, CUBA
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 149               Passage), 3,714                    Vigo, Spain, 484                     (2042'00"N., 7520'00"W.) to:
Grand Banks South, 1,830              Halifax, Canada, 2,336                Villa do Porto, Santa Maria,
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 80            Hamburg, Germany, 717                    Azores, 1,128                      Junction Points*
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 395            Hamilton, Bermuda, 2,769              Walvisbaai, Namibia, 5,165
Montreal, Canada (via Cape            Hartlepool, England, 594              Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 3,221     Panama, Panama, 869
   Race), 2,844                       Holyhead, Wales, 232                  Waterford, Ireland, 137             Straits of Florida, 489
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Horta, Fayal, Azores, 1,158           Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 651
  Entrance), Germany, 727             Hull, England, 531                    Wilmington, North Carolina,           Ports
Panama, Panama (via Mona              Ivittuut, Greenland (via 75 miles        U.S.A., 3,304
   Passage), 4,388                       off Kap Farvel), 1,652             Zarate, Argentina, 6,075            Kingston, Jamaica, 318
Pentland Firth, Scotland (via Irish   Ivittuut, Greenland (direct), 1,608   Zeebrugge, Belgium, 393             La Habana, Cuba, 444
   Sea), 636                          Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,                                            San Juan, Puerto Rico, 549
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,019               3,569                              BISSAU, GUINEA-BISSAU
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 851            Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via         (1151'00"N., 1538'00"W.) to:     BOCA GRANDE, FLORIDA,
Strait of Gibraltar, 969                 Florida Strait), 3,807                                                 U.S.A.
Straits of Florida, 3,859             Kingston, Jamaica (via Windward         Junction Points*                   (2640'00"N., 8219'27"W.) to:
Yucatan Channel, 4,176                   Passage), 3,866
                                      Kristiansand, Norway, 809             Cape of Good Hope, South              Junction Points*
  Ports                               La Guaira, Venezuela, 3,777              Africa, 3,518
                                      La Habana, Cuba (via Florida          Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,401       Straits of Florida, 148
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 481              Strait), 3,868                                                         Yucatan Channel, 329
Antwerp, Belgium, 449                 Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 1,360       Ports
Ardrossan, Scotland, 350              Le Havre, France, 263                                                       Ports
Argentia, Canada, 1,949               Leith, Scotland, 708                  Natal, Brazil, 1,604
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 2,263           Lisboa, Portugal, 710                 Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   Campeche, Mexico, 658
Avonmouth, England, 191               Liverpool, England, 297                 631                               Tampico, Mexico, 891
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          London, England, 413
  3,208                               Londonderry, Northern Ireland,        BJORNOYA, SVALBARD                  BOCAS DEL TORO,
Barrow in Furness, England, 303          396                                 (7429'45"N., 1912'30"E.) to:     PANAMA
Bath, Maine, U.S.A., 2,696            Lorient, France, 202                                                       (920'00"N., 8214'00"W.) to:
Belem, Brazil, 3,769                  Methil, Scotland, 698                   Ports
Belfast, Northern Ireland, 320        Miami, Florida, U.S.A. (via                                                 Junction Points*
Bergen, Norway, 911                      Florida Strait), 3,663             Reykjavik, Iceland (north of
Blyth, England, 610                   Middlesbrough, England, 591             Iceland), 1,152                   Panama, Panama, 187
Bodo, Norway, 1,405                   Milford Haven, Wales, 129             Reykjavik, Iceland (south of
Bordeaux, France, 397                 Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,834              Iceland), 1,234                     Ports
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Narvik, Norway, 1,505                 Tromso, Norway, 306
  2,769                               New London, Connecticut,              Vadso, Norway, 373                  Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Boulogne, France, 322                    U.S.A., 2,849                      Vardo, Norway, 328                    1,975
Bremerhaven, Germany, 657             New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                               Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,947           2,937                              BLAYE, FRANCE                         2,231
Cadiz, Spain, 930                     Newcastle, England, 616                 (4507'30"N., 040'15"W.) For     Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.
Caen, France, 264                     Newport, Wales, 177                   ocean distances subtract 13 mile      (via Windward Passage and
Cairn Ryan, Scotland, 330             Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,101      from Bordeaux distances.              Crooked Island Passage), 1,638
Calais, France, 333                   Oostende, Belgium, 400                                                    Colon, Panama, 144
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 3,565             Oslo, Norway, 947                                                         Halifax, Canada, 2,369
                                                                            BLUFF HARBOR, NEW
Cape Town, South Africa, 5,772        Paramaribo, Suriname, 3,602           ZEALAND                             Kingston, Jamaica, 604
Cardiff, Wales, 176                   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,            (4635'50"S., 16820'30"E.) to:    La Habana, Cuba, 981
Cartagena, Colombia, 4,138               U.S.A., 3,082                                                          Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 1,340
Charleston, South Carolina,           Plymouth, England, 106                  Junction Points*                  New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
  U.S.A., 3,368                       Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,103                                                (via South Pass and inside
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,     Port au Prince, Haiti (via            Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,484        route), 1,353
  3,369                                  Windward Passage), 3,743           Torres Strait, Australia, 2,797     New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
Cherbourg, France, 197                Port of Spain, Trinidad, 3,603        Wilson Promontory, Australia,         Windward Passage and Crooked
Christiansted, Virgin Islands,        Port Talbot, Wales, 149                 1,135                               Island Passage), 2,048
  3,370                               Portland, England, 181                                                    Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via
Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Windward        Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,       Ports                               Windward Passage and Crooked
  Passage), 4,063                        2,165                                                                    Island Passage), 1,853
Cobh, Ireland, 143                    Portsmouth, England (via Needles      Botany Bay, Australia, 1,097        Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Colon, Panama (via Mona                  Channel), 225                      Dunedin, New Zealand, 147             (via Windward Passage and
  Passage), 4,408                     Praia Da Vitoria, Terceira, Azores,   Hobart, Australia, 930                Crooked Island Passage), 2,020
Dakar, Senegal, 2,195                    1,128                              Melbourne, Australia, 1,211         Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via
Dartmouth, England, 122               Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.,     New Plymouth, New Zealand, 618        Windward Passage and Crooked
Den Helder, Netherlands, 509             2,841                              Picton, New Zealand, 465              Island Passage), 1,637




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                              BOTAS, TURKEY                   15



BODO, NORWAY                         Al Jubayl, Saudi Arabia, 2,353       Halifax, Canada (via Cape Race),      Cape Town, South Africa, 6,707
 (6717'00"N., 1422'30"E.) to:      Belawan, Indonesia, 2,109               2,663                              Cartagena, Colombia (via Crooked
                                     Bhavnager, India, 204                Horta, Fayal, Azores, 1,348              Island Passage), 2,036
  Junction Points*                   Calcutta, India, 2,128               La Guaira, Venezuela, 3,993           Casablanca, Morocco, 2,981
                                     Cochin, India, 392                   La Habana, Cuba (north of Little      Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
Bishop Rock, England, 1,405          Colombo, Sri Lanka, 895                 Bahama Bank), 4,153                   1,513
                                     Dampier, Australia, 3,624            La Habana, Cuba (via Northeast        Charlottetown, Canada (via Strait
  Ports                              Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2,500          Providence Channel), 4,188            of Canso), 621
                                     Diego Garcia, Chagos                 La Pallice, France, 103               Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Windward
Bergen, Norway, 521                    Archipelago, 1,603                 Lagos, Nigeria, 3,817                    Passage), 1,865
Kristiansand, Norway, 733            Durban, South Africa, 3,826          Lisboa, Portugal, 732                 Colon, Panama (via Crooked
Oslo, Norway, 885                    Fateh Terminal, United Arab          Luanda, Angola, 4,623                    Island Passage), 2,157
                                       Emirates, 1,146                    New London, Connecticut,              Dakar, Senegal, 3,221
BOHANG, SOUTH KOREA                  Fremantle, Australia, 3,984             U.S.A., 3,153                      Fort de France, Martinique, 1,799
 (3602'45"N., 12923'30"E.) to:     Galle, Sri Lanka, 944                New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,       Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,656
                                     Karachi, Pakistan, 504                  4,692                              Georgetown, Guyana, 2,282
  Ports                              Madras, India, 1,482                 New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Guantanamo, Cuba, 1,495
                                     Malacca, Malaysia, 2,327                3,241                              Halifax, Canada, 380
Hakodate, Japan, 665                 Marmagao, India, 235                 Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,405      Hamilton, Bermuda, 704
Incheon, South Korea, 511            Massawa, Ethiopia, 2,050             Panama, Panama (via Mona              Ivittuut, Greenland, 1,731
Maizuru, Japan, 313                  Mina al Ahmadi, Kuwait, 1,517           Passage), 4,597                    Jacmel, Haiti, 1,672
Shimonoseki, Japan, 164              Mina Abd Allah, Kuwait, 1,514        Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,           Kingston, Jamaica (via Crooked
                                     Mina Az Zawr, Kuwait, 1,495             U.S.A., 3,386                         Island Passage), 1,657
BOMA, CONGO                          Mombasa, Kenya, 2,400                Pictou, Canada, 2,655                 La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,955
 (600'40"S., 1216'25"E.) to:       Okha, India, 341                     Point Noire, Congo, 4,437             La Habana, Cuba, 1,415
                                     Penang, Malaysia, 2,154              Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,256          Lagos, Nigeria, 4,774
  Junction Points*                   Port Darwin, Australia, 4,193        Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.,     Las Piedras, Venezuela, 1,907
                                     Port Louis, Mauritius, 2,517            3,145                              Les Cayes, Haiti, 1,630
Bishop Rock, England, 4,493          Port Said, Egypt, 3,046              Puerto de Pasajes, Spain, 178         Limon, Costa Rica (via Crooked
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Port Sudan, Sudan, 2,310             Recife, Brazil, 3,823                    Island Passage), 2,230
   4,223                             Port Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles,     Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,908         Lisboa, Portugal, 2,801
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,546           1,752                              San Sebastian, Spain, 210             Liverpool, Canada, 317
Grand Banks South, 4,642             Rangoon, Burma, 2,139                Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary        Luderitz Bay, Namibia, 6,302
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,452        Ras al Khafji, Saudi Arabia, 1,491      Islands, 1,406                     Maracaibo, Venezuela, 2,001
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,862         Sabang, Indonesia, 1,843             St. Nazaire, France, 184              Montecristi, Dominican Republic,
Panama, Panama, 5,670                Tamatave, Madagascar, 2,621          Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 3,543          1,415
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 5,151      Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 1,218        Wilmington, North Carolina,           Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,728
Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,998           Weipa, Australia (via south of          U.S.A., 3,638                      Murmansk, Russia, 3,719
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,792             Java), 4,844                                                             Nassau, Bahamas, 1,173
Straits of Florida, 5,864            Yenbo, Indonesia, 2,503              BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS,                Nuevitas, Cuba, 1,454
Yucatan Channel, 5,969               Zanzibar, Tanzania, 2,517            U.S.A.                                Paramaribo, Suriname, 2,380
                                                                           (4222'00"N., 7103'00"W.) to:       Parrsboro, Canada, 349
  Ports                              BONNY, NIGERIA                                                             Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,742
                                      (427'21"N., 710'22"E.) Subtract     Junction Points*                    Ponce, Puerto Rico, 1,563
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 1,187          28 miles from Port Harcourt                                                Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,088
Amboim, Angola, 356                  distances.                           Bishop Rock, England, 2,769           Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,557
Bridgetown, Barbados, 4,478                                               Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,      Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,022
Cabinda, Cabinda, 89                                                         6,722                              Port Antonio, Jamaica (via
                                     BORDEAUX, FRANCE
Cape Town, South Africa, 3,747        (4451'00"N., 034'00"W.) to:       Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,647             Crooked Island Passage), 1,606
Dakar, Senegal, 2,284                                                     Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,751          Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,812,
Douala, Cameroon, 742                  Junction Points*                   Montreal, Canada (via Cabot           Progreso, Mexico, 1,838
Lagos, Nigeria, 977                                                          Strait), 1,308                     Puerto Cabello, Venezuela (via
Luanda, Angola, 190                  Bishop Rock, England, 397            Montreal, Canada (via Strait of          Mona Passage), 1,976
Monrovia, Liberia, 1,576             Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,        Canso), 1,248                      Recife, Brazil, 3,669
New York, New York, U.S.A.,             5,838                             Panama, Panama (via Crooked           Reykjavik, Iceland (via Cape
   5,567                             Ile d'Ouessant, France, 321             Island Passage), 2,200                Race), 2,293
Pointe Noire, Congo, 140             Montreal, Canada (via Cape           Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,947       Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,739
Port Gentil, Gabon, 470                 Race), 3,171                      Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,918            Salvador, Brazil, 4,060
Recife, Brazil, 2,808                Panama, Panama (via Mona             Strait of Gibraltar, 3,008            San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,486
Sao Tome, Sao Tome, 563                 Passage), 4,597                   Straits of Florida, 1,408             Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary
St. Helena Island, 1,232             Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,074           Yucatan Channel (via outside             Islands, 2,777
Takoradi, Ghana, 1,064               Strait of Gibraltar, 1,010            route, Southbound), 1,595            Santa Marta, Colombia (via
                                     Straits of Florida, 4,172                                                     Crooked Island Passage), 1,966
BOMBAY, INDIA                                                               Ports                               Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via
 (1856'00"N., 7251'00"E.) to:        Ports                                                                       Crooked Island Passage), 1,545
                                                                          Antilla, Cuba, 1,408                  Santo Domingo, Dominican
  Junction Points*                   Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 3,376          Argentia, Canada, 801                    Republic, 1,599
                                     Accra, Ghana, 3,603                  Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 4,014           Santos, Brazil, 4,928
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa      Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 6,125        Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 1,853
  (via west of Madagascar), 4,554      3,528                              Banes, Cuba (via Crooked Island       St. Georges, Grenada, 1,932
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,059       Bayonne, France, 200                   Passage), 1,398                     St. John, Canada, 286
Port Said, Egypt, 3,046              Belem, Brazil, 3,868                 Belem, Brazil, 2,970                  St. John's, Canada, 885
Singapore, 2,441                     Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Belize, Belize (via Straits of        Sydney, Canada, 597
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,664          3,073                                Florida and Yucatan Channel),       Vigo, Spain, 2,746
Torres Strait, Australia (south of   Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6,009         1,934                               Walvisbaai, Namibia, 6,131
  Java and Timor), 4,849             Cadiz, Spain, 952                    Bilbao, Spain, 2,979                  Willemstad, Curacao, 1,881
                                     Cape Town, South Africa, 5,820       Bocas del Toro, Panama (via           Yarmouth, Canada, 237
  Ports                              Charleston, South Carolina,            Crooked Island Passage), 2,231
                                       U.S.A., 3,700                      Bordeaux, France, 3,073               BOTAS, TURKEY
Abadan, Iran, 1,357                  Dakar, Senegal, 2,243                Brest, France, 2,854                   (3650'37"N., 3557'05"E.) to:
Ad Damman, Saudi Arabia, 1,373       Fort de France, Martinique, 3,607    Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,899
Aden, Yemen, 1,657                   Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,192       Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,842
Al Basrah, Iraq, 1,594                                                    Cadiz, Spain, 2,992



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
16        BOTWOOD, CANADA



  Junction Points*                     Junction Points*                 Dundee, Scotland, 437                 Ports
                                                                        Dunkerque, France, 321
Port Said, Egypt, 390                Bishop Rock, England, 377          Egersund, Norway, 312               Aarhus, Denmark, 211
Strait of Gibraltar, 2,049           Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 377         Emden, Germany, 128                 Bergen, Norway, 316
                                     Inishtrahull, Ireland, 125         Hakonsvern, Norway, 442             Kokkola, Finland (via The Sound),
  Ports                                                                 Hartlepool, England, 355              958
                                       Ports                            Harwich, England, 309               Kotka, Finland (via The Sound),
Beirut, Lebanon, 178                                                    Hull, England, 332                    827
Istanbul, Turkey, 846                Ardrossan, Scotland, 33            Inverness, Scotland, 514            Narvik, Norway, 914
Piraievs, Greece, 650                Avonmouth, England, 384            Kristiansand, Norway, 292           Sankt-Peterburg, Russia (via The
Tarabulus, Libya, 1,147              Cardiff, Wales, 368                Le Havre, France, 453                 Sound), 916
                                     Cobn, Ireland, 329                 Leith, Scotland, 442                Stavanger, Norway, 234
BOTWOOD, CANADA                      Fishguard, Wales, 248              London, England, 375                Tallinn, Estonia (via The Sound),
 (4909'00"N., 5520'24"W.) to:      Glasgow, Scotland, 10              Narvik, Norway, 1,058                 752
                                     Stornoway, Scotland, 273           Newcastle, England, 374             Vassa, Finland (via The Sound),
  Junction Points*                                                      Oostende, Belgium, 299                899
                                     BRAKE, GERMANY                     Oslo, Norway, 427
Bishop Rock, England, 1,868           (5319'55"N., 829'30"E.) Add     Plymouth, England, 573              BRIDGEPORT,
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1,731         14 l/2 miles to Bremerhaven        Portland, England, 499              CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
Grand Banks South, 560               distances.                         Portsmouth, England, 446             (4110'18"N., 7310'48"W.) to:
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,759                                            Rotterdam, Netherlands, 256
Montreal, Canada (via Cabot                                             Sandefjorden, Norway, 373             Junction Points*
                                     BRASS RIVER (OFFSHORE
   Strait), 1,329                    TERMINAL), NIGERIA                 Skien, Norway, 372
Montreal, Canada (via Strait of       (404'00"N., 617'17"E.) to:      Southampton, England, 464           Panama, Panama, 2,118
   Belle Isle), 1,024                                                   Stavanger, Norway, 366
Panama, Panama, 3,360                  Junction Points*                 Zeebrugge, Belgium, 287               Ports
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,151
Strait of Gibraltar, 2,309           Bishop Rock, England, 3,971        BREMERTON,                          Halifax, Canada, 552
Straits of Florida, 2,736            Cape of Good Hope, South           WASHINGTON, U.S.A.                  La Habana, Cuba, 1,292
                                        Africa, 3,534                    (4733'30"N., 12238'00"W.) For
  Ports                              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,024       distances outside Puget Sound add   BRIDGETOWN, BARBADOS
                                     Grand Banks South, 4,123           9 miles to Seattle distances.        (1305'00"N., 5937'00"W.) to:
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,863
   1,147                             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,315       BREST, FRANCE                         Junction Points*
Colon, Panama, 2,947                 Panama, Panama, 5,216               (4822'30"N., 433'00"W.) to:
Halifax, Canada, 782                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 5,019                                        Panama, Panama, 1,280
Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Greenland,   Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,226           Junction Points*                  Straits of Florida, 1,511
   1,237                             Strait of Gibraltar, 3,271                                             Yucatan Channel, 1,549
Keflavik, Iceland, 1,390             Straits of Florida, 5,376          Cape of Good Hope, South
New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Yucatan Channel, 5,500                Africa, 5,757                      Ports
   1,304                                                                Ile d'Ouessant, France, 55
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,675           Ports                            Straits of Florida, 3,953           Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,512                                                                                1,853
Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,472            Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 632            Ports                             Belem, Brazil, 1,154
Upernavik, Greenland, 1,417          Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                         Boma, Congo, 4,478
                                       4,931                            Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,        Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
BOULOGNE, FRANCE                     Cape Town, South Africa, 2,385        3,302                              1,899
 (5043'30"N., 136'00"E.) to:       Casablanca, Morocco, 3,266         Barrow in Furness, England, 416     Charleston, South Carolina,
                                     Dakar, Senegal, 1,783              Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        U.S.A., 1,628
  Junction Points*                   Monrovia, Liberia, 1,053              2,838                            Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
                                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,        Cardiff, Wales, 277                   442
Bishop Rock, England, 322              5,028                            Charleston, South Carolina,         Colon, Panama, 1,237
                                     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 5,124      U.S.A., 3,452                    Fort de France, Martinique, 130
  Ports                              Port of Spain, Trinidad, 4,054     Colon, Panama (via Mona             Georgetown, Guyana, 389
                                     Recife, Brazil, 2,570                 Passage), 4,420                  Halifax, Canada, 1,906
Cardiff, Wales, 429                  Takoradi, Ghana, 482               Fishguard, Wales, 274               Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,208
Dublin, Ireland, 496                                                    Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,110      Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,
Glassgow, Scotland, 672              BREMEN, GERMANY                    Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,784               1,617
Hull, England, 225                    (5306'30"N., 845'00"E.) For     Holyhead, Wales, 345                Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,459
Le Havre, France, 98                 ocean distances add 34 miles to    Liverpool, England, 410             Kingstown, St. Vincent, 98
Manchester, England, 601             Bremerhaven distances.             New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Montevideo, Uruguay, 4,096
Plymouth, England, 226                                                     3,017                            Nassau, Bahamas, 1,284
Southampton, England, 120                                               Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,         New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                     BREMERHAVEN, GERMANY
Yarmouth, England, 113                (5333'00"N., 833'30"E.) to:        U.S.A., 3,160                      1,829
                                                                        Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,181           Paramaribo, Suriname, 496
BOWEN, AUSTRALIA                       Junction Points*                 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,841       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
 (2001'30"S., 14815'00"E.) to:                                        Rotterdam, Netherlands, 457           U.S.A., 1,839
                                     Bishop Rock, England, 657          Rouen, France, 342                  Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,070
  Junction Points*                   Ile d'Ouessant, France, 647        St. Malo, France, 177               Port of Spain, Trinidad (via Boca
                                     Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Yarmouth, England, 440                Grande), 211
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,975         Entrance), Germany, 129                                              Port Castries, St. Lucia (north of
Torres Strait, Australia, 760        Pentland Firth, Scotland, 507      BREVIK, NORWAY                        St. Lucia), 110
                                     Skagens Odde, Denmark, 320          (5903'00"N., 941'30"E.) to:      Port Castries, St. Lucia (south of
  Ports                                                                                                       St. Lucia), 115
                                       Ports                              Junction Points*                  Recife, Brazil, 2,054
Brisbane, Australia, 610                                                                                    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,157
Bunbury, Australia, 3,072            Aberdeen, Scotland, 425            Bishop Rock, England, 886           Salvador, Brazil, 2,476
Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,342         Amsterdam, Netherlands, 223        Ile d'Ouessant, France, 871         San Juan, Puerto Rico (west of St.
                                     Antwerp, Belgium, 333              Nord-Ostsee Kanal (East               Croix Island and Virgin
BOWLING, SCOTLAND                    Bergen, Norway, 447                  Entrance), Germany, 307             Passage), 517
 (5555'45"N., 429'07"W.) to:       Cherbourg, France, 485             Pentland Firth, Scotland, 451       Santa Barbara de Samana,
                                     Dover, England, 341                Skagens Odde, Denmark, 82             Dominican Republic, 675




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                          BUENAVENTURA, COLOMBIA                                   17



Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,646     Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth          Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 6,421          Ports
St. Georges, Grenada (north of          Canal), 1,045                      Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1,434
   island), 144                      Oran, Algeria, 1,084                  Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands,        Campeche, Mexico, 552
St. Georges, Grenada (south of       Palermo, Sicily, 387                    1,566                                Coatzacoalcas, Mexico, 517
   island), 152                      Palma, Balearic Islands, 905          Rockhampton, Australia, 391            Tampico, Mexico, 267
                                     Pescara, Italy, 209                   San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
BRIGHTON, TRINIDAD                   Piraievs, Greece (south of              6,306                                BRUGGE, BELGIUM
 (1015'34"N., 6137'38"W.) to:         Greece), 480                       San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,      (5113'25"N., 313'25"E.) Add 8
                                     Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth           6,193                                miles to Zeebrugge distances.
  Junction Points*                      Canal), 343                        Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 6,471
                                     Rijeka, Croatia, 342                  Shanghai, China, 4,243                 BRUNSWICK, GEORGIA,
Bishop Rock, England, 3,610          Savona, Italy, 762                    Suva, Fiji Islands, 1,548              U.S.A.
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     ShengJin, Albania, 103                Sydney, Australia, 529                  (3108'00"N., 8129'40"W.) to:
   5,391                             Sibenik, Croatia, 217                 Townsville, Australia, 677
Panama, Panama, 1,208                Siracusa, Sicily, 292                 Urangan, Australia, 282                  Junction Points*
Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,438           Split, Croatia, 202                   Wellington, New Zealand, 1,453
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,409           Tarabulus, Libya, 555                 Yokohama, Japan, 3,925                 Montreal, Canada, 2,074
Straits of Florida (via Mona         Taranto, Italy, 150                                                          Panama, Panama (via Windward
 Passage), 1,539                     Thessaloniki, Greece (south of        BRISTOL, ENGLAND                          Passage and Crooked Island
Yucatan Channel, 1,523                  Greece), 688                        (5127'00"N., 237'30"W.) For            Passage), 1,581
                                     Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth     ocean distances add 6 miles to         Straits of Florida, 548
  Ports                                 Canal), 592                        Avonmouth distances.
                                     Toulon, France, 812                                                            Ports
Alvaro Obregon, Mexico, 2,066        Trieste, Italy, 376                   BRIXHAM, ENGLAND
Belize, Belize, 1,643                Tunis, Tunisia, 564                    (5024'57"N., 327'42"W.) to:         Belize, Belize (via Straits of
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Valencia, Spain, 1,048                                                         Florida), 1,072
  2,028                              Valletta, Malta, 369                    Junction Points*                     Belize, Belize (via Windward
La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama      Venezia, Italy, 386                                                            Passage), 1,661
  Channel and Mona Passage),         Volos, Greece (south of Greece),      Bishop Rock, England, 128              Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,845
  1,500                                 629                                Ile d'Ouessant, France, 141            Cape Town, South Africa, 6,857
Limetree Bay, Virgin Islands, 480    Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),    Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                Cartagena, Colombia, 1,417
Monrovia, Liberia, 3,051                533                                  Entrance), Germany, 679              Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Zadar, Croatia, 280                   Pentland Firth, Scotland, 737            1,190
  (via Virgin Passage), 1,944                                              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 757             Colon, Panama (via Windward
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 574           BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA                                                            Passage), 1,538
Veracruz, Mexico, 2,182               (2728'00"S., 15303'30"E.) to:        Ports                                Halifax, Canada, 1,210
Willemstad, Curacao, 456                                                                                          Kingston, Jamaica, 1,038
                                       Junction Points*                    Cherbourg, France, 81                  Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 3,442
BRINDISI, ITALY                                                            Cobh, Ireland, 246                     Limon, Costa Rica, 1,611
 (4038'30"N., 1757'03"E.) to:      Panama, Panama, 7,687                 Dover, England, 197                    Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,731
                                     Punta Arenas, Chile (via 30S.),      King's Lynn, England, 405              Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,694
  Junction Points*                     7,369                               Le Havre, France, 148                  Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,529
                                     Punta Arenas, Chile (via 49S.),                                             Recife, Brazil, 3,672
Port Said, Egypt, 941                  6,063                               BROOKLYN, NEW YORK,                    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,744
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,315           Torres Strait, Australia (via inner   U.S.A.                                 Salvador, Brazil, 4,063
                                       route), 1,348                         (4040'00"N., 7401'00"W.) For       San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,132
  Ports                              Wilson Promontory, Australia, 931     ocean distances subtract 1 l/4 miles   Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 926
                                                                           from New York distances.               Santo Domingo, Dominican
Alexandria, Egypt, 831                 Ports                                                                        Republic, 1,179
Algiers, Algeria, 888                                                      BROOME, AUSTRALIA                      Tampico, Mexico, 1,387
Alicante, Spain, 1,042               Apia, Samoa, 2,177                     (1759'00"S., 12210'00"E.) to:       Veracruz, Mexico, 1,351
Ancona, Italy, 274                   Apra, Guam, 2,659
Annaba, Algeria, 668                 Auckland, New Zealand, 1,340            Junction Points*                     BRUSSELS, BELGIUM
Banghazi, Libya, 535                 Avarua, Cook Islands, 2,618                                                   (5050'00"N., 420'00"E.) See
Banzart, Tunisia, 577                Bowen, Australia, 610                 Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       Bruxelles.
Barcelona, Spain, 947                Cairns Harbor, Australia, 827           5,460
Beirut, Lebanon, 1,011               Christmas Island, Line Islands,       Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,316         BRUXELLES, BELGIUM
Cartagena, Spain, 1,073                 3,379                              Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 673            (5050'00"N., 420'00"E.) Add
Ceuta, Morocco, 1,296                Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,         Port Said, Egypt, 6,328                29 miles to Antwerp distances.
Chioggia, Italy, 375                    5,369                              Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,270
Civitavecchia, Italy, 568            Funafuti, Tuvalu, 1,895               Torres Strait, Australia, 1,419        BUCHANAN, LIBERIA
Genova, Italy, 752                   Gladstone Harbor, Australia, 314                                              (551'30"N., 1003'30"W.) to:
Gibraltar, 1,298                     Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,117         Ports
Haifa, Israel, 1,007                 Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 2,231                                                Junction Points*
Iraklion, Kriti, 496                 Lae, Papau New Guinea, 1,560          Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,943
Istanbul, Turkey (south of           Levuka, Fiji Islands, 1,569           Flying Fish Cove, Christmas            Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
   Greece), 793                      Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,        Island, 1,059                           2,912
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth           6,274                              Fremantle, Australia, 1,183            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,904
   Canal), 697                       Lucinda, Australia, 804               Port Darwin, Australia, 694
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),     Mackay, Australia, 512                Thursday Island, Australia, 1,385        Ports
   639                               Malakal, Palau Islands, 2,642         Zanzibar, Tanzania, 4,820
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),   Midway Island, 3,757                                                         Dakar, Senegal, 755
   543                               Nandi Bay, Fiji Islands, 1,618        BROWNSVILLE, TEXAS,                    Takoradi, Ghana, 197
Kerkira, Greece, 123                 Nelson, New Zealand, 1,380            U.S.A.
La Spezia, Italy, 717                Nonouti, Gilbert Islands, 2,032        (2557'06"N., 9724'00"W.) to:        BUCKNER BAY, OKINAWA
Livorno, Italy, 681                  Noumea, New Caledonia, 807                                                   JIMA, RYUKYU ISLANDS
Malaga, Spain, 1,245                 Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 1,819         Junction Points*                     See Nakagusuku Wan.
Marseille, France, 844               Omura, Bonin Islands, 3,455
Messina, Sicily, 270                 Pago Pago, American Samoa,            Straits of Florida, 793
                                                                                                                  BUENAVENTURA,
Napoli, Italy, 442                      2,221                              Yucatan Channel, 729                   COLOMBIA
Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,234                                              (354'00"N., 7704'30"W.) to:
   Greece), 1,142                    Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,108




  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
18        BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA



  Junction Points*                   Puerto Deseado, Argentina, 965       Route), 8,249                      BURNIE HARBOR,
                                     Puerto Madryn, Argentina, 748      Punta Arenas, Chile (via Cook        AUSTRALIA
Panama, Panama, 352                  Quequen, Argentina, 350              Strait), 6,062                      (4103'00"S., 14555'00"E.) to:
                                     Recife, Brazil, 2,181              Torres Strait, Australia, 1,182
  Ports                              Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1,151      Wilson Promontory, Australia,          Junction Points*
                                     Rio Gallegos, Argentina, 1,231       1,089
Callao, Peru, 1,126                  Rio Grande, Argentina, 1,306                                            Wilson Promontory, Australia, 116
Golfito, Costa Rica, 426             Rio Grande, Brazil, 440              Ports
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 578              Salvador, Brazil, 1,849                                                   Ports
La Libertad, Ecuador, 445            San Juan, Puerto Rico, 4,713       Arica, Chile (via Curtis Channel
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       and north of New Zealand),         Hobart, Tasmania, 332
  3,383                                 Island, 4,619                     7,263                              Melbourne, Australia, 223
                                     Santo Domingo, Dominican           Brisbane, Australia, 265             Sydney, Australia, 525
BUENOS AIRES,                           Republic, 4,881                 Hobart, Tasmania, 1,296
ARGENTINA                            Santos, Brazil, 1,006              Mollendo, Peru (via Curtis           BURNSIDE, LOUISIANA,
 (3435'00"S., 5822'00"W.) to:      Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 5,854     Channel and north of New           U.S.A.
                                     St. Helena Island, 3,052             Zealand), 7,244                     (3008'00"N., 9055'00"W.) Add
  Junction Points*                   St. John, Canada, 5,853            Sydney, Australia, 679               63 miles to New Orleans distances.
                                     St. John's, Canada, 5,663          Tumaco, Colombia (via Curtis
Bishop Rock, England, 5,947          Sydney, Canada, 5,749                Channel), 7,574                    BURUTU, NIGERIA
Cape of Good Hope, South             Ushuaia, Argentina, 1,447          Valparaiso, Chile (via Cook Strait    (525'45"N., 506'28"E.) to:
   Africa, 3,704                     Vigo, Spain, 5,518                   and Curtis Channel), 6,615
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 5,916        Wilmington, North Carolina,                                               Junction Points*
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 6,243            U.S.A., 5,805                   BUR IBRAHIM, EGYPT
Montreal, Canada, 6,455                                                  (2955'30"N., 3232'30"E.) For      Bishop Rock, England, 3,908
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 6,491                                         distances via Red Sea subtract 88    Cape of Good Hope, South
                                     BUKHTA NAGAYEVA,
Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,394           RUSSIA                             miles from Port Said distances.         Africa, 3,499
Strait of Gibraltar, 5,280            (5933'00"N., 15045'00"E.) to:                                        Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,961
Straits of Florida, 5,713                                                                                    Grand Banks South, 4,060
                                                                        BUR SAFAGA, EGYPT                    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,868
Yucatan Channel, 5,723                 Ports                             (2644'00"N., 3356'30"E.) to:
                                                                                                             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,252
  Ports                              Moskal'vo, Russia, 472                                                  Panama, Panama, 5,153
                                                                          Junction Points*
                                     Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,                                              Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,956
Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 564           Russia, 864                                                           Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,246
                                                                        Cape of Good Hope, South
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Zaliv Urkt, Russia, 441                                                 Strait of Gibraltar, 3,207
                                                                          Africa, 5,016
  5,945                                                                                                      Straits of Florida, 5,313
                                                                        Port Said, Egypt, 310
Belem, Brazil, 3,274                                                                                         Yucatan Channel, 5,437
                                     BUKTA SHELIKHOVA,                  Singapore, 4,729
Bordeaux, France, 6,009              KURIL ISLANDS, RUSSIA
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        (5023'00"N., 15537'00"E.) to:                                          Ports
                                                                          Ports
  5,842
Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 5,845      Ports                                                                 Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 565
                                                                        Aden, Yemen, 1,109
Cadiz, Spain, 5,293                                                                                          Cape Town, South Africa, 4,475
                                                                        Port Sudan, Sudan, 508
Caleta Olivia, Argentina, 865        Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,                                             Casablanca, Morocco, 3,207
Cape Town, South Africa, 3,720         Russia, 934                                                           Dakar, Senegal, 1,653
                                     Aomori, Honshu, Japan, 899         BUREA, SWEDEN                        Monrovia, Liberia, 986
Cartagena, Colombia, 5,154                                               (6437'10"N., 2114'25"E.) to:
Charleston, South Carolina,          Attu Island, Alaska, U.S.A., 675                                        New York, New York, U.S.A.,
  U.S.A., 5,822                      Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,                                             4,982
                                                                          Junction Points*
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,      1,411                                                                 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
  4,648                              Hakodate, Japan, 865                                                      U.S.A., 5,080
                                                                        Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Charlottetown, Canada, 5,831         Kholmsk, Russia, 709                                                    Recife, Brazil, 2,525
                                                                         Entrance), Germany, 844
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 5,526              Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 867         Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The
Colon, Panama, 5,385                 Korsakov, Sakhalin, Russia, 616      Sound), 90                         BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA
Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina,       Muroran, Japan, 858                                                      (3506'00"N., 12903'00"E.) to:
  927                                Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia         Ports
Dakar, Senegal, 3,864                  (north of Sakhalin), 676                                                Junction Points*
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,712        Otaru, Japan, 788                  Helsinki, Finland, 404
Funchal, Madeira Island, 4,823       Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,                                              Singapore, 2,502
                                                                        Kobenhavn, Denmark, 774
Georgetown, Guyana, 3,954              Russia, 224                                                           Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,855
                                                                        Reposaari, Finland, 222
Guantanamo, Cuba, 5,213              Vladivostok, Russia, 1,122                                              Selat Wetar, Indonesia (via
                                                                        Stockholm, Sweden, 389
Halifax, Canada, 5,731               Wakkanai, Japan, 643                                                      Molucca Passage and Selat
Hamilton, Bermuda, 5,211                                                                                       Manipa), 2,632
                                                                        BURGAS, BULGARIA
Horta, Azores, 4,997                 BUNBURY, AUSTRALIA                  (4228'50"N., 2727'13"E.) to:
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,        (3317'50"S., 11538'40"E.) to:                                          Ports
  5,808                                                                   Junction Points*
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 5,661       Junction Points*                                                      Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
Kingston, Jamaica, 5,224                                                                                       Russia, 1,118
                                                                        Port Said, Egypt, 930
La Habana, Cuba, 5,671               Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 97                                             Bangkok, Thailand (outer bar),
                                                                        Strait of Gibraltar (south of
Lisboa, Portugal, 5,339              Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,510                                            2,533
                                                                         Greece), 1,965
Mar del Plata, Argentina, 276        Port Said, Egypt, 6,343                                                 Chongjin, North Korea, 417
Natal, Brazil, 2,329                                                                                         Dagu, China (via-Maenggol
                                                                          Ports
New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Ports                                                                   Sudo), 702
  5,871                                                                                                      Dalian, China (via Maenggol
                                                                        Alexandria, Egypt, 848
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 5,824     Bowen, Australia, 3,072                                                   Sudo), 543
                                                                        Algiers, Algeria, 1,510
Paramaribo, Suriname, 3,813          Port Adelaide, Australia, 1,260                                         Gunsan, South Korea, 376
                                                                        Antibes, France, 1,448
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Port Darwin, Australia, 1,906                                           Hakodate, Japan, 686
                                                                        Banzart, Tunisia, 1,179
  U.S.A., 5,918                                                                                              Higashi-Iwase, Japan, 492
                                                                        Bari, Italy, 968
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 4,975         BUNDABERG, AUSTRALIA                                                    Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,999
                                                                        Es Sider, Libya, 959
Port au Prince, Haiti, 5,258          (2445'29"S., 15227'33"E.) to:                                        Hong Kong, China, 1,144
                                                                        Haifa, Israel, 942
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 4,375                                                                              Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,973
                                                                        Iskenderun, Turkey, 936
Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 5,873         Junction Points*                                                      Hua-lien Kang, Taiwan, 782
                                                                        Istanbul, Turkey, 126
Puerto Concepcion, Argentina, 806                                                                            Incheon, South Korea (via
                                                                        Napoli, Italy, 1,100
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 5,909       Panama, Panama (via Central                                               Maenggol Sudo), 402
                                                                        Novorossiysk, Russia, 476
                                                                                                             Jakarta, Indonesia, 2,836



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                               CALCUTTA, INDIA                      19



Kimchaek, North Korea, 351           CABIMAS, VENEZUELA                  Ile d'Ouessant, France, 240              Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,126
Kobe, Japan, 361                      (1023'00"N., 7128'00"W.) Add                                              Houston, Texas, 986
Kushiro, Japan, 876                  21 miles to Maracaibo distances.      Ports                                  Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A. (via
Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 762                                                                                      Florida Strait), 519
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     CABINDA, CABINDA                    Calais, France, 133                      La Habana, Cuba, 203
  5,229                               (532'00"S., 1211'00"E.) to:      Cardiff, Wales, 367                      Lagos, Nigeria, 4,999
Maizuru, Japan, 333                                                      Chatham, England, 190                    Manzanillo, Dominican Republic,
Manila, Philippines, 1,402             Ports                             Cherbourg, France, 73                      479
Moji, Japan, 123                                                         Cobh, Ireland, 368                       Montreal, Canada, 2,511
Mogpo, South Korea, 225              Amboim, Angola, 339                 Dartmouth, England, 172                  Nuevitas, Cuba, 181
Nagasaki, Japan, 163                 Boma, Congo, 89                     Dover, England, 140                      Pepel, Sierra Leone, 3,930
Naha, Ryukyu Islands, 550            Douala, Cameroon, 668               Southampton, England, 119                Walvisbaai, Namibia (via Mona
Nakhodka, Russia, 508                Port Gentil, Gabon, 393                                                        Passage), 6,142
Nampo, North Korea (via                                                  CAGLIARI, SARDINIA
  Maenggol Sudo), 496                CADIZ, SPAIN                         (3912'30"N., 906'30"E.) to:           CAIRN RYAN, SCOTLAND
Nanao, Japan, 476                     (3632'00"N., 617'00"W.) to:                                                (5458'00"N., 502'00"W.) to:
Niigata, Japan, 516                                                        Junction Points*
Pago Pago, American Samoa (via         Junction Points*                                                             Junction Points*
  Bungo Suido), 4,561                                                    Port Said, Egypt, 1,255
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Bishop Rock, England, 930           Strait of Gibraltar, 750                 Bishop Rock, England, 330
  Russia, 1,731                      Ile d'Ouessant, France, 894                                                  Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 338
Port Darwin, Australia (via          Montreal, Canada, 3,209               Ports                                  Inishtrahull, Ireland, 91
  Molucca Passage), 2,937            Strait of Gibraltar, 50                                                      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 340
Qingdao, China, 497                  Straits of Florida, 3,978           Alexandria, Egypt, 1,136
Qinhuangdao, China (via                                                  Algiers, Algeria, 332                      Ports
  Maenggol Sudo), 650                  Ports                             Alicante, Spain, 473
Rumoi, Japan, 793                                                        Banzart, Tunisia, 126                    Glasgow, Scotland, 82
Sakata, Japan, 577                   Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,        Barcelona, Spain, 379
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     3,437                             Bari, Italy, 652                         CAIRNS HARBOR,
  4,914                              Banjul, Gambia, 1,587               Cannes, France, 347                      AUSTRALIA
Shanghai, China (north of Cheju      Belem, Brazil, 3,286                Castellammare di Stabia, Italy, 276       (1651'00"S., 14549'00"E.) to:
  Do, and via South Channel),        Belize, Belize (via Providence      Catania, Sicily, 377
  491                                  Channels), 4,485                  Ceuta, Morocco, 731                        Junction Points*
Tai-tung Kang, Taiwan, 860           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,      Civitavecchia, Italy, 239
Tongyeong, South Korea, 63             2,992                             Constanta, Romania (south of             Torres Strait, Australia, 505
Ube, Japan, 143                      Brest, France, 887                     Greece), 1,330                        Wilson Promontory, Australia,
Unggi, North Korea, 452              Bridgeport, Connecticut, U.S.A.,    Constanta, Romania (via Corinth            1,649
Vladivostok, Russia, 514               3,119                                Canal), 1,289
Wakamatsu, Japan, 120                Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,293      Genova, Italy, 359                         Ports
Weihai, China, 474                   Cape Town, South Africa, 5,078      Istanbul, Turkey (south of
Weonsan, North Korea, 308            Casablanca, Morocco, 192               Greece), 1,133                        Brisbane, Australia, 827
Xiamen, China, 885                   Charleston, South Carolina,         Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth            Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,250
Yantai, China (via Maenggol            U.S.A., 3,578                        Canal), 1,092                         Wellington, New Zealand, 2,122
  Sudo), 508                         Colon, Panama, 4,286                La Spezia, Italy, 336
Yeosu, South Korea, 97               Dakar, Senegal, 1,500               Livorno, Italy, 304                      CALABAR, NIGERIA
Yokohama, Japan, 665                 Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,979       Marseille, France, 360                    (458'15"N., 819'00"E.) to:
                                     Funchal, Madeira Island, 579        Messina, Sicily, 328
BUSHEHR, IRAN                        Halifax, Canada, 2,664              Napoli, Italy, 272                         Junction Points*
 (2858'30"N., 5045'00"E.) to:      Horta, Azores, 1,070                Nice, France, 354
                                     Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,      Oran, Algeria, 525                       Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
  Junction Points*                     3,710                             Palermo, Sicily, 221                        2,458
                                     Lisboa, Portugal, 253               Piraievs, Greece (south of               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,054
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Luanda, Angola, 3,898                  Greece), 820                          Strait of Gibraltar, 3,420
  5,032                              Manzanillo, Dominican Republic,     Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
Singapore, 3,737                       3,583                                Canal), 738                             Ports
                                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Savona, Italy, 362
  Ports                                3,155                             Sete, France, 402                        Lagos, Nigeria, 391
                                     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,303    Toulon, France, 337                      Matadi, Congo, 818
Bandar Khomeini, Iran, 158           Oporto, Portugal, 399               Tunis, Tunisia, 169
Belawan, Indonesia, 3,372            Pepel, Sierra Leone, 2,001          Valencia, Spain, 461                     CALAIS, FRANCE
Calcutta, India, 3,414               Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,         Valletta, Malta, 331                      (5058'00"N., 151'00"E.) to:
Fremantle, Australia, 5,259            U.S.A., 3,296                     Venezia, Italy, 970
Malacca, Malaysia, 3,590             Ponta Delgada, Azores, 930          Volos, Greece (south of Greece),           Junction Points*
Penang, Malaysia, 3,417              Port Stanley, Falkland Islands,        969
Port Darwin, Australia, 5,446          5,955                             Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),       Bishop Rock, England, 333
Rangoon, Burma, 3,425                Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,      927                                   Ile d'Ouessant, France, 321
Sabang, Indonesia, 3,106               1,547                                                                      Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                     Qaanaaq (Thule), Greenland, 3,322   CAIBARIEN, CUBA                            Entrance), Germany, 408
CABEDELO, BRAZIL                     Recife, Brazil, 3,125                (2232'00"N., 7928'00"W.) to:
 (658'00"S., 3450'40"W.) to:       Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,192                                                  Ports
                                     San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,313          Junction Points*
  Junction Points*                   Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary                                               Bergen, Norway, 588
                                       Islands, 702                      Panama, Panama, 1,138                    Egersund, Norway, 475
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Santander, Spain, 789               Straits of Florida, 252                  Kristiansand, Norway, 486
  3,374                              Vigo, Spain, 463                                                             Oslo, Norway, 634
Panama, Panama, 3,149                Walvisbaai, Namibia, 4,466            Ports                                  Plymouth, England, 244
Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,327                                                                                        Portland, England, 170
                                     CAEN, FRANCE                        Casablanca, Morocco, 3,814               Stavanger, Norway, 515
  Ports                               (4911'00"N., 020'00"W.) to:      Dakar, Senegal, 3,567
                                                                         Freeport, Bahamas (via Florida           CALCUTTA, INDIA
Belem, Brazil, 1,021                   Junction Points*                    Strait), 272                            (2233'00"N., 88l9'00"E.) to:
Salvador, Brazil, 468                                                    Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,916
                                     Bishop Rock, England, 264


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
20        CALDERA, CHILE



  Junction Points*                   Bahia de las Calderas, Dominican    Matarani, Peru, 462                   Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 82
                                     Republic.                           Midway Island, 6,280
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa                                          Monterey, California, U.S.A.,         CAMPECHE, MEXICO
  (via east of Madagascar), 5,444    CALETA OLIVIA,                         3,907                               (1951'00"N., 9045'00"W.) to:
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,796       ARGENTINA                           Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 6,578
Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via          (4625'57"S., 6729'32"W.) to:     Noumea, New Caledonia, 6,541            Junction Points*
  Malacca, Sapudi and Selat                                              Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,192
  Lombok), 2,608                       Junction Points*                  Pimentel, Peru, 363                   Panama, Panama, 1,210
Port Said, Egypt, 4,691                                                  Pisco, Peru, 128                      Yucatan Channel, 291
Singapore, 1,649                     Panama, Panama, 6,204               Ponape, Caroline Islands, 7,515
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,140        Punta Arenas, Chile, 570            Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 4,611         Ports
                                                                         Prince Rupert, Canada, 5,047
  Ports                                Ports                             Puerto Masachapa, Nicaragua,          Belize, Belize (west of Banco
                                                                            1,583                                Chinchorro, and Isla de
Aden, Yemen, 3,304                   Buenos Aires, Argentina, 865        Puerto Sandino, Nicaragua, 1,608        Cozumel), 609
Akyab, Burma, 402                                                        Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 1,421         Cienfuegos, Cuba, 691
Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,593               CALICUT, INDIA                      Quepos, Costa Rica, 1,387             Colon, Panama, 1,167
Al Manamah, Bahrain, 3,355            (1115'00"N., 7544'00"E.) to:     Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 7,713       Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 617
Assab, Ethiopia, 3,446                                                   Salaverry, Peru, 266                  Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A., 652
Bandar Abbas, Iran, 3,058              Junction Points*                  Salina Cruz, Mexico, 2,005            Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 632
Bassein, Burma, 643                                                      San Antonio, Chile, 1,328             La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,635
Belawan, Indonesia, 1,326            Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,916      San Diego, California, U.S.A.,        La Habana, Cuba, 561
Bombay, India, 2,128                 Singapore, 1,942                       3,585                              Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 674
Bushehr, Iran, 3,414                                                     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
Chalna, Mungla Anchorage,              Ports                                3,989                                (via Southwest Pass), 650
  Bangladesh, 288                                                        San Jose, Guatemala, 1,763            Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 670
Chittagong, Bangladesh, 367          Belawan, Indonesia, 1,604           San Juan, Peru, 248                   Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,806
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,258            Bombay, India, 506                  San Lorenzo, Honduras, 1,701          Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,140
Dumai, Indonesia, 1,579              Calcutta, India, 1,612              Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,    Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,913
Fremantle, Australia, 3,693          Chittagong, Bangladesh, 1,664          3,722                              Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,848
Kakinada, India, 522                 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2,432      Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,764    Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 1,595
Karachi, Pakistan, 2,578             Fremantle, Australia, 3,484         Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,660         Santo Domingo, Dominican
Madras, India, 769                   Galle, Sri Lanka, 437               Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,255            Republic, 1,364
Malacca, Malaysia, 1,523             Jakarta, Indonesia (via Selat       Suva, Fiji Islands, 5,995             Tampico, Mexico, 430
Massawa, Ethiopia, 3,696               Sunda), 2,208                     Talacahuano, Chile, 1,508             Tuxpan, Mexico, 375
Mocambique, Mozambique, 3,831        Malacca, Malaysia, 1,827            Talara, Peru, 534                     Veracruz, Mexico, 307
Mombasa, Kenya (via One and          Mombasa, Kenya, 2,342               Valparaiso, Chile, 1,306              Willemstad, Curacao, 1,527
  Half Degree Channel), 3,703        Penang, Malaysia, 1,654             Wellington, New Zealand, 5,721
Moulmein, Burma, 824                 Port Darwin, Australia, 3,683                                             CANAKKLE, TURKEY
Penang, Malaysia, 1,294              Rangoon, Burma, 1,617               CAMDEN, NEW JERSEY,                     (4009'00"N., 2624'00"E.) For
Phuket, Thailand, 1,124              Sebang, Indonesia, 1,343            U.S.A.                                ports outside the Black Sea and Sea
Port Blair, Andaman Islands, 775                                          (3957'00"N., 7508'00"W.) Use       of Marmara, subtract 133 Y2 miles
Port Louis, Mauritius, 3,212         CALLAO, PERU                        Philadelphia distances.               from Istanbul distances.
Port Swettenham, Malaysia, 1,444      (1203'00"S., 7710'00"W.) to:
Rangoon, Burma, 787                                                      CAMP LLOYD, GREENLAND                 CANNES, FRANCE
Sabang, Indonesia (via Duncan          Junction Points*                   (6657'30"N., 5056'25"W.) to:        (4332'00"N., 701'03"E.) to:
  Passage), 1,120
Singapore, 1,650                     Panama, Panama, 1,350                 Junction Points*                      Junction Points*
Vishakhapatnam, India, 458           Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,671
Yenbo, Saudi Arabia, 4,148           Torres Strait, Australia, 8,206     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,828       Port Said, Egypt, 1,472
Zanzibar, Tanzania (via One and      Wilson Promontory, Australia (via   Strait of Gibraltar, 2,676            Strait of Gibraltar, 773
  Half Degree Channel), 3,776          Cook Strait), 7,261
                                                                           Ports                                 Ports
CALDERA, CHILE                         Ports
 (2703'45"S., 7050'30"W.) to:                                          Churchill, Canada, 1434               Algiers, Algeria, 446
                                     Acapulco, Mexico, 2,198             Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,274             Cagliari, Sardinia, 347
  Junction Points*                   Amapala, Honduras, 1,665            St. John's, Canada, 1,198             Genova, Italy, 107
                                     Antofagasta, Chile, 813                                                   Livorno, Italy, 149
Panama, Panama, 2,302                Apia, Samoa, 5,492                  CAMPANA, ARGENTINA                    Napoli, Italy, 381
Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,795           Apra, Guam, 8,372                    (3405'50"S., 5857'42"W.) Add       Oran, Algeria, 594
                                     Arica, Chile, 593                   155 miles to Buenos Aires             Palma, Balearic Islands, 357
  Ports                              Auckland, New Zealand, 5,834        distances or add 60 miles via Mitre   Piraievs, Greece (south of
                                     Avarua, Cook Islands, 4,733         Channel.                                 Greece), 1,023
Antofagasta, Chile, 215              Buenaventura, Colombia, 1,126                                             Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
Arica, Chile, 522                    Caldera, Chile, 980                 CAMPBELTOWN,                             Canal), 942
Callao, Peru, 980                    Chimbote, Peru, 206                 SCOTLAND                              Sete, France, 171
Coquimbo, Chile, 196                 Coquimbo, Chile, 1,136               (5525'53"N., 532'38"W.) to:
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,632            Corinto, Nicaragua, 1,606
                                                                                                               CANSO CANAL (PORT
Iquique, Chile, 420                  Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,         Junction Points*                    HAWBESBURG), CANADA
Lota, Chile, 628                        5,988                                                                   (4542'45"N., 6129'06"W.) to:
Mollendo, Peru, 606                  Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 909            Bishop Rock, England, 353
Pisco, Peru, 880                     Guayaquil, Ecuador, 712             Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 342              Junction Points*
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Guaymas, Mexico, 3,117              Inishtrahull, Ireland, 82
   4,492                             Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 5,161                                           Cape of Good Hope, South
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Iquique, Chile, 659                   Ports                                  Africa, 6,484
   4,894                             Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 6,832                                           Grand Banks South, 531
Talcahuano, Chile, 602               La Libertad, Ecuador, 682           Belfast, Northern Ireland, 53         Panama, Panama (via Windward
Valparaiso, Chile, 376               La Palma, Panama, 1,336             Cardiff, Wales, 333                      Passage), 2,424
                                     Levuka, Fiji Islands, 6,002         Cobh, Ireland, 289                    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 468
CALDERA BAY,                         Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,    Dublin, Ireland, 141                  Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,971
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC                      3,655                            Glasgow, Scotland, 73                 Straits of Florida, 1,730
 (1813'30"N., 7031'30"W.) See      Lota, Chile, 1,530                  Liverpool, England, 165



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                          CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, SOUTH AFRICA                                        21



  Ports                              Halifax, Canada, 413                 Mina Abd Allah, Kuwait, 5,437        Strait of Gibraltar, 5,082
                                     Hamilton, Bermuda, 651               Mina Az Zawr, Kuwait, 5,418          Straits of Florida, 6,770
Argentia, Canada, 357                Murmansk, Russia, 3,834              Nelson, New Zealand, 2,794           Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 5,164
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., 975     New York, New York, U.S.A., 174      Port des Galets, Reunion Island,     Torres Strait, Australia, 6,854
Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,965          Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 119            3,241                             Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 6,768
Guantanamo, Cuba, 1,771              Reykjavik, Iceland, 2,341            Port Adelaide, Australia, 1,165      Wilson Promontory, Australia,
New York, New York, U.S.A., 675      Yarmouth, Canada, 228                Port Augusta, Australia, 1,252          5,530
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,908                                           Port Darwin, Australia, 1,978        Yucatan Channel, 6,770
Santo Domingo, Dominican             CAPE COD CANAL (SOUTH                Port Lincoln, Australia, 1,100
   Republic, 1,855                   END), MASSACHUSETTS,                 Port Louis, Mauritius (via rhumb       Ports
St. John's, Canada, 452              U.S.A.                                  line), 3,214
Wilmington, North Carolina,           (4137'49"N., 7041'52"W.) to:      Port Refuge, Cocos Islands, 1,678    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 2,712
   U.S.A., 1,074                                                          Portland, Australia, 1,304           Ad Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 4,960
                                       Junction Points*                   Rangoon, Burma, 3,359                Aden, Yemen (alternate), 4,235
CAP-HAITIEN, HAITI                                                        Rapid Bay, Australia, 1,131          Aden, Yemen, 3,980
 (1946'00"N., 7211'30"W.) to:      Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Ras al Khafji, Saudi Arabia, 5,414   Agadir, Morocco, 4,719
                                        6,711                             Ras Tannurah, Saudi Arabia, 5,316    Al Basrah, Iraq, 5,232
  Junction Points*                   Grand Banks South, 923               Sabang, Indonesia, 2,711             Al Gurdagah, Egypt, 5,041
                                     Montreal, Canada, 1,432              Simons Bay, South Africa, 4,572      Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 4,137
Bishop Rock, England, 3,565          Panama, Panama, 2,054                Stenhouse Bay, Australia, 1,077      Al Manamah, Al Bahrain, 4,957
Panama, Panama, 860                  Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,046           Strahan, Australia, 1,492            Al Mukha, Yemen, 4,043
Straits of Florida, 604              Straits of Florida, 1,270            Tjilatjap, Indonesia, 1,616          Albany, Australia, 4,740
                                                                          Townsville, Australia, 3,023         Anecho, Togo, 2,615
  Ports                                Ports                              Umm Said, Qatar, 5,245               Argentia, Canada, 6,294
                                                                          Wallaroo, Australia, 1,153           Assab, Ethiopia, 4,056
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Antilla, Cuba, 1,274                 Wellington, New Zealand, 2,863       Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
  1,227                              Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 6,335       Yampi Sound, Australia, 1,588           6,924
Belize, Belize, 950                  Belem, Brazil, 2,855                                                      Bandar Khomeini, Iran (inside
Carmen, Mexico, 1,228                Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6,031                                               Agulhas Current), 5,190
                                                                          CAPE LOPEZ, GABON
Cartagena, Colombia, 697             Fort de France, Martinique, 1,698     (037'43"S., 843'19"E.) to:        Bandar Khomeini, Iran (outside
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    Kingston, Jamaica, 1,564                                                     Agulhas Current), 5,395
  442                                La Habana, Cuba, 1,272                 Junction Points*                   Bata, Equatorial Guinea, 2,291
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 543                Montevideo, Uraguay, 5,928                                                Beira, Mozambique, 1,454
Colon, Panama, 817                   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Bishop Rock, England, 4,147          Belawan, Indonesia, 5,246
Dakar, Senegal, 3,154                  U.S.A., 338                        Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Belem, Brazil, 4,368
Guantanamo, Cuba, 175                Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,733         2,105                             Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 3,518
Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A.,       Recife, Brazil, 3,633                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,200         Bolama, Guinea-Bissau, 3,403
  1,145                              San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,410         Grand Banks South, 4,299             Boma, Congo, 1,775
Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via Old                                        Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,107        Bombay, India (east of
  Bahama Channel), 619               CAPE LEEUWIN,                        Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,491            Madagascar), 4,822
Kingston, Jamaica, 326               AUSTRALIA*                           Panama, Panama, 5,393                Bombay, India (west of
La Habana, Cuba, 631                  (3432'00"S., 11508'00"E.) to:     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 5,195         Madagascar), 4,581
New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                               Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,102           Bordeaux, France, 5,838
  1,283                                Junction Points*                   Strait of Gibraltar, 3,447           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                               Straits of Florida, 5,552               6,731
  U.S.A., 1,245                      Cape of Good Hope, South Africa      Yucatan Channel, 5,676               Brest, France, 5,770
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (via        (via 30S.), 5,068                                                      Buchanan, Liberia, 2,919
  Mona Passage), 703                 Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,571         Ports                              Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,815
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (via      Port Said, Egypt, 6,389                                                   Bur Safaga, Egypt, 5,016
  Virgin Passage), 702               Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,815        Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 841            Bushehr, Iran, 5,053
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,646         Torres Strait, Australia, 2,717      Cape Town, South Africa, 2,081       Cabedelo, Brazil, 3,374
Port au Prince, Haiti, 195           Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 1,954        Douala, Cameroon, 288                Calabar, Nigeria, 2,458
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 888         Wilson Promontory, Australia,        Lagos, Nigeria, 529                  Calcutta, India, 5,603
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 764          1,524                              Libreville, Gabon, 52                Cape Town, South Africa, 45
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 752                                            Monrovia, Liberia, 1,269             Chalna, Mungla Anchorage,
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 372             Ports                              New York, New York, U.S.A.,             Bangladesh, 5,458
Santo Domingo, Dominican                                                    5,243                              Charleston, South Carolina,
  Republic, 392                      Aden, Yemen (north of Chagos         Paramaribo, Surinam, 3,866              U.S.A., 6,838
Willemstad, Curacao (via Mona          Archipelago), 4,958                Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 7,178        Chittagong, Bangladesh, 5,492
  Passage), 674                      Aden, Yemen (south of Chagos         Salvador, Brazil, 2,903              Cobh, Ireland, 5,892
Willemstad, Curacao (via               Archipelago), 4,973                Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 5,517     Colombo, Sri Lanka, 4,475
  Windward Passage), 697             Albany, Australia, 168                                                    Colon, Panama, 6,444
                                     Auckland, New Zealand, 3,029                                              Cotonou, Benin, 2,560
                                     Bluff Harbor, New Zealand, 2,484     CAPE OF GOOD HOPE,
CAPE COD CANAL (NORTH                                                     SOUTH AFRICA*                        Dakar, Senegal, 3,610
                                     Bombay, India, 4,059                  (3422'00"S., 1823'00"E.) to:      Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2,330
END), MASSACHUSETTS,
U.S.A.                               Bowen, Australia, 2,975                                                   Djibouti, Djibouti, 4,089
 (4146'40"N., 7029'20"W.) to:      Bunbury, Australia, 97                 Junction Points*                   Durban, South Africa, 764
                                     Calcutta, India, 3,796                                                    East London, South Africa, 508
  Junction Points*                   Colombo, Sri Lanka, 3,203            Bishop Rock, England, 5,790          Eilat, Israel, 5,155
                                     Dunedin, New Zealand, 2,622          Cape Leeuwin, Australia (via         El Jadida, Morocco, 4,941
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Flying Fish Cove, Christmas             41S), 4,660                      Fedala, Morocco, 4,951
   6,742                               Island, 1,540                      Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 5,880         Flying Fish Cove, Christmas
Grand Banks South, 924               Fremantle, Australia, 181            Grand Banks South, 5,954                Island, Line Islands, 4,923
Montreal, Canada, 1,419              Geraldton, Australia, 356            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 5,746        Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 1,614
Panama, Panama, 2,070                Gladstone Harbor, Australia, 2,688   Inishtrahull, Ireland, 6,141         Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,190
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,073           Hobart, Tasmania, 1,628              Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 5,461       Fremantle, Australia, 4,755
Straits of Florida, 1,284            Karachi, Pakistan, 4,512             Montreal, Canada (via Cabot          Funchal, Madeira Island, 4,689
                                     Launceston, Tasmania, 1,577             Strait), 7,134                    Georgetown, Ascension Island,
  Ports                              Lyttelton, New Zealand, 2,792        Panama, Panama, 6,466                   2,409
                                     Madras, India, 3,480                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 6,389      Georgetown, Guyana, 5,026
Argentia, Canada, 838                Massawa, Ethiopia, 5,390             Port Said, Egypt, 5,340              Greenville, Liberia, 2,826
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 4,201          Melbourne, Australia, 1,497          Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,262           Halifax, Canada, 6,502
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 77    Mina al Ahmadi, Kuwait, 5,440        Singapore, 5,579                     Hamilton, Bermuda, 6,169


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
22      CAPE ST. JACQUES, VIETNAM



Horta, Azores, 5,152                 Victoria, Seychelles, 2,892           U.S.A., 6.820                    Colon, Panama, 1,246
Inhambane, Mozambique, 1,228         Zanzibar, Tanzania, 2,358                                              Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 661
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,                                           CARDENAS, CUBA                     Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A., 725
  6,862                              CAPE ST. JACQUES,                    (2303'30"N., 8111'30"W.) to:    Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 708
Kakinada, India, 5,023               VIETNAM                                                                Kingston, Jamaica, 1,056
Karachi, Pakistan, 4,668              (1020'30"N., 10704'00"E.) See      Junction Points*                 La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,714
Kenitra, Morocco, 5,056              Vung Tao.                                                              La Habana, Cuba, 639
Larache, Morocco, 5,049                                                  Straits of Florida, 140            Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 749
Lindi, Tanzania, 2,155               CAPE TOWN, SOUTH                    Yucatan Channel, 269               New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,
Lisboa, Portugal, 5,152              AFRICA                                                                   723
Lobito, Angola, 1,440                 (3354'00"S., 1826'00"E.) to:       Ports                            Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 745
Longji, Cameroon, 2,359                                                                                     Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,885
Luanda, Angola, 1,627                  Junction Points*                  Cienfuegos, Cuba, 905              Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,219
Luderitz Bay, Namibia, 511                                               Guantanamo, Cuba, 539              Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,992
Madras, India (east of               Bishop Rock, England, 5,772         Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,122           Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,927
  Madagascar), 4,956                 Cape of Good Hope, South            Kingston, Jamaica, 703             Santo Domingo, Dominican
Malacca, Malaysia, 5,464                Africa, 35                       La Habana, Cuba, 88                  Republic, 1,437
Manakara, Madagascar, 1,779          Ile d'Ouessant, France, 5,743       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,        Tampico, Mexico, 401
Maputo, Mozambique, 1,057            Montreal, Canada (via Cabot           U.S.A., 1,124                    Tuxpan, Mexico, 333
Marmagao, India, 4,447                  Strait), 7,118                   Port au Prince, Haiti, 603         Veracruz, Mexico, 242
Marshall, Liberia, 2,927             Panama, Panama, 6,472               San Juan, Puerto Rico, 917         Willemstad, Curacao, 1,599
Mawa, Ethiopia, 4,367                Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,631          Santo Domingo, Dominican
Mayumba, Gabon, 1,942                Strait of Gibraltar, 5,064            Republic, 887                    CARRICKFERGUS,
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 6,685        Straits of Florida, 6,766                                              NORTHERN IRELAND
Mina al Ahmadi, Kuwait, 5,104        Yucatan Channel, 6,776              CARDIFF, WALES                      (5441'44"N., 545'50"W.) See
Mina Abd Allah, Kuwait, 5,101                                             (5127'00"N., 309'00"W.) to:     Belfast.
Mina Az Zawr, Kuwait, 5,082            Ports
Mocambique, Mozambique, 1,807                                              Junction Points*                 CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA
Mocamedes, Angola, 1,239             Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 2,679                                             (1024'20"N., 732'00"W.) to:
Mogadishu, Somalia, 2,855            Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,        Bishop Rock, England, 176
Mombasa, Kenya, 2,472                   6,912                            Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 246           Junction Points*
Montevideo, Uruguay, 3,701           Boma, Congo, 1,760                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 609
Mosselbaai, South Africa, 206        Bordeaux, France, 5,820                                                Bishop Rock, England, 4,138
Mtwara, Tanzania, 2,111              Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Ports                            Panama, Panama, 324
New York, New York, U.S.A.,             6,707                                                               Strait of Gibraltar, 4,087
  6,801                              Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 6,857   Bantry Bay, Ireland, 280           Yucatan Channel, 891
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 6,802     Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,831      Barrow in Furness, England, 273
Paranagua, Brazil, 3,496             Cadiz, Spain, 5,078                 Belfast, Northern Ireland, 293       Ports
Penang, Malaysia, 5,291              Charleston, South Carolina,         Boulogne, France, 431
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,             U.S.A., 6,830                    Brest, France, 277                 Belize, Belize, 904
  U.S.A., 6,874                      Cienfuegos, Cuba, 6,580             Cherbourg, France, 309             Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via
Port des Galets, Reunion Island,     Cobh, Ireland, 5,894                Cobh, Ireland, 204                   Windward Passage and Crooked
  2,120                              Colon, Panama, 6,429                Cork, Ireland, 210                   Island Passage), 2,036
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 5,337       Dakar, Senegal, 3,593               Dartmouth, England, 239            Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,417
Port Adelaide, Australia, 5,754      El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain,      Douglas, Isle of Man, 246          Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,240
Port Blair, Andaman Islands, 5,075      5,421                            Dublin, Ireland, 205               Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 697
Port Darwin, Australia, 6,100        Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,164       Fishguard, Wales, 130              Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.
Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 390    Funchal, Madeira Island, 4,680      Glasgow, Scotland, 375               (via Windward Passage and
Port Etienne, Mauritania, 4,018      Guantanamo, Cuba, 6,260             Holyhead, Wales, 202                 Crooked Island Passage), 1,443
Port Louis, Mauritius, 2,382         Halifax, Canada, 6,490              Liverpool, England, 267            Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
Port Nolloth, South Africa, 325      Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,      London, England, 526                 811
Port Refuge, Cocos Islands, 4,428       6,854                            Londonderry, Northern Ireland,     Cienfuegos, Cuba, 778
Porto Alegre, Brazil, 3,625          Kingston, Jamaica, 6,278               369                             Colon, Panama, 281
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,    La Habana, Cuba, 6,724              Manchester, England, 314           Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,583
  3,958                              Lisboa, Portugal, 5,134             Southampton, England, 346          Guantanamo, Cuba, 586
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,           Luanda, Angola, 1,601               Swansea, Wales, 46                 Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A.,
  U.S.A., 6,732                      Luderitz Bay, Namibia, 479          Waterford, Ireland, 160              1,449
Rabat, Morocco, 5,036                Montevideo, Uruguay, 3,608                                             Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,
Rangoon, Burma (east of              New York, New York, U.S.A.,         CARIPITO, VENEZUELA                  1,395
  Madagascar), 5,610                    6,786                             (1009'15"N., 6302'00"W.) Add    Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via
Ras al Khafji, Saudi Arabia, 5,078   Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 6,790    5 miles to Guanoco distances.        Windward Passage and Old
Ras as Sidr, Egypt, 5,189            Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                              Bahama Channel), 1,130
Ras Gharib, Egypt, 5,114                U.S.A., 6,867                                                       Kingston, Jamaica, 479
                                                                         CARMEN, MEXICO
Ras Tannurah, Saudi Arabia, 4,980    Ponta Delgada, Azores, 5,040         (1838'00"N., 9150'00"W.) to:    La Guaira, Venezuela, 612
Recife, Brazil, 3,324                Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 6,709                                         La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,323        Recife, Brazil, 3,318                 Junction Points*                   Channel and Windward
Sabang, Indonesia, 4,980             Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,273                                            Passage), 1,142
Safi, Morocco, 4,870                 San Juan, Puerto Rico, 5,767        Panama, Panama, 1,289              Limon, Costa Rica, 447
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary                                         Maracaibo, Venezuela, 465
  Islands, 4,453                        Islands, 4,435                     Ports                            Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 1,450
Simons Bay, South Africa. Suakin,    Santo Domingo, Dominican                                               New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
  Sudan, 4,538                          Republic, 5,934                  Belize, Belize (west of Banco        (via Yucatan Channel and
Sulima, Sierra Leone, 3,060          Santos, Brazil, 3,409                 Chinchoro and Isla de              Southwest Pass), 1,468
Swakopmund, South Africa, 743        Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 6,864      Cozumel), 688                    New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
Tabu, Ivory Coast, 2,751             St. Helena Island, 1,697            Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 1,228            Windward Passage), 1,853
Tamatave, Madagascar, 2,104          St. John, Canada, 6,667             Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands   Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via
Tanga, Tanzania, 2,425               St. John's, Canada, 6,205             (via Yucatan Channel and south     Windward Passage), 1,658
Telukbayur, Indonesia, 4,979         Swakopmund, South Africa, 719         of Hispaniola), 1,675            Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Tema, Ghana, 2,619                   Sydney, Canada, 6,425               Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands     (via Windward Passage), 1,825
Tulear, Madagascar, 1,509            Vigo, Spain, 5,322                    (via Yucatan Channel and         Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 941
Umm Said, Qatar, 4,909               Willemstad, Curacao, 5,740            Windward Passage), 1,658         Porlamar, Margarita, Venezuela,
Victoria, Cameroon, 2,399            Wilmington, North Carolina,         Cienfuegos, Cuba, 770                785




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                             CEBU, PHILIPPINES                   23



Port au Prince, Haiti, 639           Split, Croatia, 1,264                Bat'umi, Georgia, 2,127                 Marseille, France, 627
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 932         Tarabulus, Libya, 856                Castellammare di Stabia, Italy, 692     Messina, Sicily, 53
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 933        Taranto, Italy, 1,025                Es Sider, Libya, 1,075                  Napoli, Italy, 225
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,           Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Fiumicino, Italy, 565                   Palermo, Sicily, 170
  U.S.A. (via Windward Passage         Greece), 1,479                     Melilla, Morocco, 339                   Pula Croatia, 594
  and Crooked Island Passage),       Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth    Savona, Italy, 468
  2,053                                Canal), 1,462                      Tubruq, Libya, 1,251                    CATIA LA MAR,
Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 901       Toulon, France, 471                                                          VENEZUELA
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 854         Trieste, Italy, 1,439                CASTRIES, ST. LUCIA                      (1036'30"N., 6703'00"W.) to:
Puerto Mexico, Mexico, 1,484         Tunis, Tunisia, 583                   (140l'00"N., 6100'00"W.) See
Punta Cardon, Venezuela, 397         Valencia, Spain, 152                 Port Castries.                            Junction Points*
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 782           Valletta, Malta, 768
Santo Domingo, Dominican             Venezia, Italy, 1,449                                                        Panama, Panama, 873
                                                                          CASTRO-URDIALES, SPAIN
  Republic, 610                      Volos, Greece (south of Greece),      (4322'40"N., 312'15"W.) to:          Yucatan Channel, 1,240
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,442       1,420
Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., 1,295        Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),     Junction Points*                        Ports
Tampico, Mexico, 1,575                 1,403
Tuxpan, Mexico, 1,545                                                     Bishop Rock, England, 407               Barranquilla, Colombia, 524
Veracruz, Mexico, 1,510              CASABLANCA, MOROCCO                  Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,        Port of Spain, Trinidad, 335
Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (via         (3337'00"N., 736'00"W.) to:          5,693                                San Juan, Puerto Rico, 556
  Windward Passage), 1,794                                                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 543
Willemstad, Curacao, 471               Junction Points*                   Grand Banks South, 2,029                CAYMAN BRAC, CAYMAN
Wilmington, North Carolina,                                               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 331             ISLANDS
  U.S.A., 1,494                      Ile d'Ouessant, France, 960          Inishtrahull, Ireland, 846               (1941'50"N., 7953'45"W.) to:
                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 166             Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
CARTAGENA, SPAIN                                                             Belle Isle), 2,965                     Junction Points*
 (3735'44"N., 059'00"W.) to:         Ports                              Panama, Panama, 4,496
                                                                          Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,147         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
  Junction Points*                   Agadir, Morocco, 257                 Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,918                 6,522
                                     Amboim, Angola, 3,945                Strait of Gibraltar, 863                Grand Banks South, 2,162
Port Said, Egypt, 1,705              Cadiz, Spain, 192                    Straits of Florida, 4,128               Panama, Panama, 649
Strait of Gibraltar, 259             Ceuta, Morocco, 189                                                          Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,686
                                     Dakar, Senegal, 1,333                  Ports                                 Strait of Gibraltar, 4,017
  Ports                              Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,812                                                Yucatan Channel, 316
                                     Funchal, Madeira Island, 476         Boston, Massachusetts U.S.A.,
Alexandria, Egypt, 1,585             Gijon, Spain, 763                      2,934                                   Ports
Algeciras, Spain, 238                Lisboa, Portugal, 324                Huelva, Spain, 819
Algiers, Algeria, 208                Ponta Delgada, Azores, 915           La Pallice, France, 187                 Accra, Ghana, 4,899
Ancona, Italy, 1,338                 Port Etienne, Mauritania, 1,032      Lisboa, Portugal, 594                   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Annaba, Algeria, 440                 Porto Grande, Sao Vicente, Cape      Lorient, France, 262                      1,823
Banghazi, Libya, 1,119                 Verde Islands, 1,387               Marin, Spain, 418                       Cape Town, South Africa, 6,512
Banzart, Tunisia, 532                Rota, Spain, 202                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,             Colon, Panama, 621
Barcelona, Spain, 282                Safi, Morocco, 134                     3,087                                 New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Bari, Italy, 1,131                   Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania                1,898
Beirut, Lebanon, 1,797                 Islands, 548                         U.S.A., 3,239                         Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,194
Brindisi, Italy, 1,073               Setubal, Portugal, 313               Quiberon, France, 246                   Recife, Brazil, 3,278
Ceuta, Morocco, 240                  Tangier, Morocco, 166                Stanley, Falkland Islands, 6,548        Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,333
Dubrovnik, Croatia, 1,177            Vigo, Spain, 545                     Villagarcia, Spain, 368
Genova, Italy, 616                   Vila Real de Santo Antonio,                                                  CEBU, PHILIPPINES
Gibraltar, 241                         Portugal, 218                                                               (1017'30"N., 12354'30"E.) to:
                                                                          CATANIA, SICILY
Haifa, Israel, 1,794                 Villa Cisneros, Western Sahara,       (3729'35"N., 1505'46"E.) to:
Iraklion, Kriti, 1,279                 769                                                                          Junction Points*
Istanbul, Turkey (south of                                                  Junction Points*
   Greece), 1,573                    CASILDA, CUBA                                                                Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,278
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth         (2145'00"N., 7959'20"W.) to:      Port Said, Egypt, 942                   Singapore, 1,355
   Canal), 1,567                                                          Strait of Gibraltar, 1,081
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),       Junction Points*                                                             Ports
   1,430                                                                    Ports
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),   Panama, Panama, 792                                                          Apra, Guam, 1,344
   1,413                             Yucatan Channel, 307                 Ajaccio, Corsica, 464                   Bataan, Philippines, 390
La Spezia, Italy, 640                                                     Alexandria, Egypt, 828                  Batangas, Philippines, 309
Livorno, Italy, 636                    Ports                              Almeria, Spain, 919                     Beihai, China, 1,220
Malaga, Spain, 189                                                        Banghazi, Libya, 406                    Da Nang, Vietnam, 1,049
Marseille, France, 460               Barranquilla, Colombia, 732          Cagliari, Sardinia, 377                 Dagu, China, 1,907
Messina, Sicily, 806                 Kingston, Jamaica, 372               Genova, Italy, 35                       Dalian, China (via San Bernardino
Napoli, Italy, 756                   Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 288          Belfast, Northern Ireland, 293             Strait), 1,764
Odessa, Ukraine (south of                                                 Boulogne, France, 431                   Davao, Philippines, 439
   Greece), 1,932                                                         Brest, France, 277                      Haiphong, Vietnam (via Jintotolo
                                     CASTELLON, SPAIN
Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth          (3958'09"N., 001'39"W.) to:       Cherbourg, France, 309                     Channel, Romblon Island, Verde
   Canal), 1,915                                                          Cobh, Ireland, 204                         Island Passage, and south of
Oran, Algeria, 115                     Junction Points*                   Cork, Ireland, 210                         Hainan Tao), 1,331
Palermo, Sicily, 697                                                      Dartmouth, England, 239                 Hakodate, Japan, 2,177
Palma, Balearic Islands, 222         Port Said, Egypt, 1,668              Belfast, Northern Ireland, 293          Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (via
Piraievs, Greece (south of           Strait of Gibraltar, 429             Boulogne, France, 431                      Jintotolo Channel and Mindoro
   Greece), 1,271                                                         Brest, France, 277                         Strait, N of North Danger
Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth          Ports                              Cherbourg, France, 309                     Reef), 1,152
   Canal), 1,214                                                          Cobh, Ireland, 204                      Hong Kong, China (via Verde
Rijeka, Croatia, 1,405               Ajaccio, Corsica, 419                Cork, Ireland, 210                         Island Passage and Jintotolo
Savona, Italy, 601                   Alexandria, Egypt, 1,545             Dartmouth, England, 239                    Channel), 960
Sibenik, Croatia, 1,279              Antibes, France, 392                 Kerkira, Greece, 290                    Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,610
Siracusa, Sicily, 817                Arzew, Algeria, 249                  Livorno, Italy, 464                     Incheon, Korea, 1,656
Skikda, Algeria, 395                 Banghazi, Libya, 1,080               Malaga, Spain, 1,012                    Iloilo, Philippines, 176
                                                                                                                  Jakarta, Indonesia (via Lumbucan



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
24        CEUTA, MOROCCO



  Channel), 1,563                    Piraievs, Greece (south of             Ports                               Island Passage), 865
Kobe, Japan, 1,601                      Greece), 1,488                                                        Nuevitas, Cuba (via Straits of
Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China (via       Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth        Antofagasta, Chile, 173               Florida, Nicholas Channel and
  Balintang Channel), 1,051             Canal), 1,431                     Arica, Chile, 478                     Old Bahama Channel,
Manila, Philippines (via Verde       Rijeka, Croatia, 1,628               Valparaiso, Chile, 416                southbound), 763
  Island Passage and Jintotolo       Savona, Italy, 834                                                       Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,443
  Channel), 391                      Sibenik, Croatia, 1,502              CHARLESTON, SOUTH                   Ponce, Puerto Rico, 1,168
Masbate, Philippines, 183            Siracusa, Sicily, 1,035              CAROLINA, U.S.A.                    Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2 644
Nagasaki, Japan, 1,406               Split, Croatia, 1,487                 (3247'00"N., 7955'00"W.) to:     Port au Prince, Haiti, 961
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Tangier, Morocco, 29                                                     Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,682
  Russia, 3,101                      Tarabulus, Libya, 1,074                Junction Points*                  Port Antonio, Jamaica (via
Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 6,001      Taranto, Italy, 1,249                                                      Crooked Island Passage), 1,013
Pulupandan, Philippines, 225         Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Bishop Rock, England, 3,375         Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,532
Shanghai, China (via San                Greece), 1,696                    Cape of Good Hope, South            Recife, Brazil, 3,649
  Bernardino Strait, Steep Island    Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth       Africa, 6,838                    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,717
  Pass, and Pai-chieh Hsia), 1,322      Canal), 1,679                     Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,262        Salvador, Brazil, 4,040
Shantou, China (via Verde Island     Toulon, France, 704                  Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,360        San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,138
  Passage and Jintotolo Channel),    Trieste, Italy, 1,662                Montreal, Canada (via Strait of     Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary
  952                                Tunis, Tunisia, 801                     Canso), 1,940                      Islands, 3,275
Shimonoseki, Japan, 1,547            Valencia, Spain, 385                 Panama, Panama, 1,607               Santa Marta, Colombia (via
Tan-shui, Taiwan (via Peng-hu        Valletta, Malta, 986                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,540       Crooked Island Passage), 1,373
  Lieh Tao and Balintang             Venezia, Italy, 1,672                Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,898          Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via
  Channel), 1,006                    Volos, Greece (south of Greece),     Strait of Gibraltar, 3,613            Crooked Island Passage), 952
Vladivostok, Russia, 2,026              1,637                             Straits of Florida, 637             Santo Domingo, Dominican
Weihai, China, 1,679                 Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),   Yucatan Channel, 819                  Republic, 1,190
Xiamen, China (via Balintang            1,620                                                                 Santos, Brazil, 4,908
  Channel), 965                                                             Ports                             Willemstad, Curacao (via Mona
Yantai, China, 1,713                 CHAH BAHAR, IRAN                                                           Passage), 1,472
Yokohama, Japan (via San              (2518'00"N., 6031'40"E.) to:      Antilla, Cuba (via Crooked Island   Willemstad, Curacao (via
  Bernardino Strait), 1,766                                                  Passage), 813                      Windward Passage), 1,446
Yokoshima, Japan (via San              Junction Points*                   Argentia, Canada, 1,489
  Bernardino Strait), 1,571                                               Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 4,692         CHARLOTTE AMALIE, ST.
Zamboanga, Philippines, 260          Cape of Good Hope, South             Banes, Cuba (via Crooked Island     THOMAS, VIRGIN ISLANDS
                                       Africa, 4,862                         Passage), 802                     (1820'00"N., 6456'00"W.) to:
CEUTA, MOROCCO                       Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,746       Barranquilla, Colombia, 1,391
 (3553'25"N., 518'45"W.) to:       Port Said, Egypt, 2,626              Belem, Brazil, 2,786                  Junction Points*
                                     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 3,972       Bocas del Toro, Panama, 1,638
  Junction Points*                   Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,351        Bordeaux, France, 3,683             Bishop Rock, England, 3,369
                                     Singapore, 3,144                     Brest, France, 3,465                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,279
Port Said, Egypt, 1,923              Torres Strait, Australia, 5,543      Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,628         Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,427
Strait of Gibraltar, 23                                                   Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,817      Montreal, Canada, 2,405
                                       Ports                              Cadiz, Spain, 3,563                 Panama, Panama, 1,072
  Ports                                                                   Cape Town, South Africa, 6,830      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,616
                                     Aden, Yemen, 1,276                   Cartagena, Colombia (via Crooked    Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,765
Alexandria, Egypt, 1802              Al Basrah, Iraq, 802                    Island Passage), 1,443           Strait of Gibraltar, 3,323
Algiers, Algeria, 417                Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,578            Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,   Straits of Florida, 1,087
Alicante, Spain, 299                 Karachi, Pakistan, 357                  1,192                            Yucatan Channel, 1,200
Ancona, Italy, 1,561                                                      Charlottetown, Canada, 1,313
Annaba, Algeria, 656                 CHALNA, MUNGLA                       Cienfuegos, Cuba (southbound, via     Ports
Banghazi, Libya, 1,336               ANCHORAGE, BANGLADESH                   Straits of Florida and Yucatan
Banzart, Tunisia, 750                 (2228'00"N., 8935'00"E.) to:         Channel), 1,104                  Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Barcelona, Spain, 515                                                     Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Crooked          1,417
Bari, Italy, 1,354                     Junction Points*                      Island Passage and Windward      Belem, Brazil, 1,598
Beirut, Lebanon, 2,014                                                       Passage), 1,264                  Belize, Belize, 1,368
Brindisi, Italy, 1,296               Cape of Good Hope, South             Colon, Panama (via Crooked          Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Cagliari, Sardinia, 731                Africa, 5,458                         Island Passage), 1,564              1,513
Cartagena, Spain, 240                Port Said, Egypt, 4,705              Colon, Panama (via Yucatan          Bridgetown, Barbados, 442
Casablanca, Morocco, 189             Singapore, 1,578                        Channel), 1,636                  Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,190
Genova, Italy, 849                                                        Dakar, Senegal, 3,557               Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4,689
Haifa, Israel, 2,012                   Ports                              Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 610      Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 442
Iraklion, Kriti, 1,496                                                    Gibara, Cuba (via Crooked Island    Carmen, Mexico (south of
Istanbul, Turkey (south of           Calcutta, India, 288                    Passage), 806                       Hispaniola and via Yucatan
   Greece), 1,802                    Penang, Malaysia, 1,228              Guantanamo, Cuba (via Crooked          Channel), 1,675
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth                                                Island Passage), 900             Carmen, Mexico (via Yucatan
   Canal), 1,785                     CHAMPERICO,                          Halifax, Canada, 1,077                 Channel and Windward
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),     GUATEMALA                            Kingston, Jamaica (via Crooked         Passage), 1,658
   1,648                              (1417'30"N., 9156'00"W.) to:         Island Passage), 1,064           Cartagena, Colombia, 811
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),                                        La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,549         Charleston, South Carolina,
   1,630                               Junction Points*                   La Habana, Cuba (southbound, via       U.S.A., 1,192
La Spezia, Italy, 872                                                        Straits of Florida), 648         Charlottetown, Canada, 1,778
Livorno, Italy, 868                  Panama, Panama, 954                  Lagos, Nigeria, 5,065               Cienfuegos, Cuba, 973
Marseille, France, 692                                                    Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 3,341   Colon, Panama, 1,029
Melilla, Morocco, 131                  Ports                              Limon, Costa Rica (via Crooked      Dakar, Senegal, 2,751
Messina, Sicily, 1,029                                                       Island Passage), 1,637           Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 704
Napoli, Italy, 982                   Acapulco, Mexico, 494                Lisboa, Portugal, 3,397             Georgetown, Guyana, 814
Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Brito, Nicaragua, 399                Manzanillo, Cuba (via Crooked       Guantanamo, Cuba (north of
   Greece), 2,150                    Mazatlan, Mexico, 1,078                 Island Passage and Canal de         Hispaniola and Virgin Passage),
Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth                                                 Balandras), 1,105                   607
   Canal), 2,133                     CHANARAL, CHILE                      Maracaibo, Venezuela, 1,467         Halifax, Canada, 1,595
Oran, Algeria, 232                    (2621'00"S., 7039'30"W.) to:      Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,708          Hamilton, Bermuda, 872
Palermo, Sicily, 921                                                      Nassau, Bahamas, 507                Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,
Palma, Balearic Islands, 452                                              Nuevitas, Cuba (via Crooked            1,181




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                            CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX                         25



Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,036      CHATHAM, CANADA                    Misumi, Japan, 654                   CHING-TAO, CHINA
Kingston, Jamaica, 705                 (4702'08"N., 6528'00"W.) to:    Naha, Ryukyu Islands, 337             (3605'30"N., 120l9'00"E.) See
La Cuaira, Venezuela, 479                                                Sanmen Wen, China, 248               Qingdao, China.
La Habana, Cuba, 1,048                  Junction Points*                 Shanghai, China, 447
Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 2,791                                        Uno, Japan, 903                      CHIN-HUANG-TAO, CHINA
Lisboa, Portugal, 3,147               Grand Banks South, 744             Wenzhou, China, 204                   (3955'00"N., 11936'30"E.) See
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 991           Montreal, Canada, 685              Xiamen, China, 227                   Qinhuangdao, China.
Montevideo, Uruguay, 4,575            Panama, Panama, 2,797              Yulin Gang, Hainan Dao, China,
New Amsterdam, Guyana, 903            Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,265      830                                CHIN HAI, SOUTH KOREA
New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,250                                               (3808'40"N., 12828'3"E.) See
  1,434                               Straits of Florida, 1,988                                               Jinhae, South Korea.
                                                                         CHIBAI, JAPAN
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,296                                          (3528'00"N., 13958'00"E.)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,             Ports                            Add 4 miles to Yokohama              CHINNAMPO, NORTH
  U.S.A., 1,434                                                          distances.                           KOREA
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 267       Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                           (3843'00"N., 12525'00"E.) See
Port au Prince, Haiti, 628              977                                                                   Nampo.
                                      Colon, Panama, 2,796               CHICOUTIMI, CANADA
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 518                                              (4826'00"N., 7103'37"W.) to:
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 346         La Guaira, Venezuela, 2,498
                                      Natal, Brazil, 3,684                                                    CHIOGGIA, ITALY
Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 1,557                                             Junction Points*                    (4514'00"N., 1217'30"E.) to:
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,            New York, New York, U.S.A.,
  U.S.A., 1,534                         1,150                            Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       Junction Points*
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 506        Port Castries, St. Lucia, 2,254       6,982
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,343        Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,455     Grand Banks South, 1,012             Port Said, Egypt, 1,307
Recife, Brazil, 2,516                 San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2,025       Montreal, Canada, 260                Strait of Gibraltar, 1,682
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,588         Yarmouth, Canada, 783              Panama, Panama, 3,077
Salvador, Brazil, 2,907                                                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,435        Ports
San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,        CHATHAM, ENGLAND                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,515
  1,199                                (5124'00"N., 033'00"E.)         Straits of Florida, 2,405            Ancona, Italy, 111
Santa Barbara de Samana,              Subtract 23 miles from London                                           Brindisi, Italy, 375
  Dominican Republic, 261             distances.                           Ports                              Rijeka, Croatia, 126
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary
  Islands, 2,764                      CHEN-CHANG, CHINA                  Angmagssalik, Greenland, 1,873       CHITTAGONG,
Santo Domingo, Dominican               (3213'00"N., 11024'00"E.) See   Argentia, Canada, 847                BANGLADESH
  Republic, 300                       Zhenjiang, China.                  Belem, Brazil, 3,491                  (2218'45"N., 9149'00"E.) to:
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,210                                         Cape Town, South Africa, 6,965
Tuxpan, Mexico (via Old Bahama        CHERBOURG, FRANCE                  Colon, Panama, 3,111                   Junction Points*
  Channel), 1,890                      (4939'00"N., 137'00"W.) to:     Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,468
Tuxpan, Mexico (via Yucatan                                              La Habana, Cuba, 2,408               Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
  Channel and north of                  Junction Points*                 Montevideo, Uruguay, 6,354             5,492
  Hispaniola), 1,867                                                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Port Said, Egypt, 4,739
Willemstad, Curacao, 457              Bishop Rock, England, 197            1,374                              Singapore, 1,517
                                      Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 1,181
CHARLOTTETOWN,                         Entrance), Germany, 554           Recife, Brazil (via Cabot Strait),     Ports
CANADA                                Skagens Odde, Denmark, 671           4,120
 (4614'00"N., 6307'00"W.) to:                                                                               Bombay, India, 2,160
                                        Ports                            CHIMBOTE, PERU                       Calcutta, India, 367
  Junction Points*                                                        (905'00"S., 7836'00"W.) to:       Calicut, India, 1,664
                                      Amsterdam, Netherlands, 305                                             Cochin, India, 1,578
Montreal, Canada, 708                 Antwerp, Belgium, 281                Junction Points*                   Madras, India, 891
Panama, Panama (via Strait of         Barrow in Furness, England, 448                                         Malacca, Malaysia, 1,391
  Canso and Crooked Island            Bergen, Norway, 734                Panama, Panama, 1,158                Marmagao, India, 1,940
  Passage), 2,578                     Bremerhaven, Germany, 488          Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,843           Penang, Malaysia, 1,167
Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,907            Caen, France, 73                                                        Port Kelang, Malaysia, 1,311
                                      Cardiff, Wales, 309                  Ports                              Viskakhapatman, India, 578
  Ports                               Cobh, Ireland, 315
                                      Dieppe, France, 105                Apra, Guam, 8,264                    CHONGJIN, NORTH KOREA
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          Dover, England, 146                Callao, Peru, 206                     (4146'30"N., 12949'30"E.) to:
  1,142                               Dunkerque, France, 179             Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 5,015
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via    Egersund, Norway, 621              Pago Pago, American Samoa,             Ports
  Strait of Canso), 621               Emden, Germany, 428                  5,389
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,831        Esbjerg, Denmark, 514              Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,157     Busan, South Korea, 417
Charleston, South Carolina,           Fecamp, France, 79                 San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Hakodate, Japan, 509
  U.S.A., 1,313                       Fishguard, Walff, 306                3,402                              Maizuru, Japan, 463
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,     Hamburg, Germany, 543              San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Shimonoseki, Japan, 480
  1,778                               Holyhead, Wales, 377                 3,804                              Vladivostok, Russia, 135
Colon, Panama (via Strait of Canso    Kristiansand, Norway, 632          Valparaiso, Chile, 1,490
  and Crooked Island Passage),        Liverpool, England, 442            Wellington, New Zealand, 5,781       CHRISTIANSHAAB,
  2,535                               Oostende, Belgium, 203                                                  GREENLAND
Halifax, Canada, 268                  Oslo, Norway, 784                                                        (6449'00"N., 5111'30"W.) See
                                                                         CHIMU WAN, OKINAWA
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,788      Rotterdam, Netherlands, 282        JIMA, RYUKYU ISLANDS                 Qasigiannguit, Greenland.
La Habana, Cuba, 1,846                Stavanger, Norway, 661              (2626'00"N., 12800'00"E.) to:
Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,717            Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 472                                             CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX
New York, New York, U.S.A. (via       Zeebrugge, Belgium, 218              Junction Points*                    (1745'20"N., 6442'00"W.) to:
  Strait of Canso), 832
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,           CHI-LUNG, TAIWAN                   Singapore, 2,046                       Junction Points*
  U.S.A., 982                          (2508'10"N., 12144'00"E.) to:
Portland, Maine, U.S.A. (via Strait                                        Ports                              Bishop Rock, England, 3,370
  of Canso), 579                        Ports
Recife, Brazil, 3,658                                                    Apra, Guam, 1,228                      Ports
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,730         Dagu, China, 1,013                 Manila, Philippines, 947
Salvador, Brazil, 4,049               Dalian, China, 852                 Shanghai, China, 527                 Guantanamo, Cuba (north of
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,386      Macau, China, 516                  Yokohama, Japan, 830



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
26        CHRISTMAS ISLAND, LINE ISLANDS



  Hispaniola and Virgin Passage),     Panama, Panama, 815                    Junction Points*                 Felixstowe, England, 493
  635                                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,234                                         Fishguard, Wales, 131
Horta, Azores, 2,259                  Strait of Gibraltar, 4,102           Port Said, Egypt, 1,243            Galway, Ireland, 222
Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via Old    Yucatan Channel, 285                 Strait of Gibraltar, 907           Glasgow, Scotland, 346
  Bahama Channel and Virgin                                                                                   Holyhead, Wales, 182
  Passage), 1,064                       Ports                                Ports                            Inverness, Scotland (via Pentland
New York, New York, U.S.A. (via                                                                                  Firth), 659
  Virgin Passage), 1,465              Almirante, Panama, 788               Ajaccio, Corsica, 180              Leith, England (via Pentland
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 104            Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Alicante, Spain, 616                  Firth), 765
Santa Barbara de Samana,                1,578                              Bonifacio, Corsica, 131            Limerick, Ireland, 221
  Dominican Republic, 289             Barranquilla, Colombia, 755          Brindisi, Italy, 568               Liverpool, England, 246
                                      Belem, Brazil, 2,527                 Cagliari, Sardinia, 239            Londonderry, Northern Ireland,
CHRISTMAS ISLAND, LINE                Belize, Belize, 545                  Genova, Italy, 191                    340
ISLANDS                               Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via   Haifa, Israel, 1,321               Newport, Wales, 210
 (158'00"N., 15728'00"W.) to:         Yucatan Channel), 1,903            Istanbul, Turkey (south of         Plymouth, England, 215
                                      Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,590          Greece), 1,107
  Junction Points*                    Campeche, Mexico, 691                Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth      COCHIN, INDIA
                                      Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 543                 Canal), 1,066                    (958'00"N., 7615'20"E.) to:
Panama, Panama, 4,751                 Cape Town, South Africa, 6,610       Livorno, Italy, 120
                                      Cardenas, Cuba, 905                  Marseille, France, 316               Junction Points*
  Ports                               Carmen, Mexico, 770                  Menton, France, 180
                                      Cartagena, Colombia, 778             Messina, Sicily, 308               Port Said, Egypt, 3,237
Apia, Samoa, 1,274                    Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.   Napoli, Italy, 152                 Singapore, 1,853
Apra, Guam, 3,518                       (via Straits of Florida), 1,107    Odessa, Ukraine (south of
Brisbane, Australia, 3,379            Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,       Greece), 1,456                    Ports
Enderbury Island, Phoenix               973                                Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth
   Islands, 878                       Colon, Panama, 772                      Canal), 1,414                   Bombay, India, 585
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 1,161       Covenas, Colombia, 814               Oran, Algeria, 703                 Colombo, Sri Lanka, 318
Jarvis Island, 209                    Fort de France, Martinique, 1,240    Palermo, Sicily, 253               Karachi, Pakistan, 1,044
Johnston Island, 1,137                Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 989        Patrai, Greece, 612                Marmagao, India, 365
Midway Island, 1,949                  Guantanamo, Cuba, 366                Pozzuoli, Italy, 147               Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 606
Pago Pago, American Samoa,            Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A., 851   Salerno, Italy, 204
   1,256                              Halifax, Canada (via Straits of      Sfax, Tunisia, 520                 COLOMBO, SRI LANKA
Papeete, French Polynesia, 1,266        Florida), 2,102                    Siracusa, Sicily, 373               (657'00"N., 7951'00"E.) to:
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.A.,         Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,346             Valletta, Malta, 421
   1,157                              La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,050          Viareggio, Italy, 480                Junction Points*
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    La Habana, Cuba, 482
   2,895                              Manzanillo, Cuba, 266                COATZACOALCOS, MEXICO              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
                                      Matanzas, Cuba, 526                   (1808'00"N., 9424'45"W.) to:      (east of Madagascar), 4,317
CHURCHILL, CANADA                     Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 683                                             Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,203
 (5846'40"N., 9411'42"W.) to:       Montego Bay, Jamaica, 262              Junction Points*                 Port Said, Egypt (south of
                                      Nassau, Bahamas, 868                                                      Socotra), 3,481
  Junction Points*                    New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Panama, Panama, 1,420              Singapore, 1,581
                                        1,657                              Straits of Florida, 757            Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,781
Inishtrahull, Ireland (via 75 miles   Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,456     Yucatan Channel, 625               Torres Strait, Australia (south of
   off Kap Farvel), 2,760             Nuevitas, Cuba, 649                                                       Java and Timor), 3,978
Pentland Firth, Scotland (via 75      Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 825        Ports
   miles off Kap Farvel), 2,820       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.                                        Ports
                                        (via Crooked Island Passage and    Cartagena, Colombia, 1,484
  Ports                                 Windward Passage), 1,654           Colon, Panama, 1,396               Aden, Yemen (south of Socotra),
                                      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 680        2,094
Aasiaat (Egedesminde),                  (via Yucatan Channel), 1,627       La Habana, Cuba, 840               Akyab, Burma, 1,225
   Greenland, 1,485                   Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,204    Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 834       Al Basrah, Iraq, 2,359
Camp Lloyd, Greenland, 1,434          Port au Prince, Haiti, 534           New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,    Bassein, Burma, 1,194
Goose Bay, Canada, 1,557              Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,310         801                              Belawan, Indonesia, 1,240
Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Greenland,    'Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,246     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,736   Bhavnagar, India, 1,073
   1,532                              'Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 1,015    Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 836    Bombay, India, 895
Kangerluarsoruseq, Greenland,         Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,490        Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,137     Calcutta, India, 1,258
   1,326                              San Juan, Puerto Rico (south of      Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.A., 708    Cochin, India, 318
Maniitsoq, Greenland, 1,341             Hispaniola), 930                   Tampico, Mexico, 320               Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2,565
Nanortalik, Greenland, 1,511          San Juan, Puerto Rico (via           Veracruz, Mexico, 127              Diego Garcia, Chagos
Narsarsuaq, Greenland, 1,513            Windward Passage and north of                                           Archipelago, 974
Nuuk (Godthaab), Greenland,             Hispaniola), 903                   COBH, IRELAND                      Dumai, Indonesia, 1,496
   1,331                              Santa Maria, Cuba, 149                (5150'50"N., 818'00"W.) to:     Durban, South Africa (via east of
Qaanaaq (Thule), Greenland,           Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 334                                               Madagascar), 3,615
   1,909                              Santo Domingo, Dominican               Junction Points*                 Flying Fish Cove, Christmas
Qasigiannguit, Greenland, 1,523         Republic, 716                                                           Island, Indian Ocean, 1,888
Reykjavik, Iceland (via 75 miles      Tampico, Mexico, 1,009               Bishop Rock, England, 143          Fremantle, Australia, 3,122
   off Kap Farvel), 2,290             Tuxpan, Mexico, 979                  Cape of Good Hope, South           Karachi, Pakistan, 1,344
Ritenbenk, Greenland, 1,695           Veracruz, Mexico, 944                  Africa, 5,892                    Madras, India, 611
Shelburne, Canada, 2,467              Willemstad, Curacao, 900             Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 64          Malacca, Malaysia, 1,458
Sisimiut, Greenland, 1,384                                                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 578      Marmagao, India, 671
Upernavik, Greenland, 1,669           CIUDAD BOLIVAR,                                                         Massawa, Ethiopia, 2,486
                                      VENEZUELA                              Ports                            Mombasa, Kenya, 2,518
CIENFUEGOS, CUBA                       (808'00"N., 6333'00"W.) Add                                          Negappattinam, India, 476
 (2208'30"N., 8027'00"W.) to:       58 miles to San Felix distances.     Barrow in Furness, England, 252    New Mangalore, India, 499
                                                                           Belfast, Northern Ireland, 264     Okha, India, 1,183
  Junction Points*                    CIVITAVECCHIA, ITALY                 Cape Town, South Africa, 5,894     Penang, Malaysia, 1,285
                                       (4205'36"N., 1147'15"E.) to:      Cardiff, Wales, 204                Phuket, Thailand, 1,192
Bishop Rock, England, 4,056                                                Cherbourg, France, 315             Port Darwin, Australia, 3,314
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,950                                               Dublin, Ireland, 176               Port Louis, Mauritius, 2,098
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,054                                               Falmouth, England, 182             Port Refuge, Cocos Islands, 1,539



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                COOS BAY, OREGON, U.S.A.                         27



Rangoon, Burma, 1,268                 Funchal, Madeira Island, 3,742       Tampico, Mexico, 1,485              Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,746
Sabang, Indonesia, 976                Georgetown, Ascension Island,        Tela, Honduras, 706                 Oporto, Portugal, 2,105
Tamatave, Madagascar, 2,351              4,181                             Tuxpan, Mexico, 1,455               Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Tanga, Tanzania, 2,564                Georgetown, Guyana, 1,515            Veracruz, Mexico, 1,420                U.S.A., 3,775
Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 347           Guantanamo, Cuba, 689                Vigo, Spain, 4,194                  Pointe Noire, Congo, 1,793
Victoria, Seychelles, 1,652           Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A.,       Willemstad, Curacao, 698            Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,873
Vishakhapatnam, India, 880               1,388                             Wilmington, North Carolina,         Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 1,392
Zanzibar, Tanzania, 2,627             Halifax, Canada, 2,295                 U.S.A. (via Windward Passage),    Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,856
                                      Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,659               1,613                             Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,
COLON, PANAMA                         Horta, Azores, 3,260                 Wilmington, North Carolina,            792
 (922'00"N., 7955'00"W.) to:        Ivittuut, Greenland, 3,536             U.S.A. (via Yucatan Channel),     Portsmouth, New Hampshire,
                                      Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,         1,730                                U.S.A., 3,605
  Junction Points*                       1,516                             Yarmouth, Canada, 2,210             Recife, Brazil, 1,645
                                      Jacmel, Haiti, 683                                                       Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,627
Bishop Rock, England (via Mona        Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,065     COLONIA, URUGUAY                    St. Helena Island, 1,600
   Passage), 4,344                    Kingston, Jamaica, 551                (3430'00"S., 5752'15"W.)         Takoradi, Ghana, 872
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,      La Ceiba, Honduras, 666              Subtract 25 miles from Buenos
   6,488                              La Guaira, Venezuela, 841            Aires distances.                    CONCHAN, PERU
Fastnet Rock, Ireland (via Caicos     Lagos, Nigeria, 5,049                                                     (1210'00"S., 7700'00"W.) See
   Passage), 4,244                    Les Cayes, Haiti, 645                COME BY CHANCE,                     Callao.
Inishtrahull, Ireland (via Mona       Limon, Costa Rica, 190               CANADA
   Passage), 4,393                    Lisboa, Portugal (via Mona            (4748'00"N., 5401'25"W.) Add     CONSTANTA, ROMANIA
Inishtrahull, Ireland (via Windward      Passage), 4,152                   23 miles to Argentia distances.      (4409'56"N., 2840'14"E.) to:
   Passage), 4,362                    Liverpool, Canada, 2,244
Montreal, Canada (via Strait of       Manzanillo, Cuba, 689                COMODORO RIVADAVIA,                   Junction Points*
   Canso), 3,126                      Maracaibo, Venezuela, 693            ARGENTINA
Panama, Panama, 44                    Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 1,214         (4551'35"S., 6726'35"W.) to:     Port Said, Egypt, 1,000
Pentland Firth, Scotland (via Mona    Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 1,393                                           Strait of Gibraltar, 2,018
   Passage), 4,594                    Montecristi, Dominican Republic,       Junction Points*
Pentland Firth, Scotland (via            83                                                                      Ports
   Windward Passage), 4,529           Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,349           Panama, Panama, 6,185
Punta Arenas, Chile (east of South    Nassau, Bahamas (via Windward        Punta Arenas, Chile, 585            Cagliari, Sardinia (south of
   America), 6,543                       Passage), 1,166                                                          Greece), 1,317
Strait of Gibraltar (via Mona         New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,        Ports                             Iskenderun, Turkey, 1,044
 Passage), 4,308                         1,389                                                                 Istanbul, Turkey, 201
Yucatan Channel, 812                  New York, New York, U.S.A. (via      Buenos Aires, Argentina, 927        Kerch, Ukraine, 370
                                         Crooked Island Passage), 1,974                                        Larnaca, Cyprus, 962
  Ports                               Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via       CONAKRY, GUINEA                     Mersin, Turkey, 986
                                         Windward Passage), 1,779           (930'30"N., 1343'35"W.) to:      Nice, France (south of Greece),
Antilla, Cuba, 844                    Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via                                              1,509
Argentia, Canada, 2,640                  Yucatan Channel), 2,006             Junction Points*                  Novorossiysk, Russia, 403
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 5,820           Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 1,369                                        Odessa, Ukraine, 186
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Bishop Rock, England, 2,626         Patrai, Greece (south of Greece),
   Windward Passage), 1,901              (via Windward Passage), 1,946     Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       811
Barranquilla, Colombia, 336           Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,168       3,209                            Patrai, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
Belem, Brazil, 2,403                  Ponta Delgada, Azores, 3,379         Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,689           653
Belize, Belize, 816                   Porlamar, Venezuela, 1,012           Grand Banks South, 2,765            Pula, Croatia (south of Greece),
Bocas del Toro, Panama, 144           Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,159       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,584          1,305
Bordeaux, France (via Mona            Port Antonio, Jamaica, 582           Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,029        Pula, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),
   Passage), 4,593                    Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.A., 1,485    Panama, Panama, 3,926                  1,206
Bordeaux, France (via Windward        Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,160      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,357     Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 572
   Passage), 4,643                    Portland Bight, Jamaica, 536         Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,142          Sevastopol, Ukraine, 212
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via    Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 2,198       Strait of Gibraltar, 1,931
   Windward Passage), 2,157           Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,    Straits of Florida, 4,038           CONTRECOEUR, CANADA
Brest, France, 4,420                     3,240                             Yucatan Channel, 4,220               (4553'00"N., 7312'00"W.)
Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,237           Portsmouth, New Hampshire,                                               Subtract 25 miles from Montreal
Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A. (via          U.S.A. (via Windward Passage),      Ports                             distances.
   Windward Passage), 1,538              2,174
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,385        Progreso, Mexico, 1,026              Accra, Ghana, 995
                                                                                                               COOS BAY, OREGON, U.S.A.
Cadiz, Spain, 14,286                  Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 78        Bathurst, Gambia, 345                (4322'14"N., 12423'00"W.) to:
Campeche, Mexico, 1,167               Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 802       Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 817               Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 733           3,612                               Junction Points*
Cape Town, South Africa, 6,494        Recife, Brazil, 3,295                Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,755
Carmen, Mexico, 1,246                 Reykjavik, Iceland, 4,098            Cadiz, Spain, 1,952                 Panama, Panama, 3,589
Cartagena, Colombia, 281              Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,367        Cape Town, South Africa, 3,189      Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,549
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.    Salvador, Brazil, 3,698              Casablanca, Morocco, 1,809          Singapore (via San Bernardino
   (via Windward Passage), 1,564      San Juan, Puerto Rico, 993           Colon, Panama, 3,954                 Strait), 7,284
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.    Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Dakar, Senegal, 443                 Singapore (via 30N., 180 and
   (via Yucatan Channel), 1,636          Islands, 3,776                    Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,506        Balintang Channel), 7,512
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,     Santa Marta, Colombia, 365           Georgetown, Ascension Island,       Torres Strait, Australia, 6,057
   1,029                              Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 683            1,048                             Wilson Promontory, Australia,
Charlottetown, Canada, 2,535          Santo Domingo, Dominican             Grand Bassam, Ivory Coast, 760        6,920
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 772                    Republic, 802                     Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,615
Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 1,396          Santos, Brazil, 4,566                Huelva, Spain, 1,941                  Ports
Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.A.,        Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via       Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 4,013
   1,548                                 Yucatan Channel), 1,607           Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 1,306   Antofagasta, Chile, 5,120
Dakar, Senegal, 3,694                 Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 633       Lisboa, Portugal, 1,962             Auckland, New Zealand, 5,853
El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain,        St. Georges, Grenada, 1,118          Marshall, Liberia, 321              Brisbane, Australia, 6,253
   4,222                              St. John, Canada, 2,294              Monrovia, Liberia, 294              Callao, Peru, 4,344
Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 998        St. John's, Canada, 2,695            Natal, Brazil, 2,137                Guayaquil, Ecuador, 3,920
Fort de France, Martinique, 1,159     St. John's, Antigua, 1,158           New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Honolulu, Hawaii, 2,150
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,976         Sydney, Canada, 2,482                  3,713                             Kobe, Japan, 4,565
                                      Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., 1,216


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
28        COPENHAGEN, DENMARK



Yokohama, Japan, 4,302               Monterey, California, U.S.A.,            Junction Points*                  Kobe, Japan, 1,034
                                        2,533                                                                   Lo-hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 1,029
COPENHAGEN, DENMARK                  Pisco, Peru, 1,718                     Cape of Good Hope, South            Manila, Philippines (east of
 (5542'00"N., 1236'06"E.) See      Puerto Armuelles, Panama, 409             Africa, 857                        Taiwan), 1,722
Kobenhavn.                           Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 262            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,747       Manila, Philippines (via Formosa
                                     Salina Cruz, Mexico, 525                                                     Strait), 1,732
COQUIMBO, CHILE                      San Diego, California, U.S.A.,           Ports                             Mogpo, South Korea (south of
 (2957'00"S., 7121'00"W.) to:         2,211                                                                     Kasa Do), 536
                                     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Douala, Cameroon, 486               Nagasaki, Japan, 754
  Junction Points*                      2,613                               Monrovia, Liberia, 893              Nakagusuku, Ryukyu Islands,
                                     San Jose, Guatemala, 238                                                     1,026
Panama, Panama, 2,448                Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,     COURTENAY BAY, NEW                  Nampo, North Korea, 369
Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,623              2,348                               BRUNSWICK, CANADA                   Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia,
Torres Strait, Australia, 8,107      Valparaiso, Chile, 2,875                (4516'13"N., 6602'35"W.) See       1,961
Wilson Promontory, Australia,                                               St. John.                           Noumea, New Caledonia, 4,667
  6,730                              CORK, IRELAND                                                              Pago Pago, American Samoa,
                                      (5154'00"N., 827'30"W.) Add         COVENAS, COLOMBIA                     5,194
  Ports                              9 miles to Cobh distances.              (925'00"N., 7541'10"W.) to:      Papeete, French Polynesia, 6,281
                                                                                                                Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
Acapulco, Mexico, 3,259              CORNER BROOK, CANADA                     Junction Points*                    Russia (via La Perouse Strait),
Antofagasta, Chile, 396               (4857'30"N., 5756'46"W.) to:                                              2,419
Arica, Chile, 702                                                           Panama, Panama, 308                 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
Caldera, Chile, 196                    Junction Points*                     Yucatan Channel, 924                  Russia (via Tsugaru-Kaikyo),
Callao, Peru, 1,136                                                                                               2,444
Corinto, Nicaragua, 2,711            Inishtrahull, Ireland (via Strait of     Ports                             Port Darwin, Australia, 3,363
Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 2,014              Belle Isle), 1,906                                                      Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 3,294
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,781            Montreal, Canada, 740                  Cienfuegos, Cuba, 814               Qingdao, China, 436
Guaymas, Mexico, 4,153               Panama, Panama, 2,707                  Kingston, Jamaica, 528              Qinhuangdao, China, 131
Iquique, Chile, 602                  Pentland Firth, Scotland (via Strait   Port of Spain, Trinidad, 968        San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
Lota, Chile, 455                        of Belle Isle), 2,001                                                     (via Osumi Kaikyo), 5,856
Monterey, California, U.S.A.,        Straits of Florida, 2,035              COWES, ENGLAND                      San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
   4,927                                                                     (5046'04"N., 117'51"W.) See        (via Tsugaru-Kaikyo), 5,615
Pisco, Peru, 1,036                     Ports                                Southampton.                        Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via
Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 2,526                                                                                     La Perouse Strait, and north of
Salina Cruz, Mexico, 3,091           Angmagssalik, Greenland, 1,304         CRISTOBAL, PANAMA                     Aleutian Islands), 5,286
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Argentia, Canada, 413                   (922'00"N., 7955'00"W.) See      Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via
   4,605                             Belem, Brazil, 3,121                   Colon.                                Osumi Kaikyo and South of
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                               Aleutian Islands), 5,596
   5,007                               835                                                                      Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via
                                                                            CUXHAVEN, GERMANY
San Jose, Guatemala, 2,864           Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6,131          (5352'00"N., 843'00"E.)            Tsugaru-Kaikyo and north of
Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,   Colon, Panama, 2,691                   Subtract 56 miles from Hamburg        Aleutian Islands), 5,290
   4,742                             Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,098               distances.                          Tsugaru-Kaikyo and south of
Talcahuano, Chile, 428               Murmansk, Russia, 2,988                                                     Aleutian Islands), 5,351
Valparaiso, Chile, 203               New York, New York, U.S.A., 999                                            Shanghai, China, 720
                                                                            DAGU, CHINA                         Shimonoseki, Japan, 790
                                     Reykjavik, Iceland (via Strait of       (3859'15"N., 11740'45"E.) to:
CORDOVA, ALASKA, U.S.A.                Belle Isle), 1,516                                                       Surabaya, Indonesia, 3,174
 (6032'45"N., 14546'30"W.) to:     Wilmington, North Carolina,                                                Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,898
                                                                              Junction Points*
                                       U.S.A., 1,393                                                            Sydney, Australia (via Vitiaz
  Ports                                                                                                           Strait), 5,135
                                                                            Panama, Panama (via Osumi
                                     CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS,                                                     Tianjin, China, 48
                                                                              Kaikyo), 9,002
Ketchikan, Alaska, U.S.A., 656       U.S.A.                                                                     Valparaiso, Chile (via Shimonoseki
                                                                            Panama, Panama (via Tsugaru-
Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,435          (2749'00"N., 9724'00"W.) to:                                              Kaikyo), 10,482
                                                                              Kaikyo), 8,786
Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,409                                                                                     Vladivostok, Russia, 1,212
                                                                            Punta Arenas, Chile, 10,280
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 1,216     Junction Points*                                                         Weonsan, North Korea, 1,007
                                                                            Singapore, 2,770
                                                                                                                Xiamen, China, 1,169
                                     Straits of Florida, 803                                                    Yantai, China, 205
CORINTO, NICARAGUA                                                            Ports
 (1228'15"N., 8711'00"W.) to:      Yucatan Channel, 764                                                       Yokohama, Japan (via Osumi
                                                                                                                  Kaikyo), 1,394
                                                                            Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
  Junction Points*                     Ports                                   Russia (via Maenggol Sudo),
                                                                               1,807                            DAGU BAR, CHINA
Panama, Panama, 683                  Colon, Panama, 1,548                   Apra, Guam, 2,133                    (3856'15"N., 11758'45"E.)
Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,180           La Habana, Cuba, 864                   Auckland, New Zealand (via Vitiaz   Subtract 36 miles from Tianjin
                                     Tampico, Mexico, 366                      Strait), 5,648                   distances.
  Ports                                                                     Busan, South Korea (via Maenggol
                                     CORUNNA, SPAIN                            Sudo), 702                       DAKAR, SENEGAL
Acapulco, Mexico, 792                 (4322'00"N., 824'00"W.) to:         Cebu, Philippines (via San           (1441'00"N., 1726'00"W.) to:
Amapala, Honduras, 72                                                          Bernardino Strait), 1,907
Antofagasta, Chile, 2,400              Junction Points*                     Chi-lung, Taiwan, 1,013               Junction Points*
Arica, Chile, 2,181                                                         Dalian, China, 207
Brito, Nicaragua, 107                Ile d'Ouessant, France, 331            Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A. (via   Bishop Rock, England, 2,195
Callao, Peru, 1,606                                                            La Perouse Strait), 3,594        Cape of Good Hope, South
Coquimbo, Chile, 2,711                 Ports                                Hakodate, Japan, 1,385                 Africa, 3,610
Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 823                                                    Hong Kong, China, 1,418             Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,152
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,071            Horta, Azores, 967                     Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via       Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,546
Guaymas, Mexico, 1,738               New York, New York, U.S.A.,               Osumi Kaikyo), 4,677             Montreal, Canada, 3,566
Iquique, Chile, 2,247                  2,917                                Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via       Panama, Panama, 3,738
La Libertad, El Salvador, 141        San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,255              Shimonoseki Kaikyo), 4,628       Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,794
La Union, El Salvador, 73            Santander, Spain, 224                  Iloilo, Philippines (via San        Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,928
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,                                               Bernardino Strait), 1,929        Strait of Gibraltar, 1,487
  2,281                              COTONOU, BENIN                         Incheon, South Korea, 465           Straits of Florida (via Northwest
Lota, Chile, 3,081                    (621'00"N., 226'30"E.) to:          Jakarta, Indonesia, 3,088             Providence Channel), 3,768




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                                   DERINCE, TURKEY                       29



  Ports                                Inishtrahull, Ireland (via Strait of   Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 5,240          London, England, 292
                                          Belle Isle), 2,187                  Qingdao, China, 277                      Southampton, England, 100
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 1,166            Montreal, Canada, 636                  Qinhuangdao, China, 145
Agadir, Morocco, 1,109                 Panama, Panama (via Windward           San Francisco, California, U.S.A.        DARWIN, AUSTRALIA
Belem, Brazil, 2,104                      Passage), 2,836                       (via Osumi Kaikyo), 5,697               (1228'30"S., 13050'00"E.) See
Bolama, Guinea-Bissau, 272             Pentland Firth, Scotland (via Strait   San Francisco, California, U.S.A.        Port Darwin.
Bordeaux, France, 2,243                   Belle Isle), 2,282                    (via Tsugaru-Kaikyo), 5,456
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,274             Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via         DAS ISLAND, UNITED ARAB
   3,221                               Straits of Florida, 2,164                La Perouse Strait and north of         EMIRATES
Buchanan, Liberia, 755                                                          Aleutian Islands), 5,127                (2508'04"N., 5255'25"E.) to:
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,864           Ports                                Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via
Cadiz, Spain, 1,500                                                             Osumi Kaikyo and south of                Junction Points*
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 3,154              Angmagssalik, Greenland, 1,568           Aleutian Islands), 5,437
Cape Town, South Africa, 3,593         Argentia, Canada, 605                  Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Casablanca, Morocco, 1,333             Bordeaux, France (via Strait of          Tsugaru-Kaikyo and north of              4,820
Charleston, South Carolina,              Belle Isle), 2,677                     Aleutian Islands), 5,131               Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,156
   U.S.A., 3,557                       Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via         Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,403
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,        964                                    Tsugaru-Kaikyo and south of            Port Said, Egypt, 3,002
   2,751                               Colon, Panama, 2,819                     Aleutian Islands), 5,192               Singapore, 3,541
Colon, Panama, 3,694                   Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,227               Shanghai, China, 560                     Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,748
El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain,         Montevideo, Uruguay, 6,113             Sydney, Australia (via west of New       Torres Strait, Australia, 6,005
   1,843                               Murmansk, Russia, 3,292                  Ireland), 5,015
El Jadida, Morocco, 1,317              New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Sydney, Australia (via Vitiaz              Ports
Fedala, Morocco, 1,338                   1,128                                  Strait), 4,976
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 496            Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,338       Valparaiso, Chile (via Shimonoseki       Aden, Yemen, 1,613
Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,091                                                  Kaikyo), 10,324                        Belawan, Indonesia, 3,210
Galway, Ireland, 2,383                 DALIAN, CHINA                          Valparaiso, Chile (via Tokara            Bombay, India, 1,233
Greenville, Liberia, 831                (3856'00"N., 12139'00"E.) to:         Kaikyo), 10,366                        Fremantle, Australia, 5,087
Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,312                                                       Vladivostok, Russia, 1,057               Penang, Malaysia, 3,250
Halifax, Canada, 2,956                   Junction Points*                     Weonsan, North Korea, 848                Port Sudan, 2,266
Horta, Azores, 1,559                                                          Xiamen, China, 1,008
Huelva, Spain, 1,521                   Panama, Panama (via Osumi              Yokohama, Japan (via Osumi               DAVAO, PHILIPPINES
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,           Kaikyo), 8,843                         Kaikyo), 1,235                          (704'38"N., 12537'38"E.) to:
   3,650                               Panama, Panama (via Tsugaru-
Kenitra, Morocco, 1,432                  Kaikyo), 8,627                       DALIEN, CHINA                              Junction Points*
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,709       Punta Arenas, Chile, 10,121             (3856'00"N., 12139'00"E.) See
Kingston, Jamaica, 3,436               Singapore, 2,612                       Dalian.                                  Singapore, 1,532
La Guaira, Venezuela, 2,911                                                                                            Torres Strait, Australia, 1,628
Larache, Morocco, 1,425                  Ports                                DANANG, VIETNAM
Libreville, Gabon, 1,982                                                       (1606'30"N., 10812'00"E.) to:           Ports
Lisboa, Portugal, 1,544                Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
Marshall, Liberia, 724                   Russia, 1,648                          Ports                                  Cebu, Philippines, 439
Monrovia, Liberia, 693                 Apra, Guam, 1,974                                                               Hong Kong, China, 1,382
Natal, Brazil, 1,620                   Auckland, New Zealand (via Vitiaz      Cebu, Philippines, 1,049                 Makasar, Sulawesi, 929
New York, New York, U.S.A.,              Strait), 5,489                       Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 518                Manila, Philippines, 831
   3,335                               Auckland, New Zealand (west of         Hong Kong, China, 520                    Sorong, Indonesia, 601
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,408         New Ireland), 5,469                  Manila, Philippines, 758
Oporto, Portugal, 1,682                Busan, South Korea (via Maenggol                                                DEEPWATER POINT, NEW
Paramaribo, Suriname, 2,315              Sudo), 543                           DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA                  JERSEY, U.S.A.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,            Chi-lung, Taiwan, 852                   (649'30"S., 3917'30"E.) to:            (3941'36"N., 7530'42"W.)
   U.S.A., 3,441                       Dagu, China, 207                                                                Subtract 27 miles from
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,459           Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A. (via        Junction Points*                       Philadelphia distances.
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,628           La Perouse Strait), 3,435
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 2,543        Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A. (via      Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,         DELFZIJL, NETHERLANDS
Port Etienne, Mauritania, 394            Tsugaru-Kaikyo), 3,437                 2,330                                   (5320'30"N., 656'15"E.)
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, U.S.        Gunsan, South Korea, 294               Port Said, Egypt, 3,238                  Subtract 10 miles from Emden,
   A., 3,219                           Hakodate, Japan, 1,226                 Singapore, 4,042                         Germany distances.
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 4,077         Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via
Rabat, Morocco, 1,412                    Shimonoseki Kaikyo), 4,470             Ports                                  DEN HELDER,
Recife, Brazil, 1,717                  Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,531                                                 NETHERLANDS
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,763          Incheon, South Korea, 290              Aden, Yemen, 1,751                        (5258'00"N., 445'22"E.) to:
Safi, Morocco, 1,228                   Kobe, Japan, 877                       Belawan, Indonesia, 3,709
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2,812           Lianyungang, China, 348                Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,565                  Junction Points*
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary         Lo-hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 871         Fremantle, Australia, 4,513
   Islands, 846                        Manila, Philippines (east of           Malacca, Malaysia, 3,927                 Bishop Rock, England, 509
Santo Domingo, Dominican                 Taiwan), 1,561                       Mocambique, Mozambique, 533              Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
   Republic, 3,036                     Manila, Philippines (via Formosa       Mtwara, Tanzania, 230                     Entrance), Germany, 263
St. John's, Canada, 2,646                Strait), 1,571                       Penang, Malaysia, 3,754                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 447
Sulima, Sierra Leone, 589              Masan, South Korea, 546                Port Darwin, Australia, 5,428
Tangier, Morocco, 1,483                Mogpo, South Korea (via south of       Sabang, Indonesia, 3,443                   Ports
Vigo, Spain, 1,744                       Kasa Do), 377
Villa Cisneros, Western Sahara,        Moji, Japan, 633                                                                Hamburg, Germany, 249
                                                                              DARTMOUTH, ENGLAND
   578                                 Nampo, North Korea, 180                 (5021'00"N., 334'20"W.) to:           Rotterdam, Netherlands, 97
                                       Pago Pago, American Samoa,
DALHOUSIE, CANADA                        5,035                                  Junction Points*                       DERINCE, TURKEY
 (4803'15"N., 6615'00"W.) to:        Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,                                                       (4044'35"N., 2949'30"E.) to:
                                         Russia (via La Perouse Strait),      Bishop Rock, England, 122
  Junction Points*                       2,260                                Ile d'Ouessant, France, 135                Junction Points*
                                       Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
Grand Banks South, 770                   Russia (via Tsugaru-Kaikyo),           Ports                                  Port Said, Egypt, 837
Fastnet Rock, Ireland (via Strait of     2,285                                                                         Strait of Gibraltar (south of
  Belle Isle), 2,183                   Port Darwin, Australia, 3,204          Le Havre, France, 151                     Greece), 1,855



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
30        DEVONPORT, ENGLAND



Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth      DIEPPE, FRANCE                     Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 274            Junction Points*
 Canal), 1,838                         (4956'58"N., 105'00"E.) to:     Inishtrahull, Ireland, 156
                                                                         Pentland Firth, Scotland, 397       Bishop Rock, England, 232
  Ports                                 Junction Points*                                                     Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 223
                                                                           Ports                             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 184
Banghazi, Libya, 750                  Bishop Rock, England, 297                                              Pentland Firth, Scotland, 424
Genova, Italy (south of Greece),      Ile d'Ouessant, France, 270        Cardiff, Wales, 246
  1,325                                                                  Fishguard, Wales, 131                 Ports
Genova, Italy (via Corinth Canal),      Ports                            Holyhead, Wales, 51
  1,283                                                                  Liverpool, England, 68              Ardrossan, Scotland, 153
Malaga, Spain (south of Greece),      Cherbourg, France, 105                                                 Avonmouth, England, 220
  1,785                               Plymouth, England, 206                                                 Barrow in Furness, England, 122
                                                                         DOVER, ENGLAND
Malaga, Spain (via Corinth                                                (5107'00"N., 120'00"E.) to:      Cardiff, Wales, 205
  Canal), 1,768                       DIGBY, CANADA                                                          Cobh, Ireland, 176
Patrai, Greece (south of Greece),      (4442'38"N., 6546'27"W.)          Junction Points*                  Londonderry, Northern Ireland,
  648                                 Subtract 76 miles from Parrsboro                                         189
Patrai, Greece (via Corinth Canal),   distances.                         Bishop Rock, England, 323           Newport, Wales, 219
  489                                                                    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 306         Port Talbot, Wales, 179
Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 685           DIKSON, RUSSIA                     Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East             Waterford, Ireland, 113
Sfax, Tunisia, 1,081                   (7330'00"N., 8028'00"E.) to:      Entrance), Germany, 410
Thessaloniki, Greece, 372                                                Skagens Odde, Denmark, 527          DUBROVNIK, CROATIA
                                        Ports                                                                 (4238'24"N., 1806'55"E.) to:
DEVONPORT, ENGLAND                                                         Ports
 (5022'00"N., 411'00"W.) Add 2      Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 1,105                                              Junction Points*
miles to Plymouth distances.          Berlevag, Norway, 1,069            Amsterdam, Netherlands, 161
                                      Hull, England, 2,552               Antwerp, Belgium, 137               Port Said, Egypt (south of
DHEKELIA, CYPRUS                      Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 1,148      Bergen, Norway, 590                    Greece), 1,038
 (3457'58"N., 3343'57"E.) to:       Murmansk, Russia, 1,025            Bremerhaven, Germany, 341           Port Said, Egypt (via Corinth
                                      Mys Chelyuskin, Russia, 457        Caen, France, 140                      Canal), 1,025
  Junction Points*                                                       Cherbourg, France, 146              Strait of Gibraltar, 1,420
                                      DJIBOUTI, DJIBOUTI                 Egersund, Norway, 477
Port Said, Egypt, 241                  (1136'30"N., 4308'00"E.) to:    Emden, Germany, 284                   Ports
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,959                                               Esbjerg, Denmark, 370
                                        Junction Points*                 Granville, France, 181              Bari, Italy, 108
  Ports                                                                  Hamburg, Germany, 399               Barletta, Italy, 113
                                      Cape of Good Hope, South           Kristiansand, Norway, 488           Beirut, Lebanon, 1,092
Ajaccio, Corsica, 233                   Africa, 4,063                    Oslo, Norway, 640                   Cartagena, Spain, 1,177
Algiers, Algeria, 1,514               Port Said, Egypt, 1,374            Plymouth, England, 229              Genova, Italy, 856
Bari, Italy, 978                      Singapore (north of Socotra and    Portland, England, 155              Kerkira, Greece, 208
Ceuta, Morocco, 1,921                  Strait of Malacca), 3,769         Portsmouth, England, 105            Manfredonia, Italy, 117
Corfu, Greece, 819                                                       Rotterdam, Netherlands, 138         Rijeka, Croatia, 276
Derince, Turkey, 763                    Ports                            Southampton, England, 123           Sibenik, Croatia, 144
Famagusta, Cyprus, 36                                                    St. Malo, France, 228               Venezia, Italy, 320
Kerch, Ukraine, 793                   Aden, Yemen, 133                   Stavanger, Norway, 517
Egypt, 352                                                               Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 328         DUDINKA, RUSSIA
Moni Anchorage, Cyprus, 34            DONGES, FRANCE                                                          (6924'00"N., 86l0'00"E.) Add
Ravenna, Italy, 1,255                  (4718'18"N., 204'30"W.) Add 6   DRAMMEN HARBOR,                     298 miles to Dikson distances.
Tangier, Morocco, 1,948               miles to St. Nazaire distances.    NORWAY
Taranto, Italy, 933                                                       (5944'18"N., 1014'32"E.) to:     DUMAI, INDONESIA
Thessaloniki, Greece, 690             DORDRECHT,                                                              (142'00"N., 10128'00"E.) to:
Tunis, Tunisia, 1,172                 NETHERLANDS                          Junction Points*
                                       (5148'45"N., 439'15"E.) Add 9                                         Junction Points*
                                      miles to Rotterdam distances.      Bishop Rock, England (via Dover
DIAMANTE, ARGENTINA
 (3203'48"S., 6039'24"W.) Add                                             Strait), 943                     Port Said, Egypt, 4,943
286 miles to Buenos Aires             DOUALA, CAMEROON                   Ile d'Ouessant, France (via Dover   Singapore, 200
distances.                             (403'00"N., 941'00"E.) to:         Strait), 929
                                                                         Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Ports
                                        Junction Points*                   Entrance), Germany (via Store
DIEGO GARCIA, CHAGOS                                                        Baelt), 358
ARCHIPELAGO                                                                                                  Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,824
 (718'40"S., 7228'00"E.) to:        Straits of Florida, 5,526          Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East             Calcutta, India, 1,579
                                                                           Entrance), Germany (via The       Cochin, India, 1,779
  Junction Points*                      Ports                               Sound), 430                      Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,496
                                                                         Pentland Firth, Scotland, 504       Madras, India, 1,512
Singapore (via Udjung Masam           Anecho, Togo, 526                  Skagens Odde, Denmark, 121          Vishakhapatnam, India, 1,499
 Muka), 2,224                         Bata, Equatorial Guinea, 141
                                      Boma, Congo, 742                     Ports
                                                                                                             DUN LAOGHAIRE, IRELAND
  Ports                               Cabinda, Cabinda, 668                                                   (5318'10"N., 607'40"W.) See
                                      Cotonou, Benin, 486                Aarhus, Denmark, 250                Dublin.
Aden, Yemen, 2,116                    Kribi, Cameroon, 87                Antwerp, Belgium, 647
Belawan, Indonesia, 1,860             Lagos, Nigeria, 442                Bergen, Norway, 368
                                                                         Bremerhaven, Germany, 418           DUNDEE, SCOTLAND
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 974               Libreville, Gabon, 228                                                  (5627'45"N., 256'40"W.) to:
Fremantle, Australia, 2,850           Mayumba, Gabon, 513                Calais, France, 624
Hobart, Tasmania (via                 Pointe Noire, Congo, 613           Kobenhavn, Denmark, 262               Junction Points*
  D'Entrecasteaux Channel),           Port Gentil, Gabon, 297            London, England, 656
  4,501                               Sao Tome, Sao Tome, 285            Narvik, Norway, 966                 Bishop Rock, England, 713
Malacca, Malaysia, 2,078                                                 Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 413         Ile d'Ouessant, France, 698
Penang, Malaysia, 1,905                                                  Zeebrugge, Belgium, 593             Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                      DOUGLAS, ISLE OF MAN
Port Darwin, Australia, 3,483          (5409'00"N., 428'00"W.) to:                                           Entrance), Germany, 501
Sabang, Indonesia, 1,594                                                 DUBLIN, IRELAND                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 179
Victoria, Seychelles, 1,032             Junction Points*                  (5320'45"N., 613'00"W.) to:      Skagens Odde, Denmark, 455

                                      Bishop Rock, England, 276



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                          EL FERROL DEL CAUDILLO, SPAIN                                     31



  Ports                            DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA               Kasatka, Japan, 1,846                  Junction Points*
                                    (2952'00"S., 3102'00"E.) to:    Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 596
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 374                                           Kobe, Japan, 2,833                   Panama, Panama, 2,785
Antwerp, Belgium, 442                Junction Points*                 Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Bremerhaven, Germany, 437                                                2,382                               Ports
Dunkerque, France, 402             Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Manila, Philippines (north of
Emden, Germany, 400                  764                                 Luzon), 4,233                     Islas Juan Fernandez, 1,633
Esbjerg, Denmark, 394              Port Said, Egypt, 4,567            Matsuga-hana, Japan, 1,917
Hamburg, Germany, 485              Singapore, 4,872                   Melbourne, Australia, 6,321          EGEDESMINDE,
Hull, England, 240                                                    Midway Island, 1,651                 GREENLAND
Le Havre, France, 505                Ports                            Nagasaki, Japan (South of             (6842'33"N., 5253'12"W.) See
London, England, 420                                                     Kyushu), 3,181                    Aasiaat
Oostende, Belgium, 398             Albany, Australia, 4,275           Nagasaki, Japan (via Tsugaru-
Plymouth, England, 621             Bombay, India, 3,829                  Kaikyo), 3,011                    EGERSUND, NORWAY
Portland, England, 547             Colombo, Sri Lanka, 3,704          Noumea, New Caledonia, 4,857          (5827'00"N., 600'00"E.) to:
Portsmouth, England, 497           East London, South Africa, 258     Pago Pago, American Samoa,
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 383        Fremantle, Australia, 4,243           4,132                               Junction Points*
Southampton, England, 515          Karachi, Pakistan, 3,915           Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,400
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 430        Malacca, Malaysia, 4,757           Petersburg, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,215    Bishop Rock, England (via English
Zeebrugge, Belgium, 394            Maputo, Mozambique, 307            Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,              Channel), 797
                                   Mombasa, Kenya, 1,718                 Russia, 1,249                     Ile d'Ouessant, France, 781
                                   Penang, Malaysia, 4,584            Port Darwin, Australia, 5,332        Pentland Firth, Scotland, 298
DUNEDIN, NEW ZEALAND
 (4553'00"S., 17031'00"E.) to:   Port des Galets, Reunion Island,   Prince Rupert, Canada, 1,274         Skagens Odde, Denmark, 165
                                     1,418                            Qingdao, China, 3,385
  Junction Points*                 Port Adelaide, Australia, 5,160    San Diego, California, U.S.A.,         Ports
                                   Port Darwin, Australia, 5,561         2,465
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,622     Port Louis, Mauritius, 1,560       San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Aberdeen, Scotland, 273
Torres Strait, Australia, 2,872    Sabang, Indonesia, 4,273              2,051                             Amsterdam, Netherlands, 380
                                   Telukbayur, Indonesia, 4,307       Sand Bay, Alaska, U.S.A., 397        Antwerp, Belgium, 484
  Ports                            Zanzibar, Tanzania, 1,607          Sasebo, Japan (via Osumi             Bremerhaven, Germany, 312
                                                                         Kaikyo), 3,207                    Calais, France, 475
Brisbane, Australia, 1,606         DURRES, ALBANIA                    Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 1,707   Cherbourg, France, 621
Burnie Harbor, Tasmania (via        (4118'15"N., 1927'15"E.) to:    Shanghai, China (via La Perouse      Dover, England, 477
  Bank Strait), 1,193                                                    Strait), 3,375                    Dunkerque, France, 469
Geelong, Australia (via Banks        Junction Points*                 Shanghai, China (via Tsugaru-        Emden, Germany, 327
  Strait), 1,341                                                         Kaikyo), 3,377                    Esbjerg, Denmark, 226
Hobart, Tasmania, 1,068            Port Said, Egypt, 951              Shimonoseki, Japan, 2,892            Hamburg, Germany, 351
Melbourne, Australia, 1,309        Strait of Gibraltar, 1,349         Surabaya, Indonesia, 5,555           Hull, England, 378
Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,552                                          Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,493            Kristiansand, Norway, 86
                                     Ports                            Sweeper Cove, Alaska, U.S.A.,        Le Havre, France, 589
DUNKERQUE, FRANCE                                                        407                               Leith, Scotland, 336
 (5103'00"N., 222'00"E.) to:     Crotone, Italy, 172                Sydney, Australia, 5,761             London, England, 501
                                   Manfredonia, Italy, 161            Tomari, Japan, 1,978                 Newcastle, England, 329
  Junction Points*                 Monopoli, Italy, 100               Truk, Caroline Islands, 3,493        Oostende, Belgium, 447
                                   Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth      Unalakleet, Alaska, U.S.A., 752      Oslo, Norway, 238
Bishop Rock, England, 355             Canal), 339                     Valparaiso, Chile, 7,140             Plymouth, England, 706
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 351        Ploce, Croatia, 214                Vancouver, Canada, 1,724             Portland, England, 632
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Preveza, Greece, 181               Vladivostok, Russia, 2,518           Portsmouth, England, 582
  Entrance), Germany, 386          Salamis, Greece, 343               Wake Island, 2,463                   Rotterdam, Netherlands, 412
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 525      Split, Croatia, 216                Whittier, Alaska, U.S.A., 817        Southampton, England, 600
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 511         Taranto, Italy, 183                Xiamen, China (via La Perouse        Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 306
                                                                         Strait), 3,771                    Zeebrugge, Belgium, 440
  Ports                            DUTCH HARBOR, ALASKA,              Xiamen, China (via Tsugaru-
                                   U.S.A.                                Kaikyo), 3,770                    EILAT, ISRAEL
Aberdeen, Scotland, 418             (5354'00"N., 16630'00"W.) to:   Yokohama, Japan, 2,551                (2932'42"N., 3457'00"E.) to:
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 135
Antwerp, Belgium, 102                Junction Points*                                                        Junction Points*
                                                                      EAST LONDON, SOUTH
Bergen, Norway, 585                                                   AFRICA
Bremerhaven, Germany, 321          Panama, Panama, 5,246               (3301'30"S., 2754'30"E.) to:      Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Cherbourg, France, 179             Punta Arenas, Chile, 8,063                                                5,155
Dundee, Scotland, 402              Singapore, 5,364                     Junction Points*                   Port Said, Egypt, 381
Egersund, Norway, 469                                                                                      Singapore, 4,868
Emden, Germany, 264                  Ports                            Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Esbjerg, Denmark, 350                                                   508                                  Ports
Hamburg, Germany, 374              Anadyrskiy Limen, Russia, 824      Port Said, Egypt, 4,830
Hartlepool, England, 281           Apra, Guam, 3,403                  Singapore, 5,082                     Aden, Yemen, 1,247
Hull, England, 223                 Auckland, New Zealand, 5,578
Inverness, Scotland, 526           Brisbane, Australia, 5,369           Ports
                                   Bukhta Shelihova, Kuril Islands,                                        EL AAIUN, WESTERN
Kristiansand, Norway, 475                                                                                  SAHARA
Le Havre, France, 144                Russia, 1,411                    Belawan, Indonesia, 4,749             (2705'37"N., 1326'55"W.) See
Leith, Scotland, 399               Callao, Peru, 5,988                Durban, South Africa, 258            Aaiun.
London, England, 112               Dagu, China, 3,594                 Fremantle, Australia, 4,304
Newcastle, England, 307            Dalian, China (via La Perouse      Inhambane, Mozambique, 722
                                     Strait), 3,435                                                        EL FERROL DEL CAUDILLO,
Oslo, Norway, 617                                                     Malacca, Malaysia, 4,967             SPAIN
Plymouth, England, 264             Dalian, China (via Tsugaru-        Penang, Malaysia, 4,967               (4328'30"N., 815'00"W.) to:
Portland, England, 190               Kaikyo), 3,437                   Port Darwin, Australia, 5,673
Portsmouth, England, 150           Guayaquil, Ecuador, 5,552          Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 131      Junction Points*
Southampton, England, 168          Hakodate, Japan, 2,228
Stavanger, Norway, 510             Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 4,894        EASTER ISLAND, SOUTH                 Bishop Rock, England, 394
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 308        Hobart, Tasmania, 6,365            PACIFIC                              Ile d'Ouessant, France, 343
                                   Hong Kong, China, 4,026             (2708'30"S., 10926'30"W.) to:
                                   Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,040
                                   Juneau, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,136



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
32        EL JADIDA, MOROCCO



  Ports                            Harwich, England, 252                Algiers, Algeria, 917             Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
                                   Hull, England, 279                   Ancona, Italy, 883                  4,851
Aviles, Spain, 133                 Inverness, Scotland, 487             Ashdod, Israel, 885               Colon, Panama, 5,238
Bayonne, France, 322               Kristiansand, Norway, 316            Banzart, Tunisia, 585             Douala, Cameroon, 343
Cape Town, South Africa, 5,421     Le Havre, France, 396                Beirut, Lebanon, 920              Monrovia, Liberia, 1,012
Colon, Panama, 4,222               Leith, Scotland, 403                 Cartagena, Spain, 1,100           Natal, Brazil, 2,514
Dakar, Senegal, 1,843              London, England, 318                 Castellon, Spain, 1,075           New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Horta, Azores, 970                 Newcastle, England, 329              Dhekelia, Cyprus, 846               4,968
Lisboa, Portugal, 356              Oostende, Belgium, 242               Genova, Italy, 950                Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 5,013
Natal, Brazil, 3,312               Oslo, Norway, 451                    Istanbul, Turkey, 833             Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 870         Plymouth, England, 513               Kherson, Ukraine, 1,255             U.S.A., 5,081
Puerto de Pasajes, Spain, 300      Portland, England, 439               Marsaxlokk, Malta, 360            Port of Spain, Trinidad, 4,022
San Sebastian, Spain, 302          Portsmouth, England, 389                                               Sekondi, Ghana, 402
St. John's, Canada, 1,861          Rotterdam, Netherlands, 199          ESBJERG, DENMARK                  Takoradi, Ghana, 404
Viana do Castello, Portugal, 155   Southampton, England, 407             (5527'30"N., 826'30"E.) to:
                                   Stavanger, Norway, 376                                                 ESMERALDAS, ECUADOR
EL JADIDA, MOROCCO                 Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 120            Junction Points*                 (101'27"N., 7939'36"W.) to:
 (3315'25"N., 830'00"W.) to:     Zeebrugge, Belgium, 230
                                                                        Bishop Rock, England, 688           Junction Points*
  Junction Points*                 ENDERBURY ISLAND,                    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 676
                                   PHOENIX ISLANDS                      Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East           Panama, Panama, 474
Cape of Good Hope, South            (308'00"S., 17106'00"W.) to:        Entrance), Germany, 372         Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,486
   Africa, 4,941                                                        Pentland Firth, Scotland, 443     Torres Strait, Australia, 8,449
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 998          Junction Points*                   Skagens Odde, Denmark, 234        Wilson Promontory, Australia,
                                                                                                            7,570
  Ports                            Panama, Panama, 5,599                  Ports
                                                                                                            Ports
Dakar, Senegal, 1,317                Ports                              Aberdeen, Scotland, 373
Tangier, Morocco, 207                                                   Amsterdam, Netherlands, 255       Acapulco, Mexico, 1,527
                                   Apia, Samoa, 641                     Antwerp, Belgium, 362             Antofagasta, Chile, 1,703
EL SEGUNDO, CALIFORNIA,            Apra, Guam, 2,827                    Bergen, Norway, 361               Arica, Chile, 1,484
U.S.A.                             Christmas Island, Line Islands,      Cherbourg, France, 514            Callao, Peru, 909
 (3354'33"N., 11827'31"W.) to:     878                                Dover, England, 370               Coquimbo, Chile, 2,014
                                   Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,047   Dundee, Scotland, 394             Corinto, Nicaragua, 823
  Junction Points*                                                      Dunkerque, France, 350            Guayaquil, Ecuador, 356
                                   ENIWETAK, MARSHALL                   Egersund, Norway, 226             Guaymas, Mexico, 2,467
Panama, Panama, 2,922              ISLANDS                              Emden, Germany, 172               Iquique, Chile, 1,550
Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,883          (1125'51"N., 16221'30"E.) to:     Hamburg, Germany, 172             Lota, Chile, 2,388
Singapore (via Balintang                                                Hartlepool, England, 336          Monterey, California, U.S.A.,
 Channel), 7,642                     Junction Points*                   Harwich, England, 338                3,262
Singapore (via 30N., 180 and                                          Hull, England, 334                Pisco, Peru, 1,021
  Balintang Channel), 7,867        Panama, Panama, 7,086                Inverness, Scotland, 455          Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 614
Torres Strait, Australia, 6,432                                         Kristiansand, Norway, 206         Salina Cruz, Mexico, 1,290
Wilson Promontory, Australia,        Ports                              Le Havre, France, 482             San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
  6,863                                                                 Leith, Scotland, 403                 2,940
                                   Apra, Guam, 1,066                    London, England, 403              San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
  Ports                            Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,375      Newcastle, England, 349              3,342
                                   Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.A.,        Oostende, Belgium, 328            San Jose, Guatemala, 1,016
Guaymas, Mexico, 1,230               2,347                              Oslo, Norway, 341                 Talcahuano, Chile, 2,368
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,218    San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Plymouth, England, 599            Valparaiso, Chile, 2,179
Melbourne, Australia, 7,003          4,282                              Portland, England, 525
Sydney, Australia, 6,506                                                Portsmouth, England, 475          ESPERANCE, AUSTRALIA
Talcahuano, Chile, 4,941           ENSENADA, MEXICO                     Rotterdam, Netherlands, 287        (3352'00"S., 12154'28"E.) to:
Valparaiso, Chile, 4,817            (3151'30"N., 11638'00"W.) to:     Southampton, England, 493
Yokohama, Japan, 4,829                                                  Savanger, Norway, 278               Junction Points*
                                     Junction Points*                   Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 129
EMDEN, GERMANY                                                          Zeebrugge, Belgium, 318           Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 367
 (5321'00"N., 712'00"E.) to:     Panama, Panama, 2,791                                                  Wilson Promontory, Australia,
                                                                        ESCRAVOS, NIGERIA                   1,266
  Junction Points*                   Ports                               (0532'24"N., 459'42"E.) to:
                                                                                                            Ports
Bishop Rock, England, 606          Acapulco, Mexico, 1,369                Junction Points*
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 590        Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,                                       Adelaide, Australia, 889
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              151                                Bishop Rock, England, 3,902       Albany, Australia, 224
  Entrance), Germany, 197          Port Hueneme, California, U.S.A.,    Cape of Good Hope, South          Murnie, Tasmania, 1,275
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 484        194                                   Africa, 2,510                  Melbourne, Australia, 1,239
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 344                                              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,955
                                   ENSTED, DENMARK                      Grand Banks South, 4,054          EUREKA, CALIFORNIA,
  Ports                             (5505'00"N., 925'00"E.) See       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,861     U.S.A.
                                   Abenra.                              Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4246        (4048'00"N., 12410'00"W.) to:
Aberdeen, Scotland, 394                                                 Panama, Panama, 5150
Antwerp, Belgium, 276              ES SIDER, LIBYA                      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,960     Junction Points*
Bergen, Norway, 457                 (3038'00"N., 1822'00"E.) to:      Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,246
Bremerhaven, Germany, 128                                               Strait of Gibraltar, 3,201        Panama, Panama, 3,438
Cherbourg, France, 428               Junction Points*                   Straits of Florida, 5,306         Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,438
Dover, England, 284                                                     Yucatan Channel, 5,431            Singapore (via San Bernardino
Dundee, Scotland, 400              Port Said, Egypt, 796                                                   Strait), 7,352
Dunkerque, France, 264             Strait of Gibraltar, 1,356             Ports                           Singapore (via 30N., 180 and
Egersund, Norway, 327                                                                                       Balintang Channel), 7,532
Esbjerg, Denmark, 172                Ports                              Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 550         Torres Strait, Australia, 6,030
Hamburg, Germany, 185                                                   Accra, Ghana, 311                 Wilson Promontory, Australia,
Hartlepool, England, 308           Alexandria, Egypt, 657               Boma, Congo, 866                    6,843




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                              FETHIYE, TURKEY                      33



  Ports                            Dublin, Ireland, 248                 Straits of Florida, 3,761                 Port Said, Egypt, 2,915
                                   Hull, England, 464                   Yucatan Channel, 4,058                    Singapore, 3,454
Antofagasta, Chile, 4,963          Liverpool, England, 313                                                        Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,661
Auckland, New Zealand, 5,746       London, England, 351                   Ports                                   Torres Strait, Australia (via South
Brisbane, Australia, 6,188         Plymouth, England, 37                                                            of Java), 5,863
Guaymas, Mexico, 1,675             Southampton, England, 160            Ardrossan, Scotland, 348
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (via                                               Argentia, Canada, 1,819                     Ports
  Tsugaru Strait), 6,720           FAMAGUSTA, CYPRUS                    Avonmouth, England, 262
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,080     (3507'20"N., 3356'40"E.) to:      Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,              Aden, Yemen, 1,526
Manzanillo, Mexico, 1,750                                                  3,098                                  Belawan, Indonesia, 3,123
Valparaiso, Chile, 5,335             Junction Points*                   Barrow in Furness, England, 302           Bombay, India, 1,146
Zamboanga, Philippines, 6,313                                           Belem, Brazil, 3,741                      Fremantle, Australia, 5,000
                                   Port Said, Egypt, 257                Belfast, Northern Ireland, 311            Penang, Malaysia, 3,163
EVERETT, WASHINGTON,               Strait of Gibraltar, 1,991           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
U.S.A.                                                                     2,633                                  FECAMP, FRANCE
 (4758'53"N., 12214'06"W.)         Ports                              Cairn Ryan, Scotland, 338                  (4946'00"N., 021'45"E.) to:
Subtract 9 miles from Seattle,                                          Cardiff, Wales, 246
Washington distances.              Alexandria, Egypt, 340               Charleston, South Carolina,                 Junction Points*
                                   Ashdod, Israel, 203                     U.S.A., 3,239
FAABORG, DENMARK                   Banghazi, Libya, 768                 Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,         Ile d'Ouessant, France, 246
 (5505'40"N., 1014'22"E.) See    Marseille, France, 1,558                3,279                                  Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Faborg, Denmark.                   Piraievs, Greece, 604                Cienfuegos, Cuba, 3,992                     Entrance), Germany, 482
                                                                        Cobh, Ireland, 64
FABORG, DENMARK                    FANNING ISLAND, NORTH                Colon, Panama, 4,243                        Ports
 (5505'40"N., 1014'22"E.) to:    PACIFIC                              Douglas, Isle of Man, 274
                                    (351'30"N., 15921'45"W.) to:      Dublin, Ireland, 223                      Cherbourg, France, 79
  Junction Points*                                                      Fishguard, Wales, 180                     Plymouth, England, 183
                                     Junction Points*                   Fleetwood, England, 315                   Rotterdam, Netherlands, 228
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                 Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,177
 Entrance), Germany, 53            Panama, Panama, 4,805                Galway, Ireland, 166                      FELIXSTOWE, ENGLAND
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 234                                              Glasgow, Scotland, 395                     (5156'56"N., 1l9'00"E.) to:
                                     Ports                              Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,626
  Ports                                                                 Halifax, Canada, 2,315                      Junction Points*
                                   Auckland, New Zealand, 2,854         Hamilton, Bermuda, 2,655
Gdansk, Poland, 368                Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 1,056      Holyhead, Wales, 232                      Bishop Rock, England, 377
Goteborg, Sweden, 222              Johnston Island, North Pacific,      Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 303
Lubeck, Germany, 102                 1,032                                 3,407                                  Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                   Wellington, New Zealand, 3,114       Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,685            Entrance), Germany, 377
FAERINGEHAVN,                                                           Kingston, Jamaica, 3,748                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 460
GREENLAND                          FARGE, GERMANY                       La Habana, Cuba, 3,721                    Skagens Odde, Denmark, 478
 (6341'00"N., 5134'00"W.) See     (5312'00"N., 831'00"E.) Add       Limerick, Ireland, 157
Kangerluarsoruseq, Greenland.      23 miles to Bremerhaven distances.   Liverpool, England, 295                     Ports
                                                                        Londonderry, Northern Ireland
FALL RIVER,                        FARSUND, NORWAY                         (via west coast of Ireland), 371       Amsterdam, Netherlands, 144
MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.               (5805'40"N., 648'30"E.) to:       Mathew Town, Great Inagua                 Antwerp, Belgium, 141
 (4142'21"N., 71l0'00"W.) to:                                            Island, 3,467                          Bergen, Norway, 544
                                     Junction Points*                   Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 3,554             Emden, Germany, 251
  Junction Points*                                                      Milford Haven, Wales, 178                 Rotterdam, Netherlands, 121
                                   Pentland Firth, Scotland, 332        New London, Connecticut, U.S.A.,          Stavanger, Norway, 477
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Skagens Odde, Denmark, 132              2,723                                  Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 300
   6,732                                                                New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Grand Banks South, 975               Ports                                 2,805                                  FELTON, CUBA
Panama, Panama, 2,089                                                   Newport, Wales, 258                        (2050'00"N., 7544'00"W.) See
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,063         Bergen, Norway, 182                  Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,977          Antilla.
Straits of Florida, 1,264          London, England, 497                 Paramaribo, Suriname, 3,554
                                   Oslo, Norway, 198                    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
                                                                                                                  FERNANDINA, FLORIDA,
  Ports                                                                    U.S.A., 2,957                          U.S.A.
                                   FASLANE BAY, SCOTLAND                Port au Prince, Haiti, 3,619               (3041'00"N., 8127'40"W.) to:
Argentia, Canada, 851               (5604'00"N., 449'00"W.)           Port Talbot, Wales, 218
Belem, Brazil, 3,393               Subtract 11 miles from Glasgow       Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.,           Ports
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6,048     distances.                              2,712
Cape Town, South Africa, 6,717                                          Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,873             Nassau, Bahamas, 450
Dakar, Senegal, 3,235                                                   San Juan, Puerto Rico (via Mona           San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,115
                                   FASTNET ROCK, IRELAND*
Halifax, Canada, 435                (5120'00"N., 936'00"W.) to:          Passage), 3,299
Libreville, Gabon, 5,217                                                Santo Domingo, Dominican                  FERNANDO DE NORONHA,
New York, New York, U.S.A., 172      Junction Points*                      Republic, 3,491                        BRAZIL
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,932                                          Swansea, Wales, 217                        (350'00"S., 3225'00"W.) to:
Recife, Brazil, 3,656              Bishop Rock, England, 149            Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 3,112
Walvisbaai, Namibia, 6,154         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Waterford, Ireland, 110                     Ports
                                      5,880                             Willemstad, Curacao, 3,708
FALMOUTH, ENGLAND                  Grand Banks South, 1,714             Wilmington, North Carolina,               Kingston, St. Vincent, 1,320
 (5009'20"N., 503'30"W.) to:     Ile d'Ouessant, France, 225             U.S.A., 3,183                          New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                   Inishtrahull, Ireland, 335                                                       3,517
  Junction Points*                 Panama, Panama (via Mona             FATEH TERMINAL, UNITED                    Recife, Brazil, 300
                                      Passage), 4,247                   ARAB EMIRATES                             Santos, Brazil, 1,560
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 100        Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,051            (2536'00"N., 5431'00"E.) to:
                                   Montreal, Canada, 2,872                                                        FETHIYE, TURKEY
  Ports                            Pentland Firth, Scotland (via east     Junction Points*                         (3637'30"N., 2907'20"E.) to:
                                      coast of Ireland), 625
Brest, France, 137                 Pentland Firth, Scotland (via west   Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,            Junction Points*
Cardiff, Wales, 181                   coast of Ireland), 578              4,733
Cobh, Ireland, 182                 Strait of Gibraltar, 1,068           Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,069            Port Said, Egypt, 375
                                                                        Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,314



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
34        FIGUERA DA FOZ, PORTUGAL



Strait of Gibraltar, 1,712        Genova, Italy, 217                 FORCADOS OFFSHORE                   New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                  Iraklion, Kriti, 771               TERMINAL, NIGERIA                     1,717
  Ports                           Kerch, Ukraine, 1,513               (510'00"N., 508'45"E.) to:       Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,597
                                  La Nouvelle, France, 423                                               Nuevitas, Cuba, 1,035
Ashdod Yam, Israel, 416           Mersa El Hamra, Egypt, 1,058         Junction Points*                  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Banghazi, Libya, 548              Mitilini, Greece, 875                                                    (via Anegada Channel), 1,724
Piraievs, Greece, 305             Oran, Algeria, 710                 Bishop Rock, England, 3,908         Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 108
                                  P'ot'i, Georgia, 1,675             Cape of Good Hope, South            Ponce, Puerto Rico, 381
                                  Ravenna, Italy, 866                   Africa, 2,495                    Port Castries, St. Lucia, 37
FIGUERA DA FOZ,                                                      Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,961
PORTUGAL                          Tunis, Tunisia, 296                                                    Roseau, Dominica, 50
 (4008'23"N., 852'38"W.) to:                                       Grand Banks South, 4,060            San Juan, Puerto Rico, 385
                                                                     Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,868       Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 951
                                  FLEETWOOD, ENGLAND                 Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,252
  Junction Points*                 (5355'00"N., 300'00"W.) to:                                         Willemstad, Curacao, 495
                                                                     Panama, Panama, 5,153
Bishop Rock, England, 598           Junction Points*                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,956
                                                                     Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,234          FORT LAUDERDALE,
Cape of Good Hope, South                                                                                 FLORIDA, U.S.A.
   Africa, 5,236                  Bishop Rock, England, 307          Strait of Gibraltar, 3,208           (2605'36"N., 8004'48"W.) to:
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 674        Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 315         Straits of Florida, 5,312
Grand Banks South, 1,840          Inishtrahull, Ireland, 189         Yucatan Channel, 5,437                Junction Points*
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 565       Pentland Firth, Scotland, 437
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 970                                             Ports                             Cape of Good Hope, South
Panama, Panama, 4,178               Ports                                                                   Africa, 6,697
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,224                                      Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 566           Grand Banks South, 1,778
Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,483        Southampton, England, 485          Accra, Ghana, 320                   Panama, Panama, 1,236
Strait of Gibraltar, 386                                             Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,      Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,874
Straits of Florida, 3,779                                              4,843                             Strait of Gibraltar, 3,778
                                  FLEKKEFJORDEN, NORWAY              Dakar, Senegal, 1,653
                                   (5817'35"N., 639'30"E.) to:                                         Straits of Florida, 238
  Ports                                                              Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,207
                                    Junction Points*                 Lisboa, Portugal, 3,220               Ports
Cadiz, Spain, 341                                                    Natal, Brazil, 2,536
Conakey, Guinea, 2,045            Pentland Firth, Scotland, 325      New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Cape Town, South Africa, 6,688
Dakar, Senegal, 1,616             Skagens Odde, Denmark, 155           4,905                             Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 283
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,105                                        Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,         Georgetown, Guyana, 1,894
Funchal, Madeira Island, 594        Ports                              U.S.A., 5,080                     Hamilton, Bermuda, 883
Lisboa, Portugal, 109                                                Port of Spain, Trinidad, 4,114      Kingston, Jamaica, 769
New York, New York, U.S.A.,       Bergen, Norway, 170                Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   La Habana, Cuba, 236
  2,904                           London, England, 479                 2,745                             Lagos, Nigeria, 5,069
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 795        Oslo, Norway, 219                  Takoradi, Ghana, 416                Matadi, Congo, 5,758
Recife, Brazil, 3,232                                                                                    Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,504
Tangier, Morocco, 385             FLENSBURG, GERMANY                 FORT DAUPHIN,                       Recife, Brazil, 3,459
                                   (5447'50"N., 926'15"E.) to:     MADAGASCAR                          San Juan, Puerto Rico, 900
                                                                      (2501'00"S., 4701'00"E.) to:
FISHGUARD, WALES
 (5200'30"N., 458'30"W.) to:      Junction Points*                                                     FORT-LIBERATE, HAITI
                                                                       Junction Points*
                                                                                                          (1941'30"N., 7150'20"W.) to:
  Junction Points*                Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                                                     Cape of Good Hope, South              Junction Points*
                                   Entrance), Germany, 52
Bishop Rock, England, 161                                              Africa, 1,614
                                  Skagens Odde, Denmark, 260
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 180                                           Port Said, Egypt, 4,035             Panama, Panama, 881
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 497                                        Singapore, 3,975                    Straits of Florida, 692
                                    Ports

  Ports                                                                Ports                               Ports
                                  Gdynia, Poland, 358
                                  Goteborg, Sweden, 272
Avonmouth, England, 145                                              Belawan, Indonesia, 3,642           New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                  Lubeck, Germany, 131
Barrow in Furness, England, 157                                      Fremantle, Australia, 3,593           1,283
Belfast, Northern Ireland, 182                                       Malacca, Malaysia, 3,860            Nuevitas, Cuba, 339
                                  FLORIDA STRAITS, U.S.A.            Penang, Malaysia, 3,687
Brest, France, 274                 (2425'00"N., 8300'00"W.) See                                        San Juan, Puerto Rico, 373
Cardiff, Wales, 130                                                  Port Darwin, Australia, 4,775
                                  Straits of Florida.                Sabang, Indonesia, 3,376
Cherbourg, France, 306                                                                                   FORTALEZA, BRAZIL
Cobh, Ireland, 131                                                                                        (342'00"S., 3831'00"W.) to:
                                  FLOTTA TERMINAL,                   FORT DE FRANCE,
Douglas, Isle of Man, 131         SCOTLAND
Glasgow, Scotland, 247                                               MARTINIQUE                            Junction Points*
                                   (5852'14"N., 306'42"W.) See      (1436'00"N., 6104'15"W.) to:
London, England, 523              Scapa Flow.
Southampton, England, 343                                                                                Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,654
                                                                       Junction Points*
Swansea, Wales, 100
                                  FLUSHING, NETHERLANDS
                                   (5126'30"N., 336'00"E.) See                                           Ports
                                                                     Panama, Panama, 1,202
FIUMICINO, ITALY                  Vlissingen.                        Straits of Florida, 1,389
 (4144'5"N., 1209'37"E.) to:                                                                           Belem, Brazil, 685
                                                                                                         New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                  FLYING FISH COVE,                    Ports
  Junction Points*                                                                                         3,304
                                  CHRISTMAS ISLAND
                                   (1025'00"S., 10543'00"E.) to:                                       Recife, Brazil, 425
                                                                     Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Port Said, Egypt, 1,217
                                                                       1,718
Strait of Gibraltar, 918            Junction Points*                                                     FRAY BENTOS, URUGUAY
                                                                     Bordeaux, France, 3,607
                                                                     Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       (3306'58"S., 5819'57"W.) Add
  Ports                           Cape of Good Hope, South                                               213 miles to Montevideo distances
                                                                       1,799
                                    Africa, 4,923                    Bridgetown, Barbados, 130           or 145 miles to Buenos Aires
Ajaccio, Corsica, 187             Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,540                                         distances.
                                                                     Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,240
Antalya, Turkey, 1,067            Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 603       Colon, Panama, 1,159
Banzart, Tunisia, 273             Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 281                                            FREDERICIA, DENMARK
                                                                     Kingstown, St. Vincent, 89
Bar, Montenegro, 608                                                                                      (5533'45"N., 945'35"E.) to:
                                                                     La Habana, Cuba (via Mona
Cartagena, Spain, 664               Ports                              Passage and Old Bahama
Corinth Canal (west side,
                                                                       Channel), 1,350
 Korinthos), Greece, 645          Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,888



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                            GAETA, ITALY                   35



  Junction Points*                   FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE              Beira, Mozambique, 4,351           Apra, Guam, 2,455
                                      (0830'00"N., 1314'00"W.) to:     Berbera, Somalia, 4,933            Brisbane, Australia, 1,895
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                  Bombay, India, 3,986               Hong Kong, China, 4,247
 Entrance), Germany, 85                Junction Points*                  Bushehr, Iran, 5,259               Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,249
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 169                                               Calcutta, India (via west of       Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 1,041
                                     Bishop Rock, England, 2,673            Sumatra), 3,693                 Midway Island, 2,220
  Ports                              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    Calicut, India, 3,484              Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,132
                                        3,190                            Colombo, Sri Lanka, 3,122          Papeete, French Polynesia, 1,910
Gdynia, Poland, 384                  Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,630       Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 4,513     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
Goteborg, Sweden, 181                Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,024        Diego Garcia, Chagos                  4,295
Lubeck, Germany, 155                 Montreal, Canada, 4,019                Archipelago, 2,850              Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,640
                                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,272     Durban, South Africa, 4,244
                                     Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,731          East London, South Africa, 4,304
FREDERICKSHAAB,                                                                                             FUNCHAL, MADEIRA
GREENLAND                            Strait of Gibraltar, 1,966          Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 3,593    ISLAND
 (6159'00"N., 4943'00"W.) See      Straits of Florida, 4,137           Geraldton, Australia, 213           (3238'00"N., 1654'30"W.) to:
Paamuit, Greenland.                  Yucatan Channel, 4,229              Kakinada, India, 3,515
                                                                         Karachi, Pakistan, 4,446             Junction Points*
                                       Ports                             Madras, India, 3,393
FREDERIKSHAVN,
DENMARK                                                                  Majunga, Madagascar, 4,132         Bishop Rock, England, 1,136
 (5726'00"N., 1033'15"E.) to:      Accra, Ghana, 955                   Maputo, Mozambique, 4,283          Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
                                     Banjul, Gambia, 450                 Mocambique, Mozambique, 4,367         4,689
  Junction Points*                   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,      Mombasa, Kenya, 4,564              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1,177
                                        3,656                            Mosselbaai, South Africa, 4,525    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,089
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,712      Port Darwin, Australia, 1,847      Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,466
 Entrance), Germany, 200             Cadiz, Spain, 1,979                 Port Louis, Mauritius (north of    Montreal, Canada, 2,850
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 24            Cape Town, South Africa, 3,164         Mauritius), 3,202               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,714
                                     Casablanca, Morocco, 1,812          Port Louis, Mauritius (south of    Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,894
  Ports                              Colon, Panama, 3,976                   Mauritius), 3,217               Strait of Gibraltar, 589
                                     Dakar, Senegal, 496                 Rangoon, Burma (west of            Straits of Florida, 3,503
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 1,805          Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,573         Sumatra), 3,248
Gdynia, Poland, 395                  Georgetown, Ascension Island,       Sabang, Indonesia, 2,601             Ports
Kobenhavn, Denmark, 142                 996                              Surabaya, Indonesia (via Bali
Lubeck, Germany, 170                 Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,650                Strait and north of Madura),    Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
                                     Huelva, Spain, 1,999                   1,674                             3,028
FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX              Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 4,076    Surabaya, Indonesia (via Bali      Banjul, Gambia, 1,182
 (1743'00"N., 6453'20"W.) to:      Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 1,317      Strait and south of Madura),    Bordeaux, France, 1,192
                                     Lisboa, Portugal, 2,023                1,627                           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
  Ports                              Marshall, Liberia, 293              Tamatave, Madagascar, 3,650          2,604
                                     Monrovia, Liberia, 264              Tanga, Tanzania, 4,583             Brest, France, 1,110
Roseau, Dominica, 252                Natal, Brazil, 1,569                Tjilatjap, Indonesia, 1,519        Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4,823
                                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Victoria, Seychelles, 3,752        Cadiz, Spain, 579
FREDRIKSTAD, NORWAY                     3,757                            Wyndham, Australia, 1,780          Cape Town, South Africa, 4,680
 (5912'10"N., 1057'00"E.) to:      Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,821    Yampi Sound, Australia, 586        Casablanca, Morocco, 476
                                     Oporto, Portugal, 2,161             Zanzibar, Tanzania, 4,536          Colon, Panama, 3,742
  Junction Points*                   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                            Dakar, Senegal, 1,091
                                        U.S.A., 3,862                                                       Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,573
                                                                         FU-CHOU, CHINA
Bishop Rock, England, 918            Pointe Noire, Congo, 1,788           (2603'30"N., 11919'00"E.) See   Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,194
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 904          Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,941        Fuzhou, China.                     Horta, Azores, 677
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,896                                         Huelva, Spain, 578
  Entrance) (via Store Baelt),       Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 1,397                                          Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,445
                                     Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   FUJAYRAH, UNITED ARAB
   Germany, 330                                                          EMIRATES                           Kingston, Jamaica, 3,349
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                 871                               (2509'00"N., 5626'45"E.) to:    Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 282
  Entrance) (via The Sound),         Portsmouth, New Hampshire,                                             Lisboa, Portugal, 532
   Germany, 402                         U.S.A., 3,654                      Junction Points*                 New York, New York, U.S.A.
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 488        Recife, Brazil, 1,632                                                    (direct), 2,761
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 93            Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,613       Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,907
                                     San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,141          4,645                            Oporto, Portugal, 650
  Ports                              Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary      Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,909     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
                                        Islands, 1,342                   Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,127       U.S.A., 2,901
Bergen, Norway, 335                  St. Helena Island, 1,564            Port Said, Egypt, 2,447            Plymouth, England, 1,234
Oslo, Norway, 57                     Takoradi, Ghana, 859                Singapore, 3,356                   Ponta Delgada, Azores, 550
                                     Vigo, Spain, 2,223                  Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,509      Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,819
FREEPORT, BAHAMAS                                                        Torres Strait, Australia, 5,701    Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,
 (2631'00"N., 7846'45"W.) to:      FREMANTLE, AUSTRALIA                                                     1,043
                                      (3203'00"S., 11544'20"E.) to:      Ports                            Praia, Cape Verde Islands, 1,128
  Junction Points*                                                                                          Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,722
                                       Junction Points*                  Aden, Yemen, 1,377                 San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2,773
Panama, Panama (via Windward                                             Belawan, Indonesia, 2,973          Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary
   Passage), 1,280                   Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    Calcutta, India, 2,961               Islands, 258
Straits of Florida, 278                4,755                             Fremantle, Australia, 7,614        Tangier, Morocco, 588
Yucatan Channel, 456                 Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 181        Penang, Malaysia, 3,007            Vigo, Spain, 702
                                     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,440
  Ports                              Port Said, Egypt, 6,310                                                FUZHOU, CHINA
                                                                         FUNAFUTI, TUVALU
                                     Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,691        (830'45"S., 17912'15"E.) to:      (2603'30"N., 11919'00"E.)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., 841     Torres Strait, Australia, 2,531                                        Fuzhou is 9 miles above Lo hsing-
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A., 304                                         Junction Points*                 ta Mao-ti, on the River Min. See Lo
La Habana, Cuba, 286                   Ports                                                                hsing-ta Mao-ti.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                              Panama, Panama, 6,217
  U.S.A., 890                        Aden, Yemen (north of Chagos
                                                                                                            GAETA, ITALY
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 872             Archipelago), 4,921                 Ports                             (4113'00"N., 1335'00"E.) to:
Wilmington, North Carolina,          Al Basrah, Iraq, 5,440
  U.S.A., 487                        Al Manamah, Bahrain, 5,203          Apia, Samoa, 632
                                     Albany, Australia, 349



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
36        GALEOTA POINT, TRINIDAD



  Junction Points*                   Ports                              Helsinki, Finland, 292             Singapore (via Karimata Strait),
                                                                        Riga, Latvia, 355                    2,019
Port Said, Egypt, 1,150            Barranquilla, Colombia, 1,577        Stockholm, Sweden, 153             Torres Strait, Australia, 1,062
Strait of Gibraltar, 986           Belize, Belize, 935                                                     Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 680
                                   Campeche, Mexico, 617                GDANSK, POLAND
  Ports                            Carmen, Mexico, 661                   (5422'00"N., 1840'00"E.) to:      Ports
                                   Cartagena, Colombia, 1,583
Livorno, Italy, 228                Cienfuegos, Cuba, 989                  Junction Points*                 Anchorage, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,529
Messina, Sicily, 209               Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 680                                              Balikpapan, Kalimantan, 1,276
Tunis, Tunisia, 315                La Habana, Cuba, 769                 Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Hong Kong, China, 1,783
                                   Limon, Costa Rica, 1,394              Entrance), Germany, 344           Jakarta, Indonesia, 1,686
GALEOTA POINT, TRINIDAD            Maracaibo, Venezuela, 1,810          Skagens Odde, Denmark (via Store   Manila, Philippines, 2,531
 (1007'55"N., 6100'55"W.) to:    Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 1,041       Baelt), 533                      San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
                                   Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 1,899     Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The       6,260
  Junction Points*                 Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,001         Sound), 418
                                   San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via                                      GEELONG, AUSTRALIA
Bishop Rock, England, 3,603          inside route), 1,344                 Ports                             (3808'00"S., 14422'00"E.) Add
Cape of Good Hope, South           Santa Marta, Colombia, 1,588                                            6 miles to Melbourne distances.
   Africa, 5,320                   Tampico, Mexico, 473                 Assens, Denmark, 370
Panama, Panama, 1,273              Tuxpan, Mexico, 530                  Faborg, Denmark, 368               GELA, ITALY
Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,365         Veracruz, Mexico, 623                Kobenhavn, Denmark, 468             (3703'35"N., 1413'52"E.) to:
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,367                                              Oslo, Norway (via Store Baelt),
Straits of Florida (via Mona       GALWAY, IRELAND                        657                                Junction Points*
 Passage), 1,588                    (5315'00"N., 903'00"W.) to:       Oslo, Norway (via The Sound),
Yucatan Channel, 1,595                                                    540                              Port Said, Egypt, 981
                                     Junction Points*                   Szczecin, Poland, 240              Strait of Gibraltar, 968
  Ports
                                   Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 166           GDYNIA, POLAND                       Ports
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,       Inishtrahull, Ireland, 231            (5432'00"N., 1833'00"E.) to:
  1,983                            Strait of Gibraltar, 1,184                                              Ajaccio, Corsica, 417
Campeche, Mexico, 2,107                                                   Junction Points*                 Antalya, Turkey, 847
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,       Ports                                                                 Bar, Montenegro, 443
  1,748                                                                 Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Bat'umi, Georgia, 1,439
La Habana, Cuba (via Mona          Dakar, Senegal, 2,383                 Entrance), Germany, 339           Canakkle, Turkey, 719
  Passage and Old Bahama           Natal, Brazil, 3,786                 Skagens Odde, Denmark, 528         Constanta, Romania, 1,049
  Channel), 1,548                  St. John's, Canada, 1,678                                               Famagusta, Cyprus, 1,012
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,        Tromso, Norway, 1,352                  Ports                            Jaffa, Israel, 1,061
  U.S.A., 1,999                                                                                            Malaga, Spain, 899
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 637         GAMBA, GABON                         Aalborg, Denmark (via The          Marseille, France, 584
Veracruz, Mexico, 2,236             (249'32"S., 956'46"E.) to:           Sound), 389                     Thessaloniki, Greece, 749
Willemstad, Curacao, 542                                                Flensburg, Germany, 358            Tubruq, Libya, 577
                                     Junction Points*                   Fredericia, Denmark, 384
GALLE, SRI LANKA                                                        Frederikshavn, Denmark, 395        GELIBOLU, TURKEY
 (601'45"N., 8013'20"E.) to:     Bishop Rock, England, 4,255          Gavle, Sweden, 438                  (4024'18"N., 2640'00"E.)
                                   Cape of Good Hope, South             Grena, Denmark, 361                Subtract 113 miles from Istanbul
  Junction Points*                    Africa, 1,967                     Hamina, Finland, 512               distances for ports outside the
                                   Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,307         Hango, Finland, 356                Black Sea and Sea of Marmara.
Singapore, 1,502                   Grand Banks South, 4,407             Helsinki, Finland, 415
                                   Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,835        Kobenhavn, Denmark, 464
                                                                                                           GEMLICK, TURKEY
  Ports                            Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,598         Korsor, Denmark, 344                (4025'46"N., 2909'06"E.) to:
                                   Panama, Panama, 5,099                Kyndbyvaerkets, Denmark, 334
Bombay, India, 944                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 5,321      Lubeck, Germany, 328                 Junction Points*
Calicut, India, 437                Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,051           Masnedsund, Denmark, 330
Karachi, Pakistan, 1,393           Strait of Gibraltar, 3,554           Middlefart, Denmark, 396           Port Said, Egypt, 805
Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 255        Straits of Florida, 5,659            Musko Island, Sweden, 288          Strait of Gibraltar (south of
                                   Yucatan Channel, 5,784               Naestved, Denmark, 383              Greece), 1,841
GALLIPOLI, ITALY                                                        Nakskov, Denmark, 335
 (4002'00"N., 1759'00"E.) to:      Ports                              Odense, Denmark, 438                 Ports
                                                                        Oxelosund, Sweden, 266
  Junction Points*                 Accra, Ghana, 789                    Peenemunde, Germany, 220           Alexandria, Egypt, 722
                                   Cape Town, South Africa, 1,943       Pitea, Sweden, 687                 Barcelona, Spain, 1,469
Port Said, Egypt, 908              Dakar, Senegal, 2,045                Porkkala, Finland, 412             Beirut, Lebanon, 810
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,246         Douala, Cameroon, 459                Randers, Denmark, 403              Canakkle, Turkey, 133
                                   Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,588        Ruch'i, Russia, 530                Napoli, Italy, 974
  Ports                            Monrovia, Liberia, 1,363             Sassnitz, Germany, 203             Oran, Algeria, 1,580
                                   New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Sonderborg, Denmark, 360           Piraievs, Greece, 352
Durres, Albania, 137                 5,330                              Stralsund, Germany, 245            Tangiers, Morocco, 1,824
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),   Sao Tome, Sao Tome, 260              Sundsvall, Sweden, 507             Tarabulus, Libya, 948
  606                              Takoradi, Ghana, 1,051               Tallinn, Estonia, 392              Toulon, France, 1,343
Messina, Sicily, 201                                                    Travemunde, Germany, 307           Volos, Greece, 324
                                   GAVLE, SWEDEN                        Umea, Sweden, 574                  Zelinika, Montenegro, 868
GALVESTON, TEXAS, U.S.A.            (6041'28"N., 1713'50"E.) to:      Ventspils, Latvia, 204
 (2919'00"N., 9447'00"W.) to:                                                                            GENERAL SANTOS CITY,
                                     Junction Points*                   GEBE ISLAND, INDONESIA             PHILIPPINES
  Junction Points*                                                       (003'50"S., 12922'44"E.) to:     (606'15"N., 12510'07"E.) to:
                                   Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Panama, Panama, 1,536               Entrance), Germany, 615               Junction Points*                   Junction Points*
Straits of Florida, 698            Skagens Odde, Denmark, 676
Yucatan Channel, 696                                                    Honshu, Japan, 2,187               Honshu, Japan, 2,048
                                     Ports                              Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,078     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,096
                                                                        Panama, Panama, 9,116              Panama, Panama, 9,384
                                   Gdynia, Poland, 438                                                     Punta Arenas, Chile, 8,757



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                      GIZAN, SAUDI ARABIA                     37



Singapore, 1,431                     Rijeka, Croatia, 1,085               Guantanamo, Cuba, 1,316            Port Antonia, Jamaica, 323
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,570        Sete, France, 266                    Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,591
                                     Sibenik, Croatia, 958                Horta, Azores, 2,488               GIBRALTAR
  Ports                              Siracusa, Sicily, 557                Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,      (3608'00"N., 621'30"W.) to:
                                     Split, Croatia, 943                     1,980
Cebu, Philippines, 450               St.. Raphael, France, 118            Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,818     Junction Points*
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,583      Tarabulus, Libya, 719                Kingston, Jamaica, 1,334
Makassar, Sulawesi, 840              Taranto, Italy, 705                  La Habana, Cuba, 1,830             Port Said, Egypt, 1,925
Manila, Philippines, 773             Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Limon, Costa Rica, 1,547           Strait of Gibraltar, 24
Manzanillo, Mexico, 7,702               Greece), 1,186                    Lisboa, Portugal, 3,264
Monterey, California, U.S.A.,        Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth    Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 1,788        Ports
  6,402                                 Canal), 1,144                     Montevideo, Uruguay, 3,840
                                     Toulon, France, 171                  Natal, Brazil, 1,630               Alexandria, Egypt, 1,805
GENOVA, ITALY                        Trieste, Italy, 1,118                New York, New York, U.S.A.,        Algiers, Algeria, 420
 (4423'52"N., 855'20"E.) to:       Tubruq, Libya, 1,048                    2,217                           Alicante, Spain, 300
                                     Tunis, Tunisia, 472                  Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,090   Ancona, Italy, 1,563
  Junction Points*                   Valencia, Spain, 512                 Paramaribo, Suriname, 215          Annaba, Algeria, 658
                                     Valletta, Malta, 584                 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,        Banghazi, Libya, 1,338
Port Said, Egypt, 1,426              Venezia, Italy, 1,128                   U.S.A., 2,223                   Barcelona, Spain, 516
Strait of Gibraltar, 868             Villefranche, France, 88             Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 606    Bari, Italy, 1,356
                                     Volos, Greece (south of Greece),     Port of Spain, Trinidad, 376       Beirut, Lebanon, 2,017
  Ports                                 1,127                             Port Castries, St. Lucia, 482      Brindisi, Italy, 1,298
                                     Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),   Portsmouth, New Hampshire,         Cartagena, Spain, 241
Ajaccio, Corsica, 170                   1,085                                U.S.A., 2,284                   Genova, Italy, 850
Alexandria, Egypt, 1,316                                                  Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,933     Guantanamo, Cuba (via Turks
Algiers, Algeria, 531                GEORGETOWN,                          Recife, Brazil, 1,781                 Island Passage), 3,767
Alicante, Spain, 564                 ASCENSION ISLAND                     Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,853      Haifa, Israel, 2,014
Ancona, Italy, 1,010                  (755'00"S., 1425'00"W.) to:       Salvador, Brazil, 2,172            Iraklion, Kriti, 1,499
Annaba, Algeria, 458                                                      San Juan, Puerto Rico, 876         Istanbul, Turkey, 1,804
Banghazi, Libya, 912                   Junction Points*                   Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 856     Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),
Banzart, Tunisia, 437                                                     St. John's, Antigua, 689              1,650
Barcelona, Spain, 356                Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Wilmington, North Carolina,        La Spezia, Italy, 873
Bari, Italy, 810                       2,409                                 U.S.A., 2,011                   Livorno, Italy, 869
Bastia, Corsica, 108                                                                                         Marseille, France, 693
Beirut, Lebanon, 1,508                 Ports                              GERALDTON, AUSTRALIA               Messina, Sicily, 1,031
Bonifacio, Corsica, 199                                                    (2847'00"S., 11435'00"E.) to:   Napoli, Italy, 983
Brindisi, Italy, 752                 Boma, Congo, 1,608                                                      Odessa, Ukraine, 2,152
Cagliari, Sardinia, 359              Colon, Panama, 4,181                   Junction Points*                 Oran, Algeria, 237
Cannes, France, 107                  Freetown, Sierra Leone, 996                                             Palermo, Sicily, 922
Cartagena, Spain, 616                Lagos, Nigeria, 1,375                Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 356       Palma, Balearic Islands, 453
Catania, Sicily, 535                 Luanda, Angola, 1,657                Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,242     Piraievs, Greece (south of
Ceuta, Morocco, 849                  Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, 1,561     Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,494         Greece), 1,490
Civitavecchia, Italy, 191            Montevideo, Uruguay, 2,824                                              Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
Derince, Turkey (south of Greece),   New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Ports                               Canal), 1,433
   1,325                                4,395                                                                Rijeka, Croatia, 1,630
Derince, Turkey (via Corinth         Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Albany, Australia, 525             Savona, Italy, 835
   Canal), 1,283                        U.S.A., 4,469                     Fremantle, Australia, 213          Sfax, Tunisia, 1,026
Dubrovnik, Croatia, 856              Recife, Brazil, 1,226                Port Darwin, Australia, 1,638      Sibenik, Croatia, 1,504
Gibraltar, 850                       Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1,900                                           Siracusa, Sicily, 1,037
Golfe-Juan, France, 101              St. Helena Island, 707               GHAZAOUET, ALGERIA                 Split, Croatia, 1,489
Haifa, Israel, 1,505                                                       (3506'18"N., 151'30"W.) to:     Tarabulus, Libya, 1,076
Hyeres, France, 147                  GEORGETOWN, GUYANA                                                      Taranto, Italy, 1,250
Iraklion, Kriti, 991                  (649'00"N., 5810'00"W.) to:         Junction Points*                 Thessaloniki, Greece (south of
Istanbul, Turkey (south of                                                                                      Greece), 1,698
   Greece), 1,291                      Junction Points*                   Port Said, Egypt, 1,784            Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth                                             Strait of Gibraltar, 199              Canal), 1,682
   Canal), 1,250                     Bishop Rock, England, 3,643                                             Toulon, France, 705
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),     Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       Ports                            Trieste, Italy, 1,66
   1,137                                5,026                                                                Tunis, Tunisia, 803
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),   Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,779         Algiers, Algeria, 278              Valencia, Spain, 386
   1,095                             Montreal, Canada, 3,077              Alicante, Spain, 209               Valletta, Malta, 988
Malaga, Spain, 798                   Panama, Panama, 1,558                Malaga, Spain, 158                 Venezia, Italy, 1,674
Marseille, France, 204               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,001                                         Volos, Greece (south of Greece),
Messina, Sicily, 492                 Punta Arenas, Chile (east of South   GHENT, BELGIUM                        1,640
Napoli, Italy, 338                      America), 5,030                    (5103'00"N., 344'00"E.)         Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
Nice, France, 89                     Strait of Gibraltar, 3,358           Subtract 17 miles from Antwerp        1,623
Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Straits of Florida (via Mona         distances.
   Greece), 1,639                     Passage), 1,869                                                        GIJON, SPAIN
Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth         Yucatan Channel, 1,846                                                   (4333'00"N., 5040'30"W.) to:
                                                                          GIBARA, CUBA
   Canal), 1,598                                                           (2106'30"N., 7607'00"W.) to:
Olbia, Sardinia, 221                   Ports                                                                   Junction Points*
Oran, Algeria, 686                                                          Junction Points*
Palermo, Sicily, 431                 Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,                                            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 294
Palma, Balearic Islands, 448            2,211                             Straits of Florida, 447
Piraievs, Greece (south of           Belem, Brazil, 896                                                        Ports
   Greece), 978                      Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         Ports
Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth           2,282                                                                Casablanca, Morocco, 763
   Canal), 896                       Bridgetown, Barbados, 389            Charleston, South Carolina,        Horta, Azores, 1,092
Port St. Louis du Rhone, France,     Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,954         U.S.A., 806                      St. Nazaire, France, 274
   221                               Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Porto Vecchio di Piombino, Italy,       814                                 1,216                            GIZAN, SAUDI ARABIA
   116                               Colon, Panama, 1,515                 Nuevitas, Cuba, 82                  (1653'15"N., 4223'20"E.) to:
                                     Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 1,484



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
38        GLADSTONE HARBOR, AUSTRALIA



  Junction Points*                      Junction Points*                     Junction Points*                       Junction Points*

Cape of Good Hope, South              Panama, Panama, 334                  Cape of Good Hope, South               Cape of Good Hope, South
  Africa, 4,344                                                              Africa, 6,489                           Africa, 2,826
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,324          Ports                              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,457         Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,981
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,764                                             Torres Strait, Australia, 346
Port Said, Egypt, 1,130               Acapulco, Mexico, 1,123              Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 611              Ports
Singapore, 4,008                      Ampala, Honduras, 432
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 4,217         Buenaventura, Colombia, 426            Ports                                Dakar, Senegal, 831
Torres Strait, Australia, 6,443       La Union, El Salvador, 4326                                                 Takoradi, Ghana, 461
                                                                           Ambon, Indonesia, 767
  Ports                               GONAIVES, HAITI                      Colombo, Sri Lanka, 3,700              GRENA, DENMARK
                                       (1927'00"N., 7242'00"W.) to:      Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2,484             (5624'45"N., 1056'20"E.) to:
Aden, Yemen, 400                                                           Hong Kong, China, 2,583
Al Aqabah, Jordan, 988                  Junction Points*                   Manila, Philippines, 2,034               Junction Points*
Massawa, Ethiopia, 222                                                     Port Darwin, Australia, 460
Port Sudan, Sudan, 403                Panama, Panama, 805                                                         Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                                                           GRAND BANKS SOUTH*                      Entrance), Germany, 140
GLADSTONE HARBOR,                       Ports                               (4230'00"N., 5000'00"W.) to:        Skagens Odde, Denmark, 115
AUSTRALIA
 (2350'00"S., 15115'30"E.) to:      Kingston, Jamaica, 263                 Junction Points*                       Ports
                                      New York, New York, U.S.A.,
  Junction Points*                      1,328                              Bishop Rock, England, 1,830            Gdynia, Poland, 361
                                      Port au Prince, Haiti, 70            Cape of Good Hope, South               Goteborg, Sweden, 102
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,688                                                Africa, 5,954                       Lubeck, Germany, 169
Torres Strait, Australia, 1,085       GOOD HOPE, LOUISIANA,                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1,714
                                      U.S.A.                               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,877          GRIMSBY, ENGLAND
  Ports                                (2959'35"N., 9024'00"W.) Add      Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,809            (5336'00"N., 00l'00"W.)
                                      24 miles to New Orleans distances.   Montreal, Canada, 1,335                Subtract 14 miles from Hull
Brisbane, Australia, 314                                                   Panama, Panama, 2,555                  distances.
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea,       GOOLE, ENGLAND                       Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,998
  1,389                                (5342'00"N., 051'00"W.) Add       Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,440             GRIMSTAD, NORWAY
Wellington, New Zealand, 1,678        27 miles to Hull distances.          Strait of Gibraltar, 2,070              (5820'20"N., 836'05"E.) to:
                                                                           Straits of Florida, 1,990
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND                     GOOSE BAY, CANADA                                                             Junction Points*
 (5551'45"N., 418'00"W.) to:         (5322'00"N., 6018'00"W.) to:        Ports
                                                                                                                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 399
  Junction Points*                      Junction Points*                   Belem, Brazil, 2,638
                                                                           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,           Ports
Bishop Rock, England, 402             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,812            932
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 395            Strait of Gibraltar, 2,538           Dakar, Senegal, 2,336                  Bergen, Norway, 250
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 146                                                 Galway, Ireland, 1,741                 London, England, 542
Pentland Firth, Scotland (via The       Ports                              Lisboa, Portugal, 1,858                Oslo, Norway, 135
   Minch), 384                                                             St. John's, Canada, 325
                                      Churchill, Canada, 1,557                                                    GROTON, CONNECTICUT,
  Ports                               Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,332            GRANGEMOUTH,                           U.S.A.
                                      St. John's, Canada, 588              SCOTLAND                                (4121'30"N., 7205'15"W.) Use
Ardrossan, Scotland, 43                                                     (5602'00"N., 341'20"W.) For         New London distances.
Avonmouth, England, 390                                                    distances outside the Firth of Forth
                                      GOTEBORG, SWEDEN
Barrow in Furness, England, 172        (5742'00"N., 1157'00"E.) to:      add 15 miles to Leith distances.       GUANICA, PUERTO RICO
Boulogne, France, 672                                                                                              (1758'00"N., 6655'30"W.) to:
Cairn Ryan, Scotland, 82                Junction Points*                   GRANTON, SCOTLAND
Cardiff, Wales, 375                                                         (5559'16"N., 313'13"W.) See           Ports
Cobh, Ireland, 346                    Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Leith.
Fishguard, Wales, 247                  Entrance), Germany, 230                                                    Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (north of
Londonderry, Northern Ireland,        Skagens Odde, Denmark, 42                                                     Hispaniola and via Windward
                                                                           GRANVILLE, FRANCE
   143                                                                      (4850'00"N., 136'15"W.) to:           Passage), 572
Reykjavik, Iceland, 860                 Ports                                                                     Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (south of
Stornoway, Scotland, 283                                                     Junction Points*                       Hispaniola), 584
                                      Assens, Denmark, 197
GLOUCESTER, ENGLAND                   Bergen, Norway, 356                  Bishop Rock, England, 267              GUANTA, VENEZUELA
 (5152'00"N., 213'00"W.) Add        Faborg, Denmark, 222                 Ile d'Ouessant, France, 158             (1014'43"N., 6435'30"W.) Add
34 miles to Avonmouth distances.      Flensburg, Germany, 272                                                     1 mile to Puerto la Cruz distances.
                                      Fredericia, Denmark, 181               Ports
GODHAVN, GREENLAND                    Grena, Denmark, 102                                                         GUANTANAMO, CUBA
 (6914'00"N., 5332'00"W.) See       Haderslev, Denmark, 203              Dover, England, 181                     (1954'00"N., 7511'00"W.) to:
Qeqertarsauq, Greenland.              Hobro, Denmark, 123                  Le Havre, France, 173
                                      Kolding, Denmark, 330                Plymouth, England, 149                   Junction Points*
GODTHAB, GREENLAND                    Middlefart, Denmark, 173
 (6410'45"N., 5145'14"W.) See       Naestved, Denmark, 199               GRAVESEND, ENGLAND                     Bishop Rock, England (via
Nuuk, Greenland.                      Nakskov, Denmark, 201                 (5126'45"N., 022'30"E.)                Windward Passage), 3,714
                                      Oslo, Norway, 159                    Subtract 16 miles from London          Fastnet Rock, Ireland (via
GOLCUK, TURKEY                        Sonderborg, Denmark, 239             distances.                                Windward Passage), 3,597
 (4044'00"N., 2949'00"E.) Add       Vejle, Denmark, 176                                                         Inishtrahull, Ireland (via Windward
34 miles to Istanbul distances for                                         GREENOCK, SCOTLAND                        Passage), 3,722
ports outside the Black Sea and Sea   GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN                    (5557'00"N., 445'00"W.)             Panama, Panama, 752
of Marmara.                            (5742'00"N., 1157'00"E.) See      Subtract 17 miles from Glasgow         Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,869
                                      Goteborg, Sweden.                    distances.                             Strait of Gibraltar, 3,737
GOLFITO, COSTA RICA                                                                                               Straits of Florida, 638
 (838'30"N., 8310'30"W.) to:        GOVE HARBOR, AUSTRALIA               GREENVILLE, LIBERIA                    Yucatan Channel, 582
                                       (1210'33"S., 13638'43"E.) to:      (459'30"N., 902'55"W.) to:




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                                HAIFA, ISRAEL                     39



  Ports                                 Hispaniola), 537                   Wake Island, 6,843                    Campeche, Mexico, 652
                                     Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary        Yokohama, Japan, 7,987                Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 1,145
Argentia, Canada, 1,976                 Islands, 3,265                                                           Carmen, Mexico, 725
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 5,156          Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba, 222         GUAYMAS, MEXICO                       Cartagena, Colombia, 1,449
Bahia Honda, Cuba, 643               Santo Domingo, Dominican               (2755'00"N., 11054'00"W.) to:      Cienfuegos, Cuba, 851
Barranquilla, Colombia, 534             Republic, 397                                                            Colon, Panama, 1,370
Belem, Brazil, 2,214                 Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 544          Junction Points*                    La Habana, Cuba, 564
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via   St. John's, Antigua, 837                                                    Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (via
   Windward Passage, Crooked         Tampico, Mexico, 1,297                Honshu, Japan, 6,030                    Old Bahama Channel and Mona
   Island Passage, and Nantucket     Veracruz, Mexico, 1,228               Panama, Panama, 2,370                   Passage), 1,823
   Light Buoy), 1,495                Willemstad, Curacao, 595              Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,401            Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (via
Brest, France, 3,784                                                       Torres Strait, Australia, 7,234         Virgin Passage and Old Bahama
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,278       GUAYAQUIL, ECUADOR                    Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 5,850            Channel), 1,822
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 175               (212'00"S., 7953'00"W.) to:        Wilson Promontory, Australia,         Port au Prince, Haiti (via Old
Cape Town, South Africa, 6,290                                               7,354                                 Bahama Channel and Windward
Cardenas, Cuba, 539                    Junction Points*                                                            Passage), 1,176
Cartagena, Colombia, 586                                                     Ports                               Tampico, Mexico, 725
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.   Panama, Panama, 824                                                         Tuxpan, Mexico, 751
   (via Windward Passage and         Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,307            Acapulco, Mexico, 958                 Veracruz, Mexico, 800
   Crooked Island Passage), 900      Singapore (via Surigao Strait),       Antofagasta, Chile, 3,894
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands       10,726                              Arica, Chile, 3,681                   GUNSAN, SOUTH KOREA
   (north of Hispaniola and Puerto   Torres Strait, Australia (via Raine   Callao, Peru, 3,117                    (3559'18"N., 12643'00"E.) to:
   Rico), 607                          Island entrance), 8,270             Coquimbo, Chile, 4,153
Christiansted, St. Croix (north of                                         Corinto, Nicaragua, 1,738               Ports
   Hispaniola and Puerto Rico),        Ports                               Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 2,467
   635                                                                     Guayaquil, Ecuador, 2,640             Busan, South Korea, 376
Christiansted, St. Croix (south of   Acapulco, Mexico, 1,708               Iquique, Chile, 3,750                 Dalien, China, 294
   Hispaniola), 689                  Amapala, Honduras, 1,167              Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,      Sasebo, Japan, 343
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 366                Antofagasta, Chile, 1,470                1,158                              Shanghai, China, 457
Colon, Panama, 689                   Apra, Guam, 8,147                     Lota, Chile, 4,442                    Yeosu, South Korea, 245
Dakar, Senegal, 3,312                Arica, Chile, 1,251                   Mazatlan, Mexico, 388
Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 334       Auckland, New Zealand, 6,087          Monterey, California, U.S.A.,         HABANA, CUBA
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,650        Buenaventura, Colombia, 608              1,410                               (2308'00"N., 8220'30"W.) See
Funchal, Madeira Island, 3,194       Caldera, Chile, 1,632                 Pisco, Peru, 3,227                    La Habana, Cuba.
Georgetown, Guyana, 1,316            Callao, Peru, 712                     Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 1,956
Gibraltar (via Turks Island          Coquimbo, Chile, 1,781                Salina Cruz, Mexico, 1,260            HACHINOHE, JAPAN
 Passage), 3,767                     Corinto, Nicaragua, 1,071             San Diego, California, U.S.A.,         (4032'00"N., 14133'00"E.) to:
Halifax, Canada, 1,634               Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,            1,088
Hamilton, Bermuda, 992                  5,552                              San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,      Ports
Horta, Azores (via Mouchoir          Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 356                 1,490
   Passage), 2,666                   Guaymas, Mexico, 2,640                San Jose, Guatemala, 1,520            Hakodate, Japan, 108
Ivittuut, Greenland, 2,873           Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (north of        Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,    Muroran, Japan, 123
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A., 851      Luzon), 10,321                        1,225                              Nagoya, Japan, 577
Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via Old   Hong Kong, China, 9,505               Talcahuano, Chile, 4,428              Naha, Ryukyu Islands, 1,239
   Bahama Channel), 587              Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,853       Valparaiso, Chile, 4,291              Yokohama, Japan, 436
Kingston, Jamaica, 180               Iquique, Chile, 1,317
Kralendijk, Bonaire, 620             Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,212         GUIRIA, VENEZUELA                     HADERSLEV, DENMARK
La Guaira, Venezuela, 737            Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,       (1034'45"N., 6216'15"W.) to:        (5515'12"N., 930'45"E.) to:
La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama         3,218
   Channel), 600                     Lota, Chile, 2,155                      Junction Points*                      Junction Points*
Lisboa, Portugal, 3,570              Manila, Philippines, 9,615
Manzanillo, Cuba, 206                Midway Island, 5,944                  Bishop Rock, England, 3,598           Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Matanzas, Cuba, 553                  Monterey, California, U.S.A.,         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       Entrance), Germany, 72
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 582             3,434                                 5,396                              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 216
Monrovia, Liberia, 3,828             Noumea, New Caledonia, 6,686          Grand Banks South, 2,010
Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,I67           Pago Pago, American Samoa,            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,616           Ports
Nassau, Bahamas, 503                    5,450                              Panama, Panama, 1,200
New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,237      Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,562            Goteborg, Sweden, 203
   1,312                             Pisco, Peru, 788                      Strait of Gibraltar, 3,430            Kobenhavn, Denmark, 175
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,117     Puerto Bolivar, Ecuador, 64           Straits of Florida, 2,099             Lubeck, Germany, 137
Nuevitas, Cuba, 284                  Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 4,169       Yucatan Channel, 1,471
Oranjestad, St. Eustatius, 771       Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 787
                                                                                                                 HAIFA, ISRAEL
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Qingdao, China, 8,880                   Ports                                (3249'25"N., 3500'00"E.) to:
   (via Windward Passage and         Salaverry, Peru, 440
   Crooked Island Passage), 1,284    Salina Cruz, Mexico, 1,495            Belem, Brazil, 1,226                    Junction Points*
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 879      San Diego, California, U.S.A.,        La Guaira, Venezuela, 339
Ponce, Puerto Rico (north of            3,112                              Recife, Brazil, 2,208                 Port Said, Egypt, 171
   Hispaniola and Mona Passage),     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,284         Strait of Gibraltar, 2,031
   540                                  3,548                              Rio Grande, Brazil, 3,984
Porlamar, Venezuela, 884             San Jose, Guatemala, 1,242            Santos, Brazil, 3,467                   Ports
Port au Prince, Haiti, 179           Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 987            3,249                              GULFPORT, MISSISSIPPI,                Alexandria, Egypt, 295
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 922        Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,326    U.S.A.                                Algiers, Algeria, 1,602
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,    Shanghai, China, 8,872                 (3021'30"N., 8905'30"W.) to:       Alicante, Spain, 1,769
   2,853                             Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,817                                                Ancona, Italy (South of Greece),
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,           Suva, Fiji Islands, 6,067               Junction Points*                      1,272
   U.S.A. (via Crooked Island        Sydney, Australia, 7,268                                                    Ancona, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
   Passage and Nantucket Light       Talara, Peru, 180                     Straits of Florida, 494                 1,248
   Buoy), 1,512                      Talcahuano, Chile, 2,135              Yucatan Channel, 534                  Annaba, Algeria, 1,378
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 770         Truk, Caroline Islands, 7,752                                               Banghazi, Libya, 783
Reykjavik, Iceland, 3,434            Valparaiso, Chile, 1,980                Ports                               Baniyas, Syria, 153
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,170        Vladivostok, Russia, 8,044                                                  Banzart, Tunisia, 1,273
San Juan, Puerto Rico (north of                                            Belize, Belize, 838


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
40        HAINES, ALASKA, U.S.A.



Barcelona, Spain, 1,699                HAIPHONG, VIETNAM                    Kochi, Japan (east of Honshu), 832   HALDIA, INDIA
Bari, Italy (south of Greece), 1,065    (2052'00"N., 10641'00"E.) to:     Kochi, Japan (via Shimonoseki         (2200'30"N., 8803'00"E.) to:
Bari, Italy (via Corinth Canal),                                               Kaikyo), 894
   1,041                                 Ports                              Kushiro, Japan, 210                    Junction Points*
Beirut, Lebanon, 76                                                         Levuka, Fiji Islands, 4,271
Brindisi, Italy (south of Greece),     Cebu, Philippines (via Jintotolo     Lo-hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 1,429     Cape of Good Hope, South
   1,007                                 Channel, Romblon, and Verde        Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,       Africa, 5,438
Brindisi, Italy (via Corinth Canal),     Island Passage), 1,276                4,576                             Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,740
   983                                 Chang-Kan, China, 156                Maizuru, Japan, 460                  Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,815
Cartagena, Spain, 1,794                Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 802            Manila, Philippines, 2,066           Port Said, Egypt (May-September,
Ceuta, Morocco, 2,012                  Hong Kong, China, 477                Matsuga-hana, Japan, 316               south of Socotra), 4,760
Civitavecchia, Italy, 1,321            Kobe, Japan, 1,833                   Midway Island, 2,198                 Port Said, Egypt (North of
Genova, Italy, 1,505                   Manila, Philippines, 936             Miike, Japan, 864                      Socotra), 4,656
Gibraltar, 2,014                       Qui Nhon, Vietnam, 469               Mogpo, South Korea, 897              Port Said, Egypt (October-April,
Iraklion, Kriti, 522                   Sanya Gang, China, 253               Nagasaki, Japan, 801                   South of Socotra), 4,639
Istanbul, Turkey, 849                  Shanghai, China (via Pai-chieh       Nakhodka, Russia, 377                Singapore, 1,593
Izmir, Turkey, 654                       Hsia, Steep Island Passage, and    Nanao, Japan, 337                    Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,084
Kyrenia, Cyprus, 246                     Hai-nan Tao), 1,285                Nevel'sk, Russia, 389
La Spezia, Italy, 1,469                Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 597          Niigata, Japan, 247                    Ports
Livorno, Italy, 1,433                                                       Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,347
Malaga, Spain, 1,961                   HAKATA, JAPAN                        Noumea, New Caledonia (via           Akyab, Sittwe Harbor, Burma, 46
Marseille, France, 1,596                (3336'45"N., 13023'15"E.) to:        Canal Woodin and Canal de la      Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,537
Matruh, Egypt, 410                                                             Havannah), 4,176                  Assab, Ethiopia, 3,390
Messina, Sicily, 1,023                   Ports                              Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Belawan, Indonesia, 1,270
Napoli, Italy, 1,194                                                           4,326                             Bombay, India, 2,070
Odessa, Ukraine, 1,197                 Hakodate, Japan, 709                 Papeete, French Polynesia, 5,249     Chittagong, Bangladesh, 311
Oran, Algeria, 1,800                   Kobe, Japan, 304                     Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,202
Palermo, Sicily, 1,139                 Misumi, Japan, 161                      Russia, 1,075                     Dumai, Indonesia, 1,523
Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,645         Nagasaki, Japan, 121                 Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,298      Fremantle, Australia, 3,637
Piraievs, Greece, 650                  Ube, Japan, 84                       Port Darwin, Australia (via Selat    Mombasa, Kenya, 3,647
Rijeka, Croatia (south of Greece),     Yokohama, Japan, 608                    Sele), 3,422                      Penang, Malaysia, 1,238
   1,342                                                                    Prince Rupert, Canada (north of      Yenbo, Saudi Arabia, 4,092
Rijeka, Croatia (via Corinth           HAKODATE, JAPAN                         Aleutian Islands), 3,487          Zanzibar, Tanzania, 3,720
   Canal), 1,315                        (4147'00"N., 14043'00"E.) to:     Prince Rupert, Canada (south of
Savona, Italy, 1,515                                                           Aleutian Islands), 3,569          HALIFAX, CANADA
Sayda, Lebanon, 49                       Junction Points*                   Pabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,894       (4439'00"N., 6334'00"W.) to:
Sibenik, Croatia (south of                                                  Sumoi, Japan, 248
   Greece), 1,214                      Panama, Panama, 7,417                Skata, Japan, 189                      Junction Points*
Sibenik, Croatia (via Corinth          Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,457           San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
   Canal), 1,187                       Singapore (via Sea of Japan),           4,247                             Bishop Rock, England, 2,480
Siracusa, Sicily, 1,013                  3,160                              Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (north   Cape of Good Hope, South
Split, Croatia (south of Greece),                                              of Aleutian Islands), 3,922          Africa, 6,502
   1,199                                 Ports                              Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via     Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,364
Split, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),                                            composite sailing at 50N.),      Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,462
   1,172                               Akita, Japan, 150                       3,982                             Montreal, Canada (via Cabot
Tarabulus, Lebanon, 118                Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,          Seward, Alaska, U.S.A. (via south       Strait), 955
Tarabulus, Libya, 1,109                   Russia, 631                          of Aleutian Islands), 3,069       Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
Taranto, Italy (south of Greece),      Apia, Samoa, 4,252                   Shanghai, China, 1,166                  Canso), 895
   1,020                               Apra, Guam, 1,739                    Shimonoseki, Japan, 683              Panama, Panama, 2,338
Taranto, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Auckland, New Zealand, 5,104         Shiogama, Japan, 281                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,642
   1,003                               Avarua, Cook Islands, 5,022          Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A. (south of      Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,799
Thessaloniki, Greece, 786              Bohang, South Korea, 665                Aleutian Islands), 3,392          Strait of Gibraltar, 2,708
Toulon, France, 1,565                  Bukhta Shelikohova, Kuril Islands,   Sydney, Australia, 4,688             Straits of Florida, 1,610
Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),         Russia, 865                       Tan-shui, Taiwan, 1,384              Yucatan Channel, 1,796
   1,375                               Busan, South Korea, 686              Tomari, Japan, 301
Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Cebu, Philippines (via outside       Tsuruga, Japan, 447                    Ports
   1,348                                  route), 2,208                     Uglegorsk, Russia, 536
Tunis, Tunisia, 1,260                  Cebu, Philippines (via Sea of        Ulsan, South Korea, 661              Argentia, Canada, 448
Valencia, Spain, 1,767                    Japan), 2,177                     Unggi, North Korea, 486              Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 3,663
Valletta, Malta, 1,038                 Chongjin, North Korea, 509           Valparaiso, Chile, 9,197             Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., 911
Venezia, Italy (south of Greece),      Dagu, China, 1,385                   Vladivostok, Russia, 437             Belem, Brazil, 2,904
   1,383                               Dalian, China, 1,226                 Weihai, China, 1,169                 Bocas del Toro, Panama, 2,369
Venezia, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,        Weonsan, North Korea, 638            Bordeaux, France, 2,786
   1,359                                  2,228                             Xiamen, China, 1,559                 Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Volos, Greece, 728                     Hachinohe, Japan, 108                Yantai, China, 1,203                   380
Yumurtalik, Turkey, 240                Hakata, Japan, 709                   Yokohama, Japan, 533                 Bridgeport, Connecticut, U.S.A.,
                                       Higashi-Iwase, Japan, 380                                                   552
HAINES, ALASKA, U.S.A.                 Hiroshima, Japan, 787                HAKONSVERN, NORWAY                   Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,906
 (5913'55"N., 13526'10"W.) to:       Hong Kong, China, 1,810               (6020'30"N., 514'30"E.) to:       Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,210
                                       Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,314                                           Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,731
  Junction Points*                     Iloilo, Philippines (via Sea of        Junction Points*                   Cadiz, Spain, 2,674
                                          Japan), 2,199                                                          Cape Town, South Africa, 6,492
Panama, Panama, 4,386                  Incheon, South Korea, 1,080          Pentland Firth, Scotland, 287        Charleston, South Carolina,
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,545             Kakarta, Indonesia (east of          Skagens Odde, Denmark, 296             U.S.A., 1,077
                                          Direction Island and Selat                                             Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
  Ports                                   Gaspar), 3,468                      Ports                                1,595
                                       Kaluit, Marshall Islands, 2,670                                           Charlottetown, Canada (via Strait
Antofagasta, Chile, 6,145              Kagoshima, Japan, 946                Bremerhaven, Germany, 442              of Canso), 268
Vancouver, Canada (via Queen           Kamaishi, Japan, 192                 London, England, 616                 Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,998
  Charlotte Sound), 822                Kasatka, Japan, 407                  Oslo, Norway, 371                    Colon, Panama, 2,295
Victoria, Canada, 861                  Kimchaek, North Korea, 540                                                Dakar, Senegal, 2,956
                                       Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,656                                              Guantanamo, Cuba, 1,634
                                       Kobe, Japan (east of Honshu), 816                                         Hamilton, Bermuda, 756



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                           HAVANA, CUBA                      41



Ivittuut, Greenland, 1,380         Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,011              Passage), 1,659                     Junction Points*
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,     Karachi, Pakistan, 819              Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 813
   1,255                           Tulear, Madagascar, 3,488           Georgetown, Guyana, 1,591            Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,556   Umm Said, Qatar, 73                 Guantanamo, Cuba (via Caicos          Entrance), Germany, 564
Kingston, Jamaica, 1,795                                                  Passage), 992                     Skagens Odde, Denmark, 625
La Guaira, Venezuela, 2,060        HAMBURG, GERMANY                    Halifax, Canada, 756
La Habana, Cuba, 1,614              (5332'30"N., 969'00"E.) to:      Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,091       Ports
Limon, Costa Rica, 2,368                                               Kingston, Jamaica, 1,144
Lisboa, Portugal, 2,500              Junction Points*                  La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,335          Gdynia, Poland, 356
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 1,413                                          La Habana, Cuba, 1,150               Rankt-Peterburg, Russia, 233
Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,617         Bishop Rock, England, 717           Limon, Costa Rica, 1,715             Stockholm, Sweden, 178
Murmansk, Russia, 3,368            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 703         Manzanillo, Cuba, 1,187
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.,    Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East             Matanzas, Cuba, 1,129                HANKOU, CHINA
   540                               Entrance), Germany, 91            Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 956           (3034'00"N., 11417'30"E.) Add
New York, New York, U.S.A., 600    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 555       Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,097           592 miles to Shanghai distances for
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 790     Skagens Odde, Denmark, 360          Nassau, Bahamas, 829                 arrival Ports outside the Chang
Paamiut (Frederickshaab),                                              New London, Connecticut, U.S.A.,     Chiang (Yangtze River).
   Greenland, 1,406                  Ports                                667
Parrsboro, Canada, 330                                                 New York, New York, U.S.A., 697        Ports
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,        Aberdeen, Scotland, 473             Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 683
   U.S.A., 746                     Amsterdam, Netherlands, 274         Nuevitas, Cuba, 988                  Banjing, China, 385
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,785       Antwerp, Belgium, 386               Paramaribo, Suriname, 1,694          Shanghai, China, 592
Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,671       Bergen, Norway, 486                 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,059     Cherbourg, France, 538                 U.S.A., 746                       HARSTAD, NORWAY
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,850    Den Helder, Netherlands, 249        Plymouth, Montserrat, 966             (6845'15"N., 1634'30"E.) to:
Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 338       Dover, England, 399                 Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,016
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,         Dundee, Scotland, 485               Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,346         Junction Points*
   U.S.A., 359                     Dunkerque, France, 374              Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,149
Recife, Brazil, 3,558              Egersund, Norway, 351               Portsmouth, New Hampshire,           Skagens Odde, Denmark, 911
Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,941          Emden, Germany, 185                    U.S.A., 723
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,630      Esbjerg, Denmark, 172               Recife, Brazil, 3,038                  Ports
Salvador, Brazil, 3,949            Hartlepool, England, 406            Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,110
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,580       Harwich, England, 362               Roseau, Dominica, 1,061              Bergen, Norway, 673
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary     Hull, England, 384                  San Juan, Puerto Rico, 856           Hammerfest, Norway, 200
   Islands, 2,480                  Inverness, Scotland, 562            Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 1,031
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 1,683      Kristiansand, Norway, 333           Santo Domingo, Dominican             HARTLEPOOL, ENGLAND
Santo Domingo, Dominican           Le Havre, France, 511                  Republic, 992                      (5441'60"N., 111'30"W.) to:
   Republic, 1,709                 Leith, Scotland, 486                Saint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 1,263
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,150   London, England, 425                St. Georges, Grenada, 1,256            Junction Points*
St. John, Canada, 278              Newcastle, England, 424             Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 806
St. John's, Canada, 531            Oslo, Norway, 461                   Wilmington, North Carolina,          Bishop Rock, England, 594
Vigo, Spain, 2,454                 Plymouth, England, 628                 U.S.A., 746                       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 579
Wilmington, North Carolina,        Portland, England, 554                                                   Skagens Odde, Denmark, 438
   U.S.A., 1,016                   Portsmouth, England, 504            HAMINA, FINLAND
                                   Rotterdam, Netherlands, 307          (6030'40"N., 2711'00"E.) to:        Ports
HALMSTAD, SWEDEN                   Southampton, England, 522
 (5639'06"N., 1250'36"E.) to:    Stavanger, Norway, 403                Junction Points*                   Amsterdam, Netherlands, 260
                                   Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 111                                              Antwerp, Belgium, 325
  Junction Points*                 Zeebrugge, Belgium, 342             Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Bremerhaven, Germany, 355
                                                                        Entrance), Germany, 747             Dunkerque, France, 281
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            HAMILTON, BERMUDA                   Skagens Odde, Denmark, 797           Emden, Germany, 308
 Entrance), Germany, 188            (3217'30"N., 6447'00"W.) to:                                          Esbjerg, Denmark, 336
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 101                                               Ports                              Hamburg, Germany, 406
                                     Junction Points*                                                       Le Havre, France, 386
  Ports                                                                Gdynia, Poland, 512                  Oostende, Belgium, 265
                                   Bishop Rock, England, 2,769         Riga, Latvia, 384                    Plymouth, England, 502
Oslo, Norway, 225                  Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    Stockholm, Sweden, 325               Portland, England, 428
Stockholm, Sweden, 481                6,169                                                                 Portsmouth, England, 378
Szczecin, Poland, 227              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,651        HAMMERFEST, NORWAY                   Rotterdam, Netherlands, 269
                                   Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,749         (7040'00"N., 2341'00"E.) to:      Southampton, England, 396
HALSINGBORG, SWEDEN                Montreal, Canada, 1,621                                                  Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 348
 (5602'30"N., 1241'30"E.) See    Panama, Panama, 1,702                 Ports                              Zeebrugge, Belgium, 263
Helsingborg, Sweden.               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,929
                                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,287          Bergen, Norway, 817                  HARWICH, ENGLAND
HALUL ISLAND, QATAR                Strait of Gibraltar, 2,903          Harstad, Norway, 200                  (5157'00"N., 117'00"E.) to:
 (2540'25"N., 5227'16"E.) to:    Straits of Florida, 1,151           Oslo, Norway, 1,187
                                   Yucatan Channel, 1,321              Tromso, Norway, 124                    Junction Points*
  Junction Points*
                                     Ports                             HAMPTON ROADS,                       Skagens Odde, Denmark, 487
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                       VIRGINIA, U.S.A.
  4,836                            Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., 805     (3657'00"N., 7622'00"W.)            Ports
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,172     Barranquilla, Colombia, 1,465       Subtract 6 miles from Norfolk
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,415     Belem, Brazil, 2,274                distances.                           Amsterdam, Netherlands, 145
Port Said, Egypt, 3,018            Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                           Antwerp, Belgium, 97
Singapore, 3,557                     704                               HAMRA, EGYPT                         Bremerhaven, Germany, 309
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,764      Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,208          (3058'42"N., 2852'12"E.) See      Emden, Germany, 252
                                   Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,211      Mersa Al Hamra.                      Esbjerg, Denmark, 338
  Ports                            Cardenas, Cuba, 1,119                                                    Hamburg, Germany, 362
                                   Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,   HANGO, FINLAND                       Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 296
Assab, Ethiopia, 1,773               872                                (5949'03"N., 2256'00"E.) to:
Belawan, Indonesia, 3,226          Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,346                                                  HAVANA, CUBA
Calcutta, India, 3,234             Colon, Panama (via Caicos                                                 (2308'00"N., 8220'30"W.) See



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
42        HELSINGBORG, SWEDEN



La Habana.                         HIGASHI-IWASE, JAPAN                   Junction Points*                    Albany, Australia, 1,494
                                    (3646'00"N., 13714'00"E.) to:                                           Apia, Samoa, 2,773
HELSINGBORG, SWEDEN                                                     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,408        Apra, Guam, 3,683
 (5602'30"N., 1241'30"E.) to:      Ports                              Panama, Panama, 10,017                Auckland, New Zealand, 1,521
                                                                        Singapore, 649                        Avarua, Cook Islands, 2,962
  Junction Points*                 Busan, South Korea, 492              Torres Strait, Australia, 2,629       Burnie Harbor, Australia, 332
                                   Hakodate, Japan, 380                                                       Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Shanghai, China, 966                   Ports                                  (east point via D'Entrecasteaux
 Entrance), Germany, 176           Shimonoseki, Japan, 466                                                       Channel), 4,501
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 128         Vladivostok, Russia, 471             Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,           Dunedin, New Zealand, 1,068
                                                                           Russia, 3,105                      Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,
  Ports                            HIGASHI-IWASE, JAPAN                 Apra, Guam, 2,304                        6,365
                                    (3446'45"N., 13438'00"E.) to:     Beihai, China, 837                    Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,930
Kristiansand, Norway, 220                                               Busan, South Korea, 1,999             Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 3,223
Oslo, Norway, 250                    Ports                              Cebu, Philippines (north of North     Levuka, Fiji Islands, 2,239
Stockholm, Sweden, 436                                                     Danger Reef, Via Mindoro           Melbourne, Australia, 472
                                   Kobe, Japan, 34                         Strait, and Jintotolo Channel),    Midway Island, 4,740
                                   Kure, Japan, 126                        1,152                              Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,604
HELSINGOR, DENMARK
 (5602'00"N., 1237'20"E.) to:    Nagasaki, Japan, 373                 Chang-kan, China, 708                 Pago Pago, American Samoa,
                                   Nagoya, Japan, 259                   Da Nang, Vietnam, 519                    2,783
  Junction Points*                 Sakaide, Japan, 89                   Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,         Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,563
                                   Shimotsui, Japan, 88                    4,894                              Ponape, Caroline Islands, 3,130
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Yokohama, Japan, 368                 Guayaquil, Ecuador, 10,321            Port Augusta, Australia, 947
 Entrance), Germany, 175                                                Haiphong, Vietnam, 802                Port Kembla, Australia, 593
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 127         HILO, HAWAII, U.S.A.                 Hong Kong, China, 917                 Port Lincoln, Australia, 830
                                    (1944'00"N., 15505'00"W.) to:     Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 5,542       Portland, Australia, 540
  Ports                                                                 Iloilo, Philippines, 1,051            Rapid Bay, Australia, 719
                                     Junction Points*                   Incheon, South Korea, 2,057           Suva, Fiji Islands, 2,198
Kristiansand, Norway, 219                                               Iwakuni, Japan, 2,108                 Sydney, Australia, 638
Oslo, Norway, 249                  Panama, Panama, 4,527                Jakarta, Indonesia, 1,025             Wellington, New Zealand, 1,288
Stockholm, Sweden (via Store                                            Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,484
  Baelt), 629                        Ports                              Kompong Som, Cambodia, 419            HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY,
Stockholm, Sweden (via The                                              Los Angeles, California (via San      U.S.A.
  Sound), 445                      San Diego, California, U.S.A.,          Bernardino Strait), 7,403           (4045'00"N., 7401'00"W.) For
                                     2,175                              Malakal, Palau Islands, 1,801         ocean distances add 3 miles to New
                                   San Jose, Guatemala, 3,690           Manila, Philippines, 907              York distances.
HELSINKI, FINLAND
 (6009'20"N., 2465'40"E.) to:    Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 2,387   Midway Island, 4,421
                                                                        Mogpo, South Korea, 1,904             HOLSTEINSBORG,
  Junction Points*                 HIROSHIMA, JAPAN                     Nampo, North Korea, 2,118             GREENLAND
                                    (3420'45"N., 13228'15"E.) to:     Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam, 264            (6056'42"N., 5341'00"W.) See
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                 Olongapo, Philippines, 872            Sisimiut, Greenland.
 Entrance), Germany, 625             Junction Points*                   Pago Pago, American Samoa,
Skagens Odde, Denmark (via Store                                           5,216                              HOLYHEAD, WALES
  Baelt), 817                      Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via         Palembang, Indonesia, 869              (5319'30"N., 438'00"W.) to:
Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The       south of Mindanao), 2,908          Papeete, French Polynesia, 6,443
  Sound), 687                      Panama, Panama (via east of          Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,              Junction Points*
                                     Honshu), 8,167                        Russia (via Chetvertyy Kuril'sky
  Ports                            Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,551              Proliv, La Perouse Strait, and     Bishop Rock, England, 232
                                   Singapore (east of Kyushu), 2,622       Korea Strait), 3,718               Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 232
Gavle, Sweden, 292                 Singapore (west of Kyushu), 2,637    Qingdao, China, 1,969                 Inishtrahull, Ireland, 181
Gdynia, Poland, 415                                                     Qui Nhon, Vietnam, 361                Pentland Firth, Scotland, 422
Kobenhavn, Denmark, 772              Ports                              San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
Kotka, Finland, 99                                                         7,267                                Ports
Norrkoping, Sweden, 307            Hakodate, Japan, 787                 San Fernando, Philippines, 927
Ornskolosvik, Sweden, 403          Kobe, Japan, 179                     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    Avonmouth, England, 217
Oulu, Finland, 598                 Nagasaki, Japan (via Kudako             6,878                              Brest, France, 345
Oxelosund, Sweden, 268               Suido), 285                        Sanya Gang, China, 624                Cardiff, Wales, 202
Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 172       Nagasaki, Japan (via Moroshima       Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,963          Cherbourg, France, 377
Stockholm, Sweden, 239               Suido), 275                        Surabaya, Indonesia, 1,206            Cobh, Ireland, 182
Uusikaupunki, Finland, 293         Nagasaki, Japan (via Nuwashima       Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,679             Douglas, Isle of Man, 51
                                     Suido), 277                        Tandjung Uban, Indonesia, 633         Liverpool, England, 72
                                   Nagasaki, Japan (via Obatake Seto    Truk, Caroline Islands (via San       London, England, 594
HEYSHAM, ENGLAND
 (5403'00"N., 254'10"W.) to:       and north of Kasasa Jima), 264        Bernardino Strait), 2,799          Southampton, England, 414
                                   Yokohama, Japan, 519                 Tso-Ying, Taiwan, 1,131               Swansea, Wales, 171
  Junction Points*                                                      Vladivostok, Russia, 2,501
                                   HIRTSHALS, DENMARK                   Wake Island, 3,580                    HONAWAR, INDIA
Bishop Rock, England, 315           (5736'00"N., 958'00"E.) to:       Weonsan, North Korea, 2,305            (1416'00"N., 7425'50"E.) to:
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 309                                              Yokohama, Japan, 2,419
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 216           Junction Points*                   Zhenjiang, China, 838                   Junction Points*
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 435
                                   Pentland Firth, Scotland, 429        HOBART, TASMANIA                      Cape of Good Hope, South
  Ports                            Skagens Odde, Denmark, 30             (4253'00"S., 14721'00"E.) to:        Africa, 4,458
                                                                                                              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,775
Ardrossan, Scotland, 173             Ports                                Junction Points*                    Port Said, Egypt, 3,087
Belfast, Northern Ireland, 137                                                                                Singapore, 2,147
Brest, France, 422                 Bergen, Norway, 280                  Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,628
Cardiff, Wales, 280                London, England, 541                 Panama, Panama, 7,630                   Ports
Cobh, Ireland, 248                 Oslo, Norway, 145                    Torres Strait, Australia, 2,271
Fishguard, Wales, 153                                                                                         Ail Basrah, Iraq, 1,826
Newport, Wales, 290                HO CHI MINH, VIETNAM                   Ports                               Bombay, India, 306
Waterford, Ireland, 196             (1046'00"N., 10642'15"E.) to:                                           Calcutta, India, 1,817
                                                                        Aden, Yemen, 6,598                    Colombo, Sri Lanka, 590



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                     HORNEFORS, SWEDEN                       43



Darwin, Australia, 3,925                 Aleutian Islands), 5,367         Apra, Guam, 3,318                    Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands,
Fremantle, Australia, 3,696           Qingdao, China, 1,120               Auckland, New Zealand, 3,820            3,246
Okha, India, 579                      Qui Nhon, Vietnam, 592              Avarua, Cook Islands, 2,553          Rongelap, Marshall Islands, 2,114
Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 979           Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,764     Baie Taio-Hae, Marquesa Islands,     Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 2,358
Victoria, Seychelles, 1,600           San Diego, California, U.S.A.,         2,102                             Saipan, Mariana Islands, 3,230
                                         6,439                            Bikini, Marshall Islands, 2,179      Salina Cruz, Mexico, 3,580
HONFLEUR, FRANCE                      San Fernando, Philippines, 489      Brisbane, Australia (via Northwest   San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
 (4925'00"N., 014'00"E.) See Le     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.      Channel), 4,117                      2,278
Havre.                                   (via Osumi Kaikyo), 6,044        Brito, Nicaragua, 4,155              San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
                                      Sanmen Wen, China, 650              Busan, South Korea, 3,973               2,091
HONG KONG, CHINA                      Sanya Gang, China, 391              Butaritari, Gilbert Islands, 2,050   Sandakan, Sabah, 5,044
 (2217'00"N., 114l0'00"E.) to:      Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via    Callao, Peru, 5,161                  Sasebo, Japan (via Osumi
                                         Osumi Kaikyo and composite       Cebu, Philippines, 4,610                Kaikyo), 4,009
  Junction Points*                       sailing), 5,768                  Chimbote, Peru, 5,015                Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 2,409
                                      Seward, Alaska, U.S.A. (south of    Christmas Island, Line Islands,      Selwyn Bay, Solomon Islands,
Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via             Aleutian Islands), 4,867            1,161                                3,047
  Linapacan Strait), 2,029            Shanghai, China (via Steep Island   Dagu, China (via Osumi Kaikyo),      Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,373
Panama, Panama, 9,195                    and Pai-chieh Hsia), 824            4,677                             Shanghai, China (via Osumi
Singapore, 1,454                      Shimonoseki, Japan, 1,179           Dagu, China (via Shimonoseki            Kaikyo), 4,336
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,807         Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A. (north of        Kaikyo), 4,628                    Shanghai, China, 4,396
Torres Strait, Australia, 2,725          Aleutian Islands), 5,095         Dalian, China, 4,531                 Shimonoseki, Japan (via Bungo
                                      Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A. (south of     Dalian, China (via Shimonoseki          Suido), 3,854
  Ports                                  Aleutian Islands), 5,191            Kaikyo), 4,470                    Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,386
                                      Su-ao Kang, Taiwan, 554             Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,        Surabaya, Indonesia, 5,598
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,           Surabaya, Indonesia, 1,925             2,040                             Suva, Fiji Islands, 2,776
   Russia, 2,250                      Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,541           Eniwetak, Marshall Islands, 2,375    Sweeper Cove, Alaska, U.S.A.,
Apia, Samoa, 4,868                    Truk, Caroline Islands, 2,376       Fanning Island, North Pacific,          1,945
Apra, Guam, 1,822                     Tso-ying, Taiwan, 343                  1,056                             Sydney, Australia, 4,420
Auckland, New Zealand, 5,060          Valparaiso, Chile, 10,218           Funafuti, Tuvalu, 2,249              Talara, Peru, 4,806
Avarua, Cook Islands, 5,674           Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 707         Guayaquil, Ecuador, 4,853            Tinian, Mariana Islands, 3,230
Beihai, China, 391                    Vladivostok, Russia, 1,646          Hakodate, Japan, 3,314               Truk, Caroline Islands, 3,028
Busan, South Korea, 1,144             Wake Island, 2,940                  Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 5,542          Unalakleet, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,407
Cebu, Philippines (via Verde Island   Weihai, China, 1,190                Hobart, Tasmania, 4,930              Valparaiso, Chile, 5,919
   Passage and Jintotolo Channel),    Wenzhou, China, 595                 Hong Kong, China, 4,857              Vancouver, Canada, 2,423
   960                                Weonsan, North Korea, 1,450         Hot Springs Bay, Alaska, U.S.A.,     Victoria, Canada, 2,349
Chang-Kan, China, 408                 Xiamen, China, 290                     2,076                             Vladivostok, Russia, 3,725
Da Nang, Vietnam, 520                 Yantai, China, 1,224                Howland Island, 1,650                Wake Island, 2,004
Dagu, China, 1,418                    Yokohama, Japan, 1,585              Iloilo, Philippines, 4,632           Wellington, New Zealand, 4,113
Davao, Philippines, 1,382             Zhenjiang, China, 245               Incheon, South Korea (via            Whittier, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,474
Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,                                                Maenggol Suido and Bungo          Weonsan, North Korea, 3,933
   4,026                              HONIARA, SOLOMON                       Suido), 4,323                     Wotho, Marshall Islands, 2,187
Funafuti, Tuvalu, 4,247               ISLANDS                             Incheon, South Korea (via Osumi      Wotje Island, Marshall Islands,
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 9,505              (925'39"S., 15957'51"E.) to:        Kaikyo), 4,385                       1,992
Haiphong, Vietnam (via West                                               Islas Juan Fernandez, 5,595          Xiamen, China, 4,592
   Lamma Channel and Hainan             Junction Points*                  Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 2,096      Yap, Caroline Islands, 3,757
   Strait), 477                                                           Johnston Island, 717                 Yantai, China (via Osumi Kaikyo),
Hakodate, Japan, 1,810                Panama, Panama (via Central         Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,185            4,483
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (west of           Route), 7,469                     Kobe, Japan, 3,669                   Yokohama, Japan (via rhumb
   Paracel Islands), 917              Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,502          Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,231           line), 3,520
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,857       Torres Strait, Australia, 1,179     Koniya, Ryukyu Islands, 3,948        Yokohama, Japan, 3,395
Hua-lien Kang, Taiwan, 518            Wilson Promontory, Australia,       Levuka, Fiji Islands, 2,730
Incheon, South Korea, 1,202             2,072                             Lo-hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 4,487     HONSHU, JAPAN*
Jakarta, Indonesia, 1,782                                                 Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,      (3500'00"N., 14030'00"E.) to:
Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 3,370         Ports                                2,228
Kobe, Japan, 1,372                                                        Malakal, Palau Islands, 3,997          Junction Points*
Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,616         Botany Bay, Australia, 1,605        Manila, Philippines (north of
Levuka, Fiji Islands, 4,574           Burnie Harbor, Australia, 2,106        Luzon), 4,869                     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 3,059
Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 459        Hobart, Tasmania, 2,218             Manila, Philippines (via San         Panama, Panama, 7,614
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,      Melbourne, Australia, 2,166            Bernardino Strait), 4,767         Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,286
   6,380                              Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 582       Midway Island, 1,149                 Singapore, 2,879
Manila, Philippines, 631              Yokohama, Japan, 2,935              Mogpo, South Korea (via              Sundra Strait, Indonesia, 3,171
Midway Island, 3,728                  Zamboanga, Philippines, 2,483          Changjuk Sudo and Mango           Torres Strait, Australia, 3,265
Mogpo, South Korea, 1,049                                                    Strait), 4,146                    Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 484
Nagasaki, Japan, 1,069                HONOLULU, HAWAII, U.S.A.            Nagasaki, Japan, 3,986               Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 2,838
Nampo, North Korea, 1,263              (2118'30"N., 15752'15"W.) to:    Naknek, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,404        Wilson Promontory, Australia,
Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam, 678                                               Nampo, North Korea, 4,417              4,881
Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia,           Junction Points*                  Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,674
   2,394                                                                  Noumea, New Caledonia, 3,371           Ports
Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,145           Panama, Panama, 4,685               Nukualafa, Tonga Islands, 2,749
Noumea, New Caledonia, 4,107          Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,370          Ocean Island, 2,480                  Davao, Philippines, 1,986
Olongapo, Philippines, 580            Singapore (via Sulu Sea), 5,881     Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,311
Pago Pago, American Samoa,            Torres Strait, Australia (via          2,276                             Kobe, Japan, 417
   4,948                                Bougainville Strait and China     Papeete, French Polynesia, 2,381     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
Papeete, French Polynesia, 6,132        Strait), 4,191                    Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,             4,454
Peng-hu Kang Taiwan, 314              Wilson Promontory, Australia,          Russia, 2,762                     Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,155
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,              4,792                             Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,685
   Russia, 2,863                                                          Port Hueneme, California, U.S.A.,    HORNEFORS, SWEDEN
Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,710         Ports                                2,170                              (6336'37"N., 1955'29"E.) to:
Port Darwin, Australia, 2,363                                             Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 2,332
Prince Rupert, Canada (north of       Acapulco, Mexico, 3,289             Prince Rupert, Canada, 2,393           Junction Points*
   Aleutian Islands), 5,286           Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,         Qingdao, China, 4,456
Prince Rupert, Canada (south of         Russia, 3,589                     Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 3,357      Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                      Apia, Samoa, 2,260



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
44        HORSENS, DENMARK



 Entrance), Germany, 767             Santander, Spain, 1,090              HUELVA, SPAIN                         Junction Points*
Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The       Sekondi, Ghana, 2,838                 (3715'00"N., 657'30"W.) to:
  Sound), 828                        Setubal, Portugal, 939                                                   Bishop Rock, England (via Dover
                                     Viana do Castello, Portugal, 935       Junction Points*                     Strait), 890
  Ports                              Vigo, Spain, 938                                                         Ile d'Ouessant, France (via Dover
                                     Vila Real de Santo Antonio,          Strait of Gibraltar, 102               Strait), 876
Burea, Sweden, 122                     Portugal, 1,046                                                        Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Helsinki, Finland, 383               Villagarcia, Spain, 946                Ports                               Entrance), Germany, 476
Reposaari, Finland, 143              Willemstad, Curacao, 2,683                                               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 129
Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 534                                              Bilbao, Spain, 804                  Skagens Odde, Denmark, 282
Stockholm, Sweden, 315                                                    Dakar, Senegal, 1,521
                                     HORTEN, NORWAY
                                      (5925'00"N., 1029'50"E.)          Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,999         Ports
                                     Subtract 30 1/2 miles from Oslo      Funchal, Madeira Island, 578
HORSENS, DENMARK
 (5551'22"N., 952'30"E.) to:       distances.                           Lisboa, Portugal, 235               Aberdeen, Scotland, 540
                                                                          Ponta Delgada, Azores, 914          Amsterdam, Netherlands, 757
  Junction Points*                                                        Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   Antwerp, Belgium, 882
                                     HOSOSIMA KO, JAPAN                     1,561
                                       (3226'38"N., 13141'48"E.)                                            Brevik, Norway, 575
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                   Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary      Dunkerque, France, 858
                                     Subtract 62 miles from Oita
 Entrance), Germany, 131                                                    Islands, 715                      Hamburg, Germany, 729
                                     distances when traveling
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 170                                                Vigo, Spain, 453                    Hull, England, 700
                                     southbound and subtract 34 miles
                                     from Oita distances when traveling                                       Narvik, Norway, 375
  Ports                              eastbound.                           HUENEME, CALIFORNIA,                Reykjavik, Iceland, 924
                                                                          U.S.A.                              Zeebrugge, Belgium, 824
Klaipeda, Lithuania, 459                                                   (3409'00"N., 11912'24"W.) See
                                     HOUSTON, TEXAS, U.S.A.               Port Hueneme.
Stockholm, Sweden, 567                (2945'00"N., 9517'20"W.) Add                                          HVALFJORDHUR, ICELAND
Swinoujscie, Poland, 268             47 miles to Galveston distances.                                          (6418'30"N., 2205'00"W.) to:
                                                                          HULL, ENGLAND
HORTA, FAYAL, AZORES                                                       (5344'30"N., 018'00"W.) to:        Junction Points*
                                     HOWLAND ISLAND
 (3832'00"N., 2837'00"W.) to:       (048'00"N., 17638'00"W.) to:        Junction Points*                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 660
  Junction Points*                     Ports                                                                  Strait of Gibraltar, 1,944
                                                                          Bishop Rock, England, 531
Bishop Rock, England, 1,158                                               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 523           Ports
                                     Baker Island, 37                     Skagens Odde, Denmark, 462
Cape of Good Hope, South             Canton, Phoenix Islands, 367
   Africa, 5,152                     Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 1,650                                          Bergen, Norway, 887
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,329                                                Ports                             Murmansk, Russia, 1,531
                                     Pago Pago, American Samoa, 989
Montreal, Canada (via Cabot          Wake Island, 1,485                                                       St. John's, Canada, 1,437
   Strait), 2,145                                                         Amsterdam, Netherlands, 212
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,575                                           Antwerp, Belgium, 265
                                     HSIA-MEN, CHINA                                                          HYERES, FRANCE
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,102                                                Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 1,926          (4305'00"N., 612'00"E.) to:
                                      (2427'00"N., 11804'00"E.) See     Bergen, Norway, 471
Straits of Florida, 2,913
                                     Xiamen, China.                       Boulogne, France, 225                 Junction Points*
  Ports                                                                   Bremerhaven, Germany, 332
                                     HUA-LIEN KANG, TAIWAN                Dikson, Russia, 2,552               Port Said, Egypt, 1,474
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          (2358'30"N., 12137'00"E.) to:     Dundee, Scotland, 240               Strait of Gibraltar, 725
   2,409                                                                  Dunkerque, France, 223
                                       Ports                              Egersund, Norway, 378
Bayonne, France, 1,277                                                                                          Ports
Bordeaux, France, 1,348                                                   Emden, Germany, 279
                                     Busan, South Korea, 782              Esbjerg, Denmark, 334
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4,997                                                                                Annaba, Algeria, 384
                                     Hong Kong, China, 518                Falmouth, England, 464
Cadiz, Spain, 1,070                                                                                           Barcelona, Spain, 218
                                     Manila, Philippines, 648             Hamburg, Germany, 384
Christiansted, St. Croix, 2,259                                                                               Genova, Italy, 147
                                     Mingdao, China, 792                  Kristiansand, Norway, 407
Colon, Panama, 3,260
                                     Shanghai, China, 533                 Le Havre, France, 326
Corunna, Spain, 967                                                                                           IGARKA, RUSSIA
Dakar, Senegal, 1,559                                                     Leith, Scotland, 237                 (6728'00"N., 8635'00"E.) Add
El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 970   HUANG-PU, CHINA                      London, England, 239                434 miles to Dikson distances.
Funchal, Madeira Island, 677          (2305'42"N., 11326'30"E.) See     Newcastle, England, 143
Georgetown, Guyana, 2,488            Huangpu.                             Oostende, Belgium, 207
                                                                          Oslo, Norway, 559                   IJMUIDEN, NETHERLANDS
Gijon, Spain, 1,092                                                                                            (5228'00"N., 434'00"E.)
Guantanamo, Cuba (via Mouchoir       HUANG PU, CHINA                      Plymouth, England, 442
                                                                                                              Subtract 14 miles from Amsterdam
   Passage), 2,666                    (2305'42"N., 11326'30"E.)         Portland, England, 368
                                                                                                              distances.
Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via       Subtract 10 miles from Kuang-chou    Portsmouth, England, 318
   Providence channels), 2,854       distances.                           Rosyth, Scotland, 248
                                                                          Rotterdam, Netherlands, 211         ILE D'OUESSANT, FRANCE *
Kingston, Jamaica, 2,818                                                                                       (4840'00"N., 530'00"W.) to:
Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 914      HUDIKSVALL, SWEDEN                   Southampton, England, 336
Lisboa, Portugal, 917                 (6144'00"N., 1707'00"E.) to:      Stavanger, Norway, 408
                                                                                                                Junction Points*
Marin, Spain, 944                                                         Trondheim, Norway, 752
Milford Haven, Wales, 1,266            Junction Points*                   Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 323
                                                                                                              Bishop Rock, England, 80
New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                               Zeebrugge, Belgium, 205
                                                                                                              Cape of Good Hope, South
   2,098                             Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                                                                                                 Africa, 5,746
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 153            Entrance), Germany, 668             HUNGNAM, NORTH KOREA                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 225
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,461       Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The        (3949'00"N., 12737'00"E.) to:    Grand Banks South, 1,877
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 2,265        Sound), 730
                                                                                                              Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 3,391                                               Ports
                                                                                                                 Belle Isle), 2,901
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,      Ports
                                                                                                              Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
   1,316                                                                  Busan, South Korea, 328
                                                                                                               Entrance), Germany, 716
Puerto de Pasajes, Spain, 1,260      Helsinki, Finland, 315               Hakodate, Japan, 623
                                                                                                              Panama, Panama (via Mona
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,897        Odense, Denmark, 701                 Korsakov, Sakhalin, Russia, 794
                                                                                                                 Passage), 4,374
Rota, Spain, 1,096                   Porvoo, Finland, 342                 Shimonoseki, Japan, 397
                                                                                                              Pentland Firth, Scotland, 872
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2,294         Rostock, Germany, 588                Vladivostok, Russia, 298
                                                                                                              Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,986
San Sebastian, Spain, 957            Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 458
                                                                                                              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 833
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Tallinn, Estonia, 293                HUSNES, NORWAY                      Strait of Gibraltar, 918
   Islands, 881                      Varberg, Sweden (via The Sound),      (5952'00"N., 546'00"E.) to:
                                       648



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                INCHEON, SOUTH KOREA                         45



  Ports                              Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,815        San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Ports
                                     Rota, Spain, 885                       6,174
Aberdeen, Scotland, 715              Rotterdam, Netherlands, 444          Vladivostok, Russia, 2,161           Churchill, Canada, 1,532
Agadir, Morocco, 1,136               Safi, Morocco, 1,023                                                      Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,418
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 465          Salvador, Brazil, 4,134              ILO, PERU                            St. John's, Canada, 1,341
Anecho, Togo, 3,704                  San Sebastian, Spain, 353             (1738'09"S., 7120'58"W.) to:
Antwerp, Belgium, 441                Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary                                            IMABARI, JAPAN
Aviles, Spain, 307                      Islands, 1,320                      Junction Points*                    (3404'15"N., 13300'30"E.) to:
Bata, Equatorial Guinea, 4,l73       Santander, Spain, 323
Bayonne, France, 345                 Santos, Brazil, 5,002                Panama, Panama, 1,851                  Ports
Belem, Brazil, 3,748                 Sekondi, Ghana, 3,424                Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,341
Bergen, Norway, 894                  Setubal, Portugal, 672               Torres Strait, Australia, 8,347      Kobe, Japan, 120
Bilbao, Spain, 346                   Shoreham By Sea, England, 245        Wilson Promontory, Australia (via    Kure, Japan, 63
Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 2,401         Sidi Ifni, Morocco, 1,196              30S.), 7,421                      Nagoya, Japan, 341
Bordeaux, France, 321                Southampton, England, 223            Wilson Promontory, Australia (via    Shimonoseki, Japan, 123
Bremerhaven, Germany, 647            St. Helena Island, 4,120               40S.), 7,160                      Yokohama, Japan, 454
Brest, France, 55                    St. Malo, France, 141
Buchanan, Liberia, 2,904             St. Nazaire, France, 184               Ports                              IMMINGHAM, ENGLAND
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,916       Stavanger, Norway, 823                                                     (5338'00"N., 011'00"W.)
Cadiz, Spain, 894                    Tema, Ghana, 3,597                   Antofagasta, Chile, 367              Subtract 8 miles from Hull
Caen, France, 240                    Viana do Castello, Portugal, 467     Arica, Chile, 85                     distances.
Calabar, Nigeria, 4,054              Victoria, Cameroon, 4,126            Callao, Peru, 503
Calais, France, 321                  Vigo, Spain, 439                     Corinto, Nicaragua, 2,102            INCHEON, SOUTH KOREA
Cape Town, South Africa, 5,743       Vila Real de Santo Antonio,          Pisco, Peru, 382                      (3728'00"N., 12637'00"E.) to:
Casablanca, Morocco, 960                Portugal, 836                     San Nicolas, Peru, 276
Corunna, Spain, 331                  Villagarcia, Spain, 433              Supe Bay, Peru, 623                    Junction Points*
Cotonou, Benin, 3,747                Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 639          Talcahhuano, Chile, 1,147
Dakar, Senegal, 2,152                Willemstad, Curacao, 3,821           Valparaiso, Chile, 929               Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,885
Dartmouth, England, 135              Zeebrugge, Belgium, 380                                                   Panama, Panama, 8,474
Dieppe, France, 270                                                       ILOILO, PANAY,                       Singapore, 2,560
Dover, England, 306                  ILLICHIVS'K, UKRAINE                 PHILIPPINES                          Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,913
Dundee, Scotland, 698                (BLACK SEA)                           (1042'00"N., 12234'40"E.) to:     Selat Wetar, Indonesia (via
Dunkerque, France, 351                (4618'00"N., 3045'46"E.) to:                                             Molucca Passage and Selat
Egersund, Norway, 783                                                       Junction Points*                     Manipa), 2,767
El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 343     Junction Points*
El Jadida, Morocco, 998                                                   Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,247         Ports
Emden, Germany, 590                  Port Said, Egypt, 1,168              Panama, Panama, 9,235
Esbjerg, Denmark, 676                Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth     Singapore (via Lumbucan              Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
Falmouth, England, 100                Canal), 4,035                        Channel), 1,268                        Russia (via Maenggoi Sudo),
Fecamp, France, 246                  Strait of Gibraltar (south of                                                1,507
Fedala, Morocco, 944                  Greece), 4,095                        Ports                              Apra, Guam (via Kaikyo Strait),
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,630                                                                                     1,835
Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,098         Ports                              Apra, Guam, 1,366                    Bangkok, Thailand, 2,591
Gijon, France, 294                                                        Batangas, Philippines, 270           Bohang, South Korea, 51
Granville, France, 158               Alexandria, Egypt, 1,106             Cebu, Philippines, 176               Busan, South Korea, 402
Greenville, Liberia, 2,981           Beirut, Lebanon, 1,216               Dagu, China, 1,929                   Cebu, Philippine (via San
Hamburg, Germany, 703                Constanta, Romania, 158              Hakodate, Japan (via Sea of             Bernardino Strait), 1,656
Hartlepool, England, 579             Haifa, Israel, 1,219                   Japan), 2,199                      Dagu, China, 465
Hull, England, 523                   Iraklion, Kriti, 817                 Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,051          Dalian, China, 290
Kenitra, Morocco, 954                Istanbul, Turkey, 360                Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,632      Hakodate, Japan, 1,080
Kristiansand, Norway, 794            Napoli, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Incheon, South Korea, 1,678          Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2,057
La Pallice, France, 245                 1,298                             Jakarta, Indonesia (via Lumbucan     Hong Kong, China, 1,202
Lagos, Nigeria, 3,746                Napoli, Italy (south of Greece),       Channel and Selat Gaspar),         Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via
Larache, Morocco, 926                   1,361                               1,476                                 Maenggol Sudo and Bungo
Le Havre, France, 243                Valencia, Spain (via Corinth         Kobe, Japan, 1,623                      Suido), 4,323
Leith, Scotland, 696                    Canal), 1,893                     Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 501            Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via
Lisboa, Portugal, 666                Valencia, Spain (south of Greece),   Kuching, Sarawak, 948                   Osumi Kaikyo), 4,387
Lobito, Angola, 4,670                   1,953                             Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China (via       Iloilo, Philippines, 1,678
London, England, 398                                                        Balintang Channel), 1,073          Jakarta, Indonesia, 2,894
Longji, Cameroon, 4,179              ILIGAN, PHILIPPINES                  Manila, Philippines (via Verde       Kobe, Japan, 733
Lorient, France, 107                  (813'50"N., 12413'50"E.) to:        Island Passage), 361               Lianyungang, China, 389
Marin, Ponte Vedra Bay, Spain,                                            Nagasaki, Japan, 1,428               Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 818
   437                                 Junction Points*                   Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Manila, Philippines, 1,498,
Mayumba, Gabon, 4,437                                                       Russia, 3,123                      Masan, South Korea, 403
Mocamedes, Angola, 4,697             Honshu, Japan, 1,843                 San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Misumi, Japan, 478
Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,802           Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,265         6,168                              Mogpo, South Korea (via south of
Narvik, Norway, 1,498                Panama, Panama, 9,449                Shanghai, China, 1,343                  Kasa Do), 236
Natal, Brazil, 3,619                 Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,053           Shimonoseki, Japan, 1,569            Mogpo, South Korea (via Myondo
Newcastle, England, 604              Singapore, 1,343                     Vladivostok, Russia, 2,048              Suido), 189
Oostende, Belgium, 365               Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,587        Weihai, China, 1,701                 Moji, Japan, 485
Oporto, Portugal, 494                Torres Strait, Australia, 1,953      Xiamen, China, 987                   Nagasaki, Japan, 453
Oslo, Norway, 944                    Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 2,312         Yantai, China, 1,735                 Nampo, North Korea, 216
Paramaribo, Suriname, 3,613          Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 1,351        Yokohama, Japan, 1,784               Osaka, Japan, 721
Plymouth, England, 117                                                    Zamboanga, Philippines, 241          Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,101           Ports                                                                      Russia (via La Perouse Strait
Port Etienne, Mauritania, 1,826                                           ILULISSAT (JAKOBSHAVN),                 and Maenggol Sudo), 2,120
Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 3,974        Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,          GREENLAND                            Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,      Russia, 2,763                       (6913'30"N., 5105'30"W.) to:         Russia (via Osumi Kaikyo),
   2,137                             Busan, Korea, 1,644                                                          2,449
Portsmouth, England, 227             Manila, Philippines, 555               Junction Points*                   Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
Puerto de Passajes, Spain, 340       Nagasaki, Japan, 1,530                                                       Russia (via Tsugaru-Kaikyo),
Rabat, Morocco, 954                  Puerto Princesa, Philippines, 365    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,972         2,136
Recife, Brazil, 3,743                                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 2,819



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
46        INISHTRAHULL, IRELAND



Port Darwin, Australia (via              off Kap Farvel), 1,450            Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,201             Junction Points*
  Molucca Passage), 3,072             Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,
Qingdao, China, 333                      3,499                               Ports                              Straits of Florida, 195
Qinhuangdao China, 406                Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,777                                          Yucatan Channel, 329
Sanmen Wen, China, 628                Kingston, Jamaica, 3,853             Acapulco, Mexico, 2,834
Shanghai, China (via Nan Shui-        La Habana, Cuba, 3,843               Amapala, Honduras, 2,303               Ports
  Tao), 503                           Limerick, Ireland, 279               Antofagasta, Chile, 224
Shimonoseki, Japan, 489               Lisboa, Portugal, 1,093              Arica, Chile, 110                    Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A., 507
Su-ao Kang, Taiwan, 823               Liverpool, England, 210              Caldera, Chile, 420                  La Habana, Cuba, 151
Tso-Ying, Taiwan, 975                 Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 3,777        Callao, Peru, 659                    Nuevitas, Cuba, 212
Ulsan, South Korea, 435               Milford Haven, Wales, 286            Coquimbo, Chile, 602
Vladivostok, Russia (via Malmul       New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.,      Corinto, Nicaragua, 2,247            ISABEL SEGUNDA, ISLA DE
  Sudo), 911                             2,867                             Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 1,550           VIEQUES, PUERTO RICO
Weihai, China, 238                    New London, Connecticut,             Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1,317             (1810'00"N., 6528'00"W.) to:
Wenzhou, China, 723                      U.S.A., 2,815                     Guaymas, Mexico, 3,750
Weonsan, North Korea (via             New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Lota, Chile, 1,033                     Junction Points*
  Maenggol Sudo), 707                    2,896                             Monterey, California, U.S.A.,
Xiamen, China, 943                    Newport, Wales, 371                     4,540                             Panama, Panama, 1,060
Yantai, China, 273                    Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,069     Pisco, Peru, 560                     Straits of Florida, 1,064
Yokohama, Japan (via Maemul           Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 2,062
  Sudo and Bungo Suido), 1,016           U.S.A., 3,049                     Salina Cruz, Mexico, 2,645             Ports
Yokohama, Japan (via Naikai),         Port of Spain, Trinidad, 3,706       San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
  1,070                               Port Au Prince, Haiti, 3,724            4,218                             New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                      Port Castries, St. Lucia, 3,499      San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     1,430
INISHTRAHULL, IRELAND*                Port Talbot, Wales, 331                 4,620                             Port of Spain, Trinidad, 531
 (5525'00"N., 730'00"W.) to:        Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.,    San Jose, Guatemala, 2,404           Willemstad, Curacao, 446
                                         2,804                             Talcahuano, Chile, 1,008
  Junction Points*                    Qeqertarsuaq (Godhavn),              Valparaiso, Chile, 782               ISKENDERUN, TURKEY
                                         Greenland (via 75 miles off Kap   Yokohama, Japan, 9,026                (3636'00"N., 3611'00"E.) to:
Bishop Rock, England, 395                Farvel), 1,953
Cape of Good Hope, South              Qeqertarsuaq (Godhavn),              IRAKLION, KRITI                        Junction Points*
   Africa, 6,141                         Greenland, 1,901                   (3520'41"N., 2508'24"E.) to:
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 335            Recife, Brazil, 4,071                                                     Port Said, Egypt, 381
Grand Banks South, 1,809              Reykjavik, Iceland, 729                Junction Points*                   Strait of Gibraltar, 2,054
Montreal, Canada (via Strait of       Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5,143
   Belle Isle), 2,545                 San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,436         Port Said, Egypt, 455                  Ports
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 272         Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Strait of Gibraltar, 1,516
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,315               Islands, 1,704                                                         Beirut, Lebanon, 180
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,350            Santo Domingo, Dominican               Ports                              Constanta, Romania, 1,044
                                         Republic, 3,621                                                        Istanbul, Turkey, 847
  Ports                               St. John's, Canada, 1,720            Al Latakia, Syria, 527               Izmir, Turkey, 652
                                      Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 3,204      Alexandria, Egypt, 372               Nice, France, 1,553
Adrossan, Scotland, 95                Waterford, Ireland, 276              Algiers, Algeria, 1,087              Patrai, Greece (south of Greece),
Argentia, Canada, 1,874               Wilmington, North Carolina, 3,275    Kalamai, Greece, 197                    846
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 1,900                                                Khalkis, Greece, 210                 Patrai, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          INVERGORDON, SCOTLAND                Kyrenia, Cyprus, 406                    748
   3,190                               (5741'00"N., 410'00"W.)           La Spezia, Italy, 956                Piraievs, Greece, 656
Barrow in Furness, England, 186       Subtract 6 miles from Inverness      Limassol, Cyprus, 405                Pula, Croatia (south of Greece),
Belem, Brazil, 3,972                  distances.                           Livorno, Italy, 920                     1,341
Belfast, Northern Ireland, 97                                              Malaga, Spain, 1,446                 Pula, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        INVERNESS, SCOTLAND                  Marseille, France, 1,083                1,301
   2,723                               (5729'00"N., 414'00"W.) to:       Matruh, Egypt, 308                   Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 1,483
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6,243                                             Messina, Sicily, 510                 Sete, France, 1,675
Cairn Ryan, Scotland, 91                Junction Points*                   Napoli, Italy, 681                   Sfax, Tunisia, 1,282
Charleston, South Carolina,                                                Navplion, Greece, 237                Tarabulus, Libya, 1,167
   U.S.A., 3,331                      Skagens Odde, Denmark, 481           Odessa, Ukraine, 793                 Thessaloniki, Greece, 784
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,                                          Oran, Algeria, 1,284                 Tubruq, Libya, 667
   3,427                                Ports                              Palermo, Sicily, 626
Churchill, Canada (via 75 miles off                                        Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,130       ISLA DE PASCUA, SOUTH
   Kap Farvel), 2,760                 Amsterdam, Netherlands, 482          Piraievs, Greece, 175                PACIFIC
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 4,055               Antwerp, Belgium, 554                Rhodes, Greece, 171                   (2708'30"S., 10926'30"W.) See
Colon, Panama (via Mona               Bremerhaven, Germany, 514            Rijeka, Croatia, 831                 Easter Island.
   Passage), 4,393                    Dunkerque, France, 526               Salamis, Greece, 190
Colon, Panama (via Windward           Emden, Germany, 487                  Savona, Italy, 1,002                 ISLAS JUAN FERNANDEZ,
   Passage), 4,362                    Esbjerg, Denmark, 455                Sibenik, Croatia, 704                SOUTH PACIFIC
Dakar, Senegal, 2,546                 Hamburg, Germany, 562                Siracusa, Sicily, 495                 (3338'00"S., 7849'40"W.) to:
Douglas, Isle of Man, 156             Oostende, Belgium, 510               Split, Croatia, 689
Dublin, Ireland, 184                  Rotterdam, Netherlands, 496          Tarabulus, Libya, 630                  Ports
Fleetwood, England, 189               Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 508          Taranto, Italy, 509
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,024         Zeebrugge, Belgium, 506              Thessaloniki, Greece, 351            Easter Island, 1,633
Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,466                                             Toulon, France, 1,051                Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 5,595
Galway, Ireland, 231                                                       Trieste, Italy, 865                  Puerto Montt, Chile, 616
                                      IPSWICH, ENGLAND
Georgetown, Guyana, 3,779              (5203'00"N., 110'00"E.) Add 8     Tunis, Tunisia, 745                  Valparaiso, Chile, 364
Glasgow, Scotland, 146                miles to Harwich distances.          Valencia, Spain, 1,252
Goose Bay, Canada, 1,812                                                   Valletta, Malta, 528                 ISTANBUL, TURKEY
Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,690                                                    Venezia, Italy, 872                   (4101'15"N., 2859'09"E.) to:
                                      IQUIQUE, CHILE
Halifax, Canada, 2,406                 (2012'00"S., 7010'00"W.) to:      Volos, Greece, 292
Hamilton, Bermuda, 2,747                                                   Yumurtalik, Turkey, 540                Junction Points*
Holyhead, Wales, 181                    Junction Points*
Horta, Azores, 1,329                                                       ISABEL DE SAGUA, CUBA                Port Said, Egypt, 804
Ivittuut, Greenland (direct), 1,392   Panama, Panama, 1,987                 (2257'00"N., 8000'24"W.) to:      Strait of Gibraltar, 1,821
Ivittuut, Greenland (via 75 miles




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                          JAKARTA, INDONESIA                         47



  Ports                                Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Alicante, Spain, 1,405                  Junction Points*
                                         1,063                               Ancona, Italy, 904
Alexandria, Egypt, 742                 Tunis, Tunisia, 1,050                 Annaba, Algeria, 1,014                Bishop Rock, England, 3,527
Alexandroupolis, Greece, 200           Valencia, Spain, 1,558                Ashdod, Israel, 668                   Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Algiers, Algeria (south of Greece),    Valletta, Malta, 837                  Banghazi, Libya, 561                     6,862
   1,393                               Venezia, Italy (south of Greece),     Banzart, Tunisia, 909                 Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,413
Algiers, Algeria (via Corinth            1,169                               Barcelona, Spain, 1,332               Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,511
   Canal), 1,376                       Venezia, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Bari, Italy, 697                      Montreal, Canada, 2,119
Alicante, Spain, 1,560                   1,073                               Bat'umi, Georgia, 880                 Panama, Panama, 1,559
Almeria, Spain, 1,659                  Volos, Greece, 329                    Beirut, Lebanon, 651                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,691
Ancona, Italy (south of Greece),                                             Brindisi, Italy, 639                  Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,917
   1,058                               ITOZAKICHO, JAPAN                     Cartagena, Spain, 1,430               Strait of Gibraltar, 3,740
Ancona, Italy (via Corinth Canal),      (3423'00"N., 13306'00"E.) to:      Ceuta, Morocco, 1,648                 Straits of Florida, 523
   96                                                                        Ermoupolis, Greece, 158
Annaba, Algeria, 1,168                   Ports                               Genova, Italy, 1,137                    Ports
Banghazi, Libya, 716                                                         Gibraltar, 1,650
Banzart, Tunisia, 1,063                Kobe, Japan, 113                      Haifa, Israel, 654                    Belem, Brazil, 2,773
Barcelona, Spain, 1,486                Kure, Japan, 73                       Iraklion, Kriti, 262                  Belize, Belize, 1,047
Bari, Italy (south of Greece), 851     Sasebo, Japan, 271                    Ikenderun, Turkey, 652                Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,617
Bari, Italy (via Corinth Canal), 755   Shimonoseki, Japan, 133               Istanbul, Turkey, 292                 Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,841
Bat'umi, Georgia, 591                  Shiogama, Japan, 662                  Kavala, Greece, 209                   Caibarien, Cuba, 526
Beirut, Lebanon, 896                   Yokohama, Japan, 446                  Khalkis, Greece, 210                  Cape Town, South Africa, 6,854
Brindisi, Italy (south of Greece),                                           Kyrenia, Cyprus, 524                  Cartagena, Colombia, 1,395
   793                                 IVITTUUT, GREENLAND                   La Spezia, Italy, 1,101               Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
Brindisi, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    (6112'30"N., 4810'00"W.) to:       Larnaca, Cyprus, 570                     1,181
   697                                                                       Limassol, Cyprus, 530                 Colon, Panama (via Crooked
Cagliari, Sardinia, 1,133                Junction Points*                    Livorno, Italy, 1,066                    Island Passage), 1,516
Cartagena, Spain, 1,573                                                      Malaga, Spain, 1,597                  Colon, Panama (via Yucatan
Catania, Sicily, 810                   Bishop Rock, England, 1,608           Marseille, France, 1,229                 Channel), 1,535
Ceuta, Morocco, 1,802                  Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,392          Mersin, Turkey, 594                   Dakar, Senegal, 3,650
Civitavecchia, Italy (south of         Montreal, Canada, 1,472               Messina, Sicily, 655                  Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 559
   Greece), 1,107                      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,440       Mitilini, Greece, 60                  Georgetown, Guyana, 1,980
Civitavecchia, Italy (via Corinth      Strait of Gibraltar, 2,283            Napoli, Italy, 827                    Guantanamo, Cuba (via Crooked
   Canal), 1,066                       Straits of Florida, 2,925             Navplion, Greece, 258                    Island Passage), 851
Constanta, Romania, 201                                                      Odessa, Ukraine, 640                  Halifax, Canada, 1,255
Genova, Italy, 1,291                     Ports                               Oran, Algeria, 1,436                  Isabel De Sagua, Cuba, 507
Gibraltar, 1,804                                                             Palermo, Sicily, 772                  Kingston, Jamaica (via Crooked
Haifa, Israel, 849                     Argentia, Canada, 1,023               Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,290           Island Passage), 1,016
Iraklion, Kriti, 445                   Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 2,573           Piraievs, Greece, 210                 La Habana, Cuba, 528
Iskenderun, Turkey, 847                Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Rethimnon, Kriti, 277                 Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 3,467
Izmir, Turkey, 292                        1,731                              Rhodes, Greece, 256                   Limon, Costa Rica, 1,589
La Spezia, Italy, 1,256                Colon, Panama, 3,536                  Rijeka, Croatia (south of Greece),    Lisboa, Portugal, 3,548
Larnaca, Cyprus, 766                   Guantanamo, Cuba, 2,873                  974                                Miller Anchorage, Bahamas, 507
Livorno, Italy, 1,220                  Halifax, Canada, 1,380                Rijeka, Croatia (via Corinth          Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,727
Malaga, Spain, 1,752                   Murmansk, Russia, 2,201                  Canal), 875                        Nassau, Bahamas, 456
Marseille, France, 1,383               New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Salamis, Greece, 225                  Ponce, Puerto Rico, 1,146
Mersin, Turkey, 789                       1,933                              Savona, Italy, 1,147                  Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,685
Messina, Sicily, 810                   Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,116      Sibenik, Croatia (south of            Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,520
Napoli, Italy, 981                     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,              Greece), 846                       Recife, Brazil, 3,668
Nice, France, 1,321                       U.S.A., 2,086                      Sibenik, Croatia (via Corinth         Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,740
Novorossiysk, Russia, 460              Portsmouth, New Hampshire,               Canal), 747                        San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,121
Odessa, Ukraine, 352                      U.S.A., 1,709                      Siracusa, Sicily, 644                 Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via
Oran, Algeria, 1,590                   Qeqertarsuaq Godhavn,                 Soudha, Kriti, 281                       Crooked Island Passage), 904
Palermo, Sicily, 926                      Greenland, 560                     Split, Croatia (south of Greece),     Santo Domingo, Dominican
Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,446         Reykjavik, Iceland, 887                  831                                   Republic, 1,166
Piraievs, Greece, 364                  San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2,720          Split, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),   Tampico, Mexico, 1,361
Pula, Croatia, 1,124                   St. John's, Canada, 849                  732
Rhodes, Greece, 445                                                          Tarabulus, Libya, 799                 JAKARTA, INDONESIA
Rijeka, Croatia (south of Greece),     IWAKUNI, JAPAN                        Taranto, Italy (south of Greece),      (606'00"S., 10653'00"E.) to:
   1,128                                (34l0'00"N., 13217'00"E.) to:         652
Rijeka, Croatia (via Corinth                                                 Taranto, Italy (via Corinth Canal),     Junction Points*
   Canal), 1,029                         Ports                                  56
Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 640                                                  Thessaloniki, Greece, 259             Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 615
Savona, Italy, 1,301                   Apra, Guam, 1,437                     Toulon, France, 1,197                 Port Said, Egypt, 5,293
Sete, France, 1,442                    Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2,108           Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),     Singapore, 525
Sibenik, Croatia (south of             Kobe, Japan, 166                         1,007                              Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 77
   Greece), 1,001                      Shimonoseki, Japan, 93                Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Torres Strait, Australia, 2,152
Sibenik, Croatia (via Corinth          Yokohama, Japan, 497                     908                                Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 1,247
   Canal), 902                                                               Tunis, Tunisia, 896
Siracusa, Sicily, 798                  IZMIR, TURKEY                         Valencia, Spain, 1,403                  Ports
Split, Croatia (south of Greece),       (3825'39"N., 2107'58"E.) to:       Valletta, Malta, 683
   986                                                                       Venezia, Italy (south of Greece),     Aleksandrovsk Sakhalinskiy,
Split, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),      Junction Points*                       1,015                                Russia, 3,942
   887                                                                       Venezia, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Apra, Guam (via Makassar Strait),
Tarabulus, Libya, 953                  Port Said, Egypt, 608                    919                                  2,639
Taranto, Italy (south of Greece),      Strait of Gibraltar (south of         Volos, Greece, 226                    Belawan, Indonesia, 864
   806                                  Greece), 1,667                       Yumurtalik, Turkey, 639               Busan, South Korea, 2,836
Taranto, Italy (via Corinth Canal),                                                                                Cebu, Philippines (via Lumbucan
   717                                   Ports                               JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA,                  Channel), 1,563
Thessaloniki, Greece, 338                                                    U.S.A.                                Dagu, China, 3,088
Toulon, France, 1,351                  Alexandria, Egypt, 547                 (3019'00"N., 8139'00"W.) to:       Hakodate, Japan, 3,468
Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),      Algiers, Algeria, 1,238                                                     Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,025
   1,162


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
48        JAKOBSHAVN, GREENLAND



Hong Kong, China, 1,782              Melbourne, Australia (via South        Junction Points*                   JULIANEHAAB,
Iloilo, Philippines (via Lumbucan      Channel), 3,181                                                         GREENLAND
   Channel and Selat Gaspar),        Midway Island, 1,535                 Port Said, Egypt, 722                 (6043'00"N., 4602'30"W.) See
   1,476                             Nagasaki, Japan (via Osumi                                                Qaqortoq, Greenland.
Incheon, South Korea, 2,865            Kaikyo), 2,808                       Ports
Kobe, Japan (via Balintang           Pago Pago, American Samoa,                                                JUNEAU, ALASKA, U.S.A.
   Channel), 2,987                     1,700                              Aden, Yemen, 707                      (5817'45"N., 13425'00"W.) to:
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 999            Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.A.,        Al Aqabah, Jordan, 573
Kuching, Sarawak, 627                  2,101                              Massawa, Ethiopia, 364                 Ports
Malacca, Malaysia, 613               Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Port Sudan, Sudan, 161
Manila, Philippines (via Palawan       Russia, 2,883                                                           Prince Rupert, Canada, 322
   Passage), 1,559                   Ponape, Caroline Islands, 698                                             Vancouver, Canada, 761
                                                                          JINHAE, SOUTH KOREA
Mogpo, North Korea, 2,741            Saipan, Mariana Islands, 1,545        (3508'40"N., 12828'35"E.)
Nagasaki, Japan, 2,712               San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Subtract 3 miles from Masan          KAGOSHIMA, JAPAN
Nampo, North Korea, 2,955              4,150                              distances.                            (3135'30"N., 13033'50"E.) to:
Palembang, Indonesia, 358            Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,296
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Shanghai, China (via Southeast                                              Junction Points*
                                                                          JOHNSTON ISLAND, NORTH
   Russia (east of Japan and           Pass), 3,138                       PACIFIC
   Balintang Channel), 4,530         Sydney, Australia (via Southeast      (1645'00"N., 16930'30"W.) to:     Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,             Pass), 2,623                                                              south of Mindanao), 2,761
   Russia (via La Perouse Strait),   Tinian, Mariana Islands, 1,536         Junction Points*                   Panama, Panama, 8,207
   4,555                             Truk, Caroline Islands, 1,078                                             Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,477
Port Darwin, Australia, 1,706        Valparaiso, Chile, 7,034             Panama, Panama, 5,359                Singapore (via Balintang
Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. (via        Wake Island, 831                                                           Channel), 2,464
   Balintang Channel), 7,415         Yokohama, Japan (via Southeast         Ports                              Singapore, 2,401
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,         Pass), 2,442
   7,985                                                                  Apia, Samoa, 1,838                     Ports
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.    JARVIS ISLAND, LINE                  Apra, Guam, 2,665
   (via Balintang Channel), 7,642    ISLANDS                              Christmas Island, Line Island,       Hakodate, Japan, 946
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.     (022'30"S., 16001'45"W.) to:         1,137                             Kamaishi, Japan, 875
   (via Makassar Strait), 7,641                                           Fanning Island, 1,032                Kobe, Japan (via Bungo Suido),
Semarang, Indonesia, 236               Junction Points*                   Funafuti, Tuvalu, 1,654                422
Shanghai, China, 2,522                                                    Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 717        Kobe, Japan (via Tomogashima
Shimonoseki, Japan, 2,838            Panama, Panama, 4,804                Jarvis Island, 1,173                   Suido), 379
Sorido, Indonesia, 1,879                                                  Kahului, Hawaii, U.S.A., 798         Komatsushima, Japan, 344
Sukarnopura, Indonesia, 2,187          Ports                              Midway Island, 821                   Kure, Japan, 296
Tanshui, Taiwan, 2,094                                                    Papeete, French Polynesia, 2,371     Misumi, Japan, 184
Tjirebon, Indonesia, 156             Christmas Island, Line Islands,      San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Nagasaki, Japan, 168
Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 1,103          209                                   2,779                             Niihana, Japan, 318
Vladivostok, Russia, 3,338           Johnston Island, North Pacific,      Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 3,018   Shimonoseki, Japan (via Bungo
Weihai, China, 2,860                   1,173                                                                     Suido), 295
Weonsan, North Korea, 3,142          Pago Pago, American Samoa,                                                Shimonoseki, Japan (west of
                                                                          JOLO, PHILIPPINES
Xiamen, China, 1,971                   1,050                               (603'30"N., 12059'45"E.) to:        Kyushu), 306
Yantai, China, 2,894                                                                                           Tokuyama, Japan, 263
Yokohama, Japan, 3,194               JAZIREH-YE LAVAN, IRAN                 Ports                              Ube, Japan, 280
                                      (2647'05"N., 5320'15"E.) See                                           Yokkaichi, Japan, 476
JAKOBSHAVN,                          Lavan Island.                        Batangas, Philippines, 480           Yokohama, Japan, 594
GREENLAND                                                                 Manila, Philippines (via Apo West
  (6913'30"N., 5105'30"W.) See     JAZIREH-YE SIRRI, IRAN                 Pass), 550                         KAHULUI, MAUI, HAWAII,
Ilulissat, Greenland.                 (2554'25"N., 5433'44"E.) to:      Sandakan, Sabah, 180                 U.S.A.
                                                                          Tacloban, Philippines, 442            (2054'00"N., 15628'31"W.) to:
JAKOBSTAD, FINLAND                     Junction Points*                   Zamboanga, Philippines, 85
 (6343'00"N., 2241'30"E.) to:                                                                                  Junction Points*
                                     Cape of Good Hope, South             JUBAIL, SAUDI ARABIA
  Ports                                Africa, 4,831                                                           Panama, Panama, 4,605
                                                                           (2701'00"N., 4942'00"E.) See
                                     Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,071       Al Jubayl.
Oulu, Finland, 133                   Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,285                                              Ports
Vassa, Finland, 99                   Port Said, Egypt, 2,785              JUCARO, CUBA
                                     Singapore, 3,518                                                          Johnston Island, 798
                                                                           (2135'41"N., 7851'15"W.) to:      Midway Island, 1,266
JALUIT, MARSHALL                     Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,667
ISLANDS                              Torres Strait, Australia, 5,901                                           Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 2,364
                                                                            Junction Points*
 (555'00"N., 16938'30"E.) to:                                                                                Yokohama, Japan, 3,496
                                       Ports                              Cape of Good Hope, South
  Junction Points*                                                           Africa, 6,559                     KAKINADA, INDIA
                                     Belawan, Indonesia, 3,179            Grand Banks South, 2,240              (1700'00"N., 8220'00"E.) to:
Panama, Panama, 6,666                Calcutta, India, 3,154               Panama, Panama, 764
Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,815           Malacca, Malaysia, 3,382                                                    Junction Points*
                                                                          Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,730
                                     Port Darwin, Australia, 5,274        Strait of Gibraltar, 4,096
  Ports                              Rangoon, Burma, 3,214                                                     Cape of Good Hope, South
                                                                          Yucatan Channel, 362
                                     Sabang, Indonesia, 2,913                                                    Africa, 5,023
Auckland, New Zealand (via                                                                                     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,567
                                                                            Ports
  Southeast Pass), 2,595                                                                                       Singapore, 1,593
                                     JERSEY CITY, NEW JERSEY,
Brisbane, Australia (via Main and    U.S.A.                               Belize, British Honduras, 582
  Howe Channels), 2,231               (4043'00"N., 7402'00"W.) For                                             Ports
                                                                          Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Callao, Peru, 6,832                  ocean distances add 1 1/2 miles to     1,788
Funafuti, Tuvalu, 1,041              New York distances.                                                       Belawan, Indonesia, 1,261
                                                                          Cape Town, South Africa, 6,552
Hakodate, Japan, 2,670                                                                                         Calcutta, India, 522
                                                                          Halifax, Canada, 1,991
Hobart, Tasmania (via Southeast                                                                                Fremantle, Australia, 3,515
                                     JIDDAH, SAUDI ARABIA                 Port au Prince, Haiti, 465
  Pass), 3,223                        (2128'00"N., 3909'20"E.) to:                                           Madras, India, 276
                                                                          Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,551
Hong Kong, China (via Southeast                                                                                Malacca, Malaysia, 1,478
                                                                          Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,302
  Pass), 3,370                                                                                                 Penang, Malaysia, 1,273
Honolulu; Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,096                                                                                Sabang, Indonesia, 1,019




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                          KASIM MARINE TERMINAL, INDONESIA                                         49



KALAMAI, GREECE                         Ports                                 Ports                              Galle, Sri Lanka, 1,393
 (3701'02"N., 2206'38"E.) to:                                                                                  Madras, India, 1,908
                                      Kobenhavn, Denmark, 115               Apra, Guam, 3,354                    Malacca, Malaysia, 2,768
  Junction Points*                    Stockholm, Sweden, 531                Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 2,388   Marmagao, India, 690
                                      Swinoujscie, Poland, 175              Yokohama, Japan, 3,406               Massawa, Ethiopia, 1,865
Port Said, Egypt, 644                                                                                            Mombasa, Kenya, 2,361
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,370                                                                                       Okha, India, 194
                                      KAMAISHI, JAPAN                       KANGERLUARSORUSEQ,
                                       (3916'18"N., 14153'36"E.) to:      GREENLAND                            Penang, Malaysia, 2,595
  Ports                                                                      (6341'00"N., 5134'00"W.) to:      Port Darwin, Australia (south of
                                        Junction Points*                                                           Java and Timor Islands), 4,624
Banghazi, Libya, 313                                                          Junction Points*                   Rangoon, Burma, 2,561
Iraklion, Kriti, 197                  Selat Lombok, Indonesia (south of                                          Sabang, Indonesia, 2,284
Messina, Sicily, 355                    Mindanao), 3,331                    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,597      Tamatave, Madagascar, 2,788
Taranto, Italy, 351                   Panama, Panama, 7,422                 Strait of Gibraltar, 2,444           Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 1,667
Tunis, Tunisia, 599                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,316
                                      Singapore (via Balintang                Ports                              KARDELJEVO, CROATIA
KALI LIMENES, KRITI,                   Channel), 3,171                                                            (4303'00"N., 1725'42"E.) See
GREECE                                                                      Churchill, Canada, 1,326             Ploce.
 (3455'45"N., 2449'15"E.) to:         Ports                               Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,043
                                                                            St. John's, Canada, 969
  Junction Points*                                                                                               KARLSHAMN, SWEDEN
                                      Hakodate, Japan, 192                                                        (5607'50"N., 1453'38"E.) to:
                                      Kagoshima, Japan, 875                 KANKESANTURAI, SRI
Port Said, Egypt, 446                 Kobe, Japan, 631                      LANKA                                  Junction Points*
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,504            Nagasaki, Japan, 972                   (949'25"N., 8003'10"E.) to:
                                      Yokohama, Japan, 348                                                       Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
  Ports                                                                       Junction Points*                    Entrance), Germany, 228
                                      KAMSAR, GUINEA                                                             Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The
Alexandria, Egypt, 338                                                      Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
                                       (1039'00"N., 1437'00"W.) to:                                              Sound), 289
Algiers, Algeria, 1,071                                                       4,545
Alicante, Spain, 1,231                  Junction Points*                    Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,353         Ports
Ashdod, Israel, 525                                                         Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,487
Barcelona, Spain, 1,156               Bishop Rock, England, 2,562           Port Said, Egypt, 3,553              Hango, Finland, 378
Beirut, Lebanon, 533                  Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,      Singapore, 1,543                     Horsens, Denmark (via The
Cartagena, Spain, 1,57                   3,294                              Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,852          Sound), 284
Ceuta, Morocco, 1,478                 Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,625          Torres Strait, Australia, 4,096      Kobenhavn, Denmark (via The
Gemlik, Turkey, 528                   Grand Banks South, 2,701                                                     Sound), 146
Istanbul, Turkey, 525                 Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,520           Ports                              Lubeck, Germany, 213
Marseille, France, 1,005              Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,965                                               Odense, Denmark, 282
Moni Anchorage, Cyprus, 435           Panama, Panama, 3,866                 Bombay, India, 992                   Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 591
Napoli, Italy, 671                    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,187       Calcutta, India, 900                 Slagen, Norway (via The Sound),
Tangier, Morocco, 1,505               Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,172            Colombo, Sri Lanka, 196                374
Trieste, Italy, 852                   Strait of Gibraltar, 1,867            Karachi, Pakistan, 1,424             Varberg, Sweden (via The Sound),
                                      Straits of Florida, 3,985             Telukbayur, Indonesia, 1,376           371
KALININGRAD, RUSSIA                   Yucatan Channel, 4,145                Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 131
 (5442'30"N., 2028'00"E.) Add
21 1/2 miles to Baltiysk distances.                                                                              KARLSKRONA, SWEDEN
                                        Ports                               KAO-HSIUNG KANG,                      (56l0'00"N., 1536'00"E.) to:
                                                                            TAIWAN
KALMAR, SWEDEN                        Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 803              (2237'00"N., 12016'00"E.) to:       Junction Points*
 (5639'45"N., 1622'30"E.) to:       Accra, Ghana, 1,077
                                      Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,777          Ports
                                                                                                                 Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
  Junction Points*                    Cape Town, South Africa, 3,273                                              Entrance), Germany, 235
                                      Casablanca, Morocco, 1,732            Chang-Kan, China, 811
                                                                                                                 Skagens Odde, Denmark, 295
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Dakar, Senegal, 368                   Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam, 895
 Entrance), Germany, 289              Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,933      San Fernando, Philippines, 356
                                                                                                                   Ports
Skagens Odde, Denmark (via Store      Lisboa, Portugal, 1,882               Sanya Gang, China, 682
  Baelt), 470                         Monrovia, Liberia, 375                Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 915
                                                                                                                 Kobenhavn, Denmark, 148
Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The        Natal, Brazil, 1,576                                                       Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 563
  Sound), 342                         New York, New York, U.S.A.,           KARACHI, PAKISTAN                    Stockholm, Sweden, 270
                                        3,633                                (2449'00"N., 6658'20"E.) to:
  Ports                               Norfolk, Virginia U.S.A., 3,667
                                                                              Junction Points*                   KASHIMA KO, JAPAN
                                      Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 1,475                                               (3558'45"N., 14042'35"E.) to:
Drammen, Norway (via The              Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,
  Sound), 455                           713                                 Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
                                                                                                                   Junction Points*
Fredrikstad, Norway (via The          Takoradi, Ghana, 955                    4,658
  Sound), 430                                                               Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,512
                                                                                                                 Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via
Halden, Norway (via The Sound),                                             Port Said, Egypt, 2,865
                                      KANDALAKSHA, RUSSIA                                                          south of Mindanao), 3,127
  430                                  (6708'00"N., 3324'00"E.) Add       Singapore, 2,882
                                                                                                                 Panama, Panama, 7,567
Moss, Norway (via The Sound),         101 miles to Arkhangel'sk             Torres Strait, Australia (south of
                                                                                                                 Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,252
  432                                 distances.                              Java and Timor), 5,298
                                                                                                                 Singapore (via Balintang
Oslo, Norway (via Store Baelt),                                                                                   Channel), 2,968
  596                                                                         Ports
Oslo, Norway (via The Sound),         KANDLA, INDIA
                                       (2302'00"N., 7013'30"E.) Add                                              Ports
  464                                                                       Aden, Yemen, 1,472
                                      76 l/2 miles to Okha distances.
                                                                            Al Basrah, Iraq, 1,177
                                                                                                                 Aomori, Japan, 420
KALUNDBORG, DENMARK                                                         Bandar Abbas, Iran, 643
                                      KANEOHE BAY, HAWAII,                                                       Kobe, Japan, 423
 (5540'07"N., 1105'00"E.) to:                                             Belawan, Indonesia, 2,550
                                      U.S.A.                                                                     Nagoya, Japan, 288
                                                                            Bhavnagar, India, 481
                                       (2126'23"N., 15747'00"W.) to:                                           Shimonoseki, Japan, 613
  Junction Points*                                                          Bombay, India, 504
                                                                                                                 Yokohama, Japan, 144
                                                                            Calcutta, India, 2,578
                                        Junction Points*
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                     Cochin, India, 1,044
 Entrance), Germany, 111                                                    Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,344            KASIM MARINE TERMINAL,
                                      Panama, Panama, 4,686                                                      INDONESIA
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 141                                                  Durban, South Africa, 3,887
                                                                                                                  (118'00"S., 13101'00"E.) to:
                                                                            Fremantle, Australia, 4,437



  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
50        KAUNAKAKAI, HAWAII, U.S.A.



  Junction Points*                    Murmansk, Russia, 1,521               KEY WEST, FLORIDA, U.S.A.            Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,611
                                      St. John's, Canada, 1,404              (2433'30"N., 8148'30"W.) to:      San Juan, Puerto Rico, 966
Honshu, Japan, 2,724                                                                                             Santa Barbara de Samana,
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,260                                                Junction Points*                     Dominican Republic, 811
                                      KENITRA, MOROCCO
Panama, Panama, 9,108                  (3416'13"N., 635'00"W.) to:                                             Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via west
Singapore, 2,128                                                            Bishop Rock, England, 3,783            end of Cuba), 796
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,091           Junction Points*                    Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,783         Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via
Torres Strait, Australia, 1,030                                             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,767           Windward Passage), 637
Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 741           Cape of Good Hope, South              Montreal, Canada, 2,466              Santo Domingo, Dominican
                                         Africa, 5,056                      Panama, Panama, 1,108                  Republic, 936
  Ports                               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 954           Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,000      Tampico, Mexico, 907
                                                                            Strait of Gibraltar, 3,949           Tuxpan, Mexico, 891
Balikpapan, Indonesia, 998              Ports                               Straits of Florida, 73               Veracruz, Mexico, 869
Busan, Korea, 2,384                                                         Yucatan Channel, 251                 Willemstad, Curacao (via
Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1,832           Casablanca, Morocco, 69                                                      Windward Passage), 1,134
Kobe, Japan, 2,258                    Dakar, Senegal, 1,389                   Ports
Semarang, Indonesia, 1,391            Tangier, Morocco, 117                                                      KHALKIS, GREECE
Ujung, Pandang, Indonesia, 842                                              Antilla, Cuba, 434                    (3827'40"N., 2335'15"E.) to:
Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 1,669                                               Argentia, Canada, 1,953
                                      KERCH, GEORGIA
Wyndham, Australia, 870                (4521'16"N., 3628'40"E.) to:       Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 5,150            Junction Points*
Yokohama, Japan, 2,342                                                      Baracoa, Cuba, 490
                                        Junction Points*                    Belem, Brazil, 2,603                 Port Said, Egypt, 630
                                                                            Belize, Belize (via main ship        Strait of Gibraltar, 1,562
KAUNAKAKAI, HAWAII,
U.S.A.                                Port Said, Egypt, 1,238                  channel), 590
 (2105'00"N., 15702'00"W.) to:      Strait of Gibraltar, 2,256            Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,459            Ports
                                                                            Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,712
  Junction Points*                      Ports                               Campeche, Mexico (via main ship      Iraklion, Kriti, 210
                                                                               channel), 632                     Izmir, Turkey, 210
Panama, Panama, 4,633                 Almeria, Spain, 2,094                 Cap-Haitien, Haiti (via Old          Volos, Greece, 88
                                      Constanta, Romania, 370                  Bahama Channel), 619
  Ports                               Istanbul, Turkey, 439                 Carmen, Mexico (via main ship
                                                                                                                 KHARG ISLAND, IRAN
                                      Mersin, Turkey, 1,214                    channel), 708                      (2913'34"N., 5016'34"E.) to:
Midway Island, 1,220                  Nice, France (south of Greece),       Cartagena, Colombia (via Old
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 2,398       1,756                                 Bahama Channel), 1,130              Junction Points*
Yokohama, Japan, 3,454                Nice, France (via Corinth Canal),     Cartagena, Colombia (via Yucatan
                                         1,714                                 Channel), 1,144                   Cape of Good Hope, South
KAVALA, GREECE                        Patrai Greece (south of Greece),      Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,      Africa, 5,153
 (4055'50"N., 2424'11"E.) to:          1,047                                 1,036                             Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,393
                                      Patrai Greece (via Corinth Canal),    Charlottetown, Canada, 1,788         Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,582
  Junction Points*                       890                                Christiansted, Virgin Islands,       Port Said, Egypt, 2,955
                                      Pula, Croatia (south of Greece),         1,064                             Singapore, 3,768
Port Said, Egypt, 714                    1,543                              Colon, Panama (via ship channel      Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,993
Strait of Gibraltar (south of         Pula, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),       and Yucatan Channel), 1,065       Torres Strait, Australia (south of
 Greece), 1,706                          1,444                              Dakar, Senegal, 3,709                  Java), 6,151
Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth      Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 208           Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 485
 Canal), 1,689                        Sete, France (south of Greece),       Freetown, Sierra Leone, 4,076          Ports
                                         1,877                              Funchal, Madeira Island, 3,445
  Ports                               Sete, France (via Corinth Canal),     Georgetown, Guyana, 1,818            Aden, Yemen, 1,087
                                         1,836                              Guantanamo, Cuba (via Old            Belawan, Indonesia, 3,404
Algiers, Algeria (south of Greece),                                            Bahama Channel), 587              Calcutta, India, 3,412
   1,277                                                                    Halifax, Canada, 1,602               Malacca, Malaysia, 3,612
                                      KERET, RUSSIA
Algiers, Algeria (via Corinth          (6617'00"N., 3335'00"E.) Add       Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,093             Port Darwin, Australia (south of
   Canal), 1,260                      54 miles to Arkhangel'sk distances.   Horta, Azores, 2,857                   Java), 5,480
Beirut, Lebanon, 756                                                        Kingston, Jamaica (via Windward      Rangoon, Burma, 3,417
Izmir, Turkey, 209                                                             Passage), 752                     Sabang, Indonesia, 3,144
                                      KERKIRA, GREECE                       Kingston, Jamaica (via Yucatan
Piraievs, Greece, 249                  (3937'45"N., 1954'35"E.) to:
Siracusa, Sicily (south of Greece),                                            Channel), 802
                                                                                                                 KHAWR-AL-AMAYA, IRAQ
   682                                                                      La Guaira, Venezuela (via Old         (2948'23"N., 4848'20"E.)
                                        Junction Points*
Siracusa, Sicily (via Corinth                                                  Bahama Channel), 1,280            Subtract 76 miles from Al Basrah.
   Canal), 656                                                              La Habana, Cuba, 92
                                      Port Said, Egypt, 845
Thessaloniki, Greece, 160                                                   Lisboa, Portugal, 3,765
                                      Strait of Gibraltar, 1,324                                                 KHOLMSK, SAKHALIN,
Volos, Greece, 162                                                          Nuevitas, Cuba, 331
                                                                                                                 RUSSIA
                                                                            Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,296     (4703'00"N., 14202'45"E.) to:
                                        Ports
KAWASAKI, JAPAN                                                             Ponce, Puerto Rico (via Old
 (3530'00"N., 13945'00"E.) Use                                               Bahama Channel and Mona             Ports
                                      Brindisi, Italy, 123
Yokohama distances.                                                            Passage), 969
                                      Catania, Sicily, 290
                                                                            Port au Prince, Haiti (via Old       Bukhta Shelikohova, Kuril Islands,
                                      Dubrovnik, Croatia, 208
                                                                               Bahama Channel), 650                Russia, 707
KEELUNG, TAIWAN                       Patrai, Greece, 138
 (2508'10"N., 12144'00"E.) See                                            Port of Spain, Trinidad (via Old     Matsuga-hana, Japan, 361
                                      Taranto, Italy, 167
Chi-Lung, Taiwan.                                                              Bahama Channel and Mona           Tomari, Japan, 314
                                                                               Passage), 1,484
                                      KETCHIKAN, ALASKA,                    Port of Spain, Trinidad (via Old
KEFLAVIK, ICELAND                     U.S.A.                                   Bahama Channel and Windward       KHORRAMSHAHR, IRAN
 (6400'00"N., 2233'25"W.) to:        (5520'30"N., 13138'45"W.) to:                                            (3025'30"N., 4810'00"E.)
                                                                               Passage), 1,534
                                                                                                                 Subtract 181 1/2 miles from Al
                                        Ports                               Port of Spain, Trinidad (via Old
  Junction Points*                                                                                               Basrah distances.
                                                                               Bahama Channel), 650
                                      Cordova, Alaska, U.S.A., 656          Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,358
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 671                                                                                    KIEL, GERMANY
                                      Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 634      Puerto Cabello, Venezuela (via Old
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,947                                                                                        (5420'00"N., 1009'30"E.) For
                                      Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 224               Bahama Channel and Windward
                                                                               Passage), 1,248                   distance via Fjord add 1 l/2 miles to
  Ports                               Whittier, Alaska, U.S.A.., 1,839                                           Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                                                            Recife, Brazil (via Old Bahama
                                                                               Channel and Mona Passage),        Entrance). For distance via Nord-
Bergen, Norway, 875                                                                                              Ostsee-Kanal add 2 1/2 miles to
                                                                               3,539



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                          KLAKSVIG, FAROE ISLANDS                             51



Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Passage), 802                          U.S.A, 1,655                     KISMAAYO, SOMALIA
Entrance).                          Yucatan Channel, 550                 Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 715       (023'56"S., 4232'20"E.) to:
                                                                         Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 697
                                      Ports                              Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, 451        Junction Points*
KIIRE, JAPAN
 (3124'42"N., 13033'17"E.)                                             Puerto Colombia, Colombia, 438
Subtract 9 miles from Kagoshima     Almirante, Panama, 657               Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 671        Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
distances.                          Moa, Cuba, 301                       Puerto Vita, Cuba, 364                2,685
                                    Bahia de las Calderas, Dominican     Punta Cardon, Venezuela, 530        Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,534
                                       Republic, 378                     Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,194       Port Said, Egypt, 2,713
KIMCHAEK, NORTH KOREA                                                                                        Singapore, 3,791
 (4039'15"N., 12912'30"E.) to:    Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via     Rio Haina, Dominican Republic,
                                       Windward Passage), 1,401             417                              Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,812
  Ports                             Baracoa, Cuba, 265                   San Juan, Puerto Rico (north of
                                    Barahona, Dominican Republic,           Hispaniola), 685                   Ports
Busan, South Korea, 351                364                               San Juan, Puerto Rico (south of
Hakodate, Japan, 540                Barranquilla, Colombia, 442             Hispaniola), 643                 Aden, Yemen, 1,326
Maizuru, Japan, 431                 Belem, Brazil, 2,231                 San Pedro de Macoris, Dominican     Bombay, India, 2,133
Shimonoseki, Japan, 421             Belize, Belize, 685                     Republic, 461                    Calicut, India, 2,106
Vladivostok, Russia, 206            Boca de Tanamo, Cuba, 318            Santa Lucia, Cuba, 651              Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,291
Yeosu, South Korea, 439             Bocas del Toro, Panama, 604          Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 176         Durban, South Africa, 1,940
                                    Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Santo Domingo, Dominican            Madras, India, 2,841
                                       1,657                                Republic, 430                    Tulear, Madagascar, 1,395
KIN WAN, JAPAN
 (2624'00"N., 2758'00"E.) to:     Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,038    Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via
                                    Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,295          Windward Passage), 1,063         KITIMAT, CANADA
  Junction Points*                  Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 326              Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 528       (5359'25"N., 12848'43"W.) to:
                                    Cape Town, South Africa;, 6,314      St. John, Canada, 1,794
Honshu Japan, 826                   Cardenas, Cuba, 703                  St. John's, Antigua, 870              Junction Points*
Selat Lombok, Indonesia (south of   Carmen, Mexico, 1,056                St. Louis, Marie Galante, 903
  Mindanao), 2,391                  Cartagena, Colombia, 479             St. Marc, Haiti, 254                Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via
Panama, Panama, 8,451               Casilda, Cuba, 372                   Sydney, Canada, 1,982                 Makassar Strait), 6,930
Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,415          Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.   Tampico, Mexico, 1,252              Panama, Panama, 4,304
Singapore (via Balintang               (via Windward Passage), 1,064     Tuxpan, Mexico, 1,243               Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,264
 Channel), 2,094                    Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    Veracruz, Mexico, 1,210             Singapore (via Balintang
Torres Strait, Australia, 2,640        70                                Wilmington, North Carolina,          Channel), 7,030
Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 1,189        Colon, Panama, 551                      U.S.A. (via Crooked Island       Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via
                                    Covenas, Colombia, 528                  Passage), 1,115                    Balintang Channel), 7,393
  Ports                             Dakar, Senegal, 3,436                Yarmouth, Canada, 1,710
                                    Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 498                                             Ports
Apia, Samoa, 4,266                  Funchal, Madeira Island, 3,349       KINGSTOWN, ST. VINCENT
Auckland, New Zealand, 4,912        Georgetown, Guyana, 1,334             (1309'00"N., 6114'00"W.) to:     Anchorage, Alaska, 1,055
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,595         Gonaives, Haiti, 263                                                     Callao, Peru, 5,006
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,058     Guantanamo, Cuba, 180                  Ports                             Guaymas, Mexico, 2,510
Valparaiso, Chile, 9,788            Halifax, Canada, 1,795                                                   Honolulu, Hawaii, 2,399
Wellington, New Zealand, 5,117      Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,144             Bridgetown, Barbados, 98            Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
                                    Horta, Azores, 2,818                 Fernando de Noronha, 1,320            1,391
                                    Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A. (via   Fort de France, Martinique, 89      Manila, Philippines (via Balintang
KING'S LYNN, ENGLAND                                                                                           Channel), 5,637
 (5245'30"N., 023'28"E.) to:         Windward Passage), 1,016          Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,185
                                    Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via       New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Mollendo, Peru, 5,422
  Junction Points*                     Windward Passage), 752              1,791                             Yokohama, Japan, 3,941
                                    Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via       Port Castries, St. Lucia, 60
Bishop Rock, England, 522              Yucatan Channel), 802                                                 KLAIPEDA, LITHUANIA
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 516         La Guaira, Venezuela, 732            KINUURA, JAPAN                       (5543'00"N., 2107'00"E.) to:
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East             La Habana Cuba (via Windward          (3448'14"N., 13657'29"E.)
  Entrance), Germany, 406            Passage), 762                       Subtract 23 miles from Nagoya         Junction Points*
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 401       La Habana, Cuba (via Yucatan         distances.
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 473             Channel), 737                                                         Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                    La Romana, Dominican Republic,                                            Entrance), Germany, 400
                                                                         KIRKENES, NORWAY
  Ports                                47                                 (6943'45"N., 3002'00"E.) to:     Skagens Odde, Denmark (via Store
                                    Lake Charles, Louisiana, U.S.A.,                                           Baelt), 592
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 203            1,190                               Ports                             Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The
Antwerp, Belgium, 450               Limon, Costa Rica, 605                                                     Sound and north of Bornholm),
Bergen, Norway, 583                 Lisboa, Portugal, 3,725              Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 637           462
Emden, Germany, 281                 Liverpool, Canada, 1,744             Pechenga, Russia, 53
Leith, Scotland, 263                Manzanillo, Cuba, 283                                                      Ports
London, England, 233                Matanzas, Cuba, 717
                                                                         KISKA, ALASKA, U.S.A.               Horsens, Denmark, 459
Oostende, Belgium, 206              Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 746           (5159'00"N., 17732'30"E.) to:
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 319         Miragoane, Haiti, 243                                                    Koge, Denmark, 350
Zeebrugge, Belgium, 211             Nassau, Bahamas, 667                   Ports                             Oslo, Norway (via Store Baelt and
                                    New York, New York, U.S.A. (via                                            south of Bornholm), 716
                                       Windward Passage), 1,474          Anadyrskiy Zaliv, Russia, 804       Oxelosund, Sweden, 232
KINGSTON, JAMAICA                                                                                            Rostock, Germany, 347
 (1757'30"N., 7647'00"W.) to:     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via       Apra, Guam, 2,822
                                       Windward Passage), 1,279          Bukhta Shelikhova, Kuril Islands,
  Junction Points*                  Nuevitas, Cuba, 448                    Russia, 863                       KLAKSVIG, FAROE
                                    Oranjestad, Aruba, 223               Hakodate, Japan, 1,656              ISLANDS
Bishop Rock, England (via           Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,185      (6214'28"N., 635'45"W.) to:
   Windward Passage), 3,866            (via Windward Passage), 1,446     Kasatka, Japan, 1,274
                                    Pina, Panama, 578                                                          Junction Points*
Fastnet Rock, Ireland (via                                               Manila, Philippines, 3,664
   Windward Passage), 3,748         Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 910      Matsuga-hana, Japan, 1,345
                                    Port au Prince, Haiti, 277                                               Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,852                                             Midway Island, 1,453
                                    Port de Paix, Haiti, 432                                                    6,535
Panama, Panama, 594                                                      Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
                                    Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,003                                           Grand Banks South, 1,925
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,032                                            Russia, 724
                                    Port Castries, St. Lucia, 950                                            Inishtrahull, Ireland, 410
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,891                                               Tomari, Japan, 1,406
                                    Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 1,679                                           Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
Straits of Florida (via Windward                                         Yokohama, Japan, 1,997
                                    Portsmouth, New Hampshire,                                                  Belle Isle), 2,481



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
52        KOBE, JAPAN



Pentland Firth, Scotland, 233        San Diego, California, U.S.A.,         Kaikyo), 366                       from Kokura subtract 7 miles from
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,887             5,204                              Yokohama, Japan, 372                 Moji distances.
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 864           San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,789             4,819                              KODIAK, ALASKA, U.S.A.               KOLDING, DENMARK
                                     Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (north    (5747'00"N., 15225'00"W.) to:      (5529'40"N., 930'00"E.) to:
  Ports                                of Aleutian Islands), 4,527
                                     Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (south     Junction Points*                     Junction Points*
Aberdeen, Scotland, 359                of Aleutian Islands), 4,559
Alesund, Norway, 355                 Shanghai, China (via Naikai), 789    Panama, Panama, 4,907                Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Bremerhaven, Germany, 570            Shanghai, China (via Osumi           Singapore, 6,020                      Entrance), Germany (via Lille
Dover, England, 746                    Kaikyo), 826                                                              Baelt), 83
Le Havre, France, 851                Shimizu, Honshu, Japan, 279            Ports                              Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
London, England, 781                 Shimonoseki, Japan, 241                                                    Entrance), Germany (via Store
Murmansk, Russia, 1,164              Sydney, Australia, 4,384             Apra, Guam, 3,928                      Baelt), 152
Reykjavik, Iceland, 482              Tan-shui, China (via Osumi           Auckland, New Zealand, 5,942         Skagens Odde, Denmark (via Store
Torshavn, Faroe Islands, 16            Kaikyo), 933                       Guayaquil, Ecuador, 5,212              Baelt and Deep Water Route),
                                     Uno, Japan, 71                       Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 5,484            193
KOBE, JAPAN                          Valparaiso, Chile, 9,534             Hong Kong, China, 4,616
 (3440'00"N., 13512'00"E.) to:     Vancouver, Canada, 4,541             Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,231        Ports
                                     Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 2,013        Juneau, Alaska, U.S.A., 610
  Junction Points*                   Vladivostok, Russia (via Naikai),    Malakal, Palau Islands, 4,579        Goteborg, Sweden, 330
                                       805                                Manila, Philippines (north of        Swinoujscie, Poland, 253
Panama, Panama, 7,964                Weihai, China (via Naikai), 806        Aleutian Islands), 4,823
Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,429           Xiamen, China (via Osumi             Midway Island, 2,088                 KOLE, CAMEROON
Singapore, 2,689                       Kaikyo), 1,117                     Noumea, New Caledonia, 5,281          (412'30"N., 833'05"E.) to:
                                     Yantai, China, 840                   Pago Pago, American Samoa,
  Ports                              Yokohama, Japan, 357                   4,441                                Junction Points*
                                                                          Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,532
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,          KOBENHAVN, DENMARK                   Port Darwin, Australia, 5,859        Bishop Rock, England, 4,265
   Russia, 1,384                      (5542'00"N., 1236'06"E.) to:      Qingdao, China, 3,975                Cape of Good Hope, South
Apra, Guam, 1,386                                                         Shanghai, China, 3,967                  Africa, 2,646
Auckland, New Zealand, 4,875           Junction Points*                   Surabaya, Indonesia, 6,086           Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,175
Busan, South Korea, 361                                                   Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,853            Grand Banks South, 4,326
Cebu, Philippines (via San           Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Sydney, Australia, 6,222             Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,106
   Bernardino Strait), 1,601          Entrance) (via Store Baelt),        Truk, Caroline Islands, 4,008        Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,438
Dagu, China (via Naikai), 1,034        Germany, 202                       Valparaiso, Chile, 6,803             Panama, Panama, 5,329
Dalian, China, 877                   Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Vladivostok, Russia, 3,105           Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,998
Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,         Entrance) (via The Sound),          Wake Island, 2,961                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,326
   2,833                               Germany, 162                       Yokohama, Japan (north of            Strait of Gibraltar, 3,853
Haiphong, Vietnam (via Osumi         Skagens Odde, Denmark, 150             Aleutian Islands), 3,141           Straits of Florida, 5,501
   Kaikyo and Hainan Strait),                                                                                  Yucatan Channel, 5,651
   1,833                               Ports                              KOGE, DENMARK
Hakata, Japan, 304                                                         (5527'15"N., 1212'00"E.) to:        Ports
Hakodate, Japan, 816                 Aalborg, Denmark, 138
Hirohata, Japan, 34                  Aarhus, Denmark, 108                   Junction Points*                   Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 761
Hiroshima, Japan, 179                Abenra, Denmark, 204                                                      Kribi, Cameroon, 114
Hong Kong, China (via Osumi          Frederikshavn, Denmark, 142          Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Lagos, Nigeria, 361
   Kaikyo), 1,372                    Gdansk, Poland, 468                   Entrance), Germany, 153             Libreville, Gabon, 255
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,669      Gdynia, Poland, 464                  Skagens Odde, Denmark, 161           Lome, Togo, 460
Iloilo, Philippines (via San         Haderslev, Denmark, 175                                                   Pointe Noire, Congo, 612
   Bernardino Strait), 1,623         Helsinki, Finland, 772                 Ports                              Tome, Sao Tome, 232
Imabari, Japan, 120                  Kalundborg, Denmark, 115
Incheon, South Korea, 733            Karlskrona, Sweden, 148              Klaipeda, Lithuania, 350             KOMATSUSHIMA, JAPAN
Itozakicho, Japan, 113               Lubeck, Germany, 148                 Swinoujscie, Poland, 156              (3401'00"N., 13436'00"E.) to:
Iwakuni, Japan, 166                  Oslo, Norway, 272
Jakarta, Indonesia (via Balintang    Peenemunde, Germany, 128             KOKKOLA, FINLAND                       Ports
   Channel), 2,987                   Riga, Latvia, 696                     (6350'00"N., 2308'00"E.) to:
Kagoshima, Japan (via Bungo          Rostock, Germany, 231                                                     Aomori, Japan, 813
   Suido), 422                       Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 917           Junction Points*                   Kagoshima, Japan, 344
Kagoshima, Japan (via                Sassnitz, Germany, 95                                                     Kure, Japan, 217
   Tomogashima Suido), 379           Stockholm, Sweden (via Store         Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Osaka, Japan, 58
Kamaishi, Japan, 631                    Baelt and Dalaro Kanal), 603       Entrance), Germany, 836             Yokohama, Japan, 320
Kushiro, Japan, 876                  Stockholm, Sweden (via Store         Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The
Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China (via          Baelt and Sandotvarden), 646        Sound), 897                        KOMPONG SOM,
   Osumi Kaikyo), 1,003              Stralsund, Germany, 81                                                    CAMBODIA
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Travemunde, Germany (via Store         Ports                               (1039'00"N., 10330'00"E.) to:
   5,185                                Baelt), 234
Manila, Philippines (via Balintang   Travemunde, Germany (via The         Halmstad, Sweden (via The              Junction Points*
   Channel), 1,563                      Sound), 139                         Sound), 803
Miike, Japan, 462                    Vejle, Denmark, 149                  Hamina, Finland, 554                 Singapore, 638
Nagasaki, Japan, 400                 Wismar, Germany, 132                 Helsinki, Finland, 498               Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,096
Nagoya, Japan, 245                                                        Kobenhavn, Denmark (via The
Niihana, Japan, 113                  KOCHI, JAPAN                           Sound), 741                          Ports
Pago Pago, American Samoa,            (3332'06"N., 13333'30"E.) to:     Limhamn, Sweden (via The
   4,308                                                                    Sound), 741                        Bangkok, Thailand, 300
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,             Ports                              Rauma, Finland, 230                  Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 419
   Russia, 1,705                                                          Vassa, Finland, 115                  Makassar, Sulawesi, 1,584
Port Darwin, Australia (via Selat    Hakodate, Japan (east of Honshu),
   Sele), 2,901                        832                                KOKURA, JAPAN                        KONIYA, RYUKYU ISLANDS
Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 4,590      Hakodate, Japan (via Shimonoseki      (3355'00"N., 13052'00"E.)          (2808'30"N., 12918'45"E.) to:
Rajin, North Korea, 754                Kaikyo), 894                       Eastbound from Kokura add 7
Sakaide, Japan, 107                  Nagasaki, Japan (via Osumi           miles to Moji distances. Westbound



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                   LA CEIBA, HONDURAS                     53



  Ports                             Makassar, Sulawesi (via west of    Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, 106       Junction Points*
                                      Palawan), 616                    Port Gentil, Gabon, 231
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,948     Sandakan, Sabah (via Balabac       Takoradi, Ghana, 704               Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 974
Midway Island, 2,799                  Strait), 261                                                        Singapore, 443
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea,     Zamboanga, Philippines, 442        KRISTIANSAND, NORWAY
  3,063                                                                 (5808'30"N., 759'40"E.) to:       Ports
Saipan, Mariana Islands, 1,199      KOTKA, FINLAND
Wake Island, 2,107                   (6027'00"N., 2659'00"E.) to:      Junction Points*                 Iloilo, Philippines, 948
                                                                                                          Jakarta, Indonesia, 627
KOPER, SLOVENIA                       Junction Points*                 Bishop Rock, England, 309          Olongapo, Philippines, 992
 (4533'48"N., 1342'15"E.) to:                                        Ile d'Ouessant, France, 794        Zamboanga, Philippines, 863
                                    Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Pentland Firth, Scotland, 372
  Junction Points*                   Entrance), Germany, 694           Skagens Odde, Denmark, 92          KUNSAN, JAPAN
                                    Skagens Odde, Denmark, 755                                             (3559'18"N., 12643'00"E.) See
Port Said, Egypt (via south of                                           Ports                            Gunsan, South Korea.
   Greece), 1,310                     Ports
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,682                                             Aberdeen, Scotland, 338            KURE, JAPAN
                                    Helsinki, Finland, 99              Amsterdam, Netherlands, 381         (3414'00"N., 13232'00"E.) to:
  Ports                             Riga, Latvia, 296                  Antwerp, Belgium, 488
                                    Stockholm, Sweden, 311             Bergen, Norway, 226                  Ports
Ajaccio, Corsica, 1,033             Vysotsk, Russia, 69                Bodo, Norway, 733
Algiers, Algeria, 1,236                                                Bremerhaven, Germany, 292          Apra, Guam, 1,460
Ashdod, Israel, 1,367               KOVDA, RUSSIA                      Calais, France, 486                Hirohata, Japan, 126
Barcelona, Spain, 1,296              (6642'00"N., 3252'00"E.) Add    Cherbourg, France, 632             Imabari, Japan, 63
Dhekelia, Cyprus, 1,283             76 l/2 miles to Arkhangel'sk       Dover, England, 488                Itozakicho, Japan, 73
Famagusta, Cyprus, 1,313            distances.                         Dunkerque, France, 475             Kagoshima, Japan, 296
Istanbul, Turkey, 1,148                                                Egersund, Norway, 86               Komatsushima, Japan, 217
Mersa El Hamra, Egypt, 1,155        KPEME, TOGO                        Emden, Germany, 316                Niihana, Japan, 76
Messina, Sicily, Italy, 621          (611'22"N., 0130'20"E.) to:     Esbjerg, Denmark, 206              Sakaide, Japan, 107
Oran, Algeria, 1,432                                                   Hamburg, Germany, 333              Shimizu, Honshu, Japan, 141
Ravenna, Italy, 91                    Junction Points*                 Hull, England, 407                 Shimonoseki, Japan, 116
Tunis, Tunisia, 917                                                    Kristiansund, Norway, 447          Tokuyama, Japan, 76
Villefranche, France, 1,136         Bishop Rock, England, 4,099        Le Havre, France, 600              Uno, Japan, 117
                                    Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Leith, Scotland, 394               Wakamatsu, Japan, 125
KORSAKOV, SAKHALIN,                    2,615                           London, England, 514               Yokohama, Japan, 515
RUSSIA                              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,884       Newcastle, England, 376
 (4637'30"N., 14245'30"E.) to:    Grand Banks South, 4,036           Oostende, Belgium, 453             KUSHIRO, JAPAN
                                    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,815      Oslo, Norway, 163                   (4258'00"N., 14421'30"E.) to:
  Ports                             Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,147       Plymouth, England, 717
                                    Panama, Panama, 5,038              Portland, England, 643               Ports
Bukhta Shelikhova, Kuril Islands,   Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,707    Portsmouth, England, 593
  Russia, 618                       Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,180         Rotterdam, Netherlands, 413        Busan, South Korea, 876
Matsuga-hana, Japan, 279            Strait of Gibraltar, 3,562         Southampton, England, 611          Hakodate, Japan, 210
Nevel'sk, Russia, 115               Straits of Florida, 5,210          Stavanger, Norway, 142             Kobe, Japan, 876
Sovetskaya Gavan, Russia, 264       Yucatan Channel, 5,360             Trondheim, Norway, 436             Vladivostok, Russia, 624
Tomari, Japan, 239                                                     Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 286        Yokohama, Japan, 594
                                      Ports
KORSOR, DENMARK                                                        KRISTIANSUND, NORWAY               KWA IBO, NIGERIA
 (5520'07"N., 1107'48"E.) to:     Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 405           (6306'40"N., 745'00"E.) to:      (421'40"N., 800'00"E.) See
                                    Accra, Ghana, 159                                                     Qua Iboe.
  Junction Points*                  Cape Town, South Africa, 1,316       Ports
                                    New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                           KYNDBY, DENMARK
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               4,800                            Bergen, Norway, 232                 (5548'36"N., 1152'48"E.) to:
 Entrance), Germany, 73             Pointe Noire, Congo, 903           Kristiansand, Norway, 447
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 162          Takoradi, Ghana, 255               Oslo, Norway, 599                    Junction Points*
                                                                       Stavanger, Norway, 332
  Ports                                                                                                   Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                    KRAGERO, NORWAY
                                     (5851'40"N., 923'35"E.) to:     KRISTINESTAD, FINLAND               Entrance), Germany, 164
Gdynia, Poland, 344                                                     (6215'45"N., 2122'30"E.) to:    Skagens Odde, Denmark, 136
Stockholm, Sweden, 524                Junction Points*
Swinoujscie, Poland, 239                                                 Junction Points*                   Ports
                                    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 441
KOTA KINABALU,                                                         Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Gdynia, Poland, 334
MALAYSIA                              Ports                             entrance), Germany, 703           Stockholm, Sweden, 493
 (600'32"N., 11604'37"E.) to:                                        Skagens Odde, Denmark (via the     Swinoujscie, Poland, 197
                                    Bergen, Norway, 289                  Sound), 764
  Junction Points*                  London, England, 582                                                  KYOMIPO, NORTH KOREA
                                    Oslo, Norway, 95                     Ports                             (3844'00"N., 12537'00"E.) Add
Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via
  Balabac Strait), 1,362                                                                                  16 miles to Nampo distances.
                                    KRALENDIJK, BONAIRE                Gdynia, Poland, 473
Panama, Panama (via Surigao                                            Helsinki, Finland, 279
                                     (1209'30"N., 6816'40"W.) to:                                       LA CEIBA, HONDURAS
  Strait), 9,860                                                       Kobenhavn, Denmark, 587
Singapore, 807                                                                                             (1546'30"N., 8650'00"W.) to:
                                      Ports                            Kotka, Finland, 342
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,031                                          Oulu, Finland, 214                   Junction Points*
                                    Guantanamo, Cuba, 620              Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 433
  Ports                                                                Stockholm, Sweden, 232             Panama, Panama, 709
Cebu, Philippines (via Balabac      KRIBI, CAMEROON
                                     (256'00"N., 954'00"E.) to:      KUNG THEP, THAILAND                  Ports
  Strait), 589                                                         See Bangkok.
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 761             Ports
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via                                                                             Colon, Panama, 666
  Surigao Strait), 5,092                                               KUCHING, SARAWAK                   New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                    Douala, Cameroon, 81                (133'35"N., 11020'35"E.) to:      1,743



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
54        LA GUAIRA, VENEZUELA



Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, 316       LA HABANA, CUBA                      Nuevitas, Cuba, 344                  Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 383
                                      (2308'00"N., 8220'30"W.) to:      Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 515      Salina Cruz, Mexico, 391
LA GUAIRA, VENEZUELA                                                      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua, 239
 (1037'00"N., 6656'30"W.) to:        Junction Points*                      U.S.A., 1,162
                                                                          Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (via      LA NOUVELLE, FRANCE
  Junction Points*                   Cape of Good Hope, South                Mona Passage), 1,309               (4300'47"N., 304'25"E.) to:
                                        Africa, 6,786                     Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (via
Bishop Rock, England, 3,777          Grand Banks South, 1,991                Virgin Passage), 1,308              Junction Points*
Montreal, Canada, 2,941              Montreal, Canada (via Strait of      Ponce, Puerto Rico (via Old
Panama, Panama, 884                     Canso), 2,473                        Bahama Channel and Mona           Port Said, Egypt, 1,582
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,634           Punta Arenas, Chile (east of South      Passage), 981                     Strait of Gibraltar, 658
Straits of Florida (via Windward        America), 6,800                   Port au Prince, Haiti, 662
 Passage), 1,331                     Strait of Gibraltar, 4,024           Port of Spain, Trinidad (via Old       Ports
Yucatan Channel, 1,242               Straits of Florida, 87                  Bahama Channel and Mona
                                     Yucatan Channel, 186                    Passage), 1,494                   Alexandria, Egypt, 1,480
  Ports                                                                   Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.A., 749      Algiers, Algeria, 382
                                       Ports                              Port Castries, St. Lucia (via Mona   Antibes, France, 208
Amuay, Venezuela, 276                                                        Passage), 1,370                   Barcelona, Spain, 132
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Belem, Brazil, 2,654                 Progreso, Mexico, 430                Famagusta, Cyprus, 1,617
   1,813                             Belize, Belize, 528                  Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 608       Genova, Italy, 295
Barranquilla, Colombia, 531          Boca de Tanamo, Cuba, 444            Puerto Cabello, Venezuela (via Old   Haifa, Israel, 1,664
Belize, Belize, 1,328                Bocas del Toro, Panama, 981             Bahama Channel and Windward       Istanbul, Turkey, 1,453
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Bordeaux, France, 4,217                 Passage), 1,260                   Marseille, France, 101
   1,955                             Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Puerto Manati, Cuba, 353             Messina, Italy, 654
Campeche, Mexico, 1,635                 1,428                             Puerto Siboney, Cuba (via Yucatan    Rhodes, Greece, 1,293
Carmen, Mexico, 1,714                Bridgeport, Connecticut, U.S.A.,        Channel), 729                     Tarabulus, Libya, 802
Cartagena, Colombia, 614                1,292                             Puerto Vita, Cuba, 400               Yumurtalik, Turkey, 1,669
Charleston, South Carolina,          Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,724       Recife, Brazil (via Old Bahama
   U.S.A., 1,549                     Caibarien, Cuba, 208                    Channel and Mona Passage),        LA PALLICE, FRANCE
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    Campeche, Mexico, 561                   3,551                              (4609'36"N., 113'21"W.) to:
   479                               Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 631              Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,623
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,050              Cape Town, South Africa, 6,736       San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via     Junction Points*
Colon, Panama, 841                   Cardenas, Cuba, 88                      inside), 871
Dakar, Senegal, 2,911                Carmen, Mexico, 639                  San Juan, Puerto Rico (via Old       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 245
Guantanamo, Cuba, 737                Cartagena, Colombia (via Old            Bahama Channel), 978              Strait of Gibraltar, 950
Guiria, Venezuela, 339                  Bahama Channel), 1,142            Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba, 542
Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A. (via   Charleston, South Carolina,          Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via            Ports
   Old Bahama Channel and               U.S.A., 645                          Windward Passage), 650
   Windward Passage), 1,806          Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via          Bilbao, Spain, 214
Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A. (via      1,048                                Yucatan Channel), 733             Bordeaux, France, 111
   Yucatan Channel), 1,801           Charlottetown, Canada, 1,846         Santo Domingo, Dominican             Santander, Spain, 201
Halifax, Canada, 2,060               Cienfuegos, Cuba, 482                   Republic, 946                     St. Nazaire, France, 108
Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,335             Coatzacoalcos, Mexico (north of      Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 606
Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via Old      Banco de Campeche), 840           St. Pierre, Martinique, 1,339        LA PAMPILLA, PERU
   Bahama Channel and Windward       Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.A., 864   Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., 307           (1155'00"S., 7709'00"W.) See
   Passage), 1,280                   Fort de France, Martinique (via      Tampico, Mexico, 864                 Callao.
Kingston, Jamaica, 732                  Old Bahama Channel and Mona       Tuxpan, Mexico, 847
La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama         Passage), 1,350                   Veracruz, Mexico, 814
                                     Fort de France, Martinique (via                                           LA PLATA, ARGENTINA
   Channel and Windward                                                   Willemstad, Curacao, 1,144            (3447'00"S., 5751'15"W.)
   Passage), 1,292                      Yucatan Channel), 1,655           Wilmington, North Carolina,          Subtract 28 miles from Buenos
New York, New York, U.S.A. (via      Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 769           U.S.A., 1,767                     Aires distances.
   Mona Passage), 1,848              Georgetown, Guyana, 1,830
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,687     Guantanamo, Cuba (via Old
                                                                          LA ISABEL DE SAGUA, CUBA             LA ROCHELLE, FRANCE
Oranjestad, Aruba, 207                  Bahama Channel and Windward        (2257'00"N., 8000'24"E.) See
                                        Passage), 600                                                           (4609'00"N., 109'00"W.) Add 2
Paramaribo, Suriname, 832                                                 Isabel de Sagua, Cuba.               miles to La Pallice distances.
Pedernales, Venezuela, 359           Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A., 564
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Halifax, Canada, 1,640
                                     Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,158             LA LIBERTAD, ECUADOR                 LA ROMANA, DOMINICAN
   U.S.A., 1,838                                                           (211'4"S., 8055'00"W.) to:
                                     Isabel de Sagua, Cuba, 151                                                REPUBLIC
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 467                                                                                 (1824'00"N., 6857'00"W.) to:
Port au Prince, Haiti, 801           Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A., 528     Junction Points*
Port of Spain, Trinidad (south of    Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 92
                                     Kingston, Jamaica (via Windward                                             Junction Points*
   Isla de Margarita), 329                                                Panama, Panama, 674
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 405           Passage), 762                     Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,258
                                     Kingston, Jamaica (via Yucatan                                            Panama, Panama, 889
Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela, 145
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,294          Channel), 737                       Ports
                                     La Guaira, Venezuela (via Old                                               Ports
Puerto Sucre, Venezuela, 205
San Felix, Venezuela, 673               Bahama Channel and Windward       Buenaventura, Colombia, 445
                                        Passage), 1,292                                                        Barranquilla, Colombia, 569
San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,                                            Callao, Peru, 682                    Kingston, Jamaica, 470
   1,026                             Lake Charles, Louisiana, U.S.A.,     Lobitos, Peru, 149
                                        750                                                                    San Juan, Puerto Rico, 191
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 506                                                Negritos, Peru, 158                  Willemstad, Curacao, 391
Santo Domingo, Dominican             Limon, Costa Rica, 1,170
   Republic, 502                     Maracaibo, Venezuela, 1,173
                                     Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 222          LA LIBERTAD, EL                      LA SALINA, VENEZUELA
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via                                            SALVADOR
                                     Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 553                                               (1022'00"N., 7128'00"W.) Add
   Mona Passage), 1,575                                                    (1328'30"N., 8919'15"W.) to:
                                     Nassau, Bahamas (via Northwest                                            21 miles to Maracaibo distances.
Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 207
St. Georges, Grenada, 322               Providence Channel), 390            Junction Points*
St. John, Canada, 2,086              New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.,                                           LA SPEZIA, ITALY
Sydney, Canada, 2,215                   1,280                                                                   (4405'33"N., 949'30"E.) to:
                                                                          Panama, Panama, 806
Tuxpan, Mexico, 1,923                New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,
                                        602                                                                      Junction Points*
Veracruz, Mexico, 1,888                                                     Ports
Willemstad, Curacao, 150             New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                        1,199                                                                  Port Said, Egypt, 1,391
                                                                          Corinto, Nicaragua, 141
                                     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 992                                            Strait of Gibraltar, 891



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                           LAVAN ISLAND, IRAN                      55



  Ports                                 Ports                             Stockholm, Sweden, 424                   U.S.A., 3,341
                                                                          Szczecin, Poland, 170                  Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
Alexandria, Egypt, 1,280              Apra, Guam, 1,315                                                            2,791
Algiers, Algeria, 540                 Brisbane, Australia, 1,560          LARNACA, CYPRUS                        Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,317
Alicante, Spain, 588                  Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,519         (3454'44"N., 3338'23"E.) to:        Funchal, Madeira Island, 282
Ancona, Italy, 979                    Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea,                                            Horta, Azores, 914
Annaba, Algeria, 463                    2,635                               Junction Points*                     Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,
Banghazi, Libya, 876                  Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 448                                                3,467
Banzart, Tunisia, 414                 Wellington, New Zealand, 2,635      Port Said, Egypt, 231                  Lisboa, Portugal, 712
Barcelona, Spain, 383                                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 1,953             New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Bari, Italy, 775                      LAGOS, NIGERIA                                                               2,965
Beirut, Lebanon, 1,473                 (627'00"N., 323'00"E.) to:         Ports                                Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,130
Brindisi, Italy, 717                                                                                             Plymouth, England, 1,432
Cagliari, Sardinia, 336                 Junction Points*                  Al Latakia, Syria, 114                 Ponta Delgada, Azores, 774
Cartagena, Spain, 640                                                     Beirut, Lebanon, 112                   Recife, Brazil, 2,453
Castellammare di Stabia, Italy, 308   Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,746       Constanta, Romania, 962                Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 3,409
Ceuta, Morocco, 872                   Strait of Gibraltar, 3,100          Istanbul, Turkey, 766
Gibraltar, 873                        Straits of Florida, 5,225           Izmir, Turkey, 570                     LAS PIEDRAS, VENEZUELA
Haifa, Israel, 1,469                                                      Mersin, Turkey, 149                     (1142'15"N., 7013'15"W.) to:
Iraklion, Kriti, 956                    Ports                             Nice, France, 1,457
Istanbul, Turkey (south of                                                Patrai, Greece (via south of             Ports
   Greece), 1,256                     Accra, Ghana, 229                      Greece), 750
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth         Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,        Patrai, Greece (via Corinth Canal),    Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
   Canal), 1,214                        5,063                                658                                   1,907
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),      Benguela, Angola, 1,289             Piraievs, Greece, 566                  Maracaibo, Venezuela, 126
   1,101                              Boma, Congo, 977                    Pula, Croatia (via south of            New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),    Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         Greece), 1,245                        1,796
   1,060                                4,774                             Pula, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Malaga, Spain, 821                    Calabar, Nigeria, 391                  1,212                                 U.S.A., 1,786
Marseille, France, 231                Charleston, South Carolina,         Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 1,402
Messina, Sicily, 450                    U.S.A., 5,065                     Sete, France, 1,579                    LATCHI, CYPRUS
Napoli, Italy, 302                    Colon, Panama, 5,050                Sfax, Tunisia, 1,163                    (3506'00"N., 3227'00"E.) See
Odessa, Ukraine (south of             Douala, Cameroon, 442               Tarabulus, Libya, 1,050                Khrysokhou Bay, Cyprus.
   Greece), 1,604                     Georgetown, Ascension Island,       Thessaloniki, Greece, 703
Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth            1,375                                                                    LAUNCESTON, TASMANIA
   Canal), 1,562                      Longji, Cameroon, 463               LARNE, ENGLAND                          (4127'00"S., 14707'00"E.) to:
Oran, Algeria, 701                    Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, 384       (5452'00"N., 547'40"W.) to:
Palermo, Sicily, 395                  Mocamedes, Angola, 1,399                                                     Junction Points*
Palma, Balearic Islands, 474          Natal, Brazil, 2,425                  Junction Points*
Piraievs, Greece (south of            New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                                Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,577
   Greece), 942                         4,883                             Bishop Rock, England, 323              Torres Strait, Australia, 2,278
Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth         Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 4,941    Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 312
   Canal), 860                        Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,         Inishtrahull, Ireland, 86                Ports
Rijeka, Croatia, 1,049                  U.S.A., 4,985
Sibenik, Croatia, 923                 Pointe Noire, Congo, 851              Ports                                Melbourne, Australia, 246
Siracusa, Sicily, 521                 Port of Spain, Trinidad, 3,950                                             Sydney, Australia, 514
Split, Croatia, 908                   Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 318         Cardiff, Wales, 295                    Wellington, New Zealand, 1,326
Tarabulus, Libya, 790                 Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   Cobh, Ireland, 251
Taranto, Italy, 669                     1,991                             Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 71      LAUTOKA HARBOR, FIJI
Thessaloniki, Greece (south of        Sao Tome, Sao Tome, Gulf of         Milford Haven, Wales, 220              ISLANDS
   Greece), 1,150                       Guinea, 422                       Stornoway, Scotland, 219                (1736'09"S., 17726'16"E.) to:
Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth     Sekondi, Ghana, 317                 Workington, England, 85
   Canal), 1,109                      Tema, Ghana, 216                                                             Junction Points*
Toulon, France, 199                   Victoria, Cameroon, 410             LARVIK, NORWAY
Trieste, Italy, 1,083                 Willemstad, Curacao, 4,359           (5903'00"N., 1001'35"E.) to:        Torres Strait, Australia, 2,204
Tunis, Tunisia, 448                                                                                              Wilson Promontory, Australia,
Valencia, Spain, 538                  LAKE CHARLES,                         Junction Points*                       2,070
Valletta, Malta, 554                  LOUISIANA, U.S.A.
Venezia, Italy, 1,093                  (3013'30"N., 9314'00"W.) to:     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 461            Ports
Volos, Greece (south of Greece),
   1,091                                Junction Points*                    Ports                                Apra, Guam, 2,899
Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),                                                                               Sydney, Australia, 1,732
   1,050                              Straits of Florida, 677             Bergen, Norway, 317                    Wellington, New Zealand, 1,554
                                      Yucatan Channel, 689                London, England, 604
LA UNION, EL SALVADOR                                                     Oslo, Norway, 72                       LAVAN ISLAND, IRAN
 (1320'00"N., 8749'00"W.) to:         Ports                                                                     (2647'05"N., 5320'15"E.) to:
                                                                          LAS PALMAS, CANARY
  Junction Points*                    Kingston, Jamaica, 1,190            ISLANDS                                  Junction Points*
                                      La Habana, Cuba, 750                 (2808'30"N., 1525'00"W.) to:
Panama, Panama, 748                   Veracruz, Mexico, 688                                                      Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
                                                                            Junction Points*                       4,785
  Ports                               LAND SKRONA, SWEDEN                                                        Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,121
                                       (5552'08"N., 1249'00"E.) to:     Bishop Rock, England, 1,360            Port Said, Egypt, 2,967
Corinto, Nicaragua, 73                                                    Strait of Gibraltar, 681               Singapore, 3,506
Golfito, Costa Rica, 432                Junction Points*                  Straits of Florida, 3,713              Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,713
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
  2,586                               Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Ports                                  Ports
                                       Entrance), Germany, 167
LAE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA                 Skagens Odde, Denmark, 137          Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,           Abadan, Iran, 349
 (644'30"S., 14701'00"E.) to:                                             3,251                                Aden, Yemen, 1,578
                                        Ports                             Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 3,442      Assab, Ethiopia, 1,722
                                                                          Charleston, South Carolina,            Bandar Abbas, Iran, 198
                                      Oslo, Norway, 261


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
56        LAZARO CARDENAS, MEXICO



Belawan, Indonesia, 3,175,           Junction Points*               LES CAYES, HAITI                      LIBREVILLE, GABON
Bombay, India, 1,198                                                 (18l0'00"N., 7345'00"W.) to:        (022'00"N., 925'00"E.) to:
Calcutta, India, 3,183             Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,667
                                   Singapore, 1,611                   Junction Points*                      Ports
LAZARO CARDENAS,
MEXICO                               Ports                          Panama, Panama, 688                   Dakar, Senegal, 1,982
 (1755'44"N., 10211'09"W.) to:                                    Straits of Florida, 738               Douala, Cameroon, 228
                                   Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,177                                            Pointe Noire, Congo, 399
  Junction Points*                 Iloilo, Philippines, 226           Ports
                                   Manila, Philippines, 370                                               LICATA, SICILY, ITALY
Honshu, Japan, 6,026                                                Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,           (3705'15"N., 1356'30"E.) to:
Panama, Panama, 1,568                                                 1,374
                                   LEITH, SCOTLAND
Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,681          (5559'00"N., 310'30"W.) to:   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,          Junction Points*
Torres Strait, Australia, 7,122                                       1,630
Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 5,817         Junction Points*               Colon, Panama, 645                    Port Said, Egypt, 993
Wilson Promontory, Australia,                                       New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Strait of Gibraltar, 958
  7,092                            Bishop Rock, England, 708          1,447
                                   Ile d'Ouessant, France, 696      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,             Ports
  Ports                            Skagens Odde, Denmark, 472         U.S.A., 1,419
                                                                    Port au Prince, Haiti, 202            Messina, Sicily, 173
Amapala, Honduras, 988               Ports                                                                Tunis, Tunisia, 187
Ensenada, Mexico, 1,253                                             LESNOY, RUSSIA                        Valletta, Malta., 78
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,153    Amsterdam, Netherlands, 372       (6640'42"N., 3422'00"E.) Add
Mollendo, Peru, 2,786              Antwerp, Belgium, 453            49 miles to Arkhangel'sk distances.   LIEN-YUN, CHINA
Monterey, California, U.S.A.,      Bergen, Norway, 386                                                     (3344'30"N., 11927'30"E.) See
  1,637                            Blyth, England, 96               LEVUKA, FIJI ISLANDS                  Lianyungang, China.
Talara, Peru, 1,832                Bremerhaven, Germany, 442         (1740'30"S., 17851'15"E.) to:
Valparaiso, Chile, 3,525           Dunkerque, France, 399                                                 LILLESAND, NORWAY
                                   Egersund, Norway, 336              Junction Points*                     (5814'50"N., 823'00"E.) to:
LE HAVRE, FRANCE                   Emden, Germany, 403
 (4929'00"N., 006'00"E.) to:     Esbjerg, Denmark, 403            Panama, Panama (via Ndaveta             Junction Points*
                                   Hamburg, Germany, 486              Namuka), 6,288
  Junction Points*                 Hull, England, 237               Punta Arenas, Chile, 5342             Pentland Firth, Scotland, 390
                                   Kristiansand, Norway, 394        Torres Strait, Australia (via Raine   Skagens Odde, Denmark, 80
Bishop Rock, England, 263          Le Havre, France, 503              Island entrance), 2,268
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 243        London, England, 417                                                     Ports
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Middlesbrough, England, 133        Ports
  Entrance), Germany, 522          Oostende, Belgium, 396                                                 Bergen, Norway, 241
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 554         Oslo, Norway, 546                Apia, Samoa, 600                      London, England, 533
                                   Plymouth, England, 619           Apra, Guam, 2,847                     Oslo, Norway, 144
  Ports                            Portland, England, 545           Auckland, New Zealand, 1,175
                                   Portsmouth, England, 495         Avarua, Cook Islands, 1,268           LIMASSOL, CYPRUS
Aberdeen, Scotland, 522            Rotterdam, Netherlands, 381      Brisbane, Australia, 1,569             (3440'00"N., 3303'00"E.) to:
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 273        Seaham Harbor, England, 117      Callao, Peru, 6,002
Antwerp, Belgium, 244              Southampton, England, 513        Hakodate, Japan, 4,271                  Junction Points*
Belfast, Northern Ireland, 542     Stavanger, Norway, 346           Hobart, Tasmania, 2,237
Bergen, Norway, 702                Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 435      Hong Kong, China (west side of        Port Said, Egypt, 208
Bremerhaven, Germany, 453          Zeebrugge, Belgium, 392            Santa Cruz Island), 4,574           Strait of Gibraltar, 1,914
Dartmouth, England, 151                                             Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,730
Dundee, Scotland, 505              LEIXOES, PORTUGAL                Melbourne, Australia, 2,274             Ports
Dunkerque, France, 144              (4110'40"N., 842'00"W.) to:   Midway Island, 2,833
Egersund, Norway, 589                                               Nagasaki, Japan (via Tanegashima      Alexandria, Egypt, 272
Emden, Germany, 396                  Ports                            Kaikyo), 4,260                      Iraklion, Kriti, 405
Esbjerg, Denmark, 482                                               Noumea, New Caledonia (via            Izmir, Turkey, 530
Granville, France, 173             Gijon, Spain, 309                  Havannah Passage and Woodin
Hamburg, Germany, 511              Lisboa, Portugal, 180              Passage), 776                       LIMERICK, IRELAND
Hartlepool, England, 386           Puerto de Pasajes, Spain, 473    Pago Pago, American Samoa, 643         (5239'40"N., 838'15"W.) to:
Hull, England, 326                 Rota, Spain, 454                 Papeete, French Polynesia, 1,831
Kristiansand, Norway, 600          Tangier, Morocco, 436            Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,              Junction Points*
Leith, Scotland, 503                                                  Russia, 4,518
Liverpool, England, 510            LERWICK, SCOTLAND                Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,024       Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 157
London, England, 205                (6007'10"N., 107'32"W.) to:   Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1,836       Inishtrahull, Ireland, 279
Narvik, Norway, 1,304                                               Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 2,060          Pentland Firth, Scotland, 538
Newcastle, England, 411              Junction Points*               San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
Oostende, Belgium, 168                                                4,705                                 Ports
Oslo, Norway, 752                  Bishop Rock, England, 899        Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 5,120
Plymouth, England, 177             Ile d'Ouessant, France, 881      Shanghai, China, 4,528                Belfast, Northern Ireland (north of
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 250        Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East          Sydney, Australia, 1,779                Ireland), 376
Shoreham By Sea, England, 90         Entrance), Germany, 568        Valparaiso, Chile, 5,753              Cobh, Ireland, 221
St. Malo, France, 156              Pentland Firth, Scotland, 118    Yokohama, Japan, 4,015
Stavanger, Norway, 629             Skagens Odde, Denmark, 123                                             LIMETREE BAY, ST. CROIX,
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 440                                         LIANYUNGANG, CHINA                    VIRGIN ISLANDS
Zeebrugge, Belgium, 186              Ports                           (3444'30"N., 11927'30"E.) to:       (1740'39"N., 6444'12"W.) to:

LE VERDON, FRANCE                  Bergen, Norway, 204                Ports                                 Junction Points*
 (4533'00"N., 102'30"W.)         Drammen, Norway, 471
Subtract 50 miles from Bordeaux    Emden, Germany, 504              Dalian, China, 348                    Bishop Rock, England, 3,352
distances.                         Hull, England, 427               Incheon, South Korea, 389             Panama, Panama, 1,060
                                   Oslo, Norway, 481                Nagasaki, Japan, 558                  Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,720
LEGASPI PORT,                                                       Shanghai, China, 414                  Strait of Gibraltar, 3,305
PHILIPPINES                                                                                               Straits of Florida, 1,126
 (1309'00"N., 12345'30"E.) to:



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                          LO-HSING-TA MAO-TI, CHINA                            57



  Ports                               LINGKAS, KALIMANTAN,                  Islands, 714                           Ports
                                     INDONESIA                            Viana do Castello, Portugal, 210
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          (317'00"N., 11735'00"E.) to:      Vigo, Spain, 247                       Alexandria, Egypt, 1,244
  1,454                                                                   Villa do Porto, Azores, 771            Algiers, Algeria, 528
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4,648         Junction Points*                   Villagarcia, Spain, 264                Alicante, Spain, 585
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,                                                                                   Anaba, Algeria, 431
  1,216                              Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 830                                                Ancona, Italy, 946
                                     Singapore, 1,286                     LISBON, PORTUGAL
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                                (3842'00"N., 908'00"W.) See         Banghazi, Libya, 841
  U.S.A., 1,474                      Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,191                                               Banzart, Tunisia, 382
                                                                          Lisboa.
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 470                                                                                     Barcelona, Spain, 386
Willemstad, Curacao, 428               Ports                                                                     Bari, Italy, 739
                                                                          LITTLE CREEK, VIRGINIA,
                                                                          U.S.A.                                 Beirut, Lebanon, 1,437
                                     Manila, Philippines, 785                                                    Brindisi, Italy, 681
LIMHAMN, SWEDEN                                                            (3656'00"N., 7610'40"W.)
                                     Tjilatjap, Indonesia, 1,217                                                 Cagliari, Sardinia, 304
 (5535'30"N., 1255'40"E.) to:                                           Subtract 13 l/2 miles from Norfolk
                                                                          distances.                             Cannes, France, 149
  Junction Points*                   LISBOA, PORTUGAL                                                            Cartagena, Spain, 636
                                      (3842'00"N., 908'00"W.) to:                                              Catania, Sicily, 464
                                                                          LIVERPOOL, CANADA
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                    (4402'30"N., 6442'00"W.) to:        Ceuta, Morocco, 868
 Entrance), Germany, 159               Junction Points*                                                          Civitavecchia, Italy, 120
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 159                                                  Ports                                Gaeta, Italy, 228
                                     Bishop Rock, England, 710                                                   Gibraltar, 869
  Ports                              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                            Haifa, Israel, 1,433
                                                                          Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
                                        5,152                                                                    Iraklion, Kriti, 920
                                                                             325
Oslo, Norway, 279                    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 666                                                 Istanbul, Turkey (south of
                                                                          Colon, Panama, 2,244
Stockholm, Sweden, 427               Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,093                                                   Greece), 1,220
                                                                          Kingston, Jamaica, 1,752
Swinoujscie, Poland, 128             Montreal, Canada, 3,032                                                     Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth
                                                                          New York, New York, U.S.A., 536
                                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,341                                                Canal), 1,178
                                                                          Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 715
                                     Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,398                                                  Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),
LIMON, COSTA RICA                                                         Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 286                                                       1,066
 (959'30"N., 8301'00"W.) to:                                               U.S.A., 686
                                     Straits of Florida, 3,823                                                   Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),
                                                                          San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,540
  Junction Points*                                                        St. John, Canada, 212                     1,024
                                       Ports                                                                     Malaga, Spain, 817
                                                                          Sydney, Canada, 293
Panama, Panama, 234                                                                                              Marseille, France, 236
Yucatan Channel, 732                 Argentia, Canada, (via Cape                                                 Messina, Sicily, 414
                                        Race), 2,101                      LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND
                                                                           (5327'00"N., 301'00"W.) to:         Napoli, Italy, 267
  Ports                              Banjul, Gambia, 1,632                                                       Nice, France, 134
                                     Belem, Brazil, 3,251                                                        Odessa, Ukraine (south of
                                                                            Junction Points*
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via     Bordeaux, France, 733                                                          Greece), 1,568
  Windward Passage and Crooked       Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                              Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth
                                                                          Bishop Rock, England, 297
  Island Passage), 1,974                2,817                                                                       Canal), 1,527
                                                                          Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 295
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via   Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,339                                              Oran, Algeria, 691
                                                                          Inishtrahull, Ireland (north of Isle
  Windward Passage and Crooked       Cadiz, Spain, 253                                                           Palermo, Sicily, 359
                                                                             of Man), 210
  Island Passage), 2,230             Cape Town, South Africa, 5,134                                              Palma, Balearic Islands, 470
                                                                          Pentland Firth, Scotland (south of
Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,611    Casablanca, Morocco, 324                                                    Piraievs, Greece (south of
                                                                             Isle of Man), 460
Cartagena, Colombia, 447             Charleston, South Carolina,                                                    Greece), 906
                                                                          Pentland Firth, Scotland (via The
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.      U.S.A., 3,385                                                            Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
                                                                             Minch), 451
  (via Windward Passage and          Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,                                              Canal), 825
  Crooked Island Passage), 1,637        3,147                                                                    Rijeka, Croatia, 1,013
                                                                            Ports
Colon, Panama, 190                   Colon, Panama (via Mona                                                     Sete, France, 298
Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,394         Passage), 4,152                                                          Sibenik, Croatia, 887
                                                                          Antwerp, Belgium, 698
Georgetown, Guyana, 1,647            Dakar, Senegal, 1,544                                                       Siracusa, Sicily, 486
                                                                          Ardrossan, Scotland, 180
Halifax, Canada, 2,368               El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 356                                          Split, Croatia, 872
                                                                          Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 2,075
Hamilton, Bermuda (via Windward      Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,023                                               Tarabulus, Libya, 754
                                                                          Avonmouth, England, 282
  Passage), 1,715                    Funchal, Madeira Island, 532                                                Taranto, Italy, 634
                                                                          Brest, France, 410
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,       Georgetown, Guyana, 3,264                                                   Thessaloniki, Greece (south of
                                                                          Cardiff, Wales, 267
  1,589                              Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,570                                                        Greece), 1,114
                                                                          Cherbourg, France, 442
Kingston, Jamaica, 605               Halifax, Canada, 2,484                                                      Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth
                                                                          Cobh, Ireland, 246
La Habana, Cuba, 1,170               Horta, Azores, 917                                                             Canal), 1,073
                                                                          Douglas, Isle of Man, 68
Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A. (via         Huelva, Spain, 235                                                          Toulon, France, 204
                                                                          Falmouth, England, 313
  inside route), 1,292               Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,                                              Trieste, Italy, 1,047
                                                                          Holyhead, Wales, 72
New York, New York, U.S.A. (via         3,539                                                                    Tunis, Tunisia, 417
                                                                          Kingston, Jamaica, 1,744
  Windward Passage and Crooked       Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,765                                            Valencia, Spain, 539
                                                                          Le Havre, France, 510
  Island Passage), 2,047             Kingston, Jamaica, 3,725                                                    Valletta, Malta, 519
                                                                          London, England, 659
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via       Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 712                                             Venezia, Italy, 1,057
                                                                          Londonderry, Northern Ireland,
  Windward Passage and Crooked       Marin, Spain, 255                                                           Villefranche, France, 133
                                                                            215
  Island Passage), 1,852             Monrovia, Liberia, 2,225                                                    Volos, Greece (south of Greece),
                                                                          Milford Haven, Wales, 197
Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 1,256    New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                                    1,056
                                                                          Murmansk, Russia, 1,703
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.      2,980                                                                    Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
                                                                          Newport, Wales, 284
  (via Windward Passage and          Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,129                                               1,014
                                                                          Port Talbot, Wales, 244
  Crooked Island Passage), 2,019     Oporto, Portugal, 176
                                                                          Southampton, England, 479
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,313       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
                                                                          Swansea, Wales, 236                    LO-HSING-TA MAO-TI,
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,316         U.S.A., 3,122                                                            CHINA
                                                                          Waterford, Ireland, 189
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 623         Ponta Delgada, Azores, 783                                                   (2559'00"N., 11926'30"E.) to:
San Juan, Puerto Rico (via Mona      Port of Spain, Trinidad, 3,287
                                     Port Castries, St. Lucia, 3,111      LIVORNO, ITALY
  Passage), 1,119                                                          (4333'06"N., 1017'45"E.) to:          Junction Points*
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via       Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,
  Windward Passage), 1,636              1,555                                                                    Singapore, 1,817
                                                                            Junction Points*
Veracruz, Mexico, 1,338              Praia, Da Vitoria, Terceira,
Wilmington, North Carolina,             Azores, 850                                                                Ports
                                                                          Port Said, Egypt, 1,355
  U.S.A., 1,680                      Recife, Brazil, 3,156
                                                                          Strait of Gibraltar, 887
                                     Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,219                                               Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
                                     San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,185                                                  Russia, 1,868
                                     Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary                                              Apra, Guam, 1,617



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
58        LOBITO, ANGOLA



Busan, South Korea, 762              Dartmouth, England, 292          Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,179      Baie Taio-Hae, Marquesa Islands,
Cebu, Philippines (via Balintang     Dundee, Scotland, 420                                                  2,858
   Channel), 1,051                   Dunkerque, France, 112             Ports                            Bangkok, Thailand (via Balintang
Dagu, China (via Steep Island        Egersund, Norway, 501                                                  Channel), 7,775
   Passage), 1,029                   Emden, Germany, 318              Lagos, Nigeria, 463                Brisbane, Australia, 6,274
Dalian, China, 871                   Esbjerg, Denmark, 403            Matadi, Congo, 731                 Busan, South Korea, 5,229
Hakodate, Japan, 1,429               Falmouth, England, 351                                              Callao, Peru, 3,655
Hong Kong, China, 459                Farsund, Norway, 497             LONGYEARBYEN,                      Corinto, Nicaragua, 2,281
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,487      Fishguard, Wales, 523            SVALBARD                           Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,
Iloilo, Philippines (via Balintang   Flekkefjorden, Norway, 479        (7814'30"N., 1534'00"E.) to:       2,382
   Channel), 1,073                   Grimstad, Norway, 542                                               Ensenada, Mexico, 151
Incheon, South Korea, 818            Hakonsvern, Norway, 616            Ports                            Guayaquil, Ecuador, 3,218
Kobe, Japan, 1,003                   Hamburg, Germany, 425                                               Guaymas, Mexico, 1,158
Manila, Philippines, 787             Hirtshals, Denmark, 541          Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 1,051        Hakodate, Japan, 4,576
Mogpo, South Korea, 665              Holyhead, Wales, 594             Bergen, Norway, 1,124              Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (via San
Nagasaki, Japan, 691                 Hull, England, 240               Dikson, Russia, 1,148                 Bernardino Strait), 7,403
Nampo, North Korea, 879              Kristiansand, Norway, 514        Inverness, Scotland, 1,340         Hong Kong, China, 6,380
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Kragero, Norway, 582             Kirkenes, Norway, 637              Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,228
   Russia, 2,481                     Larvik, Norway, 604              Murmansk, Russia, 695              Kobe, Japan, 5,185
Qingdao, China (via Steep Island     Le Havre, France, 205            Narvik, Norway, 659                Manila, Philippines (north of
   Passage), 715                     Leith, Scotland, 417             Oslo, Norway, 1,482                   Luzon), 6,530
Qinhuangdao, China, 977              Lillesand, Norway, 533           Pechenga, Russia, 638              Manila, Philippines (via San
Shanghai, China, 440                 Liverpool, England, 659          Reykjavik, Iceland (north of          Bernardino Strait), 6,588
Shimonoseki, Japan, 799              Mandal, Norway, 503                Iceland), 1,160                  Manzanillo, Mexico, 1,205
Vladivostok, Russia, 1,264           Methil, Scotland, 407            Reykjavik, Iceland (South of       Mazatlan, Mexico, 1,011
Weihai, China (via Steep Island      Middlesbrough, England, 293        Iceland), 1,310                  Melbourne, Australia, 7,032
   Passage), 801                     Narvik, Norway, 1,215            Tromso, Norway, 556                Nagasaki, Japan, 5,572
Weonsan, North Korea, 1,068          Newcastle, England, 325          Trondheim, Norway, 943             Nampo, North Korea, 5,711
Xiamen, China, 200                   Oostende, Belgium, 123           Vardo, Norway, 586                 Newcastle, Australia, 6,456
Yantai, China, 835                   Oslo, Norway, 650                                                   Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,968
Yokohama, Japan, 1,217               Plymouth, England, 321           LOOP TERMINAL, GULF OF             Noumea, New Caledonia, 5,521
                                     Portland, England, 247           MEXICO, U.S.A.                     Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 4,633
LOBITO, ANGOLA                       Portsmouth, England, 197          (2852'11"N., 8955'16"W.) to:    Ocean Island, 4,553
 (1220'00"S., 1334'00"E.) to:      Risor, Norway, 572                                                  Pago Pago, American Samoa,
                                     Rotterdam, Netherlands, 184        Junction Points*                    4,163
  Junction Points*                   Sandefjorden, Norway, 610                                           Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,571
                                     Seaham Harbor, England, 318      Straits of Florida, 472            Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.A.,
Cape of Good Hope, South             Shoreham By Sea, England, 161    Yucatan Channel, 503                  2,233
   Africa, 1,440                     Skien, Norway, 609                                                  Petropavlovsk Kamchatskiy,
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,670        Southampton, England, 215          Ports                               Russia, 3,615
                                     Stavanger, Norway, 539                                              Prince Rupert, Canada, 1,432
  Ports                              Stockholm, Sweden, 1,251         Campeche, Mexico, 545              Puerto Armuelles, Panama, 2,645
                                     Sunderland, England, 312         La Habana, Cuba, 547               Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 2,499
Accra, Ghana, 1,356                  Tonsberg, Norway, 624            Tampico, Mexico, 602               Salina Cruz, Mexico, 1,803
Luanda, Angola, 237                  Tvedestrand, Norway, 565         Veracruz, Mexico, 679              San Jose, Guatemala, 2,054
Pointe Noire, Congo, 473             Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 362                                         Santa Rosalia, Mexico, 1,192
                                     Zeebrugge, Belgium, 131          LORIENT, FRANCE                    Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,045
LOME, TOGO                                                             (4743'45"N., 321'51"W.) to:     Shanghai, China, 5,810
 (607'00"N., 113'30"E.) to:        LONDONDERRY,                                                        Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,640
                                     NORTHERN IRELAND                   Junction Points*                 Surabaya, Indonesia (via Makassar
  Ports                               (5500'00"N., 719'00"W.) to:                                         Strait), 7,622
                                                                      Bishop Rock, England, 202          Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,788
Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, 480         Junction Points*               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 107        Sydney, Australia, 6,511
Monrovia, Liberia, 789                                                                                   Valparaiso, Chile, 4,808
Pointe Noire, Congo, 910             Bishop Rock, England, 396          Ports                            Victoria, Canada, 1,091
Takoradi, Ghana, 200                 Fastnet Rock, Ireland (west of                                      Vladivostok, Russia, 4,981
                                       Ireland), 371                  Bilbao, Spain, 274                 Wellington, New Zealand, 5,857
LONDON, ENGLAND                      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 310                                       Weonsan, North Korea, 5,181
 (5130'00"N., 001'00"E.) to:                                        LOS ANGELES,                       Yokohama, Japan, 4,839
                                       Ports                          CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.
  Junction Points*                                                     (3345'00"N., 11816'15"W.) to:   LOTA, CHILE
                                     Avonmouth, England, 384                                              (3705'40"S., 7309'40"W.) to:
Bishop Rock, England, 413            Belfast, Northern Ireland (via     Junction Points*
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 397            Rathlin Sound), 102                                                 Junction Points*
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Cardiff, Wales, 369              Panama, Panama, 2,913
  Entrance), Germany, 439            Cobh, Ireland, 340               Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,871         Panama, Panama, 2,825
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 536        Dublin, Ireland, 189             Singapore (via San Bernardino      Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,191
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 554           Glasgow, Scotland, 145            Strait), 7,867
                                     Liverpool, England, 215          Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via          Ports
  Ports                                                                 Makassar Strait), 7,976
                                     LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA,          Wilson Promontory, Australia,      Acapulco, Mexico, 3,573
Aberdeen, Scotland, 429              U.S.A.                             6,879                            Antofagasta, Chile, 828
Alesund, Norway, 733                  (3346'12"N., 11813'18"W.)                                        Arica, Chile, 1,134
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 208          Use Los Angeles distances.         Ports                            Caldera, Chile, 628
Antwerp, Belgium, 193                                                                                    Callao, Peru, 1,530
Arendal, Norway, 551                 LONGJI, CAMEROON                 Acapulco, Mexico, 1,501            Coquimbo, Chile, 455
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 2,061           (305'00"N., 957'20"E.) to:    Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,        Corinto, Nicaragua, 3,081
Barrow in Furness, England, 665                                         Russia, 4,687                    Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 2,388
Bergen, Norway, 613                    Junction Points*               Antofagasta, Chile, 4,430          Guayaquil, Ecuador, 2,155
Blyth, England, 318                                                   Apia, Samoa, 4,181                 Guaymas, Mexico, 4,442
Bremerhaven, Germany, 375            Cape of Good Hope, South         Arica, Chile, 4,219                Iquique, Chile, 1,033
Cardiff, Wales, 526                    Africa, 2,359                  Auckland, New Zealand, 5,658
                                                                      Avarua, Cook Islands, 4,064



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                      MAKASSAR, SULAWESI                        59



Monterey, California, U.S.A.,        Inaderslev, Denmark, 137           MAASSLUIS,                            Victoria.
   1,202                             Kobenhavn, Denmark, 148            NETHERLANDS
Pisco, Peru, 1,432                   Middlefart, Denmark, 149            (5155'45"N., 415'12"E.)
                                                                                                              MAHON, BALEARIC
Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 2,899        Naestved, Denmark, 136             Subtract 8 l/2 miles from Rotterdam   ISLANDS
Salina Cruz, Mexico, 3,430           Stockholm, Sweden, 491             distances.                             (3952'02"N., 418'45"E.) to:
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Vejle, Denmark, 173
   4,881                                                                MACEIO, BRAZIL                          Junction Points*
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   LUCINDA, AUSTRALIA                  (941'00"S., 3544'00"W.) to:
   5,282                              (1831'15"S., 14620'00"E.) to:                                         Port Said, Egypt, 1,472
San Jose, Guatemala, 3,220                                                Junction Points*                    Strait of Gibraltar, 542
Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,     Junction Points*
   5,018                                                                Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,138              Ports
Talcahuano, Chile, 50                Torres Strait, Australia, 634
Valparaiso, Chile, 268               Wilson Promontory, Australia,        Ports                               Alexandria, Egypt, 1,349
                                       1,621                                                                  Banghazi, Libya, 896
                                                                        Belem, Brazil, 1,211                  Ceuta, Morocco, 388
LOWESTOFT, ENGLAND
 (5229'41"N., 147'06"E.) to:         Ports                            Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 972           Genova, Italy, 340
                                                                        Salvador, Brazil, 285                 Malaga, Spain, 517
  Junction Points*                   Brisbane, Australia, 804                                                 Trieste, Italy, 1,314
                                     Wellington, New Zealand, 2,102     MACKAY, AUSTRALIA                     Tunis, Tunisia, 372
Bishop Rock, England, 418                                                (2109'15"S., 14914'00"E.) to:
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 404          LULEA, SWEDEN                                                            MAIZURU, JAPAN
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               (6534'30"N., 22l0'00"E.) to:      Junction Points*                     (3531'00"N., 13520'00"E.) to:
  Entrance), Germany, 350
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 424          Junction Points*                 Torres Strait, Australia, 864           Ports
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 452
                                     Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Ports                               Akita, Japan, 352
  Ports                               Entrance), Germany, 875                                                 Bohang, South Korea, 313
                                     Skagens Odde, Denmark (via Store   Brisbane, Australia, 512              Busan, South Korea, 333
Aberdeen, Scotland, 320                Baelt), 1,067                    Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,253          Changjon, North Korea, 411
Bremerhaven, Germany, 279            Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The     Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea,       Chongjin, North Korea, 463
Calais, France, 90                     Sound), 941                        1,168                               Hakodate, Japan, 460
Emden, Germany, 221                                                     Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1,871       Kimchaek, North Korea, 431
London, England, 110                   Ports                                                                  Nanao, Japan, 213
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 108                                             MACKENZIE, GUYANA                     Niigata, Japan, 256
Trondheim, Norway, 776               Bergen, Norway (via The Sound),     (600'00"N., 5817'00"W.) Add        Sakata, Japan, 314
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 263            1,247                            66 miles to Georgetown distances.     Shanghai, China, 800
Zeebrugge, Belgium, 94               Oslo, Norway (via Store Baelt),                                          Shimonoseki, Japan, 302
                                       1,195                            MADRAS, INDIA                         Ulsan, South Korea, 315
LUANDA, ANGOLA                       Oslo, Norway (via The Sound),       (1306'00"N., 8018'00"E.) to:       Unggi, North Korea, 474
 (847'00"S., 1315'00"E.) to:         1,062                                                                  Vladivostok, Russia, 485
                                     Stavanger, Norway (via The           Junction Points*                    Wakamatsu, Japan, 299
  Junction Points*                     Sound, 1,172
                                     Trondheim, Norway (via The         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa       MAJUNGA, MADAGASCAR
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       Sound), 1,543                      (via east of Madagascar), 4,790      (1544'00"S., 4618'00"E.) to:
  1,627                                                                 Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,480
                                     LYSEKIL, SWEDEN                    Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,559          Junction Points*
  Ports                               (5816'00"N., 1126'00"E.) to:    Port Said, Egypt, 4,037
                                                                        Singapore, 1,583                      Port Said, Egypt, 3,471
Boma, Congo, 190                       Junction Points*                                                       Singapore, 3,845
Cape Town, South Africa, 1,601                                            Ports
Georgetown, Ascension Island,        Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                    Ports
  1,657                               Entrance), Germany (via Store     Aden, Yemen, 2,650
Lobito, Angola, 237                    Baelt), 267.                     Belawan, Indonesia, 1,252             Beira, Mozambique, 732
New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Bombay, India, 1,482                  Belawan, Indonesia, 3,512
  5,670                               Entrance), Germany (via The       Calcutta, India, 769                  Fremantle, Australia, 4,132
Pointe Noire, Congo, 266               Sound), 340                      Colombo, Sri Lanka, 611               Malacca, Malaysia, 3,710
Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 941                                             Fremantle, Australia, 3,389           Maputo, Mozambique, 1,034
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,      Ports                            Kakinada, India, 276                  Penang, Malaysia, 3,557
  2,778                                                                 Karachi, Pakistan, 1,908              Port Darwin, Australia, 5,069
                                     Bergen, Norway, 330                Malacca, Malaysia, 1,470              Sabang, Indonesia, 3,246
LUBECK, GERMANY                      Flensburg, Germany, 270            Moulmein, Burma, 1,043                Tulear, Madagascar, 625
 (5352'44"N., 1041'27"E.) to:      Fredericia, Denmark, 191           Penang, Malaysia, 1,285
                                     Oslo, Norway, 114                  Port Blair, Andaman Islands, 758      MAKASSAR, SULAWESI
  Junction Points*                                                      Port Darwin, Australia, 3,483          (508'00"S., 11924'00"E.) to:
                                     LYTTELTON, NEW                     Port Dickson, Malaysia, 143
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              ZEALAND                            Port Swettenham, Malaysia, 1,384        Junction Points*
 Entrance), Germany, 98               (4336'25"S., 17243'00"E.) to:   Rangoon, Burma, 1,003
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 263                                              Sabang, Indonesia, 994                Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 339
                                       Junction Points*                 Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 288           Panama, Panama (via Selat Salajar
  Ports                                                                 Vishakhapatnam, India, 332              and Selat Sagewin), 9,855
                                     Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,792                                           Singapore (via Selat Riouw), 1,070
Aalborg, Denmark (via Store          Torres Strait, Australia, 2,849    MAGADAN, RUSSIA                       Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 861
  Baelt), 248                                                            (5933'00"N., 15045'00"E.) See      Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 614
Abenra, Denmark, 131                   Ports                            Bukhta Nagayeve.
Assens, Denmark, 127                                                                                            Ports
Faborg, Denmark, 102                 Melbourne, Australia, 1,518        MAGALLANES, CHILE
Flensburg, Germany, 131              Port Augusta, Australia, 2,082      (5310'00"S., 7054'00"W.) See       Bandjermasin, Kalimantan,
Fredericia, Denmark, 155             Sydney, Australia, 1,419           Punta Arenas.                           Indonesia, 399
Frederikshavn, Denmark, 155          Wellington, New Zealand, 174                                             Belawan, Indonesia, 1,439
Gdynia, Poland, 328                                                                                           Davao, Philippines, 929
                                                                        MAHE, SEYCHELLES
Grena, Denmark, 169                                                      (436'40"S., 5529'00"E.) See        Kompong Som, Cambodia, 1,584




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
60        MALABO, EQUATORIAL GUINEA



Manila, Philippines (via Mindoro   Strait of Gibraltar, 78           MALDOGADO, URUGUAY                   Strait of Gibraltar, 2,547
   Strait and Sibutu Passage),                                        (356'00"S., 5500'00"W.) to:
   1,232                             Ports                                                                  Ports
Mogpo, South Korea, 2,483                                              Junction Points*
Semarang, Indonesia, 596           Alexandria, Egypt, 1,752                                               Churchill, Canada, 1,341
Sorido, Indonesia, 1,180           Algiers, Algeria, 368             Panama, Panama, 5,352                Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,146
Sorong, Indonesia, 872             Alicante, Spain, 248              Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,321           St. John's, Canada, 1,075
Tandjung Uban, Indonesia, 1,075    Ancona, Italy, 1,510
Tjirebon, Indonesia, 156           Annaba, Algeria, 607                Ports
                                                                                                          MANILA, PHILIPPINES
Tso-ying, Taiwan, 1,757            Banghazi, Libya, 1,286                                                  (1435'00"N., 12058'00"E.) to:
                                   Banzart, Tunisia, 699             Santos, Brazil, 1,172
MALABO, EQUATORIAL                 Barcelona, Spain, 464                                                    Junction Points*
GUINEA                             Bari, Italy, 1,303                MALMO, SWEDEN
 (345'30"N., 846'30"E.) to:      Beirut, Lebanon, 1,964             (5537'00"N., 1300'00"E.) to:      Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via
                                   Brindisi, Italy, 1,245                                                   Sibutu Passage), 1,514
  Ports                            Cartagena, Spain, 189               Junction Points*                   Panama, Panama (north of
                                   Catania, Sicily, 1,012                                                   Luzon), 9,347
Boma, Congo, 689                   Derince, Turkey, 1,785            Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Panama, Panama (via San
Georgetown, Ascension Island,      Genova, Italy, 798                 Entrance), Germany (via Store         Bernardino Strait), 9,370
   1,561                           Ghazaouet, Algeria, 158             Baelt), 205                        Singapore, 1,330
Kribi, Cameroon, 106               Haifa, Israel, 1,961              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 155           Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via
Lagos, Nigeria, 384                Iraklion, Kriti, 1,446                                                   Palawan Passage and Selat
Lome, Togo, 480                    Istanbul, Turkey, 1,752             Ports                                Gaspar), 1,578
St. Helena Island, 1,472           Izmir, Turkey, 1,597                                                   Torres Strait, Australia (via Basilan
                                   La Spezia, Italy, 821             Oslo, Norway, 278                      Strait), 2,193
MALACCA, MALAYSIA                  Livorno, Italy, 817               Stockholm, Sweden (via Drogen
 (210'00"N., 10214'00"E.) to:    Marseille, France, 641              Channel), 435                        Ports
                                   Melilla, Morocco, 116             Stockholm, Sweden (via Flint
  Junction Points*                 Mers el Kebir, Algeria, 194         Channel), 422                      Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
                                   Messina, Sicily, 979                                                      Russia, 2,507
Cape of Good Hope, South           Napoli, Italy, 932                MALTEPE, TURKEY                      Ambon, Indonesia, 1,260
  Africa, 5,464                    Odessa, Ukraine, 2,100             (4054'00"N., 2908'00"E.) Add      Apra, Guam (north of Luzon),
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,091     Oran, Algeria, 195                5 miles to Istanbul distances for       1,742
Port Said, Egypt, 4,906            Palermo, Sicily, 870              Ports outside of the Black Sea and   Apra, Guam (via San Bernardino
Singapore, 117                     Palma, Balearic Islands, 401      Sea of Marmara.                         Strait), 1,499
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 619        Piraievs, Greece (south of                                             Balikpapan, Kalimantan, Indonesia
Torres Strait, Australia, 2,588       Greece), 1,438                 MANAUS, BRAZIL                          (via Sibutu Passage), 1,057
                                   Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth      (308'00"S., 6001'00"W.) Add       Bangkok, Thailand, 1,435
  Ports                               Canal), 1,381                  920 miles to Belem distances.        Busan, South Korea, 1,402
                                   Rijeka, Croatia, 1,578                                                 Cebu, Philippines, 404
Aden, Yemen, 3,517                 Savona, Italy, 783                MANCHESTER, ENGLAND                  Chimu Wan, Ryukyu Islands, 947
Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,771             Sibenik, Croatia, 1,452            (5329'00"N., 214'00"W.) Add       Da Nang, Vietnam, 758
Al Manamah, Bahrain, 3,534         Siracusa, Sicily, 985             39 miles to Liverpool distances.     Dagu, China (east of Taiwan),
Albany, Australia, 2,602           Split, Croatia, 1,436                                                     1,722
Beira, Mozambique, 4,405           Tarabulus, Libya, 1,024                                                Dagu, China (via Formosa Strait),
                                                                     MANDAL, NORWAY
Belawan, Indonesia, 253            Taranto, Italy, 1,198              (5801'30"N., 727'20"E.) to:          1,732
Berbera, Somalia, 3,531            Tarragona, Spain, 431                                                  Dalian, China (east of Taiwan),
Bombay, India, 2,327               Thessaloniki, Greece, 1,646         Junction Points*                      1,561
Bushehr, Iran, 3,590               Toulon, France, 652                                                    Dalian, China (via Formosa
Calcutta, India, 1,523             Trieste, Italy, 1,611             Pentland Firth, Scotland, 351           Strait), 1,571
Calicut, India, 1,827              Valencia, Spain, 334              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 110           Davao, Philippines, 831
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,458          Valletta, Malta, 928                                                   Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 3,927     Venezia, Italy, 1,621               Ports                                 (north of Luzon), 4,233
Diego Garcia, Chagos               Villa Sanjurjo, Morocco, 93                                            Guayaquil, Ecuador, 9,615
  Archipelago, 2,078               Volos, Greece, 1,587              Bergen, Norway, 201                  Haiphong, Vietnam (South of Hai-
Durban, South Africa, 4,757                                          London, England, 503                    nan Tao), 936
East London, South Africa, 4,967   MALAKAL, PALAU ISLANDS            Oslo, Norway, 177                    Hakodate, Japan, 2,066
Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 3,860     (720'00"N., 13426'30"E.) to:                                        Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 907
Jakarta, Indonesia, 613                                                                                   Hong Kong, China, 631
                                                                     MANFREDONIA, ITALY
Kakinada, India, 1,478               Junction Points*                 (4137'15"N., 1555'30"E.) to:      Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (north of
Karachi, Pakistan, 2,768                                                                                     Luzon), 4,869
Madras, India, 1,470               Panama, Panama, 8,674               Junction Points*                   Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via San
Majunga, Madagascar, 3,730         Singapore (via Basilan Strait),                                           Bernardino Strait), 4,767
Maputo, Mozambique, 4,654            2,006                           Port Said, Egypt, 1,045              Hua-Lien Kang, Taiwan, 648
Mocambique, Mozambique, 3,965                                        Strait of Gibraltar, 1,419           Iloilo, Philippines (via Verde
Mombasa, Kenya, 3,872                Ports                                                                   Island Passage and Jintotolo
Mosselbaai, South Africa, 5,269                                        Ports                                 Channel), 361
Penang, Malaysia, 252              Apia, Samoa, 3,446                                                     Incheon, South Korea, 1,498
Port Louis, Mauritius, 3,215       Apra, Guam, 706                   Ancona, Italy, 195                   Jakarta, Indonesia (via Palawan
Rangoon, Burma, 986                Brisbane, Australia, 2,642        Dubrovnik, Croatia, 117                 Passage), 1,559
Sabang, Indonesia, 486             Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,801       Durres, Albania, 161                 Jolo, Philippines, 550
Surabaya, Indonesia, 881           Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,997                                        Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 3,664
Tamatave, Madagascar, 3,560        Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,579                                          Kobe, Japan (via Balintang
Victoria, Seychelles, 2,952                                          MANGALORE, INDIA
                                   Manila, Philippines (via Verde     (1255'32"N., 7448'00"E.) See         Channel), 1,563
Zanzibar, Tanzania, 3,945            Island Passage and San                                               Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,823
                                                                     New Mangalore.
                                     Bernardino strait), 1,044                                            Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 787
MALAGA, SPAIN                      Noumea, New Caledonia, 2,612                                           Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
 (342'44"N., 427'00"W.) to:      Ponape, Caroline Islands, 1,418   MANIITSOQ, GREENLAND                    (via north of Luzon), 6,530
                                                                      (6524'36"N., 5254'12"W.) to:
                                   Surabaya, Indonesia, 1,656                                             Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
  Junction Points*                 Suva, Fiji Islands, 3,041                                                 (via San Bernardino Strait),
                                                                       Junction Points*
                                   Yokohama, Japan, 1,731                                                    6,588
Port Said, Egypt, 1,873                                                                                   Makassar, Sulawesi (via Sibutu
                                                                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,700



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                           MARSEILLE, FRANCE                       61



   Passage), 1,232                      Yokohama, Japan (via Balintang       Santos, Brazil, 1,363                MARMAGAO, INDIA
Malakal, Palau Islands (via San           Channel), 1,758                                                          (1525'00"N., 7347'30"E.) to:
   Bernardino Strait), 1,044            Zamboanga, Philippines, 532          MARACAIBO, VENEZUELA
Midway Island (north of Luzon),                                               (1038'00"N., 7137'00"W.) to:        Junction Points*
   3,752                                MANZANILLO, CUBA
Midway Island (via San                   (2021'00"N., 7709'00"W.) to:        Junction Points*                   Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
 Bernardino Strait), 3,685                                                                                          4,447
Mogpo, South Korea, 1,338                 Junction Points*                   Montreal, Canada, 2,931              Port Said, Egypt, 3,078
Moji, Japan, 1,436                                                           Panama, Panama, 737                  Singapore, 2,217
Nagasaki, Japan, 1,298                  Panama, Panama, 732                  Straits of Florida (via Windward
Nakagusuku, Ryukyu Islands, 935         Yucatan Channel, 482                  Passage), 1,205                       Ports
Nampo, North Korea, 1,559                                                    Yucatan Channel, 1,096
Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam, 706               Ports                                                                   Bombay, India, 235
Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,379                                                    Ports                              Colombo, Sri Lanka, 671
Noumea, New Caledonia, 3,616            Charleston, South Carolina,                                               Karachi, Pakistan, 690
Pago Pago, American Samoa (via            U.S.A., 1,105                      Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via     Okha, India, 533
   San Bernardino Strait), 4,519        Cienfuegos, Cuba, 266                  Windward Passage), 1,804           Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 968
Papeete, French Polynesia, 5,728        Colon, Panama, 689                   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
Peng-hu Kang, Taiwan, 606               Guantanamo, Cuba, 206                  2,001                              MARSA AL BURAYQAH,
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,              Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,187             Cartagena, Colombia, 465             LIBYA
   Russia (via Chetvertyy Kuril'sky     Kingston, Jamaica, 283               Charleston, South Carolina,           (3028'15"N., 1932'45"E.) to:
   Proliv and La Perouse Strait),       Port au Prince, Haiti, 372             U.S.A., 1,467
   3,117                                San Juan, Puerto Rico, 738           Colon, Panama, 693                     Junction Points*
Port Darwin, Australia (via Basilan     Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 168          Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,810
   Strait and Selat Manipa), 1,834      Santo Domingo, Dominican             La Habana, Cuba, 1,173               Port Said, Egypt, 782
Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 6,024           Republic, 558                      Las Piedras, Venezuela, 126          Strait of Gibraltar, 1,408
Prince Rupert, Canada (north of         Willemstad, Curacao, 746             New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
   Luzon and south of Aleutian                                                 (via South Pass), 1,629              Ports
   Islands), 5,546                      MANZANILLO, MEXICO                   New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Prince Rupert, Canada (via                                                     1,890                              Alexandria, Egypt, 640
                                         (1903'30"N., 10419'50"W.) to:
   alternate route, north of Aleutian                                        Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,682     Barcelona, Spain, 1,056
   Islands), 5,493                        Ports                              Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Beirut, Lebanon, 903
Pulupandan, Philippines, 363                                                   (via Windward Passage), 1,849      Genova, Italy, 986
Qingdao, China, 1,422                   Acapulco, Mexico, 295                Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 2,042       Haifa, Israel, 881
Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,281         Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Puerto Padre, Cuba, 834              Messina, Sicily, 503
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,            1,205                              Santo Domingo, Dominican             Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,009
   6,604                                Mazatlan, Mexico, 297                  Republic, 496                      Venezia, Italy, 1,014
San Fernando, Philippines, 207          San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,466     Volvos, Greece, 655
San Francisco, California (via San        1,136                              Willemstad, Curacao, 222
   Bernardino Strait), 6,299            San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,                                        MARSAXLOKK, MALTA
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.         1,538                                                                    (3548'54"N., 1433'06"E.) to:
                                                                             MARCUS HOOK,
   (via Balintang Channel), 6,221       San Jose, Guatemala, 840             PENNSYLVANIA, U.S.A.
Sanya Gang, China, 714                                                        (3948'12"N., 7525'12"W.)            Junction Points*
Sasebo, Japan, 1,349                    MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE                   Subtract 18 miles from
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (north                                           Philadelphia distances.              Port Said, Egypt, 942
                                         (2558'30"S., 3234'00"E.) to:
   of Luzon), 5,959                                                                                               Strait of Gibraltar, 1,017
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via          Junction Points*                   MARE ISLAND,
   San Bernardino Strait), 6,077                                             CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.                     Ports
Seward, Alaska, U.S.A. (north of        Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,      (3836'0"N., 12216'00"W.) Add
   Luzon and south of Aleutian            1,057                              22 miles to San Francisco            Messina, Sicily, 164
   Islands), 5,046                      Port Said, Egypt, 4,348              distances.                           Tarabulus, Libya, 191
Shanghai, China (east of Taiwan),       Singapore, 4,769                                                          Tunis, Tunisia, 246
   1,156                                                                     MARIEL, CUBA
Shanghai, China (via Formosa              Ports                               (2300'00"N., 8245'15"W.) to:      MARSEILLE, FRANCE
   Strait), 1,166                                                                                                  (43l9'10"N., 521'17"E.) to:
Shimonoseki, Japan, 1,424               Aden, Yemen, 2,973                     Junction Points*
Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A. (north of         Beira, Mozambique, 476                                                      Junction Points*
   Aleutian Islands), 5,302             Belawan, Indonesia, 4,436            Straits of Florida, 86
Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A. (south of         Durban, South Africa, 307            Yucatan Channel, 164                 Port Said, Egypt, 1,518
   Aleutian Islands), 5,370             Fremantle, Australia, 4,283                                               Strait of Gibraltar, 711
Su-ao Kang, Taiwan, 684                 Majunga, Madagascar, 1,034             Ports
Surabaya, Indonesia, 1,540              Malacca, Malaysia, 4,654                                                    Ports
Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,048               Mombasa, Kenya, 1,508                Kingston, Jamaica, 716
Tandjung Uban, Indonesia, 1,328         Penang, Malaysia, 4,481              Nuevitas, Cuba, 366                  Ajaccio, Corsica, 188
Tarakan, Indonesia, 785                 Port Darwin, Australia, 5,539        San Juan, Puerto Rico, 999           Alexandria, Egypt, 1,407
Truk, Caroline Islands, 1,994           Port Louis, Mauritius, 1,448         Swan Island, Honduras, 437           Algiers, Algeria, 410
Tso-Ying, Taiwan, 552                   Sabang, Indonesia, 4,170                                                  Alicante, Spain, 406
Valparaiso, Chile (via San              Tamatave, Madagascar, 1,242                                               Ancona, Italy, 1,109
                                                                             MARIN, PONTE VEDRA BAY,
   Bernardino Strait), 9,710            Zanzibar, Tanzania, 1,388            SPAIN                                Annaba, Algeria, 409
Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 710                                                   (4224'00"N., 843'00"W.) to:       Banghazi, Libya, 1,004
Vladivostok, Russia, 1,912                                                                                        Baniyas, Syria, 1,610
                                        MAR DEL PLATA,                                                            Banzart, Tunisia, 428
Wake Island, Pacific, 2,772             ARGENTINA                              Junction Points*
Weihai, China (east of Taiwan),          (3802'00"S., 5731'00"W.) to:                                           Barcelona, Spain, 189
   1,498                                                                     Ile d'Ouessant, France, 437          Bari, Italy, 902
Weihai, China (via Formosa                Junction Points*                   Strait of Gibraltar, 517             Bat'umi, Georgia (south of
   Strait), 1,508                                                                                                   Greece), 1,970
Weonsan, North Korea, 1,708             Panama, Panama, 5,543                  Ports                              Bat'umi, Georgia (via Corinth
Wotje Island, Marshall Islands,         Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,112                                                  Canal), 1,929
   3,027                                                                     Bilbao, Spain, 387                   Beirut, Lebanon, 1,600
Xiamen, China, 662                        Ports                              Horta, Azores, 944                   Bonifacio, Corsica, 213
Yantai, China (east of Formosa),                                             Lisboa, Portugal, 255                Brindisi, Italy, 844
   1,532                                Buenos Aires, Argentina, 276                                              Cagliari, Sardinia, 360
Yap, Caroline Islands, 1,154                                                                                      Cartagena, Spain, 460



  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
62        MASAN, SOUTH KOREA



Catania, Sicily, 627                   Ports                                 Ports                             MAYAQUEZ, PUERTO RICO
Ceuta, Morocco, 692                                                                                             (1813'21"N., 6711'50"W.) to:
Civitavecchia, Italy, 316            Cebu, Philippines, 183                Belize, Belize, 957
Famagusta, Cyprus, 1,558             Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,065           Tampico, Mexico, 380                  Junction Points*
Genova, Italy, 204                   Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via San     Tuxpan, Mexico, 445
Gibraltar, 693                         Bernardino Strait), 4,492           Veracruz, Mexico, 549               Bishop Rock, England, 3,504
Haifa, Israel, 1,596                 Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (via                                              Cape of Good Hope, South
Iraklion, Kriti, 1,083                 Balabac Strait), 684                                                       Africa, 5,823
                                                                           MATANZAS, CUBA
Istanbul, Turkey (south of           Sandakan, Sabah, 584                   (2303'30"N., 8133'30"W.) to:     Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,409
   Greece), 1,383                    Zamboanga, Philippines, 406                                               Grand Banks South, 1,752
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth                                                Junction Points*                  Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,536
   Canal), 1,342                                                                                               Panama, Panama, 910
                                     MASNEDSUND, DENMARK
Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),      (5559'48"N., 1152'36"E.) to:       Straits of Florida, 119             Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,991
   1,229                                                                   Yucatan Channel, 241                Strait of Gibraltar, 3,471
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),     Junction Points*                                                        Straits of Florida, 968
   1,187                                                                     Ports
La Spezia, Italy, 231                Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                     Ports
Livorno, Italy, 236                   Entrance), Germany, 149              Antilla, Cuba, 407
Mahon, Balearic Islands, 219         Skagens Odde, Denmark, 122            Cienfuegos, Cuba, 526               Abraham Bay, Bahamas, 411
Malaga, Spain, 641                                                         Guantanamo, Cuba, 553               Belem, Brazil, 1,688
Messina, Sicily, 577                   Ports                               Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,131            Dakar, Senegal, 2,960
Napoli, Italy, 456                                                         Kingston, Jamaica, 717              Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,293
Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Gdynia, Poland, 330                   New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,     Georgetown, Guyana, 938
   Greece), 1,731                    Stockholm, Sweden, 531                  641                               Halifax, Canada, 1,628
Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth         Swinoujscie, Poland, 193              New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Horta, Azores, 2,419
   Canal), 1,690                                                             1,167                             New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Oran, Algeria, 536                                                         Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,           1,527
                                     MASSAWA, ETHIOPIA
Palermo, Sicily, 495                  (1536'45"N., 3928'30"E.) to:         U.S.A., 1,147                     Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 1,535
Palma, Balearic Islands, 300                                               Port au Prince, Haiti, 617
Piraievs, Greece (south of             Junction Points*                    Puerto Padre, Cuba, 330             MAYPORT, FLORIDA, U.S.A.
   Greece), 1,069                                                          San Juan, Puerto Rico, 931           (3023'42"N., 8125'54"W.)
Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth        Cape of Good Hope, South              Santo Domingo, Dominican            Subtract 18 miles from Jacksonville
   Canal), 988                         Africa, 4,341                         Republic, 901                     distances.
Port Vendres, France, 109            Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,345        Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. (via
Porto Vecchio di Piombino, Italy,    Port Said, Egypt, 1,041                 Northwest Channel), 325           MAZATLAN, MEXICO
   247                               Singapore, 4,020                      Tampico, Mexico, 914                 (2310'15"N., 10626'30"W.) to:
Rijeka, Croatia, 1,176               Torres Strait, Australia (via Eight
Savona, Italy, 189                     Degree Channel), 6,420              MATARANI, PERU                        Junction Points*
Sayda, Lebanon, 1,596                                                       (1659'36"S., 7207'12"W.) to:
Sibenik, Croatia, 1,050                Ports                                                                   Panama, Panama, 2,006
Siracusa, Sicily, 649                                                        Junction Points*
Skikda, Algeria, 398                 Aden, Yemen, 400                                                            Ports
Split, Croatia, 1,035                Al Aqabah, Jordan, 897                Panama, Panama, 1,790
Tarabulus, Lebanon, 1,613            Al Basrah, Iraq, 2,372                Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,380          Acapulco, Mexico, 595
Tarabulus, Libya, 745                Bombay, India, 2,050                  Torres Strait, Australia, 8,324     Amapala, Honduras, 1,350
Taranto, Italy, 797                  Calcutta, India, 3,695                Wilson Promontory, Australia (via   Champerico, Guatemala, 1,078
Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,481               30S.), 7,398                     Guaymas, Mexico, 388
   Greece), 1,278                    Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, 364             Wilson Promontory, Australia (via   Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth    Karachi, Pakistan, 1,865                40S.), 7,154                       1,011
   Canal), 1,236                     Mombasa, Kenya, 2,006                                                     Manzanillo, Mexico, 297
Trieste, Italy, 1,210                Port Darwin, Australia (via One         Ports                             San Diego, California, U.S.A., 939
Tunis, Tunisia, 476                     and Half Degree Channel),                                              San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
Valencia, Spain, 347                    5,749                              Antofagasta, Chile, 423               1,337
Valletta, Malta, 637                 Port Sudan, Sudan, 306                Callao, Peru, 462                   San Jose, Guatemala, 1,149
Venezia, Italy, 1,220                Rangoon, Burma, 3,705                                                     Yokohama, Japan, 5,782
Viareggio, Italy, 238                                                      MATHEW TOWN, GREAT
Volos, Greece (south of Greece),     MATADI, CONGO                         INAGUA ISLAND                       MEGARA, GREECE
   1,219                              (549'00"S., 1327'00"E.) to:         (2057'30"N., 7340'40"W.) to:      (3758'37"N., 2321'33"E.) to:
Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
   1,177                               Ports                                 Junction Points*                    Junction Points*

MASAN, SOUTH KOREA                   Bata, Equatorial Guinea, 663          Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,467        Port Said, Egypt, 617
 (3511'00"N., 12835'00"E.) to:     Calabar, Nigeria, 818                                                     Strait of Gibraltar (south of
                                     Cape Town, South Africa, 1,827          Ports                              Greece), 1,541
  Ports                              Longji, Cameroon, 731
                                     Mayumba, Gabon, 282                   Belize, Belize, 902                   Ports
Dalian, China, 546                   Port Nolloth, South Africa, 1,559     New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
Incheon, South Korea, 403            Swakopmund, South Africa, 1,144         Crooked Island Passage), 1,205    Algiers, Algeria, 1,077
Shimonoseki, Japan, 146              Victoria, Cameroon, 770                                                   Alicante, Spain, 1,240
Tsuruga, Japan, 385                                                        MATRUH, EGYPT                       Arzew, Algeria, 1,253
Vladivostok, Russia, 542             MATAGORDA BAY, TEXAS,                  (3122'30"N., 2714'30"E.) to:     Barcelona, Spain, 1,162
                                     U.S.A.                                                                    Cagliari, Sardinia, 814
MASBATE, PHILIPPINES                  (2820'00"N., 9623'00"W.) to:         Junction Points*                  Kerch, Ukraine, 801
 (1222'47"N., 12336'50"E.) to:                                                                               La Spezia, Italy, 942
                                       Junction Points*                    Port Said, Egypt, 281               Navarino Bay, Greece, 194
  Junction Points*                                                         Strait of Gibraltar, 1,695          Split, Croatia, 684
                                     Panama, Panama, 1,558                                                     Tangier, Morocco, 1,511
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,479       Straits of Florida, 754                 Ports                             Toulon, France, 1,036
Panama, Panama, 9,223                Yucatan Channel, 729                                                      Tubruq, Libya, 368
Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,067                                                 Banghazi, Libya, 267
Singapore, 1,492                                                           Haifa, Israel, 410                  MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,755                                              Iraklion, Kriti, 308                 (3749'15"S., 14456'00"E.) to:



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                 MIDWAY ISLAND, NORTH PACIFIC                                    63



  Junction Points*                     Junction Points*                    As Sukhayrah, Tunisia, 406             Ports
                                                                           Banghazi, Libya, 430
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,497       Port Said, Egypt, 1,714               Banzart, Tunisia, 364                London, England, 407
Panama, Panama (via Foveaux          Strait of Gibraltar, 252              Barcelona, Spain, 681
  Strait), 7,928                                                           Bari, Italy, 329                     MIAMI, FLORIDA, U.S.A.
Wilson Promontory, Australia, 154      Ports                               Beirut, Lebanon, 1,027                (2547'00"N., 8011'00"W.) to:
                                                                           Brindisi, Italy, 270
  Ports                              Alicante, Spain, 160                  Cagliari, Sardinia, 328                Junction Points*
                                     Malaga, Spain, 194                    Cartagena, Spain, 806
Adelaide, Australia, 512             Melilla, Morocco, 119                 Catania, Sicily, 53                  Bishop Rock, England, 3,634
Albany, Australia, 1,363                                                   Ceuta, Morocco, 1,029                Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Apia, Samoa, 2,834                   MERSA AL HAMRA, EGYPT                 Civitavecchia, Italy, 308               6,685
Apra, Guam, 3,631                     (3058'42"N., 2852'12"E.) to:       Crotone, Italy, 367                  Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,578
Auckland, New Zealand, 1,649                                               Gaeta, Italy, 209                    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,618
Avarua, Cook Islands, 3,090            Junction Points*                    Genova, Italy, 492                   Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,856
Bluff Harbor, New Zealand, 1,211                                           Gibraltar, 1,031                     Straits of Florida, 217
Burnie Harbor, Australia, 223        Port Said, Egypt, 211                 Haifa, Israel, 1,023                 Yucatan Channel, 387
Dunedin, New Zealand, 1,309          Strait of Gibraltar, 1,778            Iraklion, Kriti, 510
Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,                                              Istanbul, Turkey (south of             Ports
   6,321                               Ports                                  Greece), 810
Hobart, Tasmania, 472                                                      Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth        Belize, Belize, 734
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,942      Ajaccio, Corsica, 1,197                  Canal), 768                       Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 3,181      Algiers, Algeria, 1,347               Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),        991
Launceston, Tasmania, 246            Alicante, Spain, 1,510                   655                               Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Windward
Levuka, Fiji Islands, 2,274          Argostolion, Greece, 603              Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),      Passage), 947
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Bari, Italy, 849                         614                               Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Yucatan
   7,032                             Bat'umi, Georgia, 1,298               Kalamai, Greece, 355                    Channel), 671
Lyttelton, New Zealand, 1,518        Es Sider, Libya, 612                  La Spezia, Italy, 450                Colon, Panama (via Windward
Loumea, New Caledonia, 1,595         Haifa, Israel, 346                    Licata, Sicily, 173                     Passage), 1,249
Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Izmir, Turkey, 524                    Livorno, Italy, 414                  Colon, Panama (via Yucatan
   2,851                             Malaga, Spain, 1,708                  Malaga, Spain, 979                      Channel), 1,214
Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,691     Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,383        Marsaxlokk, Malta, 164               Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 354
Penang, Malaysia, 4,181              Tuapse, Russia, 1,203                 Marseille, France, 577               Georgetown, Guyana, 1,788
Ponape, Caroline Islands, 3,078      Tunis, Tunisia, 1,004                 Napoli, Italy, 175                   Guantanamo, Cuba, 582
Port Lincoln, Australia, 588         Volos, Greece, 605                    Nice, France, 515                    Halifax, Canada, 1,413
Port Pirie, Australia, 689                                                 Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Hamilton, Bermuda, 956
Portland, Australia, 206             MERSIN, TURKEY                           Greece), 1,158                    Kingston, Jamaica, 746
Pabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,408       (3647'26"N., 3438'07"E.) to:       Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth         La Habana, Cuba, 216
Rapid Bay, Australia, 458                                                     Canal), 1,116                     Nassau, Bahamas, 191
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Junction Points*                    Oran, Algeria, 818                   Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,247
   6,970                                                                   Palermo, Sicily, 120                 Port au Prince, Haiti, 643
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 7,332   Port Said, Egypt, 358                 Palma, Balearic Islands, 639         Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,482
Whyalla, Australia, 665              Strait of Gibraltar, 1,996            Piraievs Greece (south of Greece),   Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,352
                                                                              496                               Recife, Brazil, 3,500
MELILLA, MOROCCO                       Ports                               Piraievs Greece (via Corinth         San Juan, Puerto Rico, 960
 (3517'30"N., 256'00"W.) to:                                               Canal), 414                        Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 630
                                     Al Latakia, Syria, 94                 Pozzuoli, Italy, 177                 Santo Domingo, Dominican
  Junction Points*                   Beirut, Lebanon, 179                  Preveza, Greece, 274                    Republic, 930
                                     Constanta, Romania, 986               Rethimnon, Kriti, 479
Port Said, Egypt, 1,821              Istanbul, Turkey, 789                 Rijeka, Croatia, 603                 MIDDLEFART, DENMARK
Strait of Gibraltar, 153             Izmir, Turkey, 594                    Salerno, Italy, 158                   (5530'30"N., 944'14"E.) to:
                                     Kerch, Ukraine, 1,214                 Savona, Italy, 496
  Ports                              Larnaca, Cyprus, 149                  Sete, France, 636                      Junction Points*
                                     Nice, France, 1,495                   Sibenik, Croatia, 477
Alicante, Spain, 224                 Patrai, Greece (south of Greece),     Siracusa, Sicily, 75                 Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Arzew, Algeria, 145                     789                                Soudha, Kriti, 473                    Entrance), Germany, 84
Ceuta, Morocco, 131                  Patrai, Greece (via Corinth Canal),   Split, Croatia, 462                  Skagens Odde, Denmark, 186
Malaga, Spain, 116                      690                                Tarabulus, Libya, 344
Mers el Kebir, Algeria, 154          Piraievs, Greece, 598                 Taranto, Italy, 223                    Ports
Mostaganem, Algeria, 119             Pula, Croatia (south of Greece),      Thessaloniki, Greece (south of
Oran, Algeria, 120                      1,260                                 Greece), 704                      Gdynia, Poland, 396
Villa Sanjurjo, Morocco, 64          Pula, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),    Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth    Goteborg, Sweden, 173
                                        1,244                                 Canal), 663                       Lubeck, Germany, 149
MENTON, FRANCE                       Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 1,426         Toulon, France, 546
 (4346'30"N., 730'40"E.) to:       Tarabulus, Libya, 1,109               Trapani, Sicily, 177                 MIDDLESBROUGH,
                                     Thessaloniki, Greece, 726             Trieste, Italy, 637                  ENGLAND
  Junction Points*                                                         Tunis, Tunisia, 302                   (5434'45"N., 113'00"W.) to:
                                     MESSINA, SICILY, ITALY                Valencia, Spain, 764
Port Said, Egypt, 1,449               (3811'28"N., 1533'44"E.) to:       Valletta, Malta, 156                   Junction Points*
Strait of Gibraltar, 791                                                   Venezia, Italy, 647
                                       Junction Points*                    Volos Greece (south of Greece),      Bishop Rock, England, 591
  Ports                                                                       645                               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 326
                                     Port Said, Egypt, 945                 Volos Greece (via Corinth Canal),
Barcelona, Spain, 285                Strait of Gibraltar, 1,049               604                                 Ports
Civitavecchia, Italy, 180
Palma, Balearic Islands, 382           Ports                               METHIL, SCOTLAND                     Leith, Scotland, 133
                                                                            (5611'00"N., 300'00"W.) to:       London, England, 293
MERS EL KEBIR, ALGERIA               Alexandria, Egypt, 834
 (3544'00"N., 042'00"W.) to:       Algiers, Algeria, 621                   Junction Points*                   MIDWAY ISLAND, NORTH
                                     Alicante, Spain, 776                                                       PACIFIC
                                     Ancona, Italy, 536                    Bishop Rock, England, 698             (2813'00"N., 17722'00"W.) to:
                                     Annaba, Algeria, 401                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 246




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
64        MIIKE, JAPAN



  Junction Points*                   MILAZZO, SICILY, ITALY                 Ports                           Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,418
                                      (3813'00"N., 1515'00"E.) to:                                        Port Said, Egypt, 3,264
Panama, Panama, 5,707                                                     Aden, Yemen, 1,894                Singapore, 3,803
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,382             Junction Points*                   Bombay, India, 1,514
Singapore (via Surigao Strait),                                                                               Ports
  4,828                              Port Said, Egypt, 973
                                                                          MINA AL AHMADI, KUWAIT
                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 1,025            (2904'00"N., 4810'00"E.) to:   Aden, Yemen, 1,873
  Ports                                                                                                     Bombay, India, 1,495
                                       Ports                                Junction Points*
Apia, Samoa, 2,546                                                                                          MINA SULMAN, BAHRAYN
Apra, Guam, 2,301                    Napoli, Italy, 54                    Cape of Good Hope, South           (2617'00"N., 5032'30"E.) See
Auckland, New Zealand, 3,937         Palermo, Sicily, 97                    Africa, 5,104                   Al Manamah.
Avarua, Cook Islands, 3,140          Taranto, Italy, 316                  Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,440
Brisbane, Australia, 3,757                                                Port Said, Egypt, 3,286           MINATITLAN, MEXICO
Callao, Peru, 6,280                  MILFORD HAVEN, WALES                 Singapore, 3,825                   (1800'00"N., 9432'00"W.) Add
Christmas Island, Line Islands,       (5142'00"N., 502'00"W.) to:                                         18 miles to Coatzacoalcos
   1,949                                                                    Ports                           distances.
Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,          Junction Points*
   1,651                                                                  Abadan, Iraq, 110
                                     Bishop Rock, England, 129                                              MIRAGOANE, HAITI
Funafuti, Tuvalu, 2,220                                                   Al Basrah, Iraq, 140               (1827'30"N., 7306'00"W.) to:
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 5,944            Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 178           Bandar Abbas, Iraq, 497
Hakodate, Japan, 2,198               Inishtrahull, Ireland, 286           Bandar Mahshahr, Iraq, 128          Ports
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 4,421                                               Bombay, India, 1,517
Hobart, Tasmania, 4,740                Ports                              Cochin, India, 1,993              Kingston, Jamaica, 243
Hong Kong, China, 3,728                                                   Ras Bahregan, Iraq, 116           San Juan, Puerto Rico, 526
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 1,149      Belfast, Northern Ireland, 222
                                                                                                            Santo Domingo, Dominican
Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 1,534      Horta, Azores, 1,266
                                                                          MINA RAYSUT, OMAN                   Republic, 407
Johnston Island, 821                 Liverpool, England, 197               (1656'58"N., 5402'00"E.) to:
Kahului, Hawaii, U.S.A., 1,266
                                                                                                            MISUMI, JAPAN
Kaunakakai, Hawaii, U.S.A.,          MILLER ANCHORAGE,                      Junction Points*                 (3236'00"N., 13028'00"E.) to:
   1,220                             ELEUTHERA ISLAND,
Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,453         BAHAMA ISLANDS                       Cape of Good Hope, South
                                      (2439'15"N., 7611'30"W.) to:                                          Ports
Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,088                                               Africa, 3,991
Koniya, Ryukyu Islands, 2,799                                             Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,791    Chi-lung, Taiwan, 654
Levuka, Fiji Islands, 2,833            Junction Points*
                                                                          Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,049    Hakata, Japan, 161
Manila, Philippines (north of                                             Port Said, Egypt, 1,979           Incheon, South Korea, 478
   Luzon), 3,752                     Panama, Panama, 1,115
                                                                          Singapore, 3,178                  Kagoshima, Japan, 184
Manila, Philippines (via San         Straits of Florida, 495
                                                                          Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,409     Shanghai, China, 490
   Bernardino Strait), 3,685                                              Torres Strait, Australia, 5,627
Nagasaki, Japan, 2,830                 Ports
Noumea, New Caledonia, 3,207                                                                                MITILINI, GREECE
                                                                            Ports                            (3906'13"N., 2633'23"E.) to:
Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A., 507
   2,593                             Nuevitas, Cuba, 363
                                                                          Aden, Yemen, 601                    Junction Points*
Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,190     San Juan, Puerto Rico, 714
                                                                          Al Bashrah, Iraq, 1,460
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,                                                Bombay, India, 1,081              Port Said, Egypt, 592
   Russia, 1,831                     MILNER BAY, AUSTRALIA                Calcutta, India, 2,566
                                      (1356'30"S., 13625'00"E.) to:                                       Strait of Gibraltar (south of
Ponape, Caroline Islands, 1,882                                           Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,628          Greece), 1,528
Port Darwin, Australia (via Selat                                         Fremantle, Australia, 4,767       Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth
   Sele), 4,188                        Junction Points*                   Penang, Malaysia, 2,878            Canal), 1,631
Qingdao, China, 3,303                                                     Rangoon, Burma, 2,794
Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,688      Cape of Good Hope, South
                                       Africa, 6,656                                                          Ports
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,                                            MINA SAQR, UNITED ARAB
   3,097                             Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,557
                                                                          EMIRATES                          Iraklion, Greece, 229
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Honshu, Japan, 3,295                  (2600'08"N., 5601'54"E.) to:
                                     Port Said, Egypt (via South of                                         Iskenderun, Turkey, 612
   2,792                                                                                                    Izmir, Turkey, 84
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 2,817     Java), 7,269                         Junction Points*
                                     Torres Strait, Australia, 375                                          Mersin, Turkey, 551
Shanghai, China, 3,184                                                                                      Piraievs, Greece, 191
Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,473         Tetar Passage, Indonesia, 728        Cape of Good Hope, South          Thessaloniki, Greece, 232
Surabaya, Indonesia (via Makassar                                           Africa, 4,766
   Strait), 4,632                      Ports                              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,933
Suva, Fiji Islands, 2,872                                                 Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,176    MOA, CUBA
                                     Belawan, Indonesia, 2,736                                               (2040'00"N., 7454'00"W.) to:
Sydney, Australia, 4,138                                                  Port Said, Egypt, 2,568
Truk, Caroline Islands, 2,146        Geraldton, Australia, 2,220          Singapore, 3,380
                                     Hong Kong, China (via Basilan                                            Junction Points*
Valparaiso, Chile, 7,042                                                  Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,559
Vladivostok, Russia, 2,612              Strait), 2,656                    Torres Strait, Australia, 5,764
                                     Manila, Philippines (via San                                           Panama, Panama, 853
Wake Island, Pacific, 1,034                                                                                 Straits of Florida, 510
Yokohama, Japan, 2,250                  Bernardino Strait), 2,310           Ports
                                     Port Darwin, Australia, 683
                                     Tjilatjap, Indonesia, 1,838                                              Ports
MIIKE, JAPAN                                                              Aden, Yemen, 1,531
                                     Zamboanga, Philippines (via North    Belawan, Indonesia, 3,114
 (3300'40"N., 13025'05"E.) to:                                                                            Kingston, Jamaica, 301
                                        of Celebes), 1,602                Bombay, India, 1,069              Nuevitas, Cuba, 154
  Ports                                                                   Fremantle, Australia, 4,937       San Juan, Puerto Rico, 533
                                     MINA ABD ALLAH, KUWAIT               Penang, Malaysia, 3,150
Hakodate, Japan, 864                  (2901'00"N., 4812'00"E.) to:
Kobe, Japan, 462                                                                                            MOBILE, ALABAMA, U.S.A.
                                                                          MINA SAUD, KUWAIT                  (3042'30"N., 8802'30"W.) to:
Nagasaki, Japan, 82                    Junction Points*                    (2845'00"N., 4824'00"E.) to:
Shimonoseki, Japan, 222                                                                                       Junction Points*
Yokohama, Japan (via Bungo           Cape of Good Hope, South               Junction Points*
  Suido), 766                          Africa, 5,101
                                     Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,437                                         Straits of Florida, 471
Yokohama, Japan (via Osumi                                                Cape of Good Hope, South          Yucatan Channel, 558
  Kaikyo), 725                       Port Said, Egypt, 3,283                Africa, 5,082
                                     Singapore, 3,822




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                          MONROVIA, LIBERIA                      65



  Ports                             MOGPO, SOUTH KOREA                   MOI RANA, NORWAY                       Rangoon, Burma, 3,714
                                     (3446'45"N., 12623'00"E.) to:      (6618'31"N., 1406'57"E.) to:        Sabang, Indonesia, 3,388
Belize, Belize, 845                                                                                             Tanga, Tanzania, 69
Bocas del Toro, Panama, 1,340         Junction Points*                     Junction Points*
Campeche, Mexico, 674                                                                                           MON FALCONE, ITALY
Carmen, Mexico, 749                 Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,725       Bishop Rock, England (via Dover         (4645'56"N., 1333'45"E.) See
Cartagena, Colombia, 1,450          Singapore, 2,407                        Strait), 1,382                      Trieste.
Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 834          Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,760        Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,367
Colon, Panama, 1,371                Selat Wetar, Indonesia (via          Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                      Molucca Passage), 2,632              Entrance), Germany, 971              MONACO, MONACO
La Habana, Cuba, 553                                                                                             (4344'00"N., 726'00"E.) to:
Limon, Costa Rica, 1,292                                                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 685
Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 950        Ports                              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 776               Junction Points*
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 915
Tampico, Mexico, 750                Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,            Ports                                Port Said, Egypt, 1,450
Tuxpan, Mexico, 776                   Russia, 1,330                                                             Strait of Gibraltar, 792
Veracruz, Mexico, 825               Balikpapan, Kalimantan,              Bergen, Norway, 474
                                      Indonesia, 2,308                   Brevik, Norway, 762                      Ports
                                    Bangkok, Thailand, 2,438             Hammerfest, Norway, 433
MOCAMBIQUE,
MOZAMBIQUE                          Busan, South Korea, 225              Hull, England, 908                     Barcelona, Spain, 280
 (1501'00"S., 4043'00"E.) to:     Dagu, China (south of Kasa Do),      Oslo, Norway, 824                      Napoli, Italy, 363
                                      536                                Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,0l0              Palma, Balearic Islands, 377
  Junction Points*                  Dalian, China (south of Kasa Do),    Zeebrugge, Belgium, 1,018
                                      377
                                    Hakodate, Japan, 897                                                        MONI ANCHORAGE,
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                         MOJI, JAPAN                            CYPRUS
  1,807                             Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,904           (336'30"N., 13057'30"E.) to:         (3441'44"N., 3311'11"E.) to:
Port Said, Egypt, 3,522             Hong Kong, China, 1,049
Singapore, 4,080                    Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,146        Ports                                  Junction Points*
                                    Incheon, South Korea (south of Ka
  Ports                               Do), 236                           Busan, South Korea, 123                Port Said, Egypt, 219
                                    Incheon, South Korea (via Myondo     Dalian, China, 633                     Strait of Gibraltar, 1,931
Beira, Mozambique, 476                Do), 189                           Incheon, South Korea, 485
Belawan, Indonesia, 3,747           Jakarta, Indonesia, 2,741            Manila, Philippines, 1,436               Ports
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 533        Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 665       Nagasaki, Japan, 152
Fremantle, Australia (north of      Makassar, Sulawesi, 2,483            Tianjin, China, 840                    Alexandria, Egypt, 274
  Madagascar), 4,367                Manila, Philippines (east of         Uglegorsk, Russia, 1,100               Algiers, Algeria, 1,482
Malacca, Malaysia, 3,965              Taiwan), 1,338                     Yantai, China, 600                     Banghazi, Libya, 692
Mtwara, Tanzania, 327               Nagasaki, Japan, 261                                                        Barcelona, Spain, 1,567
Penang, Malaysia, 3,792             Nampo, North Korea (south of         MOKPO, SOUTH KOREA                     Bari, Italy, 946
Port Darwin, Australia (via 20        Kasa Do), 320                       (3446'45"N., 12623'00"E.) See       Brindisi, Italy, 890
  miles north of Scott Reef),       Nampo, North Korea (via Myondo       Mogpo.                                 Cartagena, Spain, 1,675
  5,304                               Sudo), 288                                                                Derince, Turkey, 731
Sabang, Indonesia, 3,481            Osaka, Japan, 544                    MOLDE, NORWAY                          Izmir, Turkey, 510
Tulear, Madagascar, 532             Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,            (6244'06"N., 710'00"E.) to:         Marseille, France, 1,480
Victoria, Seychelles, 1,085           Russia (via La Perouse Strait),                                           Tangier, Morocco, 1,917
                                      1,943                                Junction Points*                     Tunis, Tunisia, 1,140
MOCAMEDES, ANGOLA                   Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,                                                  Yumurtalik, Turkey, 186
 (1511'20"S., 1208'15"E.) to:       Russia (via Myongyangdo),          Pentland Firth, Scotland, 412
                                      1,923                              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 492             MONOPOLI, ITALY
  Junction Points*                  Port Darwin, Australia, 2,916                                                (4067'20"N., 1718'30"E.) to:
                                    Qingdao, China, 336                    Ports
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    Qinhuangdao China (south of Kasa                                              Junction Points*
   1,239                             Do), 484                            Bergen, Norway, 201
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,697       San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Reykjavik, Iceland, 875                Port Said, Egypt, 953
                                      5,125                                                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 1,346
  Ports                             Shanghai, China (via South
                                                                         MOMBASA, KENYA
                                      Channel), 369                       (403'30"S., 3941'15"E.) to:           Ports
Lagos, Nigeria, 1,399               Tongyeong, South Korea, 189
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,   Vladivostok, Russia, 726               Junction Points*                     Ancona, Italy, 239
  2,939                             Weihai, China (south of Kasa Do),                                           Durres, Albania, 100
Walvisbaai, Namibia, 518              308                                Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       Split, Croatia, 173
                                    Weonsan, North Korea, 530              2,472
MOENGO, SURINAME                    Xiamen, China, 790                   Port Said, Egypt, 3,006
                                    Yantai, China (south of Kasa Do),                                           MONROVIA, LIBERIA
 (537'42"N., 5424'39"W.) Add                                           Singapore, 3,987                        (620'00"N., 1049'00"W.) to:
88 l/2 miles to Paramaribo            342
distances.                          Yeosu, South Korea, 151                Ports                                  Ports
                                    Yokohama, Japan, 838
MOGADISHU, SOMALIA                                                       Aden, Yemen, 1,619                     Anecho, Togo, 850
 (201'21"N., 4521'02"E.) to:      MOHAMMEDIA, MOROCCO                  Beira, Mozambique, 1,146               Cotonou, Benin, 893
                                     (3342'52"N., 723'52"W.) to:       Belawan, Indonesia, 3,654              Dakar, Senegal, 693
  Junction Points*                                                       Bombay, India, 2,404                   Freetown, Sierra Leone, 264
                                      Junction Points*                   Calcutta, India (via One and Half      Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,828
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                           Degree Channel), 3,703               Lisboa, Portugal, 2,225
  2,855                             Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,     Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,555              Lome, Togo, 789
Port Said, Egypt, 2,493                4,951                             Durban, South Africa, 1,718            Natal, Brazil, 1,629
Singapore, 3,611                    Ile d'Ouessant, France, 944          Fremantle, Australia, 4,564            New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                                                         Karachi, Pakistan, 2,361                 3,965
  Ports                               Ports                              Malacca, Malaysia, 3,872               Pointe Noire, Congo, 1,525
                                                                         Maputo, Mozambique, 1,508              Port of Spain, Trinidad, 3,045
Aden, Yemen, 1,106                  Dakar, Senegal, 1,338                Massawa, Ethiopia, 2,006               Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,
Mombasa, Kenya, 502                 Tangier, Morocco, 158                Mogadishu, Somalia, 502                  1,069
                                                                         Penang, Malaysia, 3,699                Sekondi, Ghana, 599
                                                                         Port Darwin, Australia, 5,434          Takoradi, Ghana, 597



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
66        MONTEGO BAY, JAMAICA



MONTEGO BAY, JAMAICA                Fastnet Rock, Ireland (via Strait of      Strait), 2,901                      MORMUGAO, INDIA
 (1829'15"N., 7757'30"W.) to:        Belle Isle), 2,539                  Port Castries, St. Lucia (via Strait    (1525'00"N., 7347'30"E.) See
                                    Grand Banks South, 1,335                  of Canso), 2,642                    Marmagao, India.
  Junction Points*                  Ile d'Ouessant, France (via Strait     Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 1,206
                                       of Belle Isle), 2,901               Punta Arenas, Chile (via Cabot         MORRO REDONDO,
Straits of Florida, 642             Inishtrahull, Ireland (via Strait of      Strait), 7,527                      MEXICO
Yucatan Channel, 450                   Belle Isle), 2,545                  Qaqortog (Julianehaab), Greenland       (2803'20"N., 11510'16"W.) to:
                                    Panama, Panama (via Crooked               (via Strait of Belle Isle), 1,470
  Ports                                Island Passage and Windward         Recife, Brazil (via Cabot Strait),       Junction Points*
                                       Passage), 3,204                        4,283
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 262               Pentland Firth, Scotland (via Strait   Reykjavik, Iceland (via Strait of      Honshu, Japan, 5,088
Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba, 134          of Belle Isle), 2,641                  Belle Isle), 2,130                  Panama, Panama, 2,593
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 154         Straits of Florida (via Cabot          Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5,342          Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,505
                                      Strait), 2,531                       Salvador, Brazil, 4,656                Torres Strait, Australia, 6,543
MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY                 Straits of Florida (via Strait of      San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via     Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 4,883
 (3454'30"S., 5613'30"W.) to:       Canso), 2,467                           Strait of Canso and Crooked         Wilson Promontory, Australia,
                                                                              Island Passage), 3,220                6,812
  Junction Points*                    Ports                                Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary
                                                                              Islands, 3,011                        Ports
Bishop Rock, England, 5,834         Argentia, Canada, 943                  Santo Domingo, Dominican
Cape of Good Hope, South            Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,              Republic (via Cabot Strait),        Amapala, Honduras, 1,952
   Africa, 3,591                       1,820                                  2,579                               Ensenada, Mexico, 241
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 5,802       Belem Brazil (via Cabot Strait),       Santos, Brazil, 5,544                  Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,351
Montreal, Canada, 6,344                3,680                               Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 2,078       Monterey, California, U.S.A., 635
Panama, Panama, 5,379               Belize Belize (via Straits of          Shelburne, Canada, 1,050               Talara, Peru, 2,831
Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,300           Florida), 3,034                       St. John's, Canada (via Cape           Valparaiso, Chile, 4,515
Strait of Gibraltar, 5,178          Bordeaux, France (via Cape                Race), 1,038
Straits of Florida, 5,598              Race), 3,171                        Vigo, Spain (via Cape Race),           MOSJOEN, NORWAY
Yucatan Channel, 5,609              Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,            2,873                                (6551'18"N., 1311'05"E.) to:
                                       1,309                               Willemstad, Curacao (via Cabot
  Ports                             Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 2,074         Strait), 2,866                        Junction Points*
                                    Buenos Aires, Argentina (via
Angra dos Reis, Brazil, 1,031          Cabot Strait), 6,455                MONTROSE, SCOTLAND                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 651
Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 466        Cadiz, Spain, 3,110                     (5642'15"N., 225'40"W.) to:         Skagens Odde, Denmark, 732
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,        Cape Town, South Africa (via
   5,831                               Cabot Strait), 7,118                  Junction Points*                       Ports
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,      Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.
   5,728                               (via Strait of Canso), 2,000        Bishop Rock, England, 706              Bergen, Norway, 473
Bridgetown, Barbados, 4,096         Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 698            Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,023
Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 5,731      (via Strait of Canso), 2,405        Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Cape Town, South Africa, 3,608      Charlottetown, Canada, 698               Entrance), Germany, 489              MOSKAL'VO, RUSSIA
Charleston, South Carolina,         Colon, Panama (via Strait of           Pentland Firth, Scotland, 152           (5334'00"N., 14229'00"E.) to:
   U.S.A., 5,708                       Canso), 3,126                       Skagens Odde, Denmark, 433
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,   Dakar, Senegal, 3,562                                                           Ports
   4,530                            Freetown, Sierra Leone, 4,019            Ports
Charlottetown, Canada, 5,717        Funchal, Madeira Island, 2,877                                                Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
Colon, Panama, 5,267                Georgetown, Guyana, 3,108              Amsterdam, Netherlands, 372              Russia, 230
Georgetown, Ascension Island,       Halifax, Canada (via Cabot Strait),    Antwerp, Belgium, 457                  Bukhta, Russia, 472
   2,824                               958                                 Bremerhaven, Germany, 431              Yokohama, Japan, 1,453
Georgetown, Guyana, 3,840           Hamilton, Bermuda (via Strait of       Dundee, Scotland, 30
Guantanamo, Cuba, 5,167                Canso), 1,621                       Oostende, Belgium, 393                 MOSS, NORWAY
Halifax, Canada, 5,617              Horta, Azores (via Cabot Strait),      Rotterdam, Netherlands, 385             (5926'18"N., 1039'30"E.)
Hamilton, Bermuda, 5,097               2,145                               Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 423            Subtract 19 miles from Oslo
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,      Ivittuut, Greenland (via Strait of     Zeebrugge, Belgium, 398                distances.
   5,727                               Belle Isle), 1,472
New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A. (via                                            MOSSELBAAI, SOUTH
                                                                           MOREHEAD CITY, NORTH
   5,749                               Cabot Strait), 2,199                CAROLINA, U.S.A.                       AFRICA
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 5,710    Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via          (3439'10"N., 7640'33"W.) to:         (34l0'00"S., 2209'00"E.) to:
Paranagua, Brazil, 797                 Straits of Florida), 2,468
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,         La Guaira, Venezuela (via Strait of      Junction Points*                       Junction Points*
   U.S.A., 5,804                       Canso), 2,941
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 4,261     La Habana, Cuba (via Straits of        Cape of Good Hope, South               Cape of Good Hope, South
Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 5,759         Florida), 2,528                        Africa, 6,763                         Africa, 206
Porto Alegre, Brazil, 482           Lisboa, Portugal (via Cape Race),      Grand Banks South, 1,335               Singapore, 5,384
Recife, Brazil, 2,067                  2,941                               Montreal, Canada, 1,861
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1,037       Maracaibo, Venezuela (via Mona         Panama, Panama, 1,670                    Ports
Rio Grande, Brazil, 313                Passage), 2,995                     Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,864
Salvador, Brazil, 1,735             Montevideo, Uruguay, 6,344             Strait of Gibraltar, 3,392             Belawan, Indonesia, 5,051
Santos, Brazil, 893                 Murmansk, Russia, 3,870                Straits of Florida, 793                Fremantle, Australia, 4,525
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 5,740    New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                                   Malacca, Malaysia, 5,269
St. Helena Island, 2,936               1,516                                 Ports                                Penang, Malaysia, 5,096
Valparaiso, Chile, 2,740            Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via                                                Port Darwin, Australia, 5,929
Wilmington, North Carolina,            Cabot Strait), 1,697                Cape Town, South Africa, 6,752         Sabang, Indonesia, 4,785
   U.S.A., 5,691                    Paamiut (Frederikshaab),               Georgetown, Guyana, 2,121
                                       Greenland, 1,901                    Halifax, Canada, 885                   MOSSELBAY, SOUTH
MONTREAL, CANADA*                   Panama, Panama (via Crooked            Hamilton, Bermuda, 611                 AFRICA
 (4530'10"N., 7333'00"W.) to:        Island Passage), 3,204              Limon, Costa Rica, 1,730                (34l0'00"S., 2209'00"E.) See
                                    Paramaribo, Suriname, 3,184            Monrovia, Liberia, 4,028               Mosselbaai.
  Junction Points*                  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.     Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,966
                                       (via Cabot Strait), 1,665           San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,123           MOSTAGANEM, ALGERIA
Bishop Rock, England (via Strait    Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,283                                                   (3556'12"N., 004'22"E.) to:
  of Belle Isle), 2,681             Port of Spain, Trinidad (via Cabot




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                          NAKHODKA, RUSSIA                    67



  Junction Points*                    New York, New York, U.S.A.           NAGASAKI, JAPAN                        Sele), 2,785
                                        (south of Iceland), 3,948           (3244'30"N., 12952'15"E.) to:     Qinhuangdao China, 702
Port Said, Egypt, 1,678               Nuuk (Godthab), Greenland, 2,598                                          Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 2,612
Strait of Gibraltar, 283              Oslo, Norway, 1,450                    Junction Points*                   San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
                                      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                                 (via Osumi Strait), 5,151
  Ports                                 U.S.A., 4,042                      Panama, Panama (east of Honshu),     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
                                      Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 3,677         8,299                                (via Tsugaru Strait), 5,030
Algiers, Algeria, 172                 Reykjavik, Iceland (north of         Panama, Panama (west of              Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via
Alicante, Spain, 148                    Iceland), 1,501                      Honshu), 8,200                       Tsugaru Strait and north of
Melilla, Morocco, 154                 Reykjavik, Iceland (south of         Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,567             Aleutian Islands), 4,705
                                        Iceland), 1,529                    Singapore (east of Taiwan), 2,413    Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via
                                      Seydhisfjordhur, Iceland, 1,173      Singapore (via Formosa Strait),        Tsugaru Strait and south of
MOURILYAN, AUSTRALIA
 (1736'08"S., 14607'59"E.) See      Stavanger, Norway, 1,199               2,427                                Aleutian Islands), 4,765
Innisfail.                            Qaanaaq (Thule), Greenland, 3,462                                         Shanghai, China, 463
                                      Trondheim, Norway, 875                 Ports                              Shimonoseki, Japan, 159
MTWARA, TANZANIA                                                                                                Sydney, Australia, 4,439
                                                                           Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,          Valparaiso, Chile, 9,806
 (1015'30"S., 4013'04"E.) to:       MURORAN, JAPAN
                                       (4219'20"N., 14058'40"E.) to:        Russia, 1,253                     Vladivostok, Russia, 657
  Junction Points*                                                         Apia, Samoa, 4,414                   Weihai, China, 526
                                        Ports                              Apra, Guam, 1,445                    Weonsan, North Korea, 452
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                           Auckland, New Zealand (via           Xiamen, China, 810
  2,111                               Bukhta Shelikhova, Kuril Islands,       Koshiki Kaikyo and                Yantai, China, 560
Port Said, Egypt, 3,265                 Russia, 859                           Tanegashima Kaikyo), 4,930        Yokohama, Japan (via Osumi
Singapore, 4,042                      Hachinohe, Japan, 123                Auckland, New Zealand (via             Kaikyo), 691
                                      Hakodate, Japan, 64                     Tokara Kaikyo), 4,963
  Ports                               Kastka, Japan, 401                   Avarua, Cook Islands, 5,219
                                                                                                                NAGOYA, JAPAN
                                      Kawasaki, Japan, 551                 Busan, South Korea, 163               (3505'00"N., 13653'00"E.) to:
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 230          Matsuga-hana, Japan, 310             Cebu, Philippines (via San
Mocambique, Mozambique, 327           Moji, Japan (via Shimonoseki            Bernardino Strait), 1,406           Ports
                                        Strait), 736                       Dagu, China, 754
                                      Osaka, Japan, 834                    Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.         Apra, Guam, 1,378
MUBARRAZ ISLAND,                                                              (south of Kyushu), 3,181
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES                  Sasebo, Japan (via Korean Strait),                                        Hachinohe, Japan, 577
 (2426'55"N., 5332'00"E.) to:         831                                Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A. (via    Hirohata, Japan, 259
                                      Shimonoseki, Japan, 736                 Tsugaru-Kaikyo), 3,011            Imabari, Japan, 341
  Junction Points*                    Tokyo, Japan, 557                    Hakata, Japan, 121                   Kawasaki, Japan, 218
                                      Tomari, Japan, 295                   Hakodate, Japan, 801                 Kobe, Japan, 245
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                           Hirohata, Japan, 373                 Kure, Japan, 412
  5,078                                                                    Hiroshima, Japan (via Kudako         Moji, Japan, 433
                                      MUTRAH, OMAN
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,170         (2338'13"N., 5834'50"E.) to:         Suido), 285                       Nagasaki, Japan (via Osumi
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,372                                             Hiroshima, Japan (via Moroshima        Strait), 577
Port Said, Egypt, 2,969                 Junction Points*                      Suido), 275                       Shimizu, Honshu, Japan, 143
Singapore, 3,549                                                           Hiroshima, Japan (via Nuwashima      Shimonoseki, Japan, 434
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,774         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,        Suido), 277                       Ube, Japan, 419
Torres Strait, Australia, 5,994         4,487                              Hiroshima, Japan (via Obatake        Yokohama, Japan, 214
                                      Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,760          Seto and north of Kasasa Jima),
  Ports                               Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 3,982          264
                                                                                                                NAHA, OKINAWA JIMA,
                                      Port Said, Egypt, 2,289              Hong Kong, China, 1,069              RYUKYU ISLANDS
Aden, Yemen, 1,743                    Singapore, 3,207                     Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,986       (2612'20"N., 12740'11"E.) to:
Al Basrah, Iraq, 474                  Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,364        Iloilo, Philippines, 1,428
Belawan, Indonesia, 3,257             Torres Strait, Australia, 5,590      Incheon, South Korea, 453              Ports
Bombay, India, 1,226                                                       Jakarta, Indonesia, 2,712
Calcutta, India, 2,957                  Ports                              Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 2,808      Apra, Guam, 1,236
Fremantle, Australia, 5,086                                                Kagoshima, Japan, 168                Busan, South Korea, 550
Penang, Malaysia, 3,250               Aden, Yemen, 1,254                   Kamaishi, Japan, 972                 Chi-lung, Taiwan, 337
Port Darwin, Australia, 5,333         Al Basrah, Iraq, 847                 Kobe, Japan, 400                     Hachinohe, Japan, 1,239
                                      Belawan, Indonesia, 2,866            Kochi, Japan, 363                    Shanghai, China, 479
                                      Karachi, Pakistan, 496               Levuka, Fiji Islands (via            Shimonoseki, Japan, 530
MURMANSK, RUSSIA
 (6858'30"N., 3303'00"E.) to:       Malacca, Malaysia, 3,068                Tanegashima Kaikyo), 4,260
                                      Penang, Malaysia, 2,902              Lianyungang, China, 558              NAJKIN, NORTH KOREA
  Junction Points*                                                         Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 691        (4214'00"N., 13018'00"E.) to:
                                                                           Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
                                      MYRTLE GROVE,
Montreal, Canada, 3,870               LOUISIANA, U.S.A.                       5,572                               Ports
                                       (2938'32"N., 8956'50"W.)          Manila, Philippines, 1,298
  Ports                               Subtract 34 miles from New           Midway Island, 2,830                 Kobe, Japan, 754
                                      Orleans distances.                   Miike, Japan, 82                     Tongyeong, South Korea, 501
Akureyri, Iceland, 1,256                                                   Mogpo, South Korea, 261              Ulsan, South Korea, 418
Bergen, Norway, 1,105                                                      Moji, Japan, 152                     Yeosu, South Korea, 535
                                      NAESTVED, DENMARK
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         (5513'33"N., 1145'24"E.) to:      Noumea, New Caledonia (via
   3,719                                                                      Bougainville Strait), 3,967
                                                                                                                NAKAGUSUKU, OKINAWA
Dikson, Russia, 1,025                   Junction Points*                   Pago Pago, American Samoa,           JIMA, RYUKYU ISLANDS
Gronnedal, Greenland, 2,395                                                   4,489                              (2617'00"N., 12753'00"E.) to:
Halifax, Canada, 3,368                Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Papeete, French Polynesia, 5,572
Hvalfjordhur, Iceland, 1,531           Entrance), Germany, 74              Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,             Ports
Ivittuut, Greenland (direct), 2,201   Skagens Odde, Denmark, 212              Russia (via La Perouse Strait),
Ivittuut, Greenland (via 75 miles                                             1,845                             Apra, Guam, 1,216
   off Kap Farvel), 2,310               Ports                              Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Dagu, China, 1,026
Keflavik, Iceland, 1,503                                                      Russia (via Osumi Kaikyo),        Manila, Philippines, 935
Liverpool, England, 1,703             Gdynia, Poland, 383                     2,039                             Shanghai, China, 515
Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 695           Goteborg, Sweden, 1396               Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Yokohama, Japan, 839
Mys Chelyuskin, Russia, 1,390         Lubeck, Germany, 136                    Russia (via Tsugaru Strait),
New York, New York, U.S.A.                                                    1,858                             NAKHODKA, RUSSIA
   (north of Iceland), 3,844                                               Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,256       (4249'07"N., 13253'52"E.) to:
                                                                           Port Darwin, Australia (via Selat



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
68        NAKNEK, ALASKA, U.S.A.



  Ports                              Yantai, China, 205                      Ports                              Porto di Milazzo, Sicily, 54
                                     Yokohama, Japan, 1,109                                                     Porto Vecchio di Piombino, Italy,
Busan, South Korea, 508                                                    Apia, Samoa, 1,710                      227
Hakodate, Japan, 62                  NAMSOS, NORWAY                        Auckland, New Zealand (via Vitia     Reggio Di Calabria, Sicily, 179
Shanghai, China, 991                  (6428'00"N., 1129'25"E.) to:         and Surigao Straits), 4,532        Rijeka, Croatia, 775
Shimonoseki, Japan, 552                                                    Callao, Peru, 5,660                  Savona, Italy, 350
                                       Junction Points*                    Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Sete, France, 515
NAKNEK, ALASKA, U.S.A.                                                       5,684                              Sibenik, Croatia, 648
 (5842'00"N., 15715'00"W.) to:     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 615         San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Siracusa, Sicily, 247
                                     Skagens Odde, Denmark, 696              5,731                              Split, Croatia, 633
  Junction Points*                                                         Suva, Fiji Islands, 1,341            Tarabulus, Libya, 516
                                       Ports                               Sydney, Australia (via Cook          Taranto, Italy, 395
Panama, Panama, 5,604                                                        Strait), 1,436                     Thessaloniki, Greece (south of
                                     Bergen, Norway, 384                   Yokohama, Japan (via                    Greece), 876
  Ports                                                                      Bougainville Strait), 5,086        Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth
                                     NAN-CHING, CHINA                                                              Canal), 834
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,404       (3206'00"N., 11844'00"E.) See      NAPLES, ITALY                        Toulon, France, 424
Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 881          Nanjing, China.                        (4050'19"N., 1416'20"E.) See      Trapani, Italy, 198
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,                                             Napoli.                              Trieste, Italy, 808
  2,788                              NANAIMO, CANADA                                                            Tunis, Tunisia, 313
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 2,020    (4910'00"N., 12355'45"W.) to:      NAPOLI, ITALY                        Valencia, Spain, 690
                                                                            (4050'19"N., 1416'20"E.) to:      Valletta, Malta, 327
NAKSKOV, DENMARK                       Ports                                                                    Venezia, Italy, 818
 (5450'00"N., 1107'30"E.) to:                                              Junction Points*                   Villa San Giovanni, Italy, 173
                                     Bellingham, Washington, U.S.A.,                                            Villefranche, France, 369
  Junction Points*                      76                                 Port Said, Egypt, 1,116              Volos, Greece (south of Greece),
                                     New Westminster, Canada, 47           Strait of Gibraltar, 1,001              817
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Port Angeles, Washington,                                                  Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
 Entrance), Germany, 46                 U.S.A., 98                           Ports                                 775
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 213           Prince Rupert, Canada, 453
                                     Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 132      Al Latakia, Syria, 1,191             NARSARSUAQ,
  Ports                              Vancouver, Canada, 35                 Alexandria, Egypt, 1,005             GREENLAND
                                     Victoria, Canada, 86                  Algiers, Algeria, 582                 (6109'45"N., 4527'45"W.) to:
Gdynia, Poland, 335                                                        Alicante, Spain, 723
Goteborg, Sweden, 201                                                      Ancona, Italy, 707                     Junction Points*
                                     NANAO, JAPAN
Swinoujscie, Poland, 190              (3703'40"N., 13658'00"E.) to:      Annaba, Algeria, 388
                                                                           Banghazi, Libya, 602                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,384
NAMPO, NORTH KOREA                     Ports                               Banzart, Tunisia, 300                Strait of Gibraltar, 2,257
 (3843'00"N., 12525'00"E.) to:                                           Barcelona, Spain, 559
                                     Busan, South Korea, 476               Bari, Italy, 500                       Ports
  Junction Points*                   Hakodate, Japan, 337                  Basti, Corsica, 258
                                     Maizuru, Japan, 213                   Beirut, Lebanon, 1,198               Churchill, Canada, 1,513
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,946       Shimonoseki, Japan, 453               Brindisi, Italy, 442                 Reykjavik, Iceland, 830
Singapore, 2,621                     Vladivostok, Russia, 460              Cagliari, Sardinia, 272              St. John's, Canada, 916
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,974                                              Cannes, France, 381
Selat Wetar, Indonesia (via Selat    NANCHITAL, MEXICO                     Cartagena, Spain, 756                NARVIK, NORWAY
  Manipa), 2,861                      (1800'00"N., 9427'00"W.) Add       Catania, Sicily, 225                  (6825'30"N., 1725'00"E.) to:
                                     3 miles to Coatzacoalcos distances.   Ceuta, Morocco, 982
  Ports                                                                    Civitavecchia, Italy, 152              Junction Points*
                                                                           Genova, Italy, 338
                                     NANJING, CHINA                                                             Bishop Rock, England (via English
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,           (3206'00"N., 11844'00"E.) Add      Gibraltar, 983
  Russia, 1,601                                                            Haifa, Israel, 1,194                    Channel), 1,505
                                     177 miles to Shanghai distances.
Bangkok, Thailand (outer bar),                                             Iraklion, Kriti, 681                 Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,498
  2,652                                                                    Istanbul, Turkey (south of
Busan, South Korea (via Maenggol     NANORTALIK, GREENLAND                    Greece), 981                        Ports
                                      (6008'30"N., 4514'35"W.) to:
  Sudo), 496                                                               Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth
Dagu, China, 369                                                              Canal), 940                       Aberdeen, England, 869
                                       Junction Points*                                                         Antwerp, Belgium, 1,211
Dalian, China, 180                                                         Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2,118                                                   827                               Bergen, Norway, 824
                                     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,291                                            Bremerhaven, Germany, 1,058
Hong Kong, China, 1,263              Strait of Gibraltar, 2,138            Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,417                                               785                               Dundee, England, 920
Incheon, South Korea, 216                                                  La Spezia, Italy, 302                Le Havre, France, 1,304
                                       Ports                                                                    Leith, England, 948
Jakarta, Indonesia, 2,955                                                  Livorno, Italy, 267
Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 879                                             Malaga, Spain, 932                   London, England, 1,215
                                     Churchill, Canada, 1,511                                                   Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 659
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Reykjavik, Iceland, 737               Marseille, France, 456
  5,711                                                                    Messina, Sicily, 175                 Oslo, Norway, 993
                                     St. John's, Canada, 821                                                    Pechenga, Russia, 500
Manila, Philippines, 1,559                                                 Monaco, Monaco, 363
Mogpo, South Korea (south of                                               Nice, France, 369                    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
  Kasa Do), 320                      NANTES, FRANCE                        Odessa, Ukraine (south of              U.S.A., 3,911
                                      (4711'42"N., 135'15"W.) Add                                             Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1,139
Mogpo, South Korea (via Myondo                                                Greece), 1,329
                                     29 miles to St. Nazaire distances.                                         Stavanger, Norway, 713
  Sudo), 288                                                               Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,                                                    Canal), 1,288                     Stockholm, Sweden, 1,612
  Russia, 2,214                      NAPIEIR, NEW ZEALAND                  Olbia, Sardinia, 222                 Teesport, England, 993
Qingdao, China, 309                   (3928'00"S., 17657'21"E.) to:      Oran, Algeria, 775                   Trondheim, Norway, 408
Qinhuangdao China, 307                                                     Palermo, Sicily, 170
Shanghai, China, 561                   Junction Points*
                                                                           Palma, Balearic Islands, 582         NASIPIT, PHILIPPINES
Shantou, China, 1,113                                                      Patrai, Greece, 485                   (859'27"N., 12520'03"E.) to:
Vladivostok, Russia, 997             Panama, Panama, 6,441
                                                                           Piraievs, Greece (south of
Weihai, China, 172                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,490                                                   Junction Points*
                                                                              Greece), 667
Weonsan, North Korea (via            Torres Strait, Australia (via Cook
                                                                           Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
  Maenggol Sudo), 801                  Strait), 2,827                                                           Honshu, Japan, 1,770
                                                                              Canal), 586
Xiamen, China, 1,004                 Wilson Promontory, Australia (via                                          Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,332
                                                                           Port Vendres, France, 521
                                       Cook Strait), 1,547



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                      NEW YORK, NEW YORK, U.S.A.                              69



Panama, Panama, 9,376                New York, New York, U.S.A.,        Hakodate, Japan, 389                  Junction Points*
Punta Arenas, Chile, 8,880              3,532                           Korsakov, Sakhalin, Russia, 115
Singapore, 1,410                     Paramaribo, Suriname, 1,476        Niigata, Japan, 549                 Panama, Panama (via South Pass),
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,655        Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1,228      Otaru, Japan, 213                      1,433
Torres Strait, Australia, 1,783      St. John's, Canada, 3,341                                              Straits of Florida (via South Pass),
                                                                        NEW AMSTERDAM,                         524
  Ports                              NAVARINO BAY, GREECE               GUYANA                              Yucatan Channel, 577
                                      (3654'12"N., 2140'43"E.) to:     (625'00"N., 5728'36"W.) to:
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,                                                                                   Ports
  Russia, 2,706                        Junction Points*                   Junction Points*
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,166                                                                                 Barranquilla, Colombia, 1,458
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,471      Port Said, Egypt, 655              Panama, Panama, 1,581               Belize, Belize (via South Pass),
Manila, Philippines, 633             Strait of Gibraltar, 1,337         Yucatan Channel, 1,907                850
Tarakan, Indonesia, 1,070                                                                                   Bocas del Toro, Panama (via South
Vladivostok, Russia, 2,124             Ports                              Ports                               Pass and inside route), 1,353
Weonsan, Korea, 1,976                                                                                       Campeche, Mexico (via Southwest
                                     Alexandria, Egypt, 539             Belem, Brazil, 859                    Pass), 650
NASSAU, BAHAMA ISLANDS               Algiers, Algeria, 902              Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,   Carmen, Mexico, 723
 (2505'10"N., 7719'50"W.) to:      Alicante, Spain, 1,065               903                               Cartagena, Colombia, 1,468
                                     Ashdod, Israel, 719                Port of Spain, Trinidad, 437        Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 801
  Junction Points*                   Bari, Italy, 350                                                       Colon, Panama, 1,389
                                     Beirut, Lebanon, 715               NEW HAVEN,                          La Habana, Cuba (via South Pass),
Panama, Panama (via Windward         Cannes, France, 1,210              CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.                   602
   Passage), 1,210                   Dhekelia, Cyprus, 635               (4117'24"N., 7554'30"W.) to:     Maracaibo, Venezuela (via South
Straits of Florida, 393              Es Sider, Libya, 413                                                     Pass), 1,629
Yucatan Channel, 556                 Iskenderun, Turkey, 501              Junction Points*                  Matanzas, Cuba, 641
                                     Limassol, Cyprus, 598                                                  Progreso, Mexico, 556
  Ports                              Moni Anchorage, Cyprus, 603        Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,867        Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 961
                                     Tangier, Morocco, 1,336            Panama, Panama, 2,106               Puerto Cortes, Honduras (via
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., 880     Tarabulus, Lebanon, 728            Strait of Gibraltar, 3,161            South Pass), 916
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                                                              San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,
  1,173                                                                   Ports                               1,262
                                     NAVLAKHI, INDIA
Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,284           (2257'52"N., 7026'32"E.)                                            Tampico, Mexico (via Southwest
Charleston, South Carolina,          Subtract 90 miles from Okha        Halifax, Canada, 540                  Pass), 711
  U.S.A., 507                        distances.                         La Habana, Cuba, 1,280              Tela, Honduras, 915
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 868                                                                                       Tuxpan, Mexico (via Southwest
Colon, Panama, 1,178                 NAVPLION, GREECE                   NEW LONDON,                           Pass), 739
Fernandina, Florida, U.S.A., 450      (3733'45"N., 2247'00"E.) to:    CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.                 Veracruz, Mexico (via Southwest
Guantanamo, Cuba, 503                                                    (4121'30"N., 7205'30"W.) to:       Pass), 789
Hamilton, Bermuda, 829                 Junction Points*
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A. (via                                        Junction Points*
                                                                                                            NEW PLYMOUTH, NEW
  Northeast Providence Channel),     Port Said, Egypt, 617                                                  ZEALAND
  456                                                                   Bishop Rock, England, 2,849          (3902'08"S., 17402'30"E.) to:
                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 1,484
Kingston, Jamaica, 667                                                  Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,727
La Habana, Cuba, 390                                                    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,831          Junction Points*
                                       Ports
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 191                                             Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,041
New York, New York, U.S.A., 962                                         Strait of Gibraltar, 3,106          Panama, Panama, 6,712
                                     Iraklion, Kriti, 237
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 758       Izmir, Turkey, 258                                                     Punta Arenas, Chile (via 50S),
Nuevitas, Cuba, 454                                                       Ports                               4,690
                                     Piraievs, Greece, 142
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                                                                 Torres Strait, Australia, 2,502
  U.S.A., 930                                                           Bordeaux, France, 3,153             Wilson Promontory, Australia,
                                     NEGAPPATTINAM, INDIA               Hamilton, Bermuda, 667
Port au Prince, Haiti, 564            (1046'00"N., 7955'00"E.) to:                                          1,282
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 799
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 566            Junction Points*                 NEW MANGALORE, INDIA                  Ports
Santo Domingo, Dominican                                                 (125'32"N., 7448'00"E.) to:
  Republic, 851                      Singapore, 1,568                                                       Hobart, Tasmania, 1,213
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 503                                            Junction Points*                  Kobe, Japan (via Bougainville
Wilmington, North Carolina,            Ports                                                                  Strait), 4,946
  U.S.A., 561                                                           Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    Melbourne, Australia (via west of
                                                                          4,523                               Timor), 1,410
                                     Colombo, Sri Lanka, 476
                                                                        Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,695      Suva, Fiji Islands, 1,317
NATAL, BRAZIL
 (545'00"S., 3511'00"W.) to:                                          Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,939      Sydney, Australia, 1,124
                                     NELSON, NEW ZEALAND                Port Said, Egypt, 3,091             Yokohama, Japan (via
                                      (4114'00"S., 17315'00"E.) to:   Singapore, 2,124
  Junction Points*                                                                                            Bougainville Strait), 4,881
                                                                        Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,308
                                       Junction Points*
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,619                                           Torres Strait, Australia, 4,549     NEW WESTMINSTER,
Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,400           Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 2,794                                         CANADA
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,003                                                Ports                              (4912'00"N., 12254'30"W.) to:
                                     Torres Strait, Australia, 2,646

  Ports                                                                 Al Basrah, Iraq, 1,907                Ports
                                       Ports
                                                                        Bombay, India, 402
Belem, Brazil, 954                                                      Calcutta, India, 1,487              Nanaimo, Canada, 47
                                     Auckland, New Zealand, 633
Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 1,604                                            Colombo, Sri Lanka, 495             Port Angeles, Washington, U.S.A.,
                                     Brisbane, Australia, 1,380
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2,329                                          Okha, India, 659                       90
                                     Sydney, Australia, 1,166
Dakar, Senegal, 1,620                                                   Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 703         Prince Rupert, Canada, 492
El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain,                                          Victoria, Seychelles, 1,562         Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 126
                                     NEVELS'K, RUSSIA
   3,312                              (4640'00"N., 14151'00"E.) to:
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,569                                           NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA,             NEW YORK, NEW YORK,
Galway, Ireland, 3,786                 Ports                            U.S.A.                              U.S.A.
Georgetown, Guyana, 1,630                                                (2957'00"N., 9003'30"W.) to:      (4042'00"N., 7401'00"W.) to:
Lagos, Nigeria, 2,425                Akita, Japan, 450
Monrovia, Liberia, 1,629




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
70        NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, U.S.A.



  Junction Points*                   Grand Turk, Grand Turk Island,        Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,770           Ports
                                        1,167                              Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico,
Bishop Rock, England, 2,937          Guantanamo, Cuba (via Crooked            1,429                              Amsterdam, Netherlands, 286
Cape of Good Hope, South                Island Passage), 1,312             Salvador, Brazil, 4,089               Antwerp, Belgium, 351
   Africa, 6,814                     Halifax, Canada, 600                  San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via    Bergen, Norway, 403
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,815         Hamilton, Bermuda, 697                   Crooked Island Passage), 2,032     Bremerhaven, Germany, 374
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,919         Horta, Fayal, Azores, 2,098           San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via    Dunkerque, France, 307
Montreal, Canada, 1,516              Isabel Segunda, Isla de Vieques,         Straits of Florida, southbound),   Egersund, Norway, 329
Panama, Panama (via Windward            1,430                                 2,047                              Emden, Germany, 329
   Passage), 2,016                   Ivittuut, Greenland, 1,933            San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,399          Esbjerg, Denmark, 349
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,120      Jacmel, Haiti, 1,489                  Santa Barbara de Samana,              Hamburg, Germany, 424
Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,916           Kingston, Jamaica (via Crooked           Dominican Republic, 1,334          Hull, England, 143
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,180              Island Passage), 1,474             Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary        Kristiansand, Norway, 376
Straits of Florida, 1,237            Kingstown, St. Vincent, 1,791            Islands, 2,936                     Le Havre, France, 411
Yucatan Channel, 1,366               La Ceiba, Honduras, 1,743             Santa Marta, Colombia (via            London, England, 325
                                     La Guaira, Venezuela (via Mona           Crooked Island Passage), 1,783     Oostende, Belgium, 291
  Ports                                 Passage), 1,848                    Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via           Oslo, Norway, 528
                                     La Habana, Cuba, 1,186                   Crooked Island Passage), 1,362     Plymouth, England, 524
Abraham Bay, Bahamas, 1,115          Lagos, Nigeria, 4,883                 Santo Domingo, Dominican              Portland, England, 453
Antilla, Cuba, 1,226                 Las Cayes, Haiti, 1,447                  Republic, 1,489                    Portsmouth, England, 403
Argentia, Canada, 1,009              Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 2,965     Santos, Brazil, 4,957                 Rotterdam, Netherlands, 285
Arkhangel'sk, Russia (Clear of       Las Piedras, Venezuela, 1,796         Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba (via        Southampton, England, 421
   general maximum winter solid      Limon, Costa Rica (via Crooked           Mona Passage), 1,761               Stavanger, Norway, 349
   pack ice in the vicinity of          Island Passage), 2,047             Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba (via        Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 367
   Iceland), 4,320                   Lisboa, Portugal, 2,980                  Windward Passage), 1,805           Zeebrugge, Belgium, 289
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 4,216          Liverpool, Canada, 536                St. John, Canada (via Vineyard
Bahia de Samana, Dominican           Luanda, Angola, 5,670                    Sound and Long Island Sound),      NEWPORT, RHODE ISLAND,
   Republic, 1,328                   Luderitz Bay, Namibia, 6,393             486                                U.S.A.
Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 6,154       Maracaibo, Venezuela, 1,890           St. John, Canada (Nantucket Light      (4129'50"N., 7119'50"W.)
Bahia Honda, Cuba (outside),         Matanzas, Cuba, 1,167                    Buoy), 545                         Subtract 20 miles from Providence
   1,226                             Mathew Town, Great Inagua Island      St. John's, Canada, 1,093             distances.
Banes, Cuba (via Crooked Island         (via Crooked Island Passage),      St. John's, Antigua (via Anegada
   Passage), 1,216                      1,205                                 Channel), 1,572                    NEWPORT, WALES
Baracoa, Cuba, 1,226                 Monrovia, Liberia, 3,965              St. Pierre, Martinique (via            (5133'20"N., 258'00"W.) to:
Barranquilla, Colombia, 1,801        Montecristi, Dominican Republic,         Anegada Channel), 1,705
Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe (via            1,265                              Sydney, Canada, 808                     Junction Points*
   Anegada Channel), 1,624           Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,753            Vigo, Spain, 2,914
Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis,   Murmansk, Russia (north of            Villa do Porto, Azores, 2,279         Bishop Rock, England, 177
   1,531                                Iceland), 3,844                    Vitoria, Brazil, 4,507                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 258
Belem, Brazil, 3,015                 Murmansk, Russia (south of            Walvisbaai, Namibia, 6,228            Inishtrahull, Ireland, 371
Bilbao, Spain, 3,160                    Iceland), 3,948                    Willemstad, Curacao, 1,771
Bocas del Toro, Panama (via          Nassau, Bahamas (via Northwest        Yarmouth, Canada (Nantucket             Ports
   Crooked Island Passage), 2,048       Providence Channel), 962              Light Buoy), 464
Boma, Congo, 5,591                   Natal, Brazil, 3,541                  Yarmouth, Canada (via Pollok Rip      Cardiff, Wales, 16
Bordeaux, France, 3,241              Nuevitas, Cuba (via Crooked              Channel), 440                      Cobh, Ireland, 210
Brest, France, 3,022                    Island Passage), 1,274                                                   Cork, Ireland, 220
Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,829          Oporto, Portugal, 2,953               NEWARK, NEW JERSEY,                   Dover, England, 439
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,871       Paamiut (Frederikshaab),              U.S.A.                                Dublin, Ireland, 219
Cadiz, Spain, 3,155                     Greenland, 1,959                    (4042'00"N., 7409'00"W.) See       Falmouth, England, 191
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 1,283            Paramaribo, Suriname, 2,334           Port Newark.                          Limerick, Ireland, 418
Cape Town, South Africa, 6,786       Parrsboro, Canada, 591                                                      Liverpool, England, 284
Cartagena, Colombia (via Crooked     Plymouth, Montserrat, 1,574           NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA                  Manchester, England, 324
   Island Passage), 1,853            Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,652      (3255'30"S., 15147'00"E.) to:      Plymouth, England, 224
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    Ponce, Puerto Rico (via Mona                                                Portsmouth, England, 341
   1,434                                Passage), 1,462                      Junction Points*                    Southampton, England, 339
Charlottetown, Canada (via Strait    Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,246                                                Waterford, Ireland, 170
   of Canso), 832                    Porlamar, Venezuela (via Virgin       Panama, Panama, 7,654
Christiansted, Virgin Islands (via      Passage), 1,879                                                          NEWPORT NEWS, VIRGINIA,
   Virgin Passage), 1,465            Port au Prince, Haiti (via Crooked      Ports                               U.S.A.
Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Crooked           Island Passage), 1,372                                                    (3658'00"N., 7626'00"W.)
   Island Passage), 1,682            Port of Spain, Trinidad (via Virgin   Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,      Subtract 3 miles from Norfolk
Colon, Panama (via Crooked              Passage), 1,939                      6,456                               distances.
   Island Passage), 1,974            Port Antonio, Jamaica (via            Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 6,833
Colon, Panama (via Yucatan              Crooked Island Passage), 1,423     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    NHA BE, VIETNAM
   Channel), 2,176                   Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,747         6,467                                (1042'00"N., 10645'00"E.)
Corunna, Spain, 2,917                Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,                                           Subtract 9 miles from Ho Chi Minh
Dakar, Senegal, 3,335                   2,913                              NEWCASTLE, CANADA                     distances.
Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 1,048     Praia Da Vitoria, Terceira, Azores,    (4700'04"N., 6534'00"W.) Add
Fernando de Noronha, 3,517              2,173                              4 miles to Chatham distances.         NHA TRANG BAY, VIETNAM
Fort de France, Martinique (via      Progreso, Mexico, 1,609                                                      (1215'00"N., 10913'00"E.) to:
   Anegada Channel), 1,717           Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (via        NEWCASTLE, ENGLAND
Fort Liberte, Haiti, 1,283              Straits of Florida, southbound),    (5458'00"N., 135'00"W.) to:          Junction Points*
Fortaleza, Brazil, 3,304                1,804
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,757        Puerto Cortes, Honduras (via            Junction Points*                    Singapore, 769
Funchal, Madeira Island, 2,761          Straits of Florida, southbound),
Georgetown, Ascension Island,           1,764                              Bishop Rock, England, 616               Ports
   4,395                             Puerto Manati, Cuba, 1,244            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 604
Georgetown, Guyana, 2,317            Qaqortoq (Julianehaab),               Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 264
Gibara, Cuba (via Crooked Island        Greenland, 1,911                     Entrance), Germany, 439             Hong Kong, China, 678
   Passage), 1,216                   Recife, Brazil, 3,698                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 265         Kao-hsiung Kang, Taiwan, 895
Gonaives, Haiti, 1,328               Reykjavik, Iceland, 2,495             Skagens Odde, Denmark, 445            Manila, Philippines, 706




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                           NORFOLK, VIRGINIA, U.S.A.                      71



NICE, FRANCE                        Manzanillo, Mexico, 3,351              Junction Points*              Rauma, Finland, 678
 (4341'40"N., 717'07"E.) to:      Mollendo, Peru, 6,213                                                Riga, Latvia, 555
                                    Quepos, Costa Rica, 4,665            Bishop Rock, England, 727       Ronne, Denmark, 175
  Junction Points*                  Victoria, Canada, 1,311              Ile d'Ouessant, France, 716     Rostock, Germany, 92
                                                                         Pentland Firth, Scotland, 565   Rotterdam, Netherlands, 323
Port Said, Egypt, 1,456                                                  Skagens Odde, Denmark, 224      Ruch'i, Russia, 766
                                    NIKOLAYEVSK-NA-AMURE,
Strait of Gibraltar, 788            RUSSIA                                                               Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 779
                                     (5307'30"N., 14043'00"E.) to:       Ports                         Sonderborg, Denmark, 46
  Ports                                                                                                  Southampton, England, 533
                                      Junction Points*                   Aalborg, Denmark, 207           Stockholm, Sweden, 503
Ajaccio, Corsica, 138                                                    Aarhus, Denmark, 131            Stralsund, Germany, 104
Almeria, Spain, 627                 Panama, Panama (via Unimak           Abenra, Denmark, 66             Sundsvall, Sweden, 684
Cagliari, Sardinia, 354               Pass), 7,296                       Amsterdam, Netherlands, 291     Swinoujscie, Poland, 186
Civitavecchia, Italy, 220                                                Antwerp, Belgium, 398           Szczecin, Poland, 222
Constanta, Romania (south of          Ports                              Assens, Denmark, 65             Tallinn, Estonia, 603
   Greece), 1,518                                                        Baltiysk, Russia, 353           Travemunde, Germany, 88
Constanta, Romania (via Corinth     Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,          Bremerhaven, Germany, 129       Trelleborg, Sweden, 141
   Canal), 1,476                      Russia (via South Channel), 162    Calais, France, 408             Turku, Finland, 576
Genova, Italy, 89                   Bukhta Shelikhova, Kuril Islands,    Cherbourg, France, 554          Umea, Sweden, 751
Iraklion, Kriti, 1,012                Russia (north of Sakhalin), 677    Den Helder, Netherlands, 263    Uusikaupunki, Finland, 624
Iskenderun, Turkey, 1,553           Dagu, China, 1,961                   Dover, England, 410             Vaa, Finland, 744
Istanbul, Turkey (south of          Hong Kong, China (via South          Dundee, Scotland, 501           Vejle, Denmark, 106
   Greece), 1,321                     Channel), 2,394                    Dunkerque, France, 386          Ventspils, Latvia, 434
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth       Matsuga-hana, Japan, 741             Emden, Germany, 197             Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 126
   Canal), 1,279                    Pago Pago, American Samoa (via       Esbjerg, Denmark, 372           Wismar, Germany, 84
Izmir, Turkey, 1,160                  Nemuro Strait and La Perouse       Faborg, Denmark, 53             Zeebrugge, Belgium, 354
Kerch, Ukraine (south of Greece),     Strait), 4,913                     Fecamp, France, 482
   1,756                            Qingdao, China, 1,750                Flensburg, Germany, 52          NORDENHAM, GERMANY
Kerch, Ukraine (via Corinth         San Francisco, California, U.S.A.    Fredericia, Denmark, 85          (5329'00"N., 829'40"E.) Add 5
   Canal), 1,714                      (via Unimak Pass), 4,099           Frederikshavn, Denmark, 200     1/2 miles to Bremerhaven
Larnaca, Cyprus, 1,457              Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via     Gavle, Sweden, 615              distances.
Livorno, Italy, 134                   Unimak Pass), 3,748                Gdansk, Poland, 344
Marsaxlokk, Malta, 596              Shanghai, China, 1,742               Gdynia, Poland, 339
Mersin, Turkey, 1,495                                                                                    NORFOLK, VIRGINIA, U.S.A.
                                    Sovetskaya Gavan, Russia (via        Goteborg, Sweden, 230            (3651'00"N., 7618'00"W.) to:
Messina, Sicily, 515                  South Channel), 276                Grena, Denmark, 140
Milos, Greece, 970                  Tomari, Japan, 694                   Haderslev, Denmark, 72            Junction Points*
Napoli, Italy, 369                  Xiamen, China (via South             Halmsted, Sweden, 188
Patrai, Greece, 825                   Channel), 2,138                    Hamburg, Germany, 91            Bishop Rock, England, 3,101
Sant Antioco Ponti, Sardinia, 310   Zaliv Urkt, Russia (north of         Hamina, Finland, 747            Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Thessaloniki, Greece, 1,210           Sakhalin), 209                     Hango, Finland, 564                6,802
Valletta, Malta, 592                                                     Helsingborg, Sweden, 176        Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,979
                                    NOME, ALASKA, U.S.A.                 Helsingor, Denmark, 175         Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,083
NIIGATA, JAPAN                       (6429'00"N., 16525'00"W.) to:     Helsinki, Finland, 625          Montreal, Canada (via Cabot
 (3758'00"N., 13904'00"E.) to:                                         Horsens, Denmark, 131              Strait), 1,700
                                      Junction Points*                   Kalmar, Sweden, 289             Panama, Panama (via Windward
  Junction Points*                                                       Kalundborg, Denmark, 111           Passage), 1,825
                                    Panama, Panama, 5,834                Karlskrona, Sweden, 235         Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,280
Panama, Panama, (via Tsugaru-                                            Klaipeda, Lithuania, 400        Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,900
  Kaikyo), 7,648                      Ports                              Kobenhavn, Denmark (via Store   Strait of Gibraltar, 3,335
Punta Arenas, Chile (via Tsugaru                                            Baelt), 202                  Straits of Florida (via outer route),
  Kaikyo), 9,687                    Apra, Guam, 3,686                    Kobenhavn, Denmark (via The        980
Singapore, 2,976                    Auckland, New Zealand, 6,159            Sound), 162                  Yucatan Channel, 1,l65
                                    Callao, Peru, 6,578                  Koge, Denmark, 153
  Ports                             Cordova, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,409       Kolding, Denmark, 86              Ports
                                    Hakodate, Japan, 2,347               Korsor, Denmark, 73
Busan, South Korea, 516             Hong Kong, China, 4,145              Kotka, Finland, 694             Argentia, Canada, 1,189
Hakodate, Japan, 247                Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via        Kyndbyvaerkets, Denmark, 164    Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 4,399
Incheon, South Korea, 894              Unimak Pass), 2,674               Landskrona, Sweden, 167         Banes, Cuba (via Crooked Island
Kawasaki, Japan (via Balintang      Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Le Havre, France, 522              Passage), 1,018
  Channel), 762                        2,968                             Limhamn, Sweden, 159            Belem, Brazil, 2,832
Maizuru, Japan, 256                 Manila, Philippines, 4,379           London, England, 439            Belize, Belize, 1,503
Muroran, Japan (via Balintang       Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Lubeck, Germany, 99             Bocas del Toro, Panama (via
  Channel), 293                        4,748                             Lulea, Sweden, 875                 Crooked Island Passage), 1,853
Nagoya, Japan (via Balintang        Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Malmo, Sweden, 205              Bordeaux, France, 3,405
  Channel), 906                        Russia, 1,317                     Masnedsund, Denmark, 149        Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,786
Nevel'sk, Russia, 549               Pevek, Russia, 700                   Middlefart, Denmark, 84         Cadiz, Spain, 3,303
Osaka, Japan (via Shimonoseki       Prince Rupert, Canada, 1,846         Musko Island, Sweden, 473       Cape Town, South Africa, 6,790
  Strait), 743                      San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Naestved, Denmark, 94           Cartagena, Colombia (via Crooked
Shimonoseki, Japan, 492                2,636                             Nakskov, Denmark, 46               Island Passage), 1,658
Vladivostok, Russia, 453            Sasebo, Japan (via Osumi             Newcastle, England, 439         Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
                                       Kaikyo), 3,373                    Norrkoping, Sweden, 459            1,296
NIKISKI, ALASKA, U.S.A.             Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via     Odense, Denmark, 117            Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Windward
 (6040'30"N., 15124'30"W.) to:       Juan de Fuca Strait), 2,288       Oostende, Belgium, 364             Passage), 1,482
                                    Sydney, Australia, 6,280             Ornskolosvik, Sweden, 733       Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 1,736
  Junction Points*                  Valparaiso, Chile, 7,728             Oulu, Finland, 918              Colon, Panama (via Crooked
                                    Vancouver, Canada, 2,304             Oxelosund, Sweden, 420             Island Passage), 1,779
Panama, Panama, 5,055               Yokohama, Japan, 2,696               Peenemunde, Germany, 155        Dakar, Senegal, 3,408
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,947                                               Pitea, Sweden, 864              Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 848
                                    NORD-OSTSEE-KANAL                    Plymouth, England, 639          Fort de France, Martinique, 1,597
  Ports                             (EAST ENTRANCE),                     Porkkala, Finland, 647          Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,821
                                    GERMANY*                             Portland, England, 565          Funchal, Madeira Island, 2,907
Antofagasta, Chile, 6,572            (5422'00"N., 1009'00"E.) to:      Portsmouth, England, 515        Georgetown, Guyana, 2,090
Callao, Peru, 5,794                                                      Randers, Denmark, 188


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
72        NORRKOPING, SWEDEN



Guantanamo, Cuba, 1,117                Junction Points*                  Torres Strait, Australia (via Raine     Junction Points*
Halifax, Canada, 790                                                       Island entrance), 1,622
Hamilton, Bermuda, 683               Bishop Rock, England, 1,812                                               Port Said, Egypt, 1,260
Ivittuut, Greenland, 2,116           Cape of Good Hope, South              Ports                               Strait of Gibraltar (south of
Kingston, Jamaica (via Crooked          Africa, 4,379                                                           Greece), 2,277
   Island Passage), 1,279            Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1,865        Apia, Samoa, 1,371                    Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth
La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,687          Grand Banks South, 2,104            Apra, Guam, 2,528                      Canal), 2,260
La Habana, Cuba (southbound,         Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,770       Auckland, New Zealand, 998
   outside), 985                     Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,133        Avarua, Cook Islands, 1,887             Ports
Lagos, Nigeria, 4,941                Panama, Panama, 3,697               Baie Taio-Hae, Marquesa Islands,
Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 3,130    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,437        3,183                              Bat'umi, Georgia, 255
Limon, Costa Rica (via Crooked       Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,296          Baker Island, 1,707                   Constanta, Romania, 403
   Island Passage), 1,852            Strait of Gibraltar, 1,160          Bowen, Australia, 1,342               Istanbul, Turkey, 460
Lisboa, Portugal, 3,129              Straits of Florida, 3,667           Brisbane, Australia, 807              Odessa, Ukraine, 369
Liverpool, Canada, 724               Yucatan Channel, 3,985              Cairns Harbor, Australia, 1,250       Thessaloniki, Greece, 794
Livingston, Guatemala, 1,595                                             Callao, Peru, 6,541
Maracaibo, Venezuela, 1,682            Ports                             Dagu, China, 4,667                    NUEVA GERONA, CUBA
Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,710                                               Dunedin, New Zealand, 1,552            (2155'00"N., 8248'00"W.)
Nassau, Bahamas, 758                 Accra, Ghana, 1,756                 Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,         Subtract 82 miles from Surgidero
Nuevitas, Cuba, 1,076                Boma, Congo, 2,666                     4,857                              de Batabano distances.
Parrsboro, Canada, 784               Casablanca, Morocco, 936            Funafuti, Tuvalu, 1,132
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,527    Dakar, Senegal, 373                 Guayaquil, Ecuador, 6,686             NUEVA PALMIRA, URUGUAY
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,401         Freetown, Sierra Leone, 850         Hakodate, Japan (via Canal             (3352'54"S., 5825'28"W.) Add
Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,178         Galway, Ireland, 1,979                 Woodin and Canal de la             155 miles to Montevideo distances.
Port Antonio, Jamaica (via           Greenville, Liberia, 1,166             Havannah), 4,176
   Crooked Island Passage), 1,228    Lisboa, Portugal, 1,149             Hobart, Tasmania, 1,604
                                                                                                               NUEVITAS, CUBA
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,720      Monrovia, Liberia, 1,061            Hong Kong, China, 4,107                (2132'40"N., 7712'40"W.) to:
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,799       Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,634      Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,371
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,    Tangier, Morocco, 1,085             Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,281           Junction Points*
   2,971                             Vigo, Spain, 1,352                  Lae, Papua New Guinea, 1,519
Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 1,603                                         Lele, Caroline Islands, 1,722         Straits of Florida, 386
Puerto Cortes, Honduras (via         NOUAKCHOTT,                         Levuka, Fiji Islands, 776             Yucatan Channel, 528
   Straits of Florida), 1,568        MAURITANIA                          Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Recife, Brazil, 3,651                 (1802'02"N., 1602'02"W.) to:        5,521                                Ports
Reykjavik, Iceland, 2,677                                                Mackay, Australia, 1,253
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,723          Junction Points*                  Malakal, Palau Islands, 2,612         Abraham Bay, Bahamas, 243
Salvador, Brazil, 4,042                                                  Manila, Philippines, 3,616            Bahia de Samana, Dominican
San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via   Bishop Rock, England, 2,044         Melbourne, Australia, 1,595              Republic, 510
   Straits of Florida), 1,846        Cape of Good Hope, South            Midway Island, 3,207                  Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via
San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via      Africa, 4,248                    Nagasaki, Japan (via Bougainville        Florida Strait), 1,187
   Windward Passage), 1,837          Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,068           Strait), 3,967                     Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,252         Grand Banks South, 2,275            Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 1,059          1,447
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,971       Pago Pago, American Samoa (via        Caibarien, Cuba, 181
   Islands, 3,057                    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,335           Kandavu Passage), 1,416            Casilda, Cuba (via Windward
Santa Marta, Colombia (via           Panama, Panama, 3,752               Papeete, French Polynesia, 2,497         Passage), 610
   Crooked Island Passage), 1,588    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,637     Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,            Charleston, South Carolina,
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 1,167        Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,164             Russia, 4,587                         U.S.A., 750
Santo Domingo, Dominican             Strait of Gibraltar, 1,329          Ponape, Caroline Islands, 1,892       Cienfuegos, Cuba, 649
   Republic, 1,329                   Straits of Florida, 3,777           Port Augusta, Australia, 2,179        Fort de France, Martinique, 1,035
Santos, Brazil, 4,910                Yucatan Channel, 4,052              Qingdao, China, 4,416                 Fort Liberte, Haiti, 339
Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba (via                                           Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 1,383       Gibara, Cuba, 82
   Mona Passage), 1,600                Ports                             Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 957          Guantanamo, Cuba, 284
Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba (via                                           Rockhampton, Australia, 902           Hamilton, Bermuda, 988
   Windward Passage), 1,611          Accra, Ghana, 1,605                 Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 2,737          Hopetown, Bahamas, 452
St. John, Canada, 731                Boma, Congo, 4,250                  San Diego, California, U.S.A.,        Isabel de Sagua, Cuba, 212
St. John's, Canada, 1,277            Cape Town, South Africa, 5,547         5,491                              Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 331
Sydney, Canada, 996                  Casablanca, Morocco, 1,114          San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    Kingston, Jamaica, 448
Takoradi, Ghana, 4,620               Dakar, Senegal, 217                    5,410                              La Habana, Cuba, 344
Vigo, Spain, 3,099                   Freetown, Sierra Leone, 699         Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 5,760    Manzanillo, Cuba (via Windward
Willemstad, Curacao, 1,611           Galway, Ireland, 2,167              Shanghai, China, 4,185                   Passage), 531
Yarmouth, Canada, 656                Lagos, Nigeria, 1,823               Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,613          Mariel, Cuba, 366
                                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Suva, Fiji Islands, 734               Miller Anchorage, Bahamas, 363
NORRKOPING, SWEDEN                     3,256                             Sydney, Australia, 1,069              Nassau, Bahamas, 454
 (5836'00"N., 1612'54"E.) to:      Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,674      Talomako, Vanuatu, 524                New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
                                     Qua Iboe, Nigeria, 2,078            Townsville, Australia, 1,155             Florida Strait), 1,264
  Junction Points*                   Recife, Brazil, 1,252               Truk, Caroline Islands, 2,068         Nicaro, Cuba, 132
                                     Sassandra, Ivory Coast, 1,250       Valparaiso, Chile, 6,115              Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Vigo, Spain, 1,530                  Vladivostok, Russia, 4,590               Florida Strait), 1,064
 Entrance), Germany, 459             Villa Cisneros, Western Sahara,     Wake Island, Pacific, 2,551           Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 520             367                               Wallaroo, Australia, 2,099               (via Florida Strait), 1,235
                                                                         Wotje Island, Marshall Islands,       Port au Prince, Haiti, 348
  Ports                              NOUMEA, NEW CALEDONIA                  1,972                              Port Antonio, Jamaica, 398
                                      (2216'30"S., 16627'00"E.) to:    Xiamen, China, 4,031                  Puerto Cayo Mao, Cuba, 154
Helsinki, Finland, 307                                                   Yap Island, Caroline Islands, 2,568   San Juan, Puerto Rico, 663
Riga, Latvia, 300                      Junction Points*                  Yokohama, Japan (via                  Santa Lucia, Cuba, 447
Stockholm, Sweden, 143                                                      Bougainville Strait), 3,837        Santo Domingo, Dominican
                                     Panama, Panama, 6,982                                                        Republic, 632
NOUADHIBOU,                          Punta Arenas, Chile (composite      NOVOROSSIYSK, RUSSIA                  St. Marc, Haiti, 306
MAURITANIA                             sailing with 49S. the limiting    (4443'00"N., 03747'00"E.) to:
 (2052'40"N., 1700'12"W.) to:        latitude), 5,745
                                     Punta Arenas, Chile (via great                                            NUKUALOFA, TONGA
                                                                                                               ISLANDS
                                       circle), 5,527                                                           (2107'30"S., 17512'00"W.) to:



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                         OOSTENDE, BELGIUM                         73



  Junction Points*                     Ports                                   Greece), 1,792                       Ports
                                                                            Palma, Balearic Islands (via
Panama, Panama, 5,953                Gdynia, Poland, 438                       Corinth Canal), 1,751              Bombay, India, 341
                                     Stockholm, Sweden, 609                 Piraievs, Greece, 712                 Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,183
  Ports                              Swinoujscie, Poland, 293               Rijeka, Croatia (south of Greece),    Karachi, Pakistan, 194
                                                                               1,476                              Garmgao, India, 533
Apia, Samoa, 509                     ODESSA, UKRAINE                        Rijeka, Croatia (via Corinth
Apra, Guam, 3,202                     (4629'47"N., 3044'40"E.) to:           Canal), 1,377                      OKHA, SAKHALIN, RUSSIA
Auckland, New Zealand, 1,099                                                Savona, Italy (south of Greece),       (5334'00"N., 14305'00"E.) to:
Brisbane, Australia, 1,827             Junction Points*                        1,650
Burnie Harbor, Australia, 2,318                                             Savona, Italy (via Corinth Canal),      Ports
Fremantle, Australia (via Bass       Port Said, Egypt, 1,152                   1,608
  Strait), 3,970                     Strait of Gibraltar, 2,169             Sibenik, Croatia (south of            Bukhta, Nagayeva, Russia, 441
Geelong, Australia, 2,420                                                      Greece), 1,349                     Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia
Hobart, Tasmania, 2,328                Ports                                Sibenik, Croatia (via Corinth           (north of Sakhalin), 209
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,749                                                Canal), 1,250
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Alexandria, Egypt, 1,090               Siracusa, Sicily (south of Greece),   OLBIA, SARDINIA
  4,633                              Algiers, Algeria, 1,741                   1,146                               (4055'18"N., 931'24"E.) to:
Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,059         Alicante, Spain, 1,908                 Siracusa, Sicily (via Corinth
Pago Pago, American Samoa, 490       Ancona, Italy (south of Greece),          Canal), 1,120                        Junction Points*
Papeete, French Polynesia, 1,468        1,407                               Split, Croatia (south of Greece),
Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,341      Ancona, Italy (via Corinth Canal),        1,334                              Port Said, Egypt, 1,278
Port Kembla, Australia, 1,981           1,310                               Split, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),   Strait of Gibraltar, 828
Suva, Fiji islands, 416              Annaba, Algeria, 1,516                    1,235
                                     Banghazi, Libya, 1,064                 Tarabulus, Libya, 1,301                 Ports
NUUK (GODTHAB),                      Banzart, Tunisia, 1,411                Taranto, Italy (south of Greece),
GREENLAND                            Barcelona, Spain (south of                1,154                              Banzart, Tunisia, 236
 (6410'45"N., 5145'15"W.) to:         Greece), 1,737                      Taranto, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   Genova, Italy, 221
                                     Barcelona, Spain (via Corinth             1,065                              Napoli, Italy, 222
  Junction Points*                      Canal), 1,793                       Thessaloniki, Greece, 686
                                     Bari, Italy (south of Greece), 1,200   Toulon, France (south of Greece),     OLONGAPO, PHILIPPINES
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,630      Bari, Italy (via Corinth Canal),          1,699                               (1449'00"N., 12016'30"E.) to:
Strait of Gibraltar, 2,477              1,103                               Toulon, France (via Corinth
                                     Bat'umi, Georgia, 569                     Canal), 1,658                        Junction Points*
  Ports                              Beirut, Lebanon, 1,194                 Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),
                                     Brindisi, Italy, 1,142                    1,510                              Singapore, 1,335
Churchill, Canada, 1,331             Cartagena, Spain, 1,932                Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,076            Ceuta, Morocco, 2,150                     1,411                                Ports
St. John's, Canada, 1,005            Civitavecchia, Italy (south of         Tunis, Tunisia, 1,399
                                        Greece), 1,456                      Valencia, Spain (south of Greece),    Apra, Guam (north of Luzon),
NYKOBING, DENMARK                    Civitavecchia, Italy (via Corinth         1,906                                1,663
 (5554'48"N., 1140'42"E.) Add         Canal), 1,414                       Valencia, Spain (via Corinth          Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 872
12 miles to Masnedsund distances.    Constanta, Romania, 186                   Canal), 1,876                      Hong Kong, China, 580
                                     Genova, Italy (south of Greece),       Valletta, Malta, 1,185                Kuching, Sarawak, 992
OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA,                    1,639                               Venezia, Italy (south of Greece),     Pago Pago, American Samoa (via
U.S.A.                               Genova, Italy (via Corinth Canal),        1,518                                San Bernardino Strait), 4,622
 (3748'12"N., 12219'30"W.)            1,598                               Venezia, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
Add 3 miles to San Francisco         Gibraltar (south of Greece), 2,152        1,421                              OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON,
distances.                           Gibraltar (via Corinth Canal),         Volos, Greece, 677                    U.S.A.
                                        2,135                                                                      (4703'06"N., 12254'18"W.)
OCEAN ISLAND, PACIFIC                Haifa, Israel, 1,197                   OITA, JAPAN                           Add 44 miles to Seattle distances.
 (052'30"S., 16935'00"E.) to:      Iraklion, Kriti, 793                    (3317'00"N., 13140'00"E.) to:
                                     Istanbul, Turkey, 352                                                        ONEGA, RUSSIA
  Junction Points*                   Izmir, Turkey, 640                       Junction Points*                     (6354'00"N., 3806'00"E.) Add
                                     La Spezia, Italy (south of Greece),                                          102 miles to Arkhangel'sk
Panama, Panama, 6,724                   1,604                               Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via          distances.
                                     La Spezia, Italy (via Corinth            south of Mindanao), 2,843
  Ports                                 Canal), 1,562                       Panama, Panama (via east of
                                                                                                                  OOSTENDE, BELGIUM
                                     Livorno, Italy (south of Greece),        Honshu), 8,101                       (5114'00"N., 255'00"E.) to:
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,480         1,568                               Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,485
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Livorno, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Singapore (east of Kyushu), 2,556       Junction Points*
  4,553                                 1,527
Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Malga, Spain, 2,100                      Ports                               Bishop Rock, England, 400
  1,409                              Marseille, France (south of                                                  Ile d'Ouessant, France, 365
Papeete, French Polynesia, 2,609        Greece), 1,731                      Aomori, Japan, 773                    Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Marseille, France (via Corinth         Hiroshima, Japan, 92                    Entrance), Germany, 364
  4,406                                 Canal), 1,690                       Kobe, Japan, 214                      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 509
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,611   Messina, Sicily (south of Greece),     Kokura, Japan, 86                     Skagens Odde, Denmark, 489
Suva, Fiji Islands, 1,207               1,158                               Nagoya, Japan, 381
Yokohama, Japan, 2,761               Messina, Sicily (via Corinth           Shimonoseki, Japan, 81                  Ports
                                        Canal), 1,116                       Ube, Japan, 69
ODENSE, DENMARK                      Napoli, Italy (south of Greece),       Yokohama, Japan, 489                  Aberdeen, Scotland, 406
 (5524'40"N., 1023'00"E.) to:         1,329                               Yokoshima, Japan, 116                 Amsterdam, Netherlands, 117
                                     Napoli, Italy (via Corinth Canal),     Yokosuka, Japan, 483                  Antwerp, Belgium, 79
  Junction Points*                      1,288                                                                     Bergen, Norway, 563
                                     Novorossiysk, Russia, 369              OKHA, INDIA                           Bremerhaven, Germany, 299
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East              Oran, Algeria, 1,938                    (2228'30"N., 6905'15"E.) to:       Cherbourg, France, 203
 Entrance), Germany, 117             Palermo, Sicily (south of Greece),                                           Dundee, Scotland, 398
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 126              1,274                                 Junction Points*                    Egersund, Norway, 447
                                     Palermo, Sicily (via Corinth                                                 Emden, Germany, 242
                                        Canal), 1,232                       Port Said, Egypt, 2,887               Esbjerg, Denmark, 328
                                     Palma, Balearic Islands (south of                                            Hartlepool, England, 265



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
74        OPORTO, PORTUGAL



Hull, England, 207                   Beirut, Lebanon, 1,803                 Ports                               Baltiysk, Russia (via The Sound),
Inverness, Scotland, 510             Brindisi, Italy, 1,084                                                        551
Kristiansand, Norway, 453            Cagliari, Sardinia, 525              Guantanamo, Cuba, 771                 Bergen, Norway, 378
Le Havre, France, 168                Cannes, France, 594                  Port of Spain, Trinidad, 432          Bodo, Norway, 885
Leith, Scotland, 396                 Cartagena, Spain, 115                Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, 1,195      Bremerhaven, Germany, 427
London, England, 123                 Ceuta, Morocco, 232                  San Juan, Puerto Rico, 195            Calais, France, 634
Newcastle, England, 291              Civitavecchia, Italy, 703                                                  Cherbourg, France, 784
Oslo, Norway, 596                    Genova, Italy, 686                   ORMOS NAVARINOU,                      Dover, England, 640
Plymouth, England, 288               Gibraltar, 237                       GREECE                                Dunkerque, France, 617
Portland, England, 214               Haifa, Israel, 1,800                  (3654'12"N., 2140'43"E.) See       Egersund, Norway, 238
Portsmouth, England, 174             Iraklion, Kriti, 1,284               Navarino Bay.                         Emden, Germany, 451
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 86           Istanbul, Turkey (south of                                                 Esbjerg, Denmark, 341
Southampton, England, 192               Greece), 1,590                    ORMOS SOUDHAS, KRITI                  Farsund, Norway, 198
Stavanger, Norway, 488               Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth         (3529'30"N., 2404'45"E.) See       Flekkefjorden, Norway, 219
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 286             Canal), 1,573                     Soudha.                               Fredrikstad, Norway, 57
                                     Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),                                           Gdansk, Poland (via Store Baelt),
OPORTO, PORTUGAL                        1,436                             ORNSKOLDSVIK, SWEDEN                     657
 (4108'30"N., 841'00"W.) to:       Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),    (6316'37"N., 1844'20"E.) to:       Gdansk, Poland (via The Sound),
                                        1,418                                                                      540
  Junction Points*                   La Spezia, Italy, 701                  Junction Points*                    Goteborg, Sweden, 159
                                     Livorno, Italy, 691                                                        Hakonsvern, Norway, 371
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 494          Malaga, Spain, 195                   Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Halmstad, Sweden, 225
Strait of Gibraltar, 432             Marseille, France, 536                Entrance), Germany, 733              Hamburg, Germany, 461
                                     Melilla, Morocco, 120                Skagens Odde, Denmark, 798            Hammerfest, Norway, 1,187
  Ports                              Messina, Sicily, 818                                                       Helsingborg, Sweden, 250
                                     Napoli, Italy, 775                     Ports                               Helsingor, Denmark, 249
Cadiz, Spain, 399                    Odessa, Ukraine, 1,939                                                     Hirtshals, Denmark, 145
Dakar, Senegal, 1,682                Palermo, Sicily, 709                 Helsinki, Finland, 403                Hull, England, 559
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,161        Palma, Balearic Islands, 281         Riga, Latvia, 461                     Kalmar, Sweden (via Store Baelt),
Funchal, Madeira Island, 650         Piraievs, Greece (south of           Stockholm, Sweden, 274                   596
Lisboa, Portugal, 176                   Greece), 1,276                                                          Kalmar, Sweden (via The Sound),
New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth        OSAKA, JAPAN                             464
  2,923                                 Canal), 1,219                      (3438'00"N., 13526'00"E.) to:      Klaipeda, Lithuania (via Store
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 815           Rijeka, Croatia, 1,417                                                        Baelt and south of Bornholm),
Puerto de Pasajes, Spain, 473        Savona, Italy, 672                     Junction Points*                       716
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Sibenik, Croatia, 1,290                                                    Klaipeda, Lithuania (via The
  Islands, 849                       Siracusa, Sicily, 823                Panama, Panama, 7,969                    Sound), 584
Vigo, Spain, 74                      Skikda, Algeria, 398                                                       Kobenhavn, Denmark, 272
                                     Split, Croatia, 1,275                  Ports                               Kragero, Norway, 95
OPUA, NEW ZEALAND                    Tarabulus, Libya, 862                                                      Kristiansand, Norway, 163
 (3518'50"S., 17407'25"E.) to:     Taranto, Italy, 1,037                Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,           Kristiansund, Norway, 539
                                     Tarragona, Spain, 336                  Russia, 1,394                       Landskrona, Sweden, 26l
  Junction Points*                   Thessaloniki, Greece, 1,484          Incheon, South Korea, 721             Larvik, Norway, 72
                                     Toulon, France, 545                  Komatsushima, Japan, 58               Le Havre, France, 752
Panama, Panama, 6,675                Trieste, Italy, 1,450                Mogpo, South Korea, 544               Leith, Scotland, 76
Punta Arenas, Chile (via 50S),      Tunis, Tunisia, 589                  Pago Pago, American Samoa,            Lillesand, Norway, 144
  4,760                              Valencia, Spain, 238                   4,307                               Limhamn, Sweden, 279
Torres Strait, Australia, 2,472      Valletta, Malta, 774                 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,            London, England, 650
Wilson Promontory, Australia,        Venezia, Italy, 1,460                  Russia, 1,709                       Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 1,482
  1,419                              Volos, Greece (south of Greece),     Shimotsui, Japan, 116                 Lulea, Sweden (via Store Baelt),
                                        1,426                             Vladivostok, Russia, 815                 1,192
  Ports                              Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),   Weonsan, North Korea, 627             Lulea, Sweden (via The Sound),
                                        1,408                             Yokkaichi, Japan, 236                    1,063
Auckland, New Zealand, 115                                                Yokohama, Japan (via Kii Suido),      Malmo, Sweden, 278
Chimbote, Peru, 5,911                ORANGE, TEXAS, U.S.A.                  359                                 Mandal, Norway, 177
Hobart, Tasmania, 1,431               (3005'20"N., 9344'00"W.) Add                                            Murmansk, Russia, 1,469
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,753      20 miles to Port Arthur distances.                                         Narvik, Norway, 988
                                                                          OSLO, NORWAY
Los Angeles, California, 5,625                                             (5954'20"N., 1044'00"E.) to:       Newcastle, England, 528
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 6,218   ORANJESTAD, ARUBA                                                          Oostende, Belgium, 596
Yokohama, Japan, 4,742                (1231'15"N., 7002'45"W.) to:        Junction Points*                    Plymouth, England, 869
                                                                                                                Portland, England, 795
ORAN, ALGERIA                          Junction Points*                   Bishop Rock, England, 947             Portsmouth, England, 745
 (3542'52"N., 038'00"W.) to:                                            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 946           Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,173
                                     Panama, Panama, 661                  Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Riga, Latvia (via Store Baelt), 871
  Junction Points*                   Yucatan Channel, 1,024                 Entrance), Germany (via Store       Riga, Latvia (via The Sound), 739
                                                                             Baelt), 368                        Risor, Norway, 106
Port Said, Egypt, 1,711                Ports                              Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               Ronne, Denmark (via Store Baelt),
Strait of Gibraltar, 282                                                    Entrance), Germany (via The            491
                                     Barranquilla, Colombia, 506             Sound), 441                        Rosyth, Scotland, 550
  Ports                              Kingston, Jamaica, 223               Pentland Firth, Scotland, 524         Rotterdam, Netherlands, 554
                                     La Guaira, Venezuela, 207            Skagens Odde, Denmark, 131            Sankt-Peterburg, Russia (via Store
Alcudia, Balearic Islands, 281                                                                                     Baelt), 1,095
Alexandria, Egypt, 1,590             ORANJESTAD, ST.                        Ports                               Sankt-Peterburg, Russia (via The
Algeciras, Spain, 229                EUSTATIUS                                                                     Sound), 963
Algiers, Algeria, 205                 (1729'00"N., 6259'00"W.) to:      Aarhus, Denmark, 255                  Southampton, England, 763
Alicante, Spain, 159                                                      Aberdeen, Scotland, 490               Stavanger, Norway, 294
Ancona, Italy, 1,349                   Junction Points*                   Amsterdam, Netherlands, 522           Stockholm, Sweden (via
Annaba, Algeria, 444                                                      Antwerp, Belgium, 630                    Huvudskar), 683
Banghazi, Libya, 1,124               Straits of Florida, 1,207            Arendal, Norway, 120                  Stockholm, Sweden (via
Banzart, Tunisia, 538                                                     Baltiysk, Russia (via Store Baelt),      Sandhamnsleden), 689
Barcelona, Spain, 365                                                       668                                 Stockholm, Sweden (via Store
Bari, Italy, 1,142                                                                                                 Baelt), 819




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                        PALM BEACH, FLORIDA, U.S.A.                           75



Swinoujscie, Poland (via Store       Skagens Odde, Denmark, 481            Nagasaki, Japan, 4,489               Brindisi, Italy, 387
  Baelt), 503                                                              Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia         Cagliari, Sardinia, 221
Swinoujscie, Poland (via The           Ports                                  (via Nemuro Strait and La         Cartagena, Spain, 697
  Sound), 397                                                                 Perouse Strait), 4,913            Catania, Sicily, 170
Szczecin, Poland (via The Sound),    Gdynia, Poland, 266                   Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,748          Ceuta, Morocco, 921
  431                                Helsinki, Finland, 268                Noumea, New Caledonia (via           Civitavecchia, Italy, 253
Travemunde, Germany (via Store       Klaipeda, Lithuania, 232                 Kandavu Passage), 1,416           Genova, Italy, 431
  Baelt), 389                                                              Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 490        Gibraltar, 922
Travemunde, Germany (via The         PAAMIUT                               Ocean Island, 1,409                  Haifa, Israel, 1,139
  Sound), 410                        (FREDERIKSHAAB),                      Olongapo, Philippines (via San       Iraklion, Kriti, 626
Trelleborg, Sweden (via Store        GREENLAND                                Bernardino Strait), 4,622         Istanbul, Turkey (south of
  Baelt), 465                         (6159'00"N., 4943'00"W.) to:       Osaka, Japan, 4,307                     Greece), 926
Trelleborg, Sweden (via The                                                Papeete, French Polynesia, 1,236     Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth
  Sound), 314                          Junction Points*                    Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,              Canal), 884
Tromso, Norway, 1,069                                                         Russia, 4,350                     Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),
Trondheim, Norway, 688               Montreal, Canada, 1,901               Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,266         772
Turku, Finland (via Store Baelt),    Panama, Panama, 3,558                 Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 4,525      Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),
  892                                                                      Prince Rupert, Canada, 4,652            730
Turku, Finland (via The Sound),        Ports                               Qingdao, China, 4,969                La Spezia, Italy, 395
  764                                                                      Salina Cruz, Mexico, 4,839           Livorno, Italy, 359
Tvedestrand, Norway, 121             Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Malaga, Spain, 870
Uusikaupunki, Finland (via Store       2,261                                  4,176                             Marseille, France, 495
  Baelt), 939                        Halifax, Canada, 1,406                San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Messina, Sicily, 120
Uusikaupunki, Finland (via The       New York, New York, U.S.A.,              4,130                             Napoli, Italy, 170
  Sound), 808                          1,959                               Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,611   Odessa, Ukraine (south of
Vysotsk, Russia (via Store Baelt),                                         Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,589           Greece), 1,274
  1,047                              PADANG, INDONESIA                     Shanghai, China (via Tokara          Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth
Vysotsk, Russia (via The Sound),      (100'00"S., 10022'00"E.) See          Kaikyo), 4,794                       Canal), 1,232
  92.                                Telukbayur.                           Shimonoseki, Japan, 4,440            Oran, Algeria, 709
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 421                                                Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,635         Palma, Balearic Islands, 531
Zeebrugge, Belgium, 586              PAGO PAGO, AMERICAN                   Suva, Fiji Islands, 688              Piraievs, Greece (south of
                                     SAMOA                                 Sydney, Australia, 2,377                Greece), 612
OSTRICA, LOUISIANA, U.S.A.            (1416'30"S., 17041'00"W.) to:      Truk, Caroline Islands, 2,603        Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
 (2921'49"N., 8931'16"W.)                                                Valparaiso, Chile, 5,378                Canal), 531
Subtract 62 miles from New             Junction Points*                    Vancouver, Canada, 4,637             Porto di Milazzo, Sicily, 97
Orleans distances.                                                         Victoria, Canada, 4,563              Reggio Di Calabria, Sicily, 124
                                     Panama, Panama, 5,656                 Vladivostok, Russia, 4,739           Rijeka, Croatia, 719
                                     Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,181            Wake Island, 2,436                   Salerno, Italy, 167
OTAGO HARBOR, NEW
ZEALAND                              Torres Strait, Australia (via Raine   Wellington, New Zealand, 1,847       Savona, Italy, 434
 (4544'47"S., 17043'28"E.) See       Island entrance), 2,848             Weonsan, North Korea, 4,816          Sibenik, Croatia, 593
Port Chalmers.                       Wilson Promontory, Australia,         Wotje Island, Marshall Islands,      Siracusa, Sicily, 192
                                       2,707                                  1,856                             Split, Croatia, 578
OTARU, JAPAN                                                               China, 4,819                         Tarabulus, Libya, 460
 (4312'00"N., 14101'00"E.) to:       Ports                               Xiamen, Marshall Islands, 1,700      Taranto, Italy, 339
                                                                           Yokohama, Japan, 4,135               Terracina, Italy, 191
  Ports                              Acapulco, Mexico, 4,595                                                    Thessaloniki, Greece (south of
                                     Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,           PALEMBANG, INDONESIA                    Greece), 820
Bukhta Shelikhova, Kuril Islands,       Russia (via Nemuro Strait and       (300'00"S., 10445'00"E.) to:      Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth
  Russia, 784                           La Perouse Strait), 4,765                                                  Canal), 779
Matsuga-hana, Japan, 435             Antofagasta, Chile, 5,604               Junction Points*                   Toulon, France, 464
Nevel'sk, Russia, 213                Aomori, Japan, 4,358                                                       Trieste, Italy, 753
Rumoi, Japan, 57                     Apia, Samoa, 80                       Singapore, 304                       Tunis, Tunisia, 193
Shanghai, China, 1,233               Apra, Guam, 3,156                     Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 362          Valencia, Spain, 656
Tomari, Japan, 387                   Auckland, New Zealand, 1,565                                               Valletta, Malta, 242
Unggi, Korea, 188                    Avarua, Cook Islands, 750               Ports                              Venezia, Italy, 763
                                     Brisbane, Australia, 2,221                                                 Villa San Giovanni, Italy, 118
                                     Busan, South Korea (via Bungo         Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 869            Volos, Greece (south of Greece),
OUESSANT, ILE DE FRANCE                 Suido), 4,561
  (4840'00"N., 530'00"W.) See                                            Jakarta, Indonesia, 358                 761
                                     Canton, Phoenix Islands, 711          Surabaya, Indonesia, 638             Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
Ile d'Ouessant.
                                     Chimbote, Peru, 5,389                                                         720
                                     Christmas Island, Line Islands,
OULU, FINLAND                                                              PALERMO, SICILY, ITALY
                                        1,256                               (3807'43"N., 1322'12"E.) to:      PALM BEACH, FLORIDA,
 (6502'00"N., 2523'00"E.) to:      Dagu, China, 5,194                                                         U.S.A.
                                     Dalian, China, 5,035                    Junction Points*                    (2646'18"N., 8001'32"W.) to:
  Junction Points*
                                     Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,
                                        4,132                              Port Said, Egypt, 1,061                Junction Points*
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                     Guayaquil, Ecuador, 5,450             Strait of Gibraltar, 940
 Entrance), Germany, 918
                                     Hakodate, Japan, 4,326                                                     Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Skagens Odde, Denmark, 979
                                     Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 5,216             Ports                                 6,771
                                     Hobart, Tasmania, 2,783                                                    Grand Banks South, 1,743
  Ports
                                     Hong Kong, China, 4,948               Alexandria, Egypt, 950               Montreal, Canada, 2,360
                                     Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,276       Algeciras, Spain, 924                Panama, Panama, 1,312
Helsinki, Finland, 598
                                     Howland Island, 989                   Algiers, Algeria, 513                Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,920
Jakobstad, Finland, 133
                                     Jailut, Marshall Islands, 1,700       Alicante, Spain, 667                 Strait of Gibraltar, 3,824
Stockholm, Sweden, 456
                                     Jarvis Island, 1,050                  Ancona, Italy, 652                   Straits of Florida, 300
                                     Kobe, Japan, 4,308                    Annaba, Algeria, 292
OXELOSUND, SWEDEN                    Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,441                                                Ports
 (5839'52"N., 1706'32"E.) to:                                            Augusta, Sicily, 187
                                     Levuka, Fiji Islands, 643             Banghazi, Libya, 547
                                     Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,      Banzart, Tunisia, 192                Accra, Ghana, 4,937
  Junction Points*
                                        4,163                              Barcelona, Spain, 574                Casablanca, Morocco, 3,709
                                     Manila, Philippines, 4,519            Bari, Italy, 445                     Dakar, Senegal, 3,585
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                     Melbourne, Australia, 2,851           Beirut, Lebanon, 1,143               Halifax, Canada, 1,336
 Entrance), Germany, 420
                                     Midway Island, Pacific, 2,593                                              Hamilton, Bermuda, 862



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
76        PALMA, BALEARIC ISLANDS



Kingston, Jamaica, 836               PALUA, VENEZUELA                      Caibarien, Cuba, 1,138              Kingston, Jamaica, 594
La Habana, Cuba, 302                  (821'45"N., 6241'30"W.)            Caldera, Chile, 2,302               Kobe, Japan, 7,964
Nassau, Bahamas, 328                 Subtract 2 miles from Puerto Ordaz    Caleta Olivia, Argentina, 6,204     Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,907
                                     distances.                            Callao, Peru, 1,350                 La Ceiba, Honduras, 709
PALMA, BALEARIC                                                            Campeche, Mexico, 1,210             La Guaira, Venezuela, 884
ISLANDS                              PANAMA, PANAMA*                       Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 860             La Libertad, Ecuador, 674
 (3933'52"N., 238'17"E.) to:        (853'00"N., 7931'00"W.) to:        Cape Town, South Africa, 6,508      La Libertad, El Salvador, 806
                                                                           Carmen, Mexico, 1,289               La Palma, Panama, 104
  Junction Points*                     Junction Points*                    Cartagena, Colombia, 324            La Romana, Dominican Republic,
                                                                           Casilda, Cuba, 792                    889
Port Said, Egypt, 1,555              Bishop Rock, England (via Mona        Catia la Mar, Venezuela, 873        La Union, El Salvador, 748
Strait of Gibraltar, 471                Passage), 4,388                    Champerico, Guatemala, 954          Les Cayes, Haiti, 688
                                     Cape of Good Hope, South              Charleston, South Carolina,         Levuka, Fuji Islands, 6,288
  Ports                                 Africa, 6,466                         U.S.A., 1,607                    Limon, Costa Rica, 234
                                     Fastnet Rock, Ireland (via Mona       Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,   Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Alexandria, Egypt, 1,435                Passage), 4,247                       1,072                              2,913
Alicante, Spain, 173                 Grand Banks South, 2,555              Charlottetown, Canada, 2,578        Lota, Chile, 2,825
Almeria, Spain, 308                  Honshu, Japan, 7,614                  Chimbote, Peru, 1,158               Lucea, Jamaica, 579
Ancona, Italy, 1,170                 Ile d'Ouessant, France (via Mona      Christmas Island, Line Islands,     Makassar, Sulawesi (via Selat
Annaba, Algeria, 307                    Passage), 4,374                       4,751                              Sagewin and Selat Salajar),
Banghazi, Libya, 970                 Montreal, Canada, 3,204               Cienfuegos, Cuba, 815                 9,855
Banzart, Tunisia, 384                Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,932            Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 1,420        Malakal, Palau Islands, 8,674
Barcelona, Spain, 140                Singapore (via San Bernardino         Colon, Panama, 44                   Manila, Philippines (via Balintang
Bari, Italy, 963                       Strait), 10,505                     Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina,        Channel), 9,347
Beirut, Lebanon, 1,648               Strait of Gibraltar (via Anegada         6,185                            Manila, Philippines (via San
Bejaia, Algeria, 212                   Channel), 4,351                     Coquimbo, Chile, 2,448                Bernardino Strait), 9,370
Brindisi, Italy, 905                 Torres Strait, Australia (via Raine   Corinto, Nicaragua, 683             Manzanillo, Cuba, 732
Cannes, France, 357                     Island entrance), 8,451            Covenas, Colombia, 308              Mar del Plata, Argentina, 5,543
Cartagena, Spain, 222                Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 8,004          Dagu, China (via Osumi Kaikyo),     Maracaibo, Venezuela, 737
Ceuta, Morocco, 452                  Wilson Promontory, Australia (via        9,002                            Matagorda Bay, Texas, U.S.A.,
Genova, Italy, 448                      Cook Strait), 7,842                Dagu, China (via Tsugaru-             1,558
Gibraltar, 453                       Wilson Promontory, Australia (via        Kaikyo), 8,786                   Matarani, Peru, 1,790
Haifa, Israel, 1,645                    Foveaux Strait), 7,770             Dakar, Senegal, 3,738               Mazatlan, Mexico, 2,006
Iraklion, Kriti, 1,130               Yucatan Channel, 855                  Dalian, China (via Osumi            Melbourne, Australia (via Foveaux
Istanbul, Turkey (south of                                                    Kaikyo), 8,843                     Strait), 7,928
   Greece), 1,446                      Ports                               Dalian, China (via Tsugaru-         Midway Island, 5,707
Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth                                                 Kaikyo), 8,627                   Miller Anchorage, Bahamas, 1,115
   Canal), Izmir, Turkey (south of   Abraham Bay, Bahamas, 922             Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,       Montecristi, Dominican Republic,
   Greece), 1,290                    Acajutla, El Salvador, 833               5,246                              881
Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),   Acapulco, Mexico, 1,426               Enderbury Island, Phoenix           Monterey, California, U.S.A.,
   1,248                             Almirante, Panama, 198                   Islands, 5,599                     3,165
La Spezia, Italy, 474                Amapala, Honduras, 745                Eniwetak, Marshall Islands, 7,086   Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,379
Livorno, Italy, 470                  Amuay, Venezuela, 678                 Ensenada, Mexico, 2,791             Nagasaki, Japan (east of Honshu),
Malaga, Spain, 401                   Angra dos Reis, Brazil, 4,557         Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 472              8,200
Marseille, France, 300               Antilla, Cuba, 887                    Fanning Island, 4,805               Nagasaki, Japan (west of Honshu),
Menton, France, 382                  Antofagasta, Chile, 2,140             Fort de France, Martinique, 1,202     8,299
Messina, Sicily, 639                 Apia, Samoa, 5,710                    Fort Liberte, Haiti, 881            Naknek, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,604
Monaco, Monaco, 377                  Apra, Guam, 7,988                     Funafuti, Tuvalu, 6,217             Nassau, Bahamas (via Windward
Napoli, Italy, 582                   Arica, Chile, 1,921                   Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,536       Passage), 1,210
Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Auckland, New Zealand, 6,516          Georgetown, Guyana, 1,558           New Amsterdam, Guyana, 1,581
   Greece), 1,792                    Avarua, Cook Islands, 5,092           Golfito, Costa Rica, 334            New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.,
Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth         Bahia de Samana, Dominican            Gonaives, Haiti, 805                  2,106
   Canal), 1,751                       Republic, 1,015                     Guantanamo, Cuba, 732               New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
Oran, Algeria, 281                   Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 5,776        Guayaquil, Ecuador, 824               (northbound via South Pass),
Palermo, Sicily, 531                 Bahia de las Calderas, Dominican      Guaymas, Mexico, 2,370                1,444
Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth          Republic, 810                       Guiria, Venezuela, 1,200            New York, New York, U.S.A. (via
   Canal), 1,049                     Baie Taio-Hae, Marquesa Islands,      Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A.         Windward Passage and Crooked
Piraievs (south of Greece), 1,131      3,826                                  (northbound), 1,431                Island Passage), 2,018
Rijeka, Croatia, 1,238               Moa, Cuba, 853                        Hakodate, Japan, 7,417              Newcastle, Australia, 7,654
Sant Antioco Ponti, Sardinia, 298    Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via      Halifax, Canada, 2,338              Nicaro, Cuba, 881
Savona, Italy, 433                     Windward Passage and Crooked        Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,702            Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia
Sibenik, Croatia, 1,112                Island Passage), 1,944              Hilo, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,527           (south of Aleutian Islands),
Siracusa, Sicily, 668                Barahona, Dominican Republic,         Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 10,017          7,293
Split, Croatia, 1,096                  796                                 Hobart, Tasmania, 7,630             Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia
St. Raphael, France, 347             Barbers Point, Hawaii, U.S.A.,        Hong Kong, China, 9,195               (via Unimak Passage), 7,296
Tarabulus, Libya, 708                  4,694                               Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,685     Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,834
Taranto, Italy, 858                  Barcelona, Venezuela, 1,014           Iloilo, Philippines, 9,235          Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via
Tarragona, Spain, 131                Belize, Belize, 859                   Incheon, South Korea, 8,474           Windward Passage and Crooked
Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Bikini, Marshall Islands, 4,915       Iquique, Chile, 1,987                 Island Passage), 1,822
   Greece), 1,339                    Boca de Tanamo, Cuba, 869             Isabel Segunda, Isla de Vieques,    Noumea, New Caledonia, 6,982
Thessaloniki, Greece (via Corinth    Bocas del Toro, Panama, 187              1,060                            Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 5,953
   Canal), 1,297                     Bordeaux, France (via Mona            Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,      Ocean Island, 6,724
Toulon, France, 308                    Passage), 4,641                        1,559                            Omura, Japan, 7,766
Trieste, Italy, 1,271                Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via    Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 6,666     Oranjestad, Aruba, 661
Tunis, Tunisia, 435                    Crooked Island Passage), 2,200      Jarvis Island, 1,173                Osaka, Japan, 7,969
Valencia, Spain, 146                 Bridgeport, Connecticut, U.S.A.,      Johnston Island, 5,359              Paamiut (Frederikshaab),
Valletta, Malta, 619                   2,118                               Kahului, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,605        Greenland, 3,558
Venezia, Italy, 1,281                Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,280           Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, U.S.A.,        Pago Pago, American Samoa,
Volos, Greece (south of Greece),     Brisbane, Australia, 7,687               4,686                              5,656
   1,280                             Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,581     Kaunakakai, Hawaii, U.S.A.,         Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,493
Volos, Greece (via Corinth Canal),   Buenaventura, Colombia, 352              4,633                            Paramaribo, Suriname, 1,691
   1,238                             Cabedelo, Brazil, 3,149               Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 1,108    Paranagua, Brazil, 4,607




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                         PARANAGUA, BRAZIL                        77



Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.A.,           Island Passage), 1,606               Strait), 1,096                     Truk, Caroline Islands, 3,788
   4,692                             Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,020    Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (via         Valparaiso, Chile, 4,254
Pedregal, Panama, 308                Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,916           Gaspar Strait), 1,063              Vladivostok, Russia, 5,663
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Shanghai, China (via Osumi            Masbate, Philippines (via Gaspar     Wake Island, 3,401
   Russia, 6,492                        Kaikyo), 8,648                       Strait), 1,738                     Wellington, New Zealand, 2,348
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Shanghai, China (via Tsugaru-         Sandakan, Sabah (via Balabac and     Xiamen, China, 6,001
   (via Windward Passage and            Kaikyo), 8,566                       Gaspar Straits), 1,363             Yap Island, Caroline Islands, 4,585
   Crooked island Passage.), 1,989   Shimonoseki, Japan (east of           Tawau, Malaysia (via Makasar),       Yokohama, Japan, 5,140
Pisco, Peru, 1,458                      Honshu), 8,153                       345
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,211    Shimonoseki, Japan (west of                                                PARADIP, INDIA
Ponape, Caroline Islands, 7,321         Honshu), 8,081                     PANSIO, FINLAND                      (2015'10"N., 8642'00"E.) to:
Ponce, Puerto Rico, 976              Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,524           (6026'12"N., 2208'54"E.) Use
Port au Prince, Haiti, 817           Skagway, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,739        Turku distances.                       Junction Points*
Port Antonio, Jamaica, 625           St. Gorges, Grenada, 1,161
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,203      St. John, Canada, 2,361               PAPEETE, TAHITI, FRENCH              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Port Hueneme, California, U.S.A.,    St. John's, Canada, 2,742             POLYNESIA                              5,352
   2,958                             St. Marc, Haiti, 796                   (1732'00"S., 14934'00"W.) to:     Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,667
Port Limon, Costa Rica, 218          Suva, Fiji Islands, 6,325                                                  Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 2,707
Port Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A.,     Swan Island, Honduras, 605              Junction Points*                   Port Said, Egypt, 4,241
   2,021                             Sweeper Cove, Alaska, U.S.A.,                                              Singapore, 1,529
Port Pirie, Australia, 8,467            5,586                              Panama, Panama, 4,493                Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,084
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,202       Sydney, Australia, 7,674              Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,233           Torres Strait, Australia, 4,297
Portland, Maine, U.S.A. (via         Talara, Peru, 826                     Torres Strait, Australia, 4,053
   Crooked Island Passage), 2,241    Talcahuano, Chile, 2,805              Wilson Promontory, Australia,          Ports
Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 3,869      Taltal, Chile, 2,225                    3,546
Porto Alegre, Brazil, 5,148          Tampico, Mexico, 1,528                                                     Aden, Yemen, 2,789
Prince Rupert, Canada, 4,303         Tela, Honduras, 749                     Ports                              Akyab, Burma, 349
Progreso, Mexico, 1,069              Tocopilla, Chile, 2,068                                                    Bombay, India, 1,727
Puerto de Hierro, Venezuela, 1,192   Truk, Caroline Islands, 7,685         Acapulco, Mexico, 3,595              Calcutta, India, 186
Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela, 1,016     Turbo, Colombia, 311                  Apia, Samoa, 1,301                   Colombo, Sri Lanka, 969
Puerto Armuelles, Panama, 306        Turiamo, Venezuela, 858               Apra, Guam, 4,335                    Port Darwin, Australia, 3,634
Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 823       Tuxpan, Mexico, 1,498                 Auckland, New Zealand, 2,216         Rangoon, Burma, 724
Puerto Bolivar, 774                  Unalakleet, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,967     Avarua, Cook Islands, 618            Tuticorin, India, 883
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 845       Valparaiso, Chile, 2,616              Baie Taio-Hae, Marquesa Islands,
Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, 390       Vancouver, Canada, 4,032                 761                               PARAMARIBO, SURINAME
Puerto Cortez, Honduras, 776         Veracruz, Mexico, 1,463               Brisbane, Australia, 3,234            (549'20"N., 5509'00"W.) to:
Puerto Deseado, Argentina, 6,222     Victoria, Canada, 3,962               Callao, Peru, 4,192
Puerto Madryn, Argentina, 6,012      Vladivostok, Russia (north of         Chimbote, Peru, 4,157                  Junction Points*
Puerto Manati, Cuba, 959                Aleutian Islands, and La Perouse   Christmas Island, Line Islands,
Puerto Montt, Chile, 3,177              Strait), 7,757                        1,266                             Bishop Rock, England, 3,602
Puerto Padre, Cuba, 948              Vladivostok, Russia (south of         Dagu, China, 6,281                   Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,554
Puerto Sandino, Nicaragua, 649          Aleutian Islands, and La Perouse   Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,        Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,613
Puerto Sucre, Venezuela, 1,035          Strait), 7,739                        4,400                             Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
Puerto Vita, Cuba, 915               Vladivostok, Russia (via Tsugaru-     Funafuti, Tuvalu, 1,910                 Canso), 3,150
Punta Cardon, Venezuela, 674            Kaikyo), 7,833                     Guayaquil, Ecuador, 4,237            Panama, Panama, 1,691
Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 471          Vladivostok, Russia, 8,340            Hakodate, Japan, 5,249               Strait of Gibraltar, 3,275
Quepos, Costa Rica, 415              Wake Island, 6,673                    Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 6,443          Straits of Florida (via Mona
Qingdao, China, 8,575                Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 1,957       Hobart, Tasmania, 3,563                Passage), 2,014
Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 7,807      Wellington, New Zealand, 6,505        Hong Kong, China, 6,132
Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands,      Whittier, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,958       Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,381        Ports
   6,125                             Willemstad, Curacao, 742              Johnston Island, 2,371
Rio Gallegos, Argentina, 6,455       Wilmington, North Carolina,           Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,532        Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
Rio Haina, Dominican Republic,          U.S.A., 1,656                      Levuka, Fiji Islands, 1,831             2,321
   845                               Weonsan, North Korea, 8,038           Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Belem, Brazil, 747
Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico,        Wotho, Marshall Islands, 4,882           3,671                             Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
   1,054                             Xiamen, China (via Osumi              Manila, Philippines, 5,728              2,380
Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 4,256            Kaikyo), 8,943                     Melbourne, Australia, 3,691          Bridgetown, Barbados, 496
Salaverry, Peru, 1,109               Xiamen, China (via Tsugaru-           Midway Island, 3,190                 Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,813
Salina Cruz, Mexico, 1,170              Kaikyo), 8,959                     Nagasaki, Japan, 5,572               Dakar, Senegal, 2,315
Salvador, Brazil, 3,741              Yokohama, Japan, 7,682                Noumea, New Caledonia, 2,497         Georgetown, Guyana, 215
San Antonio, Chile, 2,644            Zamboanga, Philippines, 9,431         Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 1,468      Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,694
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,                                             Ocean Island, 2,609                  La Guaira, Venezuela, 832
   2,843                             PANAMBURU, INDIA                      Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Natal, Brazil, 1,476
San Felix, Venezuela, 1,535           (1257'00"N., 7448'20"E.) See          1,236                             New York, New York, U.S.A.,
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   New Mangalore.                        Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,              2,334
   3,245                                                                      Russia, 5,009                     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
San Jose, Guatemala, 886             PANJANG, INDONESIA                    Ponape, Caroline Islands, 3,430         U.S.A., 2,327
San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua, 590      (628'22"S., 10518'58"E.) to:       Qingdao, China, 6,046                Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 737
San Juan, Peru, 1,590                                                      Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 3,527      Port of Spain, Trinidad, 546
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,036           Junction Points*                    Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands,      Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 887
San Lorenzo, Honduras, 762                                                    1,706                             Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,713
Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,   Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,829        Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 244           St. Georges, Grenada, 560
   2,980                             Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 718          San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       St. John's, Canada, 2,518
Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba, 731        Singapore, 574                           3,554                             Willemstad, Curacao, 955
Santa Maria, Cuba, 814               Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 51            San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Wilmington, North Carolina,
Santa Rosalia, Mexico, 2,390         Torres Strait, Australia, 2,259          3,663                                U.S.A., 2,148
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 726                                                Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,296
Santo Domingo, Dominican               Ports                               Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,661        PARANAGUA, BRAZIL
   Republic, 846                                                           Shanghai, China, 5,907                (2530'00"S., 4831'00"W.) to:
Santos, Brazil, 4,609                Cebu, Philippines (via Balabac        Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,537
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via         Strait), 1,654                      Suva, Fiji Islands, 1,838
   Windward Passage and Crooked      Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (via Gaspar      Sydney, Australia, 3,308




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
78        PARANAM, SURINAME



  Junction Points*                  Kerch, Ukraine (south of Greece),     Madagascar), 4,232                  Villa Cisneros, Western Sahara,
                                      1,049                             Berbera, Somalia (South of              2,274
Cape of Good Hope, South            Kerch, Ukraine (via Corinth           Socotra), 3,358
  Africa, 3,496                       Canal), 890                       Bombay, India, 2,154                  PENSACOLA, FLORIDA,
Panama, Panama, 4,607               Kerkira, Greece, 138                Bushehr, Iran, 3,417                  U.S.A.
Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,001          Larnaca, Cyprus (south of           Calcutta, India, 1,294                 (3024'00"N., 8713'00"W.) to:
                                      Greece), 750                      Calicut, India, 1,654
  Ports                             Larnaca, Cyprus (via Corinth        Chalna, Bangladesh, 1,228               Junction Points*
                                      Canal), 658                       Chittagong, Bangladesh, 1,167
Montevideo, Uruguay, 797            Mersin, Turkey (south of Greece),   Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,285             Straits of Florida, 431
Santos, Brazil, 163                   789                               Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 3,754        Yucatan Channel, 531
                                    Mersin, Turkey (via Corinth         Diego Garcia, Chagos
PARANAM, SURINAME                     Canal), 690                         Archipelago, 1,905                    Ports
 (536'30"N., 5505'12"W.) Add      Napoli, Italy, 485                  Durban, South Africa, 4,584
21 miles to Paramaribo distances.   Nice, France, 825                   East London, South Africa, 4,794      Belize, Belize, 826
                                    Pula, Croatia, 555                  Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 3,687       Campeche, Mexico, 670
                                                                        Kakinada, India, 1,273                Carmen, Mexico, 745
PARRSBORO, CANADA
 (4522'00"N., 6418'00"W.) to:     PAULILLAC, FRANCE                   Karachi, Pakistan, 2,595              Cienfuegos, Cuba, 825
                                     (4512'00"N., 043'45"W.)          Madras, India, 1,283                  Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 836
  Ports                             Subtract 24 l/2 miles from          Majunga, Madagascar, 3,557            Colon, Panama, 1,344
                                    Bordeaux distances.                 Malacca, Malaysia, 252                La Habana, Cuba, 515
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                          Maputo, Mozambique (South of          Limon, Costa Rica, 1,265
   349                                                                    Madagascar), 4,481                  Tampico, Mexico, 759
                                    PEARL HARBOR, HAWAII,
Halifax, Canada, 330                U.S.A.                              Melbourne, Australia, 4,181           Tuxpan, Mexico, 785
New York, New York, U.S.A., 591      (2120'00"N., 15758'20"W.) to:    Mocambique, Mozambique, 3,792         Veracruz, Mexico, 831
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 784                                          Mombasa, Kenya, 3,699
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,           Junction Points*                  Mosselbaai, South Africa, 5,096       PENTLAND FIRTH,
   U.S.A., 743                                                          Phuket, Thailand, 187                 SCOTLAND*
St. John, Canada, 80                Panama, Panama, 4,692               Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 4,921    (5842'00"N., 320'00"W.) to:
Sydney, Canada, 545                                                     Port Louis, Mauritius, 3,042
                                      Ports                             Port Swettenham, Malaysia, 172          Junction Points*
PASADENA, TEXAS, U.S.A.                                                 Rangoon, Burma, 757
                                    Amapala, Honduras, 4,045            Sabang, Indonesia, 313                Bishop Rock, England, 636
 (2943'00"N., 9513'00"W.)
                                    Christmas Island, Line Islands,     Tamatave, Madagascar, 3,387           Cape of Good Hope, South
Subtract 5 miles from Houston
                                       1,157                            Tanga, Tanzania (north of Pemba          Africa, 6,389
distances.
                                    Eniwetak, Marshall Islands, 2,347     Island), 3,749                      Fastnet Rock, Ireland (east of
                                    Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 2,101     Telukbayur, Indonesia, 931               Ireland), 625
PASAJES DE SAN JUAN,                                                                                          Fastnet Rock, Ireland (west of
SPAIN                               Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,    Victoria, Seychelles, 2,779
                                       2,233                            Zanzibar, Tanzania, 3,772                Ireland), 578
 (4319'30"N., 155'00"W.) See
                                    San Diego, California, U.S.A.,                                            Grand Banks South, 1,998
Puerto de Pasajes.
                                       2,285                            PENARTH, WALES                        Ile d'Ouessant, France, 872
                                                                         (5126'45"N., 310'00"W.)            Inishtrahull, Ireland, 272
PASCAGOULA, MISSISSIPPI,                                                                                      Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
U.S.A.                              PECHENGA, RUSSIA                    Subtract 1 mile from Cardiff
                                     (6935'00"N., 3117'00"E.) to:     distances.                               Belle Isle), 2,614
 (3021'00"N., 8834'00"W.) to:
                                                                                                              Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
  Junction Points*                    Junction Points*                                                          Entrance), Germany, 565
                                                                        PENNINGTON TERMINAL,
                                                                        NIGERIA                               Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,563
Straits of Florida, 469             Skagens Odde, Denmark, 1,325         (414'40"N., 536'45"E.) to:         Skagens Odde, Denmark, 450
Yucatan Channel, 554                                                                                          Strait of Gibraltar, 1,598
                                      Ports                               Junction Points*                    Straits of Florida, 4,012
  Ports
                                    Kirkens, Norway, 53                 Bishop Rock, England, 4,092             Ports
Campeche, Mexico, 676               Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 638         Cape of Good Hope, South
Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 860          Narvik, Norway, 500                    Africa, 2,434                      Aasiaat (Egedesminde),
Tampico, Mexico, 780                Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,460           Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 3,998            Greenland, 1,925
                                                                        Grand Banks South, 4,065              Akureyri, Iceland, 702
                                                                        Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,929         Amsterdam, Netherlands, 481
PATRAI, GREECE                      PEI-HAI, CHINA
                                     (2029'00"N., 10902'00"E.) See    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,262          Antwerp, Belgium, 553
 (3815'08"N., 2143'53"E.) to:
                                    Beihai, China.                      Panama, Panama, 5,153                 Ardrossan, Scotland, 282
  Junction Points*                                                      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,821       Arendal, Norway, 452
                                                                        Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,214            Argentia, Canada, 2,012
                                    PEMBA, MOZAMBIQUE                                                         Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 1,663
Port Said, Egypt (south of           (1258'14"S., 4029'23"E.) See     Strait of Gibraltar, 3,676
   Greece), 762                                                         Straits of Florida, 5,325             Avonmouth, England, 624
                                    Porto Amelia.
Port Said, Egypt (via Corinth                                           Yucatan Channel, 5,474                Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
   Canal), 690                                                                                                  3,365
                                    PENANG, MALAYSIA                                                          Barrow in Furness, England, 427
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,350           (525'00"N., 10021'00"E.) to:       Ports
                                                                                                              Belem, Brazil, 4,219
  Ports                                                                 Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 585             Belfast, Northern Ireland, 341
                                      Junction Points*
                                                                        Accra, Ghana, 356                     Bergen, Norway, 296
Civitavecchia, Italy, 612                                               Boma, Congo, 762                      Berlevag, Norway, 1,150
                                    Cape of Good Hope, South
Constanta, Romania (via Corinth                                         Cape Town, South Africa, 2,405        Blyth, England, 290
                                      Africa, 5,291
   Canal), 653                                                          Dakar, Senegal, 1,712                 Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
                                    Port Said, Egypt, 4,733
Constanta, Romania (south of                                            Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,250           2,900
                                    Singapore, 367
   Greece), 811                                                         Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,        Bremerhaven, Germany, 507
Derince, Turkey (south of                                                 5,246                               Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6,491
                                      Ports
   Greece), 648                                                         Lisboa, Portugal, 3,235               Cairn Ryan, Scotland, 340
Derince, Turkey (via Corinth                                            Monrovia, Liberia, 1,030              Camp Lloyd, Greenland, 1,828
                                    Aden, Yemen, 3,344
   Canal), 489                                                          New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Cardiff, Wales, 609
                                    Akyab, Burma, 1,215
Iskenderun, Turkey (south of                                              4,974                               Charleston, South Carolina,
                                    Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,598
   Greece), 846                                                         Port of Spain, Trinidad, 4,023          U.S.A., 3,506
                                    Al Manamah, Bahrain, 3,361
Iskenderun, Turkey (via Corinth                                         Recife, Brazil, 2,533                 Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
                                    Bassein, Burma, 786
   Canal), 748                                                          Tangier, Morocco, 3,171                 3,616
                                    Beira, Mozambique (north of
                                                                                                              Churchill, Canada (via 75 miles off



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                         PETROPAVLOVSK- KAMCHATSKIY, RUSSIA                                        79



   Kap Farvel), 2,820                 Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.,        Ports                                   and via Balintang Channel),
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 4,229                  2,979                                                                         4,530
Cobh, Ireland, 578                    Qaanaaq (Thule), Greenland, 2,456      Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,          Jakarta, Indonesia (via La Perouse
Colon, Panama (via Mona               Qasigiannguit, Greenland, 1,963          1,215                                   Strait), 4,555
   Passage), 4,594                    Recife, Brazil, 4,319                  Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 771       Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 2,883
Dakar, Senegal, 2,794                 Reykjavik, Iceland, 687                Valdez, Alaska, U.S.A., 539            Kiska, Alaska, U.S.A., 724
Den Helder, Netherlands, 447          Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5,391          Victoria, Canada, 719                  Kobe, Japan, 1,705
Douglas, Isle of Man, 397             Risor, Norway, 429                                                            Levuka, Fiji Islands, 4,518
Dublin, Ireland, 427                  Rosyth, Scotland, 263                  PETROPAVLOVSK-                         Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China (via
Dundee, Scotland, 179                 Rotterdam, Netherlands, 495            KAMCHATSKIY, RUSSIA                       Chetvertyy Kuril'skiy Proliv and
Dunkerque, France, 525                San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,645            (5300'00"N., 15838'00"E.) to:          La Perouse Strait), 2,481
Egersund, Norway, 298                 Sandefjorden, Norway, 518                                                     Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Emden, Germany, 484                   Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary           Junction Points*                        3,615
Esbjerg, Denmark, 443                    Islands, 1,952                                                             Manila, Philippines (east of Japan
Farsund, Norway, 332                  Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 3,594       Panama, Panama (via Unimak                and via Balintang Channel),
Fishguard, Wales, 497                 Seaham Harbor, England, 259              Pass), 6,492                            3,112
Fleetwood, England, 437               Seydhisfjordhur, Iceland, 500          Singapore (east of Japan and via       Manila, Philippines (via
Flekkefjorden, Norway, 325            Shoreham By Sea, England, 633           Balintang Channel), 4,241                Chetvertyy Kuril'skiy Proliv and
Fredrikstad, Norway, 531              Sisimiut, Greenland, 1,802             Singapore (east of Japan and via          La Perouse Strait), 3,117
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,272         Skien, Norway, 466                      Osumi Kaikyo and Formosa              Manila, Philippines (via San
Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,714        Stornoway, Scotland, 54                 Strait), 4,293                           Bernardino Strait), 3,256
Georgetown, Guyana, 4,001             Sunderland, England, 304               Singapore (via Pervyy Kurliskiy        Manila, Philippines (via Tsugaru-
Glasgow, Scotland (via The            Swansea, Wales, 578                     Proliv and La Perouse Strait),           Kaikyo), 3,124
   Minch), 384                        Tonsberg, Norway, 532                    4,194                                Matsuga-hana, Japan, 765
Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,864               Torshavn, Faroe Islands, 224           Singapore (via Tsugaru-Kaikyo          Midway Island, Pacific, 1,831
Hakonsvern, Norway, 287               Tvedestrand, Norway, 421                and Formosa Strait), 4,227            Mogpo, South Korea (via La
Halifax, Canada, 2,580                Upernavik, Greenland, 2,164            Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via Soya          Perouse Strait and Changjuk
Hamburg, Germany, 555                 Vardo, Norway, 1,253                     Strait), 4,574                          Sudo), 1,943
Hamilton, Bermuda, 2,921              Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 3,379        Selat Wetar, Australia (via            Mogpo, South Korea (via
Hirtshals, Denmark, 429               Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 501              Dampier Strait and Selat                Myongyangdo), 1,923
Holyhead, Wales, 422                  Wilmington, North Carolina,              Manipa), 4,106                       Nagasaki, Japan (via La Perouse
Horta, Azores, 1,575                     U.S.A., 3,450                                                                 Strait), 1,845
Hvalfjordhur, Iceland, 660            Zeebrugge, Belgium, 505                  Ports                                Nagasaki, Japan (via Osumi
Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Greenland,                                                                                     Kaikyo), 2,039
   1,972                              PEPEL, SIERRA LEONE                    Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,            Nagasaki, Japan (via Tsugaru-
Ivittuut, Greenland (direct), 1,440    (834'58"N., 1304'00"W.) to:            Russia (via Chetvertyy                 Kaikyo), 1,858
Ivittuut, Greenland (via 75 miles                                               Kuril'skiy Proliv and La Perouse    Nampo, North Korea, 2,214
   off Kap Farvel), 1,510               Junction Points*                        Strait), 1,158                      Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,317
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,                                               Apia, Samoa, 4,292                     Noumea, New Caledonia, 4,587
   3,677                              Bishop Rock, England, 2,688            Apra, Guam, 2,475                      Osaka, Japan (via Kii Suido),
Kangerluarsoruseq, Greenland,         Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,       Auckland, New Zealand, 5,466              1,709
   1,597                                 3,594                               Avarua, Cook Islands, 4,951            Pago Pago, American Samoa,
Keflavik, Iceland, 671                Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,753           Bangkok, Thailand, outer bar (via         4,350
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,952      Grand Banks South, 2,828                  La Perouse Strait), 4,252           Papeete, French Polynesia, 5,009
Kingston, Jamaica, 4,027              Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,648          Bukhta Nagayeva, Russia, 864           Ponape, Caroline Islands, 2,762
Kragero, Norway, 441                  Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,053           Busan, South Korea (via                Prince Rupert, Canada (via
Kristiansand, Norway, 371             Panama, Panama, 3,977                     Chetvertyy Kuril'skiy Proliv and       Unimak Pass), 2,504
La Habana, Cuba, 4,018                Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,383           La Perouse Strait), 1,731           Qingdao, China (via Chetvertyy
Larvik, Norway, 461                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,042             Cebu, Philippines, 3,101                  Kuril'skiy Proliv and La Perouse
Lillesand, Norway, 390                Strait of Gibraltar, 1,991             Dagu, China (via La Perouse               Strait), 2,215
Limerick, Ireland, 538                Straits of Florida, 4,118                 Strait), 2,419                      Qinhuangdao, China (via
Lisboa, Portugal, 1,341               Yucatan Channel, 4,257                 Dagu, China (via Tsugaru-                 Chetvertyy Kuril'skiy Proliv, La
Liverpool, England (north of Isle                                               Kaikyo), 2,444                         Perouse Strait, and Maenggol
   of Man), 451                         Ports                                Dalian, China (via La Perouse             Sudo), 2,360
Liverpool, England (south of Isle                                               Strait), 2,260                      Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 3,555
   of Man), 460                       Accra, Ghana, 924                      Dalian, China (via Tsugaru-            San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
London, England, 536                  Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,            Kaikyo), 2,285                         3,707
Londonderry, Northern Ireland,          3,681                                Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,          San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
   310                                Cristobal, Panama, 3,991                  1,249                                  (via Unimak Pass), 3,292
Mandal, Norway, 351                   Dakar, Senegal, 479                    Hakodate, Japan, 1,075                 Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (via
Maniitsoq, Greenland, 1,700           Freetown, Sierra Leone, 11             Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (via                 Unimak Pass), 2,939
Methil, Scotland, 246                 Galway, Ireland, 2,937                    Chetvertyy Kuril'skiy Proliv, La    Seward, Alaska, U.S.A. (via
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 3,821         Lagos, Nigeria, 1,142                     Perouse Strait and Korea Strait),      Unimak Pass), 2,065
Middlesbrough, England, 326           Lisboa, Portugal, 2,002                   3,718                               Shanghai, China (via La Perouse
Molde, Norway, 412                    Lome, Togo, 1,019                      Hong Kong, China (via Osumi               Strait), 2,200
Mosjoen, Norway, 651                  Natal, Brazil, 1,580                      Kaikyo), 2,938                      Shanghai, China (via Tsugaru-
Namsos, Norway, 615                   New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Hong Kong, China (via Chetvertyy          Kaikyo), 2,224
Nanortalik, Greenland, 1,291            3,752                                   Kuril'skiy Proliv and La Perouse    Shimonoseki, Japan (via Tsugaru-
Narsarsuaq, Greenland, 1,384          Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,866            Strait), 2,863                         Kaikyo), 1,739
New London, Connecticut, U.S.A.,      Takoradi, Ghana, 818                   Hong Kong, China (via Tsugaru-         Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 2,314
   2,990                                                                        Kaikyo), 2,870                      Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,460
New York, New York, U.S.A.,           PERTH, AUSTRALIA                       Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,762        Tomari, Japan, 822
   3,071                               (3157'30"S., 11551'00"E.) Add       Iloilo, Philippines, 3,123             Vladivostok, Russia (via
Newcastle, England, 265               12 miles to Fremantle distances.       Incheon, South Korea (via La              Chetvertyy Kuril'skiy Proliv and
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,244                                                Perouse Strait and Maenggol            La Perouse Strait), 1,348
Nuuk (Godthab), Greenland, 1,630                                                Sudo), 2,120                        Weihai, China (via Maenggol
                                      PETERSBURG, ALASKA,
Oostende, Belgium, 509                U.S.A.                                 Incheon, South Korea (via                 Sudo), 2,192
Oslo, Norway, 524                      (5658'56"N., 13257'50"W.) to:          Chetvertyy Kuril'skiy Proliv and    Weihai, China (via Chetvertyy
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                                     La Perouse Strait), 2,114              Kuril'skiy Proliv and La Perouse
   U.S.A., 3,224                                                             Incheon, South Korea (via                 Strait), 2,215
Port au Prince, Haiti, 3,898                                                    Tsugaru-Kaikyo), 2,138              Weonsan, North Korea, 1,609
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 3,913                                               Jakarta, Indonesia (east of Japan,     Xiamen, China (via La Perouse
Port Castries, St. Lucia, 3,704                                                                                        Strait), 2,596


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
80        PEVEK, RUSSIA



Xiamen, China (via Osumi             Halifax, Canada, 746                  Yarmouth, Canada, 616                    Greece), 1,172
  Kaikyo), 2,684                     Hamilton, Bermuda, 746                                                      Barcelona, Spain (via Corinth
Xiamen, China (via Tsugaru-          Ivittuut, Greenland, 2,086            PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA                     Canal), 1,091
  Kaikyo), 2,617                     Jacmel, Haiti, 1,461                   (1136'00"N., 10454'00"E.) Via      Bari, Italy (south of Greece), 538
Yantai, China (via Maenggol          Kingston, Jamaica (via Crooked        Vung Tau pilot station                Bari, Italy (via Corinth Canal), 402
  Sudo), 2,226                          Island Passage), 1,446             (1020'30''N, 10704'00''E ) Add      Beirut, Lebanon, 647
Yantai, China (via Chetvertyy        La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,838           157 1/2 miles to Ho Chi Minh          Brindisi, Italy (south of Greece),
  Kuril'skiy Proliv and La Perouse   La Habana, Cuba, 1,156                distances.                               480
  Strait), 2,249                     Lagos, Nigeria, 4,985                                                       Brindisi, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
Yantai, China (via Tsugaru-          Las Piedras, Venezuela, 1,786         PHUKET, THAILAND                         343
  Kaikyo), 2,263                     Les Cayes, Haiti, 1,419                (750'00"N., 9826'00"E.) to:        Cagliari, Sardinia (south of
Yokohama, Japan, 1,422               Limon, Costa Rica (via Crooked                                                 Greece), 820
                                        Island Passage), 2,019               Junction Points*                    Cagliari, Sardinia (via Corinth
PEVEK, RUSSIA                        Lisboa, Portugal, 3,112                                                        Canal), 738
 (6943'40"N., 17028'00"E.) to:     Liverpool, Canada, 686                Port Said, Egypt, 4,629               Cannes, France (south of Greece),
                                     Maracaibo, Venezuela (via             Singapore, 538                           1,023
  Ports                                 Windward Passage), 1,849                                                 Cannes, France (via Corinth
                                     Matanzas, Cuba, 1,147                   Ports                                  Canal), 942
Ambarchik, Russia, 201               Montecristi, Dominican Republic,                                            Cartagena, Spain (south of
Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 700               1,250                              Calcutta, India, 1,124                   Greece), 1,271
Provideniya, Russia, 719             Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,804            Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,192             Cartagena, Spain (via Corinth
Tiksi, Russia., 854                  Murmansk, Russia, 4,042               Penang, Malaysia, 187                    Canal), 1,214
                                     Narvik, Norway, 3,880                                                       Ceuta, Morocco (south of Greece),
PHILADELPHIA,                        Nassau, Bahamas, 930                  PIMENTEL, PERU                           1,488
PENNSYLVANIA, U.S.A.                 Nuevitas, Cuba, 1,243                  (650'00"S., 7958'00"W.) to:        Ceuta, Morocco (via Corinth
 (3957'00"N., 7508'00"W.) to:      Paramaribo, Suriname, 2,327                                                    Canal), 1,431
                                     Parrsboro, Canada, 743                  Ports                               Durres, Albania, 339
  Junction Points*                   Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 1,658                                           Ermoupolis, Greece, 84
                                     Ponce, Puerto Rico, 1,454             Callao, Peru, 363                     Famagusta, Cyprus, 604
Bishop Rock, England, 3,092          Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,388          Salaverry, Peru, 104                  Fethiye, Turkey, 305
Cape of Good Hope, South             Porlamar, Venezuela (via Virgin       Talara, Peru, 182                     Genova, Italy (south of Greece),
   Africa, 6,874                        Passage), 1,878                                                             978
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,985         Port au Prince, Haiti (via Crooked                                          Genova, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
                                                                           PINA, PANAMA
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,083            Island Passage), 1,343              (920'00"N., 8005'00"W.) to:           896
Montreal, Canada (via Cabot          Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,938                                              Gibraltar (south of Greece), 1,490
   Strait), 1,671                    Port Antonio, Jamaica (via              Junction Points*                    Gibraltar (via Corinth Canal),
Panama, Panama, 1,989                   Crooked Island Passage), 1,395                                              1,433
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,263      Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,753       Yucatan Channel, 816                  Haifa, Israel, 650
Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,994           Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,                                           Iraklion, Kriti, 175
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,320              3,011                                Ports                               Iskenderun, Turkey, 656
Straits of Florida, 1,150            Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela, 1,900                                            Istanbul, Turkey, 364
Yucatan Channel (outside route),     Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (via        Cienfuegos, Cuba, 777                 Izmir, Turkey, 210
   1,336                                Straits of Florida, southbound),   Kingston, Jamaica, 558                Kavala, Greece, 249
                                        1,774                              San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,219          La Spezia, Italy (south of Greece),
  Ports                              Puerto Cabello, Venezuela (via                                                 942
                                        Mona Passage), 1,845                                                     La Spezia, Italy (via Corinth
                                                                           PIRAIEVS, GREECE
Antilla, Cuba, 1,197                 Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,739         (3756'26"N., 2338'08"E.) to:          Canal), 860
Argentia, Canada, 1,159              Puerto Sucre, Venezuela, 1,907                                              Larnaca, Cyprus, 566
Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 4,369          Recife, Brazil, 3,745                   Junction Points*                    Livorno, Italy (south of Greece),
Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 6,201       Reykjavik, Iceland, 2,648                                                      906
Banes, Cuba (via Crooked Island      Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,817         Port Said, Egypt, 599                 Livorno, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
   Passage), 1,188                   Salvador, Brazil, 4,136               Strait of Gibraltar (south of            825
Baracoa, Cuba, 1,198                 San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via     Greece), 1,508                       Malaga, Spain (south of Greece),
Belem, Brazil, 2,950                    Crooked Island Passage), 2,004     Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth         1,438
Bocas del Toro, Panama, 2,020        San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua (via     Canal), 1,451                        Malaga, Spain (via Corinth
Bordeaux, France, 3,406                 Straits of Florida, southbound),                                            Canal), 1,381
Brest, France, 3,183                    2,017                                Ports                               Marseille, France (south of
Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,839          San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,395                                                   Greece), 1,069
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,918       Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary        Alexandria, Egypt, 515                Marseille, France (via Corinth
Cadiz, Spain, 3,286                     Islands, 3,062                     Algiers, Algeria (south of Greece),      Canal), 988
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 1,245            Santa Marta, Colombia (via              1,079                               Mersin, Turkey, 598
Cape Town, South Africa, 6,861          Crooked Island Passage and         Algiers, Algeria (via Corinth         Messina, Sicily (south of Greece),
Cardenas, Cuba, 1,124                   Windward Passage), 1,755             Canal), 1,022                          496
Cartagena, Colombia (via Crooked     Santander, Spain, 3,272               Alicante, Spain (south of Greece),    Messina, Sicily (via Corinth
   Island Passage), 1,825            Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via             1,246                                  Canal), 414
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,       Crooked Island Passage), 1,334     Alicante, Spain (via Corinth          Mitilini, Greece, 191
   1,434                             Santo Domingo, Dominican                Canal), 1,186                       Napoli, Italy (south of Greece),
Charlottetown, Canada, 982              Republic, 1,480                    Ancona, Italy (south of Greece),         667
Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Crooked        Santos, Brazil, 5,004                   745                                 Napoli, Italy (via Corinth Canal),
   Island Passage), 1,654            Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 1,732      Ancona, Italy (via Corinth Canal),       586
Colon, Panama (via Crooked           St. Georges, Grenada, 1,848             608                                 Navplion, Greece, 142
   Island Passage), 1,946            St. Helena Island, 5,169              Annaba, Algeria (south of             Odessa, Ukraine, 712
Dakar, Senegal, 3,441                St. John, Canada (via Nantucket         Greece), 854                        Oran, Algeria (south of Greece),
Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 1,018        Light Buoy), 698                   Annaba, Algeria (via Corinth             1,276
Fort de France, Martinique (via      St. John, Canada (via Vineyard          Canal), 797                         Oran, Algeria (via Corinth Canal),
   Anegada Channel), 1,724              Sound), 673                        Antalya, Turkey, 383                     1,219
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,862        St. John's, Canada, 1,254             Banghazi, Libya, 404                  Palermo, Sicily (south of Greece),
Funchal, Madeira Island, 2,901       Sydney, Canada, 958                   Banzart, Tunisia (south of               612
Georgetown, Ascension Island,        Vigo, Spain, 3,066                      Greece), 749                        Palermo, Sicily (via Corinth
   4,469                             Vitoria, Brazil, 4,554                Banzart, Tunisia (via Corinth            Canal), 531
Georgetown, Guyana, 2,223            Walvisbaai, Namibia, 6,318              Canal), 692                         Palma, Balearic Islands (south of
Guantanamo, Cuba, 1,284              Willemstad, Curacao, 1,762            Barcelona, Spain (south of               Greece), 1,131




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                          PONAPE, CAROLINE ISLANDS                              81



Palma, Balearic Islands (via          Arica, Chile, 492                    Hamburg, Germany, 628               Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A. (via
   Corinth Canal), 1,049              Caldera, Chile, 880                  Hartlepool, England, 502               Virgin Passage), 1,822
Preveza, Greece, 197                  Callao, Peru, 128                    Hull, England, 442                  Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via
Rethimnon, Kriti, 151                 Coquimbo, Chile, 1,036               Kristiansand, Norway, 717              Mona Passage), 1,297
Rhodes, Greece, 261                   Corinto, Nicaragua, 1,718            Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 1,432   Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via
Rijeka, Croatia (south of Greece),    Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 1,021           Le Havre, France, 177                  Virgin Passage), 1,296
   814                                Guayaquil, Ecuador, 788              Leith, Scotland, 619                Kingston, Jamaica, 910
Rijeka, Croatia (via Corinth          Guaymas, Mexico, 3,227               London, England, 321                La Guaira, Venezuela, 467
   Canal), 675                        Iquique, Chile, 560                  Newcastle, England, 524             La Habana, Cuba (via Virgin
Sarande, Albania, 253                 Lota, Chile, 1,432                   Oostende, Belgium, 288                 Passage), 1,308
Savona, Italy (south of Greece),      Monterey, California, U.S.A.,        Oslo, Norway, 869                   Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 1,247
   988                                  4,017                              Rotterdam, Netherlands, 367         New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Savona, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 1,533        Shoreham By Sea, England, 162          1,652
   906                                Salina Cruz, Mexico, 2,117           Southampton, England, 134           Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,527
Sibenik, Croatia (south of            San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Stavanger, Norway, 746              Paramaribo, Suriname, 737
   Greece), 687                         3,695                              Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 557         Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Sibenik, Croatia (via Corinth         San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Zeebrugge, Belgium, 303                U.S.A., 1,658
   Canal), 548                          4,097                                                                  Plymouth, Montserrat, 84
Siracusa, Sicily (south of Greece),   San Jose, Guatemala, 1,875           PLYMOUTH, MONTSERRAT                Port au Prince, Haiti (south of
   484                                Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,    (1642'10"N., 6213'30"W.) to:        Hispaniola), 945
Siracusa, Sicily (via Corinth           3,832                                                                  Port of Spain, Trinidad, 358
   Canal), 418                        Talcahuano, Chile, 1,411               Ports                             Port Castries, St. Lucia, 141
Soudha, Kriti, 159                    Valparaiso, Chile, 1,207                                                 Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 520
Split, Croatia (south of Greece),                                          Hamilton, Bermuda, 966              Roseau, Dominica, 60
   672                                PITEA, SWEDEN                        New York, New York, U.S.A.,         San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,
Split, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),    (6517'40"N., 2128'20"E.) to:        1,574                                1,345
   533                                                                     Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 84      San Juan, Puerto Rico, 333
Tarabulus, Libya, 640                   Junction Points*                                                       Santo Domingo, Dominican
Taranto, Italy (south of Greece),                                          POHANG, SOUTH KOREA                    Republic, 520
   493                                Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East               (3602'42"N., 12923'30"E.) See    Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 550
Taranto, Italy (via Corinth Canal),    Entrance), Germany, 864             Bohang, South Korea.                St. John's, Antigua (east of
   363                                Skagens Odde, Denmark, 925                                                  Guadeloupe), 107
Thessaloniki, Greece, 259                                                  POINT COMFORT, TEXAS,               St. John's, Antigua (west of
Toulon, France (south of Greece),       Ports                              U.S.A.                                 Guadeloupe), 110
   1,038                                                                    (2835'44"N., 9633'51"W.) to:     Tuxpan, Mexico, 2,094
Toulon, France (via Corinth           Gdynia, Poland, 678                                                      Willemstad, Curacao, 517
   Canal), 956                        Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 678           Junction Points*
Trieste, Italy (south of Greece),     Stockholm, Sweden, 402                                                   POINTE NOIRE, CONGO
   848                                                                     Straits of Florida, 797              (447'00"S., 1150'00"E.) to:
Trieste, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   PLOCE, CROATIA                       Yucatan Channel, 761
   709                                 (4303'00"N., 1725'42"E.) to:                                            Ports
Tubruq, Libya, 359                                                           Ports
Tunis, Tunisia (south of Greece),       Junction Points*                                                       Accra, Ghana, 952
   737                                                                     Campeche, Mexico, 601               Banjul, Gambia, 2,175
Tunis, Tunisia (via Corinth Canal),   Port Said, Egypt, 1,132              Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 650          Boma, Congo, 140
   680                                Strait of Gibraltar, 1,487                                               Douala, Cameroon, 613
Valencia, Spain (south of Greece),                                         POINTE A PITRE,                     Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,788
   1,244                                Ports                              GUADELOUPE                          Lagos, Nigeria, 851
Valencia, Spain (via Corinth                                                (1614'00"N., 6132'30"W.) to:     Libreville, Gabon, 399
   Canal), 1,174                      Ancona, Italy, 167                                                       Lobito, Angola, 473
Valletta, Malta, 524                  Durres, Albania, 214                   Junction Points*                  Lome, Togo, 910
Venezia, Italy (south of Greece),     Rijeka, Croatia, 230                                                     Luanda, Angola, 266
   856                                                                     Panama, Panama, 1,211               Monrovia, Liberia, 1,525
Venezia, Italy (via Corinth Canal),   PLYMOUTH, ENGLAND                    Straits of Florida (via Mona        Port Gentil, Gabon, 341
   719                                 (5021'40"N., 409'10"W.) to:        Passage), 1,348                    Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 677
Vlores, Albania, 295                                                       Straits of Florida (via Virgin      Rio Grande, Brazil, 3,938
Volos, Greece, 200                      Junction Points*                    Passage), 1,347                    Sao Tome, Sao Tome, Gulf of
                                                                           Yucatan Channel (south of             Guinea, 436
PISAGUA, CHILE                        Bishop Rock, England, 106             Hispaniola), 1,410                 Sekondi, Ghana, 997
 (1934'30"S., 7014'00"W.) to:       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 117                                              Takoradi, Ghana, 1,001
                                      Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                Ports
  Junction Points*                      Entrance), Germany, 639                                                POLYARNYY, RUSSIA
                                      Skagens Odde, Denmark, 756           Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         (6912'10"N., 3329'36"E.)
Panama, Panama, 1,962                                                        1,653                             Subtract 19 miles from Murmansk
                                        Ports                              Barranquilla, Colombia, 857         distances.
  Ports                                                                    Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 31
                                      Aberdeen, Scotland, 638              Belize, Belize, 1,578               PONAPE, CAROLINE
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    Amsterdam, Netherlands, 390          Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,      ISLANDS
  4,593                               Antwerp, Belgium, 366                  1,742                              (659'15"N., 15913'30"E.) to:
                                      Bergen, Norway, 819                  Campeche, Mexico, 1,806
PISCO, PERU                           Bremerhaven, Germany, 573            Cap-Haitien, Haiti (via Virgin        Junction Points*
 (1343'30"S., 7614'30"W.) to:       Calais, France, 244                    Passage), 702
                                      Dieppe, France, 206                  Carmen, Mexico, 1,885               Panama, Panama, 7,321
  Junction Points*                    Dover, England, 229                  Cartagena, Colombia, 941            Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,260
                                      Dundee, Scotland, 621                Charleston, South Carolina,
Panama, Panama, 1,458                 Dunkerque, France, 264                 U.S.A., 1,443                       Ports
Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,578            Egersund, Nor way, 706               Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
                                      Emden, Germany, 513                    267                               Apia, Samoa, 2,189
  Ports                               Esbjerg, Denmark, 599                Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,204             Apra, Guam, 901
                                      Fecamp, France, 183                  Colon, Panama, 1,168                Auckland, New Zealand, 2,813
Acapulco, Mexico, 2,309               Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,234       Fort de France, Martinique, 108     Avarua, Cook Islands, 3,001
Antofagasta, Chile, 713               Granville, France, 149               Georgetown, Guyana, 606             Brisbane, Australia, 2,108
                                                                           Guantanamo, Cuba, 879


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
82        PONCE, PUERTO RICO



Callao, Peru, 7,515                    Ports                              PORLAMAR, MARGARITA,                   Junction Points*
Hakodate, Japan, 2,298                                                    VENEZUELA
Hobart, Tasmania, 3,130              Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          (1056'00"N., 6350'00"W.) to:      Cape of Good Hope, South
Hong Kong, China, 2,710                 2,529                                                                    Africa, 2,078
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,685      Banjul, Gambia, 1,551                  Junction Points*                   Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,546
Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 698        Belem, Brazil, 2,678                                                      Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,442
Levuka, Fiji Islands, 2,024          Bordeaux, France, 1,256              Straits of Florida (via Mona         Port Said, Egypt, 3,558
Malakal, Palau Islands, 1,418        Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Passage), 1,454                     Singapore, 4,099
Melbourne, Australia, 3,078             2,088                             Yucatan Channel, 1,407               Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,887
Midway Island, Pacific, 1,882        Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4,975                                            Torres Strait, Australia, 5,976
Nagasaki, Japan, 2,256               Cadiz, Spain, 931                      Ports
Nonouti, Gilbert Islands, 1,082      Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 2,646                                                   Ports
Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,892         Cape Town, South Africa, 5,040       Cartagena, Colombia, 785
Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 2,341      Casablanca, Morocco, 915             Colon, Panama, 1,012                 Antsirana, Madagascar, 572
Pago Pago, American Samoa,           Charleston, South Carolina,          Guantanamo, Cuba, 884                Belawan, Indonesia, 3,777
   2,266                                U.S.A., 2,644                     New York, New York, U.S.A. (via      Manakara, Madagascar, 1,230
Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,430     Colon, Panama, 3,379                   Virgin Passage), 1,879             Port Darwin, Australia, 5,341
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Dakar, Senegal, 1,459                Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.   Sabang, Indonesia, 3,459
   Russia, 2,762                     El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 870     (via Virgin Passage), 1,878        Tulear, Madagascar, 651
Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 853        Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,941        Santa Barbara de Samana,             Victoria, Seychelles, 1,018
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   Funchal, Madeira Island, 550           Dominican Republic, 610
   4,641                             Halifax, Canada, 1,774                                                    PORT ANGELES,
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 4,696   Horta, Azores, 153                   PORT ADELAIDE,                       WASHINGTON, U.S.A.
Shanghai, China, 2,545               Huelva, Spain, 914                   AUSTRALIA                             (4808'00"N., 12327'00"W.) to:
Sydney, Australia, 2,514             Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 774       (3450'30"S., 13830'00"E.) to:     For ocean distances, subtract 60
Truk, Caroline Islands, 383          Lisboa, Portugal, 783                                                     miles from Seattle distances.
Valparaiso, Chile, 7,631             New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Junction Points*
Yokohama, Japan, 1,998                  2,247                                                                    Ports
                                     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,398     Cape of Good Hope, South
                                     Oporto, Portugal, 815                  Africa, 5,754                      Nanaimo, Canada, 98
PONCE, PUERTO RICO                                                        Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,165
 (1758'30"N., 6637'00"W.) to:      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2,388                                         New Westminster, Canada, 90
                                     Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,    Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,980        Vancouver, Canada, 93
                                        1,253                             Wilson Promontory, Australia, 537    Victoria, Canada, 20
  Junction Points*
                                     Recife, Brazil, 2,803
                                     Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,875          Ports
Panama, Panama, 976                                                                                            PORT ANTONIO, JAMAICA
Straits of Florida, 1,020            San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2,412                                               (1811'35"N., 7627'00"W.) to:
                                     Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Albany, Australia, 1,024
                                        Islands, 740                      Botany Bay, Australia, 957             Junction Points*
  Ports
                                     Santo Domingo, Dominican             Bunbury, Australia, 1,260
                                        Republic, 2,620                   Dampier, Australia, 2,182            Panama, Panama, 625
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
                                     St. John's, Canada, 1,326            Durban, South Africa, 5,160          Straits of Florida, 751
  1,427
                                     Vigo, Spain, 828                     Fremantle, Australia, 1,343          Yucatan Channel, 536
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
                                                                          Geelong, Australia, 518
  1,563
                                                                          Hobart, Tasmania, 756                  Ports
Charleston, South Carolina,          POOLE, ENGLAND                       Melbourne, Australia, 512
  U.S.A., 1,168                       (5043'00"N., 159'33"W.) to:
                                                                          Newcastle, Australia, 1,028          Antilla, Cuba, 288
Fort de France, Martinique, 381
                                                                          Port Darwin, Australia, 3,136        Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (via
Guantanamo, Cuba (north of             Junction Points*
                                                                          Port Kembla, Australia, 928            Windward Passage and Crooked
  Hispaniola and via Mona
                                                                          Port Pirie, Australia, 274             Island Passage), 1,350
  Passage), 540                      Bishop Rock, England, 204
                                                                          Strahan, Australia, 593              Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,       Ile d'Ouessant, France, 190
                                                                          Whyalla, Australia, 256                Windward Passage and Crooked
  1,146                              Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 969         Entrance), Germany, 550                                                   Island Passage), 1,606
La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama      Pentland Firth, Scotland, 686        PORT ALICE, CANADA                   Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.
  Channel and Mona Passage),         Skagens Odde, Denmark, 690            (5022'56"N., 12727'12"W.) to:       (via Windward Passage and
  981                                                                                                            Crooked Island Passage), 1,013
New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Ports                                Junction Points*                   Gibara, Cuba, 323
  1,462                                                                                                        New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Aberdeen, Scotland (via The          Panama, Panama, 4,057                  1,423
  U.S.A., 1,454                        Sound), 549                        Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,017           Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A. (via
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,659        Caen, France, 113                    Singapore (via Balintang               Windward Passage and Crooked
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (north of     Dover, England, 134                   Channel), 6,989                       Island Passage), 1,228
  Hispaniola, and via Windward       Hull, England, 338                   Torres Strait, Australia, 6,076      Nuevitas, Cuba, 398
  Passage), 587                      Leith, Scotland, 525                 Wilson Promontory, Australia,        Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (south of     Oostende, Belgium, 193                 7,074                                (via Crooked Island Passage),
  Hispaniola), 599                   Southampton, England, 34                                                    1,395
Santo Domingo, Dominican                                                    Ports                              Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. (via
  Republic, 196                      PORKKALA, FINLAND                                                           Windward Passage and Crooked
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,180                                          Anchorage, Alaska, 1,160               Island Passage), 1,012
                                      (5959'06"N., 2428'06"E.) to:
Willemstad, Curacao, 399                                                  Callao, Peru, 4,800
                                                                          Guaymas, Mexico, 2,304
                                       Junction Points*                                                        PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS,
                                                                          Honolulu, Hawaii, 2,281
PONTA DELGADA, AZORES                                                                                          U.S.A.
                                                                          Los Angeles, California, 1,185        (2952'00"N., 9356'00"W.) to:
 (3744'00"N., 2540'00"W.) to:      Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
                                                                          Manila, Philippines (via Balintang
                                      Entrance), Germany, 647
                                                                            Channel), 5,684                      Junction Points*
  Junction Points*                   Skagens Odde, Denmark, 697
                                                                          Mollendo, Peru, 5,216
                                                                          Yokohama, Japan, 3,988               Straits of Florida, 677
Bishop Rock, England, 1,103            Ports
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,101                                                                                  Yucatan Channel, 681
Montreal, Canada, 2,331              Gdynia, Poland, 412                  PORT AMELIA,
Strait of Gibraltar, 964             Riga, Latvia, 284                    MOZAMBIQUE                             Ports
                                                                           (1258'14"S., 4029'23"E.) to:
Straits of Florida, 3,052            Stockholm, Sweden, 216
                                                                                                               Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Yucatan
                                                                                                                 Peninsula), 976
                                                                                                               Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 708



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                              PORT DARWIN, AUSTRALIA                           83



Colon, Panama, 1,485                  Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 769       Colon, Panama, 1,160                   Junction Points*
La Habana, Cuba, 749                  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,221        Dakar, Senegal, 2,543
Nuevitas, Cuba, 1,055                 San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,       Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 1,049     Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (via             840                                Fort de France, Martinique, 37         6,100
  Yucatan Peninsula), 1,231           San Juan, Puerto Rico, 552           Georgetown, Guyana, 482              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,978
Tampico, Mexico, 522                  San Pedro de Macoris, Dominican      Guantanamo, Cuba, 922                Selat Lombok, Indonesia (south of
Tuxpan, Mexico, 572                     Republic, 473                      Halifax, Canada, 1,850                 Pulau Roti), 926
Veracruz, Mexico, 659                 Santo Domingo, Dominican             Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,149             Port Said, Egypt (via south of
                                        Republic, 449                      Horta, Azores, 2,265                   Java), 6,743
PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI                 Tuxpan, Mexico, 1,428                Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,       Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via south
 (1833'30"N., 7221'30"W.) to:       Willemstad, Curacao, 647                1,520                               of Java), 1,623
                                                                           Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via       Torres Strait, Australia (via
  Junction Points*                    PORT AUGUSTA,                           Mona Passage), 1,358                Clarence Strait and Dundas
                                      AUSTRALIA                            Kingston, Jamaica, 950                 Strait), 735
Bishop Rock, England, 3,725            (3229'40"S., 13745'30"E.) to:     Kingstown, St. Vincent, 60           Selat Wetar, Indonesia (via west of
Fastnet Rock, Ireland (via                                                 La Guaira, Venezuela, 405              Bathurst Island), 326
   Windward Passage), 3,622             Junction Points*                   La Habana, Cuba (via Mona
Inishtrahull, Ireland (via Windward                                           Passage), 1,370                     Ports
   Passage), 3,750                    Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,237       Limon, Costa Rica, 1,316
Panama, Panama, 817                   Singapore, 3,580                     Lisboa, Portugal, 3,111              Aden, Yemen (via south of Java),
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,903                                            Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 1,352           5,356
Strait of Gibraltar, 3,757              Ports                              Montevideo, Uruguay, 4,261           Al Basrah, Iraq, 5,650
Straits of Florida, 701                                                    New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Al Manamah, Bahrain, 5,390
Yucatan Channel, 741                  Hobart, Tasmania, 947                   1,747                             Albany, Australia, 2,152
                                      Lyttelton, New Zealand, 2,082        Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,620     Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
  Ports                               Noumea, New Caledonia, 2,179         Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,             Russia, 4,041
                                      Sydney, Australia, 1,164                U.S.A., 1,753                     Ambon, Indonesia, 579
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,                                               Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 141      Apra, Guam (via Selat Sele), 1,925
  1,301                               PORT BLAIR, ANDAMAN                  Port au Prince, Haiti, 950           Beira, Mozambique, 5,553
Barranquilla, Colombia, 592           ISLANDS                              Port of Spain, Trinidad (east of     Berbera, Somalia, 5,384
Belem, Brazil, 2,258                   (1140'00"N., 9246'00"E.) to:         Grenadine Islands), 231           Bombay, India, 4,193
Belize, Belize (north of Jamaica),                                         Port of Spain, Trinidad (west of     Bunbury, Australia, 1,906
  933                                   Junction Points*                      Grenadine Islands), 230           Busan, South Korea, 2,937
Belize, Belize (south of Jamaica),                                         Portsmouth, New Hampshire,           Bushehr, Iran, 5,446
  953                                 Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,        U.S.A., 1,822                     Calicut, India, 3,683
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,          5,075                              Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 465       Colombo, Sri Lanka, 3,320
  1,557                               Port Said, Egypt, 4,353              Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,578       Dagu, China, 3,363
Bridgetown, Barbados, 1,070           Singapore, 929                       Recife, Brazil, 2,202                Dalian, China, 3,204
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,322                                             Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,274        Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 5,428
Campeche, Mexico, 1,140                 Ports                              Salvador, Brazil, 2,593              Diego Garcia, Chagos
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 195                                                    San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,          Archipelago, 3,483
Cardenas, Cuba, 603                   Calcutta, India, 775                    1,344                             Durban, South Africa, 5,561
Carmen, Mexico, 1,219                 Madras, India, 758                   San Juan, Puerto Rico (west of       Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,
Cartagena, Colombia, 639                                                      Saint Croix and Virgin               5,332
Charleston, South Carolina,           PORT CASTRIES, ST. LUCIA                Passage), 418                     East London, South Africa, 5,673
  U.S.A., 961                          (1401'00"N., 6100'00"W.) to:      Santo Domingo, Dominican             El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain,
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,                                             Republic, 578                        1,843
  628                                   Junction Points*                   Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,548     Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 4,775
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 534                                                      Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 532       Fremantle, Australia, 1,847
Gonaives, Haiti, 70                   Bishop Rock, England, 3,405          St. John's, Antigua, 204             Geraldton, Australia, 1,638
Guantanamo, Cuba, 179                 Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,499         St. Pierre, Martinique, 46           Hakodate, Japan (via Selat Sele),
Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.A. (via    Montreal, Canada, 2,642              Sydney, Canada, 1,967                   3,422
  Windward Passage), 1,176            Panama, Panama, 1,203                Tuxpan, Mexico, 2,136                Hong Kong, China, 2,363
Halifax, Canada, 1,671                Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,704      Willemstad, Curacao, 489             Incheon, South Korea (via
Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,016              Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,451                                                   Molucca Passage), 3,072
Jacmel, Haiti, 271                    Strait of Gibraltar, 3,236           PORT CHALMERS, NEW                   Jakarta, Indonesia, 1,706
Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via Old    Straits of Florida (via Mona         ZEALAND                              Karachi, Pakistan, 4,653
  Bahama Channel), 650                 Passage), 1,409                      (4548'47"S., 17037'43"E.) to:     Kobe, Japan (via Selat Sele), 2,901
Kingston, Jamaica, 277                Yucatan Channel, 1,452                                                    Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 5,859
La Guaira, Venezuela, 801                                                    Junction Points*                   Madras, India, 3,483
La Habana, Cuba, 662                    Ports                                                                   Majunga, Madagascar, 5,069
Les Cayes, Haiti, 202                                                      Panama, Panama, 6,659                Manila, Philippines, 1,834
Manzanillo, Cuba, 372                 Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,548           Maputo, Mozambique, 5,539
Matanzas, Cuba, 617                     1,741                              Torres Strait, Australia, 2,815      Massawa, Ethiopia (via south of
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 643           Belem, Brazil, 1,265                 Torres Strait, Australia (via Cook      Java), 5,747
Nassau, Bahamas, 564                  Belize, Belize, 1,609                  Strait), 2,942                     Midway Island, 4,188
New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,       Wilson Promontory, Australia,        Mocambique, Mozambique, 5,304
  1,372                                 1,812                                1,201                              Mogpo, South Korea, 2,916
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,178      Bridgetown, Barbados (north of St.                                        Mombasa, Kenya, 5,434
Nuevitas, Cuba, 348                     Lucia), 110                          Ports                              Mosselbaai, South Africa, 5,929
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.    Bridgetown, Barbados (south of St.                                        Nagasaki, Japan (via Selat Sele),
  (via Crooked Island Passage),         Lucia), 115                        Auckland, New Zealand (via east         2,785
  1,343                               Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,529      of New Zealand), 840               Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 5,767
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (south     Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4,375       Hobart, Tasmania, 1,061              Port Louis, Mauritius (north of
  of Hispaniola), 945                 Campeche, Mexico, 1,848              Melbourne, Australia (via Banks         Scott Reef), 4,252
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe (via       Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 767                Strait), 1,339                     Port Louis, Mauritius (south of
  Windward Passage and Mona           Carmen, Mexico, 1,927                Noumea, New Caledonia (via              Scott Reef), 4,246
  Passage), 889                       Cartagena, Colombia, 933               Cook Strait), 1,545                Qingdao, China, 3,062
Port Castries, St. Lucia (via         Charleston, South Carolina,                                               San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
  Windward Passage and Mona             U.S.A., 1,532                      PORT DARWIN, AUSTRALIA                  7,297
  Passage), 950                       Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,     (1228'30"S., 13050'00"E.) to:     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,053          346                                                                        6,984
                                      Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,246                                                   Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 6,892


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
84        PORT DES GALETS, REUNION ISLAND



Shanghai, China, 2,804              Horta, Azores, 3,391                Villa Cisneros, Western Sahara,    Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 654
Shimonoseki, Japan (via Selat       Lagos, Nigeria, 318                   892                              Fremantle, Australia (north of
   Sele), 2,883                     Luanda, Angola, 941                                                      Mauritius), 3,202
Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 6,338        Pointe Noire, Congo, 677            PORT KELANG, MALAYSIA              Fremantle, Australia (south of
Tamatave, Madagascar, 4,702                                              (300'00"N., 10124'00"E.) to:      Mauritius), 3,217
Tanga, Tanzania, 5,466              PORT HEDLAND,                                                          Malacca, Malaysia, 3,215
Tjilatjap, Indonesia, 1,321         AUSTRALIA                             Junction Points*                 Maputo, Mozambique, 1,448
Truk, Caroline Islands (via Selat    (2017'45"S., 11834'50"E.) to:                                       Penang, Malaysia, 3,042
   Sele), 2,142                                                         Cape of Good Hope, South           Port Adelaide, Australia, 4,323
Victoria, Seychelles, 4,494           Junction Points*                    Africa, 5,369                    Port Darwin, Australia (north of
Vinh Cam Ranh, Vietnam, 2,169                                           Port Said, Egypt, 4,817              Scott Reef), 4,252
Vladivostok, Russia (via Higashi    Cape of Good Hope, South            Singapore, 220                     Port Darwin, Australia (south of
   Suido), 3,426                      Africa, 5,225                                                          Scott Reef), 4,246
Vladivostok, Russia (via Selat      Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,104        Ports                            Sabang, Indonesia, 2,731
   Sele), 3,445                     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 715                                           Tamatave, Madagascar, 474
Wake Island, 3,187                  Port Said, Egypt, 6,187             Aden, Yemen, 3,430                 Victoria, Seychelles, 943
Weonsan, North Korea, 3,242         Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,208       Akyab, Sittwe Harbor, Burma,       Wellington, New Zealand, 5,900
Wyndham, Australia, 274             Torres Strait, Australia, 1,637       Bombay, India, 2,238             Zanzibar, Tanzania, 1,388
Xiamen, China, 2,411                                                    Chittagong, Bangladesh, 1,311
Yampi Sound, Australia, 1,457         Ports                             Rangoon, Burma, 911                PORT MORESBY, PAPUA
Yokohama, Japan (via Selat Sele),                                       Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, 1,253      NEW GUINEA
   2,989                            Aden, Yemen, 4,800                                                      (928'45"S., 14708'40"E.) to:
Zamboanga, Philippines, 1,303       Bombay, India, 3,702                PORT KEMBLA, AUSTRALIA
Zanzibar, Tanzania, 5,452           Busan, South Korea (via west of      (3428'30"S., 15053'00"E.) to:     Junction Points*
                                      Timor and Korea Strait), 3,484
PORT DES GALETS,                    Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,833             Junction Points*                 Panama, Panama, 8,292
REUNION ISLAND                      Fremantle, Australia, 972                                              Punta Arenas, Chile (via 50S.),
 (2055'15"S., 5517'30"E.) to:     Geraldton, Australia, 769           Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 3,388       6,897
                                    San Francisco, California, U.S.A.   Torres Strait, Australia, 1,817    Torres Strait, Australia, 339
  Junction Points*                    (via west of Timor), 7,646                                           Wilson Promontory, Australia,
                                                                          Ports                              2,287
Cape of Good Hope, South            PORT HUENEME,
  Africa, 2,120                     CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.                  Hobart, Tasmania, 593                Ports
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,241       (3409'00"N., 11912'24"W.) to:    Nukualofa, Tonga Islands, 1,987
Port Said, Egypt, 3,747                                                 Wellington, New Zealand, 1,229     Gladstone Harbor, Australia, 1,389
Singapore, 3,450                      Junction Points*                                                     Koniya, Ryukyu Islands, 3,063
                                                                        PORT LAVACA, TEXAS,                Lae, Papua New Guinea, 1,044
  Ports                             Panama, Panama, 2,958               U.S.A.                             Mackay, Australia, 1,168
                                                                         (2835'44"N., 9633'51"W.) See    Port Pirie, Australia, 2,754
Durban, South Africa, 1,418           Ports                             Point Comfort.                     Townsville, Australia, 595

PORT ETIENNE,                       Ensenada, Mexico, 194                                                  PORT NADOR, MOROCCO
                                                                        PORT LEGASPI,
MAURITANIA                          Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,170     PHILIPPINES                         (3517'00"N., 256'00"W.) See
 (2040'00"N., 1704'12"W.) to:     Sweeper Cove, Alaska, U.S.A.,        (1309'00"N., 12345'30"E.) See   Melilla.
                                      2,686                             Legaspi Port.
  Junction Points*                  Vancouver, Canada, 1,102
                                                                                                           PORT NECHES, TEXAS,
                                                                        PORT LINCOLN,                      U.S.A.
Cape of Good Hope, South            PORT KAMSAR, GUINEA                 AUSTRALIA                           (2959'35"N., 9356'20"W.) Add
   Africa, 4,018                     (1039'00"N., 1437'00"W.) to:      (3443'00"S., 13552'00"E.) to:   13 miles to Port Arthur distances.
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 1,826
                                      Junction Points*                    Junction Points*                 PORT NEWARK, NEW
  Ports                                                                                                    JERSEY, U.S.A.
                                    Bishop Rock, England, 2,560         Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,100      (4042'00"N., 7409'00"W.) For
Casablanca, Morocco, 1,032          Cape of Good Hope, South            Torres Strait, Australia, 2,811    ocean distances, add 4 1/2 miles to
Dakar, Senegal, 394                    Africa, 3,294                                                       New York distances.
                                    Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,625          Ports
PORT EVERGLADES,                    Grand Banks South, 2,701                                               PORT OF SPAIN, TRINIDAD
FLORIDA, U.S.A.                     Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,520       Albany, Australia, 953              (1038'45"N., 6131'00"W.) to:
 (2605'36"N., 8004'48"W.) See     Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,925        Hobart, Tasmania, 830
Fort Lauderdale.                    Panama, Panama, 3,863               Melbourne, Australia, 588            Junction Points*
                                    Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,256
PORT GENTIL, GABON                  Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,098          PORT LOUIS, MAURITIUS              Bishop Rock, England, 3,603
 (043'00"S., 847'30"E.) to:       Strait of Gibraltar, 1,867           (2009'15"S., 5729'45"E.) to:    Cape of Good Hope, South
                                    Straits of Florida, 3,984                                                 Africa, 5,393
  Ports                             Yucatan Channel, 4,143                Junction Points*                 Inishtrahull, Ireland, 3,706
                                                                                                           Montreal, Canada (via Cabot
Boma, Congo, 470                      Ports                             Cape of Good Hope, South              Strait), 2,901
Cabinda, Cabinda, 393                                                     Africa, 2,266                    Panama, Panama, 1,202
Douala, Cameroon, 29                Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 834           Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 3,165     Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,913
Kribi, Cameroon, 231                Agadir, Morocco, 1,422              Singapore, 3,333                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,430
Pointe Noire, Congo, 341            Belem, Brazil, 2,171                Torres Strait, Australia, 4,933    Strait of Gibraltar, 3,403
                                    Bordeaux, France, 2,493                                                Straits of Florida (via Mona
PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA              Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3,747        Ports                             Passage), 1,533
 (446'15"N., 700'12"E.) to:       Cape Town, South Africa, 3,274                                         Yucatan Channel, 1,517
                                    Dakar, Senegal, 330                 Aden, Yemen, 2,341
  Junction Points*                  Freetown, Sierra Leone, 153         Albany, Australia, 3,340             Ports
                                    Galway, Ireland, 2,692              Beira, Mozambique, 1,448
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,974       Libreville, Gabon, 1,652            Belawan, Indonesia, 2,997          Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
                                    Monrovia, Liberia, 372              Bombay, India, 2,517                 1,918
  Ports                             New York, New York, U.S.A.,         Calcutta, India, 3,212             Barcelona, Venezuela, 218
                                      3,634                             Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2,098          Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,397       San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3,018        Durban, South Africa, 1,560          419
                                    Tangier, Morocco, 1,788



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                               PORT SAID, EGYPT                   85



Belem, Brazil, 1,212                  St. John, Canada, 2,113               Aden, Yemen, 1,400                     Kalamai, Greece, 644
Belize, Belize, 1,637                 St. John's, Canada, 2,288             Ajaccio, Corsica, 1,355                Karachi, Pakistan, 2,865
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        St. John's, Antigua, 411              Akyab, Burma, 4,672                    Kavala, Greece, 714
   2,022                              Sydney, Canada, 2,189                 Al Aqabah, Jordan, 380                 Kerch, Ukraine, 1,238
Bridgetown, Barbados (via Boca        Takoradi, Ghana, 3,632                Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,371                 Kerkira, Greece (south of Greece),
   Grande), 211                       Turiamo, Venezuela, 384               Al Latakia, Syria, 310                    848
Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,694     Tuxpan, Mexico, 2,201                 Al Manamah, Bahrain, 3,132             Kerkira, Greece (via Corinth
Campeche, Mexico, 1,913               Veracruz, Mexico, 2,182               Alcudia, Balearic Islands, 1,536          Canal), 826
Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 888               Willemstad, Curacao, 456              Alexandria, Egypt, 164                 Khalkis, Greece, 630
Cape Town, South Africa, 5,387        Wilmington, North Carolina            Alexandroupolis, Greece, 699           Kyrenia, Cyprus, 297
Carmen, Mexico, 1,992                    U.S.A., 1,703                      Algeciras, Spain, 1,927                La Spezia, Italy, 1,391
Cartagena, Colombia, 932                                                    Algiers, Algeria, 1,514                Larnaca, Cyprus, 231
Carupano, Venezuela, 109              PORT PIRIE, AUSTRALIA                 Alicante, Spain, 1,680                 Licata, Sicily, 993
Catia la Mar, Venezuela, 335           (3310'20"S., 13800'45"E.) to:      Almeria, Spain, 1,780                  Limassol, Cyprus, 208
Charleston, South Carolina,                                                 Ancona, Italy, 1,206                   Livorno, Italy, 1,355
   U.S.A., 1,682                        Junction Points*                    Annaba, Algeria, 1,289                 Madras, India (north of Socotra),
Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,                                           Antalya, Turkey, 346                      4,037
   518                                Panama, Panama, 8,467                 Arzew, Algeria, 1,692                  Mahon, Balearic Islands, 1,484
Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,310               Singapore, 3,564                      As Sukhayrah, Tunisia, 1,156           Majunga, Madagascar, 3,471
Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, 2,137                                                Ashdod, Israel, 126                    Malacca, Malaysia, 4,891
Colon, Panama, 1,159                    Ports                               Assab, Ethiopia, 1,258                 Malaga, Spain, 1,873
Covenas, Colombia, 968                                                      Augusta, Sicily, 932                   Manfredonia, Italy, 1,045
Dakar, Senegal, 2,628                 Melbourne, Australia, 689             Bandar Abbas, Iran, 2,842              Maputo, Mozambique, 4,348
Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 1,170      Port Adelaide, Australia, 246         Bandar Khomeini, Iran, 3,322           Marmagao, India, 3,078
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,896         Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea,       Banghazi, Libya, 673                   Marsaxlokk, Malta, 942
Funchal, Madeira Island, 2,819          2,754                               Baniyas, Syria, 299                    Marseille, France, 1,518
Georgetown, Guyana (via Serpents                                            Banzart, Tunisia, 1,184                Massawa, Ethiopia, 1,041
   Mouth), 376                        PORT RAYSUT, OMAN                     Barcelona, Spain, 1,600                Matruh, Egypt, 281
Guantanamo, Cuba, 987                  (1656'58"N., 5402'00"E.) See       Bari, Italy, 999                       Melilla, Morocco, 1,821
Halifax, Canada, 2,059                Mina Raysut.                          Barletta, Italy, 1,023                 Menton, France, 791
Hamilton, Bermuda, 1,346                                                    Bassein, Burma, 4,638                  Mers el Kebir, Algeria, 1,714
Horta, Azores, 2,461                  PORT REFUGE, COCOS                    Bastia, Corsica, 1,337                 Mersin, Turkey, 359
Isabel Segunda, Isla de Vieques,      ISLANDS                               Bat'umi, Georgia, 1,391                Messina, Sicily, 945
   531                                 (1205'20"S., 9651'54"E.) to:       Beaulieu, France, 1,453                Mina al Ahmadi, Kuwait, 3,286
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,                                              Beira, Mozambique, 3,990               Mina Abd Allah, Kuwait, 3,283
   1,685                                Junction Points*                    Beirut, Lebanon, 230                   Mina Az Zawr, Kuwait, 3,264
Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via                                              Bejaia, Algeria, 1,423                 Mocambique, Mozambique, 3,522
   Mona Passage and Old Bahama        Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,      Belawan, Indonesia, 4,668              Mogadishu, Somalia, 2,493
   Channel), 1,484                      4,428                               Bombay, India, 3,046                   Mombasa, Kenya, 3,006
Kingston, Jamaica, 1,003              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,678        Bonifacio, Corsica, 1,307              Monaco, Monaco, 1,450
La Guaira, Venezuela (south of Isla   Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,132        Brindisi, Italy, 941                   Monopoli, Italy, 953
   de Margarita), 329                 Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 647           Bunbury, Australia, 6,343              Mostaganem, Algeria, 1,678
La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama                                             Bur Safaga, Egypt, 310                 Mtwara, Tanzania, 3,265
   Channel and Mona Passage),           Ports                               Cagliari, Sardinia, 1,255              Napoli, Italy, 1,116
   1,494                                                                    Calcutta, India, 4,691                 Navplion, Greece, 613
Lagos, Nigeria, 3,950                 Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,539             Cannes, France, 1,472                  Nice, France, 1,456
Limon, Costa Rica, 1,313                                                    Cartagena, Spain, 1,705                Novorossiysk, Russia, 1,260
Lisboa, Portugal, 3,287               PORT ROYAL, JAMAICA                   Catania, Sicily, 942                   Odessa, Ukraine, 1,152
Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 1,482          (1756'00"N., 7651'00"W.)           Ceuta, Morocco, 1,923                  Okha, India, 2,887
Monrovia, Liberia, 3,045              Subtract 5 miles from Kingston        Chalna, Bangladesh, 4,705              Olbia, Sardinia, 1,278
New Amsterdam, Guyana, 437            distances.                            Chioggia, Italy, 1,307                 Oran, Algeria, 1,711
New York, New York, U.S.A. (via                                             Chittagong, Bangladesh, 4,739          Palermo, Sicily, 1,061
   Virgin Passage), 1,939                                                   Civitavecchia, Italy, 1,243            Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,555
                                      PORT SAN CARLOS,
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,799      FALKLAND ISLANDS                      Cochin, India, 3,237                   Patrai, Greece (via south of
Oranjestad, St. Eustatius, 432         (5130'00"S., 5900'00"W.) See       Colombo, Sri Lanka, 3,481                 Greece), 762
Paramaribo, Suriname, 546             Stanley, Falkland Islands.            Constanta, Romania, 1,000              Patrai, Greece (via Corinth Canal),
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.                                          Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 3,238            690
   (via Virgin Passage), 1,938                                              Darnah, Libya, 514                     Penang, Malaysia, 4,733
                                      PORT SAID, EGYPT*
Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 358        (3116'00"N., 3219'00"E.) to:       Derince, Turkey, 837                   Phuket, Thailand, 4,629
Port au Prince, Haiti, 1,053                                                Djibouti, Djibouti, 1,374              Piraievs, Greece, 599
Port Castries, St. Lucia (east of       Junction Points*                    Dubrovnik, Croatia, 1,038              Ploce, Croatia, 1,132
   Grenadine Islands), 231                                                  Dumai, Indonesia, 4,943                Port des Galets, Reunion Islands,
Port Castries, St. Lucia (west of     Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,      Durban, South Africa, 4,567               3,747
   Grenadine Islands), 230               5,340                              Durres, Albania, 951                   Port Blair, Andaman Islands, 4,353
Portsmouth, New Hampshire,            Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 6,389        East London, South Africa, 4,830       Port Darwin, Australia (via Eight
   U.S.A., 2,024                      Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 5,892        Ermoupolis, Greece, 535                   Degree Channel), 6,764
Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela, 214        Singapore, 5,035                      Famagusta, Cyprus, 257                 Port St. Louis du Rhone, France,
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 395        Strait of Gibraltar, 1,943            Fethiye, Turkey, 375                      1,535
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 1,599        Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via Eight     Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, 4,035        Port Sudan, Sudan, 788
Puerto Sucre, Venezuela, 200             Degree Channel), 5,224             Fremantle, Australia, 6,310            Port Swettenham, Malaysia, 4,817
Punta Cardon, Venezuela, 574          Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via One       Gaeta, Italy, 1,150                    Port Vendres, France, 1,583
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3,271            and Half Degree Channel),          Genova, Italy, 1,426                   Porto Empedocle, Sicily, 1,017
Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, 525        5,335                              Ghazaouet, Algeria, 1,784              Porto Vecchio di Piombino, Italy,
San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua,        Torres Strait, Australia (via Eight   Gibraltar, 1,925                          1,315
   1,342                                 Degree Channel), 7,423             Golfe-Juan, France, 1,462              Pozzuoli, Italy, 1,118
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 574            Torres Strait, Australia (via One     Haifa, Israel, 171                     Preveza, Greece, 806
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary           and Half Degree Channel),          Hyeres, Greece, 1,474                  Pula, Croatia (south of Greece),
   Islands, 2,804                        7,409                              Iraklion, Kriti, 455                      1,256
Santo Domingo, Dominican                                                    Iskenderun, Turkey, 381                Pula, Croatia (via Corinth Canal),
   Republic, 681                        Ports                               Istanbul, Turkey, 804                     1,244
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,714                                            Izmir, Turkey, 608                     Qabis, Tunisia, 1,149
Sint Nicolaashaven, Aruba, 515        Ad Damman, Saudi Arabia, 3,142        Jakarta, Indonesia, 5,293              Rangoon, Burma, 4,696
St. Georges, Grenada, 102                                                   Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, 722              Ras as Sidr, Egypt, 112


 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
86        PORT ST. LOUIS DU RHONE, FRANCE



Ras Gharib, Egypt, 187                 Ports                            PORT-VENDRES, FRANCE               Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,873
Ras Tannurah, Saudi Arabia, 3,162                                        (4231'30"N., 307'00"E.) to:     Cape Town, South Africa, 6,709
Reggio Di Calabria, Sicily, 939      Aden, Yemen, 668                                                      Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
Rethimnon, Kriti, 489                Assab, Ethiopia, 524                 Junction Points*                    1,557
Rhodes, Greece, 376                  Bur Safaga, Egypt, 508                                                Charlottetown, Canada (via Strait
Rijeka, Croatia (south of Greece),   Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, 161          Port Said, Egypt, 1,583               of Canso), 579
   1,276                             Massawa, Ethiopia, 306             Strait of Gibraltar, 633           Colon, Panama, 2,198
Rijeka, Croatia (via Corinth                                                                               Halifax, Canada, 338
   Canal), 1,263                                                          Ports                            Kingston, Jamaica, 1,679
                                     PORT SULPHUR,
Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, 1,440        LOUISIANA, U.S.A.                                                     Maracaibo, Venezuela, 2,042
Sabang, Indonesia, 4,422              (2928'36"N., 8941'09"W.)        Barcelona, Spain, 108              Montevideo, Uruguay, 5,759
Salamis, Greece, 614                 Subtract 50 miles from New         Marseille, France, 109             Murmansk, Russia, 3,677
Salerno, Italy, 1,098                Orleans distances.                 Napoli, Italy, 521                 Recife, Brazil, 3,700
Sant Antioco Ponti, Sardinia,                                                                              Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,772
   1,282                             PORT SWETTENHAM,                   PORTLAND, AUSTRALIA                Salvador, Brazil, 4,091
Sarande, Albania, 863                MALAYA, MALAYSIA                    (3820'30"S., 14137'00"E.) to:   San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,531
Savona, Italy, 1,437                  (300'00"N., 10123'00"E.) to:                                       Santos, Brazil, 4,959
Sayda, Lebanon, 205                                                       Junction Points*                 St. John, Canada, 215
Sete, France, 1,577                    Junction Points*                                                    Sydney, Canada, 556
Sevastopol', Ukraine, 1,105                                             Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,304     Willemstad, Curacao, 1,921
Sfax, Tunisia, 1,131                 Port Said, Egypt, 4,817            Torres Strait, Australia, 2,429    Yarmouth, Canada, 185
Shengjin, Albania, 988               Singapore, 210
Sibenik, Croatia (south of                                                Ports                            PORTLAND, OREGON, U.S.A.
   Greece), 1,148                      Ports                                                                (4533'00"N., 12241'45"W.) to:
Sibenik, Croatia (via Corinth                                           Hobart, Tasmania, 540
   Canal), 1,136                     Calcutta, India, 1,444             Melbourne, Australia, 206            Junction Points*
Simons Bay, South Africa, 5,315      Madras, India, 1,384               Port Adelaide, Australia, 321
Siracusa, Sicily, 924                Penang, Malaysia, 172                                                 Panama, Panama, 3,869
Skikda, Algeria, 1,337                                                  PORTLAND, ENGLAND                  Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,813
Soudha, Kriti, 507                   PORT TALBOT, WALES                  (5035'00"N., 226'00"W.) to:     Singapore, 7,142
Sousse, Tunisia, 1,133                (5135'25"N., 347'24"W.) to:                                        Wilson Promontory, Australia,
Split, Croatia, 1,133                                                     Junction Points*                   7,121
St. Raphael, France, 1,475             Junction Points*
Suakin, Sudan, 813                                                      Bishop Rock, England, 181            Ports
Tamatave, Madagascar, 3,584          Bishop Rock, England, 149          Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Tanga, Tanzania, 3,068               Inishtrahull, Ireland, 331          Entrance), Germany, 565           Antofagasta, Chile, 5,383
Tarabulus, Lebanon, 268                                                 Skagens Odde, Denmark, 682         Auckland, New Zealand, 6,075
Tarabulus, Libya, 998                  Ports                                                               Brisbane, Australia, 6,421
Taranto, Italy, 954                                                       Ports                            Brito, Nicaragua, 3,333
Tarragona, Spain, 1,634              Dublin, Ireland, 179                                                  Callao, Peru, 4,611
Terracina, Italy, 1,162              Liverpool, England, 244            Aberdeen, Scotland, 564            Cebu, Philippines, 6,001
Thessaloniki, Greece, 741                                               Amsterdam, Netherlands, 316        Dalian, China, 5,240
Toulon, France, 1,486                PORT TAMPA, FLORIDA,               Antwerp, Belgium, 292              Guayaquil, Ecuador, 4,169
Trapani, Sicily, 1,100               U.S.A.                             Bergen, Norway, 745                Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,332
Trieste, Italy, 1,310                 (2151'40"N., 8233'20"W.)        Bremerhaven, Germany, 499          Jakarta, Indonesia (via Balintang
Tubruq, Libya, 445                   Subtract 5 miles from Tampa        Calais, France, 170                  Channel and composite), 7,415
Tulear, Madagascar, 3,966            distances.                         Dover, England, 155                Kobe, Japan, 4,590
Tunis, Tunisia, 1,172                                                   Dundee, Scotland, 547              Manila, Philippines (via Babuyan
Umm Said, Qatar, 3,091               PORT TARANAKI, NEW                 Dunkerque, France, 190               Channel), 6,024
Valencia, Spain, 1,679               ZEALAND                            Egersund, Norway, 632              Newcastle, Australia, 6,833
Valletta, Malta, 946                  (3902'08"S., 17402'30"E.) See   Emden, Germany, 439                Pago Pago, American Samoa,
Venezia, Italy, 1,317                New Plymouth.                      Esbjerg, Denmark, 525                4,525
Viareggio, Italy, 1,716                                                 Hamburg, Germany, 554              Sydney, Australia, 6,737
Villa San Giovanni, Italy, 944       PORT TOWNSEND,                     Hartlepool, England, 428           Valparaiso, Chile, 5,764
Villa Sanjurjo, Morocco, 1,868       WASHINGTON, U.S.A.                 Hull, England, 368                 Vancouver, Canada, 371
Villefranche, France, 1,455           (4806'30"N., 12245'00"W.)       Kristiansand, Norway, 643          Vladivostok, Russia (north of the
Vlores, Albania, 973                 Subtract 36 miles from Seattle     Leith, Scotland, 545                 Aleutian Islands), 4,278
Volos, Greece, 683                   distances.                         London, England, 247               Wellington, New Zealand, 6,327
Yumurtalik, Turkey, 372                                                 Newcastle, England, 453            Yokohama, Japan, 4,323
Zadar, Croatia, 1,214                PORT WALCOT,                       Oostende, Belgium, 214
                                     AUSTRALIA                          Oslo, Norway, 795                  PORTO ALEGRE, BRAZIL
PORT ST. LOUIS DU RHONE,              (2031'58"S., 11714'00"E.) to:   Rotterdam, Netherlands, 293         (3002'00"S., 5114'00"W.) to:
FRANCE                                                                  Southampton, England, 57
 (4323'00"N., 448'00"E.) to:         Junction Points*                 Stavanger, Norway, 672               Junction Points*
                                                                        Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 483
  Junction Points*                   Cape of Good Hope, South           Zeebrugge, Belgium, 229            Cape of Good Hope, South
                                       Africa, 5,137                                                         Africa, 3,625
Port Said, Egypt, 1,535              Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,005     PORTLAND, MAINE, U.S.A.            Panama, Panama, 5,148
Strait of Gibraltar, 703             Port Said, Egypt, 6,170             (4339'30"N., 7014'45"W.) to:    Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,686
                                     Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 707
  Ports                              Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 3,346        Junction Points*                   Ports
                                     Selat Wetar, Indonesia, 942
Annaba, Algeria, 419                 Torres Strait, Australia, 1,662    Montreal, Canada, 1,206            Montevideo, Uruguay, 482
Barcelona, Spain, 178                                                   Panama, Panama (via Crooked        Santos, Brazil, 758
Genova, Italy, 221                     Ports                               Island Passage), 2,241
                                                                        Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,910    PORTO DI BARLETTA,
PORT SUDAN, SUDAN                    Al Basrah, Iraq, 5,133             Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,949         ITALY
 (1937'00"N., 3713'45"E.) to:      Fremantle, Australia, 873          Straits of Florida, 1,450           (4120'00"N., 1617'30"E.) to:
                                     Geraldton, Australia, 671
  Junction Points*                   Mombasa, Kenya, 4,624                Ports                              Junction Points*
                                     Port Darwin, Australia, 953
Port Said, Egypt, 788                Victoria, Seychelles, 3,730        Belize, Belize, 1,967              Port Said, Egypt, 1,023
                                     Zanzibar, Tanzania, 4,796



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                         PRIMORSK, RUSSIA                     87



Strait of Gibraltar, 1,398           U.S.A., 3,057                    Yucatan Channel, 1,612                   Junction Points*

  Ports                            PORTO VECCHIO DI                     Ports                                Selat Lombok, Indonesia (via
                                   PIOMBINO, ITALY                                                             Makassar Strait), 7,218
Ancona, Italy, 199                  (4256'00"N., 1033'00"E.) to:    Argentia, Canada, 779                  Panama, Panama, 4,107
Dubrovnik, Croatia, 113                                               Arkhangel'sk, Russia, 3,992            Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,067
Taranto, Italy, 232                  Junction Points*                 Belem, Brazil, 2,959                   Singapore (via Balintang
                                                                      Cartagena, Colombia, 2,053              Channel), 7,281
PORTO DI BRINDISI, ITALY           Port Said, Egypt, 1,315            Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,      Selat Sunda, Indonesia (via
 (4038'38"N., 1757'03"E.) See    Strait of Gibraltar, 897              1,534                                 Balintang Channel), 7,645
Brindisi.                                                             Colon, Panama, 2,174
                                     Ports                            Dakar, Senegal, 3,219                    Ports
PORTO EMPEDOCLE,                                                      Elizabeth Harbor, Bahamas, 1,252
SICILY, ITALY                      Genova, Italy, 116                 Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3,654          Anchorage, Alaska, U.S.A. (via
 (3716'30"N., 1332'00"E.) to:    Marseille, France, 247             Georgetown, Guyana, 2,284                Queen Charlotte Sound), 1,278
                                   Napoli, Italy, 227                 Guantanamo, Cuba (via Crooked          Auckland, New Zealand, 6,244
  Junction Points*                                                       Island Passage), 1,512              Brisbane, Australia, 6,543
                                   PORTOVESME, ITALY                  Halifax, Canada, 359                   Chimbote, Peru, 4,642
Port Said, Egypt, 1,017             (3911'31"N., 822'29"E.) to:     Hamilton, Bermuda, 723                 Guaymas, Mexico, 2,333
Strait of Gibraltar, 937                                              Ivittuut, Greenland, 1,709             Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,476
                                     Junction Points*                 Kingston, Jamaica, 1,655               Sydney, Australia, 6,879
  Ports                                                               Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,822        Tokyo, Japan (via Queen Charlotte
                                   Port Said, Egypt, 1,298            Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2,024           Sound), 4,123
Tarabulus, Libya, 263              Strait of Gibraltar, 701           Reykjavik, Iceland, 2,271
Tunis, Tunisia, 167                                                   San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,507           POZZUOLI, ITALY
Valletta, Malta, 97                  Ports                            St. John, Canada, 248                   (4049'30"N., 1407'00"E.) to:
                                                                      Sydney, Canada, 576
PORTO GRANDE, SAO                  Alexandria, Egypt, 1,160                                                    Junction Points*
VICENTE, CAPE VERDE                Barcelona, Spain, 311              PORVOO, FINLAND
ISLANDS                            Beirut, Lebanon, 1,387              (6018'00"N., 2533'00"E.) to:        Port Said, Egypt, Strait of
 (1653'00"N., 2500'20"W.) to:    Istanbul, Turkey, 1,336                                                     Gibraltar, 995
                                   Marseille, France, 282               Junction Points*
  Junction Points*                 Trieste, Italy, 2,700                                                       Ports
                                                                      Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East
Bishop Rock, England, 2,165        PORTSMOUTH, ENGLAND                 Entrance), Germany, 660               Civitavecchia, Italy, 147
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    (5048'00"N., 106'40"W.) to:     Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The         Messina, Sicily, 177
   3,958                                                                Sound), 722                          Tunis, Tunisia, 308
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 2,137        Junction Points*
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,539                                              Ports                                PRAIA DA VITORIA,
Straits of Florida, 3,308          Bishop Rock, England (via                                                 TERCEIRA, AZORES
                                      Needles Channel), 225           Halmstad, Sweden (via The               (3843'45"N., 2703'10"W.) to:
  Ports                            Ile d'Ouessant, France, 227          Sound), 644
                                   Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Hamina, Finland, 83                      Junction Points*
Accra, Ghana, 1,760                  Entrance), Germany, 515          Helsinki, Finland, 56
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,       Skagens Odde, Denmark, 632         Kobenhavn, Denmark (via The            Bishop Rock, England, 1,128
   3,095                                                                Sound), 582                          Strait of Gibraltar, 1,034
Banjul, Gambia, 553                  Ports                            Kokkola, Finland, 525                  Straits of Florida, 3,017
Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 651                                            Lulea, Sweden, 584
Cadiz, Spain, 1,547                Aberdeen, Scotland, 514            Varberg, Sweden (via The Sound),         Ports
Casablanca, Morocco, 1,387         Amsterdam, Netherlands, 266          666
Colon, Panama, 3,246               Antwerp, Belgium, 242                                                     Lisboa, Portugal, 850
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 871        Bergen, Norway, 695                                                       New York, New York, U.S.A.,
                                                                      POTI, GEORGIA
Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,043     Bremerhaven, Germany, 446           (4209'51"N., 4138'35"E.) to:          2,173
Guantanamo, Cuba, 2,853            Dover, England, 105
Horta, Azores, 1,316               Dundee, Scotland, 497                Junction Points*                     PRAIA, SAO TIAGO, CAPE
Huelva, Spain, 1,561               Dunkerque, France, 150                                                    VERDE ISLANDS
Lagos, Nigeria, 1,991              Egersund, Norway, 582              Port Said, Egypt, 1,399                 (1454'15"N., 2330'30"W.) to:
Lisboa, Portugal, 1,555            Emden, Germany, 389                Strait of Gibraltar (via Corinth
Luanda, Angola, 2,778              Esbjerg, Denmark, 475               Canal), 4,266                           Ports
Mocamedes, Angola, 2,939           Hamburg, Germany, 504              Strait of Gibraltar (south of
Monrovia, Liberia, 1,069           Hartlepool, England, 378            Greece), 4,326                        Funchal, Madeira Island, 1,128
New York, New York, U.S.A.,        Hull, England, 318
   2,913                           Kristiansand, Norway, 593            Ports                                PREVEZA, GREECE
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,971   Leith, Scotland, 495                                                       (3857'15"N., 2045'20"E.) to:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,        London, England, 197               Alexandria, Egypt, 1,337
   U.S.A., 3,011                   Newcastle, England, 403            Beirut, Lebanon, 1,448                   Junction Points*
Ponta Delgada, Azores, 1,253       Oostende, Belgium, 174             Constanta, Romania, 581
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,687      Oslo, Norway, 745                  Haifa, Israel, 1,450                   Port Said, Egypt, 806
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary     Rotterdam, Netherlands, 243        Iraklion, Kriti, 1,049                 Strait of Gibraltar, 1,319
   Islands, 849                    Stavanger, Norway, 622             Istanbul, Turkey, 591
Sao Tome, Sao Tome, Gulf of        Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 433        Napoli, Italy (via Corinth Canal),       Ports
   Guinea, 2,208                   Zeebrugge, Belgium, 179               1,530
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 3,169                                      Napoli, Italy (south of Greece),       Durres, Albania, 181
Sidi Ifni, Morocco, 1,117          PORTSMOUTH, NEW                       1,593                               Messina, Sicily, 274
St. Louis, Senegal, 496            HAMPSHIRE, U.S.A.                  Valencia, Spain (via Corinth           Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth
Sydney, Canada, 2,503               (4304'40"N., 7044'30"W.) to:       Canal), 2,125                          Canal), 197
Takoradi, Ghana, 1,673                                                Valencia, Spain (south of Greece),
Tangier, Morocco, 1,536              Junction Points*                    2,185                               PRIMORSK, RUSSIA
Vigo, Spain, 1,737                                                                                            (6021'30"N., 2836'00"E.) Via
Villa Cisneros, Western Sahara,    Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                          Ostrov Rondo pilot station.
                                                                      POWELL RIVER, CANADA
   650                                6,732                            (4952'00"N., 12434'00"W.) to:       Subtract 1 mile from Vysotsk
Wilmington, North Carolina,        Straits of Florida, 1,461                                                 distances.




  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
88        PRINCE RUPERT, CANADA



PRINCE RUPERT, CANADA                  Pentland Firth, Scotland, 3,047      Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,    PUERTO DE HIERRO,
 (5419'00"N., 13020'00"W.) to:       Strait of Gibraltar, 3,122             506                                VENEZUELA
                                                                            Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1,015               (1037'00"N., 6205'30"W.) to:
  Junction Points*                       Ports                              Colon, Panama, 802
                                                                            Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,899        Junction Points*
Panama, Panama, 4,303                  Bordeaux, France, 3,145              Key West, Florida, U.S.A. (via Old
Punta Arenas, Chile, 7,247                                                    Bahama Channel and Windward        Panama, Panama, 1,192
Singapore, 6,683                                                              Passage), 1,248                    Straits of Florida, 2,086
                                       PROVIDENIYA, RUSSIA
                                        (6422'00"N., 17317'30"W.) to:     Kingston, Jamaica, 697
  Ports                                                                     La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama        Ports
                                         Ports                                Channel and Windward
Apra, Guam, 4,586                                                             Passage), 1,260                    Barranquilla, Colombia, 838
Auckland, New Zealand, 6,209           Anadyrskiy Zaliv, Russia, 254        Paramaribo, Suriname, 887            Belem, Brazil, 1,215
Callao, Peru, 5,047                    Pevek, Russia, 719                   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,          Tiksi, Russia, 1,500                   (via Mona Passage), 1,845          PUERTO DE LA LUZ,
   1,274                                                                    Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, 520      CANARY ISLANDS
Hakodate, Japan (alternate route,                                           Port au Prince, Haiti, 769            (2808'30"N., 1525'00"W.) See
                                       PUERTO ARMUELLES,                                                         Las Palmas.
   north of Aleutian Islands), 3,487   PANAMA                               Port Castries, St. Lucia, 465
Hakodate, Japan (south of Aleutian      (816'15"N., 8251'30"W.) to:       Port of Spain, Trinidad, 395
   Islands), 3,525                                                          Santo Domingo, Dominican             PUERTO DE PASAJES, SPAIN
Hong Kong, China (alternate route,       Junction Points*                     Republic, 492                       (4319'30"N., 155'00"W.) to:
   north of Aleutian Islands), 5,286                                        Tuxpan, Mexico, 1,883
Hong Kong, China (south of             Panama, Panama, 306                  Veracruz, Mexico, 1,848                Junction Points*
   Aleutian Islands), 5,323                                                 Willemstad, Curacao, 116
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2,393          Ports                                                                   Ile d'Ouessant, France, 340
Juneau, Alaska, U.S.A., 322                                                                                      Strait of Gibraltar, 894
                                                                            PUERTO CABEZAS,
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,       Corinto, Nicaragua, 409              NICARAGUA
   1,432                               Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,      (1401'00"N., 8322'30"W.) to:        Ports
Manila, Philippines (south of            2,645
   Aleutian Islands, and north of      San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Junction Points*                   Bordeaux, France, 178
   Luzon), 5,510                         2,973                                                                   El Ferrol del Caudillo, Spain, 300
Nanaimo, Canada, 453                                                        Panama, Panama, 390                  Horta, Azores, 1,260
New Westminster, Canada, 492           PUERTO BARRIOS,
Nome, Alaska, U.S.A., 1,846            GUATEMALA                              Ports                              PUERTO DESEADO,
Pago Pago, American Samoa,              (1543'00"N., 8837'00"W.) to:                                           ARGENTINA
   4,652                                                                    Kingston, Jamaica, 451                (4745'20"S., 6555'05"W.) to:
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy                Junction Points*                   La Ceiba, Honduras, 316
 Russia (via Unimak Pass), 2,504                                            Oranjestad, St. Eustatius, 1,195       Junction Points*
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Panama, Panama, 823
   1,090                               Yucatan Channel, 439                                                      Panama, Panama, 6,222
                                                                            PUERTO CORTES,
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 577                                            HONDURAS                             Punta Arenas, Chile, 440
Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 734              Ports                               (1550'00"N., 8757'20"W.) to:
Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 285                                                                                         Ports
Sydney, Australia, 6,671               Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,           Junction Points*
Valparaiso, Chile, 6,199                 1,725                                                                   Buenos Aires, Argentina, 965
Vancouver, Canada, 477                 Cartagena, Colombia, 901             Panama, Panama, 776
Victoria, Canada, 531                  Colon, Panama, 780                   Yucatan Channel, 399                 PUERTO LA CRUZ,
Yokohama, Japan (alternate route,      Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,041                                           VENEZUELA
   north of Aleutian Islands), 3,810   Kingston, Jamaica, 715                 Ports                               (1014'50"N., 6435'57"W.) to:
Yokohama, Japan (south of              La Habana, Cuba, 608
   Aleutian Islands), 3,827            Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 950         Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,           Junction Points*
                                       New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.          1,690
                                         (via South Pass), 955              Barranquilla, Colombia, 873          Panama, Panama, 1,016
PROGRESO, MEXICO
 (2121'00"N., 8940'00"W.) to:        New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5,909       Yucatan Channel, 1,381
                                         1,804                              Cartagena, Colombia, 854
  Junction Points*                     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,603     Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,      Ports
                                       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,             1,343
Panama, Panama, 1,069                    U.S.A., 1,774                      Colon, Panama, 733                   La Guaira, Venezuela, 145
                                       Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 792          Dakar, Senegal, 4,077                Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
  Ports                                Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,224     Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 1,001        U.S.A., 1,900
                                       Veracruz, Mexico, 985                Georgetown, Guyana, 1,933            Port of Spain, Trinidad, 214
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,                                                Guantanamo, Cuba, 770
  1,530                                PUERTO CABELLO,                      Kingston, Jamaica, 671               PUERTO MADRYN,
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,         VENEZUELA                            La Guaira, Venezuela, 1,294          ARGENTINA
  1,838                                 (1029'15"N., 6800'30"W.) to:      Limon, Costa Rica, 623                (4245'45"S., 6501'35"W.) to:
Colon, Panama, 1,026                                                        Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A., 915
La Habana, Cuba, 430                     Junction Points*                   New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.         Junction Points*
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,                                                (via South Pass), 916
  556                                  Panama, Panama, 845                  New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Panama, Panama, 6,012
New York, New York, U.S.A.,            Straits of Florida (via Windward        1,764                             Punta Arenas, Chile, 760
  1,609                                 Passage), 1,299                     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 1,568
Tampico, Mexico, 469                   Yucatan Channel, 1,203               Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,            Ports
Veracruz, Mexico, 401                                                          U.S.A., 1,739
                                         Ports                              Port Castries, St. Lucia, 1,578      Buenos Aires, Argentina, 748
PROVIDENCE, RHODE                                                           Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1,599
ISLAND, U.S.A.                         Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Recife, Brazil, 3,737                PUERTO MANATI, CUBA
 (4148'30"N., 7124'00"W.) to:          1,818                              Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4,813         (2121'40"N., 7649'20"W.) to:
                                       Belize, Belize, 1,289                San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1,284
  Junction Points*                     Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (via   Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 1,189       Junction Points*
                                         Mona Passage), 1,976               St. John's, Antigua, 1,511
Bishop Rock, England, 2,841            Campeche, Mexico, 1,595              Swan Island, Honduras, 254           Panama, Panama, 959
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 2,719           Cap-Haitien, Haiti, 752              Tampico, Mexico, 993                 Straits of Florida, 397
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 2,823                                                Veracruz, Mexico, 948



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                                   PUNTA ARENAS, CHILE                     89



  Ports                              Ports                             Larnaca, Cyprus, 1,245                Cape Town, South Africa, 4,279
                                                                       Mersin, Turkey, 1,260                 Charleston, South Carolina,
La Habana, Cuba, 353               Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,          Patrai, Greece, 555                      U.S.A., 6,868
New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Russia, 2,800                     Rostov-na-Donu, Russia (south of      Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,
  1,244                            Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 836             Greece), 1,745                         5,714
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 639         Manila, Philippines, 364            Rostov-na-Donu, Russia (via           Charlottetown, Canada, 6,907
                                   Shanghai, China, 1,622                Corinth Canal), 1,646               Chimbote, Peru, 2,843
PUERTO MIRANDA,                    Vladivostok, Russia, 2,217          Sete, France, 1,216                   Colon, Panama, 6,451
VENEZUELA                                                                                                    Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina,
 (1045'30"N., 7133'15"W.)        PUERTO SANDINO,                     PULUPANDAN, PHILIPPINES                  585
Subtract 8 1/2 miles from          NICARAGUA                            (1031'00"N., 12247'30"E.) to:      Coquimbo, Chile, 1,623
Maracaibo distances.                (1209'00"N., 8649'30"W.) to:                                           Corinto, Nicaragua, 4,180
                                                                         Junction Points*                    Dagu, China (north of Marshall
PUERTO MONTT, CHILE                  Junction Points*                                                           Islands), 10,843
 (4129'00"S., 7257'00"W.) to:                                        Singapore, 1,504                      Dakar, Senegal, 4,928
                                   Panama, Panama, 649                 Torres Strait, Australia, 1,962       Dalian, China, 10,687
  Junction Points*                                                                                           Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,
                                     Ports                               Ports                                  8,063
Panama, Panama, 3,177                                                                                        Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 3,486
Punta Arenas, Chile, 992           Acapulco, Mexico, 825               Cebu, Philippines, 225                Fortaleza, Brazil, 3,654
                                   Callao, Peru, 1,608                 Manila, Philippines, 363              Freetown, Sierra Leone, 4,731
  Ports                                                                Zamboanga, Philippines, 237           Funchal, Madeira Island, 5,894
                                   PUERTO SUCRE,                                                             Georgetown, Guyana, 5,030
Islas Juan Fernandez, 616          VENEZUELA                           PUNTA ARENAS, CHILE*                  Guayaquil, Ecuador, 3,307
Valparaiso, Chile, 623              (1027'45"N., 6411'43"W.) to:      (5310'00"S., 7054'00"W.) to:       Guaymas, Mexico, 5,401
                                                                                                             Hakodate, Japan (via 30S.), 9,672
                                     Junction Points*                    Junction Points*                    Halifax, Canada, 6,799
PUERTO ORDAZ,
VENEZUELA                                                                                                    Hamilton, Bermuda, 6,273
 (821'00"N., 6243'00"W.) Add 4   Panama, Panama, 1,035               Bishop Rock, England, 7,019           Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. (via
miles to San Felix distances.      Yucatan Channel, 1,399              Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,         30S.), 6,414
                                                                          4,262                              Iquique, Chile, 2,201
                                     Ports                             Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 7,051          Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,
PUERTO PADRE, CUBA
 (2113'00"N., 7634'00"W.) to:                                        Grand Banks South, 6,440                 6,879
                                   La Guaira, Venezuela, 205           Honshu, Japan, 9,286                  Jaluit, Marshall Islands, 6,815
  Junction Points*                 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,         Ile d'Ouessant, France, 6,986         Kobe, Japan (via 30S.), 9,872
                                     U.S.A., 1,907                     Inishtrahull, Ireland, 7,315          La Habana, Cuba (via Old Bahama
Panama, Panama, 948                Port of Spain, Trinidad, 200        Montreal, Canada, 7,515                  Channel and east of South
Straits of Florida, 409                                                Panama, Panama, 3,932                    America), 6,742
                                   PUERTO TANAMO, CUBA                 Pentland Firth, Scotland, 7,563       La Libertad, Ecuador, 3,258
  Ports                             (2042'00"N., 7520'00"W.) See     Strait of Gibraltar, 6,352            Levuka, Fiji Islands, 5,342
                                   Boca de Tanamo, Cuba.               Straits of Florida, 6,783             Lisboa, Portugal, 6,398
Maracaibo, Venezuela, 834                                              Torres Strait, Australia (via 30S.   Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,
Matanzas, Cuba, 330                PUERTO VITA, CUBA                      and Raine Island entrance),           5,871
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 625          (2104'45"N., 7557'08"W.) to:        7,217                              Lota, Chile, 1,191
                                                                       Tsugaru-Kaikyo, Japan, 9,449          Maceio, Brazil, 3,137
PUERTO PLATA,                        Junction Points*                  Wilson Promontory, Australia (via     Mar del Plata, Argentina, 1,112
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC                                                        Foveaux Strait and 49S.), 5,820   Matarani, Peru, 2,380
 (1949'00"N., 7041'30"W.) to:    Straits of Florida, 455             Wilson Promontory, Australia (via     Midway Island, 7,382
                                                                          30S. and Cook Strait), 7,460      Monterey, California, U.S.A.,
  Junction Points*                   Ports                             Wilson Promontory, Australia (via        6,113
                                                                          60S.), 5,305                      Montevideo, Uruguay (via west of
Panama, Panama, 942                Charleston, South Carolina,         Yucatan Channel, 6,794                   English Bank), 1,300
Straits of Florida, 764              U.S.A., 814                                                             Nagasaki, Japan (via 30S.),
                                   New York, New York, U.S.A.,           Ports                                  10,126
  Ports                              1,224                                                                   Natal, Brazil, 3,400
                                   Nuevitas, Cuba, 90                  Acapulco, Mexico, 4,582               New York, New York, U.S.A.,
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,       Port Antonia, Jamaica, 315          Angra dos Reis, Brazil, 2,212            6,934
  1,215                                                                Antofagasta, Chile, 1,996             Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 6,880
Guantanamo, Cuba (via Windward     PULA, CROATIA                       Apia, Samoa, 5,207                    Noumea, New Caledonia, 5,527
  Passage), 262                     (4452'08"N., 1350'07"E.) to:     Apra, Guam, 8,071                     Pago Pago, American Samoa,
New York, New York, U.S.A.,                                            Arica, Chile, 2,301                      5,181
  1,270                              Junction Points*                  Auckland, New Zealand (via            Papeete, French Polynesia, 4,233
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,                                              30S.), 6,132                       Paranagua, Brazil, 2,001
  U.S.A., 1,250                    Port Said, Egypt, 1,256             Auckland, New Zealand (via            Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 311        Strait of Gibraltar, 1,628            49S.), 4,814                          U.S.A., 6,978
Santo Domingo, Dominican                                               Avarua, Cook Islands, 4,429           Pisco, Peru, 2,578
  Republic, 295                      Ports                             Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 1,004        Ponape, Caroline Islands, 7,260
                                                                       Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,          Port Castries, St. Lucia, 5,451
PUERTO PRINCESA,                   Catania, Sicily, 594                  7,002                               Port of Spain, Trinidad, 5,350
PHILIPPINES                        Constanta, Romania (south of        Belem, Brazil, 4,363                  Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 6,939
 (944'31"N., 11843'26"E.) to:       Greece), 1,305                   Bordeaux, France, 7,074               Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., 6,813
                                   Constanta, Romania (via Corinth     Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1,686
  Junction Points*                    Canal), 1,206                      6,910                               Porto Concepcion, Argentina, 624
                                   Iskenderun, Turkey (south of        Brisbane, Australia (via 30S.),      Prince Rupert, Canada, 7,247
Honshu, Japan, 2,044                  Greece), 1,341                     7,369                               Puerto Deseado, Argentina, 440
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 1,168     Iskenderun, Turkey (via Corinth     Brisbane, Australia (via 49S.),      Puerto Madryn, Argentina, 760
Panama, Panama, 9,742                 Canal), 1,301                      6,063                               Puerto Montt, Chile, 992
Punta Arenas, Chile, 9,346         Istanbul, Turkey, 1,124             Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1,394        Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 4,010
Singapore, 1,060                   Kerch, Ukraine (south of Greece),   Cabedelo, Cuba, 3,327                 Quequen, Argentina, 1,053
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,373         1,543                            Caldera, Chile, 1,795                 Rabaul, Papua New Guinea (via
Torres Strait, Australia, 1,906    Kerch, Ukraine (via Corinth         Caleta Olivia, Argentina, 570            30S.), 7,980
                                      Canal), 1,444                    Callao, Peru, 2,671                   Recife, Brazil, 3,252
                                                                                                             Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2,238


  * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
90        PUNTA CARDON, VENEZUELA



Rio Gallegos, Argentina, 202         Callao, Peru, 1,421                    Junction Points*                    Truk, Caroline Islands, 2,459
Rio Grande, Argentina, 220           Coquimbo, Chile, 2,526                                                     Valparaiso, Chile, 10,274
Salina Cruz, Mexico, 4,478           Corinto, Nicaragua, 262              Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,963       Vladivostok, Russia, 998
Salvador, Brazil, 2,920              Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 614             Strait of Gibraltar, 2,679            Wake Island, 2,614
San Antonio, Chile, 1,410            Guayaquil, Ecuador, 878                                                    Weihai, China, 205
San Diego, California, U.S.A.,       Guaymas, Mexico, 1,956                 Ports                               Weonsan, South Korea, 802
   5,801                             Iquique, Chile, 2,062                                                      Yantai, China, 239
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,   La Libertad, El Salvador, 383        Churchill, Canada, 1,523              Yokohama, Japan, 1,160
   6,188                             Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.,     Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,278             Yongjia, China, 623
San Jose, Guatemala, 4,296              2,499                             St. John's, Canada, 1,333
San Juan, Peru, 1,660                Lota, Chile, 2,899                                                         QINHUANGDAO, CHINA
Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,   Monterey, California, U.S.A.,        QEQERTARSUAQ                           (3955'00"N., 11936'30"E.) to:
   5,938                                2,751                             (GODHAVN), GREENLAND
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary       Pisco, Peru, 1,533                    (6914'00"N., 5332'00"W.) to:         Ports
   Islands, 5,690                    San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 6,898        2,429                               Junction Points*                    Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 6,964   San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,                                           Russia, 1,755
Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 7,859           2,831                             Inishtrahull, Ireland (via 75 miles   Busan, South Korea, 650
Shanghai, China (via 30S.),         San Jose, Guatemala, 465                off Kap Farvel), 1,953             Dagu, China, 131
   10,465                            San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua, 171     Inishtrahull, Ireland, 1,901          Dalian, China, 145
Shimonoseki, Japan (via 30S.),      Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.,                                         Incheon, South Korea, 406
   10,038                               2,566                               Ports                               Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China (via
Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 7,455         Talcahuano, Chile, 2,879                                                     Steep Island Pass), 977
St. John's, Canada, 6,735            Valparaiso, Chile, 2,690             Ivittuut, Greenland, 560              Mogpo, South Korea (south of
Suva, Fiji Islands, 5,444                                                 Reykjavik, Iceland (via 75 miles        Kasa Do), 484
Sydney, Australia (via 30S. and     PUSAN, SOUTH KOREA                      off Kap Farvel), 1,483             Nagasaki, Japan, 702
   north of New Zealand), 7,301       (3506'00"N., 12903'00"E.) See     Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,396             Nampo, North Korea, 307
Sydney, Australia (via 60S.),       Busan, South Korea.                                                        Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,
   5,398                                                                  QINGDAO, CHINA                          Russia, 2,368
Talcahuano, Chile, 1,269             QAANAAQ (THULE),                      (3605'30"N., 12019'00"E.) to:      Qingdao, China, 381
Tocopilla, Chile, 2,177              GREENLAND                                                                  Shanghai, China, 668
Valparaiso, Chile, 1,432              (7632'52"N., 6862'30"W.) to:        Junction Points*                    Vladivostok, Russia (via Maenggol
Vancouver, Canada, 6,978                                                                                          Sudo), 1,l51
Wellington, New Zealand (via           Junction Points*                   Panama, Panama, 8,575                 Weihai, China, 191
   30S.), 6,141                                                          Singapore, 2,466                      Weonsan, South Korea, 995
Wellington, New Zealand (via         Pentland Firth, Scotland, 2,456                                            Xiamen, China, 1,114
   50S.), 4,634                     Strait of Gibraltar, 3,299             Ports                               Yantai, China, 168
Wilmington, North Carolina,
   U.S.A., 6,853                       Ports                              Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy,           QUA IBOE, NIGERIA
Xiamen, China, 10,537                                                        Russia, 1,602                       (421'40"N., 800'00"E.) to:
Yokohama, Japan (via 30S.),         Churchill, Canada, 1,909             Apra, Guam, 1,900
   9,642                             Reykjavik, Iceland, 1,898            Auckland, New Zealand, 5,378            Junction Points*
                                     St. John's, Canada, 1,800            Busan, South Korea, 497
PUNTA CARDON,                                                             Dagu, China, 436                      Bishop Rock, England, 4,258
VENEZUELA                            QABIS, TUNISIA                       Dalian, China, 277                    Cape of Good Hope, South
 (1137'30"N., 7014'30"W.) to:       (3353'64"N., 1007'30"E.) to:      Dutch Harbor, Alaska, U.S.A.,            Africa, 2,658
                                                                             3,385                              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,164
  Junction Points*                     Junction Points*                   Guayaquil, Ecuador, 8,880             Grand Banks South, 4,315
                                                                          Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 1,969           Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,095
Panama, Panama, 674                  Port Said, Egypt, 1,149              Hong Kong, China, 1,120               Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,427
Yucatan Channel, 1,055               Strait of Gibraltar, 1,073           Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 4,456       Panama, Panama, 5,319
                                                                          Hua-lien Kang, Taiwan, 792            Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,987
  Ports                                Ports                              Incheon, South Korea, 333             Punta Arenas, Chile, 5,316
                                                                          Kodiak, Alaska, U.S.A., 3,975         Strait of Gibraltar, 3,502
Cartagena, Colombia, 397             Tarabulus, Libya, 174                Lo hsing-ta Mao-ti, China, 715        Straits of Florida, 5,490
Kingston, Jamaica, 530               Tunis, Tunisia, 302                  Manila, Philippines, 1,422            Yucatan Channel, 5,640
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 574         Valletta, Malta, 232                 Midway Island, 3,303
                                                                          Mogpo, South Korea, 336                 Ports
PUNTA DE PIEDRAS,                    QAQORTOQ (JULIANEHAB),               Nampo, North Korea, 309
VENEZUELA                            GREENLAND                            Nikolayevsk-Na-Amure, Russia,         Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 725
 (1142'12"N., 7013'30"W.) Add       (6043'00"N., 4602'30"W.) to:         1,750                              Accra, Ghana, 504
2 miles to Amuay distances.                                               Noumea, New Caledonia, 4,416          Cape Town, South Africa, 2,384
                                       Junction Points*                   Pago Pago, American Samoa,            Cotonou, Dahomey, 377
PUNTA PALMAS DEL SUR,                                                        4,969                              Lagos, Nigeria, 334
VENEZUELA                            Montreal, Canada (via Strait of      Papeete, French Polynesia, 6,046      Libreville, Gabon, 254
 (1024'28"N., 7133'18"W.) Add       Belle Isle), 1,470                  Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,            New York, New York, U.S.A.,
15 miles to Maracaibo distances.                                             Russia, 2,215                        5,121
                                       Ports                              Port Darwin, Australia, 3,062         Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
PUNTARENAS, COSTA RICA                                                    Qinhuangdao, China, 381                 U.S.A., 7,399
 (968'00"N., 8450'00"W.) to:       New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, 3,043       Sao Tome, Sao Tome, 246
                                        1,911                             San Diego, California, U.S.A.,        Takoradi, Ghana, 587
  Junction Points*                   Reykjavik, Iceland (direct), 795        5,805
                                     Reykjavik, Iceland (via 75 miles     San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,    QUEPOS, COSTA RICA
Panama, Panama, 471                     off Kap Farvel), 892                 5,403                               (925'00"N., 8410'00"W.) to:
Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,010           St. John's, Canada, 827              Sanmen Wen, China, 528
                                                                          Shanghai, China, 401                    Junction Points*
  Ports                              QASIGIANNGUIT,                       Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A., 4,454
                                     GREENLAND                            Su-ao Kang, Taiwan, 756               Panama, Panama, 415
Acapulco, Mexico, 1,011               (6849'00"N., 5111'30"W.) to:      Surabaya, Indonesia, 2,864
Amapala, Honduras, 329                                                    Suva, Fiji Islands, 4,662               Ports
Antofagasta, Chile, 2,215                                                 Sydney, Australia, 4,871
Arica, Chile, 1,996                                                       Tai-tung Kang, Taiwan, 870            Acapulco, Mexico, 1,043



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                               RAS AL KETHIB, YEMEN                           91



Callao, Peru, 1,387                 Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,414     Punta Arenas, Chile (via 49S.),       Ports
                                    Port Said, Egypt, 3,260              7,036
QUEQUEN, ARGENTINA                  Singapore, 3,799                                                        Gdynia, Poland, 403
 (3835'00"S., 5841'30"W.) to:                                          Ports                              Stockholm, Sweden, 604
                                      Ports                                                                 Swinoujscie, Poland, 266
  Junction Points*                                                     Apia, Samoa, 2,232
                                    Aden, Yemen, 1,871                 Apra, Guam, 1,187                    RANGOON, BURMA
Panama, Panama, 5,202               Bombay, India, 1,491               Auckland, New Zealand, 2,345          (1646'00"N., 96l0'00"E.) to:
Punta Arenas, Chile, 1,053                                             Avarua, Cook Islands, 2,993
                                    RA'S AS SIDR, EGYPT                Brisbane, Australia, 1,434             Junction Points*
  Ports                              (2934'36"N., 3242'00"E.) to:    Callao, Peru, 7,713
                                                                       Dagu, China, 3,294                   Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 350          Junction Points*                 Hakodate, Japan, 2,894                 (east of Madagascar), 5,443
Santos, Brazil, 1,437                                                  Hong Kong, China, 2,764              Cape Leeuwin, Australia (west of
                                    Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,355        Sumatra), 3,359
QUI NHON, VIETNAM                     5,189                            Lae, Papua New Guinea, 448           Port Said, Egypt, 4,696
 (1345'00"N., 10915'00"E.) to:    Port Said, Egypt, 112              Levuka, Fiji Islands, 1,836          Singapore, 1,109
                                    Singapore, 4,902                   Mackay, Australia, 1,871
  Junction Points*                                                     Manila, Philippines, 2,281             Ports
                                      Ports                            Melbourne, Australia, 2,408
Singapore, 856                                                         Midway Island, 2,688                 Aden, Yemen, 3,309
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 1,241       Aden, Yemen, 1,282                 Nagasaki, Japan, 2,612               Al Basrah, Iraq, 3,603
                                                                       Noumea, New Caledonia, 1,383         Al Manamah, Bahrain, 3,329
  Ports                             RA'S GHARIB, EGYPT                 Papeete, French Polynesia, 3,527     Belawan, Indonesia, 803
                                     (2820'30"N., 3307'00"E.) to:    Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,           Bombay, India, 2,139
Haiphong, Vietnam, 469                                                   Russia, 3,555                      Bushehr, Iran, 3,425
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 361             Junction Points*                 Ponape, Caroline Islands, 853        Calcutta, India, 787
Hong Kong, China, 592                                                  Qingdao, China, 3,043                Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1,268
                                    Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Rotoava, Iles Tuamotu, 3,743         Fremantle, Australia (west of
QUINFUGUENA, ANGOLA                   5,114                            San Francisco, California, U.S.A.,     Sumatra), 3,248
 (619'28"S., 1214'20"E.) to:      Port Said, Egypt, 187                5,396                              Karachi, Pakistan, 2,561
                                    Singapore, 4,827                   Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., 5,509   Madras, India, 1,003
  Junction Points*                                                     Sorong, New Guinea, 1,304            Malacca, Malaysia, 986
                                      Ports                            Sydney, Australia, 1,844             Massawa, Ethiopia, 3,701
Bishop Rock, England, 4,518                                            Talomako, Vanuatu, 1,104             Mombasa, Kenya, 3,714
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    Aden, Yemen, 1,207                 Valparaiso, Chile, 7,461             Penang, Malaysia, 757
   1,777                                                               Wallaroo Australia, 2,911            Sabang, Indonesia, 664
Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,534        RA'S SHUKHAYR, EGYPT               Whyalla, Australia, 2,957            Zanzibar, Tanzania, 3,787
Grand Banks South, 4,669             (2807'04"N., 3319'04"E.) to:    Xiamen, China, 2,659
Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,465                                          Yap Islands, Caroline Islands,       RAOUL ISLAND,
Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,798          Junction Points*                   1,196                              KERMADEC ISLANDS
Panama, Panama, 5,672                                                  Yokohama, Japan, 2,526                (2916'00"S., 17757'00"W.) to:
Pentland Firth, Scotland, 5,357     Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
Punta Arenas, Chile, 4,985            5,200                            RABIGH, SAUDI ARABIA                   Junction Points*
Strait of Gibraltar, 4,213          Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 6,094      (2243'58"N., 3858'05"E.) to:
Straits of Florida, 5,844           Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 5,557                                          Panama, Panama, 6,125
Yucatan Channel, 5,994              Port Said, Egypt, 203                Junction Points*
                                    Singapore, 4,848                                                          Ports
  Ports                             Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 5,057      Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
                                    Torres Strait, Australia, 7,226      4,932                              Apia, Samoa, 1,008
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 1,197                                            Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,732       Apra, Guam, 3,369
Boma, Congo, 56                       Ports                            Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 5,194       Auckland, New Zealand, 597
Cape Town, South Africa, 1,727                                         Port Said, Egypt, 650                Brisbane, Australia (via Howe
Dakar, Senegal, 2,261               Aden, Yemen, 1,191                 Singapore, 4,374                       Channel and Main Channel),
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,799       Assab, Ethiopia, 1,055             Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 4,568          1,566
Georgetown, Ascension Island,       Calcutta, India, 4,488             Torres Strait, Australia, 6,788      Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 3,246
  1,590                             Kharg Island, Iran, 2,993                                               Noumea, New Caledonia, 957
Lisboa, Portugal, 3,784             Massawa, Ethiopia, 857               Ports                              Papeete, French Polynesia, 1,706
Moni Matadi, Congo, 78                                                                                      Suva, Fiji Islands, 701
New York, New York, U.S.A.,         RA'S TANNURAH, SAUDI               Aden, Yemen, 754                     Sydney, Australia, 1,600
  5,528                             ARABIA                             Al Jubayl, Saudi Arabia, 2,679
Pointe Noire, Congo, 97              (2639'00"N., 5010'00"E.) to:    Assab, Ethiopia, 633                 RAPID BAY, AUSTRALIA
Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 745                                            Bombay, India, 2,403                  (3531'30"S., 13811'30"E.) to:
Porto Grande, Cape Verde Islands,     Junction Points*                 Massawa, Ethiopia, 428
  2,630                                                                Port Darwin, Australia, 6,119          Junction Points*
Tangier, Morocco, 3,720             Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Penang, Malaysia, 4,077
Vigo, Spain, 3,988                    4,980                            Port Sudan, 212                      Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 1,131
                                    Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,316     Rangoon, Burma, 4,077                Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 2,946
QUONSET POINT, RHODE                Port Said, Egypt, 3,162
ISLAND, U.S.A.                      Singapore, 3,701                   RADA DI VADO, ITALY                    Ports
 (4135'00"N., 7124'00"W.)                                             (4416'00"N., 827'00"E.) Use
Subtract 13 miles from Providence     Ports                            Savona distances.                    Albany, Australia, 990
distances.                                                                                                  Hobart, Tasmania, 719
                                    Al Basrah, Iraq, 295               RANDERS, DENMARK                     Melbourne, Australia, 458
RA'S AL KHAFJI, SAUDI                                                   (5627'48"N., 1003'48"E.) to:
ARABIA                              RABAUL, PAPUA NEW                                                       RAS AL KETHIB, YEMEN
 (2824'00"N., 4833'00"E.) to:     GUINEA                               Junction Points*                    (1455'58"N., 4253'50"E.) to:
                                     (412'30"S., 15212'00"E.) to:
  Junction Points*                                                     Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                Junction Points*
                                      Junction Points*                  Entrance), Germany, 188
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,                                       Skagens Odde, Denmark, 96            Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,
  5,078                             Panama, Panama, 7,807                                                     4,398




 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
92        RAS AL MISHAB, SAUDI ARABIA



Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 5,198       Kherson, Ukraine, 1,542              REGGIO DI CALABRIA,                      Iceland), 1,501
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,660       Megara, Greece, 813                  ITALY                                 Murmansk, Russia (south of
Port Said, Egypt, 1,149              Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,226        (3807'35"N., 1539'00"E.) to:          Iceland), 1,529
Singapore, 3,840                     Split, Croatia, 203                                                        Namsos, Norway, 1,018
Selat Sunda, Indonesia, 4,034        Tarabulus, Libya, 884                  Junction Points*                    Nanortalik, Greenland, 737
Torres Strait, Australia, 6,254      Yumurtalik, Turkey, 1,336                                                  Narsarsuaq, Greenland, 830
                                                                          Port Said, Egypt, 939                 New York, New York, U.S.A.,
  Ports                                                                   Strait of Gibraltar, 1,052               2,495
                                     RECIFE, BRAZIL
                                      (803'00"S., 3452'00"W.) to:                                             Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 2,677
Aden, Yemen, 220                                                            Ports                               Nuuk (Godthab), Greenland, 1,076
Al Jubayl, Saudi Arabia, 2,145         Junction Points*                                                         Oslo, Norway, 1,173
Assab, Ethiopia, 116                                                      Banghazi, Libya, 425                  Pechenga, Russia, 1,460
Massawa, Ethiopia, 203               Bishop Rock, England, 3,775          Napoli, Italy, 179                    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
                                     Cape of Good Hope, South             Palermo, Sicily, 124                     U.S.A., 2,648
RAS AL MISHAB, SAUDI                    Africa, 3,324                                                           Portsmouth, New Hampshire,
ARABIA                               Ile d'Ouessant, France, 3,743        RETHIMNON, KRITI                         U.S.A., 2,271
 (2810'06"N., 4842'37"E.) See      Inishtrahull, Ireland, 4,071          (3522'30"N., 2428'00"E.) to:       Qaanaaq (Thule), Greenland,
Bandar Al Mishab.                    Montreal, Canada (via Cabot                                                   1,898
                                        Strait), 4,283                      Junction Points*                    Qaqortoq (Julianehaab), Greenland
RAS AL UNUF, LIBYA                   Pentland Firth, Scotland, 4,319                                               (via 75 miles off Kap Farvel),
 (3031'45"N., 1834'30"E.) to:      Punta Arenas, Chile, 3,252           Port Said, Egypt, 489                    892
                                     Strait of Gibraltar, 3,116           Strait of Gibraltar, 1,485            Qaqortoq (Julianehaab),
  Junction Points*                   Straits of Florida (via Mona                                                  Greenland, 795
                                       Passage), 3,540                      Ports                               Qasigiannguit, Greenland, 1,278
Port Said, Egypt, 807                                                                                           Qeqertarsuaq (Godhavn),
Strait of Gibraltar, 1,367             Ports                              Izmir, Turkey, 277                       Greenland (via 75 miles off Kap
                                                                          Messina, Sicily, 479                     Farvel), 1,483
  Ports                              Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,         Piraievs, Greece, 151                 Qeqertarsuaq (Godhavn),
                                        3,772                                                                      Greenland, 1,396
Alexandria, Egypt, 656               Belem, Brazil, 1,084                 REYKJAVIK, ICELAND                    Qutdligssat, Greenland, 1,552
Barcelona, Spain, 1,015              Bordeaux, France, 3,823               (6409'00"N., 2156'00"W.) to:       Ritenbenk, Greenland, 1,581
Genova, Italy, 832                   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,                                             Shelburne, Canada, 2,047
Iskenderun, Turkey, 970                 3,669                               Junction Points*                    Sisimiut, Greenland, 1,248
Kerkira, Greece, 549                 Bridgetown, Barbados, 2,054                                                St. John's, Canada, 1,416
Limassol, Cyprus, 808                Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 3,672    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 729            Stornoway, Scotland, 647
Messina, Italy, 478                  Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2,181       Montreal, Canada (via Strait of       Torshavn, Faroe Islands, 516
Tangier, Morocco, 1,364              Cadiz, Spain, 3,125                     Belle Isle), 2,130                 Trondheim, Norway, 969
Trieste, Italy, 990                  Cape Town, South Africa, 3,318       Pentland Firth, Scotland, 687         Upernavik, Greenland, 1,610
                                     Charleston, South Carolina,          Strait of Gibraltar, 1,905
                                        U.S.A., 3,624                     Straits of Florida, 3,487
RAS SILATA, LEBANON                                                                                             RHODES, GREECE
 (3416'45"N., 3539'00"E.) See      Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,                                           (3627'00"N., 2813'54"E.) to:
Shikka.                                 2,471                               Ports
                                     Charlottetown, Canada, 3,658                                                 Junction Points*
                                     Colon, Panama, 3,212                 Aasiaat (Egedesminde),
RASHIN, NORTH KOREA                                                          Greenland, 1,371
 (4214'00"N., 13018'00"E.) See     Dakar, Senegal, 1,717                                                      Port Said, Egypt, 377
                                     Fernando de Noronha, 300             Alesund, Norway, 848                  Strait of Gibraltar, 1,664
Najkin.
                                     Fortaleza, Brazil, 425               Argentia, Canada, 1,584
                                     Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1,632        Arkhangel'sk, Russia (north of          Ports
RAUMA, FINLAND                                                               Iceland), 1,874
 (6107'30"N., 2126'15"E.) to:      Georgetown, Ascension Island,
                                        1,226                             Arkhangel'sk, Russia (south of        Algiers, Algeria, 1,224
                                     Georgetown, Guyana, 1,781               Iceland), 1,901                    Barcelona, Spain, 1,309
  Junction Points*                                                        Bergen, Norway, 872
                                     Guiria, Venezuela, 2,208                                                   Beirut, Lebanon, 393
                                     Halifax, Canada, 3,558               Bjornoya Island (north of Iceland),   Brindisi, Italy, 626
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East                                                      1,152
 Entrance), Germany, 678             Hamilton, Bermuda, 3,038                                                   Cannes, France, 1,163
                                     Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,       Bjornoya Island, 1,234                Ceuta, Morocco, 1,631
                                        3,636                             Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Haifa, Israel, 394
  Ports                                                                      2,293
                                     Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 3,488                                           Iraklion, Kriti, 171
                                     La Habana, Cuba, 3,499               Brest, France, 1,193                  Istanbul, Turkey, 445
Peenemunde, Germany, 555                                                  Camp Lloyd, Greenland, 1,274
Stockholm, Sweden, 230               Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 2,453                                          Izmir, Turkey, 256
                                     Lisboa, Portugal, 3,156              Churchill, Canada (via 75 miles off   Kerch, Georgia, 863
Turku, Finland, 98                                                           Kap Farvel), 2,290
Vaasa, Finland, 160                  Miami, Florida, U.S.A., 3,456                                              Messina, Sicily, Italy, 639
                                     Montevideo, Uruguay, 2,067           Colon, Panama, 4,098                  Piraievs, Greece, 261
                                     New York, New York, U.S.A.,          Frederiksdal, Greenland, 714          Tarabulus, Libya, 780
RAVENNA, ITALY                                                            Glasgow, Scotland, 860
 (4422'30"N., 1212'24"E.) to:         3,698                                                                   Thessaloniki, Greece, 388
                                     Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 3,651     Goose Bay, Canada, 1,332              Venezia, Italy, 1,008
                                     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,          Guantanamo, Cuba, 3,434
  Junction Points*                                                        Halifax, Canada, 1,941
                                        U.S.A., 3,745                                                           RIBADEO, SPAIN
                                     Ponta Delgada, Azores, 2,803         Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Greenland,     (4333'25"N., 701'50"W.) to:
Port Said, Egypt, 1,287                                                      1,418
Strait of Gibraltar (via Strait of   Port Castries, St. Lucia, 2,151
                                     Portland, Maine, U.S.A., 3,700       Iokan'ga, Russia, 1,646                 Junction Points*
 Messina), 1,652                                                          Ivittuut, Greenland (via 75 miles
Strait of Gibraltar (via Strait of   Puerto Cortes, Honduras, 3,737
                                     Salvador, Brazil, 399                   off Kap Farvel), 980               Bishop Rock, England, 372
 Sicily), 1,688                                                           Ivittuut, Greenland, 887
                                     San Juan, Puerto Rico (outside all                                         Cape of Good Hope, South
                                        islands), 2,609                   Kangerluarsoruseq, Greenland,            Africa, 6,031
  Ports                                                                      1,043
                                     Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A., 3,681                                           Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 479
                                     St. John's, Canada, 3,491            Longyearbyen, Svalbard (north of      Grand Banks South, 1,865
Ajaccio, Corsica, 1,005                                                      Iceland), 1,160
Alexandria, Egypt, 1,159             Sydney, Canada, 3,553                                                      Ile d'Ouessant, France, 313
                                     Vigo, Spain, 3,346                   Longyearbyen, Svalbard (south of      Inishtrahull, Ireland, 764
Ancona, Italy, 71                                                            Iceland), 1,310
Beirut, Lebanon, 1,335               Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 3,787                                            Montreal, Canada (via Strait of
                                                                          Maniitsoq, Greenland, 1,146              Belle Isle), 3,060
Ceuta, Morocco, 1,613                                                     Molde, Norway, 875
Haifa, Israel, 1,331                                                                                            Panama, Panama, 4,338
                                                                          Mosjoen, Norway, 1,023                Pentland Firth, Scotland, 1,096
Izmir, Turkey, 967                                                        Murmansk, Russia (north of



 * JUNCTION POINT.--See Preface for use of junction points
                                                                                      ROCKHAMPTON, AUSTRALIA                                  93



Punta Arenas, Chile, 6,788         RIJEKA, CROATIA                        Junction Points*                  St. John, Canada, 4,752
Strait of Gibraltar, 725            (4519'37"N., 1425'51"E.) to:                                          St. John's, Canada, 4,563
                                                                        Bishop Rock, England, 4,846         Sydney, Canada, 4,648
  Ports                              Junction Points*                   Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,    Vigo, Spain, 4,418
                                                                           3,267                            Wilmington, North Carolina,
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,       Port Said, Egypt, 1,276              Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 4,873           U.S.A., 4,704
  3,215                            Strait of Gibraltar, 1,648           Ile d'Ouessant, France, 4,815
Belem, Brazil, 3,519                                                    Inishtrahull, Ireland, 5,143        RIO GALLEGOS,
Cape Town, South Africa, 5,457       Ports                              Montreal, Canada (via Cabot         ARGENTINA
Casablanca, Morocco, 700                                                   Strait), 5,215                    (5136'40"S., 6912'10"W.) to:
Charleston, South Carolina,        Alexandria, Egypt, 1,166             Pentland Firth, Scotland, 5,391
  U.S.A., 3,388                    Algiers, Algeria, 1,220              Punta Arenas, Chile, 2,238            Junction Points*
Cristobal, Panama, 4,275           Alicante, Spain, 1,375               Strait of Gibraltar, 4,180
Dakar, Senegal, 1,879              Ancona, Italy, 112                   Straits of Florida (via Mona        Panama, Panama, 6,455
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,354      Annaba, Algeria, 1,000                 Passage), 4,612                   Punta Arenas, Chile, 202
Lisboa, Portugal, 377              Banghazi, Libya, 868                 Yucatan Channel, 4,622
New York, New York, U.S.A.,        Banzart, Tunisia, 910                                                      Ports
  5,125                            Barcelona, Spain, 1,279                Ports
Recife, Brazil, 3,486              Bari, Italy, 288                                                         Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1,231
Vigo, Spain, 178                   Beirut, Lebanon, 1,345               Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.,
                                   Brindisi, Italy, 342                    4,844                            RIO GRANDE, BRAZIL
                                   Cartagena, Spain, 1,405              Belem, Brazil, 2,174                 (3203'00"S., 5204'30"W.) to:
RICHARDS BAY, SOUTH
AFRICA                             Ceuta, Morocco, 1,628                Bordeaux, France, 4,908
 (2851'07"S., 3207'45"E.) to:    Chioggia, Italy, 126                 Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,        Ports
                                   Dubrovnik, Croatia, 276                 4,738
  Junction Points*                 Genova, Italy, 1,085                 Brest, France, 4,841                Buenos Aires, Argentina, 440
                                   Gibraltar, 1,630                     Bridgetown, Barbados, 3,157         Guiria, Venezuela, 3,984
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa,   Haifa, Israel (south of Greece),     Brunswick, Georgia, U.S.A., 4,744   Montevideo, Uruguay, 313
  959                                 1,342                             Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1,151      Pointe Noire, Congo, 3,938
Cape Leeuwin, Australia, 4,129     Haifa, Israel (via Corinth Canal),   Cadiz, Spain, 4,192                 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 750
Selat Lombok, Indonesia, 4,811        1,315                             Cape Town, South Africa, 3,273      Santos, Brazil, 602
Port Said, Egypt, 5,917            Iraklion, Kriti, 831                 Charleston, South Carolina,
Singapore, 4,837                   Istanbul, Turkey (south of              U.S.A., 4,696                    RIO HAINA, DOMINICAN
Sundra Strait, Indonesia, 4,370       Greece), 1,128                    Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands,   REPUBLIC
Torres Strait, Australia, 6,259    Istanbul, Turkey (via Corinth           3,542                             (1825'20"N., 7000'20"W.) to:
                                      Canal), 1,029                     Charlottetown, Canada, 4,730
  Ports                            Izmir, Turkey (south of Greece),     Cienfuegos, Cuba, 4,426               Junction Points*
                                      974                               Colon, Panama, 4,284
Albany, Australia, 5,031           Izmir, Turkey (via Corinth Canal),   Dakar, Senegal, 2,763               Panama, Panama, 845
Bombay, India, 3,725                  875                               Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2,613
East London, South Africa, 336     La Spezia, Italy, 1,049              Funchal, Madeira Island, 3,722        Ports
Fremantle, Australia, 4,210        Livorno, Italy, 1,013                Georgetown, Ascension Island,
Karachi, Pakistan, 3,824           Malaga, Spain, 1,578                    1,900                            Barranquilla, Colombia, 536
Mombasa, Kenya, 1,644              Marseille, France, 1,176             Georgetown, Guyana, 2,853           Kingston, Jamaica, 417
Port Adelaide, Australia, 5,259    Messina, Sicily, 603                 Guantanamo, Cuba, 4,106             San Juan, Puerto Rico, 249
Port Darwin, Australia, 5,505      Napoli, Italy, 774                   Guiria, Venezuela, 3,284            Willemstad, Curacao, 394
Sabang, Indonesia, 4,208           Odessa, Ukraine (south of            Halifax, Canada, 4,630
Zanzibar, Tanzania, 1,535             Greece), 1,476                    Hamilton, Bermuda, 4,110            RISOR, NORWAY
                                   Odessa, Ukraine (via Corinth         Horta, Azores, 3,897                 (5843'12"N., 914'40"E.) to:
RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA,                 Canal), 1,377                     Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A.,
U.S.A.                             Oran, Algeria, 1,417                    4,707                              Junction Points*
 (3754'12"N., 12221'48"W.)       Palermo, Sicily, 719                 Key West, Florida, U.S.A., 4,560
Add 9 miles to San Francisco       Palma, Balearic Islands, 1,235       Kingston, Jamaica, 4,124            Pentland Firth, Scotland, 429
distances.                         Piraievs, Greece (south of           La Habana, Cuba, 4,570              Skagens Odde, Denmark, 73
                                      Greece), 814                      Lisboa, Portugal, 4,219
RIGA, LATVIA                       Piraievs, Greece (via Corinth        Maceio, Brazil, 972                   Ports
 (5657'30"N., 2405'30"E.) to:       Canal), 675                       Montevideo, Uruguay, 1,037
                                   Ploce, Croatia, 230                  Natal, Brazil, 1,228                Bergen, Norway, 279
  Junction Points*                 Savona, Italy, 1,095                 New York, New York, U.S.A.,         London, England, 572
                                   Sibenik, Croatia, 158                   4,762                            Oslo, Norway, 106
Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (East            Siracusa, Sicily, 624                Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A., 4,723
 Entrance), Germany, 555           Split, Croatia, 176                  Paramaribo, Suriname, 2,713         ROAD HARBOR, TORTOLA,
Skagens Odde, Denmark (via Store   Tarabulus, Libya, 887                Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,         BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
  Baelt), 747                      Taranto, Italy, 482                     U.S.A., 4,817                     (1825'00"N., 6437'00"W.) See
Skagens Odde, Denmark (via The     Thessaloniki, Greece (south of       Ponce, Puerto Rico, 3,659           Port Purcell.
  Sound), 617                         Greece), 1,023                    Ponta Delgada, Azores, 3,875
                                   Thessaloniki, Greece (via