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                                                                                FM 5125                                                                                      C1Change 1                                                                       Headquarters                                                                    Department of the Army                                                           Washington DC 23 February 2001            Rigging Techniques Procedures                    and Applications1   Change FM 5125 3 October 1995 as follows     Remove Old Pages                               Insert New Pages     i through iv                                   i through iv     vii and viii                                   vii and viii     115 through 120                              115 through 121     237 through 240                              237 through 2402   A bar   marks new or changed material3   File this transmittal sheet in front of the  RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimited                                                    ERIC K SHINSEKI                                                  General United States Army                                                         Chief of StaffOfficial     JOEL B  Assistant to the   Secretary of the Army                  Army Army National Guard and US Army Reserve To be distributed in accordancewith the initial distribution number 115426 requirements for FM 5125                                                                                                                           FM 5125Field Manual                                                                                         HeadquartersNo 5125                                                                                 Department of the Army                                                                                    Washington DC 3 October 1995                       Rigging Techniques                   Procedures and                                                                                                                                    PageLIST OF FIGURES                                                      viiLIST OF TABLES                                                       xvPREFACE                                                             xviiChapter 1 Rope  Section I Fiber Rope                                                 11    Types of Fibers                                                      11       Vegetable Fibers                                                  11       Synthetic Fibers                                                   13     of Fiber Rope                                           13       Size                                                             13       Weight                                                           13       Strength                                                         13    Care of Fiber Rope                                                   14    Handling of Fiber Rope                                               15    Inspection of Fiber Rope                                               16  Section II Wire Rope                                                 16    Types of WireRope Cores                                             17       FiberRope Cores                                                  17       Independent WireRope Cores                                        17       WireStrand Cores                                                 17DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimitedThis manual supersedes TM 5725 3 October 1968                                                                     iC1 5125FM  FM 5125                                                                                                                                       Page        Classification of Wire Rope                                            17           Wire and Strand Combinations                                      17           Lay                                                             17         of Wire Rope                                           19           Size                                                             19           Weight                                                          19           Strength                                                         19        Care of Wire Rope                                                  110           Reversing or Cutting Back Ends                                    111           Cleaning                                                        111           Lubricating                                                     111           Storing                                                         111        Handling of Wire Rope                                               111           Kinking                                                         112           Coiling                                                         112           Unreeling                                                       112           Seizing                                                         112           Welding                                                        114           Cutting                                                         114           Drums and Sheaves                                               115        Inspection of Wire Rope                                              120           Procedures                                                      120           Causes of Failure                                                 121Chapter 2 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders  Section I Knots Hitches and Lashings                                21    Knots                                                              22       Knots at the End of Rope                                           24       Knots for Joining Two Ropes                                        25       Knots for Making Loops                                            26       Knots for Tightening a Rope                                        212       Knots for Wire Rope                                              213    Hitches                                                           217       Half Hitch                                                      217       Two Half Hitches                                                 217       Round Turn and Two Half Hitches                                  218       Timber Hitch                                                    218       Timber Hitch and Half Hitch                                       218       Clove Hitch                                                     218                                                                     ii                                                                                                                   C1 FM 5125                                                                                                                       FM 5125                                                                                                                               Page     Rolling Hitch                                                    218     Telegraph Hitch                                                  219     Mooring Hitch                                                   219     Scaffold Hitch                                                    219     Blackwall Hitch                                                  219     Harness Hitch                                                   222     Girth Hitch                                                      222     Sheepshank                                                     223     Fishermans Bend                                                223  Lashings                                                          224     Square Lashing                                                  224     Shears Lashing                                                  224     Block Lashing                                                   226Section II Splices                                                   226  FiberRope Splices                                                  226     Short Splice                                                                                                              226     Eye or Side Splice                                                226     Long Splice                                                      228     Crown or Back Splice                                              228  WireRope Splices                                                   231     Short Splice                                                     231     Eye or Side Splice                                                231     Long Splice                                                      232Section III Attachments                                             234  End Fittings                                                       235     Clips                                                           235     Clamps                                                         237  Wedge Socket                                                      237  BasketSocket End Fitting                                            237     Poured Method                                                   237  Stanchions                                                        240Section IV Rope Ladders                                            241  Hanging Ladders                                                   241     WireRope Ladders                                               241     FiberRope Ladders                                               243  Standoff Ladders                                                   245                                                               iiiFM 5125                                                                                                                                 PageChapter 3 Hoists  Section I Chains and Hooks                                          31    Chains                                                             31       Strength of Chains                                                32       Care of Chains                                                    32    Hooks                                                             33       Strength of Hooks                                                 33       Mousing of Hooks                                                 33    Inspection of Chains and Hooks                                        34  Section II Slings                                                     35    Types of Slings                                                      35       Endless Slings                                                    35       Single Slings                                                     36       Combination Slings                                                37    Pallets                                                             38    Spreaders                                                          38    Stresses                                                            39    Inspecting and Cushioning Slings                                       39  Section III Blocks and Tackle Systems                               314    Blocks                                                            314       Types of Blocks                                                  314       Reeving of Blocks                                                 316    Tackle Systems                                                     318       Simple Tackle Systems                                            318       Compound Tackle Systems                                         318       Friction                                                         320  Section IV Chain Hoists and Winches                                322    Chain Hoists                                                       322       Types of Chain Hoists                                             322       Load Capacity                                                   323    Winches                                                           324       Ground Angle                                                    324       Fleet Angle                                                      324       Spanish Windlass                                                325                                                                    iv                                                                                                                  C1 FM 5125                                    List of Figures                                                                                                                          PageFigure 11    Cordage of rope construction                                  l2Figure 12    Uncoiling and coiling rope                                     15Figure 13    Elements of wirerope construction                             16Figure 14    Arrangement of strands in wire rope                            18Figure 15    Wirerope lays                                              18Figure 16    Measuring wire rope                                         19Figure 17    Kinking in wire rope                                        112Figure 18    Unreeling wire rope                                         113Figure 19    Uncoiling wire rope                                         113Figure 110   Seizing wire rope                                           114Figure 111   Wirerope cutter                                            115Figure 112   Avoiding reverse bends in wire rope                            117Figure 113   Spooling wire rope from reel to drum                           117Figure 114   Determining starting flange of wire rope                       118Figure 115   Winding wirerope layers on a drum                           119Figure 116   Lay length                                                120Figure 117   Unserviceable wire rope                                     121Figure 21    Elements of knots bends and hitches                           21Figure 22    Whipping the end of a rope                                    23Figure 23    Overhand knot                                              24Figure 24    Figureeight knot                                            24Figure 25    Wall knot                                                  25Figure 26    Crown on a wall knot                                         26Figure 27    Square knot                                                27Figure 28    Single sheet bend                                            27Figure 29    Double sheet bend                                           28Figure 210   Carrick bend                                                28Figure 211   Bowline                                                    29Figure 212   Double bowline                                             210                                                            viiFM 5125                                                                                                                          PageFigure 213 Running bowline                                              210Figure 214 Bowline on a bight                                            211Figure 215 Spanish bowline                                              212Figure 216 French bowline                                               212Figure 217 Speir knot                                                   213Figure 218 Catspaw                                                   213Figure 219 Figure eight with an extra turn                                 214Figure 220 Butterfly knot                                                214Figure 221 Baker bowline                                                215Figure 222 Half hitches                                                  217Figure 223 Round turn and two half hitches                                 218Figure 224 Timber hitch                                                 218Figure 225 Timber hitch and half hitch                                     218Figure 226 Clove hitch                                                  219Figure 227 Rolling hitch                                                 220Figure 228 Telegraph hitch                                               220Figure 229 Mooring hitch                                                221Figure 230 Scaffold hitch                                                221Figure 231 Blackwall hitch                                               222Figure 232 Harness hitch                                                222Figure 233 Girth hitch                                                  223Figure 234 Sheepshank                                                  223Figure 235 Fishermans bend                                             224Figure 236 Square lashing                                               225Figure 237 Shears lashing                                               225Figure 238 Block lashing                                                226Figure 239 Renewing rope strands                                         227Figure 240 Short splice for fiber rope                                      227Figure 241 Eye or side splice for fiber rope                                  228Figure 242 Long splice for fiber rope                                       229Figure 243 Crown or back splice for fiber rope                               230Figure 244 Tools for wire splicing                                         232Figure 245 Tucking wirerope strands                                      232Figure 246 Eye splice with thimble for wire rope                             233Figure 247 Hasty eye splice for wire rope                                   233                                                                viii                                                                                    FM 5125                    Wire rope                    cutter                                                                      Blade         Seizings                                Figure 111 Wirerope cutterthe two central seizings Push the blade         other in addition to bending Keep thisdown against the wire rope and strike the        bending and moving of wires to a minimumtop of the blade sharply with a sledge ham      to reduce wear If the sheave or drummer several times Use the bolt clippers on      diameter is sufficiently large the loss ofwire rope of fairly small diameter however     strength due to bending wire rope arounduse an oxyacetylene torch on wire rope of        it will be about 5 or 6 percent In all casesany diameter The hacksaw and cold chisel        keep the speed of the rope over the sheavesare slower methods of cutting                   or drum as slow as is consistent with effi                                                 cient work to decrease wear on the rope It          DRUMS AND SHEAVES                      is impossible to give an absolute minimumThe size and location of the sheaves and         size for each sheave or drum since a numdrums about which wire rope operates and         ber of factors enter into this decision Howthe speed with which the rope passes over        ever Table 14 page 116  shows thethe sheaves have a definite effect on the        minimum recommended sheave and drumropes strength and service life                diameters for several wirerope sizes The                                                 sheave diameter always should be as large                                                 as possible and except for very flexible                        Size                                                 rope never less than 20 times the wireEach time wire rope is bent the individual      rope dia meter This figure has beenstrands must move with respect to each           adopted widely                                                                                  Rope    115C15125FM  FM 5125                Table 14 Minimum tread diameter of drums and sheaves                 Rope                            Minimum Tread Diameter for Given Rope               Diameter                                 Construction inches               inches                                          6x7                   6 x 19               6 x 37        8 x 19                    14                  10 12                     8 12                           6 12                    38                  15 34                 12 34               6 34          9 34                    12                    21                        17                9             13                    58                  26 14                 21 14               11 14        16 14                    34                  31 12                 25 12               13 12        19 12                    78                  36 34                 29 34               15 34        22 34                     1                     42                        34               18             26                   1 18                 47 14                 38 14               20 14        29 14                   1 14                 52 12                 42 12               22 12        32 12                   1 12                   63                        51               27             39              Rope construction is strands and wires per strand                         Location                                           in smooth layers Overlapping results in                                                                            binding causing snatches on the line whenYou should reeve the drums sheaves andblocks used with wire rope and place them                                   the rope is unwound To produce smooth layin a manner to avoid reverse bends when                                    ers start the rope against one flange of theever possible see Figure 112 A reverse                                  drum and keep tension on the line whilebend occurs when rope bends in one direc                                   winding Start the rope against the right ortion around one block drum or sheave and                                  left flange as necessary to match the direcbends in the opposite direction around the                                  tion of winding so that when it is rewoundnext This causes the individual wires and                                  on the drum the rope will curve in t h estrands to do an unnecessary amount of                                      same manner as when it left the reel seeshifting which increases wear Where you                                   Figure 113 A convenient method for determust use a reverse bend the block sheave                                 mining the proper flange of the drum foror drum causing the reversal should be of                                   starting the rope is known as the hand rulelarger diameter t h a n o r d i n a r i l y u s e d                                                                             see Figure 114 page 118  The extendedSpace the bend as far apart as possible sothere will be more time allowed between                                     index finger in this figure points at the onthe bending motions                                                        winding rope The turns of the rope are                                                                            wound on the drum close together to prevent                                                                            the possibility of crushing and abrasion of                         Winding                                            the rope while it is winding and to preventDo not overlap wirerope turns when wind                                   binding or snatching when it is unwound Ifing them on the drum of a winch wrap them                                  ne ce ssa r y use a wood stick to force the116   Rope                                                    C1 FM                                                         FM5125                                                            5125                    Block Drum                              Drum                                                     Block                1                             2                            INCORRECT                     Block                                    Drum  Drum                                                     Block                3                             4                             CORRECTFigure 112 Avoiding reverse bends in wire rope         Reel                                   Drum         Reel                                       DrumFigure 113 Spooling wire rope from reel to drum                                                      Rope   117C15125FM FM 5125                         For rightlay rope                                       For leftlay rope                         use right hand                                         use left hand    For overwind on drum          For underwind on drum        For overwind on drum        For underwind on drum       The palm is down              The palm is up facing        The palm is down            The palm is up facing        facing the drum                the drum                      facing the drum              the drum       The index finger points        The index finger points       The index finger points      The index finger points        at onwinding rope             at onwinding rope            at onwinding rope           at onwinding rope       The index finger must          The index finger must         The index finger must        The index finger must        be closest to the               be closest to the              be closest to the             be closest to the        leftside flange               rightside flange             rightside flange            leftside flange       The wind of the rope           The wind of the rope          The wind of the rope         The wind of the rope        must be from left to            must be from right to          must be from right to         must be from left to        right along the drum           left along the drum           left along the drum          right along the drum                                  If a smoothface drum has been cut or scored by an old rope                                  the methods shown may not apply                      Figure 114 Determining starting flange of wire ropeturns closer together Striking the wire with                     layer however cross each turn of the ropea hammer or other metal object damages                            in the second layer over two turns of thethe individual wires in the rope If possi                       first layer see Figure 115 Wind the thirdb l e  w i n d o n l y a si n g l e l a y e r o f w i r e        layer in the grooves of the second layerrope on the drum Where it is necessary to                        however each turn of the rope will crosswind additional layers wind them so as                           over two turns of the second layerto eliminate the binding Wind the secondlayer of turns over the first layer by placingthe wire in the grooves formed by the first118    Rope                                                                                   C1 FM                                                                                       FM 5125                                                                                          5125                                                   Crossover two turns Crossover to                                      of the second layersecond groove      Turn back and first          Five turns on            Starting third layer        crossover for             second layer         second layer                 Figure 115 Winding wirerope layers on a drum                                                                                   Rope   119C1 5125FM  FM 5125                              INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPEInspect wire rope frequently Replace            Replace the wire rope when 125 perfrayed kinked worn or corroded rope The       cent of the total rope wires are  of inspection is determined by          in one strand in one laythe amount of use A rope that is used 1 or2 hours a week requires less frequent inspec    Replace wire rope with 200 or moretion than one that is used 24 hours a day        wires 6 x 37 class when the surface                                                  wires show flat wear spots equal in                                                  width to 80 percent of the diameter of               PROCEDURES                         the wires On wire rope with  inspect the weak points in rope         and fewer total wires 6 x 7 7 x 7 7 xand the points where the greatest stress          19 replace it when the flat wear spotoccurs Worn spots will show up as shiny          width is 50 percent of the wire diameflattened spots on the wires                     terInspect broken wires to determine whether        Replace the wire if it is kinked or ifit is a single broken wire or several wires      there is evidence of a popped core orRope is unsafe if                               broken wire strands protruding from                                                  the core strand See Figure 117    Individual wires are broken next to     one another causing unequal load dis      Replace the wire rope if there is evi     tribution at this point                     dence of an electrical arc strike or                                                  other thermal damage or crushing    Replace the wire rope when 25 per          damage     cent of the total rope wires are broken     in the length of one lay which is the      Replace the wire rope if there is evi     length along the rope that a strand          dence of birdcage damage due to     makes one complete spiral around the         shock unloading See Figure 117     rope core See Figure 116                   One lay         Figure 116 Lay length120   Rope                                                                         C1 FM                                                                             FM 5125                                                                                5125                      Popped core                      Birdcage                         Figure 117 Unserviceable wire rope          CAUSES OF FAILURE                     Overwinding or crosswinding it on                                                 drumsWire rope failure is commonly caused by                                                Operating it over drums and sheaves   Sizing constructing or grading it                                                 that are out of alignment    incorrectly                                                Permitting it to jump sheaves   Allowing it to drag over obstacles                                                Subjecting it to moisture or acid   Lubricating it improperly                                                 fumes   Operating it over drums and sheaves                                                Permitting it to untwist    of inadequate size                                                Kinking                                                                             Rope   121                                                                                     C1FM                                                                                         FM5125                                                                                            5125after applying the working load and at frequent intervals thereafter Retightening isnecessary to compensate for the decrease inrope diameter that occurs when the strandsadjust to the lengthwise strain caused by theload Position the clips so that they areimmediately accessible for inspection andmaintenance                   CLAMPSA wire clamp can be used with or without athimble to make an eye in wire rope see Figure 251 Ordinarily use a clamp to makean eye without a thimble It has about 90percent of the strength of the rope Tightenthe two end collars with wrenches to forcethe clamp to a good snug fit This crushesthe pieces of rope firmly against each other                                                        Figure 251 Wirerope clamps                                       WEDGE SOCKETUse a wedgesocket end fitting when it is          tapered socket The loop of wire rope mustnecessary to change the fitting at frequent        be inserted in the wedge socket so that theintervals see Figure 252 page 238 The        standing part of the wire rope will form aefficiency is about twothirds of the strength     nearly direct line to the clevis pin of the fitof the rope It is made in two parts The          ting A properly installed wedgesocket consocket itself has a tapered opening for the        nection will tighten when a strain is placedwire rope and a small wedge to go into this        on the wire rope                               BASKETSOCKET END FITTINGThe basketsocket end fittings include closed                   POURED METHODsockets open sockets and bridge sockets                                                   The poured basket socket is the most satissee Figure 253 page 238 This socket is                                                   factory method in use see Figure 254 pageordinarily attached to the end of the rope                                                   239  If the socketing is properly done awith molten zinc and is a permanent end                                                   wire rope when tested to destruction willrifting If this fitting is properly made up itis as strong as the rope itself In all cases     break before it will pull out from the socketthe wire rope should lead from the socket inline with the axis of the socket                  WARNING  Never use babbitt lead or dry method to  attach a basket socket end fitting                                             Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders         237C15125FM  FM 5125Live end                                                                                       Add clamp and                                                             Live end                          short cable                   Dead                                                                        splice                   end                                             Dead                     6 to 9 times            end                     diameter                                                                 Entering                                                                 wrong side                                             Not long                                             enough                                                                                 READYTOUSE                                                                                      CAUTION           RIGHT                                                        Never clamp the live end to the dead                                                        WRONG           end Add the clamp and the short cable                                                                        splice to the dead end as shown above                                         Figure 252 Wedge socket                                    Wedge               Bridge             Open                Closed                                    socket              socket             socket              socket                                Figure 253 Basketsocket end fittings238   Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                   C1FM                                                                       FM5125                                                                          5125                      Spread the wires in                      each strand       Unlay the strands equal       to the length of the       socket       1                                      Pour in molten                                      zinc   Pull the rope   into the socket                         Place putty or                                            clay here   2                                                   3Figure 254 Attaching basket sockets by pouring                                 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders   239C1 FM 5125FM 5125               DRY METHOD                       method see Figure 255 The strength of                                                the connection must be assumed to beThe dry method should be used only when         reduced to about onesixth of the  are not available for the poured     of a poured zinc connection                                      STANCHIONSThe standard pipe stanchion is made up of a     modifying it for a suspended walkway1inch diameter pipe see Figure 256 Each    that uses two wire ropes on each sidestanchion is 40 inches long Two 34inch       However for handlines remove or leavewirerope clips are fastened through holes in   off the lower wirerope clip For more inforthe pipe with the centers of the clips 36       mation on types and uses of  apart Use this stanchion without       see TM 5270240   Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                         FM 5125Field Manual                                                       HeadquartersNo 5125                                               Department of the Army                                                  Washington DC 3 October  RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimitedThis publication supersedes TM 5725 3 October 1968                                         iFM 5125           ii      FM 5125iiiFM 5125           iv    FM 5125vFM 5125           vi                            FM 5125List   of         Figures            viiFM 5125           viii     FM 5125ixFM 5125           x     FM 5125xiFM 5125           List   of     Tables                   xii                                                                                         FM 5125                                       PrefaceThis manual is a guide and basic reference for personnel whose duties require the use of rigging It is intended for use in training and as a reference manual for field operations It covers the types of rigging and the application of fiber rope wire rope and chains used invarious combinations to raise or move heavy loads It includes basic instructions on knotshitches splices lashing and tackle systems Safety precautions and requirements for thevarious operations are listed as well as rules of thumb for rapid safeload  material contained herein is applicable to both nuclear and nonnuclear warfareThe proponent for this publication is Headquarters HQ United States US Army Training and Doctrine Command TRADOC Users of this manual are encouraged to submit recommended changes or comments on Department of the Army DA Form 2028 and forwardthem to Commandant US Army Engineer School ATTN ATSETPDP Fort LeonardWood Missouri  otherwise stated masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men                                              xiii                                                                                    FM 5125                                     CHAPTER           1                                           Rope                                 Section 1 Fiber RopeIn the fabrication of fiber rope a number       in the opposite direction puts the rope inof fibers of various plants are twisted          balance and prevents its elements fromtogether to form yarns These yarns are          unlaying when a load is suspended on itthen twisted together in the opposite direc     The principal type of fiber rope is thetion of the fibers to form strands see Figure   threestrand right lay in which three11 page 12 The strands are twisted in       strands are twisted in a righthand directhe opposite direction of the yarns to form      tion Fourstrand ropes which are alsothe completed rope The direction of twist of    available are slightly heavier but areeach element of the rope is known as the         weaker than threestrand ropes of thelay of that element Twisting each element     same diameter                                    TYPES OF FIBERSThe term cordage is applied collectively to                         Manilaropes and twines made by twisting together       This is a strong fiber that comes from thevegetable or synthetic fibers                   leaf stems of the stalk of the abaca plant                                                 which belongs to the banana family The            VEGETABLE FIBERS                     fibers vary in length from 12 to 45 metersThe principal vegetable fibers are abaca         4 to 15 feet in the natural states Theknown as Manila sisalana and henequen         quality of the fiber and its length giveboth known as sisal hemp and some           Manila rope relatively high  coir cotton and jute The last three     strength and resistance to wear and deteare relatively unimportant in the heavy          rioration The manufacturer treats the                                                 rope with chemicals to make it more milcordage field                                                 dew resistant which increases the ropesAbaca sisalana and henequen are classi        quality Manila rope is generally the stanfied as hard fibers The comparative             dard item of issue because of its  of the vegetable fibers consider     and relative strengthing abaca as 100 are as follows    Sisalana                          80                            Sisal    Henequen                          65         Sisal rope is made from two tropical                                                 plants sisalana and henequen that pro    Hemp                             100         duce fibers 06 to 12 meters 2 to 4 feet                                                                                  Rope 11FM 5125long Sisalana produces the stronger fibers      yarn Since hemp absorbs much betterof the two plants so the rope is known as       than the hard fibers these fittings aresisal Sisal rope is about 80 percent as         invariably tarred to make them morestrong as high quality Manila rope and can       waterresistant Tarred hemp has aboutbe easily obtained It withstands exposure       80 percent of the strength of untarredto sea water very well and is often used for     hemp Of these tarred fittings marline isthis reason                                     the standard item of issue                     Hemp                                      Coir and CottonThis tall plant is cultivated in many parts of   Coir rope is made from the fiber of coconutthe world and provides useful fibers for         husks It is a very elastic rough ropemaking rope and cloth Hemp was used             about onefourth the strength of hemp butextensively before the introduction of           light enough to float on water CottonManila but its principal use today is in fit   makes a very smooth white rope that withtings such as ratline marline and spun        stands much bending and running These12 Rope                                                                                   FM 5125two types of rope are not widely used in the                SYNTHETIC FIBERSmilitary however cotton is used in somecases for very small lines                      The principal synthetic fiber used for rope                                                 is nylon It has a tensile strength nearly                                                 three times that of Manila The advantage                      Jute                       of using nylon rope is that it is waterproofJute is the glossy fiber of either of two East   and has the ability to stretch absorbIndian plants of the linden family used          shocks and resume normal length It alsochiefly for sacking burlap and cheaper vari   resists abrasion rot decay and funguseties of twine and rope                         growth                       OF FIBER ROPEFiber rope is characterized by its size the SWC of rope divide the BS by a factorweight and strength                    of safety FS                                                    SWC  BSFS                     SIZE                                                 A new linch diameter Number 1 ManilaFiber rope is designated by diameter up to       rope has a BS of 9000 pounds see58 inch then it is designated by circumfer    Table 11 To determine the ropes SWCence up to 12 inches or more For this rea      divide its BS 9000 pounds by a minimumson most tables give both the diameter and      standard FS of 4 The result is a SWC  of fiber rope                     2250 pounds This means that you can                                                 safely apply 2250 pounds of tension to the                                                 new linch diameter Number 1 Manila                  WEIGHT                         rope in normal use Always use a FSThe weight of rope varies with use weather      because the BS of rope becomes  added preservatives and other       after use and exposure to weather condifactors Table 11 page 14 lists the weight   tions In addition a FS is required becauseof new fiber rope                               of shock loading knots sharp bends and                                                 other stresses that rope may have to with                                                 stand during its use Some of these                 STRENGTH                        stresses reduce the strength of rope asTable 11 lists some of the properties of        much as 50 percent If tables are not availManila and sisal rope including the break      able you can closely approximate the SWCing strength B S which is the greatest        by a rule of thumb The rule of thumb for                                                 the SWC in tons for fiber rope is equal tostress that a material is capable of with       the square of the rope diameter D instanding without rupture The table shows        inchesthat the minimum BS is considerably                          2greater than the safe load or the safe work        SWC  Ding capacity SWC This is the maximum          The SWC in tons of a l2inch diameterload that can safely be applied to a particu    fiber rope would be 12 inch squared or 14lar type of rope The difference is caused by    ton The rule of thumb allows a FS ofthe application of a safety factor To obtain    about 4                                                                                  Rope 13FM 5125                                 CARE OF FIBER ROPEThe strength and useful life of fiber rope is   grit between the fibers cuts them andshortened considerably by improper care        reduces the ropes strengthTo prolong its life and strength observe the                                                Slacken taut lines before they arefollowing guidelines                           exposed to rain or dampness because    Ensure that it is dry and then stored in    a wet rope shrinks and may break    a cool dry place This reduces the pos    Thaw a frozen rope completely before     sibility of mildew and rotting            using it otherwise the frozen fibers                                                will break as they resist bending     Coil it on a spool or hang it from pegs     in a way that allows air circulation      Avoid exposure to excessive heat and                                                fumes of chemicals heat or boiling     Avoid dragging it through sand or dirt     water decreases rope strength about     or pulling it over sharp edges Sand or    20 percent14 Rope                                                                                   FM 5125                              HANDLING OF FIBER ROPENew rope is coiled bound and wrapped in       the end of the rope This should be at theburlap The protective covering should not      bottom of the coil see Figure 12 If it isbe removed until the rope is to be used This   not turn the coil over so the end is at theprotects it during storage and prevents tan    bottom Pull the end up through the centergling To open the new rope strip off the      of the coil As the rope comes up it unwindsburlap wrapping and look inside the coil for    in a  direction                                                                                 Rope 15FM 5125                             INSPECTION OF FIBER ROPEThe outside appearance of fiber rope is not or broken yarns ordinarily are easy to idenalways a good indication of its internal con tify Dirt and sawdustlike material inside adition Rope softens with use Dampness rope caused by chafing indicate damageheavy strain fraying and breaking of In rope having a central core the corestrands and chafing on rough edges all should not break away in small pieces whenweaken it considerably Overloading rope examined If it does this is an indicationmay cause it to break with possible heavy that a rope has been  to material and serious injury to If a rope appears to be satisfactory in allpersonnel For this reason inspect it care other respects pull out two fibers and try tofully at regular intervals to determine its break them Sound fibers should offer concondition Untwist the strands slightly to siderable resistance to breakage When youopen a rope so that you can examine the find unsatisfactory conditions destroy ainside Mildewed rope has a musty odor rope or cut it up in short pieces to preventand the inner fibers of the strands have a its being used in hoisting You can use thedark stained appearance Broken strands      short pieces for other purposes                                  Section II Wire RopeThe basic element of wire rope is the individ      usually wound or laid together in the oppositeual wire which is made of steel or iron in vari   direction of the lay of the strands Strandsous sizes Wires are laid together to form          are then wound around a central core thatstrands and strands are laid together to form      supports                                                              and maintains the position ofrope see Figure 13 Individual wires are         strands during bending and load stresses16 Rope                                                                                        FM 5125In some wire ropes the wires and strands            completed rope As a result preformed wireare preformed Preforming is a method of             rope does not contain the internal  the wires in the strands and the         found in the nonpreformed wire rope therestrands in the rope into the permanent heli        fore it does not untwist as easily and iscal or corkscrew form they will have in the          more flexible than nonpreformed wire rope                            TYPES OF WIRE ROPE CORESThe core of wire rope may be constructed of of the core and distortion of the rope strandfiber rope independent wire rope or a wire Furthermore if the rope is subjected tostrand                                      excessive heat the vegetable or synthetic                                             fibers may be damaged             FIBERROPE CORES                                                         INDEPENDENT WIREROPE CORESThe fiberrope core can be of vegetable orsynthetic fibers It is treated with a special       Under severe conditions an  that helps keep wire rope lubri           wirerope core is normally used This iscated internally Under tension wire rope           actually a separate smaller wire rope thatcontracts forcing the lubricant from the core       acts as a core and adds strength to the ropeinto the rope This type of core also acts as acushion for the strands when they are under                    WIRESTRAND CORESstress preventing internal crushing of individual wires The limitations of fiberrope          A wirestrand core consists of a singlecores are reached when pressure such as             strand that is of the same or a more  on the drum results in the collapse        construction than the main rope strands                              CLASSIFICATION OF WIRE ROPEWire rope is classified by the number of             rope because many inner strands are prostrands the number of wires per strand the         tected from abrasion by the outer strandsstrand construction and the type of lay            The stiffest and strongest type for general                                                     use is the 6by19 rope It may be used over    WIRE AND STRAND COMBINATIONS                     sheaves of large diameter if the speed is                                                     kept to moderate levels It is not suitableWire and strand combinations vary accord            for rapid operation or for use over smalling to the purpose for which a rope is               sheaves because of its stiffness The 6by7intended see Figure 14 page 18 Rope            wire rope is the least flexible of the stanwith smaller and more numerous wires                 dard rope constructions It can withstandis more flexible however it is less resistant      abrasive wear because of the large outerto external abrasion Rope made up of a              wiressmaller number of larger wires is more resistant to external abrasion but is less flexible                                                                       LAYThe 6by37 wire rope 6 strands each madeup of 37 wires is the most flexible of the          Lay refers to the direction of winding ofstandard sixstrand ropes This flexibility          wires in strands and strands in rope seeallows it to be used with small drums and            Figure 15 page 18 Both may be wound insheaves such as on cranes It is a very efficient   the same direction or they may be wound in                                                                                      Rope 17FM 5125                                               the supported load such as in drill rods and                                               tubes for deepwell drilling                                                                 Lang Lay                                               In lang lay strands and wires are wound in                                               the same direction Because of the greater                                               length of exposed wires lang lay assures                                               longer abrasion resistance of wires less                                               radial pressure on small diameter sheaves                                               or drums by rope and less binding stresses                                               in wire than in regular lay wire rope Disad                                               vantages of lang lay are its tendencies to                                               kink and unlay or open up the  directions The three types of rope   which makes it undesirable for use wherelays are                                     grit dust and moisture are present The                                               standard direction of lang lay is right    Regular                                   strands and wires wound right although it    Lang                                      also comes in left lay strands and wires                                               wound left    Reverse                                                               Reverse Lay                 Regular Lay                   In reverse lay the wires of any strand areIn regular lay strands and wires are wound    wound in the opposite direction of the wiresin opposite directions The most common lay    in the adjacent strands Reverse lay appliesin wire rope is right regular lay strands     to ropes in which the strands are alternately                                               regular lay and lang lay The use of reversewound right wires wound left Left regular   lay rope is usually limited to certain types oflay strands wound left wires wound right    conveyors The standard direction of lay isis used where the untwisting rotation of the   right strands wound right as it is for bothrope counteracts the unscrewing forces in      regularlay and langlay ropes18 Rope                                                                                FM 5125                           OF WIRE ROPEWire rope is characterized by its size of safety must be provided when applying aweight and strength                         load to a wire rope the BS is divided by an                                              appropriate FS to obtain the SWC for that                     SIZE                     particular  type of service see Table 13                                              page 111The size of wire rope is designated by itsdiameter in inches To determine the size of You should use the FS given in Table 13 ina wire rope measure its greatest diameter all cases where rope will be in service for asee Figure 16                             considerable time As a rule of thumb you                                              can square the diameter of wire rope in                   WEIGHT                     inches and multiply by 8 to obtain the SWC                                              in tonsThe weight of wire rope varies with the size                2and the type of construction No rule of         SWC  8Dthumb can be given for determining the A value obtained in this manner will notweight Approximate weights for certain always agree with the FS given in Table 13sizes are given in Table 12 page 110      The table is more accurate The proper FS                                              depends not only on loads applied but also                  STRENGTH                    on theThe strength of wire rope is determined by         Speed of the operationits size and grade and the method of fabrica      Type of fittings used for securing thetion The individual wires may be made of          rope endsvarious materials including traction steelmild plow steel MPS improved plow steel         Acceleration and  and extra IPS Since a suitable margin      Length of the rope                                                                              Rope 19FM 5125    Number size and location of sheaves           Possible loss of life and property if the    and drums                                      rope fails    Factors causing abrasion and corrosion     Table 12 shows comparative BS of typical    Facilities for inspection                  wire ropes                                 CARE OF WIRE ROPECaring for wire rope properly includes          and storing it When working with wirereversing the ends and cleaning lubricating   rope you should wear work gloves110 Rope                                                                                     FM 5125                                                 on a used wire rope Remove rust at regu                                                 lar intervals by using a wire brush Always                                                 clean the rope carefully just before lubricat                                                 ing it The object of cleaning at that time is                                                 to remove all foreign material and old                                                 lubricant from the valleys between the                                                 strands and from the spaces between the                                                 outer wires to permit the newly applied                                                 lubricant free entrance into the rope                                                                LUBRICATING                                                 At the time of fabrication a lubricant is                                                 applied to wire rope However this lubri                                                 cant generally does not last throughout the                                                 life of the rope which makes relubrication                                                 necessary To lubricate use a good grade of                                                 oil or grease It should be free of acids and  REVERSING OR CUTTING BACK ENDS                 alkalis and should be light enough to pene                                                 trate between the wires and strands BrushTo obtain increased service from wire rope      the lubricant on or apply it by passing theit is sometimes advisable to either reverse or   rope through a trough or box containing thecut back the ends Reversing the ends is         lubricant Apply it as uniformly as possiblemore satisfactory because frequently the         throughout the length of the ropewear and fatigue on rope are more severe atcertain points than at others To reverse theends detach the drum end of the rope from                         STORINGthe drum remove the rope from the endattachment and place the drum end of the        If wire rope is to be stored for any length ofrope in the end attachment Then fasten the      time you should always clean and lubriend that you removed from the end attach        cate it first If you apply the lubricant propment to the drum Cutting back the end has       erly and store the wire in a place that isa similar effect but there is not as much       protected from the weather and from chemchange involved Cut a short length off the      icals and fumes corrosion will be virtuallyend of the rope and place the new end in the     eliminated Although the effects of rustingfitting thus removing the section that has      and corrosion of the wires and  the greatest local fatigue                                                 of the fiber core are difficult to estimate it                                                 is certain that they will sharply decrease                 CLEANING                        the strength of the rope Before  or steaming will remove most of         coil the rope on a spool and tag it properlythe dirt or grit that may have accumulated       as to size and length                             HANDLING OF WIRE ROPEHandling wire rope may involve kinking coil handling wire rope you should wearing unreeling seizing welding cutting    work glovesor the use of drums and sheaves When                                                                                   Rope 111FM 5125                  KINKING                                         UNREELINGWhen handling loose wire rope small loops        When removing wire rope from a reel orfrequently form in the slack portion see Fig    coil it is imperative that the reel or coilure 17 If you apply tension while these        rotate as the rope unwinds Mount the reelloops are in position they will not              as shown in Figure 18 Then pull the ropestraighten out but will form sharp kinks         from the reel by holding the end of the roperesulting in unlaying of the rope Youshould straighten out all of these loops          and walking away from the reel whichbefore applying a load After a kink has          rotates as the rope unwinds If wire rope isformed in wire rope it is impossible to          in a small coil stand the coil on end and rollremove it Since the strength of the rope is      it along the ground see Figure 19 If loopsseriously damaged at the point where a kink       form in the wire rope carefully removeoccurs cut out that portion before using the     them before they form kinksrope again                                                                   SEIZING                   COILING                                                  Seizing is the most satisfactory method ofSmall loops or twists will form if rope is        binding the end of a wire rope althoughbeing wound into the coil in a direction that     welding will also hold the ends together satis opposite to the lay Coil leftlay wire rope   isfactorily The seizing will last as long asin a  direction and rightlay wire rope in a clockwise direction           desired and there is no danger of weaken                                                  ing the wire through the application of heat                                                  Wire rope is seized as shown in Figure 110                                                  page 114 There are three convenient rules                                                  for determining the number of seizings                                                  lengths and space between seizings In                                                  each case when the calculation results in a                                                  fraction use the next larger whole num                                                  ber The following calculations are based on                                                  a 4inch diameter wire rope                                                       The number of seizings to be applied                                                       equals approximately three times the                                                       diameter of the rope number of seiz                                                       ings  SD                                                       Example 3 x 34 D  2 14 Use 3                                                       seizings                                                       Each seizing should be 1 to 1 12 times                                                       as long as the diameter of the rope                                                       length of seizing 1 12D                                                       The seizings should be spaced a dis                                                       tance apart equal to twice the diameter                                                       spacing  2D                                                  Example 2 x 34 D  1 12 Use 2inch                                                  spaces112 Rope FM 5125Rope 113FM 5125   Note Always change the fraction               apply more heat than is essential to fuse the   to the next larger whole number               metal                  WELDING                                            CUTTINGYou can bind wirerope ends together by fus      You can cut wire rope with a wirerope cuting or welding the wires This is a satisfac     ter a cold chisel a hacksaw bolt clippers ortory method if you do it carefully as it does    an oxyacetylene cutting torch see Figurenot increase the size of the rope and requires    111 Before cutting wire rope tightly bindlittle time to complete Before welding rope     the strands to prevent unlaying Secure thecut a short piece of the core out of the end so   ends that are to be cut by seizing or weldingthat a clean weld will result and the core        them To use the wirerope cutter insertwill not be burned deep into the rope Keep       the wire rope in the bottom of the cutterthe area heated to a minimum and do not           with the blade of the cutter coming between114 Rope                                                                                  FM 5125the two central seizings Push the blade       other in addition to bending Keep thisdown against the wire rope and strike the      bending and moving of wires to a minimumtop of the blade sharply with a sledge ham    to reduce wear If the sheave or drummer several times Use the bolt clippers on    diameter is sufficiently large the loss ofwire rope of fairly small diameter however   strength due to bending wire rope arounduse an oxyacetylene torch on wire rope of      it will be about 5 or 6 percent In all casesany diameter The hacksaw and cold chisel      keep the speed of the rope over the sheavesare slower methods of cutting                 or drum as slow as is consistent with effi                                               cient work to decrease wear on the rope It           DRUMS AND SHEAVES                   is impossible to give an absolute minimum                                               size for each sheave or drum since a numThe size and location of the sheaves anddrums about which wire rope operates and       ber of factors enter into this decision Howthe speed with which the rope passes over      ever Table 14 page 116 shows thethe sheaves have a definite effect on the      minimum recommended sheave and drumropes strength and service life              diameters for several wirerope sizes The                                               sheave diameter always should be as large                                               as possible and except for very flexible                    Size                       rope never less than 20 times the wireEach time wire rope is bent the individual    rope diameter This figure has beenstrands must move with respect to each         adopted widely                                                                                Rope 115FM 5125                  Location                    in smooth layers Overlapping results inYou should reeve the drums sheaves and      binding causing snatches on the line whenblocks used with wire rope and place them     the rope is unwound To produce smooth layin a manner to avoid reverse bends when      ers start the rope against one flange of theever possible see Figure 112 A reverse    drum and keep tension on the line  when rope bends in one direc     winding Start the rope against the right ortion around one block drum or sheave and    left flange as necessary to match the direcbends in the opposite direction around the    tion of winding so that when it is rewoundnext This causes the individual wires and    on the drum the rope will curve in thestrands to do an unnecessary amount of        same manner as when it left the reelshifting which increases wear Where you     see Figure 113 page 118 A convenientmust use a reverse bend the block sheave   method for determining the proper flange ofor drum causing the reversal should be of     the drum for starting the rope is known aslarger diameter than ordinarily used         the hand rule see Figure 114 page 119Space the bend as far apart as possible sothere will be more time allowed between       The extended index finger in this figurethe bending motions                          points at the onwinding rope The turns of                                              the rope are wound on the drum close                                              together to prevent the possibility of crush                  Winding                     ing and abrasion of the rope while it is windDo not overlap wirerope turns when wind     ing and to prevent binding or snatchinging them on the drum of a winch wrap them    when it is unwound If necessary use a116 Rope                                                                                 FM 5125wood stick be to force the turns closer       wire in the grooves formed by the firsttogether Striking the wire with a hammer     layer however cross each turn of the ropeor other metal object damages the individ    in the second layer over two turns of theual wires in the rope If possible wind      first layer see Figure 115 page 120only a single layer of wire rope on the       Wind the third layer in the grooves of thedrum Where it is necessary to wind addi     second layer however each turn of thetional layers wind them so as to elimi      rope will cross over two turns of the secondnate the binding Wind the second layer of    layerturns over the first layer by placing the                             INSPECTION OF WIRE ROPEInspect wire rope frequently Replace       the amount of use A rope that is used 1 orfrayed kinked worn or corroded rope The 2 hours a week requires less frequent  of inspection is determined by    tion than one that is used 24 hours a day                                                                               Rope 117FM 5125              PROCEDURES                       another causing unequal load  inspect the weak points in rope      tion at this pointand the points where the greatest stress       Four percent of the total number ofoccurs Worn spots will show up as shiny       wires composing a type of wire rope areflattened spots on the wires If the outer     found to be broken in one strand thewires have been reduced in diameter by one    distance in which one strand makesfourth the worn spot is unsafe               one complete turn around the ropeInspect broken wires to determine whether      Three broken wires are found in oneit is a single broken wire or several wires   strand of 6by7 rope if six brokenRope is unsafe if                            wires are found in one strand of 6by                                               19 rope or if nine broken wires are    Individual wires are broken next to one    found in one strand of 6by37 rope118 Rope                                                                          FM 5125           CAUSES OF FAILURE                 Overwinding or crosswinding it onWire rope failure is commonly caused by    drums     Sizing constructing or grading it     Operating it over drums and sheaves     incorrectly                            that are out of alignment     Allowing it to drag over obstacles     Permitting it to jump sheaves     Lubricating it improperly              Subjecting it to moisture or acid fumes    Operating it over drums and sheaves of   Permitting it to untwist    inadequate size                         Kinking                                                                        Rope 119FM 5125120 Rope                                                                                     FM 5125                                      CHAPTER              2        Knots            Splices                Attachments                and                                      Ladders                     Section I Knots Hitches and LashingsA study of the terminology pictured in Figure        will aid in understanding the methods of21 and the definitions in Table 21 page 22      knotting presented in this section                                                  Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 21FM 5125The raw cut end of a rope has a tendency to       the size of the rope The whipped end of auntwist and should always be knotted or fas       rope will still thread through blocks ortened in some manner to prevent this               other openings Before cutting a rope  Whipping is one method of fas         two whippings on the rope 1 or 2 inchestening the end of the rope to prevent              apart and make the cut between the whipuntwisting see Figure 22 A rope is             pings see Figure 22 This will prevent thewhipped by wrapping the end tightly with a         cut ends from untwisting  cord This method is particularly satis     after they are cutfactory because there is very little increase in                                           KNOTSA knot is an interlacement of the parts         used as a stopper to prevent a rope fromof one or more flexible bodies such as cord   passing through an openingage rope forming a lump It is also any tie or A good knot must be easy to tie must holdfastening formed with a rope including         without slipping and must be easy tobends hitches and splices A knot is often    untie The choice of the best knot bend or22 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                    FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 23FM 5125hitch to use depends largely on the job it      the end of a rope from untwisting to form ahas to do In general knots can be classi     knob at the end of a rope or to serve as afied into three groups They are              part of another knot When tied at the end                                                or standing part of a rope this knot prevents     Knots at the end of a rope                it from sliding through a block hole or     Knots for joining two ropes               another knot Use it also to increase a per                                                sons grip on a rope This knot reduces the      Knots for making loops                   strength of a straight rope by 55 percent     KNOTS AT THE END OF ROPE                                FigureEight KnotKnots at the end of a rope fall into the fol   Use the figureeight knot to form a largerlowing categories                              knot at the end of a rope than would be     Overhand knot                             formed by an overhand knot see Figure                                                24 The knot prevents the end of the rope     Figureeight knot                         from slipping through a fastening or loop in     Wall knot                                 another rope or from unreeving when reeved                                                through blocks It is easy to untie              Overhand Knot                                                                 Wall KnotThe overhand knot is the most commonlyused and the simplest of all knots see Fig    Use the wall knot with crown to preventure 23 Use an overhand knot to prevent       the end of a rope from untwisting when an24 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                     FM 5125enlarged end is not objectionable see Figure        KNOTS FOR JOINING TWO ROPES25 The wall knot also makes a desirableknot to prevent the end of the rope from slip   Knots for joining two ropes fall into the folping through small openings as when using       lowing categoriesrope handles on boxes Use either the crown           Square knotor the wall knot separately to form semipermanent stopper knots tied with the end              Single sheet bendstrands of a rope The wall knot will prevent         Double sheet bendthe rope from untwisting but to make aneat round knob crown it see Figure 26            Carrick bendpage 26 Notice that in the wall knot theends come up through the bights causing                         Square Knotthe strands to lead forward In a crownknot the ends go down through the bights        Use the square knot to tie two ropes ofand point backward                              equal size together so they will not slip see                                            Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 25FM 5125Figure 27 Note that in the square knot                       Double Sheet Bendthe end and standing part of one rope come         The double sheet bend has greater holdingout on the same side of the bight formed by        power than the single sheet bend for joiningthe other rope The square knot will not           ropes of equal or unequal diameter joininghold if the ropes are wet or if they are of dif   wet ropes or tying a rope to an eye see Figferent sizes It tightens under strain but         ure 29 page 28 It will not slip or drawcan be untied by grasping the ends of the          tight under heavy loads This knot is moretwo bights and pulling the knot apart             secure than the single sheet bend when used   NOTE It makes no difference                    in a spliced eye   whether the first crossing is tied   leftoverright or rightoverleft as                           Carrick Bend   long as the second crossing is tied   opposite to the first crossing                 Use the carrick bend for heavy loads and for                                                   joining large hawsers or heavy rope see Fig                                                   ure 210 page 28 It will not draw tight             Single Sheet Bend                     under a heavy load and can be untied easilyA single sheet bend sometimes called a            if the ends are seized to their own  knot has two major uses see Fig        parture 28 They are     Tying together two ropes of unequal                  KNOTS FOR MAKING LOOPS     size                                         Knots for making loops fall into the follow     Tying a rope to an eye                       ing categoriesThis knot will draw tight but will loosen or            Bowlineslip when the lines are slackened The sin             Double bowlinegle sheet bend is stronger and unties easierthan the square knot                                   Running bowline26 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                   FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 27FM 512528 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                       FM 5125     Bowline on a bight                          ing two loops support his legs A notched     Spanish bowline                             board that passes through the two loops                                                  makes a comfortable seat known as a boat     French bowline                              swains chair This chair is discussed in the                                                  scaffolding section of this manual see Chap     Speir knot                                  ter 6     Catspaw                                                                Running Bowline     Figure eight with an extra turn                                                  The running bowline forms a strong running                                                  loop see Figure 213 page 210 It is a con                    Bowline                       venient form of running an eye The runThe bowline is one of the most common             ning bowline provides a sling of the chokerknots and has a variety of uses one of which     type at the end of a single line Use it whenis the lowering of men and material see Fig     tying a handline around an object at a pointure 211 It is the best knot for forming a      that you cannot safely reach such as the endsingle loop that will not tighten or slip under   of a limbstrain and can be untied easily if each running end is seized to its own standing part                   Bowline on a BightThe bowline forms a loop that may be of anylength                                           This knot forms two nonslipping loops see                                                  Figure 214 page 211 You can use the                                                  bowline on a bight for the same purpose as a               Double Bowline                     boatswains chair It does not leave both                                                  hands free but its twin nonslipping loopsThe double bowline forms three nonslipping        form a comfortable seat Use it whenloops see Figure 212 page 210 Use thisknot to sling a man As he sits in the slings         You need more strength than a singleone loop supports his back and the remain             bowline will give                                             Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 29FM 5125210 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                     FM 5125     You need to form a loop at some point       Spanish bowline in rescue work or to give a     in a rope other than at the end            twofold grip for lifting a pipe or other round                                                 objects in a sling     You do not have access to the end of a     rope                                                                French BowlineYou can easily untie the bowline on a bightand tie it at the end of a rope by doubling      You can use the French bowline as a sling tothe rope for a short section                    lift injured men see Figure 216 page 212                                                 When used for this purpose one loop is a                                                 seat and the other loop is put around the              Spanish Bowline                    body under the arms The injured mans You can tie a Spanish bowline at any point      weight keeps the two loops tight so that hein a rope either at a place where the line is   cannot fall out It is particularly useful as adouble or at an end that has been doubled        sling for an unconscious man Also use theback see Figure 215 page 212 Use the       French bowline when working alone and you                                            Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 211FM 5125need your hands free The two loops of this        a onerope bridge across a small streamknot can be adjusted to the size required         You can tie and untie it easily                   Speir Knot                            KNOTS FOR TIGHTENING A ROPEUse a speir knot when you need a fixed loop       The types of knots used for tightening a ropea nonslip knot and a quick release see Fig      are the butterfly knot and the baker bowure 217 You can tie this knot quickly and       linerelease it by pulling on the running end                                                                   Butterfly Knot                   Catspaw                                                   Use the butterfly knot is to pull taut a highUse a catspaw to fasten an endless sling to      line handline tread rope for foot bridges ora hook or make it at the end of a rope to fas    similar installations see Figure 220 pageten the rope to a hook see Figure 218 You      214 Using this knot provides the capabilcan tie or untie it easily This knot which is    ity to tighten a fixed rope when  a form of a hitch is a more satisfactory   means are not available You can also useway of attaching a rope to a hook than the         the harness hitch for this purpose see Figblackwall hitch It will not slip off and need     ure 232 page 222 The butterfly knot willnot be kept taut to make it hold                  not jam if a stick is placed between the two                                                   upper loops      Figure Eight With an Extra TurnUse a figure eight with an extra turn to                          Baker Bowlinetighten a rope see Figure 219 page 214       You can use the baker bowline for the sameThis knot is especially suitable for tightening    purpose as the butterfly knot and for lashing                                                   cargo see Figure 221 pages 215 and 216212 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                        FM 5125     When used to lash cargo secure one end     with two half hitches pass the rope over the     cargo and tie a baker bowline then secure     the lashing with a slippery half hitch To     release the rope simply pull on the running     end Advantages of the baker bowline are     that it can be          Tied easily          Adjusted without losing control          Released quickly               KNOTS FOR WIRE ROPE     Under special circumstances when wire     rope fittings are not available and it is nec     essary to fasten wire rope by some other     manner you can use certain knots In all     knots made with wire rope fasten the     running end of the rope to the standing     part after tying the knot When wirerope     clips are available use them to fasten the     running end If clips are not available useKnots Splices Attachments and Ladders 213FM 5125214 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                    FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 215FM 5125 216 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                    FM 5125wire or strands of cordage Check all knots      sive wear cut off a short length of the endin wire rope periodically for wear or signs of   of the rope including the knot and tie abreakage If there is any reason to believe      new knot Use the fishermans bend clovethat the knot has been subjected to exces       hitch and carrick bend to fasten wire rope                                         HITCHESA hitch is any of various knots used to form         Sheepshanka temporary noose in a rope or to secure a           Fishermans bendrope around a timber pipe or post so thatit will hold temporarily but can be readilyundone The types of hitches are as follows                     HALF HITCH      Half hitch                                Use the half hitch to tie a rope to a timber                                                 or to a larger rope see Figure 222 A It      Two half hitches                          will hold against a steady pull on the      Round turn and two half hitches           standing part of the rope however it is not                                                 a secure hitch You can use the half hitch     Timber hitch                               to secure the free end of a rope and as an     Timber hitch and half hitch                aid to and the foundation of many knots                                                 For example it is the start of a timber     Clove hitch                                hitch and a part of the fishermans knot It     Rolling hitch                              also makes the rolling hitch more secure     Telegraph hitch                                                           TWO HALF HITCHES     Mooring hitch                                                 Two half hitches are especially useful for      Scaffold hitch                            securing the running end of a rope to the      Blackwall hitch                           standing part see Figure 222 B If the                                                 two hitches are slid together along the      Harness hitch                             standing part to form a single knot the      Girth hitch                               knot becomes a clove hitch                                           Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 217FM 5125 ROUND TURN AND TWO HALF HITCHESAnother hitch used to fasten a rope to apole timber or spar is the round turn andtwo half hitches see Figure 223 Forgreater security seize the running end ofthe rope to the standing part This hitchdoes not jam               TIMBER HITCHUse the timber hitch to move heavy timberor poles see Figure 224 It is excellent forsecuring a piece of lumber or similarobjects The pressure of the coils one overthe other holds the timber securely themore tension applied the tighter the hitchbecomes about the timber It will not slip                        CLOVE HITCHbut will readily loosen when the strain is        The clove hitch is one of the most widelyrelieved                                         used knots see Figure 226 page 219 You                                                  can use it to fasten a rope to a timber pipe     TIMBER HITCH AND HALF HITCH                  or post You can also use it to make other                                                  knots This knot puts very little strain onA timber hitch and half hitch are combined        the fibers when the rope is put around anto hold heavy timber or poles when they are       object in one continuous direction You canbeing lifted or dragged see Figure 225 A      tie a clove hitch at any point in a rope Iftimber hitch used alone may become untied         there is not constant tension on the ropewhen the rope is slack or when a sudden           another loop round of the rope around thestrain is put on it                              object and under the center of the clove                                                  hitch will permit a tightening and slacken                                                  ing motion of the rope                                                               ROLLING HITCH                                                  Use the rolling hitch to secure a rope to                                                  another rope or to fasten it to a pole or pipe218 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                      FM 5125so that the rope will not slip see Figure       This hitch grips tightly and is easily227 page 220 This knot grips tightly but    removedis easily moved along a rope or pole whenthe strain is relieved                                       SCAFFOLD HITCH                                                 Use the scaffold hitch to support the end of a              TELEGRAPH HITCH                    scaffold plank with a single rope see FigureThe telegraph hitch is a very useful and         230 page 221 It prevents the plank fromsecure hitch that you can use to hoist or haul   tiltingposts and poles see Figure 228 page 220It is easy to tie and untie and will not slip                 BLACKWALL HITCH             MOORING HITCH                       Use the blackwall hitch to fasten a rope to a                                                 hook see Figure 231 page 222 GenerUse the mooring hitch also called rolling or    ally use it to attach a rope temporarily to amagnus hitch to fasten a rope around a          hook or similar object in derrick work Themooring post or to attach a rope at a right      hitch holds only when subjected to a conangle to a post see Figure 229 page 221    stant strain or when used in the middle of a                                           Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 219FM 5125220 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                    FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 221FM 5125rope with both ends secured Human life        The hitch is tied only in the middle of a ropeand breakable equipment should never be        It will slip if only one end of the rope isentrusted to the blackwall hitch              pulled             HARNESS HITCH                                    GIRTH HITCHThe harness hitch forms a nonslipping loop     Use the girth hitch to tie suspender ropes toin a rope see Figure 232 It is often       hand ropes when constructing expedient footemployed by putting an arm through the         bridges see Figure 233 It is a simple andloop then placing the loop on the shoulder    convenient hitch for many other uses ofand pulling the object attached to the rope   ropes and cords222 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                          FM 5125                      SHEEPSHANK      A sheepshank is a method of shortening a      rope but you can use it to take the load off a      weak spot in the rope see Figure 234 It is      only a temporary knot unless the eyes are      fastened to the standing part on each end                 FISHERMANS BEND     The fishermans bend is an excellent knot for     attaching a rope to a light anchor a ring     or a rectangular piece of stone see Figure 2     35 page 224 You can use it to fasten a     rope or cable to a ring or post Also use it     where there will be a slackening and tight     ening motion in the ropeKnots Splices Attachments and Ladders 223FM 5125                                        LASHINGSA lashing is as rope wire or chain used for               SHEARS LASHINGbinding wrapping or fastening The types      Use the shears lashing to lash two sparsof lashings include square shears and         together at one end to form an expedientblock                                          device called a shears see Figure 237 Do                                                this by laying two spars side by side             SQUARE LASHING                     spaced about onethird of the diameter of aUse the square lashing to lash two spars        spar apart with the butt ends  at right angles to each other see     Start the shears lashing a short distance inFigure 236 To tie a square lashing begin    from the top of one of the spars by tying thewith a clove hitch on one spar and make a       end of the rope to it with a clove hitchminimum of four complete turns around           Then make eight tight turns around bothboth members Continue with two frapping        spars above the clove hitch Tighten theturns between the vertical and the horizon     lashing with a minimum of two frappingtal spar to tighten the lashing Tie off the    turns around the eight turns Finish therunning end to the opposite spar from           shears lashing by tying the end of the ropewhich you started with another clove hitch      to the opposite spar from which you startedto finish the square lashing                   with another clove hitch224 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                   FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 225FM 5125             BLOCK LASHINGUse the block lashing to tie a tackle block toa spar see Figure 238 First make threeright turns of the rope around the sparwhere the tackle block is to be attachedPass the next two turns of the rope throughthe mouth of the hook or shackle of thetackle block and drawn tightly Then putthree additional taut turns of the ropearound the spar above the hook or  the block lashing by tying the twoends of the rope together with a squareknot When a sling is supported by a blocklashing pass the sling through the centerfour turns                                  Section II  is a method of joining fiber or wire    The methods of making all four types ofrope by unlaying strands of both ends and        splices are similar They generally  these strands together The         of the following basic stepsgeneral types of splices are                                                      Unlaying the strands of the rope     A short splice                                                      Placing the rope ends together    An eye or side splice    A long splice                                    Interweaving the strands and tucking                                                      them into the rope    A crown or back splice                                 FIBERROPE SPLICESWhen one strand of a rope is broken you         short splice because a minimum  repair it by tying the ends together      in rope length takes place in making thebecause this would shorten the strand           splice This splice is frequently used toRepair it by inserting a strand longer than      repair damaged ropes when two ropes of thethe break and tying the ends together see       same size are to be joined together permaFigure 239                                    nently Cut out the damaged parts of the                                                 rope and splice the sound sections               SHORT SPLICEThe short splice is as strong as the rope in                EYE OR SIDE SPLICEwhich it is made and will hold as much as a      Use the eye or side splice to make a permalong splice see Figure 240 However the      nent loop in the end of a rope see Figureshort splice causes an increase in the diame    241 page 228 You can use the loopster of the rope for a short distance and can     made with or without a thimble to fastenbe used only where this increase in diameter     the rope to a ring or hook Use a thimblewill not affect operations It is called the     to reduce wear Use this splice also to splice226 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                    FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 227FM 5125one rope into the side of another As a per      The ropes to be joined should be the samemanent loop or eye no knot can compare           lay and as nearly the same diameter aswith this splice for neatness and efficiency     possible                LONG SPLICE                               CROWN OR BACK SPLICEUse the long splice when the larger diameter      When you are splicing the end of a rope toof the short splice has an adverse effect on      prevent unlaying and a slight enlargethe use of the rope use it also to splice long   ment of the end is not objectionable use aropes that operate under heavy stress see        crown splice to do this see Figure 243Figure 242 This splice is as strong as the     page 230 Do not put any length of roperope itself A skillfully made long splice will   into service without properly preparing therun through sheaves without any difficulty       ends228 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                    FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 229FM 5125230 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                        FM 5125                                    WIREROPE      SPLICESIn splicing wire rope it is extremely impor      untwist the wire A pocket knife may betant to use great care in laying the various       needed to cut the hemp corerope strands firmly into position Slackstrands will not receive their full share of the                   SHORT SPLICEload which causes excessive stress to be puton the other strands The unequal stress           A short splice develops only from 70 to 90distribution will decrease the possible ulti      percent of the strength of the rope Since amate strength of the splice When using            short splice is bulky it is used only for blocksplices in places where their failure may          straps slings or where an enlargement ofresult in material damage or may endanger          the diameter is of no importance It is nothuman lives test the splices under stresses       suitable for splicing driving ropes or ropesequal to at least twice their maximum work        used in running tackles and should nevering load before placing the ropes into service    be put into a crane or hoist rope The wireTable 22 shows the amount or length of rope       rope splice differs from the fiber ropeto be unlaid on each of the two ends of the        short splice only in the method by which theropes and the amount of tuck for ropes of dif     end strands are tucked see Figure 245ferent diameters As a rule of thumb use          page 232the following     Long splice 40 times the diameter                       EYE OR SIDE SPLICE     Short splice 20 times the diameter          An eye splice can be made with or without a                                                   thimble Use a thimble for every rope eyeYou need only a few tools to splice wire rope     unless special circumstances prohibit it seeIn addition to the tools shown in Figure 244     Figure 246 page 233 The thimble propage 232 a hammer and cold chisel are            tects the rope from sharp bends and abraoften used to cut the ends of strands Use         sive action The efficiency of a wellmadetwo slings of marline and two sticks to            eye splice with a heavyduty thimble varies                                           Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 231FM 5125                                           from 70 to 90 percent Occasionally it be                                           comes necessary to construct a field expedi                                           ent called a hasty eye see Figure 247                                           The hasty eye can be easily and quickly                                           made but is limited to about 70 percent of                                           the strength of the rope consequently it                                           should not be used to hoist loads                                                         LONG SPLICE                                           Use the long splice to join two ropes or to                                           make an endless sling without increasing                                           the thickness of the wire rope at the splice                                           see Figure 248 page 234 It is the best                                           and most important kind of splice because it                                           is strong and trim                                               RoundStrand RegularLay Rope                                           The directions given in Figure 248 are for                                           making a 30foot splice in a  Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                   FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 233FM 5125inch regularlay roundstrand hempcenter      because of the tendency of the rope towire rope Other strand combinations differ      untwist Up to the point of tucking theonly when there is an uneven number of           ends follow the procedure for regular laystrands In splicing ropes having an odd         Then instead of laying the strands side bynumber of strands make the odd tuck at the      side where they pass each other crosscenter of the splice                            them over to increase the holding power of                                                 the splice At the point where they cross       RoundStrand LangLay Rope               untwist the strands for a length of about 3                                                 inches so they cross over each other withIn splicing a roundstrand Langlay rope it    out materially increasing the diameter ofis advisable to make a slightly longer splice    the rope Then finish the tucks in thethan for the same size rope of regular lay       usual manner                              Section III  of the attachments used with wire rope      a number of attachments used with the eyeare designed to provide an eye on the end of     splice Any two of the ends can be joinedthe rope by which maximum strength can be        together either directly or with the aid of aobtained when the rope is connected with         shackle or end fitting These  rope hook or ring Figure 249 shows   for wire rope take the place of knots234 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                   FM 5125                                      END FITTINGSAn end fitting may be placed directly on wire   age to another wire rope Table 23 page 2rope Fittings that are easily and quickly      36 shows the numberand spacing of clipschanged are clips clamps and wedge sockets   and the proper torque to apply to the nuts of                                                the clips After installing all the clips                                                tighten the clip farthest from the eye thim                    CLIPS                                                ble with a torque wrench Next place theWirerope clips are reliable and durable see   rope under tension and tighten the clip nextFigure 250 page 236 Use them repeat      to the clip you tightened first Tighten theedly to make eyes in wire rope either for a   remaining clips in order moving toward thesimple eye or an eye reinforced with a thim    loop thimble After placing the rope inble or to secure a wirerope line or anchor   service tighten the clips again immediately                                          Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 235FM 5125236 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                     FM 5125after applying the working load and at frequent intervals thereafter Retightening isnecessary to compensate for the decrease inrope diameter that occurs when the strandsadjust to the lengthwise strain caused by theload Position the clips so that they areimmediately accessible for inspection andmaintenance                  CLAMPSA wire clamp can be used with or without athimble to make an eye in wire rope see Figure 251 Ordinarily use a clamp to makean eye without a thimble It has about 90percent of the strength of the rope Tightenthe two end collars with wrenches to forcethe clamp to a good snug fit This crushesthe pieces of rope firmly against each other                                      WEDGE SOCKETUse a wedgesocket end fitting when it is tapered socket The loop of wire rope mustnecessary to change the fitting at frequent be inserted in the wedge socket so that theintervals see Figure 252 page 238 The standing part of the wire rope will form aefficiency is about twothirds of the strength nearly direct line to the clevis pin of the fitof the rope It is made in two parts The ting A properly installed  itself has a tapered opening for the connection will tighten when a strain iswire rope and a small wedge to go into this placed on the wire rope                               BASKETSOCKET END FITTINGThe basketsocket end fittings include closed its strength is sharply reduced and must besockets open sockets and bridge sockets considered to be about onesixth thesee Figure 253 page 238 This socket is strength of a zinc connection In all  attached to the end of the rope the wire rope should lead from the socket inwith molten zinc or babbitt metal and is a line with the axis of the  end rifting If this fitting is properly made up it is as strong as the rope                   POURED METHODitself If molten lead is used instead of zincthe strength of the connection must be The poured basket socket is the most satisassumed to be reduced to onefourth the factory method in use see Figure 254 pagestrength of a zinc connection The socket can 239 If the socketing is properly done abe made up by the dry method if facilities are wire rope when tested to destruction willnot available to make a poured fitting but break before it will pull out from the socket                                           Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 237FM 5125238 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                    FM 5125Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 239FM 5125               DRY METHOD                       method see Figure 255 The strength of                                                the connection must be assumed to beThe dry method should be used only when         reduced to about onesixth of the  are not available for the poured     of a poured zinc connection                                      STANCHIONSThe standard pipe stanchion is made up of a     modifying it for a suspended walkwaylinch diameter pipe see Figure 256 Each    that uses two wire ropes on each sidestanchion is 40 inches long Two 34inch       However for handlines remove or leavewirerope clips are fastened through holes in   off the lower wirerope clip For more inforthe pipe with the centers of the clips 36       mation on types and uses of  apart Use this stanchion without       see TM 5270240 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                               FM 5125                             Section IV Rope LaddersRopes may be used in the construction of      hanging ladders and standoff ladders                                 HANGING LADDERSHanging ladders are made of wire or fiber               WIREROPE LADDERSrope anchored at the top and suspended vertically They are difficult to ascend and     Wirerope uprights with pipe rungs makedescend particularly for a man carrying a    the most satisfactory hanging ladders bepack or load and should be used only when     cause they are more rigid and do not sag asnecessary The uprights of hanging ladders    much as hanging ladders made of othermay be made of wire or fiber rope and         material Wirerope uprights with  at the top and bottom               rungs are usable                                        Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 241FM 5125     WireRope Ladder With Pipe Rungs          clips in the stanchion over 34inch wireropeMake a wirerope ladder using either linch    uprights see Figure 257 If you use 38inchor 34inch pipe rungs The linch pipe        wirerope uprights insert 38inch wireroperungs are more satisfactory For such lad     clips in the pipe over the wirerope uprightsders use the standard pipe stanchion         When you use 34inch pipe rungs space theSpace the pipe stanchions 12 inches apart in   rungs 12 inches apart in the ladder but dothe ladder and insert the 34inch wirerope   not space the uprights more than 12 inches242 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                      FM 5125apart because of using weaker pipe The            first length in a series of Ushaped bendsrungs may be fastened in place by two differ      Lay out the second length in a similar manent methods In one method drill a 716          ner with the Ushaped bends in the oppositeinch diameter hole at each end of each pipe        direction from those in the first series andrung and thread 38inch wirerope uprights        the horizontal rung portions  the holes To hold each rung in            see Figure 258 Fasten a 38inch wireplace fasten a 38inch wirerope clip about      rope clip on the overlapping rung portions atthe wirerope upright at each end of each          each end of each rung to hold them firmrung after the rung is in its final position Inthe other method cut the pipe rungs 12                      FIBERROPE LADDERSinches long and weld the Ubolt of a 38inchrope clip to each end Space the rungs 12          Fiberrope uprights with wood or  apart on the 38inch wirerope             rungs are difficult to use because theiruprights Place the saddle of the wirerope        greater flexibility causes them to twist whenclips and the nuts on the Ubolts tighten the     they are being used Place a log at the break                                                   of the ladder at the top to hold the uprightsnuts to hold the rungs in place                                                   and rungs away from a rock face to provide                                                   better handholds and footholds A single WireRope Ladder With WireRope Rungs             rock anchor at the bottom of the ladder isMake a wirerope ladder with wirerope             usually sufficient You can also use a pile ofrungs by laying the 38inch diameter wire        rocks as the bottom anchor for fiberroperope uprights on the ground Lay out the           hanging ladders                                             Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 243FM 5125 FiberRope Ladder With FiberRope Rungs         rungs see Figure 260 When you useMake fiberrope ladders with fiberrope          native material cut the rungs from 2inchrungs by using two or three uprights When       diameter material about 15 inches longyou use three uprights make a loop in the       Notch the ends of each rung and fasten thecenter upright at the position of each rung      rung to the fiberrope upright with a clovesee Figure 259 Space the two outside         hitch Space the rungs 12 inches apartuprights 20 inches apart A loop and a single    Twist a piece of seizing wire about the backsplice hold each end of each rung to the out    of the clove hitch to make it more secure andside upright A loop in the center of the rung   in a manner that will not snag the clothingpasses through the loop in the center            of persons climbing the ladder If you makeupright If you use only two uprights hold      the rungs of finished lumber cut them tothe rungs in place by a loop and a rolling       size and drill a 34inch hole at each endhitch or a single splice at each upright The    Oak lumber is best for this purpose Put atwo uprights must be closer together with       l4inch by 2inch carriage bolt  rungs to stiffen the ladder Ladders    through each end near the vertical hole toof either type are very flexible and difficult   prevent splitting Tie an overhand knot into climb                                        the upright to support the rung Then                                                 thread the upright through the 34inch hole                                                 in the rung Tie a second overhand knot in   FiberRope Ladder With Wood Rungs             the upright before you thread it through theMake fiberrope ladders with wood rungs by       next rung Continue this Procedure untilusing finished lumber or native material for     you reachthe desired length of the ladder244 Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders                                                                                FM 5125                                  STANDOFF  ladders are easier to climb than transported easily One or two standoff ladhanging ladders because they have two ders are adequate for most purposes butwood or metal uprights that hold them three or four hanging ladders must be prorigid and they are placed at an angle Both vialed for the same purpose because they aretypes of ladders can be prefabricated and more difficult to use                                        Knots Splices Attachments and Ladders 245                                                                                    FM 5125                                      CHAPTER 3                                        Hoists                            Section I Chains and HooksChains are much more resistant to abrasion        In lifting chains as well as fiber ropesand corrosion than wire rope use them            or wire ropes can be tied to the load Butwhere this type of deterioration is a problem    for speed and convenience it is muchas in marine work where anchor gear must          better to fasten a hook to the end of thewithstand the corrosive effects of seawater      lifting line Also you can use hooks areYou can also use chains to lift heavy objects     in constructing blockswith sharp edges that would cut wire                                           CHAINSChains are made up of a series of links fastened through each other Each link ismade of a rod of wire bent into an ovalshape and welded at one or two points Theweld ordinarily causes a slight bulge on theside or end of the link see Figure 31 Thechain size refers to the diameter in inchesof the rod used to make the link Chainsusually stretch under excessive loading sothat the individual links bend slightlyBent links are a warning that the chain hasbeen overloaded and might fail suddenlyunder a load Wire rope on the other handfails a strand at a time giving warningbefore complete failure occurs If a chain isequipped with the proper hook the hookshould start to fail first indicating that thechain is  grades and types of chains areavailable                                                                                 Hoists 31FM 5125           STRENGTH OF CHAINS                   of a chain with a link thickness of 34 inchTo determine the SWC on a chain apply a        is                                                                  2          2FS to the breaking strength The SWC ordi          SWC  8D  8 34  45 tons ornarily is assumed to be about onesixth of          9000 poundsthe BS giving a FS of 6 Table 31 lists SWC   The figures given assume that the load isfor various chains You can approximate the     applied in a straight pull rather than by anSWC of an openlink chain by using the fol     impact An impact load occurs when anlowing rule of thumb                           object is dropped suddenly for a distance  SWC  8D             2                                  and stopped The impact load in such a                                                case is several times the weight of the load  SWC  Safe working capacity in tons  D  Smallest link thickness or least diam                CARE OF CHAINS  eter measured in inches see Figure 31      When hoisting heavy metal objects using  page 31                                     chains for slings insert padding aroundExample Using the rule of thumb the SWC       the sharp corners of the load to protect the32 Hoists                                                                                   FM 5125chain links from being cut The padding        Cut the smaller chain links with a boltmay be either planks or heavy fabric Do       cutter cut large chain links with a hacknot permit chains to twist or kink when        saw or an oxyacetylene torch Inspect theunder strain Never fasten chain links chain   chains frequently depending on thetogether with bolts or wire because such       amount of use Do not paint chains toconnections weaken the chain and limit         prevent rusting because the paint willits SWC Cut worn or damaged links out         interfere with the action of the linksof the chain and replace them with a cold     Instead apply a light coat of lubricant andshut link Close the coldshut link and weld   store them in a dry and  to equal the strength of the other links   place                                         HOOKSThe two general types of hooks available                 STRENGTH OF HOOKSare the slip hook and the grab hook see       Hooks usually fail by straightening AnyFigure 32 Slip hooks are made so that       deviation from the original inner arc indithe inside curve of the hook is an arc of a    cates that the hook has been  and may be used with wire rope         Since you can easily detect evidence ofchains or fiber rope Chain links can slip    overloading the hook you should use athrough a slip hook so the loop formed in      hook that is weaker than the chain tothe chain will tighten under a load Grab      which it is attached With this systemhooks have an inside curve that is nearly      hook distortion will occur before the chainUshaped so that the hook will slip over a     is overloaded Discard severely distortedlink of chain edgeways but will not permit     cracked or badly worn hooks because theythe next link to slip through Grab hooks      are dangerous Table 32 page 34 listshave a more limited range of use than slip     SWCs on hooks Approximate the SWC ofhooks They are used on chains when the        a hook by using the following rule ofloop formed with the hook is not intended to   thumbclose up around the load                                   2                                                  SWC  D                                                  D  the diameter in inches of the hook                                                  where the inside of the hook starts its                                                  arc see Figure 33 page 35                                               Thus the SWC of a hook with a diameter                                               of 1 14 inches is as follows                                                             2           2                                                  SWCD 1 14 16 tons or 3125                                                  pounds                                                          MOUSING OF HOOKS                                               In general always mouse a hook as a                                               safety measure to prevent slings or ropes                                               from jumping off To mouse a hook after                                               the sling is on the hook wrap the wire or                                               heavy twine 8 or 10 turns around the two                                               sides of the hook see Figure 34 page 35                                                                                Hoists 33FM 5125Complete the process by winding several         securely Mousing also helps preventturns of the wire or twine around the           straightening of the hook but does notsides of the mousing and tying the ends         strengthen it materially                           INSPECTING CHAINS AND HOOKSInspect chains including the hooks at least   and cracks sharp nicks or cuts worn suronce a month inspect those that are used       faces and distortions Replace those thatfor heavy and continuous loading more fre      show any of these weaknesses If severalquently Give particular attention to the       links are stretched or distorted do not usesmall radius fillets at the neck of hooks for   the chain it probably was overloaded orany deviation from the original inner arc      hooked improperly which weakened theExamine each link and hook for small dents      entire chain34 Hoists                                                                                   FM 5125                                  Section II SlingsThe term sling includes a wide variety of made of fiber rope nor do they lose theirdesigns Slings may be made of fiber rope strength from exposure as rapidly Theywire rope or chain                           also are not susceptible to the weakest                                               link condition of chains caused by theFiber rope makes good slings because of its uncertainty of the strengths of the  but it is more easily damaged by The appearance of broken wires clearlysharp edges on the material hoisted than are indicates the fatigue of the metal and thewire rope or chain slings Fiberrope slings end of the usefulness of the slingare used for lifting comparatively light loadsand for temporary jobs                        Chain slings are used especially where                                               sharp edges of metal would cut wire rope orWire rope is widely used for slings because it where very hot items are lifted as in foundhas a combination of strength and flexibility ries or blacksmith shopsProperly designed and appropriately fabricated wirerope slings are the safest type of Barrel slings can be made with fiber rope toslings They do not wear away as do slings hold barrels horizontally or vertically                                     TYPES OF SLINGSThe sling for lifting a given load may be                 ENDLESS SLINGS    An endless sling                          The endless sling is made by splicing the    A single sling                            ends of a piece of wire rope or fiber rope                                               together or by inserting a coldshut link in a    A combination sling several single        chain Coldshut links should be welded    slings used together                     after insertion in the chain These endlessEach type or combination has its particular    slings are simple to handle and may be usedadvantages that must be considered when        in several different ways to lift loads seeselecting a sling for a given purpose         Figure 35 page 36                                                                                Hoists 35FM 5125            Choker or Anchor Hitch                 the inverted basket hitch except that theA common method of using an endless sling          line passes around toggles fastened to theis to cast the sling under the load to be lifted   load rather than going around the loadand insert one loop through the other and          itselfover the hoisting hook When the hoistinghook is raised one side of the choker hitch is                   SINGLE SLINGSforced down against the load by the strainon the other side forming a tight grip on the     A single sling can be made of wire rope fiberload                                              rope or chain Each end of a single sling is                                                   made into an eye or has an attached hook                Basket Hitch                       see Figure 36 In some instances the                                                   ends of a wire rope are spliced into the eyesWith this hitch the endless sling is passed       that are around the thimbles and one eye isaround the object to be lifted and both            fastened to a hook with a shackle With thisremaining loops are slipped over the hook         type of single sling you can remove the                                                   shackle and hook when desired You can            Inverted Basket Hitch                  use a single sling in several different waysThis hitch is very much like the simple bas       for hoisting see Figure 36 It is advisableket hitch except that the two parts of the         to have four single slings of wire rope availsling going under the load are spread wide         able at all times These can be used singlyapart                                             or in combination as necessary                 Toggle Hitch                                 Choker or Anchor HitchThe toggle hitch is used only for special          A choker or anchor hitch is a single  It is actually a modification of     that is used for hoisting by passing one eye36 Hoists                                     FM 5125through the other eye and over the hoistinghook A choker hitch will tighten downagainst the load when a strain is placed onthe sling                Basket HitchA basket hitch is a single sling that ispassed under the load with both endshooked over the hoisting hook              StoneDog HitchA stonedog hitch is single slings with twohooks that are used for lifting stone            Double Anchor HitchThis hitch is used for hoisting drums orother cylindrical objects where it is necessary for the sling to tighten itself understrain and lift by friction against the sides ofthe cylinder           COMBINATION SLINGSSingle slings can be combined into bridleslings basket slings and choker slings tolift virtually any type of load Either twoor four single slings can be used in a  Where greater length isrequired two of the single slings can be combined into a longer single sling One of theproblems in lifting heavy loads is in fastening the bottom of the sling legs to the load insuch a way that the load will not be damaged Lifting eyes are fastened to manypieces of equipment at the time it is manufactured On large crates or boxes the slinglegs may be passed under the object to forma gasket sling A hook can be fastened to theeye on one end of each sling leg to permiteasier fastening on some loads Where theload being lifted is heavy enough or awkward enough a fourleg sling may berequired If a still greater length of sling isrequired two additional slings can be usedin conjunction with the fourleg sling to forma double basket                                   Hoists 37FM 5125                                         PALLETSA problem in hoisting and moving loads          the job out of 2 by 8inch timbers that are 6sometimes occurs when the items to be           or 8 feet long and are nailed to three or fourlifted are packaged in small boxes and the      heavy cross members such as 4 by  boxes are not crated In this        timbers Several pallets should be made upcase it is entirely too slow to pick up each   so that one pallet can be loaded while thesmall box and move it separately Pallets      pallet previously loaded is being hoisted Asused in combination with slings provide        each pallet is unloaded the next return tripan efficient method of handling such            of the hoist takes the empty pallet back forloads The pallets can be made up readily on    loading                                           it is necessary to hoist loads that of the load the angle of the sling leg isare not protected sufficiently to prevent crush changed so that crushing of the load is preing by the sling legs In such cases spreaders vented Changing the angle of the sling legmay be used with the slings see Figure 37 may increase the stress in that portion ofSpreaders are short bars or pipes with eyes on the sling leg above the spreaders The detereach end The sling leg passes through the eye mining factor in computing the safe liftingdown to its connection with the load By set capacity of the sling is the stress or tensionting spreaders in the sling legs above the top in the sling leg above the spreader38 Hoists                                                                                    FM 5125                                         STRESSESTables 33 through 35 pages 310 Example Determine the tension of a singlethrough 312 list the SWCs of ropes leg of a twolegged sling being used to lift achains and wirerope slings under various load weighing 1800 pounds The length ofconditions The angle of the legs of a sling a sling is 8 feet and the vertical distance is 6must be considered as well as the strength of feetthe material of which a sling is made Thelifting capacity of a sling is reduced as the Solutionangle of its legs to the horizontal is reducedas the legs of a sling are spread see Figure      T37 Thus reducing the angle of the legs ofa sling increases the tension on the slinglegs In determining the proper size of sling       T               1200 pounds or 6 tonsyou must determine the tension on each legfor each load see Figure 38 page 313 By knowing the amount of tension in a sinYou can compute this tension using the following formula                                 gle leg you can determine the appropriate                                                size of fiber rope wire rope or chain The                                                SWC of a sling leg keeping within the                                                safety factors for slings must be equal to or                                                greater than the tension on a sling leg If    T  Tension in a single sling leg which possible keep the tension on each sling leg    may be more than the weight of the load below that in the hoisting line to which the    lifted                                     sling is attached A particular angle formed    W Weight of the load to be lifted          by the sling legs with the horizontal where                                                the tension within each sling leg equals the    N  Number of slings                        weight of the load is called the critical angle    L  Length of sling                         see Figure 39 page 313 Approximate    V  Vertical distance measured from the    this angle using the following formula    hook to the top of the load    NOTES                                          Critical angle   1 L and V must be expressed in the               N  Number of sling legs  same unit of measure                                                 When using slings stay above the critical  2 The resulting tension will be in            angle  the same unit of measure as that of  the weight of the load Thus if the  weight of the load is in pounds the  tension will be given in pounds                        INSPECTING AND CUSHIONING SLINGSInspect slings periodically and condemn 4 percent or more of the wires are brokenthem when they are no longer safe Make Pad all objects to be lifted with wood blocksthe usual deterioration check for fiber ropes heavy fabric old rubber tires or other cushwire ropes chains and hooks when you use ioning material to protect the legs of slingsthem in slings Besides the usual precautions from being damageddeclare wire ropes used in slings unsafe if                                                                                 Hoists 39FM 5125310 Hoists   FM 5125Hoists 311FM 5125312 Hoists   FM 5125Hoists 313FM 5125                     Section III Blocks and Tackle SystemsA force is a push or pull The push or pull       A block consists of a wood or metal framethat humans can exert depends on their            containing one or more rotating pulleysweight and strength To move any load             called sheaves see Figure 310 A A tackleheavier than the maximum amount a per            is an assembly of ropes and blocks used toson can move use a machine that multi           multiply forces see Figure 310 B Theplies the force exerted into a force capable of   number of times the force is multiplied ismoving the load The machine may be a             the MA of the tackle To make up a tacklelever a screw or a tackle system The same      system lay out the blocks you are to use toprinciple applies to all of them If you use a    be used and reeve thread the rope throughmachine that exerts a force 10 times greaterthan the force applied to it the machine has     the blocks Every tackle system contains amultiplied the force input by 10 The             fixed block attached to some solid  advantage MA of a machine is         and may have a traveling block attached tothe amount by which the machine multi            the load The single rope leaving the tackleplies the force applied to it to lift or move a   system is called the fall line The pullingload For example if a downward push of 10       force is applied to the fall line which maypounds on the left end of a lever will cause      be led through a leading block This is anthe right end of the lever to raise a load        additional block used to change the direcweighing 100 pounds the lever is said to         tion of pullhave a MA of 10                                        BLOCKSBlocks are used to reverse the direction of are used where it is necessary to changethe rope in the tackle Blocks take their    the direction of the pull on the linenames from     The purpose for which they are used                   Traveling Block     The places they occupy                 A traveling block is attached to the load                                             that is being lifted and moves as the load is     A particular shape or type of construc lifted     tion see Figure 311                                                            Standing Block            TYPES OF BLOCKS                  This block is fixed to a stationary objectBlocks are designated as single double or                     Leading Blockstriple depending on the number of sheaves                                                  Blocks used in the tackle to change the                                                  direction of the pull without affecting the                Snatch Block                      MA of the system are called leading blocksThis is a single sheave block made so that        see Figure 312 page 316 In some tacklethe shell opens on one side at the base of the    systems the fall line leads off the last blockhook to permit a rope to be slipped over the      in a direction that makes it difficult tosheave without threading the end of it            apply the motive force required A leadingthrough the block Snatch blocks ordinarily       block is used to correct this Ordinarily a314 Hoists   FM 5125Hoists 315FM 5125snatch block is used as the leading block       over remember that the rope should notThis block can be placed at any convenient       cross the rope leading away from the cenposition The fall line from the tackle sys     ter sheave of the first block Lead the ropetem is led through the leading block to the      over the top sheave of the second block                               line of most direct action                      and back to the remaining side sheave of                                                 the first block From this point lead the                                                 rope to the center sheave of the second                                                 block and back to the becket of the first                                                 block Reeve the rope through the blocks                                                 so that no part of the rope chafes another                                                 part of the rope                                                               Twisting of Blocks                                                 Reeve blocks so as to prevent twisting                                                 After reeving the blocks pull the rope back                                                 and forth through the blocks several times                                                 to allow the rope to adjust to the blocks                                                 This reduces the tendency of the tackle to                                                 twist under a load When the ropes in a                                                 tackle system become twisted there is an                                                 increase in friction and chafing of the                                                 ropes as well as a possibility of jamming             REEVING BLOCKS                      the blocks When the hook of the standingTo prepare blocks for use reeve or pass a      block is fastened to the supporting memberrope through it To do this lay out the        turn the hook so that the fall line leadsblocks on a clean and level surface other        directly to the leading block or to the sourcethan the ground to avoid getting dirt into       of motive power It is very difficult to prethe operating parts Figure 313 shows the       vent twisting of a traveling block It is parreeving of single and double blocks In reev    ticularly important when the tackle ising triple blocks it is imperative that you     being used for a long pull along the groundput the hoisting strain at the center of the     such as in dragging logs or timbersblocks to prevent them from being inclinedunder the strain see Figure 314 If the                    Antiwisting Devicesblocks do incline the rope will drag acrossthe edges of the sheaves and the shell of the    One of the simplest antitwisting devices forblock and cut the fibers Place the blocks so    such a tackle is a short iron rod or athat the sheaves in one block are at right       piece of pipe lashed to the traveling blockangles to the sheaves in the other block        see Figure 315 page 318 You can lashYou may lay the coil of rope beside either       the antitwisting rod or pipe to the shell ofblock Pass the running end over the center      the block with two or three turns of rope Ifsheave of one block and back to the bottom       it is lashed to the becket of the block yousheave of the other block Then pass it over     should pass the rod or pipe between theone of the side sheaves of the first block In   ropes without chafing them as the tackle isselecting which side sheave to pass the rope     hauled in316 Hoists  FM 5125Hoists 317FM 5125                                       TACKLE SYSTEMSTackle systems may be either simple or com             Method ICounting Supporting Linespound                                                     There are three lines supporting the travel                                                     ing block so the theoretical MA is 31         SIMPLE TACKLE SYSTEMSA simple tackle system uses one rope and                          Method IIUnit Forceone or more blocks To determine the MA ofa simple system count the number of lines            Assuming that the tension on a single ropesupporting the load or the traveling                is the same throughout its length a unitblock see Figure 316 In counting               force of 1 on the fall line results in a total ofinclude the fall line if it leads out of a travel   3 unit forces acting on the traveling blocking block In a simple tackle system the MA         The ratio of the resulting force of 8 on thealways will be the same as the number of             traveling block to the unit force of 1 on thelines supporting the load As an alternate           fall line gives a theoretical MA of 31method you can determine the MA by tracing the forces through the system Begin                   COMPOUND TACKLE SYSTEMSwith a unit force applied to the fall lineAssume that the tension in a single rope is          A compound tackle system uses more thanthe same throughout and therefore the same           one rope with two or more blocks see Figureforce will exist in each line Total all the         318 page 320 Compound systems areforces acting on the load or traveling block        made up of two or more simple systemsThe ratio of the resulting total force acting        The fall line from one simple system is fason the load or traveling block to the original       tened to a hook on the traveling block ofunit force exerted on the fall line is the theo     another simple system which may includeretical MA of the simple system                     one or more blocks In compound systemsFigure 317 shows examples of two meth              you can best determine the MA by using theods of determining the ratio of a simple             unitforce method Begin by applying a unittackle system They are                            force to the fall line Assume that the ten    Method Icounting supporting lines              sion in a single rope is the same throughout                                                     and therefore the same force will exist in    Method IIunit force                           each line Total all the forces acting on the318 Hoists FM 5125Hoists 319FM 5125                                               two methods of determining the ratio of a                                               compound tackle system They are                                                    Method Iunit force                                                    Method IImultiplying mechanical                                                    advantages of simple systems                                                            Method IUnit Force                                               As in method II of simple tackle systems a                                               unit force of 1 on the fall line results in 4                                               unit forces acting on the traveling block of                                               tackle system A Transferring the unit force                                               of 4 into the fall line of simple system B                                               results in a total of 16 unit forces 4 lines                                               with 4 units of force in each acting on the                                               traveling block of tackle system B The ratio                                               of 16 unit forces on the traveling block carry                                               ing the load to a 1 unit force on the fall line                                               gives a theoretical MA of 161                                                       Method IIMultiplying MAs of                                                             Simple Systems                                               The number of lines supporting the travel                                               ing blocks in systems A and B is equal to 4                                               The MA of each simple system is therefore                                               equal to 41 You can then determine the                                               MA of the compound system by multiplying                                               together the MA of each simple system for a                                               resulting MA of 161                                                                  FRICTION                                               There is a loss in any tackle system because                                               of the friction created bytraveling block and transfer this force into       The sheave rolling on the pin the ropesthe next simple system The ratio of the            rubbing  total force acting on the load ortraveling block to the original unit force         The rope rubbing against the sheaveexerted on the fall line is the theoretical    This friction reduces the total lifting powerMA of the compound system Another             therefore the force exerted on the fall linemethod which is simpler but less accurate     must be increased by some amount to overin some cases is to determine the MA of       come the friction of the system to lift theeach simple system in the compound system      load Each sheave in the tackle system canand multiplying these together to obtain the   be expected to create a resistance equal tototal MA Figure 319 shows examples of the    about 10 percent of the weight of the load320 HoistsFM 5125Hoists 321FM 5125 Example A load weighing 5000 pounds is         MA of the tackle system The actual pull lifted by a tackle system that has a MA of       required on the fall line would be equal to 41 The rope travels over four sheaves that     the sum of 5000 pounds load and 2000 produce a resistance of 40 percent of 5000      pounds friction divided by 4 MA or 1750 pounds or 2000 pounds 5000 x 040 The       pounds actual pull that would be required on the fall   There are other types of resistance that line of the tackle system is equal to the sum    may have to be considered in addition to of the weight of the load and the friction in    tackle resistance FM 2022 presents a the tackle system divided by the theoretical    thorough discussion of resistance                      Section IV Chain Hoists and WinchesIn all cases where manpower is used for           tackle vertical line If 300 pounds timeshoisting the system must be arranged to          the MA of the system is not enough to liftconsider the most satisfactory method of          a given load the tackle must be riggedusing that source of power More men can          again to increase the MA or the fall linepull on a single horizontal line along the        must be led through a leading block to proground than on a single vertical line On a       vide a horizontal pull This will permit morevertical pull men of average weight can          people to pull on the line Similarly if apull about 100 pounds per man and about           heavy load is to be lifted and the fall line is60 pounds per man on a horizontal If             led through a leading block to a winchthe force required on the fall line is 300        mounted on a vehicle the full power availpounds or less the fall line can lead            able at the winch is multiplied by the MA ofdirectly down from the upper block of a           the system                                       CHAIN HOISTSChain hoists provide a convenient and effi       vertical operation are the spur gear screwcient method for hoisting by hand under           gear and  circumstances see Figure 320The chief advantages of chain hoists arethat                                                       SpurGear Chain Hoist                                                  This is the most satisfactory chain hoist for    The load can remain stationary with                                                  ordinary operation where a minimum num    out requiring attention                      ber of people are available to operate the     One person can operate the hoist to          hoist and the hoist is to be used frequently     raise loads weighing several tons           This type of chain hoist is about 85 percent                                                  efficientThe slow lifting travel of a chain hoist permits small movements accurate adjust                       ScrewGear Chain Hoistments of height and gentle handling ofloads A retchedhandle pull hoist is used        The screwgear chain hoist is about 50 perfor short horizontal pulls on heavy objects       cent efficient and is satisfactory where lesssee Figure 321 Chain hoists differ widely     frequent use of the chain hoist is involvedin their MA depending on their rated capacity which may vary from 5 to 250                            Differential Chain Hoist        TYPES OF CHAIN HOISTS                     The differential chain hoist is only about 35                                                  percent efficient but is satisfactory for occaThe three general types of chain hoists for       sional use and light loads322 Hoists                                                   FM 5125             LOAD CAPACITYChain hoists are usually stamped with theirload capacities on the shellof the upperblock The rated load capacity will run fromonehalf of a ton upward Ordinarily chainhoists are constructed with their lower hookas the weakest part of the assembly Thisis done as a precaution so that the lowerhook will be overloaded before the chainhoist is overloaded The lower hook will startto spread under overload indicating to theoperator that he is approaching the overload point of the chain hoist Under ordinary                                                 Hoists 323FM  the pull exerted on a chain         the chain are distorted it indicates thathoist by one or two men will not overload          the chain hoist has been heavily overthe hoist Inspect chain hoists at frequent        loaded and is probably unsafe for  Any evidence of spreading of            use Under such circumstances the chainthe hook or excessive wear is sufficient           hoist should be condemnedcause to replace the hook If the links of                                            and enginedriven                overwound or underwound on the drum aswinches are used with tackles for hoisting         may be necessary to avoid a reverse bendsee Figure 322 There are two points toconsider when placing a powerdriven winch                        FLEET ANGLEto operate hoisting equipment They are                                                   The drum of the winch is placed so that a     The angle with the ground that the            line from the last block passing through the     hoisting line makes at the drum of the        center of the drum is at right angles to the     hoist                                        axis of the drum The angle between this                                                   line and the hoisting line as it winds on the     The fleet angle of the hoisting line          drum is called the fleet angle see Figure     winding on the drum see Figure 323        323 As the hoisting line is wound in onThe distance from the drum to the first            the drum it moves from one flange to thesheave of the system is the controlling factor     other so that the fleet angle changes duringin the fleet angle When using vehicular          the hoisting process The fleet angle shouldmounted winches place the vehicle in a            not be permitted to exceed 2 degrees and                                                   should be kept below this if possible A 1 1position that lets the operator watch the          2degree maximum angle is satisfactory andload being hoisted A winch is most effective      will be obtained if the distance from thewhen the pull is exerted on the bare drum of       drum to the first sheave is 40 inches forthe winch When a winch is rated at a capac       each inch from the center of the drum to theity that rating applies only as the first layer   flange The wider the drum of the hoist theof cable is wound onto the drum The winch         greater the lead distance must be in  is reduced as each layer of cable is      the winchwound onto the drum because of the changein leverage resulting from the  of the drum The capacity of thewinch may be reduced by as much as 50 percent when the last layer is being wound ontothe drum              GROUND ANGLEIf the hoisting line leaves the drum at anangle upward from the ground the resulting pull on the winch will tend to lift itclear of the ground In this case a leadingblock must be placed in the system at somedistance from the drum to change the direction of the hoisting line to a horizontal ordownward pull The hoisting line should be324 Hoists                                                   FM 5125            SPANISH WINDLASSIn the absence of mechanical power or anappropriate tackle you may have to usemakeshift equipment for hoisting or pullingYou can use a Spanish windlass to move aload along the ground or you can direct thehorizontal pull from the windlass throughthe blocks to provide a vertical pull on aload In making a Spanish windlass fastena rope between the load you are to move andan anchorage some distance away Place ashort spar vertically beside this rope abouthalfway between the anchorage and the loadsee Figure 324 page 326 This spar maybe a pipe or a pole but in either case itshould have as large a diameter as possibleMake a loop in the rope and wrap it partlyaround the spar Insert the end of a horizontal rod through this loop The horizontal rodshould be a stout pipe or bar long enough toprovide leverage It is used as a lever toturn the vertical spar As the vertical sparturns the rope is wound around it whichshortens the line and pulls on the loadMake sure that the rope leaving the verticalspar is close to the same level on both sidesto prevent the spar from tipping over                                                Hoists 325FM 5125326 Hoists                                                                                  FM 5125                                   CHAPTER           4                  A n c h o r s and             Guy        Lines                                Section I AnchorsWhen heavy loads are handled with a            anchorages should be used so that timetackle it is necessary to have some means     effort and material can be conserved Theof anchorage Many expedient rigging           ideal anchorage system must be of  are supported by combining       cient strength to support the breakingguy lines and some type of anchorage sys      strength of the attached line Lines shouldtem Anchorage systems may be either nat      always be fastened to anchorages at aural or manmade The type of anchorage        point as near to the ground as possibleto be used depends on the time and mate       The principal factor in the strength of mostrial available and on the holding power        anchorage systems is the area  Whenever possible natural           against the ground                                    NATURAL ANCHORSTrees stumps or rocks can serve as          between two trees to provide a  anchorages for rapid work in          anchorage than a single tree see Figthe field Always attach lines near the       ure 42 page 42 When using rocks asground level on trees or stumps see Fig     natural anchorages examine the rocksure 41 Avoid dead or rotten trees or        carefully to be sure that they are largestumps as an anchorage because they are       enough and firmly embedded in thelikely to snap suddenly when a strain is      ground see Figure 43 page 42 An outplaced on the line It is always advisable to cropping of rock or a heavy boulder buriedlash the first tree or stump to a second one  partially in the ground will serve as a satto provide added support Place a transom     is factory anchor                                                             Anchors and Guy Lines 41FM 5125                            MANMADE ANCHORSYou must construct manmade anchors     5 inches deep Use a linchdiameter drillwhen natural anchors are not available for hard rock and a 34inchdiameter drillThese include                         for soft rock Drill the hole as neatly as                                        possible so that the rock anchor can    Rock anchors                       develop the maximum strength In case of    Picket holdfasts                   extremely soft rock it is better to use some                                        other type of anchor because the wedging    Combination holdfasts              action may not provide sufficient holding    Deadmen                            power               ROCK ANCHORSRock anchors have an eye on one end and athreaded nut an expanding wedge and astop nut on the other end see Figure 44To construct a rock anchor insert thethreaded end of the rock anchor in the hole                     with the nuts relation to the wedge asshown in Figure 44 After placing the anchor insert a crowbar through the eye of therock anchor and twist it This causes thethreads to draw the nut up against thewedge and force the wedge out against thesides of the hole in the rock The wedgingaction is strongest under a direct pulltherefore always set rock anchors so thatthe pull is in a direct line with the shaft ofthe anchor Drill the holes for rock anchors42 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                 FM 5125            PICKET HOLDFASTSA single picket either steel or wood can bedriven into the ground as an anchor Theholding power depends on the     Diameter and kind of material used     Type of soil     Depth and angle in which the picket is     driven     Angle of the guy line in relation to the     groundTable 41 lists the holding capacities of thevarious types of wooden picket  45 shows the various picket holdfasts                                                Anchors and Guy Lines 43FM 5125           Single Wooden Pickets                   first picket to the bottom of the second                                                   picket see Figure 46 B Then fasten theWooden stakes used for pickets should be at        rope to the second picket with a clove hitchleast 3 inches in diameter and 5 feet long        just above the turns Put a stake betweenDrive the picket 3 feet into the ground at anangle of 15 degrees from the vertical and          the rope turns to tighten the rope by twistinclined away from the direction of pull see      ing the stake and then driving it into theFigure 46                                       ground see Figure 46 C This distributes                                                   the load between the pickets If you use                                                   more than two pickets make a similar lash          Multiple Wooden Pickets                  ing between the second and third picketsYou can increase the strength of a holdfast        see Figure 46 D If you use wire rope forby increasing the area of the picket bearing       lashing make only two complete turnsagainst the ground Two or more pickets            around each pair of pickets If neither fiberdriven into the ground spaced 3 to 6 feet         rope nor wire rope is available for lashingapart and lashed together to distribute the        place boards from the top of the front picketload are much stronger than a single picket       to the bottom of the second picket and nailsee Figure 46 A To construct the lashing     them onto each picket see Figure 47 Astie a clove hitch to the top of the first picket   you place pickets farther away from thewith four to six turns around the first and        front picket the load to the rear pickets issecond pickets leading from the top of the        distributed more unevenly Thus the prin44 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                                      FM 5125cipal strength of a multiplepicket holdfast     pattern Drive the rear pickets in first tois at the front pickets Increase the capacity   secure the end of the chain then install theof a holdfast by using two or more pickets to    successive pickets so that there is no slackform the front group This increases both        in the chain between the pickets A lashedthe bearing surface against the soil and the     steelpicket holdfast consists of steel picketsBS                                              lashed together with wire rope the same as                                                 for a woodenstake picket holdfast see Fig                                                 ure 49 page 46 As an expedient any mis            SteelPicket Holdfasts               cellaneous lightsteel members can beA standard steelpicket holdfast consists of     driven into the ground and lashed togethera steel box plate with nine holes drilled        with wire rope to form an  it and a steel eye welded on the endfor attaching a guy line see Figure 48 page                  Rock Holdfasts46 The pickets are also steel and aredriven through the holes in a way that           You can place a holdfast in rock by  the pickets in the ground This         into the rock and driving the pickets into theholdfast is especially adapted for anchoring     holes Lash the pickets together with ahorizontal lines such as the anchor cable on    chain see Figure 410 page 47 Drill thea ponton bridge Use two or more of these        holes about 3 feet apart in line with the guyunits in combination to provide a stronger       line The first or front hole should be 2 12anchorage You can improvise a similar           to 3 feet deep and the rear hole 2 feet deepholdfast with a chain by driving steel pick     Drill the holes at a slight angle inclinedets through the chain links in a crisscross      away from the direction of the pull                                                                Anchors and Guy Lines 45FM 5125        COMBINATION HOLDFASTS                                      heavy loading of an anchorage spread        You can construct a deadman from a log athe load over the largest possible area of       rectangular timber a steel beam or a simiground Do this by increasing the number of      lar object buried in the ground with a guypickets used Place four or five multiple        line or sling attached to its center This guypicket holdfasts parallel to each other with a   line or sling leads to the surface of theheavy log resting against the front pickets to   ground along a narrow upward slopingform a combination log and picket holdfast       trench The holding power of a deadman issee Figure 411 Fasten the guy line or        affected byanchor sling to the log that bears against thepickets The log should bear evenly against           Its frontal bearing areaall pickets to obtain maximum strength              Its mean average depthSelect the timber carefully so it can withstand the maximum pull on the line  bending Also you could use asteel cross member to form a  holdfast see Figure 412 page48                DEADMENA deadman is one of the best types ofanchorages for heavy loads or  because of its great holdingpower46 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                                FM 5125    The angle of pull                        withstand the BS of the line attached to it                                              In constructing a deadman dig a hole at    The deadman material                     right angles to the guy line and undercut 15     The soil condition                      degrees from the vertical at the front of the                                              hole facing the load see Figure 413 pageThe holding power increases progressively     48 Make the guy line as horizontal as posas you place the deadman deeper and as the    sible and ensure that the sloping trenchangle of pull approaches a horizontal posi   matches the slope of the guy line The maintion see Table 42 page 48 The holding   or standing part of the line leads from thepower of a deadman must be designed to        bottom of the deadman This reduces the                                                            Anchors and Guy Lines 47FM 5125tendency to rotate the deadman upward out        the wirerope clips above the ground forof the hole If the line cuts into the ground   retightening and  a log or board under the line at theoutlet of the sloping trench When using                            Termswirerope guy lines with a wooden deadman place a steel bearing plate on the          Table 43 lists the terms used in designing adeadman where the wire rope is attached to       deadmanavoid cutting into the wood Always place48 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                                  FM 5125                 Formulas                    Given linchdiameter 6by19 IPS ropeThe following formulas are used in designinga deadman                                     MD  7 feet     B Ar  B S             HP                                 SR  13          BA r     E L  D                                    WST  2 feet     TL  EL WST                                 Requirement I Determine the length                                                  and thickness of a rectangular timber             D                                    deadman if the height of the face avail     VD MD 2                                    able is 18 inches 1 12 feet          VD                                      BS of wire rope  83600 psf see Table     HD  S R                                     12                                                  HP 8000 psf see Table 42A sample problem for designing a deadmanis as follows                                                               Anchors and Guy Lines 49FM 5125   Note Design the deadman so it can                 to or less than 5 The ratio for Requirement   withstand a tension equal to the                   II would be equal to Ld  6225  25   BS of the wire rope                                Since this is less than 5 the log will not fail                                                      by bending      BA r       BS  83600 pounds               2                                                  105 feet                  Ratio                     HP 8000 psf                                                      If the  ratios for a log or a                                                      rectangular timber are exceeded you must                   BA r                       105 feet2                    decrease the length requirements Use one                                    7 feet     EL  face height    15 feet                     of the following methods to accomplish this                                                           Increase the mean depth     TL  EL  WST  7 feet  2 feet  7 feet                                                           Increase the slope ration the guy line                                                           becomes more  a final check to ensure that the                   Increase the thickness of the  timber will not fail by bendingby doing a  ratio Lt                Decrease the width of the slopingwhich should be equal to or less than 9                   trench if  the minimum thickness by Lt 9 and solve for t                                                           DEADMEN     L 9                                              Nomography and charts have been prepared                                                   to facilitate the design of deadmen in the     1t                                                      field The deadmen are designed to resist     99                                              the BS of the cable The required length and     t                                                thickness are based on allowable soil bear                                                      ing with 1foot lengths added to compensate       9  l feet                                                    for the width of the cable trench The       9                                              required thickness is based on a Ld ratio of                                                      s for logs and a Ld ratio of 9 for cut timberThus an 18inch by 12inch by 9foot timberis suitable                                                          Log Deadman     Requirement II Determine the length             A sample problem for designing a log dead     of a log deadman with a diameter of 2            man is as follows     12 feet                                             Given 34inch IPS cable You must                           2            BAr  105feet                                 bury the required deadman 5 feet at a     EL  D       25 feet  42 feet                      slope of 14                                                           Solution With this information     TL  EL  WST  42 feet  2 feet  62 feet          use the nomograph to determine the                                                           diameter and length of the deadman                                                           required see Figure 414 Figure 415Conduct a final check to ensure that the log               page 412 shows the steps graphiwill not fail by bending by doing a lengthto             cally on an incomplete  ratio Ld which should be equal                Lay a straightedge across section AA410 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                         FM 5125lefthand scale on the 5foot depth at   up from the intersection on the log anddeadman and 14 slope and on 34inch      read the length of deadman required InIPS on BB Read across the straightedge   this case the deadman must be over 5and locate a point on section CC Then    12 feet long Be careful not to select ago horizontally across the graph and       log deadman in the darkened area ofintersect the diameter of the log dead    the nomograph because a log from thismen available Assume that a 30inch       area will fail by  log is available Go vertically                                                   Anchors and Guy Lines 411FM 5125412 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                                               FM 5125       Rectangular Timber Deadman                                                             deadman depth  7ft  28ftA sample problem for designing a rectangu                     slope ratio   14lar timber deadman is as follows      Given 34inch IPS cable You are to                            BEARING PLATES      bury the deadman 5 feet at a slope of      14                                                To prevent the cable from cutting into the                                                          wood place a metal bearing plate on the     Solution Use the same 14 slope and                 deadman The two types of bearing plates     5foot depth along with the procedure               are the flat bearing plate and the formed     to the left of the graph as in the                  bearing plate each with its particular     previous problem see Figure 414 page              advantages The flat bearing plate is easily     411 At CC go horizontally across                fabricated while the formed or shaped plate     the graph to the timber with an 18inch              can be made of much thinner steel     face Reading down working with cut     timber you can see that the length is 8                           Flat Bearing Plate     feet 6 inches and that the minimum                   A sample problem in the design of flat bear     thickness is 11 12 inches None of the                                                          ing plates is as follows     timber sizes shown on the nomograph     will fail due to bending                                 Given 12inch by 12inch timber                                                               34inch IPS cable             Horizontal Distance                               Solution Enter the graph see FigureUse the following formula to determine the                     416 page 414 from the left of the 34distance behind the tower in which deadmen                     inch cable and go horizontally acrossare placed                                                    the graph to intersect the line marked                                                               12inch timber which shows that the                                                               plate will be 10 inches wide The bearHorizontal distance  tower height  deadman depth             ing plate is made 2 inches narrower                                slope ratio                    than the timber to prevent cutting into                                                               the anchor cable Drop vertically andA sample problem for determining the hori                     determine the length of the platezontal distance behind a tower is as follows                  which is 9 12 inches Go to the top     Given The tower height is 25 feet 4 14                  vertically along the line to where it     inches and the deadman depth is 7 feet                   intersects with 34inch cable and     with a 14 slope                                         determine the minimum required                                                               thickness which is 1 116 inches                                                               Thus the necessary bearing plate must     Solution                                                 be 1 116 inches by 9 12 inches by 10                                                               inches    25 ft 4 14 in  7 ft  32ft 4 14 in  129 ft 5 in            14                  14                                  Formed Bearing Plate                                                          The formed bearing plates are either curvedPlace the deadman 129 feet behind the                     to fit logs or formed to fit rectangular timtower                                                    ber In the case of a log the bearing plate  Note    The horizontal distance                        must go half way 180 degrees around the   without a tower is as follows                         log For a shaped timber the bearing plate                                                                        Anchors and Guy Lines 413FM 5125414 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                                  FM 5125extends the depth of the timber with an           inches If you use a log the width ofextended portion at the top and the bottom        the bearing plate is equal to half thesee Figure 417 Each extended portion          circumference of the logshould be half the depth of the timberA sample problem for designing a formed           d     in this case 22 inchesbearing plate is as follows                      2    Given 14inch log or timber with 14inch    face and 1 18 MPS cable                    d                                                   314 x 14  2198 use 22 inches                                                 2        2    Solution Design a formed bearing The bearing plate would therefore be 14    plate Enter the graph on the left at 1 inch by 12 inches by 22 inches For a rectan    18 MPS and go horizontally across to    intersect the 14inch line see figure gular timber the width of the plate would be    417 Note that the lines intersect in 14 inches for the face and 7 inches for the    an area requiring a l4inch plate width of each leg or a total width of 28    Drop vertically to the bottom of the inches see Figure 417 The bearing plate    graph to determine the length of the would therefore be 14 inch by 12 inches by    plate which in this instance is 12 28 inches                                                          Anchors and Guy Lines 415FM 5125                                Section II Guy LinesGuy lines are ropes or chains attached to an           Angle of the guy lineobject to steady guide or secure it The       For example if the supported structure islines leading from the object or structure are                                                 vertical the stress on each guy line is veryattached to an anchor system see Fig           small but if the angle of the structure is 45ure 418 When a load is applied to the         degrees the stress on the guy lines  supported by the guy lines a por                                                 ing the structure will increase  of the load is passed through each sup                                                 Wire rope is preferred for guy lines becauseporting guy line to its anchor The amount       of its strength and resistance to corrosionof tension on a guy line depends on the        Fiber is also used for guy lines particularly     Main load                                  on temporary structures The number and                                                 size of guy lines required depends on the     Position and weight of the structure       type of structure to be supported and the     Alignment of the guy line with the          tension or pull exerted on the guy lines     structure and the main load                while the structure is being used416 Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                                              FM 5125                              NUMBER OF GUY LINESUsually a minimum of four guy lines are points in a tiered effect In such casesused for gin poles and boom derricks and there might be four guy lines from thetwo for shears The guy lines should be center of a long pole to anchorage onevenly spaced around the structure In a the ground and four additional guylong slender structure it is sometimes lines from the top of the pole to  to provide support at several age on the ground                                   TENSION ON GUY LINESYou must determine the tension that will be            Given      WL  2400 lbexerted on the guy lines beforehand to select                      W 3  800 lbthe proper size and material you will use                         D  20The maximum load or tension on a guy linewill result when a guy line is in direct line          Solutionwith the load and the structure Considerthis tension in all strength calculations of                WL  12W3 D       2400  12 800 20                                                     T                      guy lines You can use the following formula                      Y                        28to determine the tension for gin poles andshears see Figure 419 page 418                    2000 pounds of tension in the rear                                                          or supporting guy lineT  WL  12W3 D          YT  Tension in guy line                                Requirement II shearsW L  Weight of the load                               Given The same conditions exist as in                                                       Requirement I except that there areW 3  Weight of spars                                two spars each one weighing 800                                                       poundsD  Drift distance measured from the base ofthe gin pole or shears to the center of the sus       Solutionpended load along the ground                                                           W L  12W3D      2 400  12 800 20                                                     T Y Perpendicular distance from the rear guy                        Y                         Yline to the base of the gin pole or for a shears    2285 poundsto a point on the ground midway between theshear legsA sample problem for determining the ten            NOTE The shears produced asion for gin poles and shears follows               greater tension in the rear guy                                                     line due to the weight of an addi     Requirement I gin pole                        tional spar                                                                   Anchors and Guy Lines 417FM 5125                                     SIZE OF GUY LINESThe size of the guy line to use will depend on must incorporate the appropriate FSsthe amount of tension placed on it Since Therefore choose a rope for the guy linethe tension on a guy line may be affected by that has a SWC equal to or greater than theshock loading and its strength affected by tension placed on the guy lineknots sharp bends age and condition you                             ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTSAn ideal anchorage system should be least a 11 combination 1400pound capacdesigned to withstand a tension equal to the it y in ordinary soil Anchor the guy line asBS of the guy line attached to it If you use a far as possible from the base of the  manila rope as a guy line tion to obtain a greater holding power fromthe anchorage must be capable of withstand the anchorage system The recommendeding a tension of 1350 pounds which is the minimum distance from the base of theBS of the 38inch diameter manila rope If installation to the anchorage for the guy lineyou use picket holdfasts you will need at is twice the height of the  Anchors and Guy Lines                                                                                    FM 5125                                     CHAPTER 5            Lifting          and        Moving            Equipment                            Section I Lifting  used for lifting includes gin          includes pole brave and jinniwink derpoles tripods shears boom derricks and       ricksstiff leg derricks Light hoisting equipment                                         GIN POLESA gin pole consists of an upright spar that is spruce timbers as gin poles with allowguyed at the top to maintain it in a vertical  ances for normal stresses in hoisting operor nearly vertical position and is equipped    ationswith suitable hoisting tackle The verticalspar may be of timber a wideflange steel                RIGGING GIN POLESbeam section a railroad rail or similarmembers of sufficient strength to support      In rigging a gin pole lay out the pole withthe load being lifted The load may be         the base at the spot where it is to behoisted by hand tackle or by hand or          erected To make provisions for the  hoists The gin pole is used     lines and tackle blocks place the ginwidely in erection work because of the ease    pole on cribbing for ease of lashing Figurewith which it can be rigged moved and        418 page 416 shows the lashing on top ofoperated It is suitable for raising loads of  a gin pole and the method of  weight to heights of 10 to 50 feet      guys The procedure is as followswhere only a vertical lift is required Thegin pole may also be used to drag loads hori        Make a tight lashing of eight turns ofzontally toward the base of the pole when            fiber rope about 1 foot from the top ofpreparing for a vertical lift It cannot be          the pole with two of the center turnsdrifted inclined more than 45 degrees from         engaging the hook of the upper blockthe vertical or seventenths the height of           of the tackle Secure the ends of thethe pole nor is it suitable for swinging the        lashing with a square knot Nailload horizontally The length and thickness          wooden cleats boards to the poleof the gin pole depends on the purpose for           flush with the lower and upper sideswhich it is installed It should be no longer        of the lashing to prevent the lashingthan 60 times its minimum thickness                  from  of its tendency to buckle under compression A usable rule is to allow 5 feet of        Lay out guy ropes each four times thepole for each inch of minimum thickness             length of the gin pole In the center ofTable 51 page 52 lists values when using         each guy rope form a clove hitch over                                                        Lifting and Moving Equipment 51FM 5125    the top of the pole next to the tackle           the lashing on the leading block and    lashing Be sure to align the guy lines          near the bottom of the pole This pre    in the direction of their anchors see           vents the pole from skidding while you    Figure 51                                     erect it    Lash a block to the gin pole about 2 feet        Check all lines to be sure that they are    from the base of the pole the same as           not snarled Check all lashings to see    for the tackle lashing at the top and           that they are made up properly and    place a cleat above the lashing to pre          that all knots are tight Check the    vent slipping This block serves as a            hooks on the blocks to see that they are    leading block on the fall line which            moused properly You are now ready    allows a directional change of pull from         to erect the gin pole    the vertical to the horizontal A snatch    block is the most convenient type to use               ERECTING GIN POLES    for this purpose                                                You can easily raise a 40footlong gin pole    Reeve the hoisting tackle and use the      by hand see Figure 52 However you    block lashed to the top of the pole so      must raise longer poles by supplementary    that the fall line can be passed through    rigging or power equipment The number of    the leading block at the base of the gin    people needed to erect a gin pole depends on    pole                                       the weight of the pole The procedure is as                                                follows    Drive a stake about 3 feet from the    base of the gin pole Tie a rope from             Dig a hole about 2 feet deep for the    the stake to the base of the pole below           base of the gin pole52 LIftlng and Moving Equipment                      FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 53FM 5125     String out the guys to their respective          throwing all of its weight on one of the     anchorages and assign a person to each           side guys     anchorage to control the slack in the     guy line with a round turn around the            Fasten all guy lines to their anchor     anchorage as the pole is raised If it           ages with the round turn and two half     has not been done already install an            hitches when the pole is in its final     anchorage for the base of the pole              position approximately vertical or                                                      inclined as desired At times you may    Use the tackle system that was used to            have to double the portion of rope used    raise and lower the load to assist in             for the half hitches    raising the gin pole if necessary how    ever the preferred method is to attach           Open the leading block at the base of    an additional tackle system to the rear           the gin pole and place the fall line from    guy line Attach the running block of             the tackle system through it When    the rear guyline tackle system to the            the leading block is closed the gin pole    rear guy line the end of which is at this        is ready for use If you have to drift    point of erection near the base of the            the top of the pole without moving the    gin pole see Figure 418 page 416            base do it when there is no load on    Secure the fixed or stationary block to           the pole unless the guys are equipped    the rear anchor The fall line should             with tackle    come out of the running block to give    greater MA to the tackle system                        OPERATING GIN POLES    Stretch the tackle system to the base of    the gin pole before erecting it to pre      The gin pole is particularly adapted to verti    vent the tackle blocks from chocking        cal lifts see Figure 53 Sometimes it is                                                 used for lifting and pulling at the same time    Haul in on the fall line of the tackle       so that the load being moved travels toward    system keeping a slight tension on the      the gin pole just off the ground When used    rear guy line and on each of the side        in this manner attach a snubbing line of    guy lines while eight people more for      some kind to the other end of the load being    larger poles raise the top of the pole by   dragged keep it under tension at all times    hand until the tackle system can take        Use tag lines to control loads that you are    control see Figure 52 page 53          lifting vertically A tag line is a light line    Keep the rear guy line under tension to      fastened to one end of the load and kept    prevent the pole from swinging and           under slight tension during hoisting                                          TRIPODSA tripod consists of three legs lashed or onehalf times that of shears made of thesecured at the top The advantage of the tri same size materialpod over other rigging installations is thatit is stable and requires no guy lines tohold it in place Its disadvantage is that the           RIGGING TRIPODSload can be moved only up and down The The two methods of lashing a tripod eitherload capacity of a tripod is about one and of which is suitable provided the lashing54 Lifting and Moving Equipment                     FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 55FM 5125material is strong enough are discussedbelow The material used for lashing can befiber rope wire rope or chain Metal ringsjoined with short chain sections and largeenough to slip over the top of the tripod legsalso can be used                  Method 1This method is for fiber rope 1 inch in diameter or smaller Since the strength of the tripod is affected directly by the strength of therope and the lashing used use more turnsthan described here for extra heavy loadsand fewer turns for light loads The procedure is as follows     Select three spars about equal in size     and place a mark near the top of each     to indicate the center of the lashing     Lay two of the spars parallel with their     tops resting on a skid or block and a     third spar between the first two with     the butt in the opposite direction and     the lashing marks on all three in line     The spacing between spars should be     about onehalf the diameter of the     spars Leave space between the spars     so that the lashing will not be drawn     too tight when erecting the tripod                             Method H     Make a clove hitch using a linch           You can use this method when using slender                                                  poles that are not more than 20 feet long or     rope around one of the outside spars        when some means other than hand power is     about 4 inches above the lashing mark       available for erection see figure 54 B The     and take eight turns of the line around      procedure is as follows     the three spars see Figure 54 A Be     sure to maintain the space between the            Lay the three spars parallel to each     spars while making the turns                     other with an interval between them                                                       slightly greater than twice the diame     Finish the lashing by taking two close            ter of the rope you use Rest the tops of     frapping turns around the lashing                 the poles on a skid so that the ends     between each pair of spars Secure the            project over the skid about 2 feet and     end of the rope with a clove hitch on             the butts of the three spars are in line     the center spar just above the lashing           Put a clove hitch on one outside leg at     Do not draw the frapping turns too                the bottom of the position that the lash     tight                                            ing will occupy which is about 2 feet56 Lifting and Moving Equipment                                                                                      FM 5125     from the end Weave the line over the     middle leg under and around the outer     leg under the middle leg and over and     around the first leg continue this     weaving for eight turns Finish with a     clove hitch on the outer leg            ERECTING TRIPODSSpread the legs of a tripod in its final position so that each leg is equidistant from theothers see Figure 55 This spread shouldnot be less than onehalf nor more than twothirds of the length of the legs Use chainrope or boards to hold the legs in this position You can lash a leading block for the fallline of the tackle to one of the legs The procedure is as follows     Raise the tops of the spars about 4 feet     keeping the base of the legs on the     ground     Cross the two outer legs The third or     center leg then rests on top of the cross     With the legs in this position pass a     sling over the cross so that it passes     over the top or center leg and around     the other two     Hook the upper block of a tackle to the     sling and mouse the hook     Continue raising the tripod by pushing     in on the legs as they are lifted at the     center Eight people should be able to     raise an ordinary tripod into position     Place a rope or chain lashing between     the tripod legs to keep them from shift     with the three legs laid together by raising     ing once they are in their final position   the tops of the legs until the legs clear the                                                  ground so they can be spread apart Use                                                  guy lines or tag lines to assist in steadying        ERECTING LARGE TRIPODS                    the legs while raising them Cross the outerFor larger tripod installations you may have     legs so that the center leg is on top of theto erect a small gin pole to raise the tripod     cross and pass the sling for the hoistinginto position Erect the tripods that are         tackle over the center leg and around thelashed in the manner described in Method II       two outer legs at the cross                                                          Lifting and Moving Equipment 57FM 5125                                            SHEARSShears made by lashing two legs together             the legs at this point should be equal towith a rope are well adapted for lifting             onethird the diameter of one leg toheavy machinery or other bulky loads They           make handling of the lashing easierare formed by two members crossed at theirtops with the hoisting tackle suspended             With sufficient linch rope for 14 turnsfrom the intersection Shears must be                around both legs make a clove hitchguyed to hold them in position Shears are           around one spar and take eight turnsquickly assembled and erected They                  around   both legs above the clove hitchrequire only two guys and are adapted to             see Figure 56 Wrap the turnsworking at an inclination from the vertical         tightly  so that the lashing is smoothThe legs of the shears may be round poles           and  without   kinkstimbers heavy planks or steel bars depend        Finish the lashing by taking two fraping on the material at hand and the purpose                                                     ping turns around the lashing betweenof the shears In determining the size of themembers to use the load to be lifted and the        the legs and securing the end of theratio Ld of the legs are the determining          rope to the other leg just below thefactors For heavy loads the Ld should not         lashing   For handling heavy loadsexceed 60 because of the tendency of the legs        increase  the  number of lashing turnsto bend rather than to act as columns Forlight work you can improvise shears from                   ERECTING SHEARStwo planks or light poles bolted together andreinforced by a small lashing at the intersec  Dig the holes at the points where the legs oftion of the legs                               the shears are to stand If placed on rocky                                                ground make sure that the base for the                                                shears is level Cross the legs of the shears              RIGGING SHEARS                    and place the butts at the edges of the holesWhen the shears are erected the spread of With a short length of rope make two turnsthe legs should equal about onehalf the over the cross at the top of the shears and tieheight of the shears The maximum allow the rope together to form a sling Be sure toable drift is 45 degrees Tackle blocks and have the sling bearing against the spars andguys for shears are essential You can not on the shears lashing entirely The prosecure the guy ropes to firm posts or trees cedure is as followswith a turn of the rope so that the length ofthe guys can be adjusted easily The proce          Reeve a set of blocks and place thedure is as follows                                  hook of the upper block through the      Lay two timbers together on the                sling Secure the sling in the hook by      ground in line with the guys with the         mousing   Fasten the lower block to one      butt ends pointing toward the back guy         of the legs near the butt so that it will      and close to the point of erection            be in a convenient position when the                                                     shears have been raised but will be out      Place a large block under the tops of          of the way during erection      the legs just below the point of lashing      and insert a small spacer block                Rig another tackle in the back guy near     between the tops at the same point see         its anchorage if you use the shears on     Figure 56 The separation between             heavy  lifts Secure the two guys to the58 Lifting and Moving Equipment                                                                                FM 5125top of the shears with clove hitches to          Keep the legs from spreading by conlegs opposite their anchorages above             necting them with rope a chair orthe lashing                                     boards It may be neceesary under                                                 some conditions to anchor each leg ofLift the top end of the shears legs and          the shears while erecting them to keepwalk them up by hand until the                 the legs from sliding in the wrongtackle on the rear guy line can take              see Figure 57 page 510 Itwill take several people depending onthe size of the shears to do this Then               OPERATING SHEARSraise the shears legs into final position   The rear guy is a very important part of theby hauling in on the tackle Secure the     shears rigging since it is under a considerfront guy line to its anchorage before      able strain during hoisting To avoid guyraising the shears legs and keep a         line failure design them according to theslight tension on this line to control      principles discussed in Chapter 4 Section IImovement                                   The front guy has very little strain on it and                                                    Lifting and Moving Equipment 59FM 5125is used mainly to aid in adjusting the       loads the fall line of the tackle of the shearsdrift and to steady the top of the shears    can be led straight out of the upper blockwhen hoisting or placing the load You may   When handling heavy loads you may havehave to rig a tackle in the rear guy for     to lash a snatch block near the base of one ofhandling heavy loads During opera          the shear legs to act as a leading block seetion set the desired drift by adjusting     Figure 58 Run the fall line through thethe rear guy but do not do this while a     leading block to a hand or  is onthe shears For handling light    winch for heavy loads510 Lifting and Moving Equipment                                                                                  FM 5125                                     BOOM DERRICKSA boom derrick is a lifting device that incor swing more than 180 degrees when it is setporates the advantages of a gin pole and the   on a turn plate or turn wheellong horizontal reach of a boom Use theboom derrick to lift and swing mediumsize             RIGGING BOOM DERRICKSloads in a 90degree arc on either side of theresting position of the boom for a total      For hoisting medium loads rig a boom to                                               swing independently of the pole Takeswing of 180 degrees When employing a         care to ensure the safety of those using theboom derrick in lifting heavy loads set it on installation Use a boom only temporarilya turn plate or turn wheel to allow the mast   or when time does not permit a more staand boom to swing as a unit A mast is a       ble installation When using a boom on agin pole used with a boom The mast can        gin pole more stress is placed on the rear                                                      Lifting and Moving Equipment 511FM 5125guy therefore you may need a stronger guyIn case larger rope is not at hand use a setof tackle reeved with the same size rope asthat used in the hoisting tackle as a guy lineby extending the tackle from the top of thegin pole to the anchorage Lash the blockattached to the gin pole at the point wherethe other guys are tied and in the samemanner The procedure is as follows     Rig a gin pole as described on page 51     but lash another block about 2 feet     below the tackle lashing at the top of     the pole see Figure 59 Reeve the     tackle so that the fall line comes from     the traveling block instead of the     standing block Attach the traveling     block to the top end of the boom after     erecting the gin pole     Erect the gin pole in the manner     described on page 51 but pass the fall     line of the tackle through the extra         Use manpower to lift the boom in place     block at the top of the pole before erect   on the mast through the sling that will     ing it to increase the MA of the tackle      support it if the boom is light enough     system                                      The sling consists of two turns of rope                                                  with the ends tied together with a     Select a boom with the same diameter         square knot The sling should pass     and not more than twothirds as long         through the center four turns of the     as the gin pole Spike two boards to the     block lashing on the mast and should     butt end of the boom and lash them           cradle the boom On heavier booms     with rope making a fork see Figure         use the tackle system on the top of the     59 Make the lashing with a mini          mast to raise the butt of the boom to     mum of sixteen turns and tie it off with     the desired position onto the mast     a square knot Drive wedges under the     lashing next to the cleats to help make      Lash the traveling block of the gin pole     the fork more secure see Figure 59       tackle to the top end of the boom as                                                  described on page 51 and lash the     Spike cleats to the mast about 4 feet        standing block of the boom tackle at     above the resting place of the boom and      the same point Reeve the boom tackle     place another block lashing just above       so that the fall line comes from the     these cleats This block lashing will        standing block and passes through the     support the butt of the boom If a sepa     block at the base of the gin pole The     rate tackle system is rigged up to sup      use of the leading block on this fall line     port the butt of the boom place an          is optional but when handling heavy     additional block lashing on the boom         loads apply more power to a horizontal     just below the larger lashing to secure      line leading from the block with less     the running block of the tackle system      strain on the boom and guys512 Lifting and Moving Equipment                                                                                  FM 5125       ERECTING BOOM DERRICKS                  flatcars when the base of the gin pole cannot                                               be set close to the object to be lifted It isRaise the boom into position when the rig     used also on docks and piers for unloadingging is finished When working with heavy      boats and barges Swing the boom by pushloads rest the base of the boom on the        ing directly on the load or by pulling theground at the base of the pole Use a more     load with bridle lines or tag lines  position when working with light    the angle of the boom to the mast by haulingloads In no case should the boom bear         on the fall line of the mast tackle Raise oragainst any part of the upper twothirds of    lower the load by hauling on the fall line ofthe mast                                      the boom tackle You should place a leading                                               block snatch block at the base of the gin      OPERATING BOOM DERRICKS                  pole Lead the fall line of the boom tackle                                               through this leading block to a hand orA boom on a gin pole provides a convenient     poweroperated winch for the actual hoistmeans for loading and unloading trucks or      ing of the load                                   STIFFLEG DERRICKSThe mast of a stiffleg derrick is held in the mounted on the tower The stiffleg  position by two rigid inclined struts also is used where guy lines cannot be proconnected to the top of the mast The struts vided as on the edge of a wharf or on aare spread 60 to 90 degrees to provide sup bargeport in two directions and are attached tosills extending from the bottom of the mast                 STEEL DERRICKSThe mast is mounted on vertical pins Themast and boom can swing through an arc of Steel derricks of the stiffleg type are availabout 270 degrees The tackles for hoisting able to engineer troops in two sizesthe load and raising the boom are similar to          A 4ton rated capacity with a 28footthose used with the boom and gin pole see            radius see Figure 510 page 514page 511 Rigging Boom Derrick                                                      A 30ton rated capacity with a 38foot     OPERATING STIFFLEG DERRICKS                     radius   when properly counter                                                      weightedA stiffleg derrick equipped with a long boomis suitable for yard use for unloading and Both derricks are erected on fixed  material whenever continuous The 4ton derrick including a skidoperations are carried on within reach of its mounted doubledrum  When used on a bridge deck move driven hoist weighs 7 tons and occupies athese derricks on rollers They are sometimes space 20 feet square The 30ton derrickused in multistory buildings surmounted by including a skidmounted  to hoist material to the roof of the hoist weighs about 22 tons and occupies amain building to supply guy derricks space 29 feet square                           LIGHT HOISTING  construction projects usually in members by hand or by light hoisting equipvolve erecting numerous light members as ment allowing the heavy hoisting equipwell as the heavy main members Progress ment to move ahead with the erection of thecan be more rapid if you raise the light main members Very light members can be                                                      Lifting and Moving Equipment 513FM 5125raised into place by two people using manila                POLE  When handlines are inadequate       The improved pole derrick called a dutchor when members must be raised above the       man is essentially a gin pole  level use light hoisting equipment   with a sill and knee braces at the bottomMany types of hoisting equipment for lifting   see Figure 511 A It is usually installedlight loads have been devised Those dis      with guys at the front and back It is effeccussed here are only typical examples that     tive for lifting loads of 2 tons and becausecan be constructed easily in the field and     of its light weight and few guys is readilymoved readily about the job                   moved from place to place by a small squad514 Lifting and Moving Equipment                        FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 515FM 5125               BRAVE DERRICKS                                JINNIWINK DERRICKS The braced derrick known as a monkey is      This derrick is suitable for lifting loads very useful for filling in heavy members         weighing 5 tons see Figure 511 C page behind the regular erection equipment see       515 Handpowered jinniwinks are Figure 511 B page 515 Two back guys        rigged preferably with manila rope Those are usually employed when lifting heavy          operated by a powerdriven hoist should loads although light members may be lifted      be rigged with wire rope The jinniwink without them Power is furnished by a            is lashed down to the structural frame at hand or powerdriven hoist The construc       both the front sill and tail sill to prevent tion of the base of the monkey permits it to     the tail sill from rising when a load is be anchored to the structure by lashings to      lifted resist the pull of the lead line on the snatch block at the foot of the mast                            Section II Moving EquipmentSkids rollers and jacks are used to move         see Figure 512 A firm and level foundaheavy loads Cribbing or blocking is often        tion for cribbing is essential and the  as a safety measure to keep an          timbers should rest firmly and evenly onobject in position or to prevent accidents to     the ground Blocking used as a  who work under or near these heavy         for jacks should be sound and large enoughobjects Cribbing is formed by piling tim        to carry the load The timbers should bebers in tiers with the tiers alternating in      dry free from grease and placed firmly ondirection to support a heavy weight at a         the ground so that the pressure is evenlyheight greater than blocking would provide        distributed                                      SKIDSPlace timber skids longitudinally under Oak planks 2 inches thick and about 15 feetheavy loads either to                   long make satisfactory skids for most opera    Distribute the weight over a greater tions Keep the angle of the skids low to pre    area                                 vent the load from drifting or getting out of                                          control You can use grease on skids when    Make a smooth surface for skidding only horizontal movement is involved how    equipment                            ever in most circumstances greasing is dan    Provide a runway surface when rollers gerous because it may cause the load to drift    are used see Figure 513           sideways suddenly                                         ROLLERSUse hardwood or pipe rollers over skids for       round and long enough to pass  very heavy loads into position            under the load being moved Support thePlace the skids under the rollers to provide a    load on longitudinal wooden members tosmooth continuous surface for the rollers       provide a smooth upper surface for the rollersMake sure that the rollers are smooth and         to move on The skids placed underneath516 Lifting and Moving Equipment                        FM 5125Lifting and Moving Equipment 517FM 5125the rollers must form continuous  place four to six rollers under theload to be moved see Figure 513 page 517Place several rollers in front of the load androll the load slowly forward onto the rollersAs the load passes rollers are left clearbehind the load and are picked up and placedin front of the load so that there is a continuous path of rollers In making a turn with aload on rollers incline the front  in the direction of the turn and therear rollers in the opposite direction  of the rollers may be made bystriking them sharply with a sledge Formoving lighter loads make up the rollers andset on axles in side beams as a semipermanent conveyor Permanent metal roller conveyors are available see Figure 514 Theyare usually made in sections                                            JACKSTo place cribbing skids or rollers you may           Lowering the load onto the cribbinghave to lift and lower the load for a shortdistance Jacks are used for this purpose         Repeat this process as many times as necJacks are used also for precision placement        essary to lift the load to the desired heightof heavy loads such as bridge spans A            Jacks are available in capacities from 5 tonumber of different styles of jacks are avail     100 tons see Figure 516 Small capacityable but only use heavy duty hydraulic or         jacks are operated through a rack bar orscrewtype jacks The number of jacks used         screw while those of large capacity arewill depend on the weight of the load andthe rated capacity of the jacks Be certain        usually operated  the jacks are provided with a solid footing preferably wooden blocking Cribbing                    RATCHETLEVER JACKSis frequently used in lifting loads by jackingstages see Figure 515 The procedure            The ratchet lever jack available to engirequires                                         neer troops as part of panel bridge equip                                                   ment is a rackbar jack that has a rated     Blocking the jacks                           capacity of 15 tons see Figure 516 A It     Raising the object to the maximum             has a foot lift by which loads close to its     height of the jacks to permit cribbing        base can be engaged The foot capacity is 7     to be put directly under the load            12 tons518 Lifting and Moving Equipment                                                                                   FM 5125                                               Their principal uses are for tightening lines                                               or lashings and for spreading or bracing                                               parts in bridge construction                                                              SCREW JACKS                                               Screw jacks have a rated capacity of 12 tons                                               see Figure 516 C They are about 13 inches                                               high when closed and have a safe rise of at                                               least 7 inches These jacks are issued with                                               the pioneer set and can be used for general                                               purposes including steel erection                                                            HYDRAULIC JACKS                                               Hydraulic jacks are available in Class IV                                               supplies in capacities up to 100 tons see                                               Figure 516 D Loads normally encountered          STEAMBOAT RATCHETS                   by engineer troops    do not require large                                               capacity hydralic  jacks Those  ratchets sometimes called  jacks are ratchet screw       with the squad pioneer set are 11 inchesjacks of 10ton rated capacity with end fit   high and have a rated capacity of 12 tonstings that permit pulling parts together or    and a rise of at least 5 14 inches They arepushing them apart see Figure 516 B       large enough for usual construction needs                                                      Lifting and Moving Equipment 519                                                                                   FM 5125                                     CHAPTER          6                                    jobs may require several           the hole is more than 1 inch or if the splitkinds of scaffolds to permit easy working       extends more than 3 inches in from theprocedures Scaffolds may range from indi      end Use 3inch planks to build the temvidual planks placed on structural members      porary floor used for constructing steelof the building to involved patent scaffold    buildings because of the possibility that aing Scaffold planks are placed as a decking    heavy steel member might be rested temover                                          porarily on the planks Lay single scaffold                                                planks across beams of upper floors or    Swinging scaffolds                         roofs to form working areas or runways see                                                Figure 61 page 62 Run each plank from    Suspended scaffolds                        beam to beam with not more than a few    Needlebeam scaffolds                      inches of any plank projecting beyond the                                                end of the supporting beam Overhangs    Doublepole builtup independent          are dangerous because people may step on    scaffolds                                  them and overbalance the scaffold plank                                                When laying planking continuously as inScaffold planks are of various sizes includ   a runway lay the planks so that their endsing 2 inches by 9 inches by 13 feet 2 inches   overlap You can stagger single plank runsby 10 inches by 16 feet and 2 inches by 12     so that each plank is offset with  by 16 feet You may need 3inch         to the next plank in the run It is advisablethick scaffold planks for platforms that        to use two layers of planking on largemust hold heavy loads or withstand move        working areas to increase the freedom ofments Planks with holes or splits are not       for scaffolding if the diameter of                                SWINGING SCAFFOLDSThe swinging single plank or platform       SINGLEPLANK SWINGING SCAFFOLDStype of scaffold must always be secured to   A single scaffold plank maybe swung overthe building or structure to prevent it from the edge of a building with two ropes bymoving away and causing someone to fall     using a scaffold hitch at each end see FigWhen swinging scaffolds are suspended        ures 62 page 62 and 228 page 220 Aadjacent to each other planks should never  tackle may be inserted in place of ropes forbe placed so as to form a bridge between     lowering and hoisting This type of swingthem                                        ing scaffold is suitable for one person                                                                             Scaffolds 61FM 512562 Scaffolds                                                                                    FM 5125   SWINGING PLATFORM SCAFFOLDS                    which the lower block of a set of manila                                                  rope falls is attached The scaffold is supThe swinging platform scaffold consists of a      ported by hooks or anchors on the roof of aframe similar in appearance to a ladder with      structure The fall line of the tackle musta decking of wood slats see Figure 63 It is   be secured to a member of the scaffold whensupported near each end by a steel stirrup to     in final position to prevent it from falling                                 SUSPENDED  scaffolds are heavier than swing be made up in almost any width up toing scaffolds and are usually supported on about 6 feet and may be 12 feet longoutriggers at the roof From each outrigger depending on the size of the putlogs or loncables lead to hand winches on the scaffold  gitudinal supports under the scaffold AThis type of scaffold is raised or lowered by light roof may be included on this type ofoperating the hand winches which must        scaffold to protect people from fallingcontain a locking device The scaffold may debris                                                                              Scaffolds 63FM 5125                                NEEDLEBEAM SCAFFOLDS This type of scaffold is used only for tempo Figure 64 A scaffold hitch is used in the rary jobs No material should be stored on rope supporting the needle beams to pre this scaffold In needlebeam scaffolding vent them from rolling or turning over see two 4 by 6inch or similar size timbers are Figure 228 page 220 The hanging lines suspended by ropes A decking of 2inch are usually of 1 14inch manila rope The scaffold plank is placed across the needle rope is hitched to the needle beam carried beams which should be placed about 10 feet up over a structural beam or other support apart Needlebeam scaffolding is often and then down again under the needle used by riveting gangs working on steel beam so the latter has a complete loop of structures because of the necessity for fre rope under it The rope is then passed over quent changes of location and because of the support again and fastened around its adaptability to different situations see itself by two half hitches                        DOUBLEPOLE BUILTUP SCAFFOLDSThe doublepole builtup scaffold steel or     by placing the two uprights on the groundwood sometimes called the independent         and inserting the diagonal members Thescaffold is completely independent of the      diagonal members have end fittings thatmain structure Several types of patent         permit rapid lockingin position The  scaffolding are available for       tier is set on steel bases on the ground Asimple and rapid erection see Figure 65     second tier is placed in the same manner onThe scaffolding can be built from wood if      the first tier with the bottom of eachnecessary The scaffold uprights are braced     upright locked to the top of the lower tier Awith diagonal members and the working          third and fourth upright can be placed onlevel is covered with a platform of planks     the ground level and locked to the first setAll bracing must form triangles The base of    with diagonal bracing The scaffolding caneach column requires adequate footing           be built as high as desired but high scafplates for the bearing area on the ground      folding should be tied in to the main strucPatented steel scaffolding is usually erected   ture64 Scaffolds    FM 5125Scaffolds 65FM 5125                                   BOATSWAINS  chairs can be made several notched board inserted through the two legways but they usually consist of a sling for loops will provide a comfortable seat seesupporting one person                         Figure 67 The loop formed as the running                                               end to make the double bowline will still                 ROPE CHAIR                    provide a back support and the rolling hitch                                               can still be used to lower the boatswainsYou can make a rope boatswains chair by chairusing a double bowline and a rolling hitchsee Figure 66 One person can operate the           ROPE CHAIR WITH TACKLErope seat to lower himself by releasing thegrip of the rolling hitch A slight twist with The boatswains chair is supported by a fourthe hand on the hitch permits the suspen part rope tackle two double blocks see Figsion line to slip through it but when the ure 68 One person can raise or lowerhand pressure on the hitch is released the himself or can be assisted by a person on thehitch will hold firmly                        ground When working alone the fall line is                                               attached to the lines between the seat and          ROPE CHAIR WITH SEAT                 the traveling block with a rolling hitch As aIf the rope boatswains chair must be used to safety precaution a figureeight knot shouldsupport a person at work for some time the be tied after the rolling hitch to prevent accirope may cause considerable discomfort A dental untying66 Scaffolds    FM 5125Scaffolds 67                                                     FM 5125               and   Tables        of    Useful          Information                 Figures and Tables of Useful Information A1FM 5125A2 Figures and Tables of Useful Information                                    FM 5125Figures and Tables of Useful Information A3FM 5125A4 Figures and Tables of Useful Information                                    FM 5125Figures and Tables of Useful Information A5FM 5125A6 Figures and Tables of Useful Information                                                                  FM 5125                             G l o s s a r yAR        Army regulationATTN      attentionBA        bearing areabend      A bend in this manual called a knot is used to fasten two ropes          together or to fasten a rope to a ring or loopbight     A bight is a bend or Ushaped curve in a ropeBS        breaking strength the greatest strengthCH        clay high         clay low    Ropes and twines made by twisting together vegetable or synthetic          fibersD         diameterD         drift distanceDA        Department of the ArmyEL        effective lengthENG       engineerFM        field manualFS        factor of safety                                                                 Glossary1FM 5125 GC          clayey gravel GP          poorly graded gravel GW          wellgraded gravel HD          horizontal distance HP          holding power HQ          headquarters IPS         improved plow steel L           length of the sling line        A line sometimes called a rope is a thread string cord or rope espe             cially a comparatively slender and strong cord This manual will use             the word rope rather than line in describing knots hitches rigging             and the like loop        A loop is formed by crossing the running end cover or under the stand             ing part forming a ring or circle in the rope Ld          ratio Lt          ratio MA          mechanical advantage MD          mean depth MH          silt high  ML          silt low  MPS         mild plow steelGlossary2                                                                                FM 5125N                 number of slingsNo                numberOH                organic soil high                 organic soil low  turn or loop An overhand turn or loop is made when the running end passes                  over the standing partPS                plow steelpsi               pounds per square inchrope              A rope often called a line is a large stout cord made of strands of                  fiber or wire that are twisted or braided togetherround turn        A round turn is a modified turn but with the running end leaving the                  circle in the same general direction as the standing partrunning end       The running end is the free or working end of a ropeSC                clayey sandy soilSF                finely graded sandSP                poorly graded sandSR                slope ratiostanding part     The standing part is the rest of the rope excluding the running endSW                wellgraded sandSWC               safe working capacity                                                                              Glossary3FM 5125 T                tension TB               technical bulletin TC               training circular TL               timber length TM               training manual TRADOC           United States Army Training and Doctrine Command turn            A turn is the placing of a loop around a specific object such as a post                 rail or ring with the running end continuing in a direction opposite to                 the standing part underhand turn or loop An underhand turn or loop is made when the running end                 passes under the standing part US              United States of America V               vertical distance VD              vertical distance W               weight of the load to be lifted W3              width of spars WL              width of the load WST             width of the sloping trench Y               Perpendicular distance from the rear guy line to the base of the gin                 pole or for shears to a point on the ground midway between the                 shears legsGlossary4                                                                              FM 5125                                 R e f e r e n c e sSOURCES USEDThese are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this   Regulations ARsAR 593 Air Transportation Movement of Cargo by Scheduled Military and Commercial Air  Transportation  CONUS Outbound 1 February 1981Field Manuals FMsFM 534 Engineer Field Data 14 September 1987FM 5434 Earthmoving Operations 30 September 1992FM 105007 Airdrop Derigging and Recovery Procedures 20 September 1994FM 2022 Vehicle Recovery Operations FMFRP 419 18 September 1990FM 559 Unit Air Movement Planning 5 April 1993FM 5512 Movement of Units in Air Force Aircraft AFM 767 FMFM 46 OPNAVINST  463027A 10 November 1989FM 5515 Transportation Reference Data 9 June 1986Supply Catalog SCSC 518090CLN17 Tool Kit Rigging Wire Rope Cutting Clamping and Splicing  wChest 23 October 1981Technical Bulletins TBsTB 430142 Safety Inspection and Testing of Lifting Devices 30 August 1993TB ENG 317 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and  Reassembly for Crane Shovel Truck Mounted 20 Ton 34 Cubic Yard Gasoline  Driven Garwood Model M20B 28 June 1962TB ENG 324 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and  Reassembly for Mixer Concrete GED Trailer Mounted Construction Machinery  Model 16S 2 July 1962TB ENG 326 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and  Reassembly for Scraper Earth Moving Towed 12 Cubic Yard Cable Operated   Model LPO 9 July 1962                                                                         References1FM 5125TB ENG 330 Air Movement Instructions Grouping Modification Disassembly and  Reassembly for Truck Stake 5Ton 6x6 Military Bridging on ORD M139 Chassis  3 July 1962Training Circular TCTC 9061 Military Mountaineering 26 April 1989Technical Manuals TMsTM 5270 Cableways Tramways and Suspension Bridges 21 May 1964TM 1050070 Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment Rigging Dry Bulk Materials and  Potable Water for Free Drop 2 November 1967DOCUMENTS NEEDEDThese documents must be available to the intended users of this  of the Army DA FormsDA Form 2028 Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms 1 February         FM 5125Index        Index1FM 5125Index2FM 5125Index3FM 5125Index4                                                                                       FM 5125                                                                                 3 OCTOBER 1995By Order of the Secretary of the Army                                                    DENNIS J REIMER                                                 General United States ArmyOfficial                                                Chief of Staff     JOEL B HUDSONActing Administrative Assistant to the       Secretary of the Army                           Army USAR and ARNG To be distributed in accordance with DAForm 1211 E requirements for FM 5125 Rigging Techniques Procedures  Qty rqr block no 5426                                             C US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1995  628  027  40064

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